WorldWideScience

Sample records for rigorous curriculum standards

  1. The National Teaching Standard: Route to Rigor Mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, John D.

    The actions of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards with regard to national teaching standards and an associated examination are critiqued. The board was established on the basis of a recommendation by an advisory council of the Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. The board, which is composed of politicians, business…

  2. MASTERS OF ANALYTICAL TRADECRAFT: CERTIFYING THE STANDARDS AND ANALYTIC RIGOR OF INTELLIGENCE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MASTERS OF ANALYTICAL TRADECRAFT: CERTIFYING THE STANDARDS AND ANALYTIC RIGOR OF...establishing unit level certified Masters of Analytic Tradecraft (MAT) analysts to be trained and entrusted to evaluate and rate the standards and...cues) ideally should meet or exceed effective rigor (based on analytical process).4 To accomplish this, decision makers should not be left to their

  3. Shifting Gears: Standards, Assessments, Curriculum, & Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eleanor

    This book is designed to help educators move from a system that measures students against students to one that values mastery of central concepts and skills, striving for proficiency in publicly acknowledged standards of academic performance. It aims to connect the operative parts of standards-based education (standards, assessment, curriculum,…

  4. Disciplining Bioethics: Towards a Standard of Methodological Rigor in Bioethics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Daniel; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary bioethics research is often described as multi- or interdisciplinary. Disciplines are characterized, in part, by their methods. Thus, when bioethics research draws on a variety of methods, it crosses disciplinary boundaries. Yet each discipline has its own standard of rigor—so when multiple disciplinary perspectives are considered, what constitutes rigor? This question has received inadequate attention, as there is considerable disagreement regarding the disciplinary status of bioethics. This disagreement has presented five challenges to bioethics research. Addressing them requires consideration of the main types of cross-disciplinary research, and consideration of proposals aiming to ensure rigor in bioethics research. PMID:22686634

  5. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  6. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  7. Standards and Methodological Rigor in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Preclinical and Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Steeve; Archer, Stephen L; Ramirez, F Daniel; Hibbert, Benjamin; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Lacasse, Yves; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2018-03-30

    Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), significant therapeutic gaps remain for this devastating disease. Yet, few innovative therapies beyond the traditional pathways of endothelial dysfunction have reached clinical trial phases in PAH. Although there are inherent limitations of the currently available models of PAH, the leaky pipeline of innovative therapies relates, in part, to flawed preclinical research methodology, including lack of rigour in trial design, incomplete invasive hemodynamic assessment, and lack of careful translational studies that replicate randomized controlled trials in humans with attention to adverse effects and benefits. Rigorous methodology should include the use of prespecified eligibility criteria, sample sizes that permit valid statistical analysis, randomization, blinded assessment of standardized outcomes, and transparent reporting of results. Better design and implementation of preclinical studies can minimize inherent flaws in the models of PAH, reduce the risk of bias, and enhance external validity and our ability to distinguish truly promising therapies form many false-positive or overstated leads. Ideally, preclinical studies should use advanced imaging, study several preclinical pulmonary hypertension models, or correlate rodent and human findings and consider the fate of the right ventricle, which is the major determinant of prognosis in human PAH. Although these principles are widely endorsed, empirical evidence suggests that such rigor is often lacking in pulmonary hypertension preclinical research. The present article discusses the pitfalls in the design of preclinical pulmonary hypertension trials and discusses opportunities to create preclinical trials with improved predictive value in guiding early-phase drug development in patients with PAH, which will need support not only from researchers, peer reviewers, and editors but also from

  8. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  9. Failure, The Next Generation: Why Rigorous Standards are not Sufficient to Improve Science Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Antony Bair

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although many states in the United States are adopting policies that require all students to complete college-preparatory science classes to graduate from high school, such policies have not always led to improved student outcomes. There is much speculation about the cause of the dismal results, but there is scant research on the processes by which the policies are being implemented at the school level, especially in schools that enroll large numbers of historically non-college-bound students. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a four-year ethnographic case study of policy implementation at one racially and socioeconomically diverse high school in Michigan. Guided by the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens (1984, we gathered and analyzed information from interviews with administrators and science teachers, observations of science classes, and relevant curriculum and policy documents. Our findings reveal the processes and rationales by which a state policy mandating three years of college-preparatory science for all students was implemented at the school. Four years after the policy was implemented, there was little improvement in science outcomes. The main reason for this, we found, was the lack of correspondence between the state policy and local policies developed in response to that state policy.

  10. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  11. Standardized Curriculum for Electricity/Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents are provided for two courses in Mississippi: electricity/electronics I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation, safety, and leadership; (2) basic principles of electricity/electronics; (3) direct current (DC) theory; (4) magnetism and DC motors; (5)…

  12. Evolution: Its Treatment in K-12 State Science Curriculum Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, L. S.

    2001-12-01

    State standards are the basis upon which states and local schools build curricula. Usually taking the form of lists of what students are expected to learn at specified grades or clusters of grades, they influence statewide examinations, textbooks, teacher education and credentialing, and other areas in which states typically exercise control over local curriculum development. State science standards vary very widely in overall quality.1,2 This is especially true in their treatment of evolution, both in the life sciences and to a somewhat lesser extent in geology and astronomy. Not surprisingly, a detailed evaluation of the treatment of evolution in state science standards3 has evoked considerably more public interest than the preceding studies of overall quality. We here consider the following questions: What constitutes a good treatment of evolution in science standards and how does one evaluate the standards? Which states have done well, and which less well? What nonscientific influences have been brought to bear on standards, for what reasons, and by whom? What strategies have been used to obscure or distort the role of evolution as the central organizing principle of the historical sciences? What are the effects of such distortions on students' overall understanding of science? What can the scientific community do to assure the publication of good science standards and to counteract attacks on good science teaching? 1. Lerner, L. S., State Science Standards: An Appraisal of Science Standards in 36 States, The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, Washington, D.C., March 1998. 2. Lerner, L. S. et al ., The State of State Standards 2000, ibid., January 2000. 3. Lerner, L. S., Good Science, Bad Science: Teaching Evolution In the States, ibid., September 2000.

  13. Do We Need a National Standards-Based K-12 Deaf Studies Curriculum? An Analytic History of Trends and Discourse in Development of Deaf Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernovoj, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a complete review of discussion and development leading up to the current trends in Deaf Studies curriculum development, and also analyzes existing known curriculum (or curriculum-like) materials to help inform development of an ideal standards-based Deaf Studies curriculum. The common shared arguments identified in this…

  14. Designing a Standardized Laparoscopy Curriculum for Gynecology Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, Eliane M; Lefebvre, Guylaine G; Husslein, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    surgery, and asked 39 experts in gynecologic education to rate the items on a Likert scale (1-5) for inclusion in the curriculum. Consensus was predefined as Cronbach α of ≥0.80. We then conducted another Delphi survey with 9 experienced users of laparoscopic virtual reality simulators to delineate...... of the curriculum Delphi, and after 2 rounds (Cronbach α=0.80) in the virtual reality curriculum Delphi. Consensus was reached for cognitive, technical, and nontechnical skills as well as for 6 virtual reality tasks. Median time and economy of movement scores defined benchmarks for all tasks. CONCLUSIONS...

  15. The Politics of Developing and Maintaining Mathematics and Science Curriculum Content Standards. Research Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Michael W.; Bird, Robin L.

    The movement toward math and science curriculum standards is inextricably linked with high-stakes politics. There are two major types of politics discussed in this paper: the allocation of curriculum content, and the political issues involved in systemic change. Political strategies for gaining assent to national, state, and local content…

  16. Taiwanese Science and Life Technology Curriculum Standards and Earth Systems Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2005-01-01

    In the past several years, curriculum reform has received increasing attention from educators in many countries around the world. Recently, Taiwan has developed new Science and Life Technology Curriculum Standards (SaLTS) for grades 1-9. SaLTS features a systematic way for developing students' understanding and appreciation of…

  17. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  18. Mathematical Rigor in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandyke, Michael; Bassichis, William

    2011-10-01

    Calculus-based introductory physics courses intended for future engineers and physicists are often designed and taught in the same fashion as those intended for students of other disciplines. A more mathematically rigorous curriculum should be more appropriate and, ultimately, more beneficial for the student in his or her future coursework. This work investigates the effects of mathematical rigor on student understanding of introductory mechanics. Using a series of diagnostic tools in conjunction with individual student course performance, a statistical analysis will be performed to examine student learning of introductory mechanics and its relation to student understanding of the underlying calculus.

  19. ASTM Committee C28: International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics-Three Decades of High-Quality, Technically-Rigorous Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties and performance of advanced ceramics and glasses are difficult to measure correctly without the proper techniques. For over three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed high-quality, technically-rigorous, full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure properties and performance of monolithic and composite ceramics that may be applied to glasses in some cases. These standards contain testing particulars for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of these materials. As a result these standards are used to generate accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Within Committee C28, users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. have written, continually updated, and validated through round-robin test programs, 50 standards since the Committee's founding in 1986. This paper provides a detailed retrospective of the 30 years of ASTM Committee C28 including a graphical pictogram listing of C28 standards along with examples of the tangible benefits of standards for advanced ceramics to demonstrate their practical applications.

  20. ASTM Committee C28: International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics, Three Decades of High-quality, Technically-rigorous Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties and performance of advanced ceramics and glasses are difficult to measure correctly without the proper techniques. For over three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed high quality, rigorous, full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure properties and performance of monolithic and composite ceramics that may be applied to glasses in some cases. These standards testing particulars for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of these materials. As a result these standards provide accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Within Committee C28 users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. have written, continually updated, and validated through round-robin test programs, nearly 50 standards since the Committees founding in 1986. This paper provides a retrospective review of the 30 years of ASTM Committee C28 including a graphical pictogram listing of C28 standards along with examples of the tangible benefits of advanced ceramics standards to demonstrate their practical applications.

  1. Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Kroflič

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern curriculum theories emphasize that if we understand the curriculum as a real core substance of education. We have to bear in mind, when planning the curriculum, the whole multitude of factors (curricula which have an influence on the educational impact. In the field of andragogy, we especially have to consider educational needs, and linking the strategies of instruction with those of learning. The best way of realizing this principle is the open strategy of planning the national curriculum and process-developmental strategy of planning with the microandragogic situation. This planning strategy is S1m1lar to the system-integration strategy and Jarvis's model of negotiated curriculum, which derive from the basic andragogic principle: that the interests and capacities of adults for education increase if we enable them to cooperate in the planning and production of the curriculum.

  2. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

  3. From Prescribed Curriculum to Classroom Practice: An Examination of the Implementation of the New York State Earth Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contino, Julie; Anderson, O. Roger

    2013-01-01

    In New York State (NYS), Earth science teachers use the "National Science Education Standards" (NSES), the NYS "Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science and Technology" (NYS Standards), and the "Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum" (Core Curriculum) to create local curricula and daily lessons. In this…

  4. Standards in capstone design courses and the engineering curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In 1990, I was the group leader of Research and Development for Surgitek, a urological device manufacturer in Racine, Wisconsin, which was the market leader in ureteral stents. I recognized the need for an industry standard for ureteral stents, felt that taking a leadership role in the development of a new standard would be a good professional development activity, and volunteered to serve as the chair of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, now known as ASTM International) Task Group on Ureteral Stents. After several years, the standard was approved, and I continue to serve as the chair of the ASTM Subcommittee on Urological Materials and Devices. This experience helped me understand the value of industry standards, expanded my professional network and visibility within the medical device industry, and helped develop my leadership skills.

  5. Standardizing hysteroscopy teaching: development of a curriculum using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marie-Emmanuelle; Debras, Elodie; Niro, Julien; Fernandez, Hervé; Panel, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Hysteroscopy is performed often and in many indications but is challenging to learn. Hands-on training in live patients faces ethical, legal, and economic obstacles. Virtual reality simulation may hold promise as a hysteroscopy training tool. No validated curriculum specific in hysteroscopy exists. The aim of this study was to develop a hysteroscopy curriculum, using the Delphi method to identify skill requirements. Based on a literature review using the key words "curriculum," "simulation," and "hysteroscopy," we identified five technical and non-technical areas in which skills were required. Twenty hysteroscopy experts from different French hospital departments participated in Delphi rounds to select items in these five areas. The rounds were to be continued until 80-100% agreement was obtained for at least 60% of items. A curriculum was built based on the selected items and was evaluated in residents. From November 2014 to April 2015, 18 of 20 invited experts participated in three Delphi rounds. Of the 51 items selected during the first round, only 25 (49%) had 80-100% agreement during the second round, and a third round was therefore conducted. During this last round, 80-100% agreement was achieved for 31 (61%) items, which were used to create the curriculum. All 14 residents tested felt that a simulator training session was acceptable and helped them to improve their skills. We describe a simulation-based hysteroscopy curriculum focusing on skill requirements identified by a Delphi procedure. Its development allows standardization of training programs offered to residents.

  6. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  7. Measuring Course Competencies in a School of Business: The Use of Standardized Curriculum and Rubrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jane Whitney

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the growing emphasis on measurement of course competencies by individual college students through two course examples, an undergraduate course in managing change and conflict and a graduate course in human resource management. The author explains how standardized curriculum and assignment rubrics are being used to measure…

  8. Standardized Curriculum for Enrichment Agriculture. Grades 7 and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents are provided for two courses in Mississippi: agriculture, grades seven and eight. The first course contains the following units: (1) agricultural careers; (2) leadership and Future Farmers of America (FFA); (3) public speaking; (4) parliamentary procedures; (5) introduction to…

  9. Standardizing the Term "Strategy" in Retail and Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Strategy is a key concept in retail and business education. Yet, this important term has evolved to include many definitions, which can create confusion in the classroom environment. This paper proposes a standardized use of the term "strategy" in retail and business classrooms. It suggests a focused definition of strategy as "the…

  10. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  11. Standardized Curriculum for Marketing and Cooperative Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized course titles and core contents for seven marketing and cooperative vocational education courses in Mississippi are provided: (1) marketing education, part one; (2) marketing education, part two; (3) fashion merchandising; (4) marketing cooperative education, part one; (5) marketing cooperative education, part two; (6) diversified…

  12. Hyper-curriculum: Transcending Borders of Standardization in the Cosmopolitan Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kazanjian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The world is not just connected; it is hyper-connected. The global flow of ideas, technology, and people are at unmatched levels in history. More classrooms are becoming cosmopolitan centers composed of students with multicultural backgrounds. However, United States public education in this hyper-connected world puts emphasis on standardization and accountability. By doing so, schools driven by federal initiatives fail in helping students to become worldly citizens. Students and teachers are derived of room for creativity or new multicultural possibilities. Hence, this paper intends to develop a theoretical framework for curriculum in the hyper-connected world, aptly named “hyper-curriculum.”

  13. Interdisciplinary Climate Change Curriculum Materials based on the Next Generation Science Standards and The Earth Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A.; Robertson, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2012, the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies' reported that one of the major issues associated with the development of climate change curriculum was the lack of interdisciplinary materials that also promoted a correlation between science standards and content. Therefore, in order to respond to this need, our group has developed an interdisciplinary climate change curriculum that has had as its fundamental basis the alignment with the guidelines presented by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the ones presented by the international document entitled The Earth Charter. In this regards, while the alignment with NGSS disciplinary core ideas, cross-concepts and students' expectations intended to fulfill the need for the development of climate change curriculum activities that were directly associated with the appropriate set of NGSS guidelines, the alignment with The Earth Charter document intended to reinforce the need the for the integration of sociological, philosophical and intercultural analysis of the theme 'climate change'. Additionally, our curriculum was also developed as part of a collaborative project between climate scientists and engineers, who are responsible for the development of a Regional Arctic Simulation Model (RASM). Hence, another important curriculum constituent was the feedback, suggestions and reviews provided by these professionals, who have also contributed to these pedagogical materials' scientific accuracy by facilitating the integration of datasets and visualizations developed by RASM. Furthermore, our group has developed a climate change curriculum for two types of audience: high school and early undergraduate students. Each curriculum unit is divided into modules and each module contains a set of lesson plans. The topics selected to compose each unit and module were designated according to the surveys conducted with scientists and engineers involved with the development of the climate change

  14. Human trafficking education for nurse practitioners: Integration into standard curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    of human trafficking among students enrolled in a nurse practitioner program. Informed nurse practitioners have the ability to identify, treat, and refer victims of trafficking. As an integral part of the health care team, nurse practitioners should receive trafficking education as part of the standard course curricula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wilderness Education Association certification and safety, ecological impact, and curriculum standardization of graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Detzel, David

    1985-01-01

    Graduates of the Wilderness Education Association (W.E.A.) were surveyed by mail to investigate the effects of their certification on safety, ecological impact, and curriculum standardization of their subsequent leadership activities. Self-reports showed a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease in the number of post- W.E.A. course evacuations and rescues. Graduates reported a moderate W.E.A. influence on their accident records, and knowledge of W.E.A. stan...

  16. National Construction of Global Education: A Critical Review of the National Curriculum Standards for South Korean Global High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Park, Minjeong; Choi, Il-Seon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate what global visions of education are reflected in the selected national curriculum standards, with special reference to two seemingly contradictory forces: globalization and nationalism. This paper examines the socio-economic and cultural foundations of the curriculum and explains how the national curriculum…

  17. Slope across the Curriculum: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an initial comparison of the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by examining the fundamental notion of slope. Each set of standards is analyzed using eleven previously identified conceptualizations of slope. Both sets of standards emphasize Functional Property,…

  18. The standardization in the curriculum educational: the tip of the iceberg of the homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Rodríguez-Revelo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking as a reference the existing literature, through this article intends to make a brief presentation of curriculum standardization and its implementation in the field of education. Standards, taken from the business field, are considered to be a necessary instrument for assurance of educational quality. However, empirical research, as well as critical voices in relation to their applicability, in all educational contexts, emphasize that these cultural homogenized and unify teaching, which does not guarantee an improvement in learning, since it tends to ignore cultural diversity in schools. Standards, taken from the business field, are considered to be a necessary instrument for assurance of educational quality. However, empirical research, as well as critical voices in relation to their applicability, in all educational contexts, emphasize that these cultural homogenized and unify teaching, which does not guarantee an improvement in learning, since it tends to ignore cultural diversity in schools.

  19. Patient safety principles in family medicine residency accreditation standards and curriculum objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Aliya; Sharma, Nishan; Harvie, Margot; O’Beirne, Maeve; Topps, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct a thematic analysis of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s (CFPC’s) Red Book accreditation standards and the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum objectives with respect to patient safety principles. Design Thematic content analysis of the CFPC’s Red Book accreditation standards and the Triple C curriculum. Setting Canada. Main outcome measures Coding frequency of the patient safety principles (ie, patient engagement; respectful, transparent relationships; complex systems; a just and trusting culture; responsibility and accountability for actions; and continuous learning and improvement) found in the analyzed CFPC documents. Results Within the analyzed CFPC documents, the most commonly found patient safety principle was patient engagement (n = 51 coding references); the least commonly found patient safety principles were a just and trusting culture (n = 5 coding references) and complex systems (n = 5 coding references). Other patient safety principles that were uncommon included responsibility and accountability for actions (n = 7 coding references) and continuous learning and improvement (n = 12 coding references). Conclusion Explicit inclusion of patient safety content such as the use of patient safety principles is needed for residency training programs across Canada to ensure the full spectrum of care is addressed, from community-based care to acute hospital-based care. This will ensure a patient safety culture can be cultivated from residency and sustained into primary care practice. PMID:27965349

  20. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Windmills by Design: Purposeful Curriculum Design to Meet Next Generation Science Standards in a 9-12 Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James; Brown, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) challenges science teachers to think beyond specific content standards when considering how to design and implement curriculum. This lesson, "Windmills by Design," is an insightful lesson in how science teachers can create and implement a cross-cutting lesson to teach the concepts…

  2. Statistical mechanics rigorous results

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    1999-01-01

    This classic book marks the beginning of an era of vigorous mathematical progress in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Its treatment of the infinite system limit has not been superseded, and the discussion of thermodynamic functions and states remains basic for more recent work. The conceptual foundation provided by the Rigorous Results remains invaluable for the study of the spectacular developments of statistical mechanics in the second half of the 20th century.

  3. High Standards for All: The Struggle for Equality in the American High School Curriculum, 1890-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Jeffrey; Angus, David

    1994-01-01

    Close investigation of trends in high school student course taking indicates that curriculum differentiation has had a negative effect on the education of many young people, particularly working-class and black students. It is argued that national goals and standards, wisely developed and applied, can benefit American education. (SLD)

  4. The Making of a History Standards Wiki: "Covering", "Uncovering", and "Discovering" Curriculum Frameworks Using a Highly Interactive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, Robert W.; Poirier, Michelle; Smith, Hilary K.; Edwards, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores using a wiki, one of the newest forms of interactive computer-based technology, as a resource for teaching the Massachusetts K-12 History and Social Science Curriculum Framework, a set of state-mandated learning standards. Wikis are web pages that can be easily edited by multiple authors. They invite active involvement by…

  5. A Study of the Benefits of Math Manipulatives versus Standard Curriculum in the Comprehension of Mathematical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Amanda L.

    This study attempted to determine which teaching method, mainly manipulatives or the standard curriculum, best allowed the students to learn first grade math concepts. The manipulatives consisted of objects such as unifix cubes, personal chalkboards, work mats, and various other articles, which allowed the students to see the math that they were…

  6. Electronic laboratory quality assurance program: A method of enhancing the prosthodontic curriculum and addressing accreditation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Marjan; Jahangiri, Leila

    2015-08-01

    An electronic quality assurance (eQA) program was developed to replace a paper-based system and to address standards introduced by the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) and to improve educational outcomes. This eQA program provides feedback to predoctoral dental students on prosthodontic laboratory steps at New York University College of Dentistry. The purpose of this study was to compare the eQA program of performing laboratory quality assurance with the former paper-based format. Fourth-year predoctoral dental students (n=334) who experienced both the paper-based and the electronic version of the quality assurance program were surveyed about their experiences. Additionally, data extracted from the eQA program were analyzed to identify areas of weakness in the curriculum. The study findings revealed that 73.8% of the students preferred the eQA program to the paper-based version. The average number of treatments that did not pass quality assurance standards was 119.5 per month. This indicated a 6.34% laboratory failure rate. Further analysis of these data revealed that 62.1% of the errors were related to fixed prosthodontic treatment, 27.9% to partial removable dental prostheses, and 10% to complete removable dental prostheses in the first 18 months of program implementation. The eQA program was favored by dental students who have experienced both electronic and paper-based versions of the system. Error type analysis can yield the ability to create customized faculty standardization sessions and refine the didactic and clinical teaching of the predoctoral students. This program was also able to link patient care activity with the student's laboratory activities, thus addressing the latest requirements of the CODA regarding the competence of graduates in evaluating laboratory work related to their patient care. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Alignment of easyCBM[R] Math Measures to Curriculum Standards. Technical Report #1002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Anderson, Daniel; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the alignment of the easyCBM[R] mathematics benchmark and progress monitoring measures to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics "Curriculum Focal Points" (NCTM, 2006). Based on Webb's alignment model (1997, 2002), we collected expert judgments on individual math items across a sampling of forms…

  8. The Impact of Curriculum Looping on Standardized Literacy and Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessler, Ralph D.

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the practice of curriculum looping and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine academic achievement between students in looping classes and those in nonlooping classes. The theoretical model of this study was based on the social cognitive theory of Bandura and Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.…

  9. Putrefactive rigor: apparent rigor mortis due to gas distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R; Landi, Kristen

    2011-09-01

    Artifacts due to decomposition may cause confusion for the initial death investigator, leading to an incorrect suspicion of foul play. Putrefaction is a microorganism-driven process that results in foul odor, skin discoloration, purge, and bloating. Various decompositional gases including methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen will cause the body to bloat. We describe 3 instances of putrefactive gas distension (bloating) that produced the appearance of inappropriate rigor, so-called putrefactive rigor. These gases may distend the body to an extent that the extremities extend and lose contact with their underlying support surface. The medicolegal investigator must recognize that this is not true rigor mortis and the body was not necessarily moved after death for this gravity-defying position to occur.

  10. Mid-level healthcare personnel training: an evaluation of the revised, nationally-standardized, pre-service curriculum for clinical officers in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl Feldacker

    Full Text Available Mozambique suffers from a critical shortage of healthcare workers. Mid-level healthcare workers, (Tecnicos de Medicina Geral (TMG, in Mozambique require less money and time to train than physicians. From 2009-2010, the Mozambique Ministry of Health (MoH and the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH, University of Washington, Seattle, revised the TMG curriculum. To evaluate the effect of the curriculum revision, we used mixed methods to determine: 1 if TMGs meet the MoH's basic standards of clinical competency; and 2 do scores on measurements of clinical knowledge, physical exam, and clinical case scenarios differ by curriculum?T-tests of differences in means examined differences in continuous score variables between curriculum groups. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models assess curriculum-related and demographic factors associated with assessment scores on each of the three evaluation methods at the p<0.05 level. Qualitative interviews and focus groups inform interpretation.We found no significant differences in sex, marital status and age between the 112 and 189 TMGs in initial and revised curriculum, respectively. Mean scores at graduation of initial curriculum TMGs were 56.7%, 63.5%, and 49.1% on the clinical cases, knowledge test, and physical exam, respectively. Scores did not differ significantly from TMGs in the revised curriculum. Results from linear regression models find that training institute was the most significant predictor of TMG scores on both the clinical cases and physical exam.TMGs trained in either curriculum may be inadequately prepared to provide quality care. Curriculum changes are a necessary, but insufficient, part of improving TMG knowledge and skills overall. A more comprehensive, multi-level approach to improving TMG training that includes post-graduation mentoring, strengthening the pre-service internship training, and greater resources for training institute faculty may

  11. Use of WONCA global standards to evaluate family medicine postgraduate education for curriculum development and review in Nepal and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Christine; Ladak, Farah; Shrestha, Ashis; Yadav, Bharat; Thu, Kyaw; Aye, Tin

    2016-09-01

    Family medicine is an integral part of primary care within health systems. Globally, training programmes exhibit a great degree of variability in content and skill acquisition. While this may in part reflect the needs of a given setting, there exists standard criteria that all family medicine programmes should consider core activities. WONCA has provided an open-access list of standards that their expert community considers essential for family medicine (GP) post-graduate training. Evaluation of developing or existing training programmes using these standards can provide insight into the degree of variability, gaps within programmes and equally as important, gaps within recommendations. In collaboration with the host institution, two family medicine programmes in Nepal and Myanmar were evaluated based on WONCA global standards. The results of the evaluation demonstrated that such a process can allow for critical review of curriculum in various stages of development and evaluation. The implications of reviewing training programmes according to WONCA standards can lead to enhanced training world-wide and standardisation of training for post-graduate family medicine.

  12. Mid-level healthcare personnel training: an evaluation of the revised, nationally-standardized, pre-service curriculum for clinical officers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldacker, Caryl; Chicumbe, Sergio; Dgedge, Martinho; Augusto, Gerito; Cesar, Freide; Robertson, Molly; Mbofana, Francisco; O'Malley, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Mozambique suffers from a critical shortage of healthcare workers. Mid-level healthcare workers, (Tecnicos de Medicina Geral (TMG)), in Mozambique require less money and time to train than physicians. From 2009-2010, the Mozambique Ministry of Health (MoH) and the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), University of Washington, Seattle, revised the TMG curriculum. To evaluate the effect of the curriculum revision, we used mixed methods to determine: 1) if TMGs meet the MoH's basic standards of clinical competency; and 2) do scores on measurements of clinical knowledge, physical exam, and clinical case scenarios differ by curriculum? T-tests of differences in means examined differences in continuous score variables between curriculum groups. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models assess curriculum-related and demographic factors associated with assessment scores on each of the three evaluation methods at the pTMG scores on both the clinical cases and physical exam. TMGs trained in either curriculum may be inadequately prepared to provide quality care. Curriculum changes are a necessary, but insufficient, part of improving TMG knowledge and skills overall. A more comprehensive, multi-level approach to improving TMG training that includes post-graduation mentoring, strengthening the pre-service internship training, and greater resources for training institute faculty may result in improvements in TMG capacity and patient care over time.

  13. The Power of Questions to Bring Balance to the Curriculum in the Age of New Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Prado, Pixita; McMillen, Susan E.; Friedland, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS); the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS); and the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social State Standards are bringing many changes to schools and classrooms across the United States. This article suggests using the power of questions to make connections across seemingly disparate…

  14. A Case for Common Core State Standards: Gifted Curriculum 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the most successful attempt to gain consensus across states for 21st century standards in language arts and mathematics. So far, 46 states have accepted these standards, with two consortia organized to translate them into resources and sample activities. A consultant firm has been hired to develop the…

  15. Beyond the Standard Curriculum: A Review of Available Opportunities for Medical Students to Prepare for a Career in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ankit; DeNunzio, Nicholas J.; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E., E-mail: Ariel.hirsch@bmc.org

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To review currently available opportunities for medical students to supplement their standard medical education to prepare for a career in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: Google and PubMed were used to identify existing clinical, health policy, and research programs for medical students in radiation oncology. In addition, results publicly available by the National Resident Matching Program were used to explore opportunities that successful radiation oncology applicants pursued during their medical education, including obtaining additional graduate degrees. Results: Medical students can pursue a wide variety of opportunities before entering radiation oncology. Several national specialty societies, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology and the Radiological Society of North America, offer summer internships for medical students interested in radiation oncology. In 2011, 30% of allopathic senior medical students in the United States who matched into radiation oncology had an additional graduate degree, including PhD, MPH, MBA, and MA degrees. Some medical schools are beginning to further integrate dedicated education in radiation oncology into the standard 4-year medical curriculum. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of available opportunities for medical students interested in radiation oncology. Early exposure to radiation oncology and additional educational training beyond the standard medical curriculum have the potential to create more successful radiation oncology applicants and practicing radiation oncologists while also promoting the growth of the field. We hope this review can serve as guide to radiation oncology applicants and mentors as well as encourage discussion regarding initiatives in radiation oncology opportunities for medical students.

  16. Beyond the standard curriculum: a review of available opportunities for medical students to prepare for a career in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; DeNunzio, Nicholas J; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E

    2014-01-01

    To review currently available opportunities for medical students to supplement their standard medical education to prepare for a career in radiation oncology. Google and PubMed were used to identify existing clinical, health policy, and research programs for medical students in radiation oncology. In addition, results publicly available by the National Resident Matching Program were used to explore opportunities that successful radiation oncology applicants pursued during their medical education, including obtaining additional graduate degrees. Medical students can pursue a wide variety of opportunities before entering radiation oncology. Several national specialty societies, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology and the Radiological Society of North America, offer summer internships for medical students interested in radiation oncology. In 2011, 30% of allopathic senior medical students in the United States who matched into radiation oncology had an additional graduate degree, including PhD, MPH, MBA, and MA degrees. Some medical schools are beginning to further integrate dedicated education in radiation oncology into the standard 4-year medical curriculum. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of available opportunities for medical students interested in radiation oncology. Early exposure to radiation oncology and additional educational training beyond the standard medical curriculum have the potential to create more successful radiation oncology applicants and practicing radiation oncologists while also promoting the growth of the field. We hope this review can serve as guide to radiation oncology applicants and mentors as well as encourage discussion regarding initiatives in radiation oncology opportunities for medical students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Beyond the Standard Curriculum: A Review of Available Opportunities for Medical Students to Prepare for a Career in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ankit; DeNunzio, Nicholas J.; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To review currently available opportunities for medical students to supplement their standard medical education to prepare for a career in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: Google and PubMed were used to identify existing clinical, health policy, and research programs for medical students in radiation oncology. In addition, results publicly available by the National Resident Matching Program were used to explore opportunities that successful radiation oncology applicants pursued during their medical education, including obtaining additional graduate degrees. Results: Medical students can pursue a wide variety of opportunities before entering radiation oncology. Several national specialty societies, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology and the Radiological Society of North America, offer summer internships for medical students interested in radiation oncology. In 2011, 30% of allopathic senior medical students in the United States who matched into radiation oncology had an additional graduate degree, including PhD, MPH, MBA, and MA degrees. Some medical schools are beginning to further integrate dedicated education in radiation oncology into the standard 4-year medical curriculum. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of available opportunities for medical students interested in radiation oncology. Early exposure to radiation oncology and additional educational training beyond the standard medical curriculum have the potential to create more successful radiation oncology applicants and practicing radiation oncologists while also promoting the growth of the field. We hope this review can serve as guide to radiation oncology applicants and mentors as well as encourage discussion regarding initiatives in radiation oncology opportunities for medical students

  18. A case of instantaneous rigor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirch, J; Schulz, Y; Klintschar, M

    2013-09-01

    The question of whether instantaneous rigor mortis (IR), the hypothetic sudden occurrence of stiffening of the muscles upon death, actually exists has been controversially debated over the last 150 years. While modern German forensic literature rejects this concept, the contemporary British literature is more willing to embrace it. We present the case of a young woman who suffered from diabetes and who was found dead in an upright standing position with back and shoulders leaned against a punchbag and a cupboard. Rigor mortis was fully established, livor mortis was strong and according to the position the body was found in. After autopsy and toxicological analysis, it was stated that death most probably occurred due to a ketoacidotic coma with markedly increased values of glucose and lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid as well as acetone in blood and urine. Whereas the position of the body is most unusual, a detailed analysis revealed that it is a stable position even without rigor mortis. Therefore, this case does not further support the controversial concept of IR.

  19. The Effects of Discourses in Regional Contexts on the Development of Curriculum-Based Literacy Standards for Adolescents in Schooling: A Comparative Study of South Australia and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Lisl

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses how discourses in regional contexts affect the development of curriculum-based literacy standards for adolescents in schooling. A comparative case-study research design enabled the influences of discourses at the regional level to be analysed. The case studies include the development of curricula to define a minimum literacy…

  20. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  1. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  2. A comparative analysis of Science-Technology-Society standards in elementary, middle and high school state science curriculum frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Karen Marie

    An analysis of curriculum frameworks from the fifty states to ascertain the compliance with the National Science Education Standards for integrating Science-Technology-Society (STS) themes is reported within this dissertation. Science standards for all fifty states were analyzed to determine if the STS criteria were integrated at the elementary, middle, and high school levels of education. The analysis determined the compliance level for each state, then compared each educational level to see if the compliance was similar across the levels. Compliance is important because research shows that using STS themes in the science classroom increases the student's understanding of the concepts, increases the student's problem solving skills, increases the student's self-efficacy with respect to science, and students instructed using STS themes score well on science high stakes tests. The two hypotheses for this study are: (1) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school levels. (2) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school level when examined individually. The Analysis of Variance F ratio was used to determine the variance between and within the three educational levels. This analysis addressed hypothesis one. The Analysis of Variance results refused to reject the null hypothesis, meaning there is significant difference in the compliance to STS themes between the elementary, middle and high school educational levels. The Chi-Square test was the statistical analysis used to compare the educational levels for each individual criterion. This analysis addressed hypothesis two. The Chi-Squared results showed that none of the states were equally compliant with each

  3. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  4. Competency Standards for Bachelor of Industrial Technology Graduates for the Construction Industry in Region IV-A: Inputs For Curriculum Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Compasivo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop competency standards for Industrial Technology graduates for employment in the construction industry in Region IV-A, Philippines. It specifically identified the basic and core competency standards for industrial technology and determined the degree of importance of competencies needed in the construction industry sector. The study identified 28 common competencies for three areas of specializations in industrial technology namely: electrical, civil and drafting technology. There were 39 core competencies for electrical, 31 for drafting and 38 items for civil technology. A total of 50 panel of experts were carefully selected using the purposive sampling as respondents in the study. Experts are selected based on their technical know-how or proficiency and currently practicing their line of profession in the construction industry. The study used the descriptive-developmental method of research. The Delphi technique was applied to determine if the competency under investigation reached the general agreement of opinions by the panel of experts involved. The findings implied that the newly developed competency standards were good input for curriculum enhancement in the area of civil, drafting and electrical technology. The study recommended the newly developed competencies may be followed by the faculty in the course they teach and the new competency items suggested by the panel of experts for inclusion in the curriculum for the three areas of specializations may be considered during the curriculum revision.

  5. Realizing rigor in the mathematics classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Ted H (Henry); Balka, Don S

    2014-01-01

    Rigor put within reach! Rigor: The Common Core has made it policy-and this first-of-its-kind guide takes math teachers and leaders through the process of making it reality. Using the Proficiency Matrix as a framework, the authors offer proven strategies and practical tools for successful implementation of the CCSS mathematical practices-with rigor as a central objective. You'll learn how to Define rigor in the context of each mathematical practice Identify and overcome potential issues, including differentiating instruction and using data

  6. Classroom Talk for Rigorous Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Crosson, Amy C.; Resnick, Lauren B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the quality of classroom talk and its relation to academic rigor in reading-comprehension lessons. Additionally, the study aimed to characterize effective questions to support rigorous reading comprehension lessons. The data for this study included 21 reading-comprehension lessons in several elementary and middle schools from…

  7. The New Zealand Experiment: Assessment-Driven Curriculum--Managing Standards, Competition and Performance to Strengthen Governmentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Following the Tomorrow's Schools administrative restructuring, a second wave of educational change installed globalised discourses as governmentality policies in Aotearoa New Zealand. Drawing on Foucault's "toolkit", this genealogical policy chronology traces the transformation of curriculum and assessment into a specific political…

  8. Teaching under the New Taylorism: High-Stakes Testing and the Standardization of the 21st Century Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The application of the principles of scientific management within the structure, organization, and curriculum of public schools in the US became dominant during the early 1900s. Based upon research evidence from the modern day era of high-stakes testing in US public education, the fundamental logics guiding scientific management have resurfaced…

  9. Rigorous Science: a How-To Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposals to improve the reproducibility of biomedical research have emphasized scientific rigor. Although the word “rigor” is widely used, there has been little specific discussion as to what it means and how it can be achieved. We suggest that scientific rigor combines elements of mathematics, logic, philosophy, and ethics. We propose a framework for rigor that includes redundant experimental design, sound statistical analysis, recognition of error, avoidance of logical fallacies, and intellectual honesty. These elements lead to five actionable recommendations for research education.

  10. Impact of the Use of a Standardized Guidance Tool on the Development of a Teaching Philosophy in a Pharmacy Residency Teaching and Learning Curriculum Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesner, Amber R.; Jones, Ryan; Schultz, Karen; Johnson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized reflection tool on the development of a teaching philosophy statement in a pharmacy residency teaching and learning curriculum program (RTLCP). Pharmacy residents participating in the RTLCP over a two-year period were surveyed using a pre/post method to assess perceptions of teaching philosophy development before and after using the tool. Responses were assessed using a 5-point Likert scale to indicate level of agreement with each statement. For analysis, responses were divided into high (strongly agree/agree) and low (neutral/disagree/strongly disagree) agreement. The level of agreement increased significantly for all items surveyed (p philosophy, and 96% responding that the resulting teaching philosophy statement fully reflected their views on teaching and learning. The standardized reflection tool developed at Shenandoah University assisted pharmacy residents enrolled in a teaching and learning curriculum program to draft a comprehensive teaching philosophy statement, and was well received by participants. PMID:28970382

  11. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. V. Effect of various temperatures on the evolution of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T

    1981-01-01

    Objective measurements were carried out to study the evolution of rigor mortis on rats at various temperatures. Our experiments showed that: (1) at 6 degrees C rigor mortis reaches full development between 48 and 60 hours post mortem, and is resolved at 168 hours post mortem; (2) at 24 degrees C rigor mortis reaches full development at 5 hours post mortem, and is resolved at 16 hours post mortem; (3) at 37 degrees C rigor mortis reaches full development at 3 hours post mortem, and is resolved at 6 hours post mortem; (4) the intensity of rigor mortis grows with increase in temperature (difference between values obtained at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C); and (5) and 6 degrees C a "cold rigidity" was found, in addition to and independent of rigor mortis.

  12. Enduring Understandings, Artistic Processes, and the New Visual Arts Standards: A Close-up Consideration for Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marilyn G.

    2014-01-01

    National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS) Writing Team member Marilyn G. Stewart discusses what to expect from the new "next generation" Visual Arts Standards, detailing the 4 Artistic Processes and 15 Enduring Understandings. This invited essay addresses the instructional aspects of the standards, and looks at how they can help…

  13. "Rigor mortis" in a live patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Murali

    2010-03-01

    Rigor mortis is conventionally a postmortem change. Its occurrence suggests that death has occurred at least a few hours ago. The authors report a case of "Rigor Mortis" in a live patient after cardiac surgery. The likely factors that may have predisposed such premortem muscle stiffening in the reported patient are, intense low cardiac output status, use of unusually high dose of inotropic and vasopressor agents and likely sepsis. Such an event may be of importance while determining the time of death in individuals such as described in the report. It may also suggest requirement of careful examination of patients with muscle stiffening prior to declaration of death. This report is being published to point out the likely controversies that might arise out of muscle stiffening, which should not always be termed rigor mortis and/ or postmortem.

  14. [Rigor mortis -- a definite sign of death?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A R; Müller, M P; Frank, M D; Dressler, J

    2005-04-01

    In the past years an ongoing controversial debate exists in Germany, regarding quality of the coroner's inquest and declaration of death by physicians. We report the case of a 90-year old female, who was found after an unknown time following a suicide attempt with benzodiazepine. The examination of the patient showed livores (mortis?) on the left forearm and left lower leg. Moreover, rigor (mortis?) of the left arm was apparent which prevented arm flexion and extension. The hypothermic patient with insufficient respiration was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Chest compressions were not performed, because central pulses were (hardly) palpable and a sinus bradycardia 45/min (AV-block 2 degrees and sole premature ventricular complexes) was present. After placement of an intravenous line (17 G, external jugular vein) the hemodynamic situation was stabilized with intermittent boli of epinephrine and with sodium bicarbonate. With improved circulation livores and rigor disappeared. In the present case a minimal central circulation was noted, which could be stabilized, despite the presence of certain signs of death ( livores and rigor mortis). Considering the finding of an abrogated peripheral perfusion (livores), we postulate a centripetal collapse of glycogen and ATP supply in the patients left arm (rigor), which was restored after resuscitation and reperfusion. Thus, it appears that livores and rigor are not sensitive enough to exclude a vita minima, in particular in hypothermic patients with intoxications. Consequently a careful ABC-check should be performed even in the presence of apparently certain signs of death, to avoid underdiagnosing a vita minima. Additional ECG- monitoring is required to reduce the rate of false positive declarations of death. To what extent basic life support by paramedics should commence when rigor and livores are present until physician DNR order, deserves further discussion.

  15. An ultramicroscopic study on rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T

    1976-01-01

    Gastrocnemius muscles taken from decapitated mice at various intervals after death and from mice killed by 2,4-dinitrophenol or mono-iodoacetic acid injection to induce rigor mortis soon after death, were observed by electron microscopy. The prominent appearance of many fine cross striations in the myofibrils (occurring about every 400 A) was considered to be characteristic of rigor mortis. These striations were caused by minute granules studded along the surfaces of both thick and thin filaments and appeared to be the bridges connecting the 2 kinds of filaments and accounted for the hardness and rigidity of the muscle.

  16. Einstein's Theory A Rigorous Introduction for the Mathematically Untrained

    CERN Document Server

    Grøn, Øyvind

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the theory of relativity and the mathematics used in its processes. Three elements of the book make it stand apart from previously published books on the theory of relativity. First, the book starts at a lower mathematical level than standard books with tensor calculus of sufficient maturity to make it possible to give detailed calculations of relativistic predictions of practical experiments. Self-contained introductions are given, for example vector calculus, differential calculus and integrations. Second, in-between calculations have been included, making it possible for the non-technical reader to follow step-by-step calculations. Thirdly, the conceptual development is gradual and rigorous in order to provide the inexperienced reader with a philosophically satisfying understanding of the theory.  Einstein's Theory: A Rigorous Introduction for the Mathematically Untrained aims to provide the reader with a sound conceptual understanding of both the special and genera...

  17. Engaging a middle school teacher and students in formal-informal science education: Contexts of science standards-based curriculum and an urban science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Shamarion Gladys

    This is a three-article five chapter doctoral dissertation. The overall purpose of this three-pronged study is to engage a middle school science teacher and students in formal-informal science education within the context of a science standards-based curriculum and Urban Science Center. The goals of the study were: (1) to characterize the conversations of formal and informal science educators as they attempted to implement a standards-based curriculum augmented with science center exhibits; (2) to study the classroom discourse between the teacher and students that foster the development of common knowledge in science and student understanding of the concept of energy before observing science center exhibits on energy; (3) to investigate whether or not a standards-driven, project-based Investigating and Questioning our World through Science and Technology (IQWST) curriculum unit on forms and transformation of energy augmented with science center exhibits had a significant effect on urban African-American seventh grade students' achievement and learning. Overall, the study consisted of a mixed-method approach. Article one consists of a case study featuring semi-structured interviews and field notes. Article two consists of documenting and interpreting teacher-students' classroom discourse. Article three consists of qualitative methods (classroom discussion, focus group interviews, student video creation) and quantitative methods (multiple choice and open-ended questions). Oral discourses in all three studies were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. In article one, the community of educators' conversations were critically analyzed to discern the challenges educators encountered when they attempted to connect school curriculum to energy exhibits at the Urban Science Center. The five challenges that characterize the emergence of a third space were as follows: (a) science terminology for lesson focus, (b) "dumb-down" of science exhibits, (c) exploration distracts

  18. The Rigor Mortis of Education: Rigor Is Required in a Dying Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Jason; Stuart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to answer the "Educational Call to Arms", our national public schools have turned to Advanced Placement (AP) courses as the predominate vehicle used to address the lack of academic rigor in our public high schools. Advanced Placement is believed by many to provide students with the rigor and work ethic necessary to…

  19. Trends: Rigor Mortis in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodget, Alden S.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines how past art education provided a refuge for students from the rigors of other academic subjects. Observes that in recent years art education has become "discipline based." Argues that art educators need to reaffirm their commitment to a humanistic way of knowing. (KM)

  20. Photoconductivity of amorphous silicon-rigorous modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brada, P.; Schauer, F.

    1991-01-01

    It is our great pleasure to express our gratitude to Prof. Grigorovici, the pioneer of the exciting field of amorphous state by our modest contribution to this area. In this paper are presented the outline of the rigorous modelling program of the steady-state photoconductivity in amorphous silicon and related materials. (Author)

  1. Accelerating Biomedical Discoveries through Rigor and Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Judith A; Brown, Liliana L; Murphy, Stephanie J; Grieder, Franziska; Silberberg, Shai D

    2017-07-01

    Difficulties in reproducing published research findings have garnered a lot of press in recent years. As a funder of biomedical research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken measures to address underlying causes of low reproducibility. Extensive deliberations resulted in a policy, released in 2015, to enhance reproducibility through rigor and transparency. We briefly explain what led to the policy, describe its elements, provide examples and resources for the biomedical research community, and discuss the potential impact of the policy on translatability with a focus on research using animal models. Importantly, while increased attention to rigor and transparency may lead to an increase in the number of laboratory animals used in the near term, it will lead to more efficient and productive use of such resources in the long run. The translational value of animal studies will be improved through more rigorous assessment of experimental variables and data, leading to better assessments of the translational potential of animal models, for the benefit of the research community and society. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. The use of standardized patients in the plastic surgery residency curriculum: teaching core competencies with objective structured clinical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Drew; Lee, Gordon

    2011-07-01

    As of 2006, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education had defined six "core competencies" of residency education: interpersonal communication skills, medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Objective structured clinical examinations using standardized patients are becoming effective educational tools, and the authors developed a novel use of the examinations in plastic surgery residency education that assesses all six competencies. Six plastic surgery residents, two each from postgraduate years 4, 5, and 6, participated in the plastic surgery-specific objective structured clinical examination that focused on melanoma. The examination included a 30-minute videotaped encounter with a standardized patient actor and a postencounter written exercise. The residents were scored on their performance in all six core competencies by the standardized patients and faculty experts on a three-point scale (1 = novice, 2 = moderately skilled, and 3 = proficient). Resident performance was averaged for each postgraduate year, stratified according to core competency, and scored from a total of 100 percent. Residents overall scored well in interpersonal communications skills (84 percent), patient care (83 percent), professionalism (86 percent), and practice-based learning (84 percent). Scores in medical knowledge showed a positive correlation with level of training (86 percent). All residents scored comparatively lower in systems-based practice (65 percent). The residents reported unanimously that the objective structured clinical examination was realistic and educational. The objective structured clinical examination provided comprehensive and meaningful feedback and identified areas of strengths and weakness for the residents and for the teaching program. The examination is an effective assessment tool for the core competencies and a valuable adjunct to residency training.

  3. Rigorous quantum limits on monitoring free masses and harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    There are heuristic arguments proposing that the accuracy of monitoring position of a free mass m is limited by the standard quantum limit (SQL): σ2( X (t ) ) ≥σ2( X (0 ) ) +(t2/m2) σ2( P (0 ) ) ≥ℏ t /m , where σ2( X (t ) ) and σ2( P (t ) ) denote variances of the Heisenberg representation position and momentum operators. Yuen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 719 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.719] discovered that there are contractive states for which this result is incorrect. Here I prove universally valid rigorous quantum limits (RQL), viz. rigorous upper and lower bounds on σ2( X (t ) ) in terms of σ2( X (0 ) ) and σ2( P (0 ) ) , given by Eq. (12) for a free mass and by Eq. (36) for an oscillator. I also obtain the maximally contractive and maximally expanding states which saturate the RQL, and use the contractive states to set up an Ozawa-type measurement theory with accuracies respecting the RQL but beating the standard quantum limit. The contractive states for oscillators improve on the Schrödinger coherent states of constant variance and may be useful for gravitational wave detection and optical communication.

  4. Software metrics a rigorous and practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Norman

    2014-01-01

    A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and ProcessesReflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. Like its popular predecessors, this third edition discusses important issues, explains essential concepts, and offers new approaches for tackling long-standing problems.New to the Third EditionThis edition contains new material relevant

  5. Student Preferences for Instructional Methods in an Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Student preferences among instructional methods are largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. The algorithmic rigor of courses and the societal culture can influence these preferences. This study explored students' preferences of instructional methods for learning in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differ in algorithmic…

  6. Development of rigor mortis is not affected by muscle volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Ikegaya, H; Takase, I; Hatanaka, K; Sakurada, K; Iwase, H

    2001-04-01

    There is a hypothesis suggesting that rigor mortis progresses more rapidly in small muscles than in large muscles. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in rat musculus erector spinae that had been cut into muscle bundles of various volumes. The muscle volume did not influence either the progress or the resolution of rigor mortis, which contradicts the hypothesis. Differences in pre-rigor load on the muscles influenced the onset and resolution of rigor mortis in a few pairs of samples, but did not influence the time taken for rigor mortis to reach its full extent after death. Moreover, the progress of rigor mortis in this muscle was biphasic; this may reflect the early rigor of red muscle fibres and the late rigor of white muscle fibres.

  7. Dissect, Design, and Customize the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Education bureaucrats in 45 states have approved the Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) as the de facto national curriculum. The implementation of the CCSS will be monitored by a national standardized test in language arts and mathematics. The confluence of a standardized curriculum enforced with a standardized test will entrench a…

  8. Customizing Curriculum with Digital Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    To effectively use digital resources in the classroom, teachers must customize the information, merge it with pre-existing curriculum, differentiate it for diverse student populations, and still meet standards-based learning goals. This article describes a solution to these challenges: the Curriculum Customization Service, which provides access to…

  9. Rigor in Qualitative Supply Chain Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goffin, Keith; Raja, Jawwad; Claes, Björn

    2012-01-01

    , reliability, and theoretical saturation. Originality/value – It is the authors' contention that the addition of the repertory grid technique to the toolset of methods used by logistics and supply chain management researchers can only enhance insights and the building of robust theories. Qualitative studies......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' experiences of using the repertory grid technique in two supply chain management studies. The paper aims to demonstrate how the two studies provided insights into how qualitative techniques such as the repertory grid can be made more...... rigorous than in the past, and how results can be generated that are inaccessible using quantitative methods. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents two studies undertaken using the repertory grid technique to illustrate its application in supply chain management research. Findings – The paper...

  10. Statistics for mathematicians a rigorous first course

    CERN Document Server

    Panaretos, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides a coherent introduction to the main concepts and methods of one-parameter statistical inference. Intended for students of Mathematics taking their first course in Statistics, the focus is on Statistics for Mathematicians rather than on Mathematical Statistics. The goal is not to focus on the mathematical/theoretical aspects of the subject, but rather to provide an introduction to the subject tailored to the mindset and tastes of Mathematics students, who are sometimes turned off by the informal nature of Statistics courses. This book can be used as the basis for an elementary semester-long first course on Statistics with a firm sense of direction that does not sacrifice rigor. The deeper goal of the text is to attract the attention of promising Mathematics students.

  11. Business Mathematics Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1612. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    This curriculum guide for business mathematics was developed to establish statewide curriculum standards for the Louisiana Competency-based Education Program. Following an overview of the secondary school mathematics curriculum, eight goals for the business mathematics course are listed. A pacing chart with suggested time periods for each major…

  12. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  13. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  14. Rethinking the MSW Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Ira C.

    2013-01-01

    The foundation year and specialization year of study are the accepted framework for graduate social work education. A common belief among educators is that accreditation standards are prescriptive by design, resulting in a rigidity that neither encourages nor supports curricular innovation. This article outlines a newly developed curriculum model…

  15. Rigorous theory of molecular orientational nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Chong Hoon; Kim, Gun Yeup

    2015-01-01

    Classical statistical mechanics of the molecular optics theory proposed by Buckingham [A. D. Buckingham and J. A. Pople, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 68, 905 (1955)] has been extended to describe the field induced molecular orientational polarization effects on nonlinear optics. In this paper, we present the generalized molecular orientational nonlinear optical processes (MONLO) through the calculation of the classical orientational averaging using the Boltzmann type time-averaged orientational interaction energy in the randomly oriented molecular system under the influence of applied electric fields. The focal points of the calculation are (1) the derivation of rigorous tensorial components of the effective molecular hyperpolarizabilities, (2) the molecular orientational polarizations and the electronic polarizations including the well-known third-order dc polarization, dc electric field induced Kerr effect (dc Kerr effect), optical Kerr effect (OKE), dc electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH), degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) and third harmonic generation (THG). We also present some of the new predictive MONLO processes. For second-order MONLO, second-order optical rectification (SOR), Pockels effect and difference frequency generation (DFG) are described in terms of the anisotropic coefficients of first hyperpolarizability. And, for third-order MONLO, third-order optical rectification (TOR), dc electric field induced difference frequency generation (EFIDFG) and pump-probe transmission are presented

  16. Perceptions of Private College Teachers of Karachi about the Curriculum Prescribed by Sindh Bureau of Curriculum (BOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syeda, Talat Jehan

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum at the college level is prescribed at provincial level to ensure a standardized education throughout. A prescribed curriculum aligns educational standards and maintains them to ensure teaching standards. In Pakistan the curriculum for intermediate students at both private and government colleges is designed and proposed by Sindh Bureau…

  17. Rigorous modelling of light's intensity angular-profile in Abbe refractometers with absorbing homogeneous fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Valenzuela, A; Contreras-Tello, H; Márquez-Islas, R; Sánchez-Pérez, C

    2013-01-01

    We derive an optical model for the light intensity distribution around the critical angle in a standard Abbe refractometer when used on absorbing homogenous fluids. The model is developed using rigorous electromagnetic optics. The obtained formula is very simple and can be used suitably in the analysis and design of optical sensors relying on Abbe type refractometry.

  18. Community historians and the dilemma of rigor vs relevance : A comment on Danziger and van Rappard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Trudy

    1998-01-01

    Since the transition from finalism to contextualism, the history of science seems to be caught up in a basic dilemma. Many historians fear that with the new contextualist standards of rigorous historiography, historical research can no longer be relevant to working scientists themselves. The present

  19. Rigor or mortis: best practices for preclinical research in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Oswald; Balice-Gordon, Rita

    2014-11-05

    Numerous recent reports document a lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies, raising concerns about potential lack of rigor. Examples of lack of rigor have been extensively documented and proposals for practices to improve rigor are appearing. Here, we discuss some of the details and implications of previously proposed best practices and consider some new ones, focusing on preclinical studies relevant to human neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Experimental study of restiffening of the rigor mortis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Li, M; Liao, Z G; Yi, X F; Peng, X M

    2001-11-01

    To observe changes of the length of sarcomere of rat when restiffening. We measured the length of sarcomere of quadriceps in 40 rats in different condition by scanning electron microscope. The length of sarcomere of rigor mortis without destroy is obviously shorter than that of restiffening. The length of sarcomere is negatively correlative to the intensity of rigor mortis. Measuring the length of sarcomere can determine the intensity of rigor mortis and provide evidence for estimation of time since death.

  1. Recovery Act: Develop a Modular Curriculum for Training University Students in Industry Standard CO{sub 2} Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, R. C.; Stoudt, E. L.

    2013-05-31

    CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery, Sequestration, & Monitoring Measuring & Verification are topics that are not typically covered in Geoscience, Land Management, and Petroleum Engineering curriculum. Students are not typically exposed to the level of training that would prepare them for CO{sub 2} reservoir and aquifer sequestration related projects when they begin assignments in industry. As a result, industry training, schools & conferences are essential training venues for new & experienced personnel working on CO{sub 2} projects for the first time. This project collected and/or generated industry level CO{sub 2} training to create modules which faculties can utilize as presentations, projects, field trips and site visits for undergrad and grad students and prepare them to "hit the ground running" & be contributing participants in CO{sub 2} projects with minimal additional training. In order to create the modules, UTPB/CEED utilized a variety of sources. Data & presentations from industry CO{sub 2} Flooding Schools & Conferences, Carbon Management Workshops, UTPB Classes, and other venues was tailored to provide introductory reservoir & aquifer training, state-of-the-art methodologies, field seminars and road logs, site visits, and case studies for students. After discussions with faculty at UTPB, Sul Ross, Midland College, other universities, and petroleum industry professionals, it was decided to base the module sets on a series of road logs from Midland to, and through, a number of Permian Basin CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, CO{sub 2} Carbon Capture and Storage (CCUS) projects and outcrop equivalents of the formations where CO{sub 2} is being utilized or will be utilized, in EOR projects in the Permian Basin. Although road logs to and through these projects exist, none of them included CO{sub 2} specific information. Over 1400 miles of road logs were created, or revised specifically to highlight CO{sub 2} EOR projects. After testing a number of

  2. Mathematical framework for fast and rigorous track fit for the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridonov, Alexander

    2008-12-15

    In this note we present a mathematical framework for a rigorous approach to a common track fit for trackers located in the inner region of the ZEUS detector. The approach makes use of the Kalman filter and offers a rigorous treatment of magnetic field inhomogeneity, multiple scattering and energy loss. We describe mathematical details of the implementation of the Kalman filter technique with a reduced amount of computations for a cylindrical drift chamber, barrel and forward silicon strip detectors and a forward straw drift chamber. Options with homogeneous and inhomogeneous field are discussed. The fitting of tracks in one ZEUS event takes about of 20ms on standard PC. (orig.)

  3. Asian Americans in American History: An AsianCrit Perspective on Asian American Inclusion in State U.S. History Curriculum Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other groups of color, Asian Americans and their perspectives have rarely been given attention in curriculum studies. This article seeks to address the gap in the literature. It uses AsianCrit, a branch of critical race theory, as a theoretical lens to analyze and explicate common patterns across various states' scripting of Asian…

  4. Using a Framework of 21st Century Competencies to Examine Changes between China's 2001 and 2011 Mathematics Curriculum Standards for Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Max; Keqiang, Richard Xu

    2014-01-01

    In the Western developed world, the language of 21st century competencies, also referred to as 21st century skills or competences, is a powerful means of drawing attention to links between the secondary school curriculum, post-secondary education, and the social and economic imperatives of the developed economies. This paper will analyze different…

  5. Metaphors We Do Math By: A Comparative Case Study of Public and Catholic School Teachers’ Understanding of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, Jennifer Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The United States has undergone multiple mathematics reforms since the 1980s with each reform setting out to increase national test scores and improve mathematics education in the nation’s schools. The current reform, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), seeks to create mathematically proficient students through a more active and rigorous curriculum. The goal of this yearlong study was to examine the understanding that intermediate and middle school math teachers make of t...

  6. Seeing Is Believing: Evaluating a Point-of-Care Ultrasound Curriculum for 1st-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bret P; Hojsak, Joanne; Dei Rossi, Elizabeth; Karani, Reena; Narula, Jagat

    2017-01-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound has been a novel addition to undergraduate medical education at a few medical schools. The impact is not fully understood, and few rigorous assessments of educational outcomes exist. This study assessed the impact of a point-of-care ultrasound curriculum on image acquisition, interpretation, and student and faculty perceptions of the course. All 142 first-year medical students completed a curriculum on ultrasound physics and instrumentation, cardiac, thoracic, and abdominal imaging. A flipped classroom model of preclass tutorials and tests augmenting live, hands-on scanning sessions was incorporated into the physical examination course. Students and faculty completed surveys on impressions of the curriculum, and all students under-went competency assessments with standardized patients. The curriculum was a mandatory part of the physical examination course and was taught by experienced clinician-sonographers as well as faculty who do not routinely perform sonography in their clinical practice. Students and faculty agreed that the physical examination course was the right time to introduce ultrasound (87% and 80%). Students demonstrated proper use of the ultrasound machine functions (M score = 91.55), and cardiac, thoracic, and abdominal system assessments (M score = 80.35, 79.58, and 71.57, respectively). Students and faculty valued the curriculum, and students demonstrated basic competency in performance and interpretation of ultrasound. Further study is needed to determine how to best incorporate this emerging technology into a robust learning experience for medical students.

  7. Unique Contributors to the Curriculum: From Research to Practice for Speech-Language Pathologists in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rachel K

    2018-04-05

    This lead article of the Clinical Forum focuses on the research that supports why speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are an integral part of the overarching curriculum for all students in schools. Focus on education has shifted to student performance in our global world, specifically in college and career readiness standards. This article reviews recommendations on best practice from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association on SLPs' roles in schools, as well as data on school-based services. Implementation of these practices as it is applicable to school initiatives will be explored. Methods of interventions available in schools, from general education to special education, will be discussed based on national guidelines for a Response to Intervention and Multi-Tiered System of Support. Research regarding teacher knowledge of the linguistic principles of reading instruction will be explored, as well as correlation between teacher knowledge and student performance. The implications for how SLPs as the linguistic experts offer unique roles in curriculum and the evidence available to support this role will be explored. Implications for future research needs will be discussed. The demands of a highly rigorous curriculum allow SLPs a unique opportunity to apply their knowledge in linguistic principles to increase student performance and achievement. With the increased focus on student achievement, growth outcome measures, and value-added incentives, it is critical that SLPs become contributors to the curriculum for all students and that data to support this role are gathered through focused research initiatives.

  8. Long persistence of rigor mortis at constant low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varetto, Lorenzo; Curto, Ombretta

    2005-01-06

    We studied the persistence of rigor mortis by using physical manipulation. We tested the mobility of the knee on 146 corpses kept under refrigeration at Torino's city mortuary at a constant temperature of +4 degrees C. We found a persistence of complete rigor lasting for 10 days in all the cadavers we kept under observation; and in one case, rigor lasted for 16 days. Between the 11th and the 17th days, a progressively increasing number of corpses showed a change from complete into partial rigor (characterized by partial bending of the articulation). After the 17th day, all the remaining corpses showed partial rigor and in the two cadavers that were kept under observation "à outrance" we found the absolute resolution of rigor mortis occurred on the 28th day. Our results prove that it is possible to find a persistence of rigor mortis that is much longer than the expected when environmental conditions resemble average outdoor winter temperatures in temperate zones. Therefore, this datum must be considered when a corpse is found in those environmental conditions so that when estimating the time of death, we are not misled by the long persistence of rigor mortis.

  9. Rigorous solution to Bargmann-Wigner equation for integer spin

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Shi Zhong; Wu Ning; Zheng Zhi Peng

    2002-01-01

    A rigorous method is developed to solve the Bargamann-Wigner equation for arbitrary integer spin in coordinate representation in a step by step way. The Bargmann-Wigner equation is first transformed to a form easier to solve, the new equations are then solved rigorously in coordinate representation, and the wave functions in a closed form are thus derived

  10. Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously

  11. Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

  12. Alignment between South African mathematics assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mdutshekelwa Ndlovu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s performance in international benchmark tests is a major cause for concern amongst educators and policymakers, raising questions about the effectiveness of the curriculum reform efforts of the democratic era. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the degree of alignment between the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics assessment frameworks and the Revised National Curriculum Statements (RNCS assessment standards for Grade 8 Mathematics, later revised to become the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS. Such an investigation could help to partly shed light on why South African learners do not perform well and point out discrepancies that need to be attended to. The methodology of document analysis was adopted for the study, with the RNCS and the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics frameworks forming the principal documents. Porter’s moderately complex index of alignment was adopted for its simplicity. The computed index of 0.751 for the alignment between the RNCS assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment objectives was found to be significantly statistically low, at the alpha level of 0.05, according to Fulmer’s critical values for 20 cells and 90 or 120 standard points. The study suggests that inadequate attention has been paid to the alignment of the South African mathematics curriculum to the successive TIMSS assessment frameworks in terms of the cognitive level descriptions. The study recommends that participation in TIMSS should rigorously and critically inform ongoing curriculum reform efforts.

  13. Integrated Curriculum and Subject-based Curriculum: Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casady, Victoria

    The research conducted for this mixed-method study, qualitative and quantitative, analyzed the results of an academic year-long study to determine whether the use of an integrated fourth grade curriculum would benefit student achievement in the areas of English language arts, social studies, and science more than a subject-based traditional curriculum. The research was conducted based on the international, national, and state test scores, which show a slowing or lack of growth. Through pre- and post-assessments, student questionnaires, and administrative interviews, the researcher analyzed the phenomenological experiences of the students to determine if the integrated curriculum was a beneficial restructuring of the curriculum. The research questions for this study focused on the achievement and attitudes of the students in the study and whether the curriculum they were taught impacted their achievement and attitudes over the course of one school year. The curricula for the study were organized to cover the current standards, where the integrated curriculum focused on connections between subject areas to help students make connections to what they are learning and the world beyond the classroom. The findings of this study indicated that utilizing the integrated curriculum could increase achievement as well as students' attitudes toward specific content areas. The ANOVA analysis for English language arts was not determined to be significant; although, greater growth in the students from the integrated curriculum setting was recorded. The ANOVA for social studies (0.05) and the paired t-tests (0.001) for science both determined significant positive differences. The qualitative analysis led to the discovery that the experiences of the students from the integrated curriculum setting were more positive. The evaluation of the data from this study led the researcher to determine that the integrated curriculum was a worthwhile endeavor to increase achievement and attitudes

  14. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VI. Effect of various causes of death on the evolution of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Bergerioux, C; Brandt-Casadevall, C; Gujer, H R

    1983-07-01

    The evolution of rigor mortis was studied in cases of nitrogen asphyxia, drowning and strangulation, as well as in fatal intoxications due to strychnine, carbon monoxide and curariform drugs, using a modified method of measurement. Our experiments demonstrated that: (1) Strychnine intoxication hastens the onset and passing of rigor mortis. (2) CO intoxication delays the resolution of rigor mortis. (3) The intensity of rigor may vary depending upon the cause of death. (4) If the stage of rigidity is to be used to estimate the time of death, it is necessary: (a) to perform a succession of objective measurements of rigor mortis intensity; and (b) to verify the eventual presence of factors that could play a role in the modification of its development.

  15. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VII. Effect of ante- and post-mortem electrocution on the evolution of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Bergerioux, C

    1988-01-01

    The influence of electrocution on the evolution of rigor mortis was studied on rats. Our experiments showed that: (1) Electrocution hastens the onset of rigor mortis. After an electrocution of 90 s, a complete rigor develops already 1 h post-mortem (p.m.) compared to 5 h p.m. for the controls. (2) Electrocution hastens the passing of rigor mortis. After an electrocution of 90 s, the first significant decrease occurs at 3 h p.m. (8 h p.m. in the controls). (3) These modifications in rigor mortis evolution are less pronounced in the limbs not directly touched by the electric current. (4) In case of post-mortem electrocution, the changes are slightly less pronounced, the resistance is higher and the absorbed energy is lower as compared with the ante-mortem electrocution cases. The results are completed by two practical observations on human electrocution cases.

  16. Welding Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is a handbook for the development of welding trade programs. Based on a survey of Alaskan welding employers, it includes all competencies a student should acquire in such a welding program. The handbook stresses the importance of understanding the principles associated with the various elements of welding.…

  17. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presents Enhancing Standards Based Science Curriculum through NASA Content Relevancy: A Model for Sustainable Teaching-Research Integration Dr. Robert Gabrys, Raquel Marshall, Dr. Evelina Felicite-Maurice, Erin McKinley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. H.; Gabrys, R.

    2016-12-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a systemic educator professional development model for the integration of NASA climate change resources into the K-12 classroom. The desired outcome of this model is to prepare teachers in STEM disciplines to be globally engaged and knowledgeable of current climate change research and its potential for content relevancy alignment to standard-based curriculum. The application and mapping of the model is based on the state education needs assessment, alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and implementation framework developed by the consortium of district superintendents and their science supervisors. In this presentation, we will demonstrate best practices for extending the concept of inquiry-based and project-based learning through the integration of current NASA climate change research into curriculum unit lessons. This model includes a significant teacher development component focused on capacity development for teacher instruction and pedagogy aimed at aligning NASA climate change research to related NGSS student performance expectations and subsequent Crosscutting Concepts, Science and Engineering Practices, and Disciplinary Core Ideas, a need that was presented by the district steering committee as critical for ensuring sustainability and high-impact in the classroom. This model offers a collaborative and inclusive learning community that connects classroom teachers to NASA climate change researchers via an ongoing consultant/mentoring approach. As a result of the first year of implementation of this model, Maryland teachers are implementing NGSS unit lessons that guide students in open-ended research based on current NASA climate change research.

  18. Curriculum Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan: A Required Reform Initiative for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer; Abu-Alruz, Jamal; Alsharqawi, Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the curriculum orientations of pre-service teachers at a university in Jordan. Rigorous translation procedures were utilized to validate an Arabic version of the Curriculum Orientation Inventory (COI) for use in Jordan. The validated COI was administered to a sample of 259 pre-service teachers who…

  19. Is Collaborative, Community-Engaged Scholarship More Rigorous than Traditional Scholarship? On Advocacy, Bias, and Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mark R.; Calderón, José; Kupscznk, Luke Aubry; Squires, Gregory; Su, Celina

    2018-01-01

    Contrary to the charge that advocacy-oriented research cannot meet social science research standards because it is inherently biased, the authors of this article argue that collaborative, community-engaged scholarship (CCES) must meet high standards of rigor if it is to be useful to support equity-oriented, social justice agendas. In fact, they…

  20. Monitoring muscle optical scattering properties during rigor mortis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Ranasinghesagara, J.; Ku, C. W.; Yao, G.

    2007-09-01

    Sarcomere is the fundamental functional unit in skeletal muscle for force generation. In addition, sarcomere structure is also an important factor that affects the eating quality of muscle food, the meat. The sarcomere structure is altered significantly during rigor mortis, which is the critical stage involved in transforming muscle to meat. In this paper, we investigated optical scattering changes during the rigor process in Sternomandibularis muscles. The measured optical scattering parameters were analyzed along with the simultaneously measured passive tension, pH value, and histology analysis. We found that the temporal changes of optical scattering, passive tension, pH value and fiber microstructures were closely correlated during the rigor process. These results suggested that sarcomere structure changes during rigor mortis can be monitored and characterized by optical scattering, which may find practical applications in predicting meat quality.

  1. Recent Development in Rigorous Computational Methods in Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Zin; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Pilarczyk, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    We highlight selected results of recent development in the area of rigorous computations which use interval arithmetic to analyse dynamical systems. We describe general ideas and selected details of different ways of approach and we provide specific sample applications to illustrate the effectiveness of these methods. The emphasis is put on a topological approach, which combined with rigorous calculations provides a broad range of new methods that yield mathematically rel...

  2. Next generation of procedural skills curriculum development: Proficiency-based progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Satava

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The FRS use a new process (full life-cycle curriculum development with proficiency-based progression which can be used in order to develop any quantitative procedural curriculum, through generic templates that have been developed. Such an approach will dramatically decrease the cost, time and effort to develop a new specific curriculum, while producing uniformity in approach, inter-operability among different curricula and consistency in objective assessment. This process is currently online, open source and freely available, to encourage the adoption of a scholarly and rigorous approach to curriculum development which is flexible enough to be adopted and adapted to most technical skills curriculum needs.

  3. A Standardized Needs Assessment Tool to Inform the Curriculum Development Process for Pediatric Resuscitation Simulation-Based Education in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Shilkofski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionUnder five mortality rates (UFMR remain high for children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs in the developing world. Education for practitioners in these environments is a key factor to improve outcomes that will address United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 10 (good health and well being and reduced inequalities. In order to appropriately contextualize a curriculum using simulation, it is necessary to first conduct a needs assessment of the target learner population. The World Health Organization (WHO has published a tool to assess capacity for emergency and surgical care in LMICs that is adaptable to this goal.Materials and methodsThe WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was modified to assess pediatric resuscitation capacity in clinical settings in two LMICs: Uganda and Myanmar. Modifications included assessment of self-identified learning needs, current practices, and perceived epidemiology of disease burden in each clinical setting, in addition to assessment of pediatric resuscitation capacity in regard to infrastructure, procedures, equipment, and supplies. The modified tool was administered to 94 respondents from the two settings who were target learners of a proposed simulation-based curriculum in pediatric and neonatal resuscitation.ResultsInfectious diseases (respiratory illnesses and diarrheal disease were cited as the most common causes of pediatric deaths in both countries. Self-identified learning needs included knowledge and skill development in pediatric airway/breathing topics, as well as general resuscitation topics such as CPR and fluid resuscitation in shock. Equipment and supply availability varied substantially between settings, and critical shortages were identified in each setting. Current practices and procedures were often limited by equipment availability or infrastructural considerations.Discussion and conclusionEpidemiology of disease

  4. Incorporating Dynamical Systems into the Traditional Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natov, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of dynamical systems. Gives examples from dynamical systems and where they fit into the current curriculum. Points out that these examples are accessible to undergraduate freshmen and sophomore students, add continuity to the standard curriculum, and are worth including in classes. (MM)

  5. Tenderness of pre- and post rigor lamb longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesink, Geert; Sujang, Sadi; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2011-08-01

    Lamb longissimus muscle (n=6) sections were cooked at different times post mortem (prerigor, at rigor, 1dayp.m., and 7 days p.m.) using two cooking methods. Using a boiling waterbath, samples were either cooked to a core temperature of 70 °C or boiled for 3h. The latter method was meant to reflect the traditional cooking method employed in countries where preparation of prerigor meat is practiced. The time postmortem at which the meat was prepared had a large effect on the tenderness (shear force) of the meat (PCooking prerigor and at rigor meat to 70 °C resulted in higher shear force values than their post rigor counterparts at 1 and 7 days p.m. (9.4 and 9.6 vs. 7.2 and 3.7 kg, respectively). The differences in tenderness between the treatment groups could be largely explained by a difference in contraction status of the meat after cooking and the effect of ageing on tenderness. Cooking pre and at rigor meat resulted in severe muscle contraction as evidenced by the differences in sarcomere length of the cooked samples. Mean sarcomere lengths in the pre and at rigor samples ranged from 1.05 to 1.20 μm. The mean sarcomere length in the post rigor samples was 1.44 μm. Cooking for 3 h at 100 °C did improve the tenderness of pre and at rigor prepared meat as compared to cooking to 70 °C, but not to the extent that ageing did. It is concluded that additional intervention methods are needed to improve the tenderness of prerigor cooked meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Envisioning Curriculum as Six Simultaneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hanin; Conner, Lindsey; Mayo, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the discourse of complexity thinking to envision curriculum as six partial and coupled facets that exist simultaneously: curriculum as structure, curriculum as process, curriculum as content, curriculum as teaching, curriculum as learning and curriculum as activity. Such a curriculum is emergent and self-organising. It is emergent…

  7. Global curriculum in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, C; Berman, R S; Wyld, L; Cummings, C; Lecoq, C; Audisio, R A

    2016-06-01

    The significant global variations in surgical oncology training paradigms can have a detrimental effect on tackling the rising global cancer burden. While some variations in training are essential to account for the differences in types of cancer and biology, the fundamental principles of providing care to a cancer patient remain the same. The development of a global curriculum in surgical oncology with incorporated essential standards could be very useful in building an adequately trained surgical oncology workforce, which in turn could help in tackling the rising global cancer burden. The leaders of the Society of Surgical Oncology and European Society of Surgical Oncology convened a global curriculum committee to develop a global curriculum in surgical oncology. A global curriculum in surgical oncology was developed to incorporate the required domains considered to be essential in training a surgical oncologist. The curriculum was constructed in a modular fashion to permit flexibility to suit the needs of the different regions of the world. Similarly, recognizing the various sociocultural, financial and cultural influences across the world, the proposed curriculum is aspirational and not mandatory in intent. A global curriculum was developed which may be considered as a foundational scaffolding for training surgical oncologists worldwide. It is envisioned that this initial global curriculum will provide a flexible and modular scaffolding that can be tailored by individual countries or regions to train surgical oncologists in a way that is appropriate for practice in their local environment. Copyright © 2016 Society of Surgical Oncology, European Society of Surgical Oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of the breaking of rigor mortis by myotonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vain, A; Kauppila, R; Vuori, E

    1996-05-31

    Myotonometry was used to detect breaking of rigor mortis. The myotonometer is a new instrument which measures the decaying oscillations of a muscle after a brief mechanical impact. The method gives two numerical parameters for rigor mortis, namely the period and decrement of the oscillations, both of which depend on the time period elapsed after death. In the case of breaking the rigor mortis by muscle lengthening, both the oscillation period and decrement decreased, whereas, shortening the muscle caused the opposite changes. Fourteen h after breaking the stiffness characteristics of the right and left m. biceps brachii, or oscillation periods, were assimilated. However, the values for decrement of the muscle, reflecting the dissipation of mechanical energy, maintained their differences.

  9. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contino, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

  10. Physiological studies of muscle rigor mortis in the fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, S.; Kaneko, K.; Tanaka, K.

    1990-01-01

    A simple system was developed for continuous measurement of muscle contraction during nor mortis. Longitudinal muscle strips dissected from the Peroneus Longus were suspended in a plastic tube containing liquid paraffin. Mechanical activity was transmitted to a strain-gauge transducer which is connected to a potentiometric pen-recorder. At the onset of measurement 1.2g was loaded on the muscle strip. This model was used to study the muscle response to various treatments during nor mortis. All measurements were carried out under the anaerobic condition at 17°C, except otherwise stated. 1. The present system was found to be quite useful for continuous measurement of muscle rigor course. 2. Muscle contraction under the anaerobic condition at 17°C reached a peak about 2 hours after the onset of measurement and thereafter it relaxed at a slow rate. In contrast, the aerobic condition under a high humidity resulted in a strong rigor, about three times stronger than that in the anaerobic condition. 3. Ultrasonic treatment (37, 000-47, 000Hz) at 25°C for 10 minutes resulted in a moderate muscle rigor. 4. Treatment of muscle strip with 2mM EGTA at 30°C for 30 minutes led to a relaxation of the muscle. 5. The muscle from the birds killed during anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium resulted in a slow rate of rigor, whereas the birds killed one day after hypophysectomy led to a quick muscle rigor as seen in intact controls. 6. A slight muscle rigor was observed when muscle strip was placed in a refrigerator at 0°C for 18.5 hours and thereafter temperature was kept at 17°C. (author)

  11. Mi-STAR Unit Challenges serve as a model for integrating earth science and systems thinking in a Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aligned curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, E. E.; Tubman, S.; Matthys, T.; Bluth, G.; Oppliger, D.; Danhoff, B.; Huntoon, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Michigan Science Teaching and Assessment Reform (Mi-STAR) is developing an NGSS-aligned middle school curriculum and associated teacher professional learning program in which science is taught and learned as an integrated body of knowledge that can be applied to address societal issues. With the generous support of the Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow Foundation, Mi-STAR has released several pilot-tested units through the Mi-STAR curriculum portal at mi-star.mtu.edu. Each of these units focuses on an ongoing `Unit Challenge' investigation that integrates STEM content across disciplinary boundaries, stimulates interest, and engages students in using scientific practices to address 21st century challenges. Each Mi-STAR unit is connected to a Unifying NGSS Crosscutting Concept (CCC) that allows students to recognize the concepts that are related to the phenomena or problems under investigation. In the 6th grade, students begin with an exploration of the CCC Systems and System Models. Through repeated applications across units, students refine their understanding of what a system is and how to model a complex Earth system. An example 6th grade unit entitled "Water on the Move: The Water Cycle," provides an example of how Mi-STAR approaches the use of Unifying CCCs and Unit Challenges to enhance middle school students' understanding of the interconnections of Earth system processes and human activities. Throughout the unit, students use a series of hands-on explorations and simulations to explore the hydrologic cycle and how human activity can alter Earth systems. Students develop new knowledge through repeated interactions with the Unit Challenge, which requires development of system models and construction of evidence-based arguments related to flooding problems in a local community. Students have the opportunity to make predictions about how proposed land-use management practices (e.g. development of a skate-park, rain garden, soccer field, etc.) can alter the earth

  12. Aerospace Technology Curriculum Guide. Invest in Success. Vo. Ed. #260.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains standards for an articulated secondary and postsecondary curriculum in aerospace technology. The curriculum standards can be used to ensure that vocational programs meet the needs of local business and industry. The first part of the document contains a task list and student performance standards for the aerospace technology…

  13. The Curriculum and Homogenization of Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Eugene J.

    1970-01-01

    Argues against emphasis on standard curriculum and makes suggestions for providing basis to increase heterogeneity of high level abilities of college students and for allowing highly talented but selectively developed students to gain appropriate training. (IR)

  14. Reconciling the Rigor-Relevance Dilemma in Intellectual Capital Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of research methodology for intellectual capital and other types of management research by focusing on the dilemma of rigour versus relevance. The more traditional explanatory approach to research often leads to rigorous results that are not of much help to solve practical problems. This paper describes an alternative…

  15. Paper 3: Content and Rigor of Algebra Credit Recovery Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kirk; Stachel, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the content, organization and rigor of the f2f and online summer algebra courses that were delivered in summers 2011 and 2012. Examining the content of both types of courses is important because research suggests that algebra courses with certain features may be better than others in promoting success for struggling students.…

  16. A rigorous treatment of uncertainty quantification for Silicon damage metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.

    2016-01-01

    These report summaries the contributions made by Sandia National Laboratories in support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Data Section (NDS) Technical Meeting (TM) on Nuclear Reaction Data and Uncertainties for Radiation Damage. This work focused on a rigorous treatment of the uncertainties affecting the characterization of the displacement damage seen in silicon semiconductors. (author)

  17. Effects of post mortem temperature on rigor tension, shortening and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fully developed rigor mortis in muscle is characterised by maximum loss of extensibility. The course of post mortem changes in ostrich muscle was studied by following isometric tension, shortening and change in pH during the first 24 h post mortem within muscle strips from the muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna at ...

  18. Characterization of rigor mortis of longissimus dorsi and triceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    24 h) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles as well as the shear force (meat tenderness) and colour were evaluated, aiming at characterizing the rigor mortis in the meat during industrial processing. Data statistic treatment demonstrated that carcass temperature and pH decreased gradually during ...

  19. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S

    2012-10-16

    Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.

  20. A rigorous proof for the Landauer-Büttiker formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Jensen, Arne; Moldoveanu, V.

    Recently, Avron et al. shed new light on the question of quantum transport in mesoscopic samples coupled to particle reservoirs by semi-infinite leads. They rigorously treat the case when the sample undergoes an adiabatic evolution thus generating a current through th leads, and prove the so call...

  1. Rigorous simulation: a tool to enhance decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiva, Raquel; Larson, Mel; Baks, Arjan [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The world refining industries continue to be challenged by population growth (increased demand), regional market changes and the pressure of regulatory requirements to operate a 'green' refinery. Environmental regulations are reducing the value and use of heavy fuel oils, and leading to convert more of the heavier products or even heavier crude into lighter products while meeting increasingly stringent transportation fuel specifications. As a result actions are required for establishing a sustainable advantage for future success. Rigorous simulation provides a key advantage improving the time and efficient use of capital investment and maximizing profitability. Sustainably maximizing profit through rigorous modeling is achieved through enhanced performance monitoring and improved Linear Programme (LP) model accuracy. This paper contains examples on these two items. The combination of both increases overall rates of return. As refiners consider optimizing existing assets and expanding projects, the process agreed to achieve these goals is key for a successful profit improvement. The benefit of rigorous kinetic simulation with detailed fractionation allows for optimizing existing asset utilization while focusing the capital investment in the new unit(s), and therefore optimizing the overall strategic plan and return on investment. Individual process unit's monitoring works as a mechanism for validating and optimizing the plant performance. Unit monitoring is important to rectify poor performance and increase profitability. The key to a good LP relies upon the accuracy of the data used to generate the LP sub-model data. The value of rigorous unit monitoring are that the results are heat and mass balanced consistently, and are unique for a refiners unit / refinery. With the improved match of the refinery operation, the rigorous simulation models will allow capturing more accurately the non linearity of those process units and therefore provide correct

  2. The Role of Work-Integrated Learning in Student Preferences of Instructional Methods in an Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2015-01-01

    The role of work-integrated learning in student preferences of instructional methods is largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. This study conducted six experiments to explore student preferences of instructional methods for learning, in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differed in algorithmic rigor, in the context of a…

  3. Engineering the curriculum: Towards an adaptive curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns-Boast, Lynette Frances

    The curriculum is one of the most important artefacts produced by higher education institutions, yet it is one of the least studied. Additionally, little is known about the decision-making of academics when designing and developing their curricula, nor how they make use of them. This research investigates how 22 Australian higher education engineering, software engineering, computer science, and information systems academics conceive of curriculum, what approaches they take when designing, and developing course and program curricula, and what use they make of the curriculum. It also considers the implications of these conceptions and behaviour upon their curricula. Data were collected through a series of one-to-one, in-depth, qualitative interviews as well as small focus group sessions and were analysed following Charmaz’ (2006) approach to grounded theory. In this thesis, I argue that the development of curricula for new higher degree programs and courses and / or the updating and innovating of an existing curriculum is a design problem. I also argue that curriculum is a complex adaptive system. Surrounding the design and development of a curriculum is a process of design that leads to the creation of a designed object - the official-curriculum. The official-curriculum provides the guiding principles for its implementation, which involves the design and development of the curriculum-in-use, its delivery, and evaluation. Data show that while the participants conceive of curriculum as a problem of design involving a design process leading to the development of the official-curriculum, surprisingly, their behaviour does not match their conceptions. Over a very short period, their behaviour leads to a process I have called curriculum drift where the official-curriculum and the curriculum-in-use drift away from each other causing the curriculum to lose its integrity. Curricular integrity is characterised through the attributes of alignment, coherence, and

  4. Curriculum structure: principles and strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R; Kersten, H; Vinkka-Puhakka, H; Alpasan, G; Bearn, D; Cema, I; Delap, E; Dummer, P; Goulet, J P; Gugushe, T; Jeniati, E; Jerolimov, V; Kotsanos, N; Krifka, S; Levy, G; Neway, M; Ogawa, T; Saag, M; Sidlauskas, A; Skaleric, U; Vervoorn, M; White, D

    2008-02-01

    This report provides general guidelines for the structure of a curriculum, followed by specific advice on the principles of learning and teaching, the process of restructuring and change leadership and management. It provides examples of several educational philosophies, including vertical and horizontal integration. It discusses the use of competence, learning outcomes, level of degree and assessment and provides a number of recommendations. It does not seek to be prescriptive of time allocation to disciplines within a curriculum. Although this report has been written primarily for those who will develop an undergraduate curriculum, the information may be sufficiently generic to apply to the recent development in graduate entry ('shortened dental' or 'accelerated') courses and to postgraduate degree planning and higher education certificate or diploma courses for other dental care professionals (auxiliaries). The report may have a European bias as progress is made to converge and enhance educational standards in 29 countries with different educational approaches - a microcosm of global collaboration.

  5. Rigor mortis in an unusual position: Forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak H; Harish, S; Rajesh, M; Kiran, J

    2011-07-01

    We report a case in which the dead body was found with rigor mortis in an unusual position. The dead body was lying on its back with limbs raised, defying gravity. Direction of the salivary stains on the face was also defying the gravity. We opined that the scene of occurrence of crime is unlikely to be the final place where the dead body was found. The clues were revealing a homicidal offence and an attempt to destroy the evidence. The forensic use of 'rigor mortis in an unusual position' is in furthering the investigations, and the scientific confirmation of two facts - the scene of death (occurrence) is different from the scene of disposal of dead body, and time gap between the two places.

  6. Some rigorous results concerning spectral theory for ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, P.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral theory for linear ideal MHD is laid on a firm foundation by defining appropriate function spaces for the operators associated with both the first- and second-order (in time and space) partial differential operators. Thus, it is rigorously established that a self-adjoint extension of F(xi) exists. It is shown that the operator L associated with the first-order formulation satisfies the conditions of the Hille--Yosida theorem. A foundation is laid thereby within which the domains associated with the first- and second-order formulations can be compared. This allows future work in a rigorous setting that will clarify the differences (in the two formulations) between the structure of the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the marginal point of the spectrum ω = 0

  7. Some rigorous results concerning spectral theory for ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, P.

    1985-05-01

    Spectral theory for linear ideal MHD is laid on a firm foundation by defining appropriate function spaces for the operators associated with both the first and second order (in time and space) partial differential operators. Thus, it is rigorously established that a self-adjoint extension of F(xi) exists. It is shown that the operator L associated with the first order formulation satisfies the conditions of the Hille-Yosida theorem. A foundation is laid thereby within which the domains associated with the first and second order formulations can be compared. This allows future work in a rigorous setting that will clarify the differences (in the two formulations) between the structure of the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the marginal point of the spectrum ω = 0

  8. Rigorous results on measuring the quark charge below color threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Rigorous theorems are presented showing that contributions from a color nonsinglet component of the current to matrix elements of a second order electromagnetic transition are suppressed by factors inversely proportional to the energy of the color threshold. Parton models which obtain matrix elements proportional to the color average of the square of the quark charge are shown to neglect terms of the same order of magnitude as terms kept. (author)

  9. A Rigorous Methodology for Analyzing and Designing Plug-Ins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasie, Marieta V.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kiniry, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    . This paper addresses these problems by describing a rigorous methodology for analyzing and designing plug-ins. The methodology is grounded in the Extended Business Object Notation (EBON) and covers informal analysis and design of features, GUI, actions, and scenarios, formal architecture design, including...... behavioral semantics, and validation. The methodology is illustrated via a case study whose focus is an Eclipse environment for the RAISE formal method's tool suite....

  10. Striation Patterns of Ox Muscle in Rigor Mortis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Ronald H.

    1959-01-01

    Ox muscle in rigor mortis offers a selection of myofibrils fixed at varying degrees of contraction from sarcomere lengths of 3.7 to 0.7 µ. A study of this material by phase contrast and electron microscopy has revealed four distinct successive patterns of contraction, including besides the familiar relaxed and contracture patterns, two intermediate types (2.4 to 1.9 µ, 1.8 to 1.5 µ) not previously well described. PMID:14417790

  11. Rigorous Analysis of a Randomised Number Field Sieve

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonathan; Venkatesan, Ramarathnam

    2018-01-01

    Factorisation of integers $n$ is of number theoretic and cryptographic significance. The Number Field Sieve (NFS) introduced circa 1990, is still the state of the art algorithm, but no rigorous proof that it halts or generates relationships is known. We propose and analyse an explicitly randomised variant. For each $n$, we show that these randomised variants of the NFS and Coppersmith's multiple polynomial sieve find congruences of squares in expected times matching the best-known heuristic e...

  12. Reciprocity relations in transmission electron microscopy: A rigorous derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Florian F; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A concise derivation of the principle of reciprocity applied to realistic transmission electron microscopy setups is presented making use of the multislice formalism. The equivalence of images acquired in conventional and scanning mode is thereby rigorously shown. The conditions for the applicability of the found reciprocity relations is discussed. Furthermore the positions of apertures in relation to the corresponding lenses are considered, a subject which scarcely has been addressed in previous publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Critical Analysis of Strategies for Determining Rigor in Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M

    2015-09-01

    Criteria for determining the trustworthiness of qualitative research were introduced by Guba and Lincoln in the 1980s when they replaced terminology for achieving rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability with dependability, credibility, and transferability. Strategies for achieving trustworthiness were also introduced. This landmark contribution to qualitative research remains in use today, with only minor modifications in format. Despite the significance of this contribution over the past four decades, the strategies recommended to achieve trustworthiness have not been critically examined. Recommendations for where, why, and how to use these strategies have not been developed, and how well they achieve their intended goal has not been examined. We do not know, for example, what impact these strategies have on the completed research. In this article, I critique these strategies. I recommend that qualitative researchers return to the terminology of social sciences, using rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability. I then make recommendations for the appropriate use of the strategies recommended to achieve rigor: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, and thick, rich description; inter-rater reliability, negative case analysis; peer review or debriefing; clarifying researcher bias; member checking; external audits; and triangulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. An analysis of curriculum implementation on high schools in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana, Beta Wulan; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to find out how the implementation of the curriculum at three schools in Yogyakarta. The selection of these three schools is based on the use of different curriculum in each school. The analysis was done by distributing questionnaire analysis of eight national education standards (NES). The purpose of this questionnaire is to find out how the curriculum implemented in the schools. In addition, to find out whether or not the implementation was done in accordance with the expectations of the curriculum. The questionnaire distributed in the form of indicators on each NES. These indicators include, Content Standards, Process Standards, Graduates Competency Standards, Teacher and Education Staff Standards, Facility and Infrastructure Standards, Management Standards, Financing Standards and Assessment Standards. Results of the observation indicate that there is a discrepancy between the expectations and the reality of the three schools observed.

  15. [Chicano Counselor Training: Curriculum and Beyond Curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ramon

    The particulars of the evolved curriculum and how the training has evolved around the change-agent concept are stressed in this presentation. The measure of success achieved in attempting to influence the staff and course of studies of the regular guidance department is also emphasized. The curriculum of this counselor training institute has, from…

  16. New rigorous asymptotic theorems for inverse scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomsadze, Sh.Yu.; Lomsadze, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    The rigorous asymptotic theorems both of integral and local types obtained earlier and establishing logarithmic and in some cases even power correlations aetdeen the real and imaginary parts of scattering amplitudes Fsub(+-) are extended to the inverse amplitudes 1/Fsub(+-). One also succeeds in establishing power correlations of a new type between the real and imaginary parts, both for the amplitudes themselves and for the inverse ones. All the obtained assertions are convenient to be tested in high energy experiments when the amplitudes show asymptotic behaviour

  17. EarthLabs Modules: Engaging Students In Extended, Rigorous Investigations Of The Ocean, Climate and Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, J.; Chegwidden, D.; Mote, A. S.; Ledley, T. S.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K.

    2016-02-01

    EarthLabs, envisioned as a national model for high school Earth or Environmental Science lab courses, is adaptable for both undergraduate middle school students. The collection includes ten online modules that combine to feature a global view of our planet as a dynamic, interconnected system, by engaging learners in extended investigations. EarthLabs support state and national guidelines, including the NGSS, for science content. Four modules directly guide students to discover vital aspects of the oceans while five other modules incorporate ocean sciences in order to complete an understanding of Earth's climate system. Students gain a broad perspective on the key role oceans play in fishing industry, droughts, coral reefs, hurricanes, the carbon cycle, as well as life on land and in the seas to drive our changing climate by interacting with scientific research data, manipulating satellite imagery, numerical data, computer visualizations, experiments, and video tutorials. Students explore Earth system processes and build quantitative skills that enable them to objectively evaluate scientific findings for themselves as they move through ordered sequences that guide the learning. As a robust collection, EarthLabs modules engage students in extended, rigorous investigations allowing a deeper understanding of the ocean, climate and weather. This presentation provides an overview of the ten curriculum modules that comprise the EarthLabs collection developed by TERC and found at http://serc.carleton.edu/earthlabs/index.html. Evaluation data on the effectiveness and use in secondary education classrooms will be summarized.

  18. Sociology of Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.

  19. Curriculum Development in Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the context of present curriculum development in geomorphology and the way in which it has developed in recent years. Discusses the content of the geomorphology curriculum in higher education and the consequences of curriculum development together with a consideration of future trends and their implications. (GEA)

  20. Teachers' Sensemaking about Implementation of an Innovative Science Curriculum Across the Settings of Professional Development and Classroom Enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, Xeng

    Designing professional development that effectively supports teachers in learning new and often challenging practices remains a dilemma for teacher educators. Within the context of current reform efforts in science education, such as the Next Generation Science Standards, teacher educators are faced with managing the dilemma of how to support a large number of teachers in learning new practices while also considering factors such as time, cost, and effectiveness. Implementation of educative, reform-aligned curricula is one way to reach many teachers at once. However, one question is whether large-scale curriculum implementation can effectively support teachers in learning and sustaining new teaching practices. To address this dilemma, this study used a comparative, multiple case study design to investigate how secondary science teachers engaged in sensemaking about implementation of an innovative science curriculum across the settings of professional development and classroom enactment. In using the concept of sensemaking from organizational theory, I focused specifically on how teachers' roles in social organizations influenced their decisions to implement the curriculum in particular ways, with differing outcomes for their own learning and students' engagement in three-dimensional learning. My research questions explored: (1) patterns in teachers' occasions of sensemaking, including critical noticing of interactions among themselves, the curriculum, and their students; (2) how teachers' social commitments to different communities influenced their sensemaking; and, (3) how sustained sensemaking over time could facilitate teacher learning of rigorous and responsive science teaching practices. In privileging teachers' experiences in the classroom using the curriculum with their students, I used data generated primarily from teacher interviews with their case study coaches about implementation over the course of one school year. Secondary sources of data included

  1. Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains guidesheets for the ornamental horticulture production occupations. Each guidesheet provides a job-relevant task; performance objective, with task, performance standard, source of standard, and conditions for performance of task; enabling objectives; a list of resources; teaching activities; a criterion-referenced…

  2. Sonoelasticity to monitor mechanical changes during rigor and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A; Culioli, J; Abouelkaram, S

    2007-06-01

    We propose the use of sonoelasticity as a non-destructive method to monitor changes in the resistance of muscle fibres, unaffected by connective tissue. Vibrations were applied at low frequency to induce oscillations in soft tissues and an ultrasound transducer was used to detect the motions. The experiments were carried out on the M. biceps femoris muscles of three beef cattle. In addition to the sonoelasticity measurements, the changes in meat during rigor and ageing were followed by measurements of both the mechanical resistance of myofibres and pH. The variations of mechanical resistance and pH were compared to those of the sonoelastic variables (velocity and attenuation) at two frequencies. The relationships between pH and velocity or attenuation and between the velocity or attenuation and the stress at 20% deformation were highly correlated. We concluded that sonoelasticity is a non-destructive method that can be used to monitor mechanical changes in muscle fibers during rigor-mortis and ageing.

  3. A rigorous test for a new conceptual model for collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, E.M.A.; Mu-Tao, L.

    1979-01-01

    A rigorous theoretical foundation for the previously proposed model is formulated and applied to electron scattering by H 2 in the gas phase. An rigorous treatment of the interaction potential between the incident electron and the Hydrogen molecule is carried out to calculate Differential Cross Sections for 1 KeV electrons, using Glauber's approximation Wang's molecular wave function for the ground electronic state of H 2 . Moreover, it is shown for the first time that, when adequately done, the omission of two center terms does not adversely influence the results of molecular calculations. It is shown that the new model is far superior to the Independent Atom Model (or Independent Particle Model). The accuracy and simplicity of the new model suggest that it may be fruitfully applied to the description of other collision phenomena (e.g., in molecular beam experiments and nuclear physics). A new techniques is presented for calculations involving two center integrals within the frame work of the Glauber's approximation for scattering. (Author) [pt

  4. Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sergi; Neipp, Cristian; Estepa, Luis A.; Ortuño, Manuel; Márquez, Andrés; Francés, Jorge; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW) or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW). The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers.

  5. Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Beléndez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW. The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers.

  6. A methodology for the rigorous verification of plasma simulation codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    The methodology used to assess the reliability of numerical simulation codes constitutes the Verification and Validation (V&V) procedure. V&V is composed by two separate tasks: the verification, which is a mathematical issue targeted to assess that the physical model is correctly solved, and the validation, which determines the consistency of the code results, and therefore of the physical model, with experimental data. In the present talk we focus our attention on the verification, which in turn is composed by the code verification, targeted to assess that a physical model is correctly implemented in a simulation code, and the solution verification, that quantifies the numerical error affecting a simulation. Bridging the gap between plasma physics and other scientific domains, we introduced for the first time in our domain a rigorous methodology for the code verification, based on the method of manufactured solutions, as well as a solution verification based on the Richardson extrapolation. This methodology was applied to GBS, a three-dimensional fluid code based on a finite difference scheme, used to investigate the plasma turbulence in basic plasma physics experiments and in the tokamak scrape-off layer. Overcoming the difficulty of dealing with a numerical method intrinsically affected by statistical noise, we have now generalized the rigorous verification methodology to simulation codes based on the particle-in-cell algorithm, which are employed to solve Vlasov equation in the investigation of a number of plasma physics phenomena.

  7. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis IX. The influence of the breaking (mechanical solution) on the development of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, Thomas; Gilles, André; Brandt-Casadevall, Conception; Mangin, Patrice

    2008-04-07

    Objective measurements were carried out to study the possible re-establishment of rigor mortis on rats after "breaking" (mechanical solution). Our experiments showed that: *Cadaveric rigidity can re-establish after breaking. *A significant rigidity can reappear if the breaking occurs before the process is complete. *Rigidity will be considerably weaker after the breaking. *The time course of the intensity does not change in comparison to the controls: --the re-establishment begins immediately after the breaking; --maximal values are reached at the same time as in the controls; --the course of the resolution is the same as in the controls.

  8. Biomedical text mining for research rigor and integrity: tasks, challenges, directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil

    2017-06-13

    An estimated quarter of a trillion US dollars is invested in the biomedical research enterprise annually. There is growing alarm that a significant portion of this investment is wasted because of problems in reproducibility of research findings and in the rigor and integrity of research conduct and reporting. Recent years have seen a flurry of activities focusing on standardization and guideline development to enhance the reproducibility and rigor of biomedical research. Research activity is primarily communicated via textual artifacts, ranging from grant applications to journal publications. These artifacts can be both the source and the manifestation of practices leading to research waste. For example, an article may describe a poorly designed experiment, or the authors may reach conclusions not supported by the evidence presented. In this article, we pose the question of whether biomedical text mining techniques can assist the stakeholders in the biomedical research enterprise in doing their part toward enhancing research integrity and rigor. In particular, we identify four key areas in which text mining techniques can make a significant contribution: plagiarism/fraud detection, ensuring adherence to reporting guidelines, managing information overload and accurate citation/enhanced bibliometrics. We review the existing methods and tools for specific tasks, if they exist, or discuss relevant research that can provide guidance for future work. With the exponential increase in biomedical research output and the ability of text mining approaches to perform automatic tasks at large scale, we propose that such approaches can support tools that promote responsible research practices, providing significant benefits for the biomedical research enterprise. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Reframing Rigor: A Modern Look at Challenge and Support in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Corbin M.; Dortch, Deniece; Burt, Brian A.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter describes the limitations of the traditional notions of academic rigor in higher education, and brings forth a new form of rigor that has the potential to support student success and equity.

  10. Rigorous force field optimization principles based on statistical distance minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcek, Lukas, E-mail: vlcekl1@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States); Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6173 (United States); Chialvo, Ariel A. [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    We use the concept of statistical distance to define a measure of distinguishability between a pair of statistical mechanical systems, i.e., a model and its target, and show that its minimization leads to general convergence of the model’s static measurable properties to those of the target. We exploit this feature to define a rigorous basis for the development of accurate and robust effective molecular force fields that are inherently compatible with coarse-grained experimental data. The new model optimization principles and their efficient implementation are illustrated through selected examples, whose outcome demonstrates the higher robustness and predictive accuracy of the approach compared to other currently used methods, such as force matching and relative entropy minimization. We also discuss relations between the newly developed principles and established thermodynamic concepts, which include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and the thermodynamic length.

  11. From everyday communicative figurations to rigorous audience news repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Christian; Schrøder, Kim Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an unprecedented explosion of news media platforms and formats, as a succession of digital and social media have joined the ranks of legacy media. We live in a ‘hybrid media system’ (Chadwick, 2013), in which people build their cross-media news...... repertoires from the ensemble of old and new media available. This article presents an innovative mixed-method approach with considerable explanatory power to the exploration of patterns of news media consumption. This approach tailors Q-methodology in the direction of a qualitative study of news consumption......, in which a card sorting exercise serves to translate the participants’ news media preferences into a form that enables the researcher to undertake a rigorous factor-analytical construction of their news consumption repertoires. This interpretive, factor-analytical procedure, which results in the building...

  12. Fast and Rigorous Assignment Algorithm Multiple Preference and Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Çiftçi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of paper is to develop an algorithm that evaluates students then places them depending on their desired choices according to dependant preferences. The developed algorithm is also used to implement software. The success and accuracy of the software as well as the algorithm are tested by applying it to ability test at Beykent University. This ability test is repeated several times in order to fill all available places at Fine Art Faculty departments in every academic year. It has been shown that this algorithm is very fast and rigorous after application of 2008-2009 and 2009-20010 academic years.Key Words: Assignment algorithm, student placement, ability test

  13. Student’s rigorous mathematical thinking based on cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriyani, H.; Khasanah, U.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) of mathematics education students in solving math problems in terms of reflective and impulsive cognitive styles. The research used descriptive qualitative approach. Subjects in this research were 4 students of the reflective and impulsive cognitive style which was each consisting male and female subjects. Data collection techniques used problem-solving test and interview. Analysis of research data used Miles and Huberman model that was reduction of data, presentation of data, and conclusion. The results showed that impulsive male subjects used three levels of the cognitive function required for RMT that were qualitative thinking, quantitative thinking with precision, and relational thinking completely while the other three subjects were only able to use cognitive function at qualitative thinking level of RMT. Therefore the subject of impulsive male has a better RMT ability than the other three research subjects.

  14. Rigorous Quantum Field Theory A Festschrift for Jacques Bros

    CERN Document Server

    Monvel, Anne Boutet; Iagolnitzer, Daniel; Moschella, Ugo

    2007-01-01

    Jacques Bros has greatly advanced our present understanding of rigorous quantum field theory through numerous fundamental contributions. This book arose from an international symposium held in honour of Jacques Bros on the occasion of his 70th birthday, at the Department of Theoretical Physics of the CEA in Saclay, France. The impact of the work of Jacques Bros is evident in several articles in this book. Quantum fields are regarded as genuine mathematical objects, whose various properties and relevant physical interpretations must be studied in a well-defined mathematical framework. The key topics in this volume include analytic structures of Quantum Field Theory (QFT), renormalization group methods, gauge QFT, stability properties and extension of the axiomatic framework, QFT on models of curved spacetimes, QFT on noncommutative Minkowski spacetime. Contributors: D. Bahns, M. Bertola, R. Brunetti, D. Buchholz, A. Connes, F. Corbetta, S. Doplicher, M. Dubois-Violette, M. Dütsch, H. Epstein, C.J. Fewster, K....

  15. Desarrollo constitucional, legal y jurisprudencia del principio de rigor subsidiario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Cifuentes Sandoval

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In colombia the environment state administration is in charge of environmental national system, SINA, SINA is made up of states entities that coexist beneath a mixed organization of centralization and decentralization. SINA decentralization express itself in a administrative and territorial level, and is waited that entities that function under this structure act in a coordinated way in order to reach suggested objectives in the environmental national politicy. To achieve the coordinated environmental administration through entities that define the SINA, the environmental legislation of Colombia has include three basic principles: 1. The principle of “armorial regional” 2. The principle of “gradationnormative” 3. The principle of “rigorsubsidiaries”. These principles belong to the article 63, law 99 of 1933, and even in the case of the two first, it is possible to find equivalents in other norms that integrate the Colombian legal system, it does not happen in that way with the “ rigor subsidiaries” because its elements are uniques of the environmental normativity and do not seem to be similar to those that make part of the principle of “ subsidiaridad” present in the article 288 of the politic constitution. The “ rigor subsidiaries” give to decentralizates entities certain type of special ability to modify the current environmental legislation to defend the local ecological patrimony. It is an administrative ability with a foundation in the decentralization autonomy that allows to take place of the reglamentary denied of the legislative power with the condition that the new normativity be more demanding that the one that belongs to the central level

  16. Rigorous patient-prosthesis matching of Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiromasa; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Takagaki, Masami; Kadowaki, Tasuku; Nakao, Tatsuya; Amano, Atsushi

    2015-03-01

    Severe patient-prosthesis mismatch, defined as effective orifice area index ≤0.65 cm(2) m(-2), has demonstrated poor long-term survival after aortic valve replacement. Reported rates of severe mismatch involving the Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthesis range from 4% to 20% in patients with a small annulus. Between June 2008 and August 2011, 251 patients (mean age 70.5 ± 10.2 years; mean body surface area 1.55 ± 0.19 m(2)) underwent aortic valve replacement with a Perimount Magna bioprosthesis, with or without concomitant procedures. We performed our procedure with rigorous patient-prosthesis matching to implant a valve appropriately sized to each patient, and carried out annular enlargement when a 19-mm valve did not fit. The bioprosthetic performance was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography predischarge and at 1 and 2 years after surgery. Overall hospital mortality was 1.6%. Only 5 (2.0%) patients required annular enlargement. The mean follow-up period was 19.1 ± 10.7 months with a 98.4% completion rate. Predischarge data showed a mean effective orifice area index of 1.21 ± 0.20 cm(2) m(-2). Moderate mismatch, defined as effective orifice area index ≤0.85 cm(2) m(-2), developed in 4 (1.6%) patients. None developed severe mismatch. Data at 1 and 2 years showed only two cases of moderate mismatch; neither was severe. Rigorous patient-prosthesis matching maximized the performance of the Perimount Magna, and no severe mismatch resulted in this Japanese population of aortic valve replacement patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. A Generalized Method for the Comparable and Rigorous Calculation of the Polytropic Efficiencies of Turbocompressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2018-03-01

    The calculation of polytropic efficiencies is a very important task, especially during the development of new compression units, like compressor impellers, stages and stage groups. Such calculations are also crucial for the determination of the performance of a whole compressor. As processors and computational capacities have substantially been improved in the last years, the need for a new, rigorous, robust, accurate and at the same time standardized method merged, regarding the computation of the polytropic efficiencies, especially based on thermodynamics of real gases. The proposed method is based on the rigorous definition of the polytropic efficiency. The input consists of pressure and temperature values at the end points of the compression path (suction and discharge), for a given working fluid. The average relative error for the studied cases was 0.536 %. Thus, this high-accuracy method is proposed for efficiency calculations related with turbocompressors and their compression units, especially when they are operating at high power levels, for example in jet engines and high-power plants.

  18. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  19. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  20. Curriculum Orientations and Educational Philosophies of High School Arabic Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalem, Abeer Saleh

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the curriculum orientations of High school Arabic teacher in Riyadh city and to examine the relationship between curriculum orientation and their educational philosophies. The quantitative method (descriptive study) was adopted in this questionnaire survey-based study. Mean and standard deviation for the overall of…

  1. Emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor in cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hee; Jung, Koo Young

    2012-07-01

    Instantaneous rigor as muscle stiffening occurring in the moment of death (or cardiac arrest) can be confused with rigor mortis. If trismus is caused by instantaneous rigor, orotracheal intubation is impossible and a surgical airway should be secured. Here, we report 2 patients who had emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor. This case report aims to help physicians understand instantaneous rigor and to emphasize the importance of securing a surgical airway quickly on the occurrence of trismus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Columbia Public Health Core Curriculum: Short-Term Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Melissa D; Fried, Linda P; Glover, Jim W; Delva, Marlyn; Wiggin, Maggie; Hooper, Leah; Saxena, Roheeni; de Pinho, Helen; Slomin, Emily; Walker, Julia R; Galea, Sandro

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated a transformed core curriculum for the Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health (New York, New York) master of public health (MPH) degree. The curriculum, launched in 2012, aims to teach public health as it is practiced: in interdisciplinary teams, drawing on expertise from multiple domains to address complex health challenges. We collected evaluation data starting when the first class of students entered the program and ending with their graduation in May 2014. Students reported being very satisfied with and challenged by the rigorous curriculum and felt prepared to integrate concepts across varied domains and disciplines to solve public health problems. This novel interdisciplinary program could serve as a prototype for other schools that wish to reinvigorate MPH training.

  3. Evaluating the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardiana

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum had been in accordance to experiences, (d the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum had been in accordance to other religions, (e the Graduates Competence Standards for the Senior High School students in the 2013 Curriculum had been too high and the learning method of 2013 Curriculum for the Elementary School students had been too high and (f 2013 Curriculum had simple paradigm and it might be attended by the learning participants easily but such paradigm still demanded teachers’ creativity within the learning process implementation.

  4. 英國學科領導人標準的分析:脈絡課程的觀點An Analysis on the Standard for Subject Leaders: The Viewpoints of Curriculum in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    蔡宗河Tsung-Ho Tsai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 本文主要是從較傾向公平、正義的《脈絡課程》觀點來分析較傾向績效、卓越的《學科領導人標準》。雖然本文從分析中對這種標準提出許多批評,然而本文認為教育政策的制定往往是反映當時的社會思潮及價值觀,因此,強調績效及卓越的《學科領導人標準》,對我國近年來逐漸朝向標準化的教育政策有其正面的助益及價值,只要在實施的過程中兼顧以下四點,是可以規避其可能的缺失,並創造出最大的效益。首先,如何在重視標準化的政策中,顧及弱勢學校及學生的學習,以避免造成社會對立,促進社會流動,實現社會公平正義。其次,在實施標準化政策時,更應落實教育的多元發展,並推動教育的全人發展;復次,教師如何從教學的過程中誘發學生學習的興趣,恐怕比短期的學習成效來得有價值;最後,在實施標準的過程中更應重視個別學生的成長及學習進步程度,以創造更公平教育。 This article is mainly from the viewpoints of“Curriculum in Context"that are in favor of fairness and justice to analyze the“Standards for Subject Leaders"(SfSL whose viewpoints relatively advocate achievement and excellence. By way of this analysis, this article proposes a lot of criticism of SfSL, but it also pinpoints that the formulation of the educational policy is often to reflect the social ideological trend and values at that time. The author still gives positive credits to the benefits and values of SfSL imposed on the standardization of our educational policy in recent years. As long as the following four aspects taken into consideration, we can avoid its possible side effects and create its greatest substantial effect. Firstly, we should take into account the weak schools and poor students, while paying more attention to the standardized policy, in order to avoid the antagonism of a

  5. Moral education and values education in curriculum reform In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiaoman

    2006-01-01

    In the new curriculum reform in China,moral education and values education have been defined from the angles of the integrity and conformity of curriculum functions.Accordingly, a new education concept based on complete/integral curriculum functions is established.By discussing the essences of the curriculum,the basis of moral and values education,integrated curriculum setting in instruction structure,the presence of emotional and attitudinal goals in the subject standards,and teaching methods,this text points out that this curriculum reform looks to moral and values education in schools.The reform also emphasizes and will guarantee moral and values education in schools.Finally,the article recommends to elementary and secondary schools the studies on moral education in class conducted by the Research Institute of Moral Education of Nanjing Normal University,one of the Key Bases for Humanities and Social Sciences Research for the Ministry of Education.

  6. Memory sparing, fast scattering formalism for rigorous diffraction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iff, W.; Kämpfe, T.; Jourlin, Y.; Tishchenko, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The basics and algorithmic steps of a novel scattering formalism suited for memory sparing and fast electromagnetic calculations are presented. The formalism, called ‘S-vector algorithm’ (by analogy with the known scattering-matrix algorithm), allows the calculation of the collective scattering spectra of individual layered micro-structured scattering objects. A rigorous method of linear complexity is applied to model the scattering at individual layers; here the generalized source method (GSM) resorting to Fourier harmonics as basis functions is used as one possible method of linear complexity. The concatenation of the individual scattering events can be achieved sequentially or in parallel, both having pros and cons. The present development will largely concentrate on a consecutive approach based on the multiple reflection series. The latter will be reformulated into an implicit formalism which will be associated with an iterative solver, resulting in improved convergence. The examples will first refer to 1D grating diffraction for the sake of simplicity and intelligibility, with a final 2D application example.

  7. Rigorous Results for the Distribution of Money on Connected Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchier, Nicolas; Reed, Stephanie

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with general spatially explicit versions of three stochastic models for the dynamics of money that have been introduced and studied numerically by statistical physicists: the uniform reshuffling model, the immediate exchange model and the model with saving propensity. All three models consist of systems of economical agents that consecutively engage in pairwise monetary transactions. Computer simulations performed in the physics literature suggest that, when the number of agents and the average amount of money per agent are large, the limiting distribution of money as time goes to infinity approaches the exponential distribution for the first model, the gamma distribution with shape parameter two for the second model and a distribution similar but not exactly equal to a gamma distribution whose shape parameter depends on the saving propensity for the third model. The main objective of this paper is to give rigorous proofs of these conjectures and also extend these conjectures to generalizations of the first two models and a variant of the third model that include local rather than global interactions, i.e., instead of choosing the two interacting agents uniformly at random from the system, the agents are located on the vertex set of a general connected graph and can only interact with their neighbors.

  8. Rigorous vector wave propagation for arbitrary flat media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Steven P.; Haffert, Sebastiaan Y.; Keller, Christoph U.

    2017-08-01

    Precise modelling of the (off-axis) point spread function (PSF) to identify geometrical and polarization aberrations is important for many optical systems. In order to characterise the PSF of the system in all Stokes parameters, an end-to-end simulation of the system has to be performed in which Maxwell's equations are rigorously solved. We present the first results of a python code that we are developing to perform multiscale end-to-end wave propagation simulations that include all relevant physics. Currently we can handle plane-parallel near- and far-field vector diffraction effects of propagating waves in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic materials, refraction and reflection of flat parallel surfaces, interference effects in thin films and unpolarized light. We show that the code has a numerical precision on the order of 10-16 for non-absorbing isotropic and anisotropic materials. For absorbing materials the precision is on the order of 10-8. The capabilities of the code are demonstrated by simulating a converging beam reflecting from a flat aluminium mirror at normal incidence.

  9. Dynamics of harmonically-confined systems: Some rigorous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhigang, E-mail: zwu@physics.queensu.ca; Zaremba, Eugene, E-mail: zaremba@sparky.phy.queensu.ca

    2014-03-15

    In this paper we consider the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. We present various general results which are independent of particle statistics, interatomic interactions and dimensionality. Of particular interest is the response of the system to external perturbations which can be either static or dynamic in nature. We prove an extended Harmonic Potential Theorem which is useful in determining the damping of the centre of mass motion when the system is prepared initially in a highly nonequilibrium state. We also study the response of the gas to a dynamic external potential whose position is made to oscillate sinusoidally in a given direction. We show in this case that either the energy absorption rate or the centre of mass dynamics can serve as a probe of the optical conductivity of the system. -- Highlights: •We derive various rigorous results on the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. •We derive an extension of the Harmonic Potential Theorem. •We demonstrate the link between the energy absorption rate in a harmonically-confined system and the optical conductivity.

  10. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  11. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

  12. Rigorous derivation of porous-media phase-field equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Markus; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2017-11-01

    The evolution of interfaces in Complex heterogeneous Multiphase Systems (CheMSs) plays a fundamental role in a wide range of scientific fields such as thermodynamic modelling of phase transitions, materials science, or as a computational tool for interfacial flow studies or material design. Here, we focus on phase-field equations in CheMSs such as porous media. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first rigorous derivation of error estimates for fourth order, upscaled, and nonlinear evolution equations. For CheMs with heterogeneity ɛ, we obtain the convergence rate ɛ 1 / 4 , which governs the error between the solution of the new upscaled formulation and the solution of the microscopic phase-field problem. This error behaviour has recently been validated computationally in. Due to the wide range of application of phase-field equations, we expect this upscaled formulation to allow for new modelling, analytic, and computational perspectives for interfacial transport and phase transformations in CheMSs. This work was supported by EPSRC, UK, through Grant Nos. EP/H034587/1, EP/L027186/1, EP/L025159/1, EP/L020564/1, EP/K008595/1, and EP/P011713/1 and from ERC via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  13. Rigorous time slicing approach to Feynman path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    This book proves that Feynman's original definition of the path integral actually converges to the fundamental solution of the Schrödinger equation at least in the short term if the potential is differentiable sufficiently many times and its derivatives of order equal to or higher than two are bounded. The semi-classical asymptotic formula up to the second term of the fundamental solution is also proved by a method different from that of Birkhoff. A bound of the remainder term is also proved. The Feynman path integral is a method of quantization using the Lagrangian function, whereas Schrödinger's quantization uses the Hamiltonian function. These two methods are believed to be equivalent. But equivalence is not fully proved mathematically, because, compared with Schrödinger's method, there is still much to be done concerning rigorous mathematical treatment of Feynman's method. Feynman himself defined a path integral as the limit of a sequence of integrals over finite-dimensional spaces which is obtained by...

  14. Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Peeters, Marc; Cats, Annemieke; Dahele, Anna; Droste, Jochim Terhaar sive

    2011-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, gastroenterology (GE) was considered a subspecialty of Internal Medicine. Today, GE also incorporates Hepatology. However, Digestive Oncology training is poorly defined in the Hepatogastroenterology (HGE)-curriculum. Therefore, a Digestive Oncology curriculum should be developed and this document might be a starting point for such a curriculum. HGE-specialists are increasingly resisting the paradigm in which they play only a diagnostic and technical role in the management of digestive tumors. We suggest minimum end-points in the standard HGE-curriculum for oncology, and recommend a focus year in the Netherlands for Digestive Oncology in the HGE-curriculum. To produce well-trained digestive oncologists, an advanced Digestive Oncology training program with specific qualifications in Digestive Oncology (2 years) has been developed. The schedule in Belgium includes a period of at least 6 mo to be spent in a medical oncology department. The goal of these programs remains the production of well-trained digestive oncologists. HGE specialists are part of the multidisciplinary oncological teams, and some have been administering chemotherapy in their countries for years. In this article, we provide a road map for the organization of a proper training in Digestive Oncology. We hope that the World Gastroenterology Organisation and other (inter)national societies will support the necessary certifications for this specific training in the HGE-curriculum. PMID:21556128

  15. Rigorous high-precision enclosures of fixed points and their invariant manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Alexander N.

    The well established concept of Taylor Models is introduced, which offer highly accurate C0 enclosures of functional dependencies, combining high-order polynomial approximation of functions and rigorous estimates of the truncation error, performed using verified arithmetic. The focus of this work is on the application of Taylor Models in algorithms for strongly non-linear dynamical systems. A method is proposed to extend the existing implementation of Taylor Models in COSY INFINITY from double precision coefficients to arbitrary precision coefficients. Great care is taken to maintain the highest efficiency possible by adaptively adjusting the precision of higher order coefficients in the polynomial expansion. High precision operations are based on clever combinations of elementary floating point operations yielding exact values for round-off errors. An experimental high precision interval data type is developed and implemented. Algorithms for the verified computation of intrinsic functions based on the High Precision Interval datatype are developed and described in detail. The application of these operations in the implementation of High Precision Taylor Models is discussed. An application of Taylor Model methods to the verification of fixed points is presented by verifying the existence of a period 15 fixed point in a near standard Henon map. Verification is performed using different verified methods such as double precision Taylor Models, High Precision intervals and High Precision Taylor Models. Results and performance of each method are compared. An automated rigorous fixed point finder is implemented, allowing the fully automated search for all fixed points of a function within a given domain. It returns a list of verified enclosures of each fixed point, optionally verifying uniqueness within these enclosures. An application of the fixed point finder to the rigorous analysis of beam transfer maps in accelerator physics is presented. Previous work done by

  16. Making Pono Choices: a collaborative approach to developing a culturally responsive teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections prevention curriculum in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaseri, Holly; Uehara, Denise; Roberts, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    The overall extent of evidence-based culturally responsive health education programs targeting ethnic minority groups in Hawai'i is limited. The few that do exist were adapted from models developed with other majority ethnic groups in mind and may not always be appropriate for Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander youth (Okamoto et al. in J Alcohol Drug Educ 54(1):56-75, 2010; Helm and Baker in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 20(2):131-149, 2011; Po'a-Kekuawela et al. in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 18(3):242-258, 2009). The need for a culturally responsive, evidence-based health curriculum is clear considering the large disparities reported among Hawaiian youth in health, academic achievement, and other identified risk factors. School-based health interventions are an opportunity not only to improve the physical well being of students, but also to increase their ability to learn and succeed in school. The University of Hawai'i at Manoa-Center on Disability Studies (UH-CDS) received a highly competitive grant from the US Office of Adolescent Health to develop a teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention curriculum for Hawai'i middle school youth. The authors will detail a collaborative process that led to a culturally responsive sexual health curriculum for middle school youth designed to meet the rigorous standards of an evidenced-based review and more importantly reduce teen pregnancies and STI transmission.

  17. Electromechanical Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train electromechanical engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of electromechanical engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard…

  18. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  19. Solar Technology Curriculum, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This curriculum guide contains lecture outlines and handouts for training solar technicians in the installation, maintenance, and repair of solar energy hot water and space heating systems. The curriculum consists of four modular units developed to provide a model through which community colleges and area vocational/technical schools can respond…

  20. The Galapagos Jason Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, VA.

    The JASON Curriculum Project materials are designed to prepare teachers and students for an exploration around the Galapagos Islands via satellite transmission of live images and sound. This curriculum package contains five units, 25 lesson plans, and over 50 activities, along with teacher background material, student worksheets and readings, a…

  1. Equasions for Curriculum Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrod, James S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Technology in Curriculum (TIC) program resource guides which will be distributed to California schools in the fall of 1986. These guides match available instructional television programs and computer software to existing California curriculum guides in order to facilitate teachers' classroom use. (JDH)

  2. Stochastic Geometry and Quantum Gravity: Some Rigorous Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zessin, H.

    The aim of these lectures is a short introduction into some recent developments in stochastic geometry which have one of its origins in simplicial gravity theory (see Regge Nuovo Cimento 19: 558-571, 1961). The aim is to define and construct rigorously point processes on spaces of Euclidean simplices in such a way that the configurations of these simplices are simplicial complexes. The main interest then is concentrated on their curvature properties. We illustrate certain basic ideas from a mathematical point of view. An excellent representation of this area can be found in Schneider and Weil (Stochastic and Integral Geometry, Springer, Berlin, 2008. German edition: Stochastische Geometrie, Teubner, 2000). In Ambjørn et al. (Quantum Geometry Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997) you find a beautiful account from the physical point of view. More recent developments in this direction can be found in Ambjørn et al. ("Quantum gravity as sum over spacetimes", Lect. Notes Phys. 807. Springer, Heidelberg, 2010). After an informal axiomatic introduction into the conceptual foundations of Regge's approach the first lecture recalls the concepts and notations used. It presents the fundamental zero-infinity law of stochastic geometry and the construction of cluster processes based on it. The second lecture presents the main mathematical object, i.e. Poisson-Delaunay surfaces possessing an intrinsic random metric structure. The third and fourth lectures discuss their ergodic behaviour and present the two-dimensional Regge model of pure simplicial quantum gravity. We terminate with the formulation of basic open problems. Proofs are given in detail only in a few cases. In general the main ideas are developed. Sufficiently complete references are given.

  3. RIGOROUS GEOREFERENCING OF ALSAT-2A PANCHROMATIC AND MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Boukerch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of the full geometric capabilities of the High-Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI, require the development of an appropriate sensor orientation model. Several authors studied this problem; generally we have two categories of geometric models: physical and empirical models. Based on the analysis of the metadata provided with ALSAT-2A, a rigorous pushbroom camera model can be developed. This model has been successfully applied to many very high resolution imagery systems. The relation between the image and ground coordinates by the time dependant collinearity involving many coordinates systems has been tested. The interior orientation parameters must be integrated in the model, the interior parameters can be estimated from the viewing angles corresponding to the pointing directions of any detector, these values are derived from cubic polynomials provided in the metadata. The developed model integrates all the necessary elements with 33 unknown. All the approximate values of the 33 unknowns parameters may be derived from the informations contained in the metadata files provided with the imagery technical specifications or they are simply fixed to zero, so the condition equation is linearized and solved using SVD in a least square sense in order to correct the initial values using a suitable number of well-distributed GCPs. Using Alsat-2A images over the town of Toulouse in the south west of France, three experiments are done. The first is about 2D accuracy analysis using several sets of parameters. The second is about GCPs number and distribution. The third experiment is about georeferencing multispectral image by applying the model calculated from panchromatic image.

  4. A rigorous derivation of gravitational self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralla, Samuel E; Wald, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    There is general agreement that the MiSaTaQuWa equations should describe the motion of a 'small body' in general relativity, taking into account the leading order self-force effects. However, previous derivations of these equations have made a number of ad hoc assumptions and/or contain a number of unsatisfactory features. For example, all previous derivations have invoked, without proper justification, the step of 'Lorenz gauge relaxation', wherein the linearized Einstein equation is written in the form appropriate to the Lorenz gauge, but the Lorenz gauge condition is then not imposed-thereby making the resulting equations for the metric perturbation inequivalent to the linearized Einstein equations. (Such a 'relaxation' of the linearized Einstein equations is essential in order to avoid the conclusion that 'point particles' move on geodesics.) In this paper, we analyze the issue of 'particle motion' in general relativity in a systematic and rigorous way by considering a one-parameter family of metrics, g ab (λ), corresponding to having a body (or black hole) that is 'scaled down' to zero size and mass in an appropriate manner. We prove that the limiting worldline of such a one-parameter family must be a geodesic of the background metric, g ab (λ = 0). Gravitational self-force-as well as the force due to coupling of the spin of the body to curvature-then arises as a first-order perturbative correction in λ to this worldline. No assumptions are made in our analysis apart from the smoothness and limit properties of the one-parameter family of metrics, g ab (λ). Our approach should provide a framework for systematically calculating higher order corrections to gravitational self-force, including higher multipole effects, although we do not attempt to go beyond first-order calculations here. The status of the MiSaTaQuWa equations is explained

  5. Rigorous covariance propagation of geoid errors to geodetic MDT estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pail, R.; Albertella, A.; Fecher, T.; Savcenko, R.

    2012-04-01

    The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is defined as the difference between the mean sea surface (MSS) derived from satellite altimetry, averaged over several years, and the static geoid. Assuming geostrophic conditions, from the MDT the ocean surface velocities as important component of global ocean circulation can be derived from it. Due to the availability of GOCE gravity field models, for the very first time MDT can now be derived solely from satellite observations (altimetry and gravity) down to spatial length-scales of 100 km and even below. Global gravity field models, parameterized in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients, are complemented by the full variance-covariance matrix (VCM). Therefore, for the geoid component a realistic statistical error estimate is available, while the error description of the altimetric component is still an open issue and is, if at all, attacked empirically. In this study we make the attempt to perform, based on the full gravity VCM, rigorous error propagation to derived geostrophic surface velocities, thus also considering all correlations. For the definition of the static geoid we use the third release of the time-wise GOCE model, as well as the satellite-only combination model GOCO03S. In detail, we will investigate the velocity errors resulting from the geoid component in dependence of the harmonic degree, and the impact of using/no using covariances on the MDT errors and its correlations. When deriving an MDT, it is spectrally filtered to a certain maximum degree, which is usually driven by the signal content of the geoid model, by applying isotropic or non-isotropic filters. Since this filtering is acting also on the geoid component, the consistent integration of this filter process into the covariance propagation shall be performed, and its impact shall be quantified. The study will be performed for MDT estimates in specific test areas of particular oceanographic interest.

  6. Designing a Curriculum for Teacher Educators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunenberg, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY This article describes the experiences of a small group with designing a curriculum for beginning teacher educators in teacher education institutes as well as in schools. Based on the Dutch professional standard for teacher educators, literature study, case studies and discussions with

  7. Designing a Curriculum for Teacher Educators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunenberg, Mieke; Elt, Introduction

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This article describes the experiences of a small group with designing a curriculum for beginning teacher educators in teacher education institutes as well as in schools. Based on the Dutch professional standard for teacher educators, literature study, case studies and discussions with

  8. Didactic Communication and the Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Arsith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesiswhichwe assume is thatthemanagementof thecurriculum is a coherentand unifiedwhole ofprinciples,functions, strategies, criteria designed, integrated andcontextualizedin such way that it would determine the achievement of the aims of quality standards of variousdegrees of generality. Inourapproach,we proposeas basis theconstructivism, a theory of scientificknowledge,which isapplied to learning problems, characterized by the following key ideas: our mindis real;the essenceofthe studyrepresents themental events;knowledge is dynamic activity; learningrepresentsa natural consequence of performance;teaching is a processof negotiated construction ofmeaning;theknowledge processcorerepresent soling problems.What we want to prove is that acompetency-based curriculum isappropriate forachievingthe aims of education.

  9. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. III. Comparative study of the evolution of rigor mortis in different sized muscle groups in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Fryc, O

    1978-01-01

    The use of new methods and an appropriate apparatus has allowed us to make successive measurements of rigor mortis and a study of its evolution in the rat. By a comparative examination on the front and hind limbs, we have determined the following: (1) The muscular mass of the hind limbs is 2.89 times greater than that of the front limbs. (2) In the initial phase rigor mortis is more pronounced in the front limbs. (3) The front and hind limbs reach maximum rigor mortis at the same time and this state is maintained for 2 hours. (4) Resolution of rigor mortis is accelerated in the front limbs during the initial phase, but both front and hind limbs reach complete resolution at the same time.

  10. How Individual Scholars Can Reduce the Rigor-Relevance Gap in Management Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Joachim; Rosenberg, Timo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of avenues management scholars could follow to reduce the existing gap between scientific rigor and practical relevance without relativizing the importance of the first goal dimension. Such changes are necessary because many management studies do not fully exploit the possibilities to increase their practical relevance while maintaining scientific rigor. We argue that this rigor-relevance gap is not only the consequence of the currently prevailing institutional c...

  11. RIGOR MORTIS AND THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM SALTS UPON ITS DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, S J; Auer, J

    1908-01-01

    Calcium salts hasten and magnesium salts retard the development of rigor mortis, that is, when these salts are administered subcutaneously or intravenously. When injected intra-arterially, concentrated solutions of both kinds of salts cause nearly an immediate onset of a strong stiffness of the muscles which is apparently a contraction, brought on by a stimulation caused by these salts and due to osmosis. This contraction, if strong, passes over without a relaxation into a real rigor. This form of rigor may be classed as work-rigor (Arbeitsstarre). In animals, at least in frogs, with intact cords, the early contraction and the following rigor are stronger than in animals with destroyed cord. If M/8 solutions-nearly equimolecular to "physiological" solutions of sodium chloride-are used, even when injected intra-arterially, calcium salts hasten and magnesium salts retard the onset of rigor. The hastening and retardation in this case as well as in the cases of subcutaneous and intravenous injections, are ion effects and essentially due to the cations, calcium and magnesium. In the rigor hastened by calcium the effects of the extensor muscles mostly prevail; in the rigor following magnesium injection, on the other hand, either the flexor muscles prevail or the muscles become stiff in the original position of the animal at death. There seems to be no difference in the degree of stiffness in the final rigor, only the onset and development of the rigor is hastened in the case of the one salt and retarded in the other. Calcium hastens also the development of heat rigor. No positive facts were obtained with regard to the effect of magnesium upon heat vigor. Calcium also hastens and magnesium retards the onset of rigor in the left ventricle of the heart. No definite data were gathered with regard to the effects of these salts upon the right ventricle.

  12. Thematic curriculum approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Jasmina P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thematic curriculum combines disciplines and media. The process is problem-oriented and the scenario most often follows the logic of exploring or storytelling. Those two approaches to teaching are appropriate because they fit into interdisciplinary and creative open-ended problem solving through play, as insisted upon by thematic curriculum. The matrix, where seven types of abilities intersect with five types of problems according to their degree of openness, defines well the outcomes of teaching. However, it did not prove to be suitable for planning the majority of activities in thematic curriculum, for it follows with difficulty the process of exploring or storytelling i.e. it disrupts the subject matter coherence of thematic curriculum. Therefore, it is suggested that matrix should be used for disciplinary curriculum planning but for that of thematic curriculum only in exclusive cases. The matrix should be used primarily as a framework for evaluating the distribution of various types of abilities and problem situations in teaching. The logic of diverse approaches to teaching reflects itself in the manner of planning and organizing the teaching process. Conceptual, visual-graphic, structural and other aids employed during educational process planning should suit the nature of the approach chosen. On the basis of qualitative investigations of educational process, in the present paper considerations are given to various approaches to teaching development of various drafts for the planning of teaching, and recognition of the logic of storytelling and exploring in thematic curriculum.

  13. Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jo Nell

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the importance of parent and community engagement in curriculum development, along with curriculum leadership, engaging stakeholders, and the importance of curriculum. Parent and community member engagement is examined in light of curriculum committee participation as reported by Missouri superintendents. Survey responses…

  14. A rigorous semantics for BPMN 2.0 process diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kossak, Felix; Geist, Verena; Kubovy, Jan; Natschläger, Christine; Ziebermayr, Thomas; Kopetzky, Theodorich; Freudenthaler, Bernhard; Schewe, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    This book provides the most complete formal specification of the semantics of the Business Process Model and Notation 2.0 standard (BPMN) available to date, in a style that is easily understandable for a wide range of readers - not only for experts in formal methods, but e.g. also for developers of modeling tools, software architects, or graduate students specializing in business process management. BPMN - issued by the Object Management Group - is a widely used standard for business process modeling. However, major drawbacks of BPMN include its limited support for organizational modeling, i

  15. Curriculum-based neurosurgery digital library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jean-Philippe; Dang, Thai; Kon, David; Sapo, Monica; Batzdorf, Ulrich; Martin, Neil

    2010-11-01

    Recent work-hour restrictions and the constantly evolving body of knowledge are challenging the current ways of teaching neurosurgery residents. To develop a curriculum-based digital library of multimedia content to face the challenges in neurosurgery education. We used the residency program curriculum developed by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons to structure the library and Microsoft Sharepoint as the user interface. This project led to the creation of a user-friendly and searchable digital library that could be accessed remotely and throughout the hospital, including the operating rooms. The electronic format allows standardization of the content and transformation of the operating room into a classroom. This in turn facilitates the implementation of a curriculum within the training program and improves teaching efficiency. Future work will focus on evaluating the efficacy of the library as a teaching tool for residents.

  16. Clinical nutrition in the hepatogastroenterology curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulder, Chris J J; Wanten, Geert J A; Semrad, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    of Gastroenterology and Hepatology has defined specific expertise areas in Advanced endoscopy, hepatology, digestive oncology and clinical nutrition, training for the latter topic is lacking in the current hepatogastroenterology (HGE) curriculum. Given its relevance for HGE practice, and being at the core...... of gastrointestinal functioning, there is an obvious need for training in nutrition and related issues including the treatment of disease-related malnutrition and obesity and its associated metabolic derangements. This document aims to be a starting point for the integration of nutritional expertise in the HGE...... curriculum, allowing a central role in the management of malnutrition and obesity. We suggest minimum endpoints for nutritional knowledge and expertise in the standard curriculum and recommend a focus period of training in nutrition issues in order to produce well-trained HGE specialists. This article...

  17. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines describe the interrelationships of this and other dental fields, give an overview of the curriculum and its primary educational objectives, and outline the suggested prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, and faculty requirements. (MSE)

  18. Curriculum and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    Paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf held in Philadelphia, June 24-27, 1970. Discussed are concepts of curriculum development, cognitive development, and educational methods with implications for the handicapped. (CB)

  19. Curriculum Trends in Medical Education in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita Panwar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical education began in Mauritius with the establishment of Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (SSR Medical college in 1999 followed by a breakthrough in field of medicine with opening of Anna Medical College and Research Center (AMCRC in 2010 and Padhamshree DY PatilMedical College in 2013.Though it was an appreciable beginning of medical education in Mauritius, medical schools are currently experiencing hardships in delivering right medical exposure to health care professionals.Mauritian medical schools now need to review their current teaching methodology and present curriculum to keep pace with global standards. Integrated curriculum which is now gaining popularity world-wide is to be introduced and strongly implemented in medical schools in Mauritius. This curriculum would breach barriers and improve integration between pre-clinical and clinical sciences thus facilitating long-term retention of knowledge in medical schools and develop a professionally soundapproach towards management of health care. Horizontal curriculum can be replaced by vertical and spiral integration. For this major change, faculty engaged in medical profession are to be acquainted about innovative strategies and emerging trends in medical education. Thus this article aims to highlight the current scenario of medical education in Mauritius and also offer suggestions about possible future strategies to be implemented in medical colleges.Keywords: MEDICAL EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, CHALLENGES

  20. Blueprint for an Undergraduate Primary Care Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Sara B; Demasi, Monica; Farren, Erin; Frankl, Susan; Gottlieb, Barbara; Hoy, Jessica; Johnson, Amanda; Kasper, Jill; Lee, Patrick; McCarthy, Claire; Miller, Kathe; Morris, Juliana; O'Hare, Kitty; Rosales, Rachael; Simmons, Leigh; Smith, Benjamin; Treadway, Katherine; Goodell, Kristen; Ogur, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    In light of the increasing demand for primary care services and the changing scope of health care, it is important to consider how the principles of primary care are taught in medical school. While the majority of schools have increased students' exposure to primary care, they have not developed a standardized primary care curriculum for undergraduate medical education. In 2013, the authors convened a group of educators from primary care internal medicine, pediatrics, family medicine, and medicine-pediatrics, as well as five medical students to create a blueprint for a primary care curriculum that could be integrated into a longitudinal primary care experience spanning undergraduate medical education and delivered to all students regardless of their eventual career choice.The authors organized this blueprint into three domains: care management, specific areas of content expertise, and understanding the role of primary care in the health care system. Within each domain, they described specific curriculum content, including longitudinality, generalism, central responsibility for managing care, therapeutic alliance/communication, approach to acute and chronic care, wellness and prevention, mental and behavioral health, systems improvement, interprofessional training, and population health, as well as competencies that all medical students should attain by graduation.The proposed curriculum incorporates important core features of doctoring, which are often affirmed by all disciplines but owned by none. The authors argue that primary care educators are natural stewards of this curriculum content and can ensure that it complements and strengthens all aspects of undergraduate medical education.

  1. Cumulative prospect theory and mean variance analysis. A rigorous comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hens, Thorsten; Mayer, Janos

    2012-01-01

    We compare asset allocations derived for cumulative prospect theory(CPT) based on two different methods: Maximizing CPT along the mean–variance efficient frontier and maximizing it without that restriction. We find that with normally distributed returns the difference is negligible. However, using standard asset allocation data of pension funds the difference is considerable. Moreover, with derivatives like call options the restriction to the mean-variance efficient frontier results in a siza...

  2. Survey and Research on Continuing Education Curriculum Construction for Primary and Secondary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing education curriculum construction is the key work to complete the teachers’ continuing education system, it is also an important part of the teachers’ specialization. This study aims to master the main problems of the current primary and secondary school teachers’ continuing education curriculum construction and put forward the corresponding improvement countermeasures. Research in Yunnan province of China as a case, through the Questionnaire Method, Interview Method and Factors Analysis Method, this study make an thorough analysis on the prominent questions of the curriculum resources informationization level, curriculum structure, curriculum practicability, curriculum management and curriculum evaluation mechanism of the primary and secondary school teachers continuing education curriculums construction. Study found that the curriculum construction should also increase the intensity of curriculum resources informatization, develop diversified curriculum resources, complete six modules, carry out a standardized and scientific management and diversified curriculum evaluation mechanism. Research data and conclusions both enrich the theory of the con-struction of the teachers continuing education curriculum, and also provide a practical reference for the admin-istrative department of education and teacher training institutions to formulate measures.

  3. Georgia science curriculum alignment and accountability: A blueprint for student success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reining-Gray, Kimberly M.

    Current trends and legislation in education indicate an increased dependency on standardized test results as a measure for learner success. This study analyzed test data in an effort to assess the impact of curriculum alignment on learner success as well as teacher perceptions of the changes in classroom instruction due to curriculum alignment. Qualitative and quantitative design methods were used to determine the impact of science curriculum alignment in grades 9-12. To determine the impact of science curriculum alignment from the Quality Core Curriculum (QCC) to the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) test data and teacher opinion surveys from one Georgia School system were examined. Standardized test scores before and after curriculum alignment were analyzed as well as teacher perception survey data regarding the impact of curriculum change. A quantitative teacher perception survey was administered to science teachers in the school system to identify significant changes in teacher perceptions or teaching strategies following curriculum realignment. Responses to the survey were assigned Likert scale values for analysis purposes. Selected teachers were also interviewed using panel-approved questions to further determine teacher opinions of curriculum realignment and the impact on student success and teaching strategies. Results of this study indicate significant changes related to curriculum alignment. Teachers reported a positive change in teaching strategies and instructional delivery as a result of curriculum alignment and implementation. Student scores also showed improvement, but more research is recommended in this area.

  4. ATP, IMP, and glycogen in cod muscle at onset and during development of rigor mortis depend on the sampling location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Variation in glycogen, ATP, and IMP contents within individual cod muscles were studied in ice stored fish during the progress of rigor mortis. Rigor index was determined before muscle samples for chemical analyzes were taken at 16 different positions on the fish. During development of rigor......, the contents of glycogen and ATP decreased differently in relation to rigor index depending on sampling location. Although fish were considered to be in strong rigor according to the rigor index method, parts of the muscle were not in rigor as high ATP concentrations were found in dorsal and tall muscle....

  5. Trends in Methodological Rigor in Intervention Research Published in School Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…

  6. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (prigor salting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle.

  7. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (psalting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle. PMID:26761884

  8. Rigorous bounds on the free energy of electron-phonon models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel

    1997-01-01

    We present a collection of rigorous upper and lower bounds to the free energy of electron-phonon models with linear electron-phonon interaction. These bounds are used to compare different variational approaches. It is shown rigorously that the ground states corresponding to the sharpest bounds do

  9. The Relationship between Project-Based Learning and Rigor in STEM-Focused High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie; Arshavsky, Nina; Glennie, Elizabeth; Charles, Karen; Rice, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning (PjBL) is an approach often favored in STEM classrooms, yet some studies have shown that teachers struggle to implement it with academic rigor. This paper explores the relationship between PjBL and rigor in the classrooms of ten STEM-oriented high schools. Utilizing three different data sources reflecting three different…

  10. Moving beyond Data Transcription: Rigor as Issue in Representation of Digital Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagood, Margaret Carmody; Skinner, Emily Neil

    2015-01-01

    Rigor in qualitative research has been based upon criteria of credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability. Drawing upon articles published during our editorship of the "Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy," we illustrate how the use of digital data in research study reporting may enhance these areas of rigor,…

  11. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  12. Onset of rigor mortis is earlier in red muscle than in white muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Nakajima, M; Sakurada, K; Hatanaka, K; Ikegaya, H; Matsuda, Y; Iwase, H

    2000-01-01

    Rigor mortis is thought to be related to falling ATP levels in muscles postmortem. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in three rat leg muscles in liquid paraffin kept at 37 degrees C or 25 degrees C--two red muscles, red gastrocnemius (RG) and soleus (SO) and one white muscle, white gastrocnemius (WG). Onset, half and full rigor mortis occurred earlier in RG and SO than in WG both at 37 degrees C and at 25 degrees C even though RG and WG were portions of the same muscle. This suggests that rigor mortis directly reflects the postmortem intramuscular ATP level, which decreases more rapidly in red muscle than in white muscle after death. Rigor mortis was more retarded at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C in each type of muscle.

  13. Semantically-Rigorous Systems Engineering Modeling Using Sysml and OWL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Steven; Rouquette, Nicolas F.

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Modeling Language (SysML) has found wide acceptance as a standard graphical notation for the domain of systems engineering. SysML subsets and extends the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to define conventions for expressing structural, behavioral, and analytical elements, and relationships among them. SysML-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, and have been used for diverse projects in military aerospace, scientific exploration, and civil engineering. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) has found wide acceptance as a standard notation for knowledge representation. OWL-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, as well as auxiliary assets such as reasoners and application programming interface libraries, etc. OWL has been applied to diverse projects in a wide array of fields. While the emphasis in SysML is on notation, SysML inherits (from UML) a semantic foundation that provides for limited reasoning and analysis. UML's partial formalization (FUML), however, does not cover the full semantics of SysML, which is a substantial impediment to developing high confidence in the soundness of any conclusions drawn therefrom. OWL, by contrast, was developed from the beginning on formal logical principles, and consequently provides strong support for verification of consistency and satisfiability, extraction of entailments, conjunctive query answering, etc. This emphasis on formal logic is counterbalanced by the absence of any graphical notation conventions in the OWL standards. Consequently, OWL has had only limited adoption in systems engineering. The complementary strengths and weaknesses of SysML and OWL motivate an interest in combining them in such a way that we can benefit from the attractive graphical notation of SysML and the formal reasoning of OWL. This paper describes an approach to achieving that combination.

  14. High and low rigor temperature effects on sheep meat tenderness and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Peachey, Bridget M; Lowe, Timothy E; Ingram, John R; Cook, Christian J

    2002-02-01

    Immediately after electrical stimulation, the paired m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) of 40 sheep were boned out and wrapped tightly with a polyethylene cling film. One of the paired LT's was chilled in 15°C air to reach a rigor mortis (rigor) temperature of 18°C and the other side was placed in a water bath at 35°C and achieved rigor at this temperature. Wrapping reduced rigor shortening and mimicked meat left on the carcass. After rigor, the meat was aged at 15°C for 0, 8, 26 and 72 h and then frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1×1 cm cross-section. The shear force values of meat for 18 and 35°C rigor were similar at zero ageing, but as ageing progressed, the 18 rigor meat aged faster and became more tender than meat that went into rigor at 35°C (Prigor at each ageing time were significantly different (Prigor were still significantly greater. Thus the toughness of 35°C meat was not a consequence of muscle shortening and appears to be due to both a faster rate of tenderisation and the meat tenderising to a greater extent at the lower temperature. The cook loss at 35°C rigor (30.5%) was greater than that at 18°C rigor (28.4%) (P<0.01) and the colour Hunter L values were higher at 35°C (P<0.01) compared with 18°C, but there were no significant differences in a or b values.

  15. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents: A flexible informatics curriculum linked to Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Walter H; Karcher, Donald S; Harrison, James H; Sinard, John H; Riben, Michael W; Boyer, Philip J; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics have been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: The objective of the study is to develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time. PMID:27563486

  16. Integrating Mindfulness Practices into the Elementary Curriculum to Improve Attention-to-Task Behaviors and Social Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagy-Borofka, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This study examined effects of integrating mindfulness practices into the 5th grade curriculum to improve attention-to-task, including inattention and executive functioning, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and social relations. As academic requirements become more rigorous, students have been expected to demonstrate increased skills in…

  17. From Intended Curriculum to Written Curriculum: Examining the "Voice" of a Mathematics Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.

    2007-01-01

    The author used a discourse analytic framework to examine the "voice" of a middle school mathematics unit. The aim of the analysis was to see whether the authors of the unit achieved the ideological goal (i.e., the intended curriculum) put forth by the NCTM's "Standards" (1991) to shift the locus of authority away from the teacher and the textbook…

  18. Rigorous classification and carbon accounting principles for low and Zero Carbon Cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Scott; Sgouridis, Sgouris

    2011-01-01

    A large number of communities, new developments, and regions aim to lower their carbon footprint and aspire to become 'zero carbon' or 'Carbon Neutral.' Yet there are neither clear definitions for the scope of emissions that such a label would address on an urban scale, nor is there a process for qualifying the carbon reduction claims. This paper addresses the question of how to define a zero carbon, Low Carbon, or Carbon Neutral urban development by proposing hierarchical emissions categories with three levels: Internal Emissions based on the geographical boundary, external emissions directly caused by core municipal activities, and internal or external emissions due to non-core activities. Each level implies a different carbon management strategy (eliminating, balancing, and minimizing, respectively) needed to meet a Net Zero Carbon designation. The trade-offs, implications, and difficulties of implementing carbon debt accounting based upon these definitions are further analyzed. - Highlights: → A gap exists in comprehensive and standardized accounting methods for urban carbon emissions. → We propose a comprehensive and rigorous City Framework for Carbon Accounting (CiFCA). → CiFCA classifies emissions hierarchically with corresponding carbon management strategies. → Adoption of CiFCA allows for meaningful comparisons of claimed performance of eco-cities.

  19. Towards a New Basel Accord with More Rigorous Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru PRUNEA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis made the banking sector more vulnerable to shocks. The system was characterised by weaknesses: too much leverage in the banking; not enough high quality capital to absorb losses and excessive credit growth based on underwriting standards and under pricing of liquidity. This article is about a new accord Basel III and the view of this framework. Basel III will be finalized before November 2010, and will be implemented by the end of 2012. Basel III is going to be implemented in the United States. All G–20 countries should adopt progressively this capital framework. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and national authorities should develop and agree a global framework for promoting a stronger liquidity in financial institutions. The reform program is to raise the resilience of the banking sector through promoting more sustainable growth, both in the near term and over the long therm. The initiatives of Basel Committee will develop a set of reforms based on four steps: public consultation, impact assessment, overall calibration and macroeconomic impact assessment over the transition period.

  20. Healthcare market research examined. Relevant, rigorous and highly regulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Douglas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available [The abstract of this article is not available. Here are the first sentences of the article. The full text is freely available upon registration]Market research is invariably confused with marketing – but, in fact, the two disciplines are very different. Put in its simplest terms, marketing is about promotion whilst market research is about understanding. Accordingly, data collected for market research purposes are used in a completely different way to that gathered for marketing, with research practices heavily regulated to ensure high ethical standards.Let’s begin with a definition of what, exactly, market research is. According to the ICC/ESOMAR International Code 2007 (a definition also adopted by the European Pharmaceutical Market Research Association, it is: «the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals or organisations using the statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the applied social sciences to gain insight or support decision-making. The identity of respondents will not be revealed to the user of the information without explicit consent and no sales approach will be made to them as a direct result of their having provided information».

  1. Optimal full motion video registration with rigorous error propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, John; Hottel, Bryant; Doucette, Peter; Theiss, Henry; Jocher, Glenn

    2014-06-01

    Optimal full motion video (FMV) registration is a crucial need for the Geospatial community. It is required for subsequent and optimal geopositioning with simultaneous and reliable accuracy prediction. An overall approach being developed for such registration is presented that models relevant error sources in terms of the expected magnitude and correlation of sensor errors. The corresponding estimator is selected based on the level of accuracy of the a priori information of the sensor's trajectory and attitude (pointing) information, in order to best deal with non-linearity effects. Estimator choices include near real-time Kalman Filters and batch Weighted Least Squares. Registration solves for corrections to the sensor a priori information for each frame. It also computes and makes available a posteriori accuracy information, i.e., the expected magnitude and correlation of sensor registration errors. Both the registered sensor data and its a posteriori accuracy information are then made available to "down-stream" Multi-Image Geopositioning (MIG) processes. An object of interest is then measured on the registered frames and a multi-image optimal solution, including reliable predicted solution accuracy, is then performed for the object's 3D coordinates. This paper also describes a robust approach to registration when a priori information of sensor attitude is unavailable. It makes use of structure-from-motion principles, but does not use standard Computer Vision techniques, such as estimation of the Essential Matrix which can be very sensitive to noise. The approach used instead is a novel, robust, direct search-based technique.

  2. Rethinking the mathematics curriculum

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyles, Celia; Woodhouse, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    At a time when political interest in mathematics education is at its highest, this book demonstrates that the issues are far from straightforward. A wide range of international contributors address such questions as: What is mathematics, and what is it for? What skills does mathematics education need to provide as technology advances? What are the implications for teacher education? What can we learn from past attempts to change the mathematics curriculum? Rethinking the Mathematics Curriculum offers stimulating discussions, showing much is to be learnt from the differences in culture, national expectations, and political restraints revealed in the book. This accessible book will be of particular interest to policy makers, curriculum developers, educators, researchers and employers as well as the general reader.

  3. Learners, teachers and curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    of virtual e-learning, interviews with teachers and 10 learner participants in a virtual classroom setting, and discourse analysis of curriculum developed for the particular e-learning course The research has taken place in the context of a study of e-learning and virtual teaching of Danish as a Second...... language for adults. The research results indicate that teachers seem to compensate by trying to create virtual communities of learning. Learners, however, experience disembedded relations. Conversely, curriculum development, on tends to ‘exploit’ the conditions of disembedding social relations in e-learning......, locationally distant”. The aim of the paper is to analyse and discuss how different positions in e-learning settings result in different answers to modernity. These settings can be applied to either teacher, learner or curriculum positions. The research was based on a qualitative longitudinal case study...

  4. Curriculum at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This Symposium presents curriculum design and content issues in a Scandinavian business school at its Centenary. The aim is an exploration of an educational institution at the interface of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) within the historical trends of the European Union. We hope...... of interdisciplinarity, use of text production as a tool in support of project and thesis writing, and the use of plurilingual content based teaching in a cooperative learning model for European studies. The history of one curriculum model initiated to educate better citizens, combining interdisciplinary methods...

  5. Paving the road for a European postgraduate training curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Jessica E; Goverde, Angelique J; Teunissen, Pim W; Scheele, Fedde

    2016-08-01

    The 'Project for Achieving Consensus in Training' has been initiated by the European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology to harmonise training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology throughout Europe. In this project called the EBCOG-PACT, a state of the art pan-European training curriculum will be developed. Implementation of a pan-European curriculum will enhance harmonisation of both quality standards of women's healthcare practice and standards of postgraduate training. Secondly, it will assure equal quality of training of gynaecologists, promoting mobility throughout Europe. Thirdly, it will enhance cooperation and exchange of best practices between medical specialists and hospitals within Europe. The project is expecting to deliver (1) a description of the core and electives of the curriculum based on previously defined standards of care, (2) a societally responsive competency framework based on input from societal stakeholders and (3) strategies for education and assessment based on the current literature. Also, the project focuses on implementation and sustainability of the curriculum by delivering (4) a SWOT-analysis for the implementation based on insights into transcultural differences, (5) recommendations for implementation, change management and sustainability based on the SWOT analysis (6) and finally a handbook for other specialties initiating European curriculum development. The development and the implementation of this modern pan-European curriculum in Obstetrics and Gynaecology aims to serve as an example for the harmonisation of postgraduate training in Europe. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Curriculum Mapping with Academic Analytics in Medical and Healthcare Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenda, Martin; Víta, Martin; Vaitsis, Christos; Schwarz, Daniel; Pokorná, Andrea; Zary, Nabil; Dušek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    No universal solution, based on an approved pedagogical approach, exists to parametrically describe, effectively manage, and clearly visualize a higher education institution's curriculum, including tools for unveiling relationships inside curricular datasets. We aim to solve the issue of medical curriculum mapping to improve understanding of the complex structure and content of medical education programs. Our effort is based on the long-term development and implementation of an original web-based platform, which supports an outcomes-based approach to medical and healthcare education and is suitable for repeated updates and adoption to curriculum innovations. We adopted data exploration and visualization approaches in the context of medical curriculum innovations in higher education institutions domain. We have developed a robust platform, covering detailed formal metadata specifications down to the level of learning units, interconnections, and learning outcomes, in accordance with Bloom's taxonomy and direct links to a particular biomedical nomenclature. Furthermore, we used selected modeling techniques and data mining methods to generate academic analytics reports from medical curriculum mapping datasets. We present a solution that allows users to effectively optimize a curriculum structure that is described with appropriate metadata, such as course attributes, learning units and outcomes, a standardized vocabulary nomenclature, and a tree structure of essential terms. We present a case study implementation that includes effective support for curriculum reengineering efforts of academics through a comprehensive overview of the General Medicine study program. Moreover, we introduce deep content analysis of a dataset that was captured with the use of the curriculum mapping platform; this may assist in detecting any potentially problematic areas, and hence it may help to construct a comprehensive overview for the subsequent global in-depth medical curriculum

  7. Differential rigor development in red and white muscle revealed by simultaneous measurement of tension and stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Takemori, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Maki

    2004-02-10

    Based on the molecular mechanism of rigor mortis, we have proposed that stiffness (elastic modulus evaluated with tension response against minute length perturbations) can be a suitable index of post-mortem rigidity in skeletal muscle. To trace the developmental process of rigor mortis, we measured stiffness and tension in both red and white rat skeletal muscle kept in liquid paraffin at 37 and 25 degrees C. White muscle (in which type IIB fibres predominate) developed stiffness and tension significantly more slowly than red muscle, except for soleus red muscle at 25 degrees C, which showed disproportionately slow rigor development. In each of the examined muscles, stiffness and tension developed more slowly at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. In each specimen, tension always reached its maximum level earlier than stiffness, and then decreased more rapidly and markedly than stiffness. These phenomena may account for the sequential progress of rigor mortis in human cadavers.

  8. Studies on the estimation of the postmortem interval. 3. Rigor mortis (author's transl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzutani, T; Ishibashi, H; Takatori, T

    1978-11-01

    The authors have devised a method for classifying rigor mortis into 10 types based on its appearance and strength in various parts of a cadaver. By applying the method to the findings of 436 cadavers which were subjected to medico-legal autopsies in our laboratory during the last 10 years, it has been demonstrated that the classifying method is effective for analyzing the phenomenon of onset, persistence and disappearance of rigor mortis statistically. The investigation of the relationship between each type of rigor mortis and the postmortem interval has demonstrated that rigor mortis may be utilized as a basis for estimating the postmortem interval but the values have greater deviation than those described in current textbooks.

  9. 75 FR 29732 - Career and Technical Education Program-Promoting Rigorous Career and Technical Education Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... rigorous knowledge and skills in English- language arts and mathematics that employers and colleges expect... specialists and to access the student outcome data needed to meet annual evaluation and reporting requirements...

  10. Rigorous derivation from Landau-de Gennes theory to Ericksen-Leslie theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Pingwen; Zhang, Zhifei

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Beris-Edwards system for the liquid crystal, we present a rigorous derivation of Ericksen-Leslie system with general Ericksen stress and Leslie stress by using the Hilbert expansion method.

  11. Increasing ocean sciences in K and 1st grade classrooms through ocean sciences curriculum aligned to A Framework for K-12 Science Education, and implementation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte, S.; Weiss, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean and climate sciences are rarely introduced at the early elementary levels. Reasons for this vary, but include little direct attention at the national and state levels; lack of quality instructional materials; and, lack of teacher content knowledge. Recent recommendations by the National Research Council, "revise the Earth and Space sciences core ideas and grade band endpoints to include more attention to the ocean whenever possible" (NRC, 2012, p. 336) adopted in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), may increase the call for ocean and climate sciences to be addressed. In response to these recommendations' and the recognition that an understanding of some of the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) would be incomplete without an understanding of processes or phenomena unique to the ocean and ocean organisms; the ocean Literacy community have created documents that show the alignment of NGSS with the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts (Ocean Literacy, 2013) as well as the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for Grades K-12 (Ocean Literacy, 2010), providing a solid argument for how and to what degree ocean sciences should be part of the curriculum. However, the percentage of science education curricula focused on the ocean remains very low. This session will describe a new project, that draws on the expertise of curriculum developers, ocean literacy advocates, and researchers to meet the challenges of aligning ocean sciences curriculum to NGSS, and supporting its implementation. The desired outcomes of the proposed project are to provide a rigorous standards aligned curricula that addresses all of the Life Sciences, and some Earth and Space Sciences and Engineering Design Core Ideas for Grades K and 1; and provides teachers with the support they need to understand the content and begin implementation. The process and lessons learned will be shared.

  12. Community as Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim; Chow, Patricia; Schechter, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a project involving teachers, parents, and university researchers in collaborations to support multilingual children's development and use of language. Strategies for fostering an inclusive climate included building on the interests and resources of the local community, involving community members in curriculum development,…

  13. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIALS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. FORTY UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED IN SUCH AREAS AS COGNITIVE STUDIES, VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION, INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, SCIENCE STUDIES, AND…

  14. Classical Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Judith W.

    2009-01-01

    The article identifies some key findings in pedagogical research over recent decades, placing them within a framework of logical curriculum development and current practice in quality assurance and enhancement. Throughout, the ideas and comments are related to the practice of teaching classics in university. (Contains 1 figure and 3 notes.)

  15. The Corporate Law Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofsky, James S.

    1976-01-01

    On the premise that corporate counsel must be an able diagnostician before he can focus on highly specialized and interrelated issues of business law, the author suggests an approach to corporate law curriculum in which the basic course balances the quality and quantity of material designed to create the needed sensitivity. (JT)

  16. School Curriculum in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, Chie

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Japanese education system especially relevant to the school curriculum, which might support Japanese high performance in the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), mainly through Japanese policy documents. The Japanese education systems have been constructed by the local context of society and politics,…

  17. Latin Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Instructional Services.

    North Carolina's Latin curriculum guide describes the overarching concepts for Latin study, particularly at the secondary level, and outlines what students should know and be able to do at the beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels. It is designed to provide directions to school districts as they plan and/or continue to improve their Latin…

  18. Box City Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  19. Fashion Merchandising Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthrop Coll., Rock Hill, SC. School of Home Economics.

    The curriculum guide (developed by the South Carolina Office of Vocational Education, the School of Home Economics of Winthrop College, business leaders, and distributive educators) is designed for the teaching of a one-year distributive education specialty program for 12th grade students interested in pursuing a career in fashion merchandising.…

  20. Graphic Communications. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This guide provides the basic foundation to develop a one-semester course based on the cluster concept, graphic communications. One of a set of six guides for an industrial arts curriculum at the junior high school level, it suggests exploratory experiences designed to (1) develop an awareness and understanding of the drafting and graphic arts…

  1. Curriculum Development Through Delphi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Gary; Jauch, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    The basic Delphi methodology is outlined along with possible goals and objectives in a Delphi study. The results of an actual case study in the use of the Delphi method for higher education curriculum development are reported, and attention is given to the problem of selecting participants for a Delphi exercise. (Author/LBH)

  2. A Cooking Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wynn D., Ed.

    This cooking curriculum, issued by the Washington District Early Childhood Council, details specific ways in which language arts, math, science, and social studies may be taught through cooking specific recipes. Cooking activities and recipes are presented for the fall, winter, and spring months, and guidelines are provided for preparing…

  3. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    A unified science approach is incorporated in this K-6 curriculum mode. The program is organized into six major cycles. These include: (1) science, math, and technology cycle; (2) universe cycle; (3) life cycle; (4) water cycle; (5) plate tectonics cycle; and (6) rock cycle. An overview is provided of each cycle's major concepts. The topic…

  4. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  5. Across the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marilyn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Across-the-curriculum articles focus on four areas. A math activity describes optical illusions and the properties of shapes. A hands-on science activity presents the chemistry of secret messages. A writing lesson helps students capture the essence of character. An art lesson presents a project on medieval castles. (SM)

  6. Curriculum, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Studies? Problematising Theoretical Ambiguities in Doctoral Theses in the Education Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Petro; Simmonds, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical ambiguities in curriculum studies result in conceptual mayhem. Accordingly, they hinder the development of the complicated conversation on curriculum as a verb. This article aims to contribute to reconceptualizing curriculum studies as a dynamic social practice that aspires to thinking and acting with intelligences and sensitivity so…

  7. Changes in the contractile state, fine structure and metabolism of cardiac muscle cells during the development of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwee, M A; Humphrey, S M; Gavin, J B; Armiger, L C

    1981-01-01

    Transmural slices from the left anterior papillary muscle of dog hearts were maintained for 120 min in a moist atmosphere at 37 degrees C. At 15-min intervals tissue samples were taken for estimation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and for electron microscopic examination. At the same time the deformability under standard load of comparable regions of an adjacent slice of tissue was measured. ATP levels fell rapidly during the first 45 to 75 min after excision of the heart. During a subsequent further decline in ATP, the mean deformability of myocardium fell from 30 to 12% indicating the development of rigor mortis. Conversely, G6P levels increased during the first decline in adenosine triphosphate but remained relatively steady thereafter. Whereas many of the myocardial cells fixed after 5 min contracted on contact with glutaraldehyde, all cells examined after 15 to 40 min were relaxed. A progressive increase in the proportion of contracted cells was observed during the rapid increase in myocardial rigidity. During this late contraction the cells showed morphological evidence of irreversible injury. These findings suggest that ischaemic myocytes contract just before actin and myosin become strongly linked to maintain the state of rigor mortis.

  8. Bounding Averages Rigorously Using Semidefinite Programming: Mean Moments of the Lorenz System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluskin, David

    2018-04-01

    We describe methods for proving bounds on infinite-time averages in differential dynamical systems. The methods rely on the construction of nonnegative polynomials with certain properties, similarly to the way nonlinear stability can be proved using Lyapunov functions. Nonnegativity is enforced by requiring the polynomials to be sums of squares, a condition which is then formulated as a semidefinite program (SDP) that can be solved computationally. Although such computations are subject to numerical error, we demonstrate two ways to obtain rigorous results: using interval arithmetic to control the error of an approximate SDP solution, and finding exact analytical solutions to relatively small SDPs. Previous formulations are extended to allow for bounds depending analytically on parametric variables. These methods are illustrated using the Lorenz equations, a system with three state variables ( x, y, z) and three parameters (β ,σ ,r). Bounds are reported for infinite-time averages of all eighteen moments x^ly^mz^n up to quartic degree that are symmetric under (x,y)\\mapsto (-x,-y). These bounds apply to all solutions regardless of stability, including chaotic trajectories, periodic orbits, and equilibrium points. The analytical approach yields two novel bounds that are sharp: the mean of z^3 can be no larger than its value of (r-1)^3 at the nonzero equilibria, and the mean of xy^3 must be nonnegative. The interval arithmetic approach is applied at the standard chaotic parameters to bound eleven average moments that all appear to be maximized on the shortest periodic orbit. Our best upper bound on each such average exceeds its value on the maximizing orbit by less than 1%. Many bounds reported here are much tighter than would be possible without computer assistance.

  9. The Swiss Master in Chiropractic Medicine Curriculum: Preparing Graduates to Work Together With Medicine to Improve Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, B Kim; Peterson, Cynthia K

    2016-12-01

    In 2007, chiropractic became 1 of the 5 medical professions in Switzerland. This required a new chiropractic program that was fully integrated within a Swiss medical school. The purpose of this article was to discuss the Master in Chiropractic Medicine (MChiroMed) program at the University of Zürich, including advantages, opportunities, and challenges. In 2008, the MChiroMed program began with its first student cohort. The MChiroMed program is a 6-year Bologna model 2-cycle (bachelor and master) "spiral curriculum," with the first 4 years being fully integrated within the medical curriculum. A review of the main features of the curriculum revealed the advantages, opportunities, and challenges of this program in comparison with other contemporary chiropractic educational programs. Advantages and opportunities include an integrated curriculum within a university, medical school, and musculoskeletal hospital, with their associated human and physical resources. Many opportunities exist for high-level research collaborations. The rigorous entrance qualifications and small student cohorts result in bright, motivated, and enthusiastic students; appropriate assessments; and timely feedback on academic and clinical subjects. Early patient contact in hospitals and clinical facilities encourages the integration of academic theory and clinical practice. The main challenges faced by this program include difficulty recruiting a sufficient number of students because of the rigorous entrance requirements and curriculum overload resulting from undertaking a full medical curriculum and chiropractic modules. The MChiroMed program is a unique chiropractic curriculum that integrates medical and chiropractic education within a spiral curriculum at a world-class Swiss university medical school. The expectation is that graduates, with their expanded diagnostic and therapeutic knowledge, skills, and experience, will become future experts in primary spine care in Switzerland. It is hoped

  10. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, Sueann

    The New Zealand Curriculum Framework, 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in the school curriculum. This paper investigates the requirements for teaching attitudes, values and ethics in the curriculum statements for Science, Biology and Technology. The question is raised whether the teaching of skills for resolving moral and ethical dilemmas are required by the official education standards in New Zealand, and internationally. The paper reports on a survey done on pre-service teacher trainees of their understanding of these requirements. Implications for courses that might need to be provided in future pre-service teacher education programmes are briefly discussed.

  11. Designing a Mathematics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peng Yee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A decade of PMRI saw the changes in the classroom in some of the primary schools in Indonesia. Based on observation, we can say that though the mathematics syllabus in Indonesia did not change, its curriculum has changed under the movement of PMRI. In this article, we put in writing some of the experience gained through the involvement in designing curricula since 1971. Hopefully, some of the observations made may be of use to the colleagues in Indonesia. The discussion below will cover some deciding factors in designing a curriculum, some practices, and the latest trends. For convenience, we keep the discussion general, and do not refer to a specific syllabus. Also, in many cases, we refer mainly to secondary schools, that is, Grade 7 to Grade 10.

  12. Rigor or Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research: Perspectives, Strategies, Reconceptualization, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypress, Brigitte S

    Issues are still raised even now in the 21st century by the persistent concern with achieving rigor in qualitative research. There is also a continuing debate about the analogous terms reliability and validity in naturalistic inquiries as opposed to quantitative investigations. This article presents the concept of rigor in qualitative research using a phenomenological study as an exemplar to further illustrate the process. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Lincoln and Guba, strategies congruent with qualitative perspective for ensuring validity to establish the credibility of the study are described. A synthesis of the historical development of validity criteria evident in the literature during the years is explored. Recommendations are made for use of the term rigor instead of trustworthiness and the reconceptualization and renewed use of the concept of reliability and validity in qualitative research, that strategies for ensuring rigor must be built into the qualitative research process rather than evaluated only after the inquiry, and that qualitative researchers and students alike must be proactive and take responsibility in ensuring the rigor of a research study. The insights garnered here will move novice researchers and doctoral students to a better conceptual grasp of the complexity of reliability and validity and its ramifications for qualitative inquiry.

  13. Single-case synthesis tools I: Comparing tools to evaluate SCD quality and rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kathleen N; Ledford, Jennifer R; Severini, Katherine E; Pustejovsky, James E; Barton, Erin E; Lloyd, Blair P

    2018-03-03

    Tools for evaluating the quality and rigor of single case research designs (SCD) are often used when conducting SCD syntheses. Preferred components include evaluations of design features related to the internal validity of SCD to obtain quality and/or rigor ratings. Three tools for evaluating the quality and rigor of SCD (Council for Exceptional Children, What Works Clearinghouse, and Single-Case Analysis and Design Framework) were compared to determine if conclusions regarding the effectiveness of antecedent sensory-based interventions for young children changed based on choice of quality evaluation tool. Evaluation of SCD quality differed across tools, suggesting selection of quality evaluation tools impacts evaluation findings. Suggestions for selecting an appropriate quality and rigor assessment tool are provided and across-tool conclusions are drawn regarding the quality and rigor of studies. Finally, authors provide guidance for using quality evaluations in conjunction with outcome analyses when conducting syntheses of interventions evaluated in the context of SCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration Instrument Review Project: a methodology to promote rigorous evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C; Stanick, Cameo F; Martinez, Ruben G; Weiner, Bryan J; Kim, Mimi; Barwick, Melanie; Comtois, Katherine A

    2015-01-08

    science. Despite numerous constructs having greater than 20 available instruments, which implies saturation, preliminary results suggest that few instruments stem from gold standard development procedures. We anticipate identifying few high-quality, psychometrically sound instruments once our evidence-based assessment rating criteria have been applied. The results of this methodology may enhance the rigor of implementation science evaluations by systematically facilitating access to psychometrically validated instruments and identifying where further instrument development is needed.

  15. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.  Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.

  16. An Exploratory Analysis of a Middle School Science Curriculum: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory S.; Hord, Casey

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory study of a middle school curriculum directly aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards was conducted with a focus on how the curriculum addresses the instructional needs of students with learning disabilities. A descriptive analysis of a lesson on speed and velocity was conducted and implications discussed for students with…

  17. The effect of temperature on the mechanical aspects of rigor mortis in a liquid paraffin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Masayoshi; Iwadate, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Sari; Asakura, Kumiko; Ochiai, Eriko; Maebashi, Kyoko

    2013-11-01

    Rigor mortis is an important phenomenon to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic medicine. Rigor mortis is affected by temperature. We measured stiffness of rat muscles using a liquid paraffin model to monitor the mechanical aspects of rigor mortis at five temperatures (37, 25, 10, 5 and 0°C). At 37, 25 and 10°C, the progression of stiffness was slower in cooler conditions. At 5 and 0°C, the muscle stiffness increased immediately after the muscles were soaked in cooled liquid paraffin and then muscles gradually became rigid without going through a relaxed state. This phenomenon suggests that it is important to be careful when estimating the postmortem interval in cold seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality properties of pre- and post-rigor beef muscle after interventions with high frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Anita L; Mawson, Raymond; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2014-11-01

    The delivery of a consistent quality product to the consumer is vitally important for the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for using high frequency ultrasound applied to pre- and post-rigor beef muscle on the metabolism and subsequent quality. High frequency ultrasound (600kHz at 48kPa and 65kPa acoustic pressure) applied to post-rigor beef striploin steaks resulted in no significant effect on the texture (peak force value) of cooked steaks as measured by a Tenderometer. There was no added benefit of ultrasound treatment above that of the normal ageing process after ageing of the steaks for 7days at 4°C. Ultrasound treatment of post-rigor beef steaks resulted in a darkening of fresh steaks but after ageing for 7days at 4°C, the ultrasound-treated steaks were similar in colour to that of the aged, untreated steaks. High frequency ultrasound (2MHz at 48kPa acoustic pressure) applied to pre-rigor beef neck muscle had no effect on the pH, but the calculated exhaustion factor suggested that there was some effect on metabolism and actin-myosin interaction. However, the resultant texture of cooked, ultrasound-treated muscle was lower in tenderness compared to the control sample. After ageing for 3weeks at 0°C, the ultrasound-treated samples had the same peak force value as the control. High frequency ultrasound had no significant effect on the colour parameters of pre-rigor beef neck muscle. This proof-of-concept study showed no effect of ultrasound on quality but did indicate that the application of high frequency ultrasound to pre-rigor beef muscle shows potential for modifying ATP turnover and further investigation is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Involving the stakeholders in the curriculum process: a recipe for success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Johannes J; Fourie, Willem J; Watson, Sheona; Gay, H

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Nursing and Health Studies at the Manukau Institute of Technology (MIT) in Auckland, New Zealand, decided to involve stakeholders from the health care sector in developing a new curriculum. After implementing the new curriculum, the process was evaluated using a content analysis as qualitative research design. Seven individual interviews and one Focus group interview were conducted with the stakeholders to determine their experiences during the process. Ethical permission was sought from the MIT ethical committee. The analyses of the collected data enabled the researchers to identify six main categories. The categories were: "Existing Programme", "The need to change", "The curriculum development process", "The stakeholders", "Personnel", and "Ethnic minorities". From the collected data, it was clear that a new curriculum was necessary to enable the graduates to meet the health care needs of the New Zealand population, especially after the primary health care policy was introduced in New Zealand. It was also clear that the curriculum development process could be a painful process for all concerned, but a strong leadership could cement a feeling of "collegiality" between stakeholders and teaching staff. The importance of considering the rights of ethnic minorities is clearly stated in the Treaty of Waitangi, safeguarding the rights of the Maori People, and therefore applied rigorously in the development process. In this project, the collaborative process was very successful, and the stakeholders actually expressed feelings of "Ownership" of the curriculum.

  20. Electrocardiogram artifact caused by rigors mimicking narrow complex tachycardia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Indrakumar, Jegarajah

    2014-02-04

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. Rigors due to shivering can cause electrocardiogram artifacts mimicking various cardiac rhythm abnormalities. We describe an 80-year-old Sri Lankan man with an abnormal electrocardiogram mimicking narrow complex tachycardia during the immediate post-operative period. Electrocardiogram changes caused by muscle tremor during rigors could mimic a narrow complex tachycardia. Identification of muscle tremor as a cause of electrocardiogram artifact can avoid unnecessary pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention to prevent arrhythmias.

  1. Increased scientific rigor will improve reliability of research and effectiveness of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Sarah N.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Barker, Kristin J.; Forshee, Shannon C.; Keever, Allison; Goerz, James W.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Rigorous science that produces reliable knowledge is critical to wildlife management because it increases accurate understanding of the natural world and informs management decisions effectively. Application of a rigorous scientific method based on hypothesis testing minimizes unreliable knowledge produced by research. To evaluate the prevalence of scientific rigor in wildlife research, we examined 24 issues of the Journal of Wildlife Management from August 2013 through July 2016. We found 43.9% of studies did not state or imply a priori hypotheses, which are necessary to produce reliable knowledge. We posit that this is due, at least in part, to a lack of common understanding of what rigorous science entails, how it produces more reliable knowledge than other forms of interpreting observations, and how research should be designed to maximize inferential strength and usefulness of application. Current primary literature does not provide succinct explanations of the logic behind a rigorous scientific method or readily applicable guidance for employing it, particularly in wildlife biology; we therefore synthesized an overview of the history, philosophy, and logic that define scientific rigor for biological studies. A rigorous scientific method includes 1) generating a research question from theory and prior observations, 2) developing hypotheses (i.e., plausible biological answers to the question), 3) formulating predictions (i.e., facts that must be true if the hypothesis is true), 4) designing and implementing research to collect data potentially consistent with predictions, 5) evaluating whether predictions are consistent with collected data, and 6) drawing inferences based on the evaluation. Explicitly testing a priori hypotheses reduces overall uncertainty by reducing the number of plausible biological explanations to only those that are logically well supported. Such research also draws inferences that are robust to idiosyncratic observations and

  2. Building Curriculum-Based Concerts: Tired of the Same Old Approach to Your Ensemble's Concert and Festival Schedule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joshua A.

    2006-01-01

    Since--and even before--the National Standards for Music Education were published, music educators have tried to balance the expectations associated with the traditional performance curriculum and contemporary models of music education. The Standards-based curriculum challenges directors to consider how student experiences and learning can be…

  3. Software Assurance Curriculum Project Volume 1: Master of Software Assurance Reference Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    developed products. The above definition was derived from these references: [IEEE-CS 2008] ISO /IEC 12207 , IEEE Std 12207 -2008, Systems and Software...Systems [CNSS 2009]. Software quality Capability of a software product to satisfy stated and implied needs when used under specified conditions [ ISO ...Curriculum ISO International Organization for Standardization IT information technology KA knowledge area KU knowledge unit MBA Master of

  4. Barriers to implementing a health policy curriculum in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed R

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Raihan Mohammed, Jamil Shah Foridi, Innocent OgunmwonyiFaculty of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKAs clinical medical students, we read with great interest the perspective by Malik et al.1 Although medical schools excel at educating students on the pathology and treatment of diseases, we agree on the severe deficiency in teaching health policy (HP in the medical curriculum. However, the authors fail to include challenges facing this implementation, which is an important aspect of the analysis. Thus, here we outline 3 key barriers that must be considered when including HP teaching in the medical curricula.First, as the authors mention, the medical curriculum is already saturated and there is insufficient space to add obligatory HP learning in timetables. The UK curriculum is so packed that lecturers resort to teaching facts, which students then rote-learn and commit to memory. This leaves little time for students to develop a deep understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases and subsequent management, and they also fail to develop core lifelong skills, including problem solving and critical thinking.2 It is well acknowledged that the medical course is extremely rigorous, and up to 90% of students have admitted to suffering from stress and up to 75% have complained of burnout.3 With mental health issues among students reaching epidemic levels, adding HP lectures to the timetable would put undue strain on both the medical school curricula and the students.View the original article by Malik et al.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: The development of a curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach to environmental education and curriculum innovation. ... transition from an external and rational strategy of curriculum ... 'scientific' approaches to curriculum development .... 'get the conservation message across' so as to foster.

  6. Evaluation of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation curriculum in a low resource environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mary P; Lyon, Camila B; Janiszewski, David; Aksamit, Deborah; Kateh, Francis; Sampson, John

    2015-11-07

    To evaluate whether a 2-day International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Universal Algorithm-based curriculum taught in a tertiary care hospital in Liberia increases local health care provider knowledge and skill comfort level. A combined basic and advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum was developed for low-resource settings that included lectures and low-fidelity manikin-based simulations. In March 2014, the curriculum was taught to healthcare providers in a tertiary care hospital in Liberia. In a quality assurance review, participants were evaluated for knowledge and comfort levels with resuscitation before and after the workshop. They were also videotaped during simulation sessions and evaluated on standardized performance metrics. Fifty-two hospital staff completed both pre-and post-curriculum surveys. The median score was 45% pre-curriculum and 82% post-curriculum (presuscitation in this low-resource setting.

  7. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VIII. Estimation of time since death by repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T

    1994-10-21

    The development of the intensity of rigor mortis was monitored in nine groups of rats. The measurements were initiated after 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 15, 24, and 48 h post mortem (p.m.) and lasted 5-9 h, which ideally should correspond to the usual procedure after the discovery of a corpse. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. Measurements initiated early after death resulted in curves with a rising portion, a plateau, and a descending slope. Delaying the initial measurement translated into shorter rising portions, and curves initiated 8 h p.m. or later are comprised of a plateau and/or a downward slope only. Three different phases were observed suggesting simple rules that can help estimate the time since death: (1) if an increase in intensity was found, the initial measurements were conducted not later than 5 h p.m.; (2) if only a decrease in intensity was observed, the initial measurements were conducted not earlier than 7 h p.m.; and (3) at 24 h p.m., the resolution is complete, and no further changes in intensity should occur. Our results clearly demonstrate that repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis allow a more accurate estimation of the time since death of the experimental animals than the single measurement method used earlier. A critical review of the literature on the estimation of time since death on the basis of objective measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis is also presented.

  8. Standards, Assessments & Opting Out, Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advance Illinois, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring, Illinois students will take new state assessments that reflect the rigor and relevance of the new Illinois Learning Standards. But some classmates will sit out and join the pushback against standardized testing. Opt-out advocates raise concerns about over-testing, and the resulting toll on students as well as the impact on classroom…

  9. Engendering Curriculum History. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Petra

    2011-01-01

    How can curriculum history be re-envisioned from a feminist, poststructuralist perspective? "Engendering Curriculum History" disrupts dominant notions of history as linear, as inevitable progress, and as embedded in the individual. This conversation requires a history that seeks "rememberance" not representation, "reflexivity" not linearity, and…

  10. Whatever Happened to Curriculum Theory? Critical Realism and Curriculum Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In the face of what has been characterised by some as a "crisis" in curriculum--an apparent decline of some aspects of curriculum studies combined with the emergence of new types of national curricula which downgrade knowledge--some writers have been arguing for the use of realist theory to address these issues. This article offers a…

  11. Curriculum Online Review System: Proposing Curriculum with Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinehart, Marilyn; Barlow, Rhonda; Shafer, Stu; Hassur, Debby

    2009-01-01

    The Curriculum Online Review System (CORS) at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) uses SharePoint as a Web platform for the JCCC Curriculum Proposals Process. The CORS application manages proposals throughout the approval process using collaboration tools and workflows to notify all stakeholders. This innovative new program has changed the way…

  12. An Evaluation of Integrated Curriculum as It Exists in Mathematics and Science SSS as Well as the Subsequent Supportive Presentation of Those Standards in Eighth Grade Mathematics and Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Clara Joanne Schneberger

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to verify points of intersection (POIs) between mathematics and science in the eighth grade Sunshine State Standards (SSS), and to develop a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate these POIs as they were presented in the respective mathematics and science textbooks approved for use in Florida public schools. Shannon and…

  13. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  15. Sustainability Infused Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong established a sustainability policy in 2015, which explicitly states, "an experimentally integrated, environmentally and ethically sustainable system of science education and conservation practices based on the 2012 Jeju Declaration of the World Conservation Congress will be implemented through the school". ISF Academy is a private Chinese bilingual school in Hong Kong serving over 1500 students K-12, following the framework and curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). The strategy behind the implementation of this policy includes: development of a scientific sustainable curriculum that is age appropriate; establish a culture of sustainability within the ISF community and beyond to the wider HK community; install sustainable infrastructure that allows students to learn; and learn first hand sustainable living practices. It is well understood that solutions to the environmental challenges facing Hong Kong and our planet will require multiple disciplines. The current sustainability programs at ISF include: a) a whole school aerobic food waste composting system and organic farming, b) energy consumption monitoring of existing buildings, c) upcoming installation of an air pollution monitoring equipment that will correlate with the AQHI data collected by the Hong Kong government, d) a Renewable Energy Education Center (REEC) that will teach students about RE and also produce solar energy for classroom consumption, and e) student lead environmental group that manages the paper and used cooking oil recycling on campus. The Shuyuan Science and Sustainability faculty work closely with classroom teachers to ensure that the above mentioned projects are incorporated into the curriculum throughout the school. Interdisciplinary units (IDU) of study are being developed that encourage faculty and students to work across subject areas. Projects include Personal Projects, Extended Essays

  16. Rigorous lower bound on the dynamic critical exponent of some multilevel Swendsen-Wang algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Sokal, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    We prove the rigorous lower bound z exp ≥α/ν for the dynamic critical exponent of a broad class of multilevel (or ''multigrid'') variants of the Swendsen-Wang algorithm. This proves that such algorithms do suffer from critical slowing down. We conjecture that such algorithms in fact lie in the same dynamic universality class as the stanard Swendsen-Wang algorithm

  17. Rigorous approximation of stationary measures and convergence to equilibrium for iterated function systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatolo, Stefano; Monge, Maurizio; Nisoli, Isaia

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of the rigorous computation of the stationary measure and of the rate of convergence to equilibrium of an iterated function system described by a stochastic mixture of two or more dynamical systems that are either all uniformly expanding on the interval, either all contracting. In the expanding case, the associated transfer operators satisfy a Lasota–Yorke inequality, we show how to compute a rigorous approximations of the stationary measure in the L "1 norm and an estimate for the rate of convergence. The rigorous computation requires a computer-aided proof of the contraction of the transfer operators for the maps, and we show that this property propagates to the transfer operators of the IFS. In the contracting case we perform a rigorous approximation of the stationary measure in the Wasserstein–Kantorovich distance and rate of convergence, using the same functional analytic approach. We show that a finite computation can produce a realistic computation of all contraction rates for the whole parameter space. We conclude with a description of the implementation and numerical experiments. (paper)

  18. Double phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain during rigor mortis of bovine Longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Susumu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Shibata, Masahiro; Chikuni, Koichi

    2007-05-16

    To investigate changes in myosin light chains (MyLCs) during postmortem aging of the bovine longissimus muscle, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results of fluorescent differential gel electrophoresis showed that two spots of the myosin regulatory light chain (MyLC2) at pI values of 4.6 and 4.7 shifted toward those at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6, respectively, by 24 h postmortem when rigor mortis was completed. Meanwhile, the MyLC1 and MyLC3 spots did not change during the 14 days postmortem. Phosphoprotein-specific staining of the gels demonstrated that the MyLC2 proteins at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6 were phosphorylated. Furthermore, possible N-terminal region peptides containing one and two phosphoserine residues were detected in each mass spectrum of the MyLC2 spots at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6, respectively. These results demonstrated that MyLC2 became doubly phosphorylated during rigor formation of the bovine longissimus, suggesting involvement of the MyLC2 phosphorylation in the progress of beef rigor mortis. Bovine; myosin regulatory light chain (RLC, MyLC2); phosphorylation; rigor mortis; skeletal muscle.

  19. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: botelho.luiz@superig.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R{sup {infinity}}, we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  20. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R ∞ , we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  1. Beyond the RCT: Integrating Rigor and Relevance to Evaluate the Outcomes of Domestic Violence Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Epstein, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2018-01-01

    Programs for domestic violence (DV) victims and their families have grown exponentially over the last four decades. The evidence demonstrating the extent of their effectiveness, however, often has been criticized as stemming from studies lacking scientific rigor. A core reason for this critique is the widespread belief that credible evidence can…

  2. A plea for rigorous conceptual analysis as central method in transnational law design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, R.; van der Kaaij, H.

    2013-01-01

    Although shared problems are generally easily identified in transnational law design, it is considerably more difficult to design frameworks that transcend the peculiarities of local law in a univocal fashion. The following exposition is a plea for giving more prominence to rigorous conceptual

  3. College Readiness in California: A Look at Rigorous High School Course-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Niu

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the educational and economic benefits of a college degree, education policymakers at the federal, state, and local levels have made college preparation a priority. There are many ways to measure college readiness, but one key component is rigorous high school coursework. California has not yet adopted a statewide college readiness…

  4. Evaluation of physical dimension changes as nondestructive measurements for monitoring rigor mortis development in broiler muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavitt, L C; Sams, A R

    2003-07-01

    Studies were conducted to develop a non-destructive method for monitoring the rate of rigor mortis development in poultry and to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical stimulation (ES). In the first study, 36 male broilers in each of two trials were processed at 7 wk of age. After being bled, half of the birds received electrical stimulation (400 to 450 V, 400 to 450 mA, for seven pulses of 2 s on and 1 s off), and the other half were designated as controls. At 0.25 and 1.5 h postmortem (PM), carcasses were evaluated for the angles of the shoulder, elbow, and wing tip and the distance between the elbows. Breast fillets were harvested at 1.5 h PM (after chilling) from all carcasses. Fillet samples were excised and frozen for later measurement of pH and R-value, and the remainder of each fillet was held on ice until 24 h postmortem. Shear value and pH means were significantly lower, but R-value means were higher (P rigor mortis by ES. The physical dimensions of the shoulder and elbow changed (P rigor mortis development and with ES. These results indicate that physical measurements of the wings maybe useful as a nondestructive indicator of rigor development and for monitoring the effectiveness of ES. In the second study, 60 male broilers in each of two trials were processed at 7 wk of age. At 0.25, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 h PM, carcasses were evaluated for the distance between the elbows. At each time point, breast fillets were harvested from each carcass. Fillet samples were excised and frozen for later measurement of pH and sacromere length, whereas the remainder of each fillet was held on ice until 24 h PM. Shear value and pH means (P rigor mortis development. Elbow distance decreased (P rigor development and was correlated (P rigor mortis development in broiler carcasses.

  5. Advanced Texas Studies: Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.

    The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating curriculum concepts in Texas studies to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and audio-visual and resource materials. Career information is included on 24 related occupations. Space is provided for teachers' notes which…

  6. Rethinking the Tertiary Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Reid, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics curriculum at the tertiary level is located within a range of social and cultural theories, and is often constructed by academics seeking to promulgate a particular view of mathematics. We argue that such a curriculum should incorporate a real acknowledgement of the different ways in which students understand the nature of mathematics…

  7. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. Guidelines for Curriculum Development. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, K.; And Others

    The curriculum development process explained in this booklet was first implemented at College of the Redwoods in May 1986 and then revised in June 1989. First, information on the college's Curriculum Committee is provided, indicating that the committee was formed to plan credit/non-credit courses; evaluate and approve additions, modifications, or…

  9. Models for Instruction and Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth L.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes three models of course-specific curricula and a content-curriculum model for undergraduate public-relations education, and proposes core and elective areas for a master's of public-relations curriculum. Agrees that public-relations curricula should have a broad liberal arts and science basis, and recommended more attention to ethics,…

  10. Curriculum theory in physical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Ann E.

    1989-03-01

    Primary current concerns of curriculum theorists in sport and physical education relate to clarification of value orientations underlying curricular decision-making, selection and statement of curriculum goals, identification and organization of programme content, and the process of curriculum change. Disciplinary mastery is the most traditional value orientation and that which is most frequently found in practice. Curriculum theorists have identified four other value orientations for study: social reconstruction, self-actualization, learning process, and ecological validity. Health-related fitness and the development of motor skills have long been the primary goals of physical education. In recent years, however, curriculum specialists have begun to assign higher priorities to goals of personal integration and challenge, of social development and multicultural understanding. There is general agreement that human movement activities constitute the subject-matter of the sport and physical education curriculum. Differences exist, however, as to how learning activities should be selected for particular programmes. The current trend in seeking better understanding of content is toward studying the operational curriculum with particular attention to the historical and social contexts. An important contemporary focus is the need to translate short-term results into lifestyle changes. The curriculum in sports and physical education should be viewed as a multitude of possibilities.

  11. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  12. Discrete Mathematics and Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Margaret J.

    1996-01-01

    Defines discrete mathematics as the mathematics necessary to effect reasoned decision making in finite situations and explains how its use supports the current view of mathematics education. Discrete mathematics can be used by curriculum developers to improve the curriculum for students of all ages and abilities. (SLD)

  13. Curriculum Change Management and Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Aishah

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which Saudi teachers have responded or are responding to the challenges posed by a new curriculum. It also deals with issues relating to workload demands which affect teachers' performance when they apply a new curriculum in a Saudi Arabian secondary school. In addition, problems such as scheduling and sharing space…

  14. The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne

    This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…

  15. 77 FR 53224 - Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... develop and test the standard. CMECS has been applied in projects in a variety of geographies. A rigorous... components allows users to apply CMECS to the scale and specificity that best suits their needs. Modifiers...

  16. The teacher and the curriculum;

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priestley, M.; Biesta, G.; Philippou, Stavroula

    2015-01-01

    A key debate in the curriculum field has centred on the extent to which teachers should or could achieve agency over the curriculum they enact. Risks to teacher agency have come from top-down control of curricula, either through input regulation (prescription of content, methods and/or teaching m...... with a discussion of why it is important to understand and take into account teacher agency, when formulating and developing curriculum policy.......A key debate in the curriculum field has centred on the extent to which teachers should or could achieve agency over the curriculum they enact. Risks to teacher agency have come from top-down control of curricula, either through input regulation (prescription of content, methods and/or teaching...

  17. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hunt

    Full Text Available Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs, in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries.We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques.Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process.Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be

  18. Eating the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K M

    1997-03-01

    The alimentary metaphor--learning as ingestion--is well established in medical education: students are spoonfed, forcefed; they cram, digest, and metabolize information; and they regurgitate it on tests. In the author's experience, these metaphors are inextricably bound with the attitudes and information they describe, organize, and sometimes generate in medical education. Alimentary imagery shapes discussions of the curriculum, and its perversities characterize and help perpetuate much that needs changing in North American medical education. Medical school teachers speak of their life's work as feeding students, not as chiefs but as the anxious caretakers of problem eaters, and the images used most often to describe the teacher-learner relationship suggest an underlying infantilization of medical students. Alimentary metaphors are not in themselves evil. A closer look at medicine's uses of the metaphor of learning as eating suggests a healthier educational philosophy. Despite the "full plate" that students are served, they are metaphorically starving. Fundamental curriculum reform should help them learn to be healthy eaters-using lessons from parents, pediatricians, and child psychologists about how to do this, which are discussed in detail. The difficult-to-achieve but imperative goal of medical education should be to put students in charge of their own "eating" and thereby produce intellectually curious, self-motivated, active, and "well-nourished" physicians who know how to feed themselves in the right amounts and at reasonable levels, maintain a healthy skepticism about the information they consume, and periodically check that information for freshness.

  19. Nucleonics across the curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrano, Rich

    2005-01-01

    Many within the ''nuclear'' community are interested in attracting young people to careers in nuclear related fields while they are at the age when they are considering career choices. High school is a good to introduce students to ideas that may lead them to investigate careers in nuclear science. However, they may not even be exposed to those ideas for various reasons. For example, many teachers may not see the connection between nuclear issues and other areas of instruction. In addition, most teachers already have a full curriculum, and adding another topic is unlikely. As a result many students will not see some of the practical applications of nuclear science in other fields of study unless they take a class where nuclear science is a specified topic of study. A good alternative is to incorporate nuclear examples across the curriculum to illustrate concepts already included in other classes. This would be a simple step that teachers may find interesting and would expose a variety of students to nuclear issues. (author)

  20. Developing A Food Allergy Curriculum for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Christie, Lynn; Keaveny, Maureen; Noone, Sally; Watkins, Debra; Carlisle, Suzanna K; Jones, Stacie M

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is potentially severe and requires intensive education to master allergen avoidance and emergency care. There is evidence suggesting the need for a comprehensive curriculum for food allergic families. This paper describes the results of focus groups conducted to guide the development of a curriculum for parents of food allergic children. The focus groups were conducted using standard methodology with experienced parents of food allergic children. Participants were parents (n=36) with experience managing FA recruited from allergy clinics at two academic centers. Topics identified by parents as key for successful management included as expected: 1) early signs/symptoms, 2) “cross-contamination”, 3) label-reading, 4) self-injectable epinephrine; and 5) becoming a teacher and advocate. Participants also recommended developing a “one pageroad map” to the information, and to provide the information early and be timed according to developmental stages/needs. Suggested first points for curriculum dissemination were emergency rooms, obstetrician and pediatrician offices. Participants also recommended targeting pediatricians, emergency physicians, school personnel, and the community-at-large in educational efforts. Parents often sought FA information from non-medical sources such as the Internet and support groups. These resources were also accessed to find ways to cope with stress. Paradoxically, difficulties gaining access to resources and uncertainty regarding reliability of the information added to the stress experience. Based on reports from experienced parents of food allergic children, newly diagnosed parents could benefit from a comprehensive FA management curriculum. Improving access to clear and concise educational materials would likely reduce stress/anxiety and improve quality of life. PMID:21332804

  1. Comparative Economics Systems in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovzik, Alexander; Johnson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors report on the status of comparative economics systems in the U.S. undergraduate economics curriculum. The treatment of comparative economics systems topics in introductory courses is examined through a survey of standard textbooks. To evaluate comparative economics systems at the advanced undergraduate level, they rely…

  2. The Dutch Are Missing in the American Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claunch, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch are missing in any U.S. history textbook, in the content standards, and in the nationally endorsed curriculum. Outside of New York State history classes, there is almost no mention of the Dutch influence in early 17th-century America. Fleeting references to the Netherlands as a staging area for the Pilgrims' famous "Mayflower"…

  3. Perceived Requirements of MIS Curriculum Implementation in Bilingual Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeil, Magdy M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses additional requirements associated with implementing a standard curriculum of Management Information Systems (MIS) in bilingual developing countries where both students and workplace users speak English as a second language. In such countries, MIS graduates are required to develop bilingual computer applications and to…

  4. Incorporating Sustainability Issues into the Financial Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Daniel L.; Burke, Megan M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the views that society holds of capital allocation suggest that sustainability reporting needs to be incorporated into the financial accounting curriculum. This paper reviews the background and history of corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting and discusses formation of the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board…

  5. Linking Children's Literature with Social Studies in the Elementary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    The author shares information related to integrating quality literature written for children into the teaching of social studies at the elementary school level. Research within the past decade informs educators of the strong impact of curriculum standards for the social studies as developed by professional organizations. Teachers today are…

  6. [A new formula for the measurement of rigor mortis: the determination of the FRR-index (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, B; Ropohl, D; Raule, P

    1977-07-05

    The manual examination of rigor mortis as currently used and its often subjective evaluation frequently produced highly incorrect deductions. It is therefore desirable that such inaccuracies should be replaced by the objective measuring of rigor mortis at the extremities. To that purpose a method is described which can also be applied in on-the-spot investigations and a new formula for the determination of rigor mortis--indices (FRR) is introduced.

  7. Measurements of the degree of development of rigor mortis as an indicator of stress in slaughtered pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriss, P D; Brown, S N; Knowles, T G

    2003-12-13

    The degree of development of rigor mortis in the carcases of slaughter pigs was assessed subjectively on a three-point scale 35 minutes after they were exsanguinated, and related to the levels of cortisol, lactate and creatine kinase in blood collected at exsanguination. Earlier rigor development was associated with higher concentrations of these stress indicators in the blood. This relationship suggests that the mean rigor score, and the frequency distribution of carcases that had or had not entered rigor, could be used as an index of the degree of stress to which the pigs had been subjected.

  8. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  9. CurriM : Curriculum mining (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechenizkiy, M.; Trcka, N.; De Bra, P.M.E.; Toledo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum mining includes three main kinds of tasks: (i) actual curriculum model discovery, i.e. constructing complete and compact academic curriculum models that are able to reproduce the observed behavior of students, (ii) curriculum model conformance checking, i.e. checking whether the observed

  10. Curriculum Prototypes and the Seven Dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shirley

    Jonathan Culler's notion, that each change of perspective a reader makes brings something different from the text, is explored by using four curricula. They are: the traditional language arts curriculum, an active reading comprehension curriculum, a psychology curriculum, and a feminist curriculum. By analyzing the same text, "Snow White and…

  11. School Leadership and Curriculum: German Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephan; Tulowitzki, Pierre; Hameyer, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the role of school leadership vis-à-vis the curriculum. First, it offers a brief overview of school leadership in Germany. Next, curriculum development and curriculum research in Germany is briefly recapped. We present empirical data on school leadership preferences, strain experience, and practices as to curriculum work.…

  12. Use of the Rigor Mortis Process as a Tool for Better Understanding of Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Effect of the Ante-Mortem Stress on the Progression of Rigor Mortis in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Boucar; Rioux, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Presents the rigor mortis process in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) as a tool for better understanding skeletal muscle metabolism. Describes an activity that demonstrates how rigor mortis is related to the post-mortem decrease of muscular glycogen and ATP, how glycogen degradation produces lactic acid that lowers muscle pH, and how…

  13. A rigorous pole representation of multilevel cross sections and its practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    In this article a rigorous method for representing the multilevel cross sections and its practical applications are described. It is a generalization of the rationale suggested by de Saussure and Perez for the s-wave resonances. A computer code WHOPPER has been developed to convert the Reich-Moore parameters into the pole and residue parameters in momentum space. Sample calculations have been carried out to illustrate that the proposed method preserves the rigor of the Reich-Moore cross sections exactly. An analytical method has been developed to evaluate the pertinent Doppler-broadened line shape functions. A discussion is presented on how to minimize the number of pole parameters so that the existing reactor codes can be best utilized

  14. Rigorous simulations of a helical core fiber by the use of transformation optics formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2014-09-22

    We report for the first time on rigorous numerical simulations of a helical-core fiber by using a full vectorial method based on the transformation optics formalism. We modeled the dependence of circular birefringence of the fundamental mode on the helix pitch and analyzed the effect of a birefringence increase caused by the mode displacement induced by a core twist. Furthermore, we analyzed the complex field evolution versus the helix pitch in the first order modes, including polarization and intensity distribution. Finally, we show that the use of the rigorous vectorial method allows to better predict the confinement loss of the guided modes compared to approximate methods based on equivalent in-plane bending models.

  15. Estimation of the time since death--reconsidering the re-establishment of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Kunz, Michaela; Gehl, Axel; Sehner, Susanne; Raupach, Tobias; Beck-Bornholdt, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    In forensic medicine, there is an undefined data background for the phenomenon of re-establishment of rigor mortis after mechanical loosening, a method used in establishing time since death in forensic casework that is thought to occur up to 8 h post-mortem. Nevertheless, the method is widely described in textbooks on forensic medicine. We examined 314 joints (elbow and knee) of 79 deceased at defined time points up to 21 h post-mortem (hpm). Data were analysed using a random intercept model. Here, we show that re-establishment occurred in 38.5% of joints at 7.5 to 19 hpm. Therefore, the maximum time span for the re-establishment of rigor mortis appears to be 2.5-fold longer than thought so far. These findings have major impact on the estimation of time since death in forensic casework.

  16. Quality of nuchal translucency measurements correlates with broader aspects of program rigor and culture of excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark I; Krantz, David A; Hallahan, Terrence; Sherwin, John; Britt, David W

    2013-01-01

    To determine if nuchal translucency (NT) quality correlates with the extent to which clinics vary in rigor and quality control. We correlated NT performance quality (bias and precision) of 246,000 patients with two alternative measures of clinic culture - % of cases for whom nasal bone (NB) measurements were performed and % of requisitions correctly filled for race-ethnicity and weight. When requisition errors occurred in 5% (33%), the curve lowered to 0.93 MoM (p 90%, MoM was 0.99 compared to those quality exists independent of individual variation in NT quality, and two divergent indices of program rigor are associated with NT quality. Quality control must be program wide, and to effect continued improvement in the quality of NT results across time, the cultures of clinics must become a target for intervention. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A Framework for Rigorously Identifying Research Gaps in Qualitative Literature Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Bloch, Christoph; Kranz, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Identifying research gaps is a fundamental goal of literature reviewing. While it is widely acknowledged that literature reviews should identify research gaps, there are no methodological guidelines for how to identify research gaps in qualitative literature reviews ensuring rigor and replicability....... Our study addresses this gap and proposes a framework that should help scholars in this endeavor without stifling creativity. To develop the framework we thoroughly analyze the state-of-the-art procedure of identifying research gaps in 40 recent literature reviews using a grounded theory approach....... Based on the data, we subsequently derive a framework for identifying research gaps in qualitative literature reviews and demonstrate its application with an example. Our results provide a modus operandi for identifying research gaps, thus enabling scholars to conduct literature reviews more rigorously...

  18. Dissemination of an innovative mastery learning curriculum grounded in implementation science principles: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Kristopaitis, Theresa; Wayne, Diane B

    2015-11-01

    Dissemination of a medical education innovation, such as mastery learning, from a setting where it has been used successfully to a new and different medical education environment is not easy. This article describes the uneven yet successful dissemination of a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) curriculum on central venous catheter (CVC) insertion for internal medicine and emergency medicine residents across medical education settings. The dissemination program was grounded in implementation science principles. The article begins by describing implementation science which addresses the mechanisms of medical education and health care delivery. The authors then present a mastery learning case study in two phases: (1) the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SBML CVC curriculum at a tertiary care academic medical center; and (2) the dissemination of the SBML CVC curriculum to an academic community hospital setting. Contextual information about the drivers and barriers that affected the SBML CVC curriculum dissemination is presented. This work demonstrates that dissemination of mastery learning curricula, like all other medical education innovations, will fail without active educational leadership, personal contacts, dedication, hard work, rigorous measurement, and attention to implementation science principles. The article concludes by presenting a set of lessons learned about disseminating an SBML CVC curriculum across different medical education settings.

  19. Derivation of basic equations for rigorous dynamic simulation of cryogenic distillation column for hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-08-01

    The basic equations are derived for rigorous dynamic simulation of cryogenic distillation columns for hydrogen isotope separation. The model accounts for such factors as differences in latent heat of vaporization among the six isotopic species of molecular hydrogen, decay heat of tritium, heat transfer through the column wall and nonideality of the solutions. Provision is also made for simulation of columns with multiple feeds and multiple sidestreams. (author)

  20. Rigor mortis development in turkey breast muscle and the effect of electrical stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, C Z; Sams, A R

    2000-11-01

    Rigor mortis development in turkey breast muscle and the effect of electrical stunning on this process are not well characterized. Some electrical stunning procedures have been known to inhibit postmortem (PM) biochemical reactions, thereby delaying the onset of rigor mortis in broilers. Therefore, this study was designed to characterize rigor mortis development in stunned and unstunned turkeys. A total of 154 turkey toms in two trials were conventionally processed at 20 to 22 wk of age. Turkeys were either stunned with a pulsed direct current (500 Hz, 50% duty cycle) at 35 mA (40 V) in a saline bath for 12 seconds or left unstunned as controls. At 15 min and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h PM, pectoralis samples were collected to determine pH, R-value, L* value, sarcomere length, and shear value. In Trial 1, the samples obtained for pH, R-value, and sarcomere length were divided into surface and interior samples. There were no significant differences between the surface and interior samples among any parameters measured. Muscle pH significantly decreased over time in stunned and unstunned birds through 2 h PM. The R-values increased to 8 h PM in unstunned birds and 24 h PM in stunned birds. The L* values increased over time, with no significant differences after 1 h PM for the controls and 2 h PM for the stunned birds. Sarcomere length increased through 2 h PM in the controls and 12 h PM in the stunned fillets. Cooked meat shear values decreased through the 1 h PM deboning time in the control fillets and 2 h PM in the stunned fillets. These results suggest that stunning delayed the development of rigor mortis through 2 h PM, but had no significant effect on the measured parameters at later time points, and that deboning turkey breasts at 2 h PM or later will not significantly impair meat tenderness.

  1. Learning from Science and Sport - How we, Safety, "Engage with Rigor"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, A.

    2012-01-01

    As the world of spaceflight safety is relatively small and potentially inward-looking, we need to be aware of the "outside world". We should then try to remind ourselves to be open to the possibility that data, knowledge or experience from outside of the spaceflight community may provide some constructive alternate perspectives. This paper will assess aspects from two seemingly tangential fields, science and sport, and align these with the world of safety. In doing so some useful insights will be given to the challenges we face and may provide solutions relevant in our everyday (of safety engineering). Sport, particularly a contact sport such as rugby union, requires direct interaction between members of two (opposing) teams. Professional, accurately timed and positioned interaction for a desired outcome. These interactions, whilst an essential part of the game, are however not without their constraints. The rugby scrum has constraints as to the formation and engagement of the two teams. The controlled engagement provides for an interaction between the two teams in a safe manner. The constraints arising from the reality that an incorrect engagement could cause serious injury to members of either team. In academia, scientific rigor is applied to assure that the arguments provided and the conclusions drawn in academic papers presented for publication are valid, legitimate and credible. The scientific goal of the need for rigor may be expressed in the example of achieving a statistically relevant sample size, n, in order to assure analysis validity of the data pool. A failure to apply rigor could then place the entire study at risk of failing to have the respective paper published. This paper will consider the merits of these two different aspects, scientific rigor and sports engagement, and offer a reflective look at how this may provide a "modus operandi" for safety engineers at any level whether at their desks (creating or reviewing safety assessments) or in a

  2. Rigor force responses of permeabilized fibres from fast and slow skeletal muscles of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, D R; Lynch, G S

    2001-09-01

    1. Ageing is generally associated with a decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength and a slowing of muscle contraction, factors that impact upon the quality of life for the elderly. The mechanisms underlying this age-related muscle weakness have not been fully resolved. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the decrease in muscle force as a consequence of age could be attributed partly to a decrease in the number of cross-bridges participating during contraction. 2. Given that the rigor force is proportional to the approximate total number of interacting sites between the actin and myosin filaments, we tested the null hypothesis that the rigor force of permeabilized muscle fibres from young and old rats would not be different. 3. Permeabilized fibres from the extensor digitorum longus (fast-twitch; EDL) and soleus (predominantly slow-twitch) muscles of young (6 months of age) and old (27 months of age) male F344 rats were activated in Ca2+-buffered solutions to determine force-pCa characteristics (where pCa = -log(10)[Ca2+]) and then in solutions lacking ATP and Ca2+ to determine rigor force levels. 4. The rigor forces for EDL and soleus muscle fibres were not different between young and old rats, indicating that the approximate total number of cross-bridges that can be formed between filaments did not decline with age. We conclude that the age-related decrease in force output is more likely attributed to a decrease in the force per cross-bridge and/or decreases in the efficiency of excitation-contraction coupling.

  3. Rigorous Integration of Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equations in Chebyshev Basis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzetkulič, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2015), s. 183-205 ISSN 1017-1398 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10048; GA ČR GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Initial value problem * Rigorous integration * Taylor model * Chebyshev basis Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2015

  4. A rigorous proof of the Landau-Peierls formula and much more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briet, Philippe; Cornean, Horia; Savoie, Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    We present a rigorous mathematical treatment of the zero-field orbital magnetic susceptibility of a non-interacting Bloch electron gas, at fixed temperature and density, for both metals and semiconductors/insulators. In particular, we obtain the Landau-Peierls formula in the low temperature and d...... and density limit as conjectured by Kjeldaas and Kohn (Phys Rev 105:806–813, 1957)....

  5. Association Between Maximal Skin Dose and Breast Brachytherapy Outcome: A Proposal for More Rigorous Dosimetric Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttino, Laurie W.; Heffernan, Jill; Vera, Robyn; Rosu, Mihaela; Ramakrishnan, V. Ramesh; Arthur, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple investigations have used the skin distance as a surrogate for the skin dose and have shown that distances 4.05 Gy/fraction. Conclusion: The initial skin dose recommendations have been based on safe use and the avoidance of significant toxicity. The results from the present study have suggested that patients might further benefit if more rigorous constraints were applied and if the skin dose were limited to 120% of the prescription dose.

  6. 25 CFR 36.23 - Standard VIII-Junior high/middle school instructional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... curriculum. (1) Career exploration and orientation. (2) Environmental and safety education. (3) Metric... vocational exploration class shall be consistent with applicable health and safety standards. ...

  7. Re-establishment of rigor mortis: evidence for a considerably longer post-mortem time span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crostack, Chiara; Sehner, Susanne; Raupach, Tobias; Anders, Sven

    2017-07-01

    Re-establishment of rigor mortis following mechanical loosening is used as part of the complex method for the forensic estimation of the time since death in human bodies and has formerly been reported to occur up to 8-12 h post-mortem (hpm). We recently described our observation of the phenomenon in up to 19 hpm in cases with in-hospital death. Due to the case selection (preceding illness, immobilisation), transfer of these results to forensic cases might be limited. We therefore examined 67 out-of-hospital cases of sudden death with known time points of death. Re-establishment of rigor mortis was positive in 52.2% of cases and was observed up to 20 hpm. In contrast to the current doctrine that a recurrence of rigor mortis is always of a lesser degree than its first manifestation in a given patient, muscular rigidity at re-establishment equalled or even exceeded the degree observed before dissolving in 21 joints. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe that the phenomenon appears to be independent of body or ambient temperature.

  8. The MIXED framework: A novel approach to evaluating mixed-methods rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Ann L; DeVon, Holli A

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of rigor in mixed-methods (MM) research is a persistent challenge due to the combination of inconsistent philosophical paradigms, the use of multiple research methods which require different skill sets, and the need to combine research at different points in the research process. Researchers have proposed a variety of ways to thoroughly evaluate MM research, but each method fails to provide a framework that is useful for the consumer of research. In contrast, the MIXED framework is meant to bridge the gap between an academic exercise and practical assessment of a published work. The MIXED framework (methods, inference, expertise, evaluation, and design) borrows from previously published frameworks to create a useful tool for the evaluation of a published study. The MIXED framework uses an experimental eight-item scale that allows for comprehensive integrated assessment of MM rigor in published manuscripts. Mixed methods are becoming increasingly prevalent in nursing and healthcare research requiring researchers and consumers to address issues unique to MM such as evaluation of rigor. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Application of the rigorous method to x-ray and neutron beam scattering on rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goray, Leonid I.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive numerical analysis of x-ray and neutron scattering from finite-conducting rough surfaces which is performed in the frame of the boundary integral equation method in a rigorous formulation for high ratios of characteristic dimension to wavelength. The single integral equation obtained involves boundary integrals of the single and double layer potentials. A more general treatment of the energy conservation law applicable to absorption gratings and rough mirrors is considered. In order to compute the scattering intensity of rough surfaces using the forward electromagnetic solver, Monte Carlo simulation is employed to average the deterministic diffraction grating efficiency due to individual surfaces over an ensemble of realizations. Some rules appropriate for numerical implementation of the theory at small wavelength-to-period ratios are presented. The difference between the rigorous approach and approximations can be clearly seen in specular reflectances of Au mirrors with different roughness parameters at wavelengths where grazing incidence occurs at close to or larger than the critical angle. This difference may give rise to wrong estimates of rms roughness and correlation length if they are obtained by comparing experimental data with calculations. Besides, the rigorous approach permits taking into account any known roughness statistics and allows exact computation of diffuse scattering.

  10. A Draft Conceptual Framework of Relevant Theories to Inform Future Rigorous Research on Student Service-Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Meredith A.

    2014-01-01

    While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…

  11. Feedback for relatedness and competence : Can feedback in blended learning contribute to optimal rigor, basic needs, and motivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bombaerts, G.; Nickel, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    We inquire how peer and tutor feedback influences students' optimal rigor, basic needs and motivation. We analyze questionnaires from two courses in two subsequent years. We conclude that feedback in blended learning can contribute to rigor and basic needs, but it is not clear from our data what

  12. Optimal correction and design parameter search by modern methods of rigorous global optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, K.; Berz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Frequently the design of schemes for correction of aberrations or the determination of possible operating ranges for beamlines and cells in synchrotrons exhibit multitudes of possibilities for their correction, usually appearing in disconnected regions of parameter space which cannot be directly qualified by analytical means. In such cases, frequently an abundance of optimization runs are carried out, each of which determines a local minimum depending on the specific chosen initial conditions. Practical solutions are then obtained through an often extended interplay of experienced manual adjustment of certain suitable parameters and local searches by varying other parameters. However, in a formal sense this problem can be viewed as a global optimization problem, i.e. the determination of all solutions within a certain range of parameters that lead to a specific optimum. For example, it may be of interest to find all possible settings of multiple quadrupoles that can achieve imaging; or to find ahead of time all possible settings that achieve a particular tune; or to find all possible manners to adjust nonlinear parameters to achieve correction of high order aberrations. These tasks can easily be phrased in terms of such an optimization problem; but while mathematically this formulation is often straightforward, it has been common belief that it is of limited practical value since the resulting optimization problem cannot usually be solved. However, recent significant advances in modern methods of rigorous global optimization make these methods feasible for optics design for the first time. The key ideas of the method lie in an interplay of rigorous local underestimators of the objective functions, and by using the underestimators to rigorously iteratively eliminate regions that lie above already known upper bounds of the minima, in what is commonly known as a branch-and-bound approach. Recent enhancements of the Differential Algebraic methods used in particle

  13. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  14. Culture, Identity and the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtonwood, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Critiques recent versions of pluralism by examining the concepts of culture and identity underlying them. Proposes a model of education that rejects cultural transmission in favor of a transformational curriculum that goes beyond culture. (SK)

  15. Business ethics across the curriculum?

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, Johannes; Sims, Ronald R.; Nelson, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. This article describes and discusses team teaching and particularly guest lectures as a way of integrating ethics into the business curriculum. After a brief discussion of business school responsibilities and the teaching of ethics, the article looks at efforts to integrate the teaching of ethics across the curriculum. Then, findings from a small pilot study among business ethics and business school co...

  16. Hidden Curriculum: An Analytical Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Andarvazh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of hidden curriculum was first used by Philip Jackson in 1968, and Hafferty brought this concept to the medical education. Many of the subjects that medical students learn are attributed to this curriculum. So far several definitions have been presented for the hidden curriculum, which on the one hand made this concept richer, and on the other hand, led to confusion and ambiguity.This paper tries to provide a clear and comprehensive definition of it.Methods: In this study, concept analysis of McKenna method was used. Using keywords and searching in the databases, 561 English and 26 Persian references related to the concept was found, then by limitingthe research scope, 125 abstracts and by finding more relevant references, 55 articles were fully studied.Results: After analyzing the definitions by McKenna method, the hidden curriculum is defined as follows: The hidden curriculum is a hidden, powerful, intrinsic in organizational structure and culture and sometimes contradictory message, conveyed implicitly and tacitly in the learning environment by structural and human factors and its contents includes cultural habits and customs, norms, values, belief systems, attitudes, skills, desires and behavioral and social expectations can have a positive or negative effect, unplanned, neither planners nor teachers, nor learners are aware of it. The ultimate consequence of the hidden curriculum includes reproducing the existing class structure, socialization, and familiarizing learners for transmission and joining the professional world.Conclusion: Based on the concept analysis, we arrived at an analytical definition of the hidden curriculum that could be useful for further studies in this area.Keywords: CONCEPT ANALYSIS, HIDDEN CURRICULUM, MCKENNA’S METHOD

  17. Staying afloat: surviving curriculum change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Debra; Welborn-Brown, Pauline; Smith, Debra; Giddens, Jean; Harris, Judith; Wright, Mary; Nichols, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In response to calls for nursing education reform, a content-based curriculum was changed to a concept-based curriculum, using Kanter's 7 skills for effective change model. The skills include tuning in to the environment, challenging the prevailing organizational wisdom, communicating a compelling aspiration, building coalitions, transferring ownership to a working team, learning to persevere, and making everyone a hero. The authors describe the steps taken to successfully accomplish this arduous task.

  18. Core curriculum illustration: rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Gregor M; Perez-Girbes, Alexandre; Linnau, Ken F

    2017-06-01

    This is the 24th installment of a series that will highlight one case per publication issue from the bank of cases available online as part of the American Society of Emergency Radiology (ASER) educational resources. Our goal is to generate more interest in and use of our online materials. To view more cases online, please visit the ASER Core Curriculum and Recommendations for Study online at http://www.aseronline.org/curriculum/toc.htm .

  19. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  20. Modeling in the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kai Chung

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of modeling and applications into the mathematics curriculum has proven to be a challenging task over the last fifty years. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) has made mathematical modeling both one of its Standards for Mathematical Practice and one of its Conceptual Categories. This article discusses the need for mathematical…

  1. Standards vs. Customization: Finding the Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuban, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Many practitioners (and the public) highly value standardizing curriculum and instruction for students. They believe that common standards and instruction will produce equal opportunity--a value dear to most policymakers and educators, and to Americans in general. Yet educators and the public also prize individual excellence. Differentiating the…

  2. Obstetric and Gynecologic Ultrasound Curriculum and Competency Assessment in Residency Training Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuhamad, Alfred; Minton, Katherine K; Benson, Carol B

    2018-01-01

    in Medicine assembled a multisociety task force to develop a consensus-based, standardized curriculum and competency assessment tools for obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound training in residency programs. The curriculum and competency assessment tools were developed based on existing national...... and international guidelines for the performance of obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound examinations and thus are intended to represent the minimum requirement for such training. By expert consensus, the curriculum was developed for each year of training, criteria for each competency assessment image were...... that the criteria set forth in this document will evolve with time. The task force also encourages use of ultrasound simulation in residency training and expects that simulation will play a significant part in the curriculum and the competency assessment process. Incorporating this training curriculum...

  3. Obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound curriculum and competency assessment in residency training programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuhamad, Alfred; Minton, Katherine K; Benson, Carol B

    2018-01-01

    in Medicine assembled a multisociety task force to develop a consensus-based, standardized curriculum and competency assessment tools for obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound training in residency programs. The curriculum and competency assessment tools were developed based on existing national...... and international guidelines for the performance of obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound examinations and thus are intended to represent the minimum requirement for such training. By expert consensus, the curriculum was developed for each year of training, criteria for each competency assessment image were...... that the criteria set forth in this document will evolve with time. The task force also encourages use of ultrasound simulation in residency training and expects that simulation will play a significant part in the curriculum and the competency assessment process. Incorporating this training curriculum...

  4. Testing the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Riles, K

    1998-01-01

    The Large Electron Project (LEP) accelerator near Geneva, more than any other instrument, has rigorously tested the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particles. LEP measurements have probed the theory from many different directions and, so far, the Standard Model has prevailed. The rigour of these tests has allowed LEP physicists to determine unequivocally the number of fundamental 'generations' of elementary particles. These tests also allowed physicists to ascertain the mass of the top quark in advance of its discovery. Recent increases in the accelerator's energy allow new measurements to be undertaken, measurements that may uncover directly or indirectly the long-sought Higgs particle, believed to impart mass to all other particles.

  5. Mathematics Teachers at Work: Connecting Curriculum Materials and Classroom Instruction. Studies in Mathematical Thinking and Learning Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, Janine T., Ed.; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A., Ed.; Lloyd, Gwendolyn M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book compiles and synthesizes existing research on teachers' use of mathematics curriculum materials and the impact of curriculum materials on teaching and teachers, with a particular emphasis on--but not restricted to--those materials developed in the 1990s in response to the NCTM's Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Despite…

  6. Music Education Curriculum and Social Change: A Study of Popular Music in Secondary Schools in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese society over the last two decades, modernisation and globalisation, together with the transition to a market economy, have created new imperatives and challenges for the school music curriculum. As a result, the 2011 reform of the Curriculum Standards for Primary Education and Junior Secondary Education marks the first time that the…

  7. A Case Study: The High/Scope Preschool Curriculum and Kindergarten Readiness in the Pittsgrove Township School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Loren D.

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Department of Education has been stressing the value of early childhood education for the past 12 years. Research has clearly demonstrated the value of high-quality preschool programs for preparing children for school and even later life. Particularly in light of the Core Curriculum Content Standards and elementary curriculum, which…

  8. A Portrait of a Teacher's Life: Learning to Teach, Curriculum-Making, and Teaching about Islam in a Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aown, Najwa

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance and the inclusion of teaching about religion in most national and state curriculum standards, especially in social studies curriculum, many public school teachers are not adequately prepared to how, and what, to teach about religion, in particular Islam. As a result, many teachers are left alone to sink and swim in their…

  9. Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship: Implementation and Evaluation of a Bi-institutional Pilot Curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, Daniel W., E-mail: dgolden@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Spektor, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rudra, Sonali; Ranck, Mark C. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Krishnan, Monica S.; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a structured didactic curriculum to complement clinical experiences during radiation oncology clerkships at 2 academic medical centers. Methods and Materials: A structured didactic curriculum was developed to teach fundamentals of radiation oncology and improve confidence in clinical competence. Curriculum lectures included: (1) an overview of radiation oncology (history, types of treatments, and basic clinic flow); (2) fundamentals of radiation biology and physics; and (3) practical aspects of radiation treatment simulation and planning. In addition, a hands-on dosimetry session taught students fundamentals of treatment planning. The curriculum was implemented at 2 academic departments in 2012. Students completed anonymous evaluations using a Likert scale to rate the usefulness of curriculum components (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). Likert scores are reported as (median [interquartile range]). Results: Eighteen students completed the curriculum during their 4-week rotation (University of Chicago n=13, Harvard Longwood Campus n=5). All curriculum components were rated as extremely useful: introduction to radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); radiation biology and physics (5 [5-5]); practical aspects of radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); and the treatment planning session (5 [5-5]). Students rated the curriculum as “quite useful” to “extremely useful” (1) to help students understand radiation oncology as a specialty; (2) to increase student comfort with their specialty decision; and (3) to help students with their future transition to a radiation oncology residency. Conclusions: A standardized curriculum for medical students completing a 4-week radiation oncology clerkship was successfully implemented at 2 institutions. The curriculum was favorably reviewed. As a result of completing the curriculum, medical students felt more comfortable with their specialty decision and better prepared to begin radiation oncology residency.

  10. Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship: Implementation and Evaluation of a Bi-institutional Pilot Curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, Daniel W.; Spektor, Alexander; Rudra, Sonali; Ranck, Mark C.; Krishnan, Monica S.; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a structured didactic curriculum to complement clinical experiences during radiation oncology clerkships at 2 academic medical centers. Methods and Materials: A structured didactic curriculum was developed to teach fundamentals of radiation oncology and improve confidence in clinical competence. Curriculum lectures included: (1) an overview of radiation oncology (history, types of treatments, and basic clinic flow); (2) fundamentals of radiation biology and physics; and (3) practical aspects of radiation treatment simulation and planning. In addition, a hands-on dosimetry session taught students fundamentals of treatment planning. The curriculum was implemented at 2 academic departments in 2012. Students completed anonymous evaluations using a Likert scale to rate the usefulness of curriculum components (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). Likert scores are reported as (median [interquartile range]). Results: Eighteen students completed the curriculum during their 4-week rotation (University of Chicago n=13, Harvard Longwood Campus n=5). All curriculum components were rated as extremely useful: introduction to radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); radiation biology and physics (5 [5-5]); practical aspects of radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); and the treatment planning session (5 [5-5]). Students rated the curriculum as “quite useful” to “extremely useful” (1) to help students understand radiation oncology as a specialty; (2) to increase student comfort with their specialty decision; and (3) to help students with their future transition to a radiation oncology residency. Conclusions: A standardized curriculum for medical students completing a 4-week radiation oncology clerkship was successfully implemented at 2 institutions. The curriculum was favorably reviewed. As a result of completing the curriculum, medical students felt more comfortable with their specialty decision and better prepared to begin radiation oncology residency

  11. Unmet Need: Improving mHealth Evaluation Rigor to Build the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherji, Sangeeta; Mehl, Garrett; Kaonga, Nadi; Mechael, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    mHealth-the use of mobile technologies for health-is a growing element of health system activity globally, but evaluation of those activities remains quite scant, and remains an important knowledge gap for advancing mHealth activities. In 2010, the World Health Organization and Columbia University implemented a small-scale survey to generate preliminary data on evaluation activities used by mHealth initiatives. The authors describe self-reported data from 69 projects in 29 countries. The majority (74%) reported some sort of evaluation activity, primarily nonexperimental in design (62%). The authors developed a 6-point scale of evaluation rigor comprising information on use of comparison groups, sample size calculation, data collection timing, and randomization. The mean score was low (2.4); half (47%) were conducting evaluations with a minimum threshold (4+) of rigor, indicating use of a comparison group, while less than 20% had randomized the mHealth intervention. The authors were unable to assess whether the rigor score was appropriate for the type of mHealth activity being evaluated. What was clear was that although most data came from mHealth projects pilots aimed for scale-up, few had designed evaluations that would support crucial decisions on whether to scale up and how. Whether the mHealth activity is a strategy to improve health or a tool for achieving intermediate outcomes that should lead to better health, mHealth evaluations must be improved to generate robust evidence for cost-effectiveness assessment and to allow for accurate identification of the contribution of mHealth initiatives to health systems strengthening and the impact on actual health outcomes.

  12. Effect of muscle restraint on sheep meat tenderness with rigor mortis at 18°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Wells, Robyn W

    2002-02-01

    The effect on shear force of skeletal restraint and removing muscles from lamb m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) immediately after slaughter and electrical stimulation was undertaken at a rigor temperature of 18°C (n=15). The temperature of 18°C was achieved through chilling of electrically stimulated sheep carcasses in air at 12°C, air flow 1-1.5 ms(-2). In other groups, the muscle was removed at 2.5 h post-mortem and either wrapped or left non-wrapped before being placed back on the carcass to follow carcass cooling regimes. Following rigor mortis, the meat was aged for 0, 16, 40 and 65 h at 15°C and frozen. For the non-stimulated samples, the meat was aged for 0, 12, 36 and 60 h before being frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1 × 1 cm cross-section. Commencement of ageing was considered to take place at rigor mortis and this was taken as zero aged meat. There were no significant differences in the rate of tenderisation and initial shear force for all treatments. The 23% cook loss was similar for all wrapped and non-wrapped situations and the values decreased slightly with longer ageing durations. Wrapping was shown to mimic meat left intact on the carcass, as it prevented significant prerigor shortening. Such techniques allows muscles to be removed and placed in a controlled temperature environment to enable precise studies of ageing processes.

  13. Study Design Rigor in Animal-Experimental Research Published in Anesthesia Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Janine M; Moss, Angela F; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Bartels, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies has been identified as an impediment for translation of basic mechanistic research into effective clinical therapies. Indeed, the National Institutes of Health has revised its grant application process to require more rigorous study design, including sample size calculations, blinding procedures, and randomization steps. We hypothesized that the reporting of such metrics of study design rigor has increased over time for animal-experimental research published in anesthesia journals. PubMed was searched for animal-experimental studies published in 2005, 2010, and 2015 in primarily English-language anesthesia journals. A total of 1466 publications were graded on the performance of sample size estimation, randomization, and blinding. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess linear trends over time for the primary outcome of whether or not a metric was reported. Interrater agreement for each of the 3 metrics (power, randomization, and blinding) was assessed using the weighted κ coefficient in a 10% random sample of articles rerated by a second investigator blinded to the ratings of the first investigator. A total of 1466 manuscripts were analyzed. Reporting for all 3 metrics of experimental design rigor increased over time (2005 to 2010 to 2015): for power analysis, from 5% (27/516), to 12% (59/485), to 17% (77/465); for randomization, from 41% (213/516), to 50% (243/485), to 54% (253/465); and for blinding, from 26% (135/516), to 38% (186/485), to 47% (217/465). The weighted κ coefficients and 98.3% confidence interval indicate almost perfect agreement between the 2 raters beyond that which occurs by chance alone (power, 0.93 [0.85, 1.0], randomization, 0.91 [0.85, 0.98], and blinding, 0.90 [0.84, 0.96]). Our hypothesis that reported metrics of rigor in animal-experimental studies in anesthesia journals have increased during the past decade was confirmed. More consistent reporting, or explicit justification for absence

  14. Rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.R.

    1993-10-01

    We have exactly calculated the rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets (SC's) by means of graph expansion and a combinatorial approach and investigated the asymptotic behaviour in the limit of long distance. The result show there is no long range correlation between spins at any finite temperature which indicates no existence of phase transition and thus finally confirms the conclusion produced by the renormalization group method and other physical arguments. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  15. An efficient and rigorous thermodynamic library and optimal-control of a cryogenic air separation unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2017-01-01

    -linear model based control to achieve optimal techno-economic performance. Accordingly, this work presents a computationally efficient and novel approach for solving a tray-by-tray equilibrium model and its implementation for open-loop optimal-control of a cryogenic distillation column. Here, the optimisation...... objective is to reduce the cost of compression in a volatile electricity market while meeting the production requirements, i.e. product flow rate and purity. This model is implemented in Matlab and uses the ThermoLib rigorous thermodynamic library. The present work represents a first step towards plant...

  16. A study into first-year engineering education success using a rigorous mixed methods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Bogaard, M.E.D.; de Graaff, Erik; Verbraek, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to combine qualitative and quantitative research methods into rigorous research into student success. Research methods have weaknesses that can be overcome by clever combinations. In this paper we use a situated study into student success as an example of how methods...... using statistical techniques. The main elements of the model were student behaviour and student disposition, which were influenced by the students’ perceptions of the education environment. The outcomes of the qualitative studies were useful in interpreting the outcomes of the structural equation...

  17. Supersymmetry and the Parisi-Sourlas dimensional reduction: A rigorous proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.; Landau, L.J.; Perez, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Functional integrals that are formally related to the average correlation functions of a classical field theory in the presence of random external sources are given a rigorous meaning. Their dimensional reduction to the Schwinger functions of the corresponding quantum field theory in two fewer dimensions is proven. This is done by reexpressing those functional integrals as expectations of a supersymmetric field theory. The Parisi-Sourlas dimensional reduction of a supersymmetric field theory to a usual quantum field theory in two fewer dimensions is proven. (orig.)

  18. A Rigorous Treatment of Energy Extraction from a Rotating Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, F.; Kamran, N.; Smoller, J.; Yau, S.-T.

    2009-05-01

    The Cauchy problem is considered for the scalar wave equation in the Kerr geometry. We prove that by choosing a suitable wave packet as initial data, one can extract energy from the black hole, thereby putting supperradiance, the wave analogue of the Penrose process, into a rigorous mathematical framework. We quantify the maximal energy gain. We also compute the infinitesimal change of mass and angular momentum of the black hole, in agreement with Christodoulou’s result for the Penrose process. The main mathematical tool is our previously derived integral representation of the wave propagator.

  19. What does the Development of the European Core Curriculum for Cardiovascular Nurses Mean for Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubeck, Lis; Lin, Stella Hsi-Man; Ferry, Cate; Gallagher, Robyn

    2016-04-01

    A core curriculum for the continuing professional development of nurses has recently been published by the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions of the European Society of Cardiology. This core curriculum was envisaged to bridge the educational gap between qualification as a nurse and an advance practice role. In addition, the shared elements and international consensus on core themes creates a strong pathway for nursing career development that is directly relevant to Australia. Education programs for nurses in Australia must meet the mandatory standards of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council (ANMAC), but without a national core curriculum, there can be considerable variation in the content of such courses. The core curriculum is developed to be adapted locally, allowing the addition of nationally relevant competencies, for example, culturally appropriate care of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individuals. Two existing specialist resources could be utilised to deliver a tailored cardiovascular core curriculum; the Heart Education Assessment and Rehabilitation Toolkit (HEART) online (www.heartonline.org.au) and HeartOne (www.heartone.com.au). Both resources could be further enhanced by incorporating the core curriculum. The release of the European core curriculum should be viewed as a call to action for Australia to develop a core curriculum for cardiovascular nurses. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John

    2014-01-01

    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  1. The Brain-Compatible Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwater, Anne; Wolfe, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates how teachers can make instruction more meaningful by linking new subject matter to students' previous experiences and by using community resources to create exciting new learning experiences. If the content is rigorous and relevant, debates, storytelling, the arts, graphic organizers, and mnemonics can dramatically enhance student…

  2. Parent Management Training-Oregon Model: Adapting Intervention with Rigorous Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Kjøbli, John

    2016-09-01

    Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO(®) ) is a set of theory-based parenting programs with status as evidence-based treatments. PMTO has been rigorously tested in efficacy and effectiveness trials in different contexts, cultures, and formats. Parents, the presumed agents of change, learn core parenting practices, specifically skill encouragement, limit setting, monitoring/supervision, interpersonal problem solving, and positive involvement. The intervention effectively prevents and ameliorates children's behavior problems by replacing coercive interactions with positive parenting practices. Delivery format includes sessions with individual families in agencies or families' homes, parent groups, and web-based and telehealth communication. Mediational models have tested parenting practices as mechanisms of change for children's behavior and found support for the theory underlying PMTO programs. Moderating effects include children's age, maternal depression, and social disadvantage. The Norwegian PMTO implementation is presented as an example of how PMTO has been tailored to reach diverse populations as delivered by multiple systems of care throughout the nation. An implementation and research center in Oslo provides infrastructure and promotes collaboration between practitioners and researchers to conduct rigorous intervention research. Although evidence-based and tested within a wide array of contexts and populations, PMTO must continue to adapt to an ever-changing world. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  3. Efficiency versus speed in quantum heat engines: Rigorous constraint from Lieb-Robinson bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    A long-standing open problem whether a heat engine with finite power achieves the Carnot efficiency is investgated. We rigorously prove a general trade-off inequality on thermodynamic efficiency and time interval of a cyclic process with quantum heat engines. In a first step, employing the Lieb-Robinson bound we establish an inequality on the change in a local observable caused by an operation far from support of the local observable. This inequality provides a rigorous characterization of the following intuitive picture that most of the energy emitted from the engine to the cold bath remains near the engine when the cyclic process is finished. Using this description, we prove an upper bound on efficiency with the aid of quantum information geometry. Our result generally excludes the possibility of a process with finite speed at the Carnot efficiency in quantum heat engines. In particular, the obtained constraint covers engines evolving with non-Markovian dynamics, which almost all previous studies on this topic fail to address.

  4. Rigorous RG Algorithms and Area Laws for Low Energy Eigenstates in 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Itai; Landau, Zeph; Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    One of the central challenges in the study of quantum many-body systems is the complexity of simulating them on a classical computer. A recent advance (Landau et al. in Nat Phys, 2015) gave a polynomial time algorithm to compute a succinct classical description for unique ground states of gapped 1D quantum systems. Despite this progress many questions remained unsolved, including whether there exist efficient algorithms when the ground space is degenerate (and of polynomial dimension in the system size), or for the polynomially many lowest energy states, or even whether such states admit succinct classical descriptions or area laws. In this paper we give a new algorithm, based on a rigorously justified RG type transformation, for finding low energy states for 1D Hamiltonians acting on a chain of n particles. In the process we resolve some of the aforementioned open questions, including giving a polynomial time algorithm for poly( n) degenerate ground spaces and an n O(log n) algorithm for the poly( n) lowest energy states (under a mild density condition). For these classes of systems the existence of a succinct classical description and area laws were not rigorously proved before this work. The algorithms are natural and efficient, and for the case of finding unique ground states for frustration-free Hamiltonians the running time is {\\tilde{O}(nM(n))} , where M( n) is the time required to multiply two n × n matrices.

  5. Upgrading geometry conceptual understanding and strategic competence through implementing rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, Z.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.

    2018-03-01

    To reach higher order thinking skill, needed to be mastered the conceptual understanding and strategic competence as they are two basic parts of high order thinking skill (HOTS). RMT is a unique realization of the cognitive conceptual construction approach based on Feurstein with his theory of Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. This was quasi-experimental research which compared the experimental class that was given Rigorous Mathematical Thinking (RMT) as learning method and the control class that was given Direct Learning (DL) as the conventional learning activity. This study examined whether there was different effect of two learning model toward conceptual understanding and strategic competence of Junior High School Students. The data was analyzed by using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and obtained a significant difference between experimental and control class when considered jointly on the mathematics conceptual understanding and strategic competence (shown by Wilk’s Λ = 0.84). Further, by independent t-test is known that there was significant difference between two classes both on mathematical conceptual understanding and strategic competence. By this result is known that Rigorous Mathematical Thinking (RMT) had positive impact toward Mathematics conceptual understanding and strategic competence.

  6. "Snow White" Coating Protects SpaceX Dragon's Trunk Against Rigors of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    He described it as "snow white." But NASA astronaut Don Pettit was not referring to the popular children's fairy tale. Rather, he was talking about the white coating of the Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) Dragon spacecraft that reflected from the International Space Station s light. As it approached the station for the first time in May 2012, the Dragon s trunk might have been described as the "fairest of them all," for its pristine coating, allowing Pettit to clearly see to maneuver the robotic arm to grab the Dragon for a successful nighttime berthing. This protective thermal control coating, developed by Alion Science and Technology Corp., based in McLean, Va., made its bright appearance again with the March 1 launch of SpaceX's second commercial resupply mission. Named Z-93C55, the coating was applied to the cargo portion of the Dragon to protect it from the rigors of space. "For decades, Alion has produced coatings to protect against the rigors of space," said Michael Kenny, senior chemist with Alion. "As space missions evolved, there was a growing need to dissipate electrical charges that build up on the exteriors of spacecraft, or there could be damage to the spacecraft s electronics. Alion's research led us to develop materials that would meet this goal while also providing thermal controls. The outcome of this research was Alion's proprietary Z-93C55 coating."

  7. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  8. Differential algebras with remainder and rigorous proofs of long-term stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, Martin

    1997-01-01

    It is shown how in addition to determining Taylor maps of general optical systems, it is possible to obtain rigorous interval bounds for the remainder term of the n-th order Taylor expansion. To this end, the three elementary operations of addition, multiplication, and differentiation in the Differential Algebraic approach are augmented by suitable interval operations in such a way that a remainder bound of the sum, product, and derivative is obtained from the Taylor polynomial and remainder bound of the operands. The method can be used to obtain bounds for the accuracy with which a Taylor map represents the true map of the particle optical system. In a more general sense, it is also useful for a variety of other numerical problems, including rigorous global optimization of highly complex functions. Combined with methods to obtain pseudo-invariants of repetitive motion and extensions of the Lyapunov- and Nekhoroshev stability theory, the latter can be used to guarantee stability for storage rings and other weakly nonlinear systems

  9. How to Map Theory: Reliable Methods Are Fruitless Without Rigorous Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    Good science requires both reliable methods and rigorous theory. Theory allows us to build a unified structure of knowledge, to connect the dots of individual studies and reveal the bigger picture. Some have criticized the proliferation of pet "Theories," but generic "theory" is essential to healthy science, because questions of theory are ultimately those of validity. Although reliable methods and rigorous theory are synergistic, Action Identification suggests psychological tension between them: The more we focus on methodological details, the less we notice the broader connections. Therefore, psychology needs to supplement training in methods (how to design studies and analyze data) with training in theory (how to connect studies and synthesize ideas). This article provides a technique for visually outlining theory: theory mapping. Theory mapping contains five elements, which are illustrated with moral judgment and with cars. Also included are 15 additional theory maps provided by experts in emotion, culture, priming, power, stress, ideology, morality, marketing, decision-making, and more (see all at theorymaps.org ). Theory mapping provides both precision and synthesis, which helps to resolve arguments, prevent redundancies, assess the theoretical contribution of papers, and evaluate the likelihood of surprising effects.

  10. Rigorous Combination of GNSS and VLBI: How it Improves Earth Orientation and Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S. B.; Richard, J. Y.; Bizouard, C.; Becker, O.

    2017-12-01

    Current reference series (C04) of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) are produced by a weighted combination of Earth orientation parameters (EOP) time series built up by combination centers of each technique (VLBI, GNSS, Laser ranging, DORIS). In the future, we plan to derive EOP from a rigorous combination of the normal equation systems of the four techniques.We present here the results of a rigorous combination of VLBI and GNSS pre-reduced, constraint-free, normal equations with the DYNAMO geodetic analysis software package developed and maintained by the French GRGS (Groupe de Recherche en GeÌodeÌsie Spatiale). The used normal equations are those produced separately by the IVS and IGS combination centers to which we apply our own minimal constraints.We address the usefulness of such a method with respect to the classical, a posteriori, combination method, and we show whether EOP determinations are improved.Especially, we implement external validations of the EOP series based on comparison with geophysical excitation and examination of the covariance matrices. Finally, we address the potential of the technique for the next generation celestial reference frames, which are currently determined by VLBI only.

  11. Unified programs nationally? Strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Polo Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of measurable learning standards as an element of the curriculum has definitely opened the door to the connection between the curriculum and external assessments. Since its origin, the potential impact of that element in improving our educational system has been defended and criticized. The truth is that in our country, though all regions are based on the same Royal Decree of core curriculum, and therefore the same reference for the evaluation, curriculum that ultimately applies to students ( teaching-learning- assessment from the different regions can have significant differences . This article proposes, from the analysis of various research , training programs, the plan of action for inspection and the author's own experience in processes of curriculum specifications , assess the potential strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards.

  12. Effectiveness of a quality improvement curriculum for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Tartaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As health systems find ways to improve quality of care, medical training programs are finding opportunities to prepare learners on principles of quality improvement (QI. The impact of QI curricula for medical students as measured by student learning is not well delineated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a QI curriculum for senior medical students as measured by student knowledge and skills. Methods: This study was an observational study that involved a self-assessment and post-test Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool (QIKAT for intervention and control students. A QI curriculum consisting of online modules, live discussions, independent readings and reflective writing, and participation in a mentored QI project was offered to fourth-year medical students completing an honor's elective (intervention group. Senior medical students who received the standard QI curriculum only were recruited as controls. Results: A total of 22 intervention students and 12 control students completed the self-assessment and QIKAT. At baseline, there was no difference between groups in self-reported prior exposure to QI principles. Students in the intervention group reported more comfort with their skills in QI overall and in 9 of the 12 domains (p<0.05. Additionally, intervention students performed better in each of the three case scenarios (p<0.01. Discussion: A brief QI curriculum for senior medical students results in improved comfort and knowledge with QI principles. The strengths of our curriculum include effective use of classroom time and faculty mentorship with reliance on pre-existing online modules and written resources. Additionally, the curriculum is easily expandable to larger groups of students and transferable to other institutions.

  13. Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games | Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games. ... 1997). The aim of the study was to document and analyze indigenous Zulu games for possible curriculum enrichment of physical ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Problem Based Learning, curriculum development and change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem Based Learning, curriculum development and change process at ... was started in 1924 and has been running a traditional curriculum for 79 years. ... Methods: The stages taken during the process were described and analysed.

  15. Guidelines for Developing Competency-Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Ludy

    1979-01-01

    Presents guidelines for the development of competency-based curriculum formulated as a result of an automotive mechanics curriculum workshop. Listed are specific guidelines for content development, writing style, and illustration. (LRA)

  16. Curriculum as a Discourse: Using Critical Discourse Analysis to Revive Curriculum Reconceptualists' Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Majed

    2017-01-01

    Curriculum reconceptualists seek to reshape the field of curriculum studies. Unlike traditional curricularists, they reprobate the technical approach of curriculum development because of its pure functional and managerial tendency. Reconceptualists look at curriculum from various philosophy-saturated perspectives. One of their claims is…

  17. Putting culture in the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sairanen, Raija; Richardson, Eileen; Kelly, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and the method of designing a framework for a European curriculum to promote intercultural competence in health care students. The background relating to the migration of people into and across Europe is cited as the factor driving the need...... for such a project. The project group emerged from the European organisation known as COHEHRE (Consortium of Higher Education Institutes in Health and Rehabilitation in Europe). Composed of a group of nurse educators from 5 European countries it charts the process which led them to create a curriculum framework...

  18. Problems and issues in implementing innovative curriculum in the developing countries: the Pakistani experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syeda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Pakistan identified 4 medical Colleges for introduction of COME, one from each province. Curriculum was prepared by the faculty of these colleges and launched in 2001 and despite concerted efforts could not be implemented. The purpose of this research was to identify the reasons for delay in implementation of the COME curriculum and to assess the understanding of the stakeholders about COME. Methods Mixed methods study design was used for data collection. In-depth interviews, mail-in survey questionnaire, and focus group discussions were held with the representatives of federal and provincial governments, Principals of medical colleges, faculty and students of the designated colleges. Rigor was ensured through independent coding and triangulation of data. Results The reasons for delay in implementation differed amongst the policy makers and faculty and included thematic issues at the institutional, programmatic and curricular level. Majority (92% of the faculty felt that COME curriculum couldn’t be implemented without adequate infrastructure. The administrators were willing to provide financial assistance, political support and better coordination and felt that COME could improve the overall health system of the country whereas the faculty did not agree to it. Conclusion The paper discusses the reasons of delay based on findings and identifies the strategies for curriculum change in established institutions. The key issues identified in our study included frequent transfer of faculty of the designated colleges and perceived lack of: · Continuation at the policy making level · Communication between the stakeholders · Effective leadership

  19. Problems and issues in implementing innovative curriculum in the developing countries: the Pakistani experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syeda Kauser; Baig, Lubna A

    2012-05-16

    The Government of Pakistan identified 4 medical Colleges for introduction of COME, one from each province. Curriculum was prepared by the faculty of these colleges and launched in 2001 and despite concerted efforts could not be implemented. The purpose of this research was to identify the reasons for delay in implementation of the COME curriculum and to assess the understanding of the stakeholders about COME. Mixed methods study design was used for data collection. In-depth interviews, mail-in survey questionnaire, and focus group discussions were held with the representatives of federal and provincial governments, Principals of medical colleges, faculty and students of the designated colleges. Rigor was ensured through independent coding and triangulation of data. The reasons for delay in implementation differed amongst the policy makers and faculty and included thematic issues at the institutional, programmatic and curricular level. Majority (92% of the faculty) felt that COME curriculum couldn't be implemented without adequate infrastructure. The administrators were willing to provide financial assistance, political support and better coordination and felt that COME could improve the overall health system of the country whereas the faculty did not agree to it. The paper discusses the reasons of delay based on findings and identifies the strategies for curriculum change in established institutions. The key issues identified in our study included frequent transfer of faculty of the designated colleges and perceived lack of: Continuation at the policy making level. Communication between the stakeholders. Effective leadership.

  20. Alignment of Teacher-Developed Curricula and National Standards in Qatar's National Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Al Mula, Badria; Al Mutawaha, Fatma; Al Bin Ali, Hessa; Kerr, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which teacher developed curriculum was aligned with the national standards in Qatar. Three sources of data included teacher response to a questionnaire, teacher interviews and expert rating of the alignment of teacher-developed materials with curriculum standards. A survey and interview questions measured…

  1. Designing Anatomy Program in Modern Medical Curriculum: Matter of Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Košta, Vana; Poljičanin, Ana; Čarić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. Methods TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman ρ test. Results The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman ρ = 0.83, P = 0.015) and TA (Spearman ρ = 0.73, P = 0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Conclusion Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence. PMID:19260144

  2. Ethics instruction in the dental hygiene curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerik, Mark G; Prajer, Renee G; Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Dental hygiene ethics is an essential component of the dental hygiene curriculum. The accreditation standards for dental hygiene education state that graduates must be competent in applying ethical concepts to the provision and/or support of oral health care services. Although the standards for entry into the profession of dental hygiene emphasize the importance of ethical reasoning, there is little published research specific to ethics instruction in dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to assess how ethics is taught in the dental hygiene curriculum. A 17-item survey was designed and distributed to 261 accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States for a response rate of 56% (N=147). The survey requested that participants provide information on teaching and evaluation methodologies, didactic and clinical hours of instruction, individuals responsible for providing instruction, and the degree of emphasis placed on ethics and integration of ethical reasoning within the dental hygiene curriculum. Results of the survey reflect that dental hygiene programs devote a mean of 20. hours to teaching dental hygiene ethics in the didactic component of the curriculum. With regard to the clinical component of the curriculum, 63% of respondents indicated that 10 or less hours are devoted to ethics instruction. These results show an increase in didactic hours of instruction from previous studies where the mean hours of instruction ranged from 7 to 11.7 hours. Results showed 64% of respondents offered a separate course in ethics; however, 82% of programs surveyed indicated that ethics was incorporated into one or more dental hygiene courses with 98% utilizing dental hygiene faculty to provide instruction. Most programs utilized a variety of instructional methods to teach ethics with the majority employing class discussion and lecture (99% and 97% respectively). The type of institution-technical college, community college, four-year university with a

  3. Evaluation of an Eating Disorder Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of "A Preventive Curriculum for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia" is reported. The evaluation, which included teachers, researchers, health professionals, and students, included development of the curriculum as well as pilot testing activities. The curriculum development and evaluation consisted of…

  4. National Curriculum and Federalism: The Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Hart, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Whilst the past 35 years have seen numerous attempts at national curriculum collaboration in Australia, these have invariably failed largely due to the constitutional reality that the States have responsibility for curriculum. Federal government involvement in curriculum can only be achieved, therefore, with the consent of the States. To achieve…

  5. An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,…

  6. Curriculum Designed for an Equitable Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Roxanne; Hill, Reinhold R.

    2013-01-01

    Rather than viewing curriculum as linear, a post-modern, learner-centered curriculum design is a spiral or recursive curriculum. Post-modernism provides a much less stable foundation upon which to build a model of student learning, a model that recognizes and even celebrates individual difference and one that is supported by research on how people…

  7. Leading Change in the Primary Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Nicky; Baker, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Nicky Waller and Chris Baker believe that change can be a good thing and explain how their training has helped others to adjust to the new science curriculum. In September 2013, teachers across England received the definitive version of the new primary curriculum "Leading Change in the Primary Science Curriculum." This course aimed to…

  8. 14 CFR 121.911 - Indoctrination curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indoctrination curriculum. 121.911 Section... Indoctrination curriculum. Each indoctrination curriculum must include the following: (a) For newly hired persons being trained under an AQP: The certificate holder's policies and operating practices and general...

  9. Dosimetric effects of edema in permanent prostate seed implants: a rigorous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Yue Ning; Wang Xiaohong; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Peschel, Richard; Nath, Ravinder

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To derive a rigorous analytic solution to the dosimetric effects of prostate edema so that its impact on the conventional pre-implant and post-implant dosimetry can be studied for any given radioactive isotope and edema characteristics. Methods and Materials: The edema characteristics observed by Waterman et al (Int. J. Rad. Onc. Biol. Phys, 41:1069-1077; 1998) was used to model the time evolution of the prostate and the seed locations. The total dose to any part of prostate tissue from a seed implant was calculated analytically by parameterizing the dose fall-off from a radioactive seed as a single inverse power function of distance, with proper account of the edema-induced time evolution. The dosimetric impact of prostate edema was determined by comparing the dose calculated with full consideration of prostate edema to that calculated with the conventional dosimetry approach where the seed locations and the target volume are assumed to be stationary. Results: A rigorous analytic solution on the relative dosimetric effects of prostate edema was obtained. This solution proved explicitly that the relative dosimetric effects of edema, as found in the previous numerical studies by Yue et. al. (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 43, 447-454, 1999), are independent of the size and the shape of the implant target volume and are independent of the number and the locations of the seeds implanted. It also showed that the magnitude of relative dosimetric effects is independent of the location of dose evaluation point within the edematous target volume. It implies that the relative dosimetric effects of prostate edema are universal with respect to a given isotope and edema characteristic. A set of master tables for the relative dosimetric effects of edema were obtained for a wide range of edema characteristics for both 125 I and 103 Pd prostate seed implants. Conclusions: A rigorous analytic solution of the relative dosimetric effects of prostate edema has been

  10. Software Quality Assurance and Controls Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    dassurance a wor pro uc s an processes comply with predefined provisions and plans. • According to International Standard (IS) 12207 – of the 44...from document (plan) focus to process focus – Alignment with framework standard IS 12207 software life cycle (SLC) processes with exact...Books and P blications IEEE Software and Systems Engineering curriculum ABET u Certified Software Development Professional Standards ISO /IEC

  11. Study of the quality characteristics in cold-smoked salmon (Salmo salar) originating from pre- or post-rigor raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, S; Akse, L

    2010-01-01

    Improved slaughtering procedures in the salmon industry have caused a delayed onset of rigor mortis and, thus, a potential for pre-rigor secondary processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rigor status at time of processing on quality traits color, texture, sensory, microbiological, in injection salted, and cold-smoked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Injection of pre-rigor fillets caused a significant (Prigor processed fillets; however, post-rigor (1477 ± 38 g) fillets had a significant (P>0.05) higher fracturability than pre-rigor fillets (1369 ± 71 g). Pre-rigor fillets were significantly (Prigor fillets (37.8 ± 0.8) and had significantly lower (Prigor processed fillets. This study showed that similar quality characteristics can be obtained in cold-smoked products processed either pre- or post-rigor when using suitable injection salting protocols and smoking techniques. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Application of the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the relevance of the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education for science knowledge and content standards for the preK-12 student population. The article includes: (1) a summary of key concepts; (2) a description of the science curriculum standards for K-3 in the United States; and (3) an example of an in-depth…

  13. Paulo Leminski : um estudo sobre o rigor e o relaxo em suas poesias

    OpenAIRE

    Dhynarte de Borba e Albuquerque

    2005-01-01

    O trabalho examina a trajetória da poesia de Paulo Leminski, buscando estabelecer os termos do humor, da pesquisa metalingüística e do eu-lírico, e que não deixa de exibir traços da poesia marginal dos 70. Um autor que trabalhou com a busca do rigor concretista mediante os procedimentos da fala cotidiana mais ou menos relaxada. O esforço poético do curitibano Leminski é uma “linha que nunca termina” – ele escreveu poesias, romances, peças de publicidade, letras de música e fez traduções. Em t...

  14. Rigorous decoupling between edge states in frustrated spin chains and ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepiga, Natalia; Mila, Frédéric

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the occurrence of exact zero modes in one-dimensional quantum magnets of finite length that possess edge states. Building on conclusions first reached in the context of the spin-1/2 X Y chain in a field and then for the spin-1 J1-J2 Heisenberg model, we show that the development of incommensurate correlations in the bulk invariably leads to oscillations in the sign of the coupling between edge states, and hence to exact zero energy modes at the crossing points where the coupling between the edge states rigorously vanishes. This is true regardless of the origin of the frustration (e.g., next-nearest-neighbor coupling or biquadratic coupling for the spin-1 chain), of the value of the bulk spin (we report on spin-1/2, spin-1, and spin-2 examples), and of the value of the edge-state emergent spin (spin-1/2 or spin-1).

  15. Using Project Complexity Determinations to Establish Required Levels of Project Rigor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    This presentation discusses the project complexity determination process that was developed by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for implementation at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The complexity determination process was developed to address the diversity of NNSS project types, size, and complexity; to fill the need for one procedure but with provision for tailoring the level of rigor to the project type, size, and complexity; and to provide consistent, repeatable, effective application of project management processes across the enterprise; and to achieve higher levels of efficiency in project delivery. These needs are illustrated by the wide diversity of NNSS projects: Defense Experimentation, Global Security, weapons tests, military training areas, sensor development and testing, training in realistic environments, intelligence community support, sensor development, environmental restoration/waste management, and disposal of radioactive waste, among others.

  16. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research.

  17. Release of major ions during rigor mortis development in kid Longissimus dorsi muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidt, C; Brun-Bellut, J

    1999-01-01

    Ionic strength plays an important role in post mortem muscle changes. Its increase is due to ion release during the development of rigor mortis. Twelve alpine kids were used to study the effects of chilling and meat pH on ion release. Free ions were measured in Longissimus dorsi muscle by capillary electrophoresis after water extraction. All free ion concentrations increased after death, but there were differences between ions. Temperature was not a factor affecting ion release in contrast to ultimate pH value. Three release mechanisms are believed to coexist: a passive binding to proteins, which stops as pH decreases, an active segregation which stops as ATP disappears and the production of metabolites due to anaerobic glycolysis.

  18. Revisiting the scientific method to improve rigor and reproducibility of immunohistochemistry in reproductive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Sharrón L; Johnson, Brian W; Frevert, Charles W; Duncan, Francesca E

    2018-04-21

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a robust scientific tool whereby cellular components are visualized within a tissue, and this method has been and continues to be a mainstay for many reproductive biologists. IHC is highly informative if performed and interpreted correctly, but studies have shown that the general use and reporting of appropriate controls in IHC experiments is low. This omission of the scientific method can result in data that lacks rigor and reproducibility. In this editorial, we highlight key concepts in IHC controls and describe an opportunity for our field to partner with the Histochemical Society to adopt their IHC guidelines broadly as researchers, authors, ad hoc reviewers, editorial board members, and editors-in-chief. Such cross-professional society interactions will ensure that we produce the highest quality data as new technologies emerge that still rely upon the foundations of classic histological and immunohistochemical principles.

  19. Rigorous approach to the comparison between experiment and theory in Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Chen, F; Decca, R S; Fischbach, E; Krause, D E; Lopez, D; Mohideen, U; Mostepanenko, V M

    2006-01-01

    In most experiments on the Casimir force the comparison between measurement data and theory was done using the concept of the root-mean-square deviation, a procedure that has been criticized in the literature. Here we propose a special statistical analysis which should be performed separately for the experimental data and for the results of the theoretical computations. In so doing, the random, systematic and total experimental errors are found as functions of separation, taking into account the distribution laws for each error at 95% confidence. Independently, all theoretical errors are combined to obtain the total theoretical error at the same confidence. Finally, the confidence interval for the differences between theoretical and experimental values is obtained as a function of separation. This rigorous approach is applied to two recent experiments on the Casimir effect

  20. Direct integration of the S-matrix applied to rigorous diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iff, W; Lindlein, N; Tishchenko, A V

    2014-01-01

    A novel Fourier method for rigorous diffraction computation at periodic structures is presented. The procedure is based on a differential equation for the S-matrix, which allows direct integration of the S-matrix blocks. This results in a new method in Fourier space, which can be considered as a numerically stable and well-parallelizable alternative to the conventional differential method based on T-matrix integration and subsequent conversions from the T-matrices to S-matrix blocks. Integration of the novel differential equation in implicit manner is expounded. The applicability of the new method is shown on the basis of 1D periodic structures. It is clear however, that the new technique can also be applied to arbitrary 2D periodic or periodized structures. The complexity of the new method is O(N 3 ) similar to the conventional differential method with N being the number of diffraction orders. (fast track communication)

  1. Rigorous description of holograms of particles illuminated by an astigmatic elliptical Gaussian beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y J; Ren, K F; Coetmellec, S; Lebrun, D, E-mail: fang.ren@coria.f [UMR 6614/CORIA, CNRS and Universite et INSA de Rouen Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2009-02-01

    The digital holography is a non-intrusive optical metrology and well adapted for the measurement of the size and velocity field of particles in the spray of a fluid. The simplified model of an opaque disk is often used in the treatment of the diagrams and therefore the refraction and the third dimension diffraction of the particle are not taken into account. We present in this paper a rigorous description of the holographic diagrams and evaluate the effects of the refraction and the third dimension diffraction by comparison to the opaque disk model. It is found that the effects are important when the real part of the refractive index is near unity or the imaginary part is non zero but small.

  2. A new method for deriving rigorous results on ππ scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Dita, P.

    1979-06-01

    We develop a new approach to the problem of constraining the ππ scattering amplitudes by means of the axiomatically proved properties of unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The method is based on the solution of an extremal problem on a convex set of analytic functions and provides a global description of the domain of values taken by any finite number of partial waves at an arbitrary set of unphysical energies, compatible with unitarity, the bounds at complex energies derived from generalized dispersion relations and the crossing integral relations. From this doma domain we obtain new absolute bounds for the amplitudes as well as rigorous correlations between the values of various partial waves. (author)

  3. Rigorous Numerics for ill-posed PDEs: Periodic Orbits in the Boussinesq Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Roberto; Gameiro, Marcio; Lessard, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop computer-assisted techniques for the analysis of periodic orbits of ill-posed partial differential equations. As a case study, our proposed method is applied to the Boussinesq equation, which has been investigated extensively because of its role in the theory of shallow water waves. The idea is to use the symmetry of the solutions and a Newton-Kantorovich type argument (the radii polynomial approach) to obtain rigorous proofs of existence of the periodic orbits in a weighted ℓ1 Banach space of space-time Fourier coefficients with exponential decay. We present several computer-assisted proofs of the existence of periodic orbits at different parameter values.

  4. Study design elements for rigorous quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Dowd, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    Quasi-experiments are likely to be the workhorse study design used to generate evidence about the comparative effectiveness of alternative treatments, because of their feasibility, timeliness, affordability and external validity compared with randomized trials. In this review, we outline potential sources of discordance in results between quasi-experiments and experiments, review study design choices that can improve the internal validity of quasi-experiments, and outline innovative data linkage strategies that may be particularly useful in quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research. There is an urgent need to resolve the debate about the evidentiary value of quasi-experiments since equal consideration of rigorous quasi-experiments will broaden the base of evidence that can be brought to bear in clinical decision-making and governmental policy-making.

  5. Increasing rigor in NMR-based metabolomics through validated and open source tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Romero, Pedro R; Westler, William M; Baskaran, Kumaran; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L

    2017-02-01

    The metabolome, the collection of small molecules associated with an organism, is a growing subject of inquiry, with the data utilized for data-intensive systems biology, disease diagnostics, biomarker discovery, and the broader characterization of small molecules in mixtures. Owing to their close proximity to the functional endpoints that govern an organism's phenotype, metabolites are highly informative about functional states. The field of metabolomics identifies and quantifies endogenous and exogenous metabolites in biological samples. Information acquired from nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and the published literature, as processed by statistical approaches, are driving increasingly wider applications of metabolomics. This review focuses on the role of databases and software tools in advancing the rigor, robustness, reproducibility, and validation of metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A rigorous phenomenological analysis of the ππ scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Dita, P.; Sararu, M.

    1979-11-01

    The constraining power of the present experimental data, combined with the general theoretical knowledge about ππ scattering, upon the scattering lengths of this process, is investigated by means of a rigorous functional method. We take as input the experimental phase shifts and make no hypotheses about the high energy behaviour of the amplitudes, using only absolute bounds derived from axiomatic field theory and exact consequences of crossing symmetry. In the simplest application of the method, involving only the π 0 π 0 S-wave, we explored numerically a number of values proposed by various authors for the scattering lengths a 0 and a 2 and found that no one appears to be especially favoured. (author)

  7. New tools for Content Innovation and data sharing: Enhancing reproducibility and rigor in biomechanics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilak, Farshid

    2017-03-21

    We are currently in one of the most exciting times for science and engineering as we witness unprecedented growth in our computational and experimental capabilities to generate new data and models. To facilitate data and model sharing, and to enhance reproducibility and rigor in biomechanics research, the Journal of Biomechanics has introduced a number of tools for Content Innovation to allow presentation, sharing, and archiving of methods, models, and data in our articles. The tools include an Interactive Plot Viewer, 3D Geometric Shape and Model Viewer, Virtual Microscope, Interactive MATLAB Figure Viewer, and Audioslides. Authors are highly encouraged to make use of these in upcoming journal submissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; He, Jianfeng; Song, Tie; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Xie, Runsheng; Zhong, Haojie; Wu, Xiaocheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-08-02

    Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6%) in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI) data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed) model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250). The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  9. Bringing scientific rigor to community-developed programs in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Cecilia S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes efforts to generate evidence for community-developed programs to enhance family relationships in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong, within the framework of community-based participatory research (CBPR. Methods The CBPR framework was applied to help maximize the development of the intervention and the public health impact of the studies, while enhancing the capabilities of the social service sector partners. Results Four academic-community research teams explored the process of designing and implementing randomized controlled trials in the community. In addition to the expected cultural barriers between teams of academics and community practitioners, with their different outlooks, concerns and languages, the team navigated issues in utilizing the principles of CBPR unique to this Chinese culture. Eventually the team developed tools for adaptation, such as an emphasis on building the relationship while respecting role delineation and an iterative process of defining the non-negotiable parameters of research design while maintaining scientific rigor. Lessons learned include the risk of underemphasizing the size of the operational and skills shift between usual agency practices and research studies, the importance of minimizing non-negotiable parameters in implementing rigorous research designs in the community, and the need to view community capacity enhancement as a long term process. Conclusions The four pilot studies under the FAMILY Project demonstrated that nuanced design adaptations, such as wait list controls and shorter assessments, better served the needs of the community and led to the successful development and vigorous evaluation of a series of preventive, family-oriented interventions in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong.

  10. Rigorous Multicomponent Reactive Separations Modelling: Complete Consideration of Reaction-Diffusion Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, A.; Meyer, M.; Rouzineau, D.; Prevost, M.; Alix, P.; Laloue, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the first step of the development of a rigorous multicomponent reactive separation model. Such a model is highly essential to further the optimization of acid gases removal plants (CO 2 capture, gas treating, etc.) in terms of size and energy consumption, since chemical solvents are conventionally used. Firstly, two main modelling approaches are presented: the equilibrium-based and the rate-based approaches. Secondly, an extended rate-based model with rigorous modelling methodology for diffusion-reaction phenomena is proposed. The film theory and the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations are used in order to characterize multicomponent interactions. The complete chain of chemical reactions is taken into account. The reactions can be kinetically controlled or at chemical equilibrium, and they are considered for both liquid film and liquid bulk. Thirdly, the method of numerical resolution is described. Coupling the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations with chemical equilibrium equations leads to a highly non-linear Differential-Algebraic Equations system known as DAE index 3. The set of equations is discretized with finite-differences as its integration by Gear method is complex. The resulting algebraic system is resolved by the Newton- Raphson method. Finally, the present model and the associated methods of numerical resolution are validated for the example of esterification of methanol. This archetype non-electrolytic system permits an interesting analysis of reaction impact on mass transfer, especially near the phase interface. The numerical resolution of the model by Newton-Raphson method gives good results in terms of calculation time and convergence. The simulations show that the impact of reactions at chemical equilibrium and that of kinetically controlled reactions with high kinetics on mass transfer is relatively similar. Moreover, the Fick's law is less adapted for multicomponent mixtures where some abnormalities such as counter

  11. Rigorous upper bounds for transport due to passive advection by inhomogeneous turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Smith, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    A variational procedure, due originally to Howard and explored by Busse and others for self-consistent turbulence problems, is employed to determine rigorous upper bounds for the advection of a passive scalar through an inhomogeneous turbulent slab with arbitrary generalized Reynolds number R and Kubo number K. In the basic version of the method, the steady-state energy balance is used as a constraint; the resulting bound, though rigorous, is independent of K. A pedagogical reference model (one dimension, K = ∞) is described in detail; the bound compares favorably with the exact solution. The direct-interaction approximation is also worked out for this model; it is somewhat more accurate than the bound, but requires considerably more labor to solve. For the basic bound, a general formalism is presented for several dimensions, finite correlation length, and reasonably general boundary conditions. Part of the general method, in which a Green's function technique is employed, applies to self-consistent as well as to passive problems, and thereby generalizes previous results in the fluid literature. The formalism is extended for the first time to include time-dependent constraints, and a bound is deduced which explicitly depends on K and has the correct physical scalings in all regimes of R and K. Two applications from the theory of turbulent plasmas ae described: flux in velocity space, and test particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields. For the velocity space problem the simplest bound reproduces Dupree's original scaling for the strong turbulence diffusion coefficient. For the case of stochastic magnetic fields, the scaling of the bounds is described for the magnetic diffusion coefficient as well as for the particle diffusion coefficient in the so-called collisionless, fluid, and double-streaming regimes

  12. Bringing scientific rigor to community-developed programs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; Hirschmann, Malia R; Lam, Tai Hing; Cheung, Teresa; Pang, Irene; Chan, Sophia; Stewart, Sunita M

    2012-12-31

    This paper describes efforts to generate evidence for community-developed programs to enhance family relationships in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong, within the framework of community-based participatory research (CBPR). The CBPR framework was applied to help maximize the development of the intervention and the public health impact of the studies, while enhancing the capabilities of the social service sector partners. Four academic-community research teams explored the process of designing and implementing randomized controlled trials in the community. In addition to the expected cultural barriers between teams of academics and community practitioners, with their different outlooks, concerns and languages, the team navigated issues in utilizing the principles of CBPR unique to this Chinese culture. Eventually the team developed tools for adaptation, such as an emphasis on building the relationship while respecting role delineation and an iterative process of defining the non-negotiable parameters of research design while maintaining scientific rigor. Lessons learned include the risk of underemphasizing the size of the operational and skills shift between usual agency practices and research studies, the importance of minimizing non-negotiable parameters in implementing rigorous research designs in the community, and the need to view community capacity enhancement as a long term process. The four pilot studies under the FAMILY Project demonstrated that nuanced design adaptations, such as wait list controls and shorter assessments, better served the needs of the community and led to the successful development and vigorous evaluation of a series of preventive, family-oriented interventions in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong.

  13. Rigor mortis development at elevated temperatures induces pale exudative turkey meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, S R; Sams, A R

    1998-01-01

    Development of rigor mortis at elevated post-mortem temperatures may contribute to turkey meat characteristics that are similar to those found in pale, soft, exudative pork. To evaluate this effect, 36 Nicholas tom turkeys were processed at 19 wk of age and placed in water at 40, 20, and 0 C immediately after evisceration. Pectoralis muscle samples were taken at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h post-mortem and analyzed for R-value (an indirect measure of adenosine triphosphate), glycogen, pH, color, and sarcomere length. At 4 h, the remaining intact Pectoralis muscle was harvested, and aged on ice 23 h, and analyzed for drip loss, cook loss, shear values, and sarcomere length. By 15 min post-mortem, the 40 C treatment had higher R-values, which persisted through 4 h. By 1 h, the 40 C treatment pH and glycogen levels were lower than the 0 C treatment; however, they did not differ from those of the 20 C treatment. Increased L* values indicated that color became more pale by 2 h post-mortem in the 40 C treatment when compared to the 20 and 0 C treatments. Drip loss, cook loss, and shear value were increased whereas sarcomere lengths were decreased as a result of the 40 C treatment. These findings suggested that elevated post-mortem temperatures during processing resulted in acceleration of rigor mortis and biochemical changes in the muscle that produced pale, exudative meat characteristics in turkey.

  14. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? Methods We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6% in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. Results A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250. The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. Conclusions This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  15. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, David C; Lukacs, Paul M; Blakesley, Jennifer A; Skorkowsky, Robert C; Klute, David S; Hahn, Beth A; Dreitz, Victoria J; George, T Luke; Hanni, David J

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17). We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1) determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2) estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous statistical

  16. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pavlacky

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1 coordination across organizations and regions, 2 meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3 rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17. We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1 determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2 estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous

  17. Oral Communication across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

  18. Curriculum Innovation for Marketing Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J.; McCabe, Catherine; Smith, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    College graduates need better preparation for and experience in data analytics for higher-quality problem solving. Using the curriculum innovation framework of Borin, Metcalf, and Tietje (2007) and case study research methods, we offer rich insights about one higher education institution's work to address the marketing analytics skills gap.…

  19. Broadening the spectrum through curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel-Hills P

    2006-01-01

    Radiography has experienced changes and challenges from a number of sources. The rapid technological changes in imaging an radiation treatment, changes in the professional context and social transformation have had an impact on the shape and structure of the radiography curriculum. It too must change to prepare graduates for the broadening radiography spectrum

  20. Complex Variables throughout the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, John P.

    2017-01-01

    We offer many specific detailed examples, several of which are new, that instructors can use (in lecture or as student projects) to revitalize the role of complex variables throughout the curriculum. We conclude with three primary recommendations: revise the syllabus of Calculus II to allow early introductions of complex numbers and linear…

  1. Food Production & Service Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide deals with planning and implementing a course in food production and service. Addressed in the course are the following topics: using basic food service processes; performing the tasks of a kitchen helper, stock clerk, baker's helper, pastry helper, cook's helper, pantry goods maker, short order cook, cook, dining room…

  2. Sustainability in Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassey, Jarka; Haile, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a concentrated strategy to embed sustainability teaching into a (chemical) engineering undergraduate curriculum throughout the whole programme. Innovative teaching approaches in subject-specific context are described and their efficiency investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The activities in…

  3. Predoctoral Curriculum Guidelines for Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' predoctoral guidelines for biomaterials curricula includes notes on interrelationships between this and other fields, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives for each content area, and information on sequencing, faculty and…

  4. Ethnomusicology, Ethnomathematics, and Integrating Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Ryan; Marshall, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Integrating curriculum provides rich opportunities for students to focus on relevant applications to the real world and make meaningful connections across different disciplines. This article attempts to go beyond common discourse and platitudes by offering specific examples, showing we--an ethnomusicologist and a mathematics educator--attempted to…

  5. Social Crisis and Curriculum Accords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    School curricula are not politically neutral grounds of knowledge. Rather, each takes certain social forms and embodies certain interests. The article discusses how the power of class, race, and gender dynamics determines curriculum structure. It also discusses the role of the school in capitalist countries. (JL)

  6. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  7. Planning Curriculum in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durtka, Sharon; Dye, Alex; Freund, Judy; Harris, Jay; Kline, Julie; LeBreck, Carol; Reimbold, Rebecca; Tabachnick, Robert; Tantala, Renee; Wagler, Mark

    International education begins at home, in the very communities and environments most familiar to students. A student does not need to travel outside U.S. borders to meet the peoples or understand the issues of the global village. This planning guide shows how curriculum in all subject areas encompasses global challenges, global cultures, and…

  8. ICT tools for curriculum development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Nieveen, N.M.; van den Akker, J.J.H.; Kuiper, W.J.A.M.; Hameyer, U.

    2003-01-01

    Along with others in this book, this chapter examines a recent trend in curriculum development, namely, employing the computer to support this complex process. Not to be confused with the vast majority of ICT tools for education, which support the teachers and learners more directly, this discussion

  9. Politisk retorik, curriculum og praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Bergthora

    2017-01-01

    orienteret fag i en globaliseret verden. Bergthóra Kristjánsdóttir Lektor, ph.d., DPU Aarhus Universitet. Underviser på DAV og masteruddannelsen i dansk som andetsprog. Forsker i uddannelsespolitik på makro- og mikroniveau, herunder minoriteter/majoriteter, curriculum, tosprogethed, dansk og dansk som...

  10. Digital Citizenship in the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutka, Daniel G.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.

    2017-01-01

    "If education is to be a safeguard of democracy, then recent events suggest tweets and other social media must be part of curriculum," write Daniel G. Krutka and Jeffrey P. Carpenter. In this article, the authors argue that teaching citizenship also requires teaching with and about social media. They provide a framework for educators to…

  11. Curriculum structure: principles and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, R.; Kersten, H.; Vinkka-Puhakka, H.; Alpaslan, G.; Bearn, D.; Cema, I.; Delap, E.; Dummer, P.; Goulet, J.P.; Gugushe, T.; Jeniati, E.; Jerolimov, V.; Kotsanos, N.; Krifka, S.; Levy, G.; Neway, M.; Ogawa, T.; Saag, M.; Sidlauskas, A.; Skaleric, U.; Vervoorn, M.; White, D.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides general guidelines for the structure of a curriculum, followed by specific advice on the principles of learning and teaching, the process of restructuring and change leadership and management. It provides examples of several educational philosophies, including vertical and

  12. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark School District, DE.

    The fourth of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 4 (grades 9-12), science areas include earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Six major themes provide the basis for study in all levels (K-12). These are: Change, Continuity, Diversity, Interaction, Limitation, and Organization. In Level 4, all six themes are…

  13. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  14. [Creating an integrated nursing curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, R A; Papa, L M; Lopes, G T

    1997-01-01

    During the last two decades, Brazilian society has gone through great changes into political, ideological and economical fields. These changes left their strings into society, specially in population health. The nurse formation based on the Law n(o) 5540/68 and on the Statement n(o) 163/72, no more meets population demands. Since 1992, the Nursing Faculty of UERJ-FEUerj intensifies the reflection movement upon teaching-learning process searching for transforming its own reality. The making of this project presents two complementary and important reasons: FEUerj docents and discents' desire in elaborating a curriculum which searches for nurses' formation that articulates teaching-work-community, theory and practice, based on a Critical Theory of Education, on the line of PROBLEMATIZATION, and the accomplishment of Statement n(o) 314/94 from the CFE and from the Letter of Order MEC n(o) 1171/15/dez/94. From debating, the professional profile has been defined from the social environment where the profession is performed and the alumnate's characteristics; area determination or group of attributions, according to professional praxis adequation, concept hierachization, processes, etc., which in the process of 'classification and syntheses' of knowledge results into a netlike chained and related tree. In the first phase of the curriculum study, it has diagnosed as principal condition, the actual curriculum 'DECONTEXTUALIZATION' and the 'US' to be faced to lead it to an end the Curriculum Reformulation Proposal. The Process of Pedagogical Abilitation for professors, workshops, researches on the desirable and present profile, seminars, performance, abilities and principles systematization, identification of areas which compose the integrated curriculum, subjects localization into areas and articulation between professional subjects and other activities, has been implemented. Based on this work on the problematized pedagogy first step, an instrument 'Research on the

  15. Guest Editorial: The "NGSS" Case Studies: All Standards, All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-01-01

    To teachers of diverse classrooms, more rigorous standards in science may seem intimidating, as the past years of rigid accountability have failed to close the achievement gap. However, the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") were written with all students in mind, with input and full review by a diversity and equity…

  16. Effects of Pre and Post-Rigor Marinade Injection on Some Quality Parameters of Longissimus Dorsi Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadıloğlu, Eylem Ezgi; Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pre and post-rigor marinade injections on some quality parameters of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. Three marinade formulations were prepared with 2% NaCl, 2% NaCl+0.5 M lactic acid and 2% NaCl+0.5 M sodium lactate. In this study marinade uptake, pH, free water, cooking loss, drip loss and color properties were analyzed. Injection time had significant effect on marinade uptake levels of samples. Regardless of marinate formulation, marinade uptake of pre-rigor samples injected with marinade solutions were higher than post rigor samples. Injection of sodium lactate increased pH values of samples whereas lactic acid injection decreased pH. Marinade treatment and storage period had significant effect on cooking loss. At each evaluation period interaction between marinade treatment and injection time showed different effect on free water content. Storage period and marinade application had significant effect on drip loss values. Drip loss in all samples increased during the storage. During all storage days, lowest CIE L* value was found in pre-rigor samples injected with sodium lactate. Lactic acid injection caused color fade in pre-rigor and post-rigor samples. Interaction between marinade treatment and storage period was found statistically significant (p<0.05). At day 0 and 3, the lowest CIE b* values obtained pre-rigor samples injected with sodium lactate and there were no differences were found in other samples. At day 6, no significant differences were found in CIE b* values of all samples. PMID:29805282

  17. SYMBIOSIS: development, implementation, and assessment of a model curriculum across biology and mathematics at the introductory level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depelteau, Audrey M; Joplin, Karl H; Govett, Aimee; Miller, Hugh A; Seier, Edith

    2010-01-01

    "It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security in what is no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventurous and exciting, for in movement there is life, and in change there is power." Alan Cohen (Used by permission. All rights reserved. For more information on Alan Cohen's books and programs, see (www.alancohen.com.) With the support of the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) administration and a grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the departments of Biological Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics, and Curriculum and Instruction have developed a biology-math integrated curriculum. An interdisciplinary faculty team, charged with teaching the 18 curriculum modules, designed this three-semester curriculum, known as SYMBIOSIS. This curriculum was piloted to two student cohorts during the developmental stage. The positive feedback and assessment results of this project have given us the foundation to implement the SYMBIOSIS curriculum as a replacement for the standard biology majors curriculum at the introductory level. This article addresses the history and development of the curriculum, previous assessment results and current assessment protocol, and the future of ETSU's approach to implementing the SYMBIOSIS curriculum.

  18. Mathematical Communication in State Standards before the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosko, Karl Wesley; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical communication has been an important feature of standards documents since National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) (1989) "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards." Such an emphasis has influenced content standards of states from then to present. This study examined how effective the prevalence of various forms of…

  19. Integrating Resources into Curriculum with the Systems Connect Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshry, A.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    A broadly applicable and guided approach for planning curriculum and instruction around new academic standards or initiatives is critical for implementation success. Curriculum and assessment differs across schools and districts, so built-in adaptability is important for maximal adoption and ease of use by educators. The Systems Connect Planning Guide directs the flow of instruction for building conceptual links between topics in a unit/curriculum through critical vetting and integration of relevant resources. This curricular template is flexible for use in any setting or subject area, and ensures applicability, high impact and responsiveness to academic standards while providing inquiry-based, real-world investigations and action that incorporate authentic research and data. These needs are what informed the creation of the three components of the planning guide:• Curriculum Anchor: alignment with academic standards & learning outcomes and setting the context of the topic• Issues Investigations: informing how students explore topics, and incorporate authentic research and data into learning progressions• Civic Action: development of how students could apply their knowledgeThe Planning Guide also incorporates criteria from transdisciplinary practices, cross-cutting concepts, and organizational charts for outlining guiding questions and conceptual links embedded in the guide. Integration of experiential learning and real-world connections into curricula is important for proficiency and deeper understanding of content, replacing discrete, stand-alone experiences which are not explicitly connected. Rather than information being dispelled through individual activities, relying on students to make the connections, intentionally documenting explicit connections provides opportunities to foster deeper understanding by building conceptual links between topics, which is how fundamental knowledge about earth and living systems is gained. Through the critical vetting

  20. A Learner-Created Virtual Patient Curriculum for Surgical Residents: Successes and Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendy, Katherine M; Posel, Nancy; Fleiszer, David M; Vassiliou, Melina C

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a learner-created virtual patient (VP) curriculum for postgraduate year 2 surgical residents. Using a social-constructivist model of learning, we designed a learner-created VP curriculum to help postgraduate year 2 residents prepare for their in-training surgical examination. Each resident was assigned to create a VP curriculum based on the learning objectives for this examination, and VP cases were then disseminated to all residents for completion. To measure the learning effects of the curriculum, participants completed 2 simulated in-training examinations, both at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Study participants also participated in a focus group and completed an online questionnaire about the perceived learning value of the curriculum. The study was conducted at the McGill University Health Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Montreal, Canada. In total, 24 residents from 7 surgical specialties completed both the pretest and posttest, as well as took part in the creation of a VP curriculum. Of those 24 residents, only 19 residents completed the cases created by their peers, with 7 completing greater than 50% of the cases and 12 completing less than 50%. In all 17 residents responded to the online questionnaire and 11 residents participated in the focus group. The VP curriculum failed to improve scores from pretest (59.6%, standard deviation = 8.1) to posttest (55.4%, standard deviation = 6.6; p = 0.01) on the simulated in-training examination. Nonetheless, survey results demonstrated that most residents felt that creating a VP case (89%) and completing cases created by their peers (71%) had educational value. Overall, 71% preferred active participation in a curriculum to traditional didactic teaching. The focus group identified time-related constraints, concern about the quality of the peer-created cases, and questioning of the relationship between the curriculum and the Surgical Foundations

  1. Using clinical journaling to capture critical thinking across the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthman, Jacklyn; Jackson, Janet; Cluskey, Maureen; Flannigan, Peggy; Folse, Victoria N; Bunten, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Clinical journaling is used as an integrated teaching methodology throughout the practicum component of a baccalaureate nursing curriculum. Two disciplines, Nursing and English, collaborated to develop clinical journaling guidelines to provide a consistent framework for student learning and evaluation in a variety of clinical settings. Students complete a weekly log for each clinical rotation. They identify learning goals, analyze events and relate them to nursing practice, use critical thinking to connect theory and practice, and reflect on the experience.A collegiate standard of writing is used. As the student advances through the program, a pattern of accomplishments and a cumulative integration of skills is evidenced to provide consistent standards for student evaluation.

  2. Lessons learned from a rigorous peer-review process for building the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness (CLEAN) collection of high-quality digital teaching materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Niepold, F.; Fox, S.; Howell, C. D.; Lynds, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The topic of climate change permeates all aspects of our society: the news, household debates, scientific conferences, etc. To provide students with accurate information about climate science and energy awareness, educators require scientifically and pedagogically robust teaching materials. To address this need, the NSF-funded Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway has assembled a new peer-reviewed digital collection as part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) featuring teaching materials centered on climate and energy science for grades 6 through 16. The scope and framework of the collection is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP 2009) and a set of energy awareness principles developed in the project. The collection provides trustworthy teaching materials on these socially relevant topics and prepares students to become responsible decision-makers. While a peer-review process is desirable for curriculum developer as well as collection builder to ensure quality, its implementation is non-trivial. We have designed a rigorous and transparent peer-review process for the CLEAN collection, and our experiences provide general guidelines that can be used to judge the quality of digital teaching materials across disciplines. Our multi-stage review process ensures that only resources with teaching goals relevant to developing climate literacy and energy awareness are considered. Each relevant resource is reviewed by two individuals to assess the i) scientific accuracy, ii) pedagogic effectiveness, and iii) usability/technical quality. A science review by an expert ensures the scientific quality and accuracy. Resources that pass all review steps are forwarded to a review panel of educators and scientists who make a final decision regarding inclusion of the materials in the CLEAN collection. Results from the first panel review show that about 20% (~100) of the resources that were initially considered for inclusion

  3. The effect of rigor mortis on the passage of erythrocytes and fluid through the myocardium of isolated dog hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, T J; Gavin, J B; Seelye, R N; Whitehouse, S; Donnell, M

    1978-07-01

    The effect of normal and artificially induced rigor mortis on the vascular passage of erythrocytes and fluid through isolated dog hearts was studied. Increased rigidity of 6-mm thick transmural sections through the centre of the posterior papillary muscle was used as an indication of rigor. The perfusibility of the myocardium was tested by injecting 10 ml of 1% sodium fluorescein in Hanks solution into the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery. In prerigor hearts (20 minute incubation) fluorescein perfused the myocardium evenly whether or not it was preceded by an injection of 10 ml of heparinized dog blood. Rigor mortis developed in all hearts after 90 minutes incubation or within 20 minutes of perfusing the heart with 50 ml of 5 mM iodoacetate in Hanks solution. Fluorescein injected into hearts in rigor did not enter the posterior papillary muscle and adjacent subendocardium whether or not it was preceded by heparinized blood. Thus the vascular occlusion caused by rigor in the dog heart appears to be so effective that it prevents flow into the subendocardium of small soluble ions such as fluorescein.

  4. Talk the Talk: Implementing a Communication Curriculum for Surgical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Anna B; Trickey, Amber W; Porrey, Melissa; Wright, Jeffrey; Piscitani, Franco; Graling, Paula; Dort, Jonathan

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education milestones provide a framework of specific interpersonal and communication skills that surgical trainees should aim to master. However, training and assessment of resident nontechnical skills remains challenging. We aimed to develop and implement a curriculum incorporating interactive learning principles such as group discussion and simulation-based scenarios to formalize instruction in patient-centered communication skills, and to identify best practices when building such a program. The curriculum is presented in quarterly modules over a 2-year cycle. Using our surgical simulation center for the training, we focused on proven strategies for interacting with patients and other providers. We trained and used former patients as standardized participants (SPs) in communication scenarios. Surgical simulation center in a 900-bed tertiary care hospital. Program learners were general surgery residents (postgraduate year 1-5). Trauma Survivors Network volunteers served as SPs in simulation scenarios. We identified several important lessons: (1) designing and implementing a new curriculum is a challenging process with multiple barriers and complexities; (2) several readily available facilitators can ease the implementation process; (3) with the right approach, learners, faculty, and colleagues are enthusiastic and engaged participants; (4) learners increasingly agree that communication skills can be improved with practice and appreciate the curriculum value; (5) patient SPs can be valuable members of the team; and importantly (6) the culture of patient-physician communication appears to shift with the implementation of such a curriculum. Our approach using Trauma Survivors Network volunteers as SPs could be reproduced in other institutions with similar programs. Faculty enthusiasm and support is strong, and learner participation is active. Continued focus on patient and family communication skills would enhance

  5. Curriculum of broaden education and theory of teaching activity in school Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirléia Silvano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the conception of curriculum with broaden character in Physical Education and Davidov and Leontiev’s learning theory as possibility of focusing on human education in the omnilateral perspective. We endorse the necessity that the curriculum dynamics – dealing with knowledge, school systematization and standardization of school practices – becomes effective in a curriculum of broaden character. We consider that dealing with knowledge involves the necessity to create conditions that promote the transmission and assimilation of school knowledge. We refer therefore to a scientific direction of the teaching process, in other words, that the teacher leads the student to enter into study activity; from abstract knowledge rising to concrete theoretical knowledge, which is brought about by curriculum organization from a broaden conception.

  6. Preparing skilled labor in industry through production-based curriculum approach in vocational high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto

    2017-09-01

    Vocational high school (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan / SMK) aims to prepare mid-level skilled labors to work in the industry and are able to create self-employment opportunities. For those reasons, the curriculum in SMK should be based on meeting the needs of the industries and is able to prepare learners to master the competence in accordance with the skills program of their choice. Production based curriculum is the curriculum which the learning process is designed together with the production process or using production process as a learning medium. This approach with the primary intention to introduce students with the real working environment and not merely simulations. In the production-based curriculum implementation model, students are directly involved in the industry through the implementation of industrial working practices, do work on production units in school, and do practical work in school by doing the job as done in the industry by using industry standards machines.

  7. Layout optimization of DRAM cells using rigorous simulation model for NTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jinhyuck; Kim, Shinyoung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Kuechler, Bernd; Zimmermann, Rainer; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Schmoeller, Thomas; Do, Mun-hoe; Choi, Jung-Hoe

    2014-03-01

    scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements. High resist impact and difficult model data acquisition demand for a simulation model that hat is capable of extrapolating reliably beyond its calibration dataset. We use rigorous simulation models to provide that predictive performance. We have discussed the need of a rigorous mask optimization process for DRAM contact cell layout yielding mask layouts that are optimal in process performance, mask manufacturability and accuracy. In this paper, we have shown the step by step process from analytical illumination source derivation, a NTD and application tailored model calibration to layout optimization such as OPC and SRAF placement. Finally the work has been verified with simulation and experimental results on wafer.

  8. Extended professional development for systemic curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitskey, Mary Elizabeth

    Education standards call for adopting inquiry science instruction. Successful adoption requires professional development (PD) to support teachers, increasing the need for research on PD. This dissertation examines the question: What is the influence of high quality, curriculum aligned, long-term group workshops and related practice on teacher learning? I focus on the following subquestions: (1) What is the influence of high quality, curriculum aligned, long-term, group workshops on teacher knowledge and beliefs? (2) What is the impact of the workshops on teacher practice? (3) What is the influence of practice on student response? (4) What is the impact of practice and student response on teacher knowledge and beliefs? I focus on an instance of PD nested within a long-term systemic change initiative, tracing eleven science teachers' learning from workshops and associated enactments. The data included pre and post-unit interviews (n=22), two post-workshop interviews (n=17), workshop observations (n=2), classroom observations (n=24) and student work (n=351). I used mixed-methods analysis. Quantitative analysis measured teacher learning by comparing pre and post-unit interview ratings. Qualitative components included two case study approaches: logic model technique and cross-case synthesis, examining teacher learning within and across teachers. The findings suggested a teacher-learning model incorporating PD, teacher knowledge, beliefs, practice and student response. PD impacts teachers' knowledge by providing teachers with new knowledge, adapting previous knowledge, or convincing them to value existing knowledge they chose not to use. The workshops can influence beliefs, providing teachers with confidence and motivation to adopt the practice. Beliefs can mediate how knowledge manifested itself in practice that, in turn, impacts students' response. Student response influences the teachers' beliefs, either reinforcing or motivating change. This teacher-learning model

  9. Nurses' occupational health as a driver for curriculum change emphasising health promotion: an historical research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Pamela J

    2014-05-01

    Reasons stated for curriculum change in nursing education are usually shifts in knowledge, care delivery, roles, regulatory standards and population health needs. In New Zealand in the 1930s, a curriculum change was driven instead by the need to protect and promote nurses' health. Tuberculosis was an international occupational health risk among nurses. Mary Lambie, New Zealand's chief nurse, considered nursing a "hazardous profession". One remedy she instituted was curriculum change in the national nurse training programme to emphasise health promotion among nurses. Global nursing issues today also impact on nurses' health. Curriculum changes again address this by promoting self-care and resilience. To examine how international and national concern for nurses' occupational health drove a curriculum change in New Zealand nurse training in the 1930s. Historical Research International occupational health reports (1930s), Lambie's annual reports (1932-1950), and questions and examiners' comments in a new state examination (1940s-1950s), were analysed to identify the reasons for and direction of the curriculum change. Findings were interpreted within international and national concerns and measures related to occupational health in nursing. Lambie used the political leverage of international and national worry over tuberculosis as a nursing occupational health risk to protect nurses' health more generally. In 1933 she revised the first year of the three-year national nursing curriculum to emphasise personal hygiene and bacteriology related to cross-infection, and in 1938 introduced a State Preliminary Examination at the end of the first year of training to test this knowledge. Analysis of examinations, 1940s-1950s, confirms that the curriculum change driver was a concern to make nursing a less "hazardous profession". Nurse educators today should be aware of the variety of factors that can lead to curriculum change in nursing. In addition, concern for nurses' health

  10. A CUMULATIVE MIGRATION METHOD FOR COMPUTING RIGOROUS TRANSPORT CROSS SECTIONS AND DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS FOR LWR LATTICES WITH MONTE CARLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaoyuan Liu; Kord Smith; Benoit Forget; Javier Ortensi

    2016-05-01

    A new method for computing homogenized assembly neutron transport cross sections and dif- fusion coefficients that is both rigorous and computationally efficient is proposed in this paper. In the limit of a homogeneous hydrogen slab, the new method is equivalent to the long-used, and only-recently-published CASMO transport method. The rigorous method is used to demonstrate the sources of inaccuracy in the commonly applied “out-scatter” transport correction. It is also demonstrated that the newly developed method is directly applicable to lattice calculations per- formed by Monte Carlo and is capable of computing rigorous homogenized transport cross sections for arbitrarily heterogeneous lattices. Comparisons of several common transport cross section ap- proximations are presented for a simple problem of infinite medium hydrogen. The new method has also been applied in computing 2-group diffusion data for an actual PWR lattice from BEAVRS benchmark.

  11. Building an Evidence Base to Inform Interventions for Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Call for Rigorous Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Barri B.; Scott, Alicia Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent parents and their children are at increased risk for adverse short- and long-term health and social outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to support these young families. We studied the evidence base and found a dearth of rigorously evaluated programs. Strategies from successful interventions are needed to inform both intervention design and policies affecting these adolescents. The lack of rigorous evaluations may be attributable to inadequate emphasis on and sufficient funding for evaluation, as well as to challenges encountered by program evaluators working with this population. More rigorous program evaluations are urgently needed to provide scientifically sound guidance for programming and policy decisions. Evaluation lessons learned have implications for other vulnerable populations. PMID:22897541

  12. The evolving integrated vascular surgery residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brigitte K; Greenberg, Jacob A; Mitchell, Erica L

    2014-10-01

    Since their introduction several years ago, integrated (0 + 5) vascular surgery residency programs are being increasingly developed across the country. To date, however, there is no defined "universal" curriculum for these programs and each program is responsible for creating its own curriculum. The aim of this study was to review the experiences of current 0 + 5 program directors (PDs) to determine what factors contributed to the curricular development within their institution. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 0 + 5 PDs to explore their experiences with program development, factors influencing the latter, and rationale for current curricula. The interview script was loosely structured to explore several factors including time of incoming residents' first exposure to the vascular surgical service, timing and rationale behind the timing of core surgical rotations throughout the 5 year program, educational value of nonsurgical rotations, opportunities for leadership and scholarly activity, and influence the general surgery program and institutional climate had on curricular structure. All interviews were conducted by a single interviewer. All interviews were qualitatively analyzed using emergent theme analysis. Twenty-six 0 + 5 PDs participated in the study. A total of 69% believed establishing professional identity early reduces resident attrition and recommend starting incoming trainees on vascular surgical services. Sixty-two percent spread core surgical rotations over the first 3 years to optimize general surgical exposure and most of the programs have eliminated specific rotations, as they were not considered valuable to the goals of training. Factors considered most important by PDs in curricular development include building on existing institutional opportunities (96%), avoiding rotations considered unsuccessful by "experienced" programs (92%), and maintaining a good working relationship with general surgery (77%). Fifty-eight percent of

  13. Revisiting the constant growth angle: Estimation and verification via rigorous thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virozub, Alexander; Rasin, Igal G.; Brandon, Simon

    2008-12-01

    Methods for estimating growth angle ( θgr) values, based on the a posteriori analysis of directionally solidified material (e.g. drops) often involve assumptions of negligible gravitational effects as well as a planar solid/liquid interface during solidification. We relax both of these assumptions when using experimental drop shapes from the literature to estimate the relevant growth angles at the initial stages of solidification. Assumed to be constant, we use these values as input into a rigorous heat transfer and solidification model of the growth process. This model, which is shown to reproduce the experimental shape of a solidified sessile water drop using the literature value of θgr=0∘, yields excellent agreement with experimental profiles using our estimated values for silicon ( θgr=10∘) and germanium ( θgr=14.3∘) solidifying on an isotropic crystalline surface. The effect of gravity on the solidified drop shape is found to be significant in the case of germanium, suggesting that gravity should either be included in the analysis or that care should be taken that the relevant Bond number is truly small enough in each measurement. The planar solidification interface assumption is found to be unjustified. Although this issue is important when simulating the inflection point in the profile of the solidified water drop, there are indications that solidified drop shapes (at least in the case of silicon) may be fairly insensitive to the shape of this interface.

  14. A Rigorous Investigation on the Ground State of the Penson-Kolb Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Hua; Tian, Guang-Shan; Han, Ru-Qi

    2003-05-01

    By using either numerical calculations or analytical methods, such as the bosonization technique, the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model has been previously studied by several groups. Some physicists argued that, as far as the existence of superconductivity in this model is concerned, it is canonically equivalent to the negative-U Hubbard model. However, others did not agree. In the present paper, we shall investigate this model by an independent and rigorous approach. We show that the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model is nondegenerate and has a nonvanishing overlap with the ground state of the negative-U Hubbard model. Furthermore, we also show that the ground states of both the models have the same good quantum numbers and may have superconducting long-range order at the same momentum q = 0. Our results support the equivalence between these models. The project partially supported by the Special Funds for Major State Basic Research Projects (G20000365) and National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10174002

  15. Complexities and Controversies in Himalayan Research: A Call for Collaboration and Rigor for Better Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya range encompasses enormous variation in elevation, precipitation, biodiversity, and patterns of human livelihoods. These mountains modify the regional climate in complex ways; the ecosystem services they provide influence the lives of almost 1 billion people in 8 countries. However, our understanding of these ecosystems remains rudimentary. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report that erroneously predicted a date for widespread glacier loss exposed how little was known of Himalayan glaciers. Recent research shows how variably glaciers respond to climate change in different Himalayan regions. Alarmist theories are not new. In the 1980s, the Theory of Himalayan Degradation warned of complete forest loss and devastation of downstream areas, an eventuality that never occurred. More recently, the debate on hydroelectric construction appears driven by passions rather than science. Poor data, hasty conclusions, and bad science plague Himalayan research. Rigorous sampling, involvement of civil society in data collection, and long-term collaborative research involving institutions from across the Himalaya are essential to improve knowledge of this region.

  16. Rigorous Mathematical Thinking Approach to Enhance Students’ Mathematical Creative and Critical Thinking Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, D.; Nurlaelah, E.; Dahlan, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    The ability of mathematical creative and critical thinking are two abilities that need to be developed in the learning of mathematics. Therefore, efforts need to be made in the design of learning that is capable of developing both capabilities. The purpose of this research is to examine the mathematical creative and critical thinking ability of students who get rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) approach and students who get expository approach. This research was quasi experiment with control group pretest-posttest design. The population were all of students grade 11th in one of the senior high school in Bandung. The result showed that: the achievement of mathematical creative and critical thinking abilities of student who obtain RMT is better than students who obtain expository approach. The use of Psychological tools and mediation with criteria of intentionality, reciprocity, and mediated of meaning on RMT helps students in developing condition in critical and creative processes. This achievement contributes to the development of integrated learning design on students’ critical and creative thinking processes.

  17. A Rigorous Theory of Many-Body Prethermalization for Periodically Driven and Closed Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanin, Dmitry; De Roeck, Wojciech; Ho, Wen Wei; Huveneers, François

    2017-09-01

    Prethermalization refers to the transient phenomenon where a system thermalizes according to a Hamiltonian that is not the generator of its evolution. We provide here a rigorous framework for quantum spin systems where prethermalization is exhibited for very long times. First, we consider quantum spin systems under periodic driving at high frequency {ν}. We prove that up to a quasi-exponential time {τ_* ˜ e^{c ν/log^3 ν}}, the system barely absorbs energy. Instead, there is an effective local Hamiltonian {\\widehat D} that governs the time evolution up to {τ_*}, and hence this effective Hamiltonian is a conserved quantity up to {τ_*}. Next, we consider systems without driving, but with a separation of energy scales in the Hamiltonian. A prime example is the Fermi-Hubbard model where the interaction U is much larger than the hopping J. Also here we prove the emergence of an effective conserved quantity, different from the Hamiltonian, up to a time {τ_*} that is (almost) exponential in {U/J}.

  18. Coupling of Rigor Mortis and Intestinal Necrosis during C. elegans Organismal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy R. Galimov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organismal death is a process of systemic collapse whose mechanisms are less well understood than those of cell death. We previously reported that death in C. elegans is accompanied by a calcium-propagated wave of intestinal necrosis, marked by a wave of blue autofluorescence (death fluorescence. Here, we describe another feature of organismal death, a wave of body wall muscle contraction, or death contraction (DC. This phenomenon is accompanied by a wave of intramuscular Ca2+ release and, subsequently, of intestinal necrosis. Correlation of directions of the DC and intestinal necrosis waves implies coupling of these death processes. Long-lived insulin/IGF-1-signaling mutants show reduced DC and delayed intestinal necrosis, suggesting possible resistance to organismal death. DC resembles mammalian rigor mortis, a postmortem necrosis-related process in which Ca2+ influx promotes muscle hyper-contraction. In contrast to mammals, DC is an early rather than a late event in C. elegans organismal death.

  19. Inosine-5'-monophosphate is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuishi, Masanori; Tsuji, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Megumi; Kitamura, Natsumi; Tanaka, Sachi; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Okitani, Akihiro

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to reveal the action of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) toward myofibrils in postmortem muscles. IMP solubilized isolated actomyosin within a narrow range of KCl concentration, 0.19-0.20 mol/L, because of the dissociation of actomyosin into actin and myosin, but it did not solubilize the proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl. However, IMP could solubilize both proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl in the presence of 1 m mol/L pyrophosphate or 1.0-3.3 m mol/L adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP). Thus, we presumed that pyrophosphate and ADP released thin filaments composed of actin, and thick filaments composed of myosin from restraints of myofibrils, and then both filaments were solubilized through the IMP-induced dissociation of actomyosin. Thus, we concluded that IMP is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis because of its ability to break the association between thick and thin filaments. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Alternative pre-rigor foreshank positioning can improve beef shoulder muscle tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, A L; Lawrence, T E

    2013-09-01

    Thirty beef carcasses were harvested and the foreshank of each side was independently positioned (cranial, natural, parallel, or caudal) 1h post-mortem to determine the effect of foreshank angle at rigor mortis on the sarcomere length and tenderness of six beef shoulder muscles. The infraspinatus (IS), pectoralis profundus (PP), serratus ventralis (SV), supraspinatus (SS), teres major (TM) and triceps brachii (TB) were excised 48 h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sarcomere length evaluations. All muscles except the SS had altered (P<0.05) sarcomere lengths between positions; the cranial position resulted in the longest sarcomeres for the SV and TB muscles whilst the natural position had longer sarcomeres for the PP and TM muscles. The SV from the cranial position had lower (P<0.05) shear than the caudal position and TB from the natural position had lower (P<0.05) shear than the parallel or caudal positions. Sarcomere length was moderately correlated (r=-0.63; P<0.01) to shear force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coupling of Rigor Mortis and Intestinal Necrosis during C. elegans Organismal Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimov, Evgeniy R; Pryor, Rosina E; Poole, Sarah E; Benedetto, Alexandre; Pincus, Zachary; Gems, David

    2018-03-06

    Organismal death is a process of systemic collapse whose mechanisms are less well understood than those of cell death. We previously reported that death in C. elegans is accompanied by a calcium-propagated wave of intestinal necrosis, marked by a wave of blue autofluorescence (death fluorescence). Here, we describe another feature of organismal death, a wave of body wall muscle contraction, or death contraction (DC). This phenomenon is accompanied by a wave of intramuscular Ca 2+ release and, subsequently, of intestinal necrosis. Correlation of directions of the DC and intestinal necrosis waves implies coupling of these death processes. Long-lived insulin/IGF-1-signaling mutants show reduced DC and delayed intestinal necrosis, suggesting possible resistance to organismal death. DC resembles mammalian rigor mortis, a postmortem necrosis-related process in which Ca 2+ influx promotes muscle hyper-contraction. In contrast to mammals, DC is an early rather than a late event in C. elegans organismal death. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rigor mortis and the epileptology of Charles Bland Radcliffe (1822-1889).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, M J

    2007-03-01

    Charles Bland Radcliffe (1822-1889) was one of the physicians who made major contributions to the literature on epilepsy in the mid-19th century, when the modern understanding of the disorder was beginning to emerge, particularly in England. His experimental work was concerned with the electrical properties of frog muscle and nerve. Early in his career he related his experimental findings to the phenomenon of rigor mortis and concluded that, contrary to the general belief of the time, muscle contraction depended on the cessation of nerve input, and muscle relaxation on its presence. He adhered to this counter-intuitive interpretation throughout his life and, based on it, produced an epileptology that was very different from those of his contemporaries and successors. His interpretations were ultimately without any direct influence on the advance of knowledge. However, his idea that withdrawal of an inhibitory process released previously suppressed muscular contractile powers, when applied to the brain rather than the periphery of the nervous system, permitted Hughlings Jackson to explain certain psychological phenomena that accompany or follow some epileptic events. As well, Radcliffe was one of the chief early advocates for potassium bromide, the first effective anticonvulsant.

  3. Improving students’ mathematical critical thinking through rigorous teaching and learning model with informal argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, H.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze an improvement of students’ mathematical critical thinking (CT) ability in Real Analysis course by using Rigorous Teaching and Learning (RTL) model with informal argument. In addition, this research also attempted to understand students’ CT on their initial mathematical ability (IMA). This study was conducted at a private university in academic year 2015/2016. The study employed the quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. The participants of the study were 83 students in which 43 students were in the experimental group and 40 students were in the control group. The finding of the study showed that students in experimental group outperformed students in control group on mathematical CT ability based on their IMA (high, medium, low) in learning Real Analysis. In addition, based on medium IMA the improvement of mathematical CT ability of students who were exposed to RTL model with informal argument was greater than that of students who were exposed to CI (conventional instruction). There was also no effect of interaction between RTL model and CI model with both (high, medium, and low) IMA increased mathematical CT ability. Finally, based on (high, medium, and low) IMA there was a significant improvement in the achievement of all indicators of mathematical CT ability of students who were exposed to RTL model with informal argument than that of students who were exposed to CI.

  4. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

  5. Methodological Challenges in Sustainability Science: A Call for Method Plurality, Procedural Rigor and Longitudinal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik von Wehrden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science encompasses a unique field that is defined through its purpose, the problem it addresses, and its solution-oriented agenda. However, this orientation creates significant methodological challenges. In this discussion paper, we conceptualize sustainability problems as wicked problems to tease out the key challenges that sustainability science is facing if scientists intend to deliver on its solution-oriented agenda. Building on the available literature, we discuss three aspects that demand increased attention for advancing sustainability science: 1 methods with higher diversity and complementarity are needed to increase the chance of deriving solutions to the unique aspects of wicked problems; for instance, mixed methods approaches are potentially better suited to allow for an approximation of solutions, since they cover wider arrays of knowledge; 2 methodologies capable of dealing with wicked problems demand strict procedural and ethical guidelines, in order to ensure their integration potential; for example, learning from solution implementation in different contexts requires increased comparability between research approaches while carefully addressing issues of legitimacy and credibility; and 3 approaches are needed that allow for longitudinal research, since wicked problems are continuous and solutions can only be diagnosed in retrospect; for example, complex dynamics of wicked problems play out across temporal patterns that are not necessarily aligned with the common timeframe of participatory sustainability research. Taken together, we call for plurality in methodologies, emphasizing procedural rigor and the necessity of continuous research to effectively addressing wicked problems as well as methodological challenges in sustainability science.

  6. A TRADITIONAL FALSE PROBLEM: THE RIGORISM OF KANTIAN MORAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. THE CASE OF VERACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI NOVAC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to many of its traditional critics, the main weakness in Kantian moral-political philosophy resides in its impossibility of admitting exceptions. In nuce, all these critical positions have converged, despite their reciprocal heterogeneity, in the so called accuse of moral rigorism (unjustly, I would say directed against Kant’s moral and political perspective. As such, basically, I will seek to defend Kant against this type of criticism, by showing that any perspective attempting to evaluate Kant’s ethics on the grounds of its capacity or incapacity to admit exceptions is apriorily doomed to lack of sense, in its two logical alternatives, i.e. either as nonsense (predicating about empty notions, or as tautology (formulating ad hoc definitions and criteria with respect to Kant’s system and then claiming that it does not hold with respect to them. Essentially, I will try to show that Kantian ethics can organically immunize itself epistemologically against any such so called antirigorist criticism.

  7. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Marchal

    Full Text Available Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs' greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately.

  8. Applying rigorous decision analysis methodology to optimization of a tertiary recovery project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackowski, R.K.; Stevens, C.E.; Masoner, L.O.; Attanucci, V.; Larson, J.L.; Aslesen, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the intent of this study was to rigorously look at all of the possible expansion, investment, operational, and CO 2 purchase/recompression scenarios (over 2500) to yield a strategy that would maximize net present value of the CO 2 project at the Rangely Weber Sand Unit. Traditional methods of project management, which involve analyzing large numbers of single case economic evaluations, was found to be too cumbersome and inaccurate for an analysis of this scope. The decision analysis methodology utilized a statistical approach which resulted in a range of economic outcomes. Advantages of the decision analysis methodology included: a more organized approach to classification of decisions and uncertainties; a clear sensitivity method to identify the key uncertainties; an application of probabilistic analysis through the decision tree; and a comprehensive display of the range of possible outcomes for communication to decision makers. This range made it possible to consider the upside and downside potential of the options and to weight these against the Unit's strategies. Savings in time and manpower required to complete the study were also realized

  9. Rigorous numerical study of strong microwave photon-magnon coupling in all-dielectric magnetic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymov, Ivan S., E-mail: ivan.maksymov@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Hutomo, Jessica; Nam, Donghee; Kostylev, Mikhail [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-21

    We demonstrate theoretically a ∼350-fold local enhancement of the intensity of the in-plane microwave magnetic field in multilayered structures made from a magneto-insulating yttrium iron garnet (YIG) layer sandwiched between two non-magnetic layers with a high dielectric constant matching that of YIG. The enhancement is predicted for the excitation regime when the microwave magnetic field is induced inside the multilayer by the transducer of a stripline Broadband Ferromagnetic Resonance (BFMR) setup. By means of a rigorous numerical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation consistently with the Maxwell's equations, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics in the multilayer. We reveal a strong photon-magnon coupling, which manifests itself as anti-crossing of the ferromagnetic resonance magnon mode supported by the YIG layer and the electromagnetic resonance mode supported by the whole multilayered structure. The frequency of the magnon mode depends on the external static magnetic field, which in our case is applied tangentially to the multilayer in the direction perpendicular to the microwave magnetic field induced by the stripline of the BFMR setup. The frequency of the electromagnetic mode is independent of the static magnetic field. Consequently, the predicted photon-magnon coupling is sensitive to the applied magnetic field and thus can be used in magnetically tuneable metamaterials based on simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability achievable thanks to the YIG layer. We also suggest that the predicted photon-magnon coupling may find applications in microwave quantum information systems.

  10. Rigorous numerical modeling of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinzhong; Lo, Chiu Fan Bowen; Zheng, William; Hu, Hai; Dai, Qing; Liu, Mengkun

    2017-11-01

    Over the last decade, scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy have been widely used in nano-photonics and material research due to their fine spatial resolution and broad spectral range. A number of simplified analytical models have been proposed to quantitatively understand the tip-scattered near-field signal. However, a rigorous interpretation of the experimental results is still lacking at this stage. Numerical modelings, on the other hand, are mostly done by simulating the local electric field slightly above the sample surface, which only qualitatively represents the near-field signal rendered by the tip-sample interaction. In this work, we performed a more comprehensive numerical simulation which is based on realistic experimental parameters and signal extraction procedures. By directly comparing to the experiments as well as other simulation efforts, our methods offer a more accurate quantitative description of the near-field signal, paving the way for future studies of complex systems at the nanoscale.

  11. Rigorous constraints on the matrix elements of the energy–momentum tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lowdon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the matrix elements of the energy–momentum tensor play an important role in determining the properties of the form factors A(q2, B(q2 and C(q2 which appear in the Lorentz covariant decomposition of the matrix elements. In this paper we apply a rigorous frame-independent distributional-matching approach to the matrix elements of the Poincaré generators in order to derive constraints on these form factors as q→0. In contrast to the literature, we explicitly demonstrate that the vanishing of the anomalous gravitomagnetic moment B(0 and the condition A(0=1 are independent of one another, and that these constraints are not related to the specific properties or conservation of the individual Poincaré generators themselves, but are in fact a consequence of the physical on-shell requirement of the states in the matrix elements and the manner in which these states transform under Poincaré transformations.

  12. Rigorous, robust and systematic: Qualitative research and its contribution to burn care. An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; de Jong, A E E; McLean, L

    2015-12-01

    Qualitative methods are progressively being implemented by researchers for exploration within healthcare. However, there has been a longstanding and wide-ranging debate concerning the relative merits of qualitative research within the health care literature. This integrative review aimed to exam the contribution of qualitative research in burns care and subsequent rehabilitation. Studies were identified using an electronic search strategy using the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) and Scopus of peer reviewed primary research in English between 2009 to April 2014 using Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method as a guide for analysis. From the 298 papers identified, 26 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies there was an average of 22 participants involved in each study with a range of 6-53 participants conducted across 12 nations that focussed on burns prevention, paediatric burns, appropriate acquisition and delivery of burns care, pain and psychosocial implications of burns trauma. Careful and rigorous application of qualitative methodologies promotes and enriches the development of burns knowledge. In particular, the key elements in qualitative methodological process and its publication are critical in disseminating credible and methodologically sound qualitative research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Rigorous analysis of image force barrier lowering in bounded geometries: application to semiconducting nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Mendels, Dan; Epstein, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Bounded geometries introduce a fundamental problem in calculating the image force barrier lowering of metal-wrapped semiconductor systems. In bounded geometries, the derivation of the barrier lowering requires calculating the reference energy of the system, when the charge is at the geometry center. In the following, we formulate and rigorously solve this problem; this allows combining the image force electrostatic potential with the band diagram of the bounded geometry. The suggested approach is applied to spheres as well as cylinders. Furthermore, although the expressions governing cylindrical systems are complex and can only be evaluated numerically, we present analytical approximations for the solution, which allow easy implementation in calculated band diagrams. The results are further used to calculate the image force barrier lowering of metal-wrapped cylindrical nanowires; calculations show that although the image force potential is stronger than that of planar systems, taking the complete band-structure into account results in a weaker effect of barrier lowering. Moreover, when considering small diameter nanowires, we find that the electrostatic effects of the image force exceed the barrier region, and influence the electronic properties of the nanowire core. This study is of interest to the nanowire community, and in particular for the analysis of nanowire I−V measurements where wrapped or omega-shaped metallic contacts are used. (paper)

  14. Rigorous Statistical Bounds in Uncertainty Quantification for One-Layer Turbulent Geophysical Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Di; Majda, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Statistical bounds controlling the total fluctuations in mean and variance about a basic steady-state solution are developed for the truncated barotropic flow over topography. Statistical ensemble prediction is an important topic in weather and climate research. Here, the evolution of an ensemble of trajectories is considered using statistical instability analysis and is compared and contrasted with the classical deterministic instability for the growth of perturbations in one pointwise trajectory. The maximum growth of the total statistics in fluctuations is derived relying on the statistical conservation principle of the pseudo-energy. The saturation bound of the statistical mean fluctuation and variance in the unstable regimes with non-positive-definite pseudo-energy is achieved by linking with a class of stable reference states and minimizing the stable statistical energy. Two cases with dependence on initial statistical uncertainty and on external forcing and dissipation are compared and unified under a consistent statistical stability framework. The flow structures and statistical stability bounds are illustrated and verified by numerical simulations among a wide range of dynamical regimes, where subtle transient statistical instability exists in general with positive short-time exponential growth in the covariance even when the pseudo-energy is positive-definite. Among the various scenarios in this paper, there exist strong forward and backward energy exchanges between different scales which are estimated by the rigorous statistical bounds.

  15. A Rigorous Temperature-Dependent Stochastic Modelling and Testing for MEMS-Based Inertial Sensor Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Pagiatakis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the effect of changing the temperature points on MEMS-based inertial sensor random error. We collect static data under different temperature points using a MEMS-based inertial sensor mounted inside a thermal chamber. Rigorous stochastic models, namely Autoregressive-based Gauss-Markov (AR-based GM models are developed to describe the random error behaviour. The proposed AR-based GM model is initially applied to short stationary inertial data to develop the stochastic model parameters (correlation times. It is shown that the stochastic model parameters of a MEMS-based inertial unit, namely the ADIS16364, are temperature dependent. In addition, field kinematic test data collected at about 17 °C are used to test the performance of the stochastic models at different temperature points in the filtering stage using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF. It is shown that the stochastic model developed at 20 °C provides a more accurate inertial navigation solution than the ones obtained from the stochastic models developed at −40 °C, −20 °C, 0 °C, +40 °C, and +60 °C. The temperature dependence of the stochastic model is significant and should be considered at all times to obtain optimal navigation solution for MEMS-based INS/GPS integration.

  16. A Rigorous Temperature-Dependent Stochastic Modelling and Testing for MEMS-Based Inertial Sensor Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diasty, Mohammed; Pagiatakis, Spiros

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of changing the temperature points on MEMS-based inertial sensor random error. We collect static data under different temperature points using a MEMS-based inertial sensor mounted inside a thermal chamber. Rigorous stochastic models, namely Autoregressive-based Gauss-Markov (AR-based GM) models are developed to describe the random error behaviour. The proposed AR-based GM model is initially applied to short stationary inertial data to develop the stochastic model parameters (correlation times). It is shown that the stochastic model parameters of a MEMS-based inertial unit, namely the ADIS16364, are temperature dependent. In addition, field kinematic test data collected at about 17 °C are used to test the performance of the stochastic models at different temperature points in the filtering stage using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). It is shown that the stochastic model developed at 20 °C provides a more accurate inertial navigation solution than the ones obtained from the stochastic models developed at -40 °C, -20 °C, 0 °C, +40 °C, and +60 °C. The temperature dependence of the stochastic model is significant and should be considered at all times to obtain optimal navigation solution for MEMS-based INS/GPS integration.

  17. Diffraction-based overlay measurement on dedicated mark using rigorous modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hailiang; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Qingyun; Chen, Yonghui; Zhou, Chang

    2012-03-01

    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is widely evaluated by numerous authors, results show DBO can provide better performance than Imaging Based Overlay (IBO). However, DBO has its own problems. As well known, Modeling based DBO (mDBO) faces challenges of low measurement sensitivity and crosstalk between various structure parameters, which may result in poor accuracy and precision. Meanwhile, main obstacle encountered by empirical DBO (eDBO) is that a few pads must be employed to gain sufficient information on overlay-induced diffraction signature variations, which consumes more wafer space and costs more measuring time. Also, eDBO may suffer from mark profile asymmetry caused by processes. In this paper, we propose an alternative DBO technology that employs a dedicated overlay mark and takes a rigorous modeling approach. This technology needs only two or three pads for each direction, which is economic and time saving. While overlay measurement error induced by mark profile asymmetry being reduced, this technology is expected to be as accurate and precise as scatterometry technologies.

  18. Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for OCD metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Liu, Shiyuan; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2011-12-01

    In most cases of optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, when applying rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) to optical modeling, a high order of Fourier harmonics is usually set up to guarantee the convergence of the final results. However, the total number of floating point operations grows dramatically as the truncation order increases. Therefore, it is critical to choose an appropriate order to obtain high computational efficiency without losing much accuracy in the meantime. In this paper, the convergence order associated with the structural and optical parameters has been estimated through simulation. The results indicate that the convergence order is linear with the period of the sample when fixing the other parameters, both for planar diffraction and conical diffraction. The illuminated wavelength also affects the convergence of a final result. With further investigations concentrated on the ratio of illuminated wavelength to period, it is discovered that the convergence order decreases with the growth of the ratio, and when the ratio is fixed, convergence order jumps slightly, especially in a specific range of wavelength. This characteristic could be applied to estimate the optimum convergence order of given samples to obtain high computational efficiency.

  19. Conformational distributions and proximity relationships in the rigor complex of actin and myosin subfragment-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitrai, M; Hild, G; Lukács, A; Bódis, E; Somogyi, B

    2000-01-28

    Cyclic conformational changes in the myosin head are considered essential for muscle contraction. We hereby show that the extension of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer method described originally by Taylor et al. (Taylor, D. L., Reidler, J., Spudich, J. A., and Stryer, L. (1981) J. Cell Biol. 89, 362-367) allows determination of the position of a labeled point outside the actin filament in supramolecular complexes and also characterization of the conformational heterogeneity of an actin-binding protein while considering donor-acceptor distance distributions. Using this method we analyzed proximity relationships between two labeled points of S1 and the actin filament in the acto-S1 rigor complex. The donor (N-[[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl]-5-naphthylamine-1-sulfonate) was attached to either the catalytic domain (Cys-707) or the essential light chain (Cys-177) of S1, whereas the acceptor (5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein) was attached to the actin filament (Cys-374). In contrast to the narrow positional distribution (assumed as being Gaussian) of Cys-707 (5 +/- 3 A), the positional distribution of Cys-177 was found to be broad (102 +/- 4 A). Such a broad positional distribution of the label on the essential light chain of S1 may be important in accommodating the helically arranged acto-myosin binding relative to the filament axis.

  20. Creating a National HIV Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, David H; Wood, Brian R; Karpenko, Andrew; Unruh, Kenton T; Kinney, Rebecca G; Roscoe, Clay; Nelson, John

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the HIV care provider workforce has not kept pace with an expanding HIV epidemic. To effectively address this HIV workforce shortage, a multipronged approach is needed that includes high-quality, easily accessible, up-to-date HIV education for trainees and practicing providers. Toward this objective, the University of Washington, in collaboration with the AIDS Education and Training Center National Coordinating Resource Center, is developing a modular, dynamic curriculum that addresses the entire spectrum of the HIV care continuum. Herein, we outline the general principles, content, organization, and features of this federally funded National HIV Curriculum, which allows for longitudinal, active, self-directed learning, as well as real-time evaluation, tracking, and feedback at the individual and group level. The online curriculum, which is in development, will provide a free, comprehensive, interactive HIV training and resource tool that can support national efforts to expand and strengthen the United States HIV clinical care workforce. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.