Sample records for rigorous academic standards

  1. The National Teaching Standard: Route to Rigor Mortis. (United States)

    McNeil, John D.

    The actions of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards with regard to national teaching standards and an associated examination are critiqued. The board was established on the basis of a recommendation by an advisory council of the Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. The board, which is composed of politicians, business…



    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MASTERS OF ANALYTICAL TRADECRAFT: CERTIFYING THE STANDARDS AND ANALYTIC RIGOR OF...establishing unit level certified Masters of Analytic Tradecraft (MAT) analysts to be trained and entrusted to evaluate and rate the standards and...cues) ideally should meet or exceed effective rigor (based on analytical process).4 To accomplish this, decision makers should not be left to their

  3. Standards and Methodological Rigor in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Preclinical and Translational Research. (United States)

    Provencher, Steeve; Archer, Stephen L; Ramirez, F Daniel; Hibbert, Benjamin; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Lacasse, Yves; Bonnet, Sébastien


    Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), significant therapeutic gaps remain for this devastating disease. Yet, few innovative therapies beyond the traditional pathways of endothelial dysfunction have reached clinical trial phases in PAH. Although there are inherent limitations of the currently available models of PAH, the leaky pipeline of innovative therapies relates, in part, to flawed preclinical research methodology, including lack of rigour in trial design, incomplete invasive hemodynamic assessment, and lack of careful translational studies that replicate randomized controlled trials in humans with attention to adverse effects and benefits. Rigorous methodology should include the use of prespecified eligibility criteria, sample sizes that permit valid statistical analysis, randomization, blinded assessment of standardized outcomes, and transparent reporting of results. Better design and implementation of preclinical studies can minimize inherent flaws in the models of PAH, reduce the risk of bias, and enhance external validity and our ability to distinguish truly promising therapies form many false-positive or overstated leads. Ideally, preclinical studies should use advanced imaging, study several preclinical pulmonary hypertension models, or correlate rodent and human findings and consider the fate of the right ventricle, which is the major determinant of prognosis in human PAH. Although these principles are widely endorsed, empirical evidence suggests that such rigor is often lacking in pulmonary hypertension preclinical research. The present article discusses the pitfalls in the design of preclinical pulmonary hypertension trials and discusses opportunities to create preclinical trials with improved predictive value in guiding early-phase drug development in patients with PAH, which will need support not only from researchers, peer reviewers, and editors but also from

  4. Teaching and Academic Standards Today. (United States)

    Handleman, Chester


    Reviews the decline of educational standards as reflected in national test scores and discusses four pedagogic causes for this decline: the abandonment of written tests in favor of objective, true/false testing techniques; nonpunitive grading and attendance policies; excessive use of technology in the classroom; and academic grade inflation. (JP)

  5. Disciplining Bioethics: Towards a Standard of Methodological Rigor in Bioethics Research (United States)

    Adler, Daniel; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik


    Contemporary bioethics research is often described as multi- or interdisciplinary. Disciplines are characterized, in part, by their methods. Thus, when bioethics research draws on a variety of methods, it crosses disciplinary boundaries. Yet each discipline has its own standard of rigor—so when multiple disciplinary perspectives are considered, what constitutes rigor? This question has received inadequate attention, as there is considerable disagreement regarding the disciplinary status of bioethics. This disagreement has presented five challenges to bioethics research. Addressing them requires consideration of the main types of cross-disciplinary research, and consideration of proposals aiming to ensure rigor in bioethics research. PMID:22686634

  6. Research rigor and the gap between academic journals and business practitioners


    Perea, Eva; Brady, Malcolm


    • Purpose: This paper examines the engagement of business practitioners with academic business research. The main purpose is to assess whether there is a gap between academic research and business people, and, if so, how to bridge this gap. • Design/methodology/approach: Over 150 senior business practitioners were surveyed, in order to capture their views on the usefulness of academic research to them in their roles as practicing managers. Survey questions covered both their current acce...

  7. Seizing the Future: How Ohio's Career-Technical Education Programs Fuse Academic Rigor and Real-World Experiences to Prepare Students for College and Careers (United States)

    Guarino, Heidi; Yoder, Shaun


    "Seizing the Future: How Ohio's Career and Technical Education Programs Fuse Academic Rigor and Real-World Experiences to Prepare Students for College and Work," demonstrates Ohio's progress in developing strong policies for career and technical education (CTE) programs to promote rigor, including college- and career-ready graduation…

  8. Ensuring Academic Standards in US Higher Education (United States)

    Dill, David D.


    The most recent research on college-student learning in the US by respected scholars such as Richard Arum, Josipa Roksa, and Ernest Pascarella suggests that the nation's means of ensuring academic standards in US colleges and universities are not working effectively. Like US K-12 education and health care, the US higher education system is…

  9. State Standard-Setting Processes in Brief. State Academic Standards: Standard-Setting Processes (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer


    Concerns about academic standards, whether created by states from scratch or adopted by states under the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) banner, have drawn widespread media attention and are at the top of many state policymakers' priority lists. Recently, a number of legislatures have required additional steps, such as waiting periods for…

  10. Assuring Academic Achievement Standards: From Moderation to Calibration (United States)

    Sadler, D. Royce


    The course (module) grades entered on higher education academic records (transcripts) purportedly represent substantive levels of student achievement. They are often taken at face value and accepted as comparable across courses. Research undertaken over several decades has shown that the underlying standards against which student works are…

  11. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.


    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  12. ASTM Committee C28: International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics-Three Decades of High-Quality, Technically-Rigorous Normalization (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.


    Physical and mechanical properties and performance of advanced ceramics and glasses are difficult to measure correctly without the proper techniques. For over three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed high-quality, technically-rigorous, full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure properties and performance of monolithic and composite ceramics that may be applied to glasses in some cases. These standards contain testing particulars for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of these materials. As a result these standards are used to generate accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Within Committee C28, users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. have written, continually updated, and validated through round-robin test programs, 50 standards since the Committee's founding in 1986. This paper provides a detailed retrospective of the 30 years of ASTM Committee C28 including a graphical pictogram listing of C28 standards along with examples of the tangible benefits of standards for advanced ceramics to demonstrate their practical applications.

  13. ASTM Committee C28: International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics, Three Decades of High-quality, Technically-rigorous Normalization (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.


    Physical and mechanical properties and performance of advanced ceramics and glasses are difficult to measure correctly without the proper techniques. For over three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed high quality, rigorous, full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure properties and performance of monolithic and composite ceramics that may be applied to glasses in some cases. These standards testing particulars for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of these materials. As a result these standards provide accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Within Committee C28 users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. have written, continually updated, and validated through round-robin test programs, nearly 50 standards since the Committees founding in 1986. This paper provides a retrospective review of the 30 years of ASTM Committee C28 including a graphical pictogram listing of C28 standards along with examples of the tangible benefits of advanced ceramics standards to demonstrate their practical applications.

  14. Classroom Talk for Rigorous Reading Comprehension Instruction (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Crosson, Amy C.; Resnick, Lauren B.


    This study examined the quality of classroom talk and its relation to academic rigor in reading-comprehension lessons. Additionally, the study aimed to characterize effective questions to support rigorous reading comprehension lessons. The data for this study included 21 reading-comprehension lessons in several elementary and middle schools from…

  15. The Rigor Mortis of Education: Rigor Is Required in a Dying Educational System (United States)

    Mixon, Jason; Stuart, Jerry


    In an effort to answer the "Educational Call to Arms", our national public schools have turned to Advanced Placement (AP) courses as the predominate vehicle used to address the lack of academic rigor in our public high schools. Advanced Placement is believed by many to provide students with the rigor and work ethic necessary to…

  16. Closing the Gap. SREB Program Blends Academic Standards, Vocational Courses. (United States)

    Bottoms, Gene


    Southern Regional Education Board's State Vocational Education Consortium developed a model for integrating vocational and academic education that includes at least three credits each in math and science; four English courses; and four credits in a vocational major and two in related fields. Eight sites implementing the model have narrowed gap…

  17. Development and Standardization of Inventory for Measuring Students' Integration into University Academic Culture (United States)

    Esomonu, Nkechi Patricia-Mary; Okeaba, James Uzoma


    The study developed and standardized an Inventory for measuring Students' Integration into University Academic Culture named Inventory for Students' Integration into University Academic Culture (ISIUAC). The increase in dropout rates, substance use, cultism and other deviant behaviours in Nigerian universities makes it necessary for one to ask the…

  18. The standards and norms for the Slovenian academic libraries between theory and practice

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    Mojca Dolgan-Petrič


    Full Text Available Based on statistical data, contemporary trends within academic libraries in the Republic of Slovenia are presented. The substantially slow increase of library materials, along with lesser increase of staff, contradicts the growing number of library visits and circulation. The paper elaborates on outstanding differences regarding personnel, financial, and spatial issues of the libraries concerned. The comparison between the professional and govemmental standards and norms is presented. At a time when academic libraries are faced with the dilemma of growing demand from users at the same time as budgetary constraint there is an urgent need to develop a list of performance indicators and to modernize professional standards and norms for academic libraries.The elaboration of new standards must be based on empirical studies. Only realistic and clearly defined norms would enable the implementation of standards and improve the quality and efficiency of academic libraries.

  19. Trends: Rigor Mortis in the Arts. (United States)

    Blodget, Alden S.


    Outlines how past art education provided a refuge for students from the rigors of other academic subjects. Observes that in recent years art education has become "discipline based." Argues that art educators need to reaffirm their commitment to a humanistic way of knowing. (KM)

  20. Standards Collection Development and Management in an Academic Library: A Case Study at the University of Western Ontario Libraries (United States)

    Dunn, Linda K.; Xie, Shiyi


    How can academic libraries ensure their standards collections meet the teaching and research needs of science and engineering faculties? Nowadays, most academic libraries face financial constraints that greatly impact collection development. This article documents an academic library's experience with standards collections and the investigation…

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Academic Achievement Motivation and Home Environment among Standard Eight Pupils (United States)

    Muola, J. M.


    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two…

  2. Scientific rigor through videogames. (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju


    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protocol Standards for Reporting Video Data in Academic Journals. (United States)

    Rowland, Pamela A; Ignacio, Romeo C; de Moya, Marc A


    Editors of biomedical journals have estimated that a majority (40%-90%) of studies published in scientific journals cannot be replicated, even though an inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build on published claims. Each journal sets its own protocols for establishing "quality" in articles, yet over the past 50 years, few journals in any field--especially medical education--have specified protocols for reporting the use of video data in research. The authors found that technical and industry-driven aspects of video recording, as well as a lack of standardization and reporting requirements by research journals, have led to major limitations in the ability to assess or reproduce video data used in research. Specific variables in the videotaping process (e.g., camera angle), which can be changed or be modified, affect the quality of recorded data, leading to major reporting errors and, in turn, unreliable conclusions. As more data are now in the form of digital videos, the historical lack of reporting standards makes it increasingly difficult to accurately replicate medical educational studies. Reproducibility is especially important as the medical education community considers setting national high-stakes standards in medicine and surgery based on video data. The authors of this Perspective provide basic protocol standards for investigators and journals using video data in research publications so as to allow for reproducibility.

  4. Implementing healthy work environment standards in an academic workplace: An update. (United States)

    Harmon, Rebecca B; DeGennaro, Gina; Norling, Meg; Kennedy, Christine; Fontaine, Dorrie

    In 2005 the American Association of Critical Care Nurses defined six Healthy Work Environment (HWE) standards for the clinical setting (AACN, 2005), which were reaffirmed and expanded in 2016 (AACN, 2016). These clinical standards were adapted for use in the academic setting by Fontaine, Koh, and Carroll in 2012. The intention of this article is threefold: to present a revised version of the academic workplace standards which are appropriate for all School of Nursing (SON) employees, staff as well as faculty; to proposes the addition of a seventh standard, self-care, which provides the foundation for all standards; and to describe the continuing implementation of these seven standards at the University of Virginia School of Nursing (UVA SON). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies Third Edition, 2012, Draft Presented to the Educational Community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation (United States)

    Tutwiler, Sandra Winn; deMarrais, Kathleen; Gabbard, David; Hyde, Andrea; Konkol, Pamela; Li, Huey-li; Medina, Yolanda; Rayle, Joseph; Swain, Amy


    This third edition of the "Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies" is presented to the educational community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation. The Standards were first developed and…

  6. Statistical mechanics rigorous results

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David


    This classic book marks the beginning of an era of vigorous mathematical progress in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Its treatment of the infinite system limit has not been superseded, and the discussion of thermodynamic functions and states remains basic for more recent work. The conceptual foundation provided by the Rigorous Results remains invaluable for the study of the spectacular developments of statistical mechanics in the second half of the 20th century.

  7. Academic standards and changing patterns of medical school admissions: a Malaysian study. (United States)

    Tan, C M


    Changing social demands made it necessary for the Medical Faculty of the University of Malaya to accommodate students with a wider range of academic experience than before. However, teachers sought to achieve comparable academic standards to those in the West by striving to maintain a close resemblance to the Western model of medical education in other respects. As a result teachers failed to adapt their teaching methods, assessment techniques and curriculum design to meet the educational needs of the students, thus compromising academic standards. Many students lack basic academic skills and do not know how to learn effectively. In order to help students overcome their learning difficulties innovative teaching was required during the first year at university, designed to foster the joint development of knowledge and basic skills. In the case of less well-prepared students who lack self-confidence, a caring and supportive learning environment is crucial to the achievement of meaningful learning. Lecturers needed to become facilitators of learning rather than transmitters of knowledge. However, teachers' objective to retain international recognition of the degree, which presumably reflected the importance of teaching, was not operationalized in terms of its incentive structure such that teachers were constrained not to try to fill the new roles demanded of them. It was assumed that academic distinction accrued through scientific research was essential for the achievement of academic excellence. However, under the prevailing circumstances the two aims were mutually exclusive and incompatible and teaching quality deteriorated.

  8. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014 (United States)

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015


    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  9. 25 CFR 36.20 - Standard V-Minimum academic programs/school calendar. (United States)


    ..., physical education, music, etc.) which are directly related to or affect student instruction shall provide....20 Section 36.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY...

  10. External Confirmation of Adherence to Standards: As Applicable to Academic Programmes as to Business and Industry (United States)

    Hughey, Aaron W.; Burke, Monica G.


    The development of, and adherence to, performance standards is imperative for success in today's competitive global market. This is as true for academic programmes in higher education as it is for the manufacturing and service sectors. Just like their counterparts in business and industry, it is important that graduate career preparation…

  11. Characteristics of States' Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards in 2008. Synthesis Report 72 (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Cormier, Damien


    In April 2007, Federal No Child Left Behind regulations were finalized that provided states with additional flexibility for assessing some students with disabilities. The regulations allowed states to offer another assessment option, alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). States are not required to have…

  12. Balancing Open Access with Academic Standards: Implications for Community College Faculty (United States)

    Gabbard, Anita; Mupinga, Davison M.


    Community colleges act as the gateway for students to higher education. Many of these colleges realize this mission through open-door policies where students lacking in basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills can enroll. But, this open-access policy often creates challenges when meeting academic standards. Based on data collected from…

  13. Reframing Rigor: A Modern Look at Challenge and Support in Higher Education (United States)

    Campbell, Corbin M.; Dortch, Deniece; Burt, Brian A.


    This chapter describes the limitations of the traditional notions of academic rigor in higher education, and brings forth a new form of rigor that has the potential to support student success and equity.

  14. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City" (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat


    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  15. Accountability in Grading Student Work: Securing Academic Standards in a Twenty-First Century Quality Assurance Context (United States)

    Bloxham, Sue; Boyd, Pete


    This article, using a student outcomes definition of academic standards, reports on academics' sense of standards as enacted through marking practices. Twelve lecturers from two UK universities were asked to "think aloud" as they graded written assignments followed by a semi-structured interview. The interview data were used to…

  16. Standardized End Point Definitions for Coronary Intervention Trials: The Academic Research Consortium-2 Consensus Document. (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; McFadden, Eugène P; Farb, Andrew; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W; Spertus, John; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Morel, Marie-Angèle; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Zuckerman, Bram; Fearon, William F; Taggart, David; Kappetein, Arie-Pieter; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vranckx, Pascal; Windecker, Stephan; Cutlip, Donald; Serruys, Patrick W


    The Academic Research Consortium (ARC)-2 initiative revisited the clinical and angiographic end point definitions in coronary device trials, proposed in 2007, to make them more suitable for use in clinical trials that include increasingly complex lesion and patient populations and incorporate novel devices such as bioresorbable vascular scaffolds. In addition, recommendations for the incorporation of patient-related outcomes in clinical trials are proposed. Academic Research Consortium-2 is a collaborative effort between academic research organizations in the United States and Europe, device manufacturers, and European, US, and Asian regulatory bodies. Several in-person meetings were held to discuss the changes that have occurred in the device landscape and in clinical trials and regulatory pathways in the last decade. The consensus-based end point definitions in this document are endorsed by the stakeholders of this document and strongly advocated for clinical trial purposes. This Academic Research Consortium-2 document provides further standardization of end point definitions for coronary device trials, incorporating advances in technology and knowledge. Their use will aid interpretation of trial outcomes and comparison among studies, thus facilitating the evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of these devices.

  17. Academic Rigor or Academic Rigor Mortis? Supervising Dissertations Is Serious Business (United States)

    Wright, Robin Redmon


    This reflection considers the importance of and responsibility to graduate research supervision through an examination of a published dissertation that has had significant influence on the country's current immigration debate. The author exhorts both graduate students and adult education faculty to insist on clearly stated theoretical and…

  18. Assessing the Curricula of Political Sciences’ Programs at the Palestinian Universities in Accordance with the Academic Standards of Political Sciences

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    Alaa H. A . Aburedwan


    Full Text Available The study aimed at answering the following key question: Are academic standards of political sciences fulfilled in the curricula of political science programs at the Palestinian universities? Accordingly, the study included a theoretical section that explained the basic concepts of quality in education, and some international experiences adopted for quality assurance of political sciences programs. Then the study analyzed, according to the standard criteria, the curricula of four departments that grant a bachelor's degree in political sciences, based on information published on the departments’ sites on the internet, and according to the academic guidebook of each department. The study concluded that the mission and objectives of three departments are clear, while the findings of the analysis showed that there is mismatch of requirements in the Palestinian curricula with academic standards. Most programs are rich with major materials, but need a little adjustment to conform to the standards. The findings also showed a number of negative points in study plans, which do not contain enough credit hours for scientific research, computer applications, and field training, while they have extra credit hours for university requirements. The study made several recommendations to address the problems of the curricula, including: Inviting departments to form committees to ensure quality, to modify the curricula, and develop it in accordance with international standards. Keywords: Academic program, Academic standards, Curricula assessment, Political sciences.

  19. Strategies for Leading Academics to Rethink Humanities and Social Sciences Curricula in the Context of Discipline Standards (United States)

    Thomas, Theda; Wallace, Joy; Allen, Pamela; Clark, Jennifer; Jones, Adrian; Lawrence, Jill; Cole, Bronwyn; Sheridan Burns, Lynette


    The introduction of discipline standards in Australia has required a comprehensive rethinking of humanities and social science curricula from first year through to graduation. This paper proposes a model to facilitate academics' engagement with discipline standards and their implication for first-year curricula. The model supports…

  20. Putrefactive rigor: apparent rigor mortis due to gas distension. (United States)

    Gill, James R; Landi, Kristen


    Artifacts due to decomposition may cause confusion for the initial death investigator, leading to an incorrect suspicion of foul play. Putrefaction is a microorganism-driven process that results in foul odor, skin discoloration, purge, and bloating. Various decompositional gases including methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen will cause the body to bloat. We describe 3 instances of putrefactive gas distension (bloating) that produced the appearance of inappropriate rigor, so-called putrefactive rigor. These gases may distend the body to an extent that the extremities extend and lose contact with their underlying support surface. The medicolegal investigator must recognize that this is not true rigor mortis and the body was not necessarily moved after death for this gravity-defying position to occur.

  1. 2004-2005 Academic Training Programme: Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 December LECTURE SERIES 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 December from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 6, 7, 8, 10 December, TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 3-006 on 9 December Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model R. BARBIERI / CERN-PH-TH There is a natural splitting in four sectors of the theory of the ElectroWeak (EW) Interactions, at pretty different levels of development /test. Accordingly, the 5 lectures are organized as follows, with an eye to the future: Lecture 1: The basic structure of the theory; Lecture 2: The gauge sector; Lecture 3: The flavor sector; Lecture 4: The neutrino sector; Lecture 5: The EW symmetry breaking sector. Transparencies available at: ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can ...

  2. 2004-2005 Academic Training Programme: Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 December LECTURE SERIES 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 December from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 6, 7, 8, 10 December, TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 3-006 on 9 December Electroweak Theory and the Standard Model R. BARBIERI / CERN-PH-TH There is a natural splitting in four sectors of the theory of the ElectroWeak (EW) Interactions, at pretty different levels of development /test. Accordingly, the 5 lectures are organized as follows, with an eye to the future: Lecture 1: The basic structure of the theory; Lecture 2: The gauge sector; Lecture 3: The flavor sector; Lecture 4: The neutrino sector; Lecture 5: The EW symmetry breaking sector. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 Si vous désirez participer à l'un des cours suivants, veuillez en discuter avec votre superviseur et vous inscrire électroniquement en direct depuis les pages de description des cours dans le Web que vous trouvez &ag...

  3. A Case Study of Academic Writing Development Through Principled Versus Standard Clt Method at Binus University

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    Almodad Biduk Asmani


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research project is to investigate how far the academic writing skills of Binus University students can be developed through two conflicting CLT methods: standard and principled. The research project is expected to result in computer-animated format which can be used as one of the main tools in teaching and learning grammar at Binus University. The research project uses the qualitative approach, and thus uses verbal data. The research project involves two subject groups (experimental and control. The experimental group will receive the treatment of grammar learning by using the Principled CLT approach, while the control group receives the standard CLT approach. Survey is then conducted to the two groups so as to find out their comments on the two teaching methods. From the results of the questionnaires, it is found that Principled CLT method is favored for its knowledge and accuracy factors, while the Standard CLT is preferred for its fun and independence factors.   

  4. Pilot study: EatFit impacts sixth graders' academic performance on achievement of mathematics and english education standards. (United States)

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S


    Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). All sixth-grade students (n = 84) in the elementary school clustered in 3 classrooms. 9-lesson intervention with an emphasis on guided goal setting and driven by the Social Cognitive Theory. Multiple-choice survey assessing 5 education standards for sixth-grade mathematics and English at 3 time points: baseline (T1), 5 weeks (T2), and 10 weeks (T3). Repeated measures, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Changes in total scores were statistically different (P academic performance measured by achievement of specific mathematics and English education standards. Nutrition educators can show school administrators and wellness committee members that this program can positively impact academic performance, concomitant to its primary objective of promoting healthful eating and physical activity.

  5. Mathematical Rigor in Introductory Physics (United States)

    Vandyke, Michael; Bassichis, William


    Calculus-based introductory physics courses intended for future engineers and physicists are often designed and taught in the same fashion as those intended for students of other disciplines. A more mathematically rigorous curriculum should be more appropriate and, ultimately, more beneficial for the student in his or her future coursework. This work investigates the effects of mathematical rigor on student understanding of introductory mechanics. Using a series of diagnostic tools in conjunction with individual student course performance, a statistical analysis will be performed to examine student learning of introductory mechanics and its relation to student understanding of the underlying calculus.

  6. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2008. Synthesis Report 71 (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rogers, Christopher; Cormier, Damien; Thurlow, Martha L.


    Federal regulations (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a) provide states with the flexibility to offer an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). This assessment option is for a small group of students with disabilities who can make significant progress, but may not reach grade-level achievement within the…

  7. A case of instantaneous rigor? (United States)

    Pirch, J; Schulz, Y; Klintschar, M


    The question of whether instantaneous rigor mortis (IR), the hypothetic sudden occurrence of stiffening of the muscles upon death, actually exists has been controversially debated over the last 150 years. While modern German forensic literature rejects this concept, the contemporary British literature is more willing to embrace it. We present the case of a young woman who suffered from diabetes and who was found dead in an upright standing position with back and shoulders leaned against a punchbag and a cupboard. Rigor mortis was fully established, livor mortis was strong and according to the position the body was found in. After autopsy and toxicological analysis, it was stated that death most probably occurred due to a ketoacidotic coma with markedly increased values of glucose and lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid as well as acetone in blood and urine. Whereas the position of the body is most unusual, a detailed analysis revealed that it is a stable position even without rigor mortis. Therefore, this case does not further support the controversial concept of IR.

  8. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States* (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine


    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  9. The Relationship between Project-Based Learning and Rigor in STEM-Focused High Schools (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie; Arshavsky, Nina; Glennie, Elizabeth; Charles, Karen; Rice, Olivia


    Project-based learning (PjBL) is an approach often favored in STEM classrooms, yet some studies have shown that teachers struggle to implement it with academic rigor. This paper explores the relationship between PjBL and rigor in the classrooms of ten STEM-oriented high schools. Utilizing three different data sources reflecting three different…

  10. Factors Influencing Academic Performance Of Standard Eight Girls In National Examinations In Public Primary Schools A Case Of Matungu Division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oparanya Wamukoya Windrick


    Full Text Available ABSTARCT This study is designed to establish the factors influencing academic of standard eight girls in public primary schools in National exams in Matungu division. The researcher aimed at finding out why there is increased low performance of girls in public schools despite the fact that they are assessed through periodic performance tests do continuous assessment tests CATS midterm carry out tuition and the provision of free primary education which is aimed at improving academic performance. This study adapted a descriptive survey design as a major method of research where data was collected by the researcher members of a population under study. The target population comprised of Head teachers teachers pupils parents and parent schools representatives. Purposive sampling and simple random technique were used. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview guides. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics constituting frequencies and percentages.The study established that girls were exposed to harsh school environmental conditions they walked long distances to school schools lacked facilities like toilets libraries and were exposed to male pest teachers. There were also teacher factors like training teacher shortage and motivation that affected girls performance.The study came up with recommendations for improvement of girls academic performance. More public schools should be build to reduce on distance and also overpopulation. The ministry of Education should monitor and evaluate the academic performance of girls in rural areas. The government should put up strict rules on pest teachers. The ministry should hire more teachers.

  11. Pupils' Perceptions of Discipline and Academic Standards in Belgian Coeducational and Single-Sex Schools (United States)

    Brutsaert, Herman


    In this paper, single-sex and coeducational schools are compared in terms of pupils' perceptions of disciplinary and academic climates. Use was made of data from 68 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium). Of these schools, 25 were mixed and 43 were single-sex (21 girls, and 22 boys, schools). Respondents were third-year students: 3370 girls and…

  12. Credentialism and Academic Standards: The Evolution of High School Graduation Requirements. (United States)

    Serow, Robert C.


    The credentialist thesis is applied to high school graduation requirements by tracing their transformation according to societal demand. Because of demands for further education and academic excellence, secondary education presently occupies a modest position in American status aspirations and has encumbered its curricula with unrestricted…

  13. 34 CFR 200.1 - State responsibilities for developing challenging academic standards. (United States)


    ... advanced—that determine how well students are mastering the material in the State's academic content... lower-achieving students toward mastering the proficient and advanced levels of achievement. (B... with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) who meet the State's criteria under paragraph (e)(2) of this...

  14. An Institutional Three-Stage Framework: Elevating Academic Writing and Integrity Standards of International Pathway Students (United States)

    Velliaris, Donna M.; Breen, Paul


    In this paper, the authors explore a holistic three-stage framework currently used by the Eynesbury Institute of Business and Technology (EIBT), focused on academic staff identification and remediation processes for the prevention of (un)intentional student plagiarism. As a pre-university pathway provider--whose student body is 98%…

  15. Do Standard Bibliometric Measures Correlate with Academic Rank of Full-Time Pediatric Dentistry Faculty Members? (United States)

    Susarla, Harlyn K; Dhar, Vineet; Karimbux, Nadeem Y; Tinanoff, Norman


    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between quantitative measures of research productivity and academic rank for full-time pediatric dentistry faculty members in accredited U.S. and Canadian residency programs. For each pediatric dentist in the study group, academic rank and bibliometric factors derived from publicly available databases were recorded. Academic ranks were lecturer/instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor. Bibliometric factors were mean total number of publications, mean total number of citations, maximum number of citations for a single work, and h-index (a measure of the impact of publications, determined by total number of publications h that had at least h citations each). The study sample was comprised of 267 pediatric dentists: 4% were lecturers/instructors, 44% were assistant professors, 30% were associate professors, and 22% were professors. The mean number of publications for the sample was 15.4±27.8. The mean number of citations was 218.4±482.0. The mean h-index was 4.9±6.6. The h-index was strongly correlated with academic rank (r=0.60, p=0.001). For this sample, an h-index of ≥3 was identified as a threshold for promotion to associate professor, and an h-index of ≥6 was identified as a threshold for promotion to professor. The h-index was strongly correlated with the academic rank of these pediatric dental faculty members, suggesting that this index may be considered a measure for promotion, along with a faculty member's quality and quantity of research, teaching, service, and clinical activities.

  16. The Importance and Degree of Implementation of the European Standards and Guidelines for Internal Quality Assurance in Universities: The Views of Portuguese Academics (United States)

    Manatos, Maria J.; Rosa, Maria J.; Sarrico, Cláudia S.


    This research seeks to explore academics' perceptions of the importance and degree of implementation of the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG) for internal quality assurance. It uses empirical evidence from Portugal, gathered via a questionnaire given to all university academics. Results show…

  17. Comparing standardized measures of diligence and achievement with dental student academic performance. (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Joseph; Lindemann, Robert


    Utilizing a reliable and valid instrument to measure a student's application of energy and effort towards a goal (diligence) or the ability to reach goals (achievement) would enable dental educators to anticipate academic performance. This knowledge could be used to better distribute faculty and educational resources, as additional tutors could be provided for students who score low on diligence and achievement instruments. In this study, fourth-year dental students completed the Diligence Inventory and the NachNaff Scale (which measures desire to achieve) immediately prior to graduation. The scores from both inventories were correlated with nine measures of academic performance. For males, the NachNaff Scale positively correlated (pDiligence mean positively correlated with EPR and National Board Parts I and II scores. For females, the Total Diligence mean positively correlated with EPR and a predental biology-chemistry-physics grade composite. Given the simplicity of the Diligence Inventory and its significant correlations with academic performance demonstrated in this study, it appears to be a useful tool to gain insight into students' diligence in striving to obtain goals.

  18. Realizing rigor in the mathematics classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Ted H (Henry); Balka, Don S


    Rigor put within reach! Rigor: The Common Core has made it policy-and this first-of-its-kind guide takes math teachers and leaders through the process of making it reality. Using the Proficiency Matrix as a framework, the authors offer proven strategies and practical tools for successful implementation of the CCSS mathematical practices-with rigor as a central objective. You'll learn how to Define rigor in the context of each mathematical practice Identify and overcome potential issues, including differentiating instruction and using data

  19. EMBEDding the CEFR in Academic Writing Assessment : A case study in training and standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Lowie, Wander; Jansma, Petra; Schmidt, Nicole


    The CEFR is increasingly being used as the framework of choice for the assessment of language proficiency at universities across Europe. However, to attain consistent assessment, familiarization and standardization are essential. In this paper we report a case study of embedding a standardization

  20. Academic Training: An Introduction to the Standard Theory of Electroweak Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department


    27, 28 and 29 April 2011 An introduction to the standard theory of electroweak interactions by Giovanni Ridolfi (INFN, Genova) 27, 28 and 29 April from 11:00 to 12:00, 28 April from 14:30 to 15:30 at CERN ( 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant )  The construction and experimental foundations of the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions will be reviewed. Special attention will be given to the Standard Model symmetry properties and how symmetries must be broken in order to obtain a realistic theory for the observed pattern of masses and mixing among generations and to accommodate longitudinal degrees of freedom for the vector bosons. A careful discussion of the Higgs sector, both in the perturbative and in the strongly interacting regime, will be presented. Finally, the motivations towards extensions of the standard model will be discussed.

  1. The Changing Landscape of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards: An Analysis of Early Adopters of AA-MASs (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.


    Several states had an assessment that they considered to be an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS) in place, or in development, when the April 2007 federal regulations on modified achievement standards were finalized. This article uses publicly available information collected by the National Center on…

  2. Upholding Standards of Academic Writing of Chinese Students in China English (United States)

    Ma, Qing


    While the emergence of the plural forms of English widely acknowledges the sociolinguistic realities in many countries and regions, it might also have an equally profound impact on English teaching and learning in those areas. The trend is for pedagogical models no longer to privilege so-called Standard English based on native varieties but to be…

  3. Can Academic Standards Boost Literacy and Close the Achievement Gap? Policy Brief, Fall 2012 (United States)

    Haskins, Ron; Murnane, Richard; Sawhill, Isabel; Snow, Catherine


    Good jobs in the nation's twenty-first-century economy require advanced literacy skills such as categorizing, evaluating, and drawing conclusions from written texts. The adoption of the Common Core State Standards by nearly all the states, combined with tough literacy assessments that are now in the offing, will soon reveal that literacy skills of…

  4. Ideology and Audit Culture: Standardized Service Quality Surveys in Academic Libraries (United States)

    Lilburn, Jeff


    This article examines the relationship between the standardized service quality survey LibQUAL+ and the rise of audit culture. Recent scholarship examining assessment and accountability systems and the ideological principles driving their implementation in higher education raises concerns about the impact these systems have on teaching, learning,…

  5. Fast and Rigorous Assignment Algorithm Multiple Preference and Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Çiftçi


    Full Text Available The goal of paper is to develop an algorithm that evaluates students then places them depending on their desired choices according to dependant preferences. The developed algorithm is also used to implement software. The success and accuracy of the software as well as the algorithm are tested by applying it to ability test at Beykent University. This ability test is repeated several times in order to fill all available places at Fine Art Faculty departments in every academic year. It has been shown that this algorithm is very fast and rigorous after application of 2008-2009 and 2009-20010 academic years.Key Words: Assignment algorithm, student placement, ability test

  6. Rigorous Science: a How-To Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall


    Full Text Available Proposals to improve the reproducibility of biomedical research have emphasized scientific rigor. Although the word “rigor” is widely used, there has been little specific discussion as to what it means and how it can be achieved. We suggest that scientific rigor combines elements of mathematics, logic, philosophy, and ethics. We propose a framework for rigor that includes redundant experimental design, sound statistical analysis, recognition of error, avoidance of logical fallacies, and intellectual honesty. These elements lead to five actionable recommendations for research education.

  7. Academic performance in the high school mathematics standardized test at metropolitan and remote areas of Costa Rica schools in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Castillo-Sánchez


    Full Text Available This article describes the academic performance of students from urban and distant areas in the national mathematics test corresponding to the completion of secondary education, considering the specific test and according to the different types of schools: daytime (daytime scientific, daytime humanistic, nighttime, technical or integrated centers for education of young people and adults (CINDEA, in its Spanish acronym.  The main objective is to describe the students academic performance in the national mathematics test issued to complete high-school level, for the year 2013 and according to the country educational areas.  For the analysis of such information, the main source used was the High-School Education National Report, issued by the Ministry of Public Education for 2013 standardized tests.  One of the conclusions from this study is the need to carry out a historical analysis of the performance of educational institutions which have recently obtained the highest and lowest average grades in the high-school diploma tests, in order to be able to delve into the causes of those performances.

  8. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. V. Effect of various temperatures on the evolution of rigor mortis. (United States)

    Krompecher, T


    Objective measurements were carried out to study the evolution of rigor mortis on rats at various temperatures. Our experiments showed that: (1) at 6 degrees C rigor mortis reaches full development between 48 and 60 hours post mortem, and is resolved at 168 hours post mortem; (2) at 24 degrees C rigor mortis reaches full development at 5 hours post mortem, and is resolved at 16 hours post mortem; (3) at 37 degrees C rigor mortis reaches full development at 3 hours post mortem, and is resolved at 6 hours post mortem; (4) the intensity of rigor mortis grows with increase in temperature (difference between values obtained at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C); and (5) and 6 degrees C a "cold rigidity" was found, in addition to and independent of rigor mortis.

  9. "Rigor mortis" in a live patient. (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Murali


    Rigor mortis is conventionally a postmortem change. Its occurrence suggests that death has occurred at least a few hours ago. The authors report a case of "Rigor Mortis" in a live patient after cardiac surgery. The likely factors that may have predisposed such premortem muscle stiffening in the reported patient are, intense low cardiac output status, use of unusually high dose of inotropic and vasopressor agents and likely sepsis. Such an event may be of importance while determining the time of death in individuals such as described in the report. It may also suggest requirement of careful examination of patients with muscle stiffening prior to declaration of death. This report is being published to point out the likely controversies that might arise out of muscle stiffening, which should not always be termed rigor mortis and/ or postmortem.

  10. [Rigor mortis -- a definite sign of death?]. (United States)

    Heller, A R; Müller, M P; Frank, M D; Dressler, J


    In the past years an ongoing controversial debate exists in Germany, regarding quality of the coroner's inquest and declaration of death by physicians. We report the case of a 90-year old female, who was found after an unknown time following a suicide attempt with benzodiazepine. The examination of the patient showed livores (mortis?) on the left forearm and left lower leg. Moreover, rigor (mortis?) of the left arm was apparent which prevented arm flexion and extension. The hypothermic patient with insufficient respiration was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Chest compressions were not performed, because central pulses were (hardly) palpable and a sinus bradycardia 45/min (AV-block 2 degrees and sole premature ventricular complexes) was present. After placement of an intravenous line (17 G, external jugular vein) the hemodynamic situation was stabilized with intermittent boli of epinephrine and with sodium bicarbonate. With improved circulation livores and rigor disappeared. In the present case a minimal central circulation was noted, which could be stabilized, despite the presence of certain signs of death ( livores and rigor mortis). Considering the finding of an abrogated peripheral perfusion (livores), we postulate a centripetal collapse of glycogen and ATP supply in the patients left arm (rigor), which was restored after resuscitation and reperfusion. Thus, it appears that livores and rigor are not sensitive enough to exclude a vita minima, in particular in hypothermic patients with intoxications. Consequently a careful ABC-check should be performed even in the presence of apparently certain signs of death, to avoid underdiagnosing a vita minima. Additional ECG- monitoring is required to reduce the rate of false positive declarations of death. To what extent basic life support by paramedics should commence when rigor and livores are present until physician DNR order, deserves further discussion.

  11. An ultramicroscopic study on rigor mortis. (United States)

    Suzuki, T


    Gastrocnemius muscles taken from decapitated mice at various intervals after death and from mice killed by 2,4-dinitrophenol or mono-iodoacetic acid injection to induce rigor mortis soon after death, were observed by electron microscopy. The prominent appearance of many fine cross striations in the myofibrils (occurring about every 400 A) was considered to be characteristic of rigor mortis. These striations were caused by minute granules studded along the surfaces of both thick and thin filaments and appeared to be the bridges connecting the 2 kinds of filaments and accounted for the hardness and rigidity of the muscle.

  12. Einstein's Theory A Rigorous Introduction for the Mathematically Untrained

    CERN Document Server

    Grøn, Øyvind


    This book provides an introduction to the theory of relativity and the mathematics used in its processes. Three elements of the book make it stand apart from previously published books on the theory of relativity. First, the book starts at a lower mathematical level than standard books with tensor calculus of sufficient maturity to make it possible to give detailed calculations of relativistic predictions of practical experiments. Self-contained introductions are given, for example vector calculus, differential calculus and integrations. Second, in-between calculations have been included, making it possible for the non-technical reader to follow step-by-step calculations. Thirdly, the conceptual development is gradual and rigorous in order to provide the inexperienced reader with a philosophically satisfying understanding of the theory.  Einstein's Theory: A Rigorous Introduction for the Mathematically Untrained aims to provide the reader with a sound conceptual understanding of both the special and genera...

  13. Photoconductivity of amorphous silicon-rigorous modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brada, P.; Schauer, F.


    It is our great pleasure to express our gratitude to Prof. Grigorovici, the pioneer of the exciting field of amorphous state by our modest contribution to this area. In this paper are presented the outline of the rigorous modelling program of the steady-state photoconductivity in amorphous silicon and related materials. (Author)

  14. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine


    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  15. Standardizing the evaluation of scientific and academic performance in neurosurgery--critical review of the "h" index and its variants. (United States)

    Aoun, Salah G; Bendok, Bernard R; Rahme, Rudy J; Dacey, Ralph G; Batjer, H Hunt


    Assessing the academic impact and output of scientists and physicians is essential to the academic promotion process and has largely depended on peer review. The inherent subjectivity of peer review, however, has led to an interest to incorporate objective measures into more established methods of academic assessment and promotion. Journal impact factor has been used to add objectivity to the process but this index alone does not capture all aspects of academic impact and achievement. The "h" index and its variants have been designed to compensate for these shortcomings, and have been successfully used in the fields of physics, mathematics, and biology, and more recently in medicine. Leaders in academic neurosurgery should be aware of the advantages offered by each of these indices, as well as of their individual shortcomings, to be able to efficiently use them to refine the peer-review process. This review critically analyzes indices that are currently available to evaluate the academic impact of scientists and physicians. These indices include the total citation count, the total number of papers, the impact factor, as well as the "h" index with eight of its most common variants. The analysis focuses on their use in the field of academic neurosurgery, and discusses means to implement them in current review processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical compliance to standard guidelines for lumbar puncture and myelography: survey of academic neuroradiology attendings and fellows. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi C; Chandler, Alexander J; Kagetsu, Nolan J


    To assess technical compliance among neuroradiology attendings and fellows to standard guidelines for lumbar puncture and myelography to minimize procedural complications such as iatrogenic meningitis and spinal headache. We surveyed academic neuroradiology attendings and fellows in the e-mail directory of the Association of Program Directors in Radiology. We queried use of face masks, use of noncutting needles, and dural puncture practices. All data were collected anonymously. A total of 110 survey responses were received: 75 from neuroradiology attendings and 34 from fellows, which represents a 14% response rate from a total of 239 fellows. Forty-seven out of 101 (47%) neuroradiologists do not always wear a face mask during myelograms, and 50 out of 105(48%) neuroradiologists do not always wear a face mask during lumbar punctures, placing patients at risk for iatrogenic meningitis. Ninety-six out of 106 neuroradiologists (91%) use the Quincke cutting needle by default, compared to only 17 out of 109 neuroradiologists (16%) who have ever used noncutting needles proven to reduce spinal headache. Duration of postprocedure bed rest does not influence incidence of spinal headache and may subject patients to unnecessary monitoring. Only 15 out of 109 (14%) neuroradiologists in our study do not prescribe bed rest. There was no statistically significant difference in practice between attendings and fellows. Iatrogenic meningitis and spinal headache are preventable complications of dural puncture that neuroradiologists can minimize by conforming to procedural guidelines. Wearing face masks and using noncutting spinal needles will reduce patient morbidity and lower hospitalization costs associated with procedural complications. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accelerating Biomedical Discoveries through Rigor and Transparency. (United States)

    Hewitt, Judith A; Brown, Liliana L; Murphy, Stephanie J; Grieder, Franziska; Silberberg, Shai D


    Difficulties in reproducing published research findings have garnered a lot of press in recent years. As a funder of biomedical research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken measures to address underlying causes of low reproducibility. Extensive deliberations resulted in a policy, released in 2015, to enhance reproducibility through rigor and transparency. We briefly explain what led to the policy, describe its elements, provide examples and resources for the biomedical research community, and discuss the potential impact of the policy on translatability with a focus on research using animal models. Importantly, while increased attention to rigor and transparency may lead to an increase in the number of laboratory animals used in the near term, it will lead to more efficient and productive use of such resources in the long run. The translational value of animal studies will be improved through more rigorous assessment of experimental variables and data, leading to better assessments of the translational potential of animal models, for the benefit of the research community and society. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Rigorous quantum limits on monitoring free masses and harmonic oscillators (United States)

    Roy, S. M.


    There are heuristic arguments proposing that the accuracy of monitoring position of a free mass m is limited by the standard quantum limit (SQL): σ2( X (t ) ) ≥σ2( X (0 ) ) +(t2/m2) σ2( P (0 ) ) ≥ℏ t /m , where σ2( X (t ) ) and σ2( P (t ) ) denote variances of the Heisenberg representation position and momentum operators. Yuen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 719 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.719] discovered that there are contractive states for which this result is incorrect. Here I prove universally valid rigorous quantum limits (RQL), viz. rigorous upper and lower bounds on σ2( X (t ) ) in terms of σ2( X (0 ) ) and σ2( P (0 ) ) , given by Eq. (12) for a free mass and by Eq. (36) for an oscillator. I also obtain the maximally contractive and maximally expanding states which saturate the RQL, and use the contractive states to set up an Ozawa-type measurement theory with accuracies respecting the RQL but beating the standard quantum limit. The contractive states for oscillators improve on the Schrödinger coherent states of constant variance and may be useful for gravitational wave detection and optical communication.

  19. Software metrics a rigorous and practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Norman


    A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and ProcessesReflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. Like its popular predecessors, this third edition discusses important issues, explains essential concepts, and offers new approaches for tackling long-standing problems.New to the Third EditionThis edition contains new material relevant

  20. Development of rigor mortis is not affected by muscle volume. (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Ikegaya, H; Takase, I; Hatanaka, K; Sakurada, K; Iwase, H


    There is a hypothesis suggesting that rigor mortis progresses more rapidly in small muscles than in large muscles. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in rat musculus erector spinae that had been cut into muscle bundles of various volumes. The muscle volume did not influence either the progress or the resolution of rigor mortis, which contradicts the hypothesis. Differences in pre-rigor load on the muscles influenced the onset and resolution of rigor mortis in a few pairs of samples, but did not influence the time taken for rigor mortis to reach its full extent after death. Moreover, the progress of rigor mortis in this muscle was biphasic; this may reflect the early rigor of red muscle fibres and the late rigor of white muscle fibres.

  1. Updated standardized endpoint definitions for transcatheter aortic valve implantation: The Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter); S.J. Head (Stuart); P. Généreux (Philippe); N. Piazza (Nicolo); N.M. van Mieghem (Nicolas); E.H. Blackstone (Eugene); T.G. Brott (Thomas); D.J. Cohen (David J.); D.E. Cutlip (Donald); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); R.T. Hahn (Rebecca); A.J. Kirtane (Ajay); M. Krucoff (Mitchell); S. Kodali (Susheel); M.J. Mack (Michael); R. Mehran (Roxana); J. Rodés-Cabau (Josep); P. Vranckx (Pascal); J.G. Webb (John); S.W. Windecker (Stephan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.B. Leon (Martin)


    textabstractObjectives: The aim of the current Valvular Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 initiative was to revisit the selection and definitions of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)- clinical endpoints to make them more suitable to the present and future needs of clinical trials.

  2. Rigor in Qualitative Supply Chain Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goffin, Keith; Raja, Jawwad; Claes, Björn


    , reliability, and theoretical saturation. Originality/value – It is the authors' contention that the addition of the repertory grid technique to the toolset of methods used by logistics and supply chain management researchers can only enhance insights and the building of robust theories. Qualitative studies......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' experiences of using the repertory grid technique in two supply chain management studies. The paper aims to demonstrate how the two studies provided insights into how qualitative techniques such as the repertory grid can be made more...... rigorous than in the past, and how results can be generated that are inaccessible using quantitative methods. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents two studies undertaken using the repertory grid technique to illustrate its application in supply chain management research. Findings – The paper...

  3. Statistics for mathematicians a rigorous first course

    CERN Document Server

    Panaretos, Victor M


    This textbook provides a coherent introduction to the main concepts and methods of one-parameter statistical inference. Intended for students of Mathematics taking their first course in Statistics, the focus is on Statistics for Mathematicians rather than on Mathematical Statistics. The goal is not to focus on the mathematical/theoretical aspects of the subject, but rather to provide an introduction to the subject tailored to the mindset and tastes of Mathematics students, who are sometimes turned off by the informal nature of Statistics courses. This book can be used as the basis for an elementary semester-long first course on Statistics with a firm sense of direction that does not sacrifice rigor. The deeper goal of the text is to attract the attention of promising Mathematics students.

  4. The scientifically substantiated art of teaching: A study in the development of standards in the new academic field of neuroeducation (mind, brain, and education science) (United States)

    Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey Noel

    Concepts from neuroeducation, commonly referred in the popular press as "brain-based learning," have been applied indiscreetly and inconsistently to classroom teaching practices for many years. While standards exist in neurology, psychology and pedagogy, there are no agreed upon standards in their intersection, neuroeducation, and a formal bridge linking the fields is missing. This study used grounded theory development to determine the parameters of the emerging neuroeducational field based on a meta-analysis of the literature over the past 30 years, which included over 2,200 documents. This research results in a new model for neuroeducation. The design of the new model was followed by a Delphi survey of 20 international experts from six different countries that further refined the model contents over several months of reflection. Finally, the revised model was compared to existing information sources, including popular press, peer review journals, academic publications, teacher training textbooks and the Internet, to determine to what extent standards in neuroeducation are met in the current literature. This study determined that standards in the emerging field, now labeled Mind, Brain, and Education: The Science of Teaching and Learning after the Delphi rounds, are the union of standards in the parent fields of neuroscience, psychology, and education. Additionally, the Delphi expert panel agreed upon the goals of the new discipline, its history, the thought leaders, and a model for judging quality information. The study culminated in a new model of the academic discipline of Mind, Brain, and Education science, which explains the tenets, principles and instructional guidelines supported by the meta-analysis of the literature and the Delphi response.

  5. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Ducatman MD


    value unit productivity approximated MGMA and FPSC benchmark data, we conclude that more rigorous standardization of academic faculty effort assignment will be needed to improve the value of work relative value unit measurements of faculty productivity.

  6. Rigorous theory of molecular orientational nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Chong Hoon; Kim, Gun Yeup


    Classical statistical mechanics of the molecular optics theory proposed by Buckingham [A. D. Buckingham and J. A. Pople, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 68, 905 (1955)] has been extended to describe the field induced molecular orientational polarization effects on nonlinear optics. In this paper, we present the generalized molecular orientational nonlinear optical processes (MONLO) through the calculation of the classical orientational averaging using the Boltzmann type time-averaged orientational interaction energy in the randomly oriented molecular system under the influence of applied electric fields. The focal points of the calculation are (1) the derivation of rigorous tensorial components of the effective molecular hyperpolarizabilities, (2) the molecular orientational polarizations and the electronic polarizations including the well-known third-order dc polarization, dc electric field induced Kerr effect (dc Kerr effect), optical Kerr effect (OKE), dc electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH), degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) and third harmonic generation (THG). We also present some of the new predictive MONLO processes. For second-order MONLO, second-order optical rectification (SOR), Pockels effect and difference frequency generation (DFG) are described in terms of the anisotropic coefficients of first hyperpolarizability. And, for third-order MONLO, third-order optical rectification (TOR), dc electric field induced difference frequency generation (EFIDFG) and pump-probe transmission are presented

  7. Rigorous modelling of light's intensity angular-profile in Abbe refractometers with absorbing homogeneous fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Valenzuela, A; Contreras-Tello, H; Márquez-Islas, R; Sánchez-Pérez, C


    We derive an optical model for the light intensity distribution around the critical angle in a standard Abbe refractometer when used on absorbing homogenous fluids. The model is developed using rigorous electromagnetic optics. The obtained formula is very simple and can be used suitably in the analysis and design of optical sensors relying on Abbe type refractometry.

  8. Community historians and the dilemma of rigor vs relevance : A comment on Danziger and van Rappard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Trudy


    Since the transition from finalism to contextualism, the history of science seems to be caught up in a basic dilemma. Many historians fear that with the new contextualist standards of rigorous historiography, historical research can no longer be relevant to working scientists themselves. The present

  9. Rigor or mortis: best practices for preclinical research in neuroscience. (United States)

    Steward, Oswald; Balice-Gordon, Rita


    Numerous recent reports document a lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies, raising concerns about potential lack of rigor. Examples of lack of rigor have been extensively documented and proposals for practices to improve rigor are appearing. Here, we discuss some of the details and implications of previously proposed best practices and consider some new ones, focusing on preclinical studies relevant to human neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Experimental study of restiffening of the rigor mortis]. (United States)

    Wang, X; Li, M; Liao, Z G; Yi, X F; Peng, X M


    To observe changes of the length of sarcomere of rat when restiffening. We measured the length of sarcomere of quadriceps in 40 rats in different condition by scanning electron microscope. The length of sarcomere of rigor mortis without destroy is obviously shorter than that of restiffening. The length of sarcomere is negatively correlative to the intensity of rigor mortis. Measuring the length of sarcomere can determine the intensity of rigor mortis and provide evidence for estimation of time since death.

  11. Mathematical framework for fast and rigorous track fit for the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridonov, Alexander


    In this note we present a mathematical framework for a rigorous approach to a common track fit for trackers located in the inner region of the ZEUS detector. The approach makes use of the Kalman filter and offers a rigorous treatment of magnetic field inhomogeneity, multiple scattering and energy loss. We describe mathematical details of the implementation of the Kalman filter technique with a reduced amount of computations for a cylindrical drift chamber, barrel and forward silicon strip detectors and a forward straw drift chamber. Options with homogeneous and inhomogeneous field are discussed. The fitting of tracks in one ZEUS event takes about of 20ms on standard PC. (orig.)

  12. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2010. Synthesis Report 82 (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.; Price, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.


    Federal legislation requires that all students participate in state accountability systems. Most students with disabilities participate in the regular assessment, with or without accommodations. Students with more significant cognitive disabilities participate in the Alternate Assessment based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). A few…

  13. Standard Setting for Next Generation TOEFL Academic Speaking Test (TAST): Reflections on the ETS Panel of International Teaching Assistant Developers (United States)

    Papajohn, Dean


    While many institutions have utilized TOEFL scores for international admissions for many years, a speaking section has never before been a required part of TOEFL until the development of the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL. So institutions will need to determine how to set standards for the speaking section of TOEFL, also known as TOEFL Academic…

  14. Long persistence of rigor mortis at constant low temperature. (United States)

    Varetto, Lorenzo; Curto, Ombretta


    We studied the persistence of rigor mortis by using physical manipulation. We tested the mobility of the knee on 146 corpses kept under refrigeration at Torino's city mortuary at a constant temperature of +4 degrees C. We found a persistence of complete rigor lasting for 10 days in all the cadavers we kept under observation; and in one case, rigor lasted for 16 days. Between the 11th and the 17th days, a progressively increasing number of corpses showed a change from complete into partial rigor (characterized by partial bending of the articulation). After the 17th day, all the remaining corpses showed partial rigor and in the two cadavers that were kept under observation "à outrance" we found the absolute resolution of rigor mortis occurred on the 28th day. Our results prove that it is possible to find a persistence of rigor mortis that is much longer than the expected when environmental conditions resemble average outdoor winter temperatures in temperate zones. Therefore, this datum must be considered when a corpse is found in those environmental conditions so that when estimating the time of death, we are not misled by the long persistence of rigor mortis.

  15. Rigorous solution to Bargmann-Wigner equation for integer spin

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Shi Zhong; Wu Ning; Zheng Zhi Peng


    A rigorous method is developed to solve the Bargamann-Wigner equation for arbitrary integer spin in coordinate representation in a step by step way. The Bargmann-Wigner equation is first transformed to a form easier to solve, the new equations are then solved rigorously in coordinate representation, and the wave functions in a closed form are thus derived

  16. Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.


    This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously

  17. Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination (United States)

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth


    Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

  18. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VI. Effect of various causes of death on the evolution of rigor mortis. (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Bergerioux, C; Brandt-Casadevall, C; Gujer, H R


    The evolution of rigor mortis was studied in cases of nitrogen asphyxia, drowning and strangulation, as well as in fatal intoxications due to strychnine, carbon monoxide and curariform drugs, using a modified method of measurement. Our experiments demonstrated that: (1) Strychnine intoxication hastens the onset and passing of rigor mortis. (2) CO intoxication delays the resolution of rigor mortis. (3) The intensity of rigor may vary depending upon the cause of death. (4) If the stage of rigidity is to be used to estimate the time of death, it is necessary: (a) to perform a succession of objective measurements of rigor mortis intensity; and (b) to verify the eventual presence of factors that could play a role in the modification of its development.

  19. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VII. Effect of ante- and post-mortem electrocution on the evolution of rigor mortis. (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Bergerioux, C


    The influence of electrocution on the evolution of rigor mortis was studied on rats. Our experiments showed that: (1) Electrocution hastens the onset of rigor mortis. After an electrocution of 90 s, a complete rigor develops already 1 h post-mortem (p.m.) compared to 5 h p.m. for the controls. (2) Electrocution hastens the passing of rigor mortis. After an electrocution of 90 s, the first significant decrease occurs at 3 h p.m. (8 h p.m. in the controls). (3) These modifications in rigor mortis evolution are less pronounced in the limbs not directly touched by the electric current. (4) In case of post-mortem electrocution, the changes are slightly less pronounced, the resistance is higher and the absorbed energy is lower as compared with the ante-mortem electrocution cases. The results are completed by two practical observations on human electrocution cases.

  20. The MIXED framework: A novel approach to evaluating mixed-methods rigor. (United States)

    Eckhardt, Ann L; DeVon, Holli A


    Evaluation of rigor in mixed-methods (MM) research is a persistent challenge due to the combination of inconsistent philosophical paradigms, the use of multiple research methods which require different skill sets, and the need to combine research at different points in the research process. Researchers have proposed a variety of ways to thoroughly evaluate MM research, but each method fails to provide a framework that is useful for the consumer of research. In contrast, the MIXED framework is meant to bridge the gap between an academic exercise and practical assessment of a published work. The MIXED framework (methods, inference, expertise, evaluation, and design) borrows from previously published frameworks to create a useful tool for the evaluation of a published study. The MIXED framework uses an experimental eight-item scale that allows for comprehensive integrated assessment of MM rigor in published manuscripts. Mixed methods are becoming increasingly prevalent in nursing and healthcare research requiring researchers and consumers to address issues unique to MM such as evaluation of rigor. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Is Collaborative, Community-Engaged Scholarship More Rigorous than Traditional Scholarship? On Advocacy, Bias, and Social Science Research (United States)

    Warren, Mark R.; Calderón, José; Kupscznk, Luke Aubry; Squires, Gregory; Su, Celina


    Contrary to the charge that advocacy-oriented research cannot meet social science research standards because it is inherently biased, the authors of this article argue that collaborative, community-engaged scholarship (CCES) must meet high standards of rigor if it is to be useful to support equity-oriented, social justice agendas. In fact, they…

  2. Monitoring muscle optical scattering properties during rigor mortis (United States)

    Xia, J.; Ranasinghesagara, J.; Ku, C. W.; Yao, G.


    Sarcomere is the fundamental functional unit in skeletal muscle for force generation. In addition, sarcomere structure is also an important factor that affects the eating quality of muscle food, the meat. The sarcomere structure is altered significantly during rigor mortis, which is the critical stage involved in transforming muscle to meat. In this paper, we investigated optical scattering changes during the rigor process in Sternomandibularis muscles. The measured optical scattering parameters were analyzed along with the simultaneously measured passive tension, pH value, and histology analysis. We found that the temporal changes of optical scattering, passive tension, pH value and fiber microstructures were closely correlated during the rigor process. These results suggested that sarcomere structure changes during rigor mortis can be monitored and characterized by optical scattering, which may find practical applications in predicting meat quality.

  3. Recent Development in Rigorous Computational Methods in Dynamical Systems


    Arai, Zin; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Pilarczyk, Paweł


    We highlight selected results of recent development in the area of rigorous computations which use interval arithmetic to analyse dynamical systems. We describe general ideas and selected details of different ways of approach and we provide specific sample applications to illustrate the effectiveness of these methods. The emphasis is put on a topological approach, which combined with rigorous calculations provides a broad range of new methods that yield mathematically rel...

  4. Learning from Science and Sport - How we, Safety, "Engage with Rigor" (United States)

    Herd, A.


    As the world of spaceflight safety is relatively small and potentially inward-looking, we need to be aware of the "outside world". We should then try to remind ourselves to be open to the possibility that data, knowledge or experience from outside of the spaceflight community may provide some constructive alternate perspectives. This paper will assess aspects from two seemingly tangential fields, science and sport, and align these with the world of safety. In doing so some useful insights will be given to the challenges we face and may provide solutions relevant in our everyday (of safety engineering). Sport, particularly a contact sport such as rugby union, requires direct interaction between members of two (opposing) teams. Professional, accurately timed and positioned interaction for a desired outcome. These interactions, whilst an essential part of the game, are however not without their constraints. The rugby scrum has constraints as to the formation and engagement of the two teams. The controlled engagement provides for an interaction between the two teams in a safe manner. The constraints arising from the reality that an incorrect engagement could cause serious injury to members of either team. In academia, scientific rigor is applied to assure that the arguments provided and the conclusions drawn in academic papers presented for publication are valid, legitimate and credible. The scientific goal of the need for rigor may be expressed in the example of achieving a statistically relevant sample size, n, in order to assure analysis validity of the data pool. A failure to apply rigor could then place the entire study at risk of failing to have the respective paper published. This paper will consider the merits of these two different aspects, scientific rigor and sports engagement, and offer a reflective look at how this may provide a "modus operandi" for safety engineers at any level whether at their desks (creating or reviewing safety assessments) or in a

  5. Strategies to promote a climate of academic integrity and minimize student cheating and plagiarism. (United States)

    Scanlan, Craig L


    Student academic misconduct is a growing problem for colleges and universities, including those responsible for preparing health professionals. Although the implementation of honor codes has had a positive impact on this problem, further reduction in student cheating and plagiarism can be achieved only via a comprehensive strategy that promotes an institutional culture of academic integrity. Such a strategy must combine efforts both to deter and detect academic misconduct, along with fair but rigorous application of sanctions against such behaviors. Methods useful in preventing or deterring dishonest behaviors among students include early integrity training complemented with course-level reinforcement, faculty role-modeling, and the application of selected testing/assignment preventive strategies, including honor pledges and honesty declarations. Giving students more responsibility for oversight of academic integrity also may help address this problem and better promote the culture needed to uphold its principles. Successful enforcement requires that academic administration provide strong and visible support for upholding academic integrity standards, including the provision of a clear and fair process and the consistent application of appropriate sanctions against those whose conduct is found to violate these standards.

  6. Tenderness of pre- and post rigor lamb longissimus muscle. (United States)

    Geesink, Geert; Sujang, Sadi; Koohmaraie, Mohammad


    Lamb longissimus muscle (n=6) sections were cooked at different times post mortem (prerigor, at rigor, 1dayp.m., and 7 days p.m.) using two cooking methods. Using a boiling waterbath, samples were either cooked to a core temperature of 70 °C or boiled for 3h. The latter method was meant to reflect the traditional cooking method employed in countries where preparation of prerigor meat is practiced. The time postmortem at which the meat was prepared had a large effect on the tenderness (shear force) of the meat (PCooking prerigor and at rigor meat to 70 °C resulted in higher shear force values than their post rigor counterparts at 1 and 7 days p.m. (9.4 and 9.6 vs. 7.2 and 3.7 kg, respectively). The differences in tenderness between the treatment groups could be largely explained by a difference in contraction status of the meat after cooking and the effect of ageing on tenderness. Cooking pre and at rigor meat resulted in severe muscle contraction as evidenced by the differences in sarcomere length of the cooked samples. Mean sarcomere lengths in the pre and at rigor samples ranged from 1.05 to 1.20 μm. The mean sarcomere length in the post rigor samples was 1.44 μm. Cooking for 3 h at 100 °C did improve the tenderness of pre and at rigor prepared meat as compared to cooking to 70 °C, but not to the extent that ageing did. It is concluded that additional intervention methods are needed to improve the tenderness of prerigor cooked meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of the breaking of rigor mortis by myotonometry. (United States)

    Vain, A; Kauppila, R; Vuori, E


    Myotonometry was used to detect breaking of rigor mortis. The myotonometer is a new instrument which measures the decaying oscillations of a muscle after a brief mechanical impact. The method gives two numerical parameters for rigor mortis, namely the period and decrement of the oscillations, both of which depend on the time period elapsed after death. In the case of breaking the rigor mortis by muscle lengthening, both the oscillation period and decrement decreased, whereas, shortening the muscle caused the opposite changes. Fourteen h after breaking the stiffness characteristics of the right and left m. biceps brachii, or oscillation periods, were assimilated. However, the values for decrement of the muscle, reflecting the dissipation of mechanical energy, maintained their differences.

  8. Physiological studies of muscle rigor mortis in the fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, S.; Kaneko, K.; Tanaka, K.


    A simple system was developed for continuous measurement of muscle contraction during nor mortis. Longitudinal muscle strips dissected from the Peroneus Longus were suspended in a plastic tube containing liquid paraffin. Mechanical activity was transmitted to a strain-gauge transducer which is connected to a potentiometric pen-recorder. At the onset of measurement 1.2g was loaded on the muscle strip. This model was used to study the muscle response to various treatments during nor mortis. All measurements were carried out under the anaerobic condition at 17°C, except otherwise stated. 1. The present system was found to be quite useful for continuous measurement of muscle rigor course. 2. Muscle contraction under the anaerobic condition at 17°C reached a peak about 2 hours after the onset of measurement and thereafter it relaxed at a slow rate. In contrast, the aerobic condition under a high humidity resulted in a strong rigor, about three times stronger than that in the anaerobic condition. 3. Ultrasonic treatment (37, 000-47, 000Hz) at 25°C for 10 minutes resulted in a moderate muscle rigor. 4. Treatment of muscle strip with 2mM EGTA at 30°C for 30 minutes led to a relaxation of the muscle. 5. The muscle from the birds killed during anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium resulted in a slow rate of rigor, whereas the birds killed one day after hypophysectomy led to a quick muscle rigor as seen in intact controls. 6. A slight muscle rigor was observed when muscle strip was placed in a refrigerator at 0°C for 18.5 hours and thereafter temperature was kept at 17°C. (author)

  9. Academic Hospitality (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald


    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  10. Reconciling the Rigor-Relevance Dilemma in Intellectual Capital Research (United States)

    Andriessen, Daniel


    This paper raises the issue of research methodology for intellectual capital and other types of management research by focusing on the dilemma of rigour versus relevance. The more traditional explanatory approach to research often leads to rigorous results that are not of much help to solve practical problems. This paper describes an alternative…

  11. Paper 3: Content and Rigor of Algebra Credit Recovery Courses (United States)

    Walters, Kirk; Stachel, Suzanne


    This paper describes the content, organization and rigor of the f2f and online summer algebra courses that were delivered in summers 2011 and 2012. Examining the content of both types of courses is important because research suggests that algebra courses with certain features may be better than others in promoting success for struggling students.…

  12. A rigorous treatment of uncertainty quantification for Silicon damage metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.


    These report summaries the contributions made by Sandia National Laboratories in support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Data Section (NDS) Technical Meeting (TM) on Nuclear Reaction Data and Uncertainties for Radiation Damage. This work focused on a rigorous treatment of the uncertainties affecting the characterization of the displacement damage seen in silicon semiconductors. (author)

  13. Effects of post mortem temperature on rigor tension, shortening and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fully developed rigor mortis in muscle is characterised by maximum loss of extensibility. The course of post mortem changes in ostrich muscle was studied by following isometric tension, shortening and change in pH during the first 24 h post mortem within muscle strips from the muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna at ...

  14. Characterization of rigor mortis of longissimus dorsi and triceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    24 h) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles as well as the shear force (meat tenderness) and colour were evaluated, aiming at characterizing the rigor mortis in the meat during industrial processing. Data statistic treatment demonstrated that carcass temperature and pH decreased gradually during ...

  15. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities. (United States)

    Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S


    Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.

  16. A rigorous proof for the Landauer-Büttiker formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Jensen, Arne; Moldoveanu, V.

    Recently, Avron et al. shed new light on the question of quantum transport in mesoscopic samples coupled to particle reservoirs by semi-infinite leads. They rigorously treat the case when the sample undergoes an adiabatic evolution thus generating a current through th leads, and prove the so call...

  17. Rigorous simulation: a tool to enhance decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiva, Raquel; Larson, Mel; Baks, Arjan [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)


    The world refining industries continue to be challenged by population growth (increased demand), regional market changes and the pressure of regulatory requirements to operate a 'green' refinery. Environmental regulations are reducing the value and use of heavy fuel oils, and leading to convert more of the heavier products or even heavier crude into lighter products while meeting increasingly stringent transportation fuel specifications. As a result actions are required for establishing a sustainable advantage for future success. Rigorous simulation provides a key advantage improving the time and efficient use of capital investment and maximizing profitability. Sustainably maximizing profit through rigorous modeling is achieved through enhanced performance monitoring and improved Linear Programme (LP) model accuracy. This paper contains examples on these two items. The combination of both increases overall rates of return. As refiners consider optimizing existing assets and expanding projects, the process agreed to achieve these goals is key for a successful profit improvement. The benefit of rigorous kinetic simulation with detailed fractionation allows for optimizing existing asset utilization while focusing the capital investment in the new unit(s), and therefore optimizing the overall strategic plan and return on investment. Individual process unit's monitoring works as a mechanism for validating and optimizing the plant performance. Unit monitoring is important to rectify poor performance and increase profitability. The key to a good LP relies upon the accuracy of the data used to generate the LP sub-model data. The value of rigorous unit monitoring are that the results are heat and mass balanced consistently, and are unique for a refiners unit / refinery. With the improved match of the refinery operation, the rigorous simulation models will allow capturing more accurately the non linearity of those process units and therefore provide correct

  18. Bringing scientific rigor to community-developed programs in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Cecilia S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes efforts to generate evidence for community-developed programs to enhance family relationships in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong, within the framework of community-based participatory research (CBPR. Methods The CBPR framework was applied to help maximize the development of the intervention and the public health impact of the studies, while enhancing the capabilities of the social service sector partners. Results Four academic-community research teams explored the process of designing and implementing randomized controlled trials in the community. In addition to the expected cultural barriers between teams of academics and community practitioners, with their different outlooks, concerns and languages, the team navigated issues in utilizing the principles of CBPR unique to this Chinese culture. Eventually the team developed tools for adaptation, such as an emphasis on building the relationship while respecting role delineation and an iterative process of defining the non-negotiable parameters of research design while maintaining scientific rigor. Lessons learned include the risk of underemphasizing the size of the operational and skills shift between usual agency practices and research studies, the importance of minimizing non-negotiable parameters in implementing rigorous research designs in the community, and the need to view community capacity enhancement as a long term process. Conclusions The four pilot studies under the FAMILY Project demonstrated that nuanced design adaptations, such as wait list controls and shorter assessments, better served the needs of the community and led to the successful development and vigorous evaluation of a series of preventive, family-oriented interventions in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong.

  19. Bringing scientific rigor to community-developed programs in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; Hirschmann, Malia R; Lam, Tai Hing; Cheung, Teresa; Pang, Irene; Chan, Sophia; Stewart, Sunita M


    This paper describes efforts to generate evidence for community-developed programs to enhance family relationships in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong, within the framework of community-based participatory research (CBPR). The CBPR framework was applied to help maximize the development of the intervention and the public health impact of the studies, while enhancing the capabilities of the social service sector partners. Four academic-community research teams explored the process of designing and implementing randomized controlled trials in the community. In addition to the expected cultural barriers between teams of academics and community practitioners, with their different outlooks, concerns and languages, the team navigated issues in utilizing the principles of CBPR unique to this Chinese culture. Eventually the team developed tools for adaptation, such as an emphasis on building the relationship while respecting role delineation and an iterative process of defining the non-negotiable parameters of research design while maintaining scientific rigor. Lessons learned include the risk of underemphasizing the size of the operational and skills shift between usual agency practices and research studies, the importance of minimizing non-negotiable parameters in implementing rigorous research designs in the community, and the need to view community capacity enhancement as a long term process. The four pilot studies under the FAMILY Project demonstrated that nuanced design adaptations, such as wait list controls and shorter assessments, better served the needs of the community and led to the successful development and vigorous evaluation of a series of preventive, family-oriented interventions in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong.

  20. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer


    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  1. Rigor mortis in an unusual position: Forensic considerations. (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak H; Harish, S; Rajesh, M; Kiran, J


    We report a case in which the dead body was found with rigor mortis in an unusual position. The dead body was lying on its back with limbs raised, defying gravity. Direction of the salivary stains on the face was also defying the gravity. We opined that the scene of occurrence of crime is unlikely to be the final place where the dead body was found. The clues were revealing a homicidal offence and an attempt to destroy the evidence. The forensic use of 'rigor mortis in an unusual position' is in furthering the investigations, and the scientific confirmation of two facts - the scene of death (occurrence) is different from the scene of disposal of dead body, and time gap between the two places.

  2. Some rigorous results concerning spectral theory for ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, P.


    Spectral theory for linear ideal MHD is laid on a firm foundation by defining appropriate function spaces for the operators associated with both the first- and second-order (in time and space) partial differential operators. Thus, it is rigorously established that a self-adjoint extension of F(xi) exists. It is shown that the operator L associated with the first-order formulation satisfies the conditions of the Hille--Yosida theorem. A foundation is laid thereby within which the domains associated with the first- and second-order formulations can be compared. This allows future work in a rigorous setting that will clarify the differences (in the two formulations) between the structure of the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the marginal point of the spectrum ω = 0

  3. Some rigorous results concerning spectral theory for ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, P.


    Spectral theory for linear ideal MHD is laid on a firm foundation by defining appropriate function spaces for the operators associated with both the first and second order (in time and space) partial differential operators. Thus, it is rigorously established that a self-adjoint extension of F(xi) exists. It is shown that the operator L associated with the first order formulation satisfies the conditions of the Hille-Yosida theorem. A foundation is laid thereby within which the domains associated with the first and second order formulations can be compared. This allows future work in a rigorous setting that will clarify the differences (in the two formulations) between the structure of the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the marginal point of the spectrum ω = 0

  4. Academic writing (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.


    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  5. Rigorous results on measuring the quark charge below color threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.


    Rigorous theorems are presented showing that contributions from a color nonsinglet component of the current to matrix elements of a second order electromagnetic transition are suppressed by factors inversely proportional to the energy of the color threshold. Parton models which obtain matrix elements proportional to the color average of the square of the quark charge are shown to neglect terms of the same order of magnitude as terms kept. (author)

  6. A Rigorous Methodology for Analyzing and Designing Plug-Ins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasie, Marieta V.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kiniry, Joseph


    . This paper addresses these problems by describing a rigorous methodology for analyzing and designing plug-ins. The methodology is grounded in the Extended Business Object Notation (EBON) and covers informal analysis and design of features, GUI, actions, and scenarios, formal architecture design, including...... behavioral semantics, and validation. The methodology is illustrated via a case study whose focus is an Eclipse environment for the RAISE formal method's tool suite....

  7. Striation Patterns of Ox Muscle in Rigor Mortis (United States)

    Locker, Ronald H.


    Ox muscle in rigor mortis offers a selection of myofibrils fixed at varying degrees of contraction from sarcomere lengths of 3.7 to 0.7 µ. A study of this material by phase contrast and electron microscopy has revealed four distinct successive patterns of contraction, including besides the familiar relaxed and contracture patterns, two intermediate types (2.4 to 1.9 µ, 1.8 to 1.5 µ) not previously well described. PMID:14417790

  8. Rigorous Analysis of a Randomised Number Field Sieve


    Lee, Jonathan; Venkatesan, Ramarathnam


    Factorisation of integers $n$ is of number theoretic and cryptographic significance. The Number Field Sieve (NFS) introduced circa 1990, is still the state of the art algorithm, but no rigorous proof that it halts or generates relationships is known. We propose and analyse an explicitly randomised variant. For each $n$, we show that these randomised variants of the NFS and Coppersmith's multiple polynomial sieve find congruences of squares in expected times matching the best-known heuristic e...

  9. Reciprocity relations in transmission electron microscopy: A rigorous derivation. (United States)

    Krause, Florian F; Rosenauer, Andreas


    A concise derivation of the principle of reciprocity applied to realistic transmission electron microscopy setups is presented making use of the multislice formalism. The equivalence of images acquired in conventional and scanning mode is thereby rigorously shown. The conditions for the applicability of the found reciprocity relations is discussed. Furthermore the positions of apertures in relation to the corresponding lenses are considered, a subject which scarcely has been addressed in previous publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical Analysis of Strategies for Determining Rigor in Qualitative Inquiry. (United States)

    Morse, Janice M


    Criteria for determining the trustworthiness of qualitative research were introduced by Guba and Lincoln in the 1980s when they replaced terminology for achieving rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability with dependability, credibility, and transferability. Strategies for achieving trustworthiness were also introduced. This landmark contribution to qualitative research remains in use today, with only minor modifications in format. Despite the significance of this contribution over the past four decades, the strategies recommended to achieve trustworthiness have not been critically examined. Recommendations for where, why, and how to use these strategies have not been developed, and how well they achieve their intended goal has not been examined. We do not know, for example, what impact these strategies have on the completed research. In this article, I critique these strategies. I recommend that qualitative researchers return to the terminology of social sciences, using rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability. I then make recommendations for the appropriate use of the strategies recommended to achieve rigor: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, and thick, rich description; inter-rater reliability, negative case analysis; peer review or debriefing; clarifying researcher bias; member checking; external audits; and triangulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Early identification of children at-risk for academic difficulties, using standardized assessment: stability and predictive validity of preschool math and language scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans, Niek; Post, Wendy J.; Huisman, Mark; Oenema-Mostert, Ineke C.E.; Keegstra, Anne L.; Minnaert, Alexander E.M.G.


    Despite the claim by several researchers that variability in performance may complicate the identification of “at-risk” children, variability in the academic performance of young children remains an undervalued area of research. The goal of this study is to examine the predictive validity for future

  12. Michigan Senate Bill 826: Replace Common Core with pre-2011 Massachusetts Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Stotsky


    Full Text Available Interested in academic standards and assessments proven to raise student achievement? You won’t get that from the Common Core Standards and their associated consortium tests, PARCC and SBAC. Despite the boisterous hype of higher, deeper, richer, more rigorous, and so on, there exists no valid evidence to support their claims of higher quality, achievement, or college readiness. There is a set of state standards and assessments, however, proven through actual experience to have raised academic achievement for students at all levels and in all curricular pathways: those used in Massachusetts from 2000 to 2011. So, why not use them? Such a proposal was recently proposed, and passed, by the Michigan Senate Education Policy Committee. Here, we provide links to Sandra Stotsky’s testimony before that committee, along with other relevant links. - See more at:

  13. Academic Excellence: A Commentary and Reflections on the Inherent Value of Peer Review (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J.; Shambrook, Jennifer


    Academic peer review is widely viewed as fair, equitable, and essential to academic quality. Successfully completing the process through publication or award is widely deemed as one of the most rigorous and prestigious forms of scholarly accomplishment. Despite this sentiment the academic peer review process is not without fault. It is criticized…

  14. The academic prince. (United States)

    McGregor, Maurice


    The author presents advice to deans and chairs of academia by imagining what Machiavelli might recommend were he to write a modern version of The Prince for academics. "Machiavelli" cautions that since modern academic "princes" have little power (except, perhaps, over teaching and laboratory space), the success of their rule depends upon respect. Regarding the choice of an academic prince, find someone who can be a good role model, set standards, and reward academic excellence, and who will, above all, be respected. Avoid choosing a prince who is a nice, nonthreatening candidate with "good human relations" and "good executive skills." Choose candidates who are already successful and fulfilled and who will see the new post not as a promotion or a balm for their insecurity, but as an intrusion into their academic lives. Fill empty positions as quickly as possible-better a weak prince than no prince at all. Seek short terms for princes, both because respected academics will want to return to their normal lives as soon as possible, and because with short mandates, greater chances can be taken with young, unproved, but promising candidates. At the same time, the appointment of aging administrators who have lost their academic skills is to be avoided. Above all, respect the throne-i.e., the position of chair or dean-even if the person holding the position may not deserve the respect, since when the prince retires with honor, the position becomes more attractive to future good candidates.

  15. New rigorous asymptotic theorems for inverse scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomsadze, Sh.Yu.; Lomsadze, Yu.M.


    The rigorous asymptotic theorems both of integral and local types obtained earlier and establishing logarithmic and in some cases even power correlations aetdeen the real and imaginary parts of scattering amplitudes Fsub(+-) are extended to the inverse amplitudes 1/Fsub(+-). One also succeeds in establishing power correlations of a new type between the real and imaginary parts, both for the amplitudes themselves and for the inverse ones. All the obtained assertions are convenient to be tested in high energy experiments when the amplitudes show asymptotic behaviour

  16. Sonoelasticity to monitor mechanical changes during rigor and ageing. (United States)

    Ayadi, A; Culioli, J; Abouelkaram, S


    We propose the use of sonoelasticity as a non-destructive method to monitor changes in the resistance of muscle fibres, unaffected by connective tissue. Vibrations were applied at low frequency to induce oscillations in soft tissues and an ultrasound transducer was used to detect the motions. The experiments were carried out on the M. biceps femoris muscles of three beef cattle. In addition to the sonoelasticity measurements, the changes in meat during rigor and ageing were followed by measurements of both the mechanical resistance of myofibres and pH. The variations of mechanical resistance and pH were compared to those of the sonoelastic variables (velocity and attenuation) at two frequencies. The relationships between pH and velocity or attenuation and between the velocity or attenuation and the stress at 20% deformation were highly correlated. We concluded that sonoelasticity is a non-destructive method that can be used to monitor mechanical changes in muscle fibers during rigor-mortis and ageing.

  17. A rigorous test for a new conceptual model for collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, E.M.A.; Mu-Tao, L.


    A rigorous theoretical foundation for the previously proposed model is formulated and applied to electron scattering by H 2 in the gas phase. An rigorous treatment of the interaction potential between the incident electron and the Hydrogen molecule is carried out to calculate Differential Cross Sections for 1 KeV electrons, using Glauber's approximation Wang's molecular wave function for the ground electronic state of H 2 . Moreover, it is shown for the first time that, when adequately done, the omission of two center terms does not adversely influence the results of molecular calculations. It is shown that the new model is far superior to the Independent Atom Model (or Independent Particle Model). The accuracy and simplicity of the new model suggest that it may be fruitfully applied to the description of other collision phenomena (e.g., in molecular beam experiments and nuclear physics). A new techniques is presented for calculations involving two center integrals within the frame work of the Glauber's approximation for scattering. (Author) [pt

  18. Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories (United States)

    Gallego, Sergi; Neipp, Cristian; Estepa, Luis A.; Ortuño, Manuel; Márquez, Andrés; Francés, Jorge; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto


    There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW) or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW). The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers.

  19. Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Beléndez


    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW. The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers.

  20. A methodology for the rigorous verification of plasma simulation codes (United States)

    Riva, Fabio


    The methodology used to assess the reliability of numerical simulation codes constitutes the Verification and Validation (V&V) procedure. V&V is composed by two separate tasks: the verification, which is a mathematical issue targeted to assess that the physical model is correctly solved, and the validation, which determines the consistency of the code results, and therefore of the physical model, with experimental data. In the present talk we focus our attention on the verification, which in turn is composed by the code verification, targeted to assess that a physical model is correctly implemented in a simulation code, and the solution verification, that quantifies the numerical error affecting a simulation. Bridging the gap between plasma physics and other scientific domains, we introduced for the first time in our domain a rigorous methodology for the code verification, based on the method of manufactured solutions, as well as a solution verification based on the Richardson extrapolation. This methodology was applied to GBS, a three-dimensional fluid code based on a finite difference scheme, used to investigate the plasma turbulence in basic plasma physics experiments and in the tokamak scrape-off layer. Overcoming the difficulty of dealing with a numerical method intrinsically affected by statistical noise, we have now generalized the rigorous verification methodology to simulation codes based on the particle-in-cell algorithm, which are employed to solve Vlasov equation in the investigation of a number of plasma physics phenomena.

  1. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis IX. The influence of the breaking (mechanical solution) on the development of rigor mortis. (United States)

    Krompecher, Thomas; Gilles, André; Brandt-Casadevall, Conception; Mangin, Patrice


    Objective measurements were carried out to study the possible re-establishment of rigor mortis on rats after "breaking" (mechanical solution). Our experiments showed that: *Cadaveric rigidity can re-establish after breaking. *A significant rigidity can reappear if the breaking occurs before the process is complete. *Rigidity will be considerably weaker after the breaking. *The time course of the intensity does not change in comparison to the controls: --the re-establishment begins immediately after the breaking; --maximal values are reached at the same time as in the controls; --the course of the resolution is the same as in the controls.

  2. Biomedical text mining for research rigor and integrity: tasks, challenges, directions. (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil


    An estimated quarter of a trillion US dollars is invested in the biomedical research enterprise annually. There is growing alarm that a significant portion of this investment is wasted because of problems in reproducibility of research findings and in the rigor and integrity of research conduct and reporting. Recent years have seen a flurry of activities focusing on standardization and guideline development to enhance the reproducibility and rigor of biomedical research. Research activity is primarily communicated via textual artifacts, ranging from grant applications to journal publications. These artifacts can be both the source and the manifestation of practices leading to research waste. For example, an article may describe a poorly designed experiment, or the authors may reach conclusions not supported by the evidence presented. In this article, we pose the question of whether biomedical text mining techniques can assist the stakeholders in the biomedical research enterprise in doing their part toward enhancing research integrity and rigor. In particular, we identify four key areas in which text mining techniques can make a significant contribution: plagiarism/fraud detection, ensuring adherence to reporting guidelines, managing information overload and accurate citation/enhanced bibliometrics. We review the existing methods and tools for specific tasks, if they exist, or discuss relevant research that can provide guidance for future work. With the exponential increase in biomedical research output and the ability of text mining approaches to perform automatic tasks at large scale, we propose that such approaches can support tools that promote responsible research practices, providing significant benefits for the biomedical research enterprise. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Academic dishonsty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study attempted to investigate students' self reported academic dishonesty in Ethiopian ... university programs can play a key role in ... serious problem in establishing academic ... and Rocha 2006); Asian-Pacific, ... and self-adjustment mediates the ..... In my suggestion, it is better that ..... Comparative and International.

  4. Academic Nightmares: Predatory Publishing (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E.; Rogers, Kem A.


    Academic researchers who seek to publish their work are confronted daily with a barrage of e-mails from aggressive marketing campaigns that solicit them to publish their research with a specialized, often newly launched, journal. Known as predatory journals, they often promise high editorial and publishing standards, yet their exploitive business…

  5. Rigorous force field optimization principles based on statistical distance minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcek, Lukas, E-mail: [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States); Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6173 (United States); Chialvo, Ariel A. [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States)


    We use the concept of statistical distance to define a measure of distinguishability between a pair of statistical mechanical systems, i.e., a model and its target, and show that its minimization leads to general convergence of the model’s static measurable properties to those of the target. We exploit this feature to define a rigorous basis for the development of accurate and robust effective molecular force fields that are inherently compatible with coarse-grained experimental data. The new model optimization principles and their efficient implementation are illustrated through selected examples, whose outcome demonstrates the higher robustness and predictive accuracy of the approach compared to other currently used methods, such as force matching and relative entropy minimization. We also discuss relations between the newly developed principles and established thermodynamic concepts, which include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and the thermodynamic length.

  6. From everyday communicative figurations to rigorous audience news repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Christian; Schrøder, Kim Christian


    In the last couple of decades there has been an unprecedented explosion of news media platforms and formats, as a succession of digital and social media have joined the ranks of legacy media. We live in a ‘hybrid media system’ (Chadwick, 2013), in which people build their cross-media news...... repertoires from the ensemble of old and new media available. This article presents an innovative mixed-method approach with considerable explanatory power to the exploration of patterns of news media consumption. This approach tailors Q-methodology in the direction of a qualitative study of news consumption......, in which a card sorting exercise serves to translate the participants’ news media preferences into a form that enables the researcher to undertake a rigorous factor-analytical construction of their news consumption repertoires. This interpretive, factor-analytical procedure, which results in the building...

  7. Student’s rigorous mathematical thinking based on cognitive style (United States)

    Fitriyani, H.; Khasanah, U.


    The purpose of this research was to determine the rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) of mathematics education students in solving math problems in terms of reflective and impulsive cognitive styles. The research used descriptive qualitative approach. Subjects in this research were 4 students of the reflective and impulsive cognitive style which was each consisting male and female subjects. Data collection techniques used problem-solving test and interview. Analysis of research data used Miles and Huberman model that was reduction of data, presentation of data, and conclusion. The results showed that impulsive male subjects used three levels of the cognitive function required for RMT that were qualitative thinking, quantitative thinking with precision, and relational thinking completely while the other three subjects were only able to use cognitive function at qualitative thinking level of RMT. Therefore the subject of impulsive male has a better RMT ability than the other three research subjects.

  8. Rigorous Quantum Field Theory A Festschrift for Jacques Bros

    CERN Document Server

    Monvel, Anne Boutet; Iagolnitzer, Daniel; Moschella, Ugo


    Jacques Bros has greatly advanced our present understanding of rigorous quantum field theory through numerous fundamental contributions. This book arose from an international symposium held in honour of Jacques Bros on the occasion of his 70th birthday, at the Department of Theoretical Physics of the CEA in Saclay, France. The impact of the work of Jacques Bros is evident in several articles in this book. Quantum fields are regarded as genuine mathematical objects, whose various properties and relevant physical interpretations must be studied in a well-defined mathematical framework. The key topics in this volume include analytic structures of Quantum Field Theory (QFT), renormalization group methods, gauge QFT, stability properties and extension of the axiomatic framework, QFT on models of curved spacetimes, QFT on noncommutative Minkowski spacetime. Contributors: D. Bahns, M. Bertola, R. Brunetti, D. Buchholz, A. Connes, F. Corbetta, S. Doplicher, M. Dubois-Violette, M. Dütsch, H. Epstein, C.J. Fewster, K....

  9. Desarrollo constitucional, legal y jurisprudencia del principio de rigor subsidiario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Cifuentes Sandoval


    Full Text Available In colombia the environment state administration is in charge of environmental national system, SINA, SINA is made up of states entities that coexist beneath a mixed organization of centralization and decentralization. SINA decentralization express itself in a administrative and territorial level, and is waited that entities that function under this structure act in a coordinated way in order to reach suggested objectives in the environmental national politicy. To achieve the coordinated environmental administration through entities that define the SINA, the environmental legislation of Colombia has include three basic principles: 1. The principle of “armorial regional” 2. The principle of “gradationnormative” 3. The principle of “rigorsubsidiaries”. These principles belong to the article 63, law 99 of 1933, and even in the case of the two first, it is possible to find equivalents in other norms that integrate the Colombian legal system, it does not happen in that way with the “ rigor subsidiaries” because its elements are uniques of the environmental normativity and do not seem to be similar to those that make part of the principle of “ subsidiaridad” present in the article 288 of the politic constitution. The “ rigor subsidiaries” give to decentralizates entities certain type of special ability to modify the current environmental legislation to defend the local ecological patrimony. It is an administrative ability with a foundation in the decentralization autonomy that allows to take place of the reglamentary denied of the legislative power with the condition that the new normativity be more demanding that the one that belongs to the central level

  10. Rigorous patient-prosthesis matching of Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthesis. (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiromasa; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Takagaki, Masami; Kadowaki, Tasuku; Nakao, Tatsuya; Amano, Atsushi


    Severe patient-prosthesis mismatch, defined as effective orifice area index ≤0.65 cm(2) m(-2), has demonstrated poor long-term survival after aortic valve replacement. Reported rates of severe mismatch involving the Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthesis range from 4% to 20% in patients with a small annulus. Between June 2008 and August 2011, 251 patients (mean age 70.5 ± 10.2 years; mean body surface area 1.55 ± 0.19 m(2)) underwent aortic valve replacement with a Perimount Magna bioprosthesis, with or without concomitant procedures. We performed our procedure with rigorous patient-prosthesis matching to implant a valve appropriately sized to each patient, and carried out annular enlargement when a 19-mm valve did not fit. The bioprosthetic performance was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography predischarge and at 1 and 2 years after surgery. Overall hospital mortality was 1.6%. Only 5 (2.0%) patients required annular enlargement. The mean follow-up period was 19.1 ± 10.7 months with a 98.4% completion rate. Predischarge data showed a mean effective orifice area index of 1.21 ± 0.20 cm(2) m(-2). Moderate mismatch, defined as effective orifice area index ≤0.85 cm(2) m(-2), developed in 4 (1.6%) patients. None developed severe mismatch. Data at 1 and 2 years showed only two cases of moderate mismatch; neither was severe. Rigorous patient-prosthesis matching maximized the performance of the Perimount Magna, and no severe mismatch resulted in this Japanese population of aortic valve replacement patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  11. A Generalized Method for the Comparable and Rigorous Calculation of the Polytropic Efficiencies of Turbocompressors (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis


    The calculation of polytropic efficiencies is a very important task, especially during the development of new compression units, like compressor impellers, stages and stage groups. Such calculations are also crucial for the determination of the performance of a whole compressor. As processors and computational capacities have substantially been improved in the last years, the need for a new, rigorous, robust, accurate and at the same time standardized method merged, regarding the computation of the polytropic efficiencies, especially based on thermodynamics of real gases. The proposed method is based on the rigorous definition of the polytropic efficiency. The input consists of pressure and temperature values at the end points of the compression path (suction and discharge), for a given working fluid. The average relative error for the studied cases was 0.536 %. Thus, this high-accuracy method is proposed for efficiency calculations related with turbocompressors and their compression units, especially when they are operating at high power levels, for example in jet engines and high-power plants.

  12. From basic survival analytic theory to a non-standard application

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Georg


    Georg Zimmermann provides a mathematically rigorous treatment of basic survival analytic methods. His emphasis is also placed on various questions and problems, especially with regard to life expectancy calculations arising from a particular real-life dataset on patients with epilepsy. The author shows both the step-by-step analyses of that dataset and the theory the analyses are based on. He demonstrates that one may face serious and sometimes unexpected problems, even when conducting very basic analyses. Moreover, the reader learns that a practically relevant research question may look rather simple at first sight. Nevertheless, compared to standard textbooks, a more detailed account of the theory underlying life expectancy calculations is needed in order to provide a mathematically rigorous framework. Contents Regression Models for Survival Data Model Checking Procedures Life Expectancy Target Groups Researchers, lecturers, and students in the fields of mathematics and statistics Academics and experts work...

  13. Failure, The Next Generation: Why Rigorous Standards are not Sufficient to Improve Science Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Antony Bair


    Full Text Available Although many states in the United States are adopting policies that require all students to complete college-preparatory science classes to graduate from high school, such policies have not always led to improved student outcomes. There is much speculation about the cause of the dismal results, but there is scant research on the processes by which the policies are being implemented at the school level, especially in schools that enroll large numbers of historically non-college-bound students. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a four-year ethnographic case study of policy implementation at one racially and socioeconomically diverse high school in Michigan. Guided by the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens (1984, we gathered and analyzed information from interviews with administrators and science teachers, observations of science classes, and relevant curriculum and policy documents. Our findings reveal the processes and rationales by which a state policy mandating three years of college-preparatory science for all students was implemented at the school. Four years after the policy was implemented, there was little improvement in science outcomes. The main reason for this, we found, was the lack of correspondence between the state policy and local policies developed in response to that state policy.

  14. Academic Integrity: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce; Zhang, Jingjing; Pun, Annie


    This article provides a literature review on academic integrity, which encompasses the values, behaviour and conduct of academics in all aspects of their practice. This is a growing area of academic research as a result of the expansion of higher education on a global basis and concerns about standards of professional conduct. The article maps the…

  15. academic libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Key words: academic libraries, open access, research, researchers, technology ... European commission (2012) reports that affordable and easy access to the results ...

  16. Investigating the Availability of Quality Assurance Standards of Academic Programs in the Music Teacher Preparation Program- University of Jordan, from the Students’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedal M. Nsairat


    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out how far quality assurance standards were applied in the music teacher preparation program at the University of Jordan, from the viewpoint of the students enrolled in the same program. The population of this study consisted of all the students (53 enrolled in the program , and majoring in music education and music performance. The study followed a descriptive analytical approach to collect the data. The study results revealed the extent of relevance of the BA program of preparing music teachers in the University of Jordan, which came as a result of applying each quality assurance standard in the program except the standard of facilities and equipment. In light of the findings, the study recommended that all those in charge of the educational process should pay more heed to certification programs of music teacher education. This should be done by designing and implementing programs to support this type of program, so as to be in conformity with quality assurance standards of music teacher education. Keywords: Preparation , Music teacher education , Standard , Quality assurance.

  17. Academic Publications


    Francisco H C Felix


    Alternative modes of academic publication. What it is: Page for the dissemination of academic papers in alternative formats. Aimed at the diffusion of the idea of open publication, or open access publication, a branch of open science, a multidisciplinary movement that seeks to modify the paradigm of knowledge production that centralizes it and prevents its spreading. Historically, Western tradition has become firmly rooted in the free dissemination of knowledge among peers. However, the c...

  18. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists: The Association of Pathology Chairs Survey. (United States)

    Ducatman, Barbara S; Parslow, Tristram


    approximated MGMA and FPSC benchmark data, we conclude that more rigorous standardization of academic faculty effort assignment will be needed to improve the value of work relative value unit measurements of faculty productivity.

  19. Emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor in cardiac arrest patients. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hee; Jung, Koo Young


    Instantaneous rigor as muscle stiffening occurring in the moment of death (or cardiac arrest) can be confused with rigor mortis. If trismus is caused by instantaneous rigor, orotracheal intubation is impossible and a surgical airway should be secured. Here, we report 2 patients who had emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor. This case report aims to help physicians understand instantaneous rigor and to emphasize the importance of securing a surgical airway quickly on the occurrence of trismus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Academic Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela ZECA


    Full Text Available Academic Marketing is an investment in a future dominated by The Forth Industrial Revolution and Globalization and not an expense. This aspect will basically alter our way to teach and to learn. In its dimensions, arguably changes will be like anything we has seen before. We try to assess how will be all unfold but, anyway, academic field response at this challenge should be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders both public and private sectors, because these changes herald upheaval of whole organizations. The educational service is a special one, delivered today but with effects in the future, the future of the individual, the future of generation, the future of nations. The educational service policy adapted to the requirements of time, brings to the front the opportunity of academic marketing. To analyze demand in a professional way, to measure trends and correlated university programs with the forecast demand for jobs, it is the subject. In the case of academic education, we are talking also about cost, distribution and promotion policies, but being a special service we also discuss about ethic boundaries. This work is an open chapter focusing studies on academic megamarketing, the work keeping up with the pace of change, students enrolment mobility, overtakes job market, and an imposed win-win-win formula, applied for students, local community and academic field.

  1. Improving students’ mathematical critical thinking through rigorous teaching and learning model with informal argument (United States)

    Hamid, H.


    The purpose of this study is to analyze an improvement of students’ mathematical critical thinking (CT) ability in Real Analysis course by using Rigorous Teaching and Learning (RTL) model with informal argument. In addition, this research also attempted to understand students’ CT on their initial mathematical ability (IMA). This study was conducted at a private university in academic year 2015/2016. The study employed the quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. The participants of the study were 83 students in which 43 students were in the experimental group and 40 students were in the control group. The finding of the study showed that students in experimental group outperformed students in control group on mathematical CT ability based on their IMA (high, medium, low) in learning Real Analysis. In addition, based on medium IMA the improvement of mathematical CT ability of students who were exposed to RTL model with informal argument was greater than that of students who were exposed to CI (conventional instruction). There was also no effect of interaction between RTL model and CI model with both (high, medium, and low) IMA increased mathematical CT ability. Finally, based on (high, medium, and low) IMA there was a significant improvement in the achievement of all indicators of mathematical CT ability of students who were exposed to RTL model with informal argument than that of students who were exposed to CI.

  2. Academic Training: 2004 - 2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    1st Term - 01 October to 17 December 2004 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME New Trends in Fusion Research by A. Fasoli, EPFL, Lausanne, CH 11, 12, 13 October Physics at e+e- linear collider by K. Desch, DESY, Hamburg, D 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 November LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Standard Model by R. Barbieri, CERN-PH-TH 6, 7, 8, 9 10 December The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc) will be published in the CERN Bulletin, the WWW, and by notices before each term and for each series of lectures. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127

  3. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79 (United States)

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth


    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  4. A Quantitative Study on the Correlation between Grade Span Configuration of Sixth Grade Students in Private Florida Schools and Academic Achievement on Standardized Achievement Scores (United States)

    Rantin, Deborah


    The applied dissertation was designed to investigate the three models of grade span configurations of sixth grade and the effects grade span configuration has on results of the standardized achievement scores of sixth grade students in private, Florida schools. Studies that have been conducted on sixth grade students and grade span configuration…

  5. Memory sparing, fast scattering formalism for rigorous diffraction modeling (United States)

    Iff, W.; Kämpfe, T.; Jourlin, Y.; Tishchenko, A. V.


    The basics and algorithmic steps of a novel scattering formalism suited for memory sparing and fast electromagnetic calculations are presented. The formalism, called ‘S-vector algorithm’ (by analogy with the known scattering-matrix algorithm), allows the calculation of the collective scattering spectra of individual layered micro-structured scattering objects. A rigorous method of linear complexity is applied to model the scattering at individual layers; here the generalized source method (GSM) resorting to Fourier harmonics as basis functions is used as one possible method of linear complexity. The concatenation of the individual scattering events can be achieved sequentially or in parallel, both having pros and cons. The present development will largely concentrate on a consecutive approach based on the multiple reflection series. The latter will be reformulated into an implicit formalism which will be associated with an iterative solver, resulting in improved convergence. The examples will first refer to 1D grating diffraction for the sake of simplicity and intelligibility, with a final 2D application example.

  6. Rigorous Results for the Distribution of Money on Connected Graphs (United States)

    Lanchier, Nicolas; Reed, Stephanie


    This paper is concerned with general spatially explicit versions of three stochastic models for the dynamics of money that have been introduced and studied numerically by statistical physicists: the uniform reshuffling model, the immediate exchange model and the model with saving propensity. All three models consist of systems of economical agents that consecutively engage in pairwise monetary transactions. Computer simulations performed in the physics literature suggest that, when the number of agents and the average amount of money per agent are large, the limiting distribution of money as time goes to infinity approaches the exponential distribution for the first model, the gamma distribution with shape parameter two for the second model and a distribution similar but not exactly equal to a gamma distribution whose shape parameter depends on the saving propensity for the third model. The main objective of this paper is to give rigorous proofs of these conjectures and also extend these conjectures to generalizations of the first two models and a variant of the third model that include local rather than global interactions, i.e., instead of choosing the two interacting agents uniformly at random from the system, the agents are located on the vertex set of a general connected graph and can only interact with their neighbors.

  7. Rigorous vector wave propagation for arbitrary flat media (United States)

    Bos, Steven P.; Haffert, Sebastiaan Y.; Keller, Christoph U.


    Precise modelling of the (off-axis) point spread function (PSF) to identify geometrical and polarization aberrations is important for many optical systems. In order to characterise the PSF of the system in all Stokes parameters, an end-to-end simulation of the system has to be performed in which Maxwell's equations are rigorously solved. We present the first results of a python code that we are developing to perform multiscale end-to-end wave propagation simulations that include all relevant physics. Currently we can handle plane-parallel near- and far-field vector diffraction effects of propagating waves in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic materials, refraction and reflection of flat parallel surfaces, interference effects in thin films and unpolarized light. We show that the code has a numerical precision on the order of 10-16 for non-absorbing isotropic and anisotropic materials. For absorbing materials the precision is on the order of 10-8. The capabilities of the code are demonstrated by simulating a converging beam reflecting from a flat aluminium mirror at normal incidence.

  8. Dynamics of harmonically-confined systems: Some rigorous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhigang, E-mail:; Zaremba, Eugene, E-mail:


    In this paper we consider the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. We present various general results which are independent of particle statistics, interatomic interactions and dimensionality. Of particular interest is the response of the system to external perturbations which can be either static or dynamic in nature. We prove an extended Harmonic Potential Theorem which is useful in determining the damping of the centre of mass motion when the system is prepared initially in a highly nonequilibrium state. We also study the response of the gas to a dynamic external potential whose position is made to oscillate sinusoidally in a given direction. We show in this case that either the energy absorption rate or the centre of mass dynamics can serve as a probe of the optical conductivity of the system. -- Highlights: •We derive various rigorous results on the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. •We derive an extension of the Harmonic Potential Theorem. •We demonstrate the link between the energy absorption rate in a harmonically-confined system and the optical conductivity.

  9. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence. (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T


    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  10. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation. (United States)

    Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen


    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

  11. Rigorous derivation of porous-media phase-field equations (United States)

    Schmuck, Markus; Kalliadasis, Serafim


    The evolution of interfaces in Complex heterogeneous Multiphase Systems (CheMSs) plays a fundamental role in a wide range of scientific fields such as thermodynamic modelling of phase transitions, materials science, or as a computational tool for interfacial flow studies or material design. Here, we focus on phase-field equations in CheMSs such as porous media. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first rigorous derivation of error estimates for fourth order, upscaled, and nonlinear evolution equations. For CheMs with heterogeneity ɛ, we obtain the convergence rate ɛ 1 / 4 , which governs the error between the solution of the new upscaled formulation and the solution of the microscopic phase-field problem. This error behaviour has recently been validated computationally in. Due to the wide range of application of phase-field equations, we expect this upscaled formulation to allow for new modelling, analytic, and computational perspectives for interfacial transport and phase transformations in CheMSs. This work was supported by EPSRC, UK, through Grant Nos. EP/H034587/1, EP/L027186/1, EP/L025159/1, EP/L020564/1, EP/K008595/1, and EP/P011713/1 and from ERC via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  12. Rigorous time slicing approach to Feynman path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Daisuke


    This book proves that Feynman's original definition of the path integral actually converges to the fundamental solution of the Schrödinger equation at least in the short term if the potential is differentiable sufficiently many times and its derivatives of order equal to or higher than two are bounded. The semi-classical asymptotic formula up to the second term of the fundamental solution is also proved by a method different from that of Birkhoff. A bound of the remainder term is also proved. The Feynman path integral is a method of quantization using the Lagrangian function, whereas Schrödinger's quantization uses the Hamiltonian function. These two methods are believed to be equivalent. But equivalence is not fully proved mathematically, because, compared with Schrödinger's method, there is still much to be done concerning rigorous mathematical treatment of Feynman's method. Feynman himself defined a path integral as the limit of a sequence of integrals over finite-dimensional spaces which is obtained by...

  13. Rigorous high-precision enclosures of fixed points and their invariant manifolds (United States)

    Wittig, Alexander N.

    The well established concept of Taylor Models is introduced, which offer highly accurate C0 enclosures of functional dependencies, combining high-order polynomial approximation of functions and rigorous estimates of the truncation error, performed using verified arithmetic. The focus of this work is on the application of Taylor Models in algorithms for strongly non-linear dynamical systems. A method is proposed to extend the existing implementation of Taylor Models in COSY INFINITY from double precision coefficients to arbitrary precision coefficients. Great care is taken to maintain the highest efficiency possible by adaptively adjusting the precision of higher order coefficients in the polynomial expansion. High precision operations are based on clever combinations of elementary floating point operations yielding exact values for round-off errors. An experimental high precision interval data type is developed and implemented. Algorithms for the verified computation of intrinsic functions based on the High Precision Interval datatype are developed and described in detail. The application of these operations in the implementation of High Precision Taylor Models is discussed. An application of Taylor Model methods to the verification of fixed points is presented by verifying the existence of a period 15 fixed point in a near standard Henon map. Verification is performed using different verified methods such as double precision Taylor Models, High Precision intervals and High Precision Taylor Models. Results and performance of each method are compared. An automated rigorous fixed point finder is implemented, allowing the fully automated search for all fixed points of a function within a given domain. It returns a list of verified enclosures of each fixed point, optionally verifying uniqueness within these enclosures. An application of the fixed point finder to the rigorous analysis of beam transfer maps in accelerator physics is presented. Previous work done by

  14. [Standardization of the terminology of the academic medical centers and biomedical research centers, in the English language, for journal article sending]. (United States)

    Hochman, Bernardo; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Oliveira, Ricardo Leão de; Goldenberg, Saul; Ferreira, Lydia Masako


    To suggest a standardization, in the English language, the formatting of the citation of the research centers. From three more recent publications of the first 20 journals available in Brazilian Portal of Scientific Information - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), with bigger factor of impact during the year of 2004, according of information in ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports database in biennium 2004-2005, had extracted the formats of citations of the research centers. An analogy to the institutional hierarchie step of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) was carried out, and the formats most frequent, in the English language, had been adopted as standard to be suggested to cite the research centers for sending articles. In relation to the citation "Departamento", was standardized "Department of ..." (being "..." the name in English of the Department), to the citation "Programa de Pós-Graduação" "... Program", "Disciplina" "Division of ...", "Orgãos, Grupos e Associações" "... Group ", "Setor" "Section of...", "Centro" "Center for ...", "Unidade" "... Unit ", "Instituto" "Institute of ...", "Laboratório" "Laboratory of ..." and "Grupo" "Group of ...".

  15. Expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob


    Purpose – The literature on business expatriates has been increasing rapidly, but research on expatriate academics has remained scant, despite the apparent increasing globalisation of the academic world. Therefore, more research is needed on the latter group of expatriates. This paper aims to fill...... some of the gaps. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was directed electronically towards expatriate academics occupying regular positions in science faculty departments in universities in northern Europe. Findings – Results showed that job clarity was the dominating job factor with strong...... relationships with all of the five investigated work outcome variables, work adjustment, work performance, work effectiveness, job satisfaction, and time to proficiency. Job conflict and job freedom had an association with some of the work outcome variables but not with all of them. Neither workload nor job...

  16. Academic Allies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Rebekka Birkebo

    the national associations of European law: Fédération Internationale pour le Droit Européen, the European law journal Common Market Law Review, and the ITL project, carried out at the European University Institute.It carefully documents an alliance between academics and community actors with the aim...... of providing academic support to the constitutional claim, and it argues that the academic discipline of European law was built and developed through a circular attribution of legal ideas, legitimacy, and self-image between the European Court of Justice, the Commission, and academia –most particularly so......This doctoral thesis explores the key transnational institutions of European law academia and their role in the creation of a constitutional legal practice in the European Community from 1961 to 1993. Consisting of three case studies, it investigates the transnational federation gathering...

  17. Stochastic Geometry and Quantum Gravity: Some Rigorous Results (United States)

    Zessin, H.

    The aim of these lectures is a short introduction into some recent developments in stochastic geometry which have one of its origins in simplicial gravity theory (see Regge Nuovo Cimento 19: 558-571, 1961). The aim is to define and construct rigorously point processes on spaces of Euclidean simplices in such a way that the configurations of these simplices are simplicial complexes. The main interest then is concentrated on their curvature properties. We illustrate certain basic ideas from a mathematical point of view. An excellent representation of this area can be found in Schneider and Weil (Stochastic and Integral Geometry, Springer, Berlin, 2008. German edition: Stochastische Geometrie, Teubner, 2000). In Ambjørn et al. (Quantum Geometry Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997) you find a beautiful account from the physical point of view. More recent developments in this direction can be found in Ambjørn et al. ("Quantum gravity as sum over spacetimes", Lect. Notes Phys. 807. Springer, Heidelberg, 2010). After an informal axiomatic introduction into the conceptual foundations of Regge's approach the first lecture recalls the concepts and notations used. It presents the fundamental zero-infinity law of stochastic geometry and the construction of cluster processes based on it. The second lecture presents the main mathematical object, i.e. Poisson-Delaunay surfaces possessing an intrinsic random metric structure. The third and fourth lectures discuss their ergodic behaviour and present the two-dimensional Regge model of pure simplicial quantum gravity. We terminate with the formulation of basic open problems. Proofs are given in detail only in a few cases. In general the main ideas are developed. Sufficiently complete references are given.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Boukerch


    Full Text Available The exploitation of the full geometric capabilities of the High-Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI, require the development of an appropriate sensor orientation model. Several authors studied this problem; generally we have two categories of geometric models: physical and empirical models. Based on the analysis of the metadata provided with ALSAT-2A, a rigorous pushbroom camera model can be developed. This model has been successfully applied to many very high resolution imagery systems. The relation between the image and ground coordinates by the time dependant collinearity involving many coordinates systems has been tested. The interior orientation parameters must be integrated in the model, the interior parameters can be estimated from the viewing angles corresponding to the pointing directions of any detector, these values are derived from cubic polynomials provided in the metadata. The developed model integrates all the necessary elements with 33 unknown. All the approximate values of the 33 unknowns parameters may be derived from the informations contained in the metadata files provided with the imagery technical specifications or they are simply fixed to zero, so the condition equation is linearized and solved using SVD in a least square sense in order to correct the initial values using a suitable number of well-distributed GCPs. Using Alsat-2A images over the town of Toulouse in the south west of France, three experiments are done. The first is about 2D accuracy analysis using several sets of parameters. The second is about GCPs number and distribution. The third experiment is about georeferencing multispectral image by applying the model calculated from panchromatic image.

  19. A rigorous derivation of gravitational self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralla, Samuel E; Wald, Robert M


    There is general agreement that the MiSaTaQuWa equations should describe the motion of a 'small body' in general relativity, taking into account the leading order self-force effects. However, previous derivations of these equations have made a number of ad hoc assumptions and/or contain a number of unsatisfactory features. For example, all previous derivations have invoked, without proper justification, the step of 'Lorenz gauge relaxation', wherein the linearized Einstein equation is written in the form appropriate to the Lorenz gauge, but the Lorenz gauge condition is then not imposed-thereby making the resulting equations for the metric perturbation inequivalent to the linearized Einstein equations. (Such a 'relaxation' of the linearized Einstein equations is essential in order to avoid the conclusion that 'point particles' move on geodesics.) In this paper, we analyze the issue of 'particle motion' in general relativity in a systematic and rigorous way by considering a one-parameter family of metrics, g ab (λ), corresponding to having a body (or black hole) that is 'scaled down' to zero size and mass in an appropriate manner. We prove that the limiting worldline of such a one-parameter family must be a geodesic of the background metric, g ab (λ = 0). Gravitational self-force-as well as the force due to coupling of the spin of the body to curvature-then arises as a first-order perturbative correction in λ to this worldline. No assumptions are made in our analysis apart from the smoothness and limit properties of the one-parameter family of metrics, g ab (λ). Our approach should provide a framework for systematically calculating higher order corrections to gravitational self-force, including higher multipole effects, although we do not attempt to go beyond first-order calculations here. The status of the MiSaTaQuWa equations is explained

  20. Rigorous covariance propagation of geoid errors to geodetic MDT estimates (United States)

    Pail, R.; Albertella, A.; Fecher, T.; Savcenko, R.


    The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is defined as the difference between the mean sea surface (MSS) derived from satellite altimetry, averaged over several years, and the static geoid. Assuming geostrophic conditions, from the MDT the ocean surface velocities as important component of global ocean circulation can be derived from it. Due to the availability of GOCE gravity field models, for the very first time MDT can now be derived solely from satellite observations (altimetry and gravity) down to spatial length-scales of 100 km and even below. Global gravity field models, parameterized in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients, are complemented by the full variance-covariance matrix (VCM). Therefore, for the geoid component a realistic statistical error estimate is available, while the error description of the altimetric component is still an open issue and is, if at all, attacked empirically. In this study we make the attempt to perform, based on the full gravity VCM, rigorous error propagation to derived geostrophic surface velocities, thus also considering all correlations. For the definition of the static geoid we use the third release of the time-wise GOCE model, as well as the satellite-only combination model GOCO03S. In detail, we will investigate the velocity errors resulting from the geoid component in dependence of the harmonic degree, and the impact of using/no using covariances on the MDT errors and its correlations. When deriving an MDT, it is spectrally filtered to a certain maximum degree, which is usually driven by the signal content of the geoid model, by applying isotropic or non-isotropic filters. Since this filtering is acting also on the geoid component, the consistent integration of this filter process into the covariance propagation shall be performed, and its impact shall be quantified. The study will be performed for MDT estimates in specific test areas of particular oceanographic interest.

  1. Equal Pay for Equal Work in Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology. (United States)

    Eichelberger, Kacey Y


    The most compelling data suggest women in academic obstetrics and gynecology earn approximately $36,000 less than male colleagues per year in regression models correcting for commonly cited explanatory variables. Although residual confounding may exist, academic departments in the United States should consider rigorous examination of their own internal metrics around salary to ensure gender-neutral compensation, commonly referred to as equal pay for equal work.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Suharto


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study to determine the increase learners' learning activities subjects chassis and power transfer competency standard steering system repair discovery learning through the implementation of class XI inquiry Lightweight Vehicle Technology SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping, Sleman academic year 2013/2014. This research including action research   Research conducted at SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping XIB class academic year 2013/2014 with a sample of 26 students. Techniques of data collection using questionnaire sheet, observation sheets and documentation to determine the increase in student activity. Instrument validation study using experts judgment. Analysis using descriptive statistics using the technique .   The results showed that the increased activity of the first cycle to the second cycle include an increase of 57.7 % Visual activities; Oral activities amounted to 61.6 %; Listening activities amounted to 23.04 %; Writing activities by 8.7 %; Mental activities of 73.1 %; Emotional activities of 42.3 % ( for the spirit of the students in learning activities ; Motor activities amounted to -7.7 % ( decrease negative activity . Based on these results can be known to most students in SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping gave a positive opinion on the use of inquiry and discovery learning method has a view that the use of inquiry discovery learning methods can be useful for students and schools themselves. Learners who have a good perception of the use of discovery learning method of inquiry he has known and fully aware of the standards of achievement of competence theory fix the steering system. Learning discovery learning methods on achievement of competency standards inquiry repair steering systems theory pleased with the learning process, they are also able to: 1 increase the motivation to learn, 2 improving learning achievement; 3 enhancing creativity; 4 listen, respect, and accept the opinion of the participants other students; 5 reduce boredom

  3. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. III. Comparative study of the evolution of rigor mortis in different sized muscle groups in rats. (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Fryc, O


    The use of new methods and an appropriate apparatus has allowed us to make successive measurements of rigor mortis and a study of its evolution in the rat. By a comparative examination on the front and hind limbs, we have determined the following: (1) The muscular mass of the hind limbs is 2.89 times greater than that of the front limbs. (2) In the initial phase rigor mortis is more pronounced in the front limbs. (3) The front and hind limbs reach maximum rigor mortis at the same time and this state is maintained for 2 hours. (4) Resolution of rigor mortis is accelerated in the front limbs during the initial phase, but both front and hind limbs reach complete resolution at the same time.

  4. On the Causes for and Countermeasures against Academic Corruption (United States)

    Yongning, Yuan; Jian, Zhang; Haibo, Wang


    Combating corruption is an important condition for bringing about the flourishing of academic research. There are many reasons for the emergence and proliferation of academic corruption today. These are closely related to the long-term lack of training among our country's scholars in modern academic standards and the absence of an academic spirit…


    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    12, 13, 14, March LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 POSTPONED! - Modern Project Management Methods - POSTPONED! By G. Vallet / Ed. Highware, Paris, F. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127

  6. Academic Cloning. (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.


    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  7. Academic Aspirations (United States)

    Durant, Linda


    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  8. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig


    Full Text Available

    Este artículo sugiere que esta época es la mejor y peor para la labor académica. La mejor en cuanto hay más publicaciones académicas que nunca. Y la peor porque sobra mucho de estas publicaciones. Trabajando en las condiciones competitivas del capitalismo académico, los académicos se sienten en la necesidad de continuar publicando, independientemente de que tengan algo que decir. Las presiones de publicar continuamente y promover la propia perspectiva se reflejan en la manera en la que los científicos sociales están escribiendo. Y es que los académicos utilizan un lenguaje técnico basado en sustantivos, con una precisión menor a la del lenguaje ordinario. Los estudiantes de postgrado han sido educados en esta manera de escribir como una condición previa a iniciarse en las ciencias sociales. Así, la naturaleza misma del capitalismo académico no sólo determina las condiciones en las que los académicos trabajan, sino que también afecta su manera de escribir.

    This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  9. How Individual Scholars Can Reduce the Rigor-Relevance Gap in Management Research


    Wolf, Joachim; Rosenberg, Timo


    This paper discusses a number of avenues management scholars could follow to reduce the existing gap between scientific rigor and practical relevance without relativizing the importance of the first goal dimension. Such changes are necessary because many management studies do not fully exploit the possibilities to increase their practical relevance while maintaining scientific rigor. We argue that this rigor-relevance gap is not only the consequence of the currently prevailing institutional c...


    Meltzer, S J; Auer, J


    Calcium salts hasten and magnesium salts retard the development of rigor mortis, that is, when these salts are administered subcutaneously or intravenously. When injected intra-arterially, concentrated solutions of both kinds of salts cause nearly an immediate onset of a strong stiffness of the muscles which is apparently a contraction, brought on by a stimulation caused by these salts and due to osmosis. This contraction, if strong, passes over without a relaxation into a real rigor. This form of rigor may be classed as work-rigor (Arbeitsstarre). In animals, at least in frogs, with intact cords, the early contraction and the following rigor are stronger than in animals with destroyed cord. If M/8 solutions-nearly equimolecular to "physiological" solutions of sodium chloride-are used, even when injected intra-arterially, calcium salts hasten and magnesium salts retard the onset of rigor. The hastening and retardation in this case as well as in the cases of subcutaneous and intravenous injections, are ion effects and essentially due to the cations, calcium and magnesium. In the rigor hastened by calcium the effects of the extensor muscles mostly prevail; in the rigor following magnesium injection, on the other hand, either the flexor muscles prevail or the muscles become stiff in the original position of the animal at death. There seems to be no difference in the degree of stiffness in the final rigor, only the onset and development of the rigor is hastened in the case of the one salt and retarded in the other. Calcium hastens also the development of heat rigor. No positive facts were obtained with regard to the effect of magnesium upon heat vigor. Calcium also hastens and magnesium retards the onset of rigor in the left ventricle of the heart. No definite data were gathered with regard to the effects of these salts upon the right ventricle.

  11. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis (United States)

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama


    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  12. Family Meals and Child Academic and Behavioral Outcomes (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane; Han, Wen-Jui


    This study investigates the link between the frequency of family breakfasts and dinners and child academic and behavioral outcomes in a panel sample of 21,400 children aged 5-15. It complements previous work by examining younger and older children separately and by using information on a large number of controls and rigorous analytic methods to…

  13. Identifying Opportunities in Citizen Science for Academic Libraries (United States)

    Cohen, Cynthia M.; Cheney, Liz; Duong, Khue; Lea, Ben; Unno, Zoe Pettway


    Citizen science projects continue to grow in popularity, providing opportunities for nonexpert volunteers to contribute to and become personally invested in rigorous scientific research. Academic libraries, aiming to promote and provide tools and resources to master scientific and information literacy, can support these efforts. While few examples…

  14. A rigorous semantics for BPMN 2.0 process diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kossak, Felix; Geist, Verena; Kubovy, Jan; Natschläger, Christine; Ziebermayr, Thomas; Kopetzky, Theodorich; Freudenthaler, Bernhard; Schewe, Klaus-Dieter


    This book provides the most complete formal specification of the semantics of the Business Process Model and Notation 2.0 standard (BPMN) available to date, in a style that is easily understandable for a wide range of readers - not only for experts in formal methods, but e.g. also for developers of modeling tools, software architects, or graduate students specializing in business process management. BPMN - issued by the Object Management Group - is a widely used standard for business process modeling. However, major drawbacks of BPMN include its limited support for organizational modeling, i

  15. Academic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Heine, Carmen

    Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt kildeangive......Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt...

  16. Cumulative prospect theory and mean variance analysis. A rigorous comparison


    Hens, Thorsten; Mayer, Janos


    We compare asset allocations derived for cumulative prospect theory(CPT) based on two different methods: Maximizing CPT along the mean–variance efficient frontier and maximizing it without that restriction. We find that with normally distributed returns the difference is negligible. However, using standard asset allocation data of pension funds the difference is considerable. Moreover, with derivatives like call options the restriction to the mean-variance efficient frontier results in a siza...

  17. ATP, IMP, and glycogen in cod muscle at onset and during development of rigor mortis depend on the sampling location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming


    Variation in glycogen, ATP, and IMP contents within individual cod muscles were studied in ice stored fish during the progress of rigor mortis. Rigor index was determined before muscle samples for chemical analyzes were taken at 16 different positions on the fish. During development of rigor......, the contents of glycogen and ATP decreased differently in relation to rigor index depending on sampling location. Although fish were considered to be in strong rigor according to the rigor index method, parts of the muscle were not in rigor as high ATP concentrations were found in dorsal and tall muscle....

  18. Trends in Methodological Rigor in Intervention Research Published in School Psychology Journals (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna


    Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…

  19. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei


    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (prigor salting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle.

  20. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang


    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (psalting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle. PMID:26761884

  1. Rigorous bounds on the free energy of electron-phonon models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel


    We present a collection of rigorous upper and lower bounds to the free energy of electron-phonon models with linear electron-phonon interaction. These bounds are used to compare different variational approaches. It is shown rigorously that the ground states corresponding to the sharpest bounds do

  2. Moving beyond Data Transcription: Rigor as Issue in Representation of Digital Literacies (United States)

    Hagood, Margaret Carmody; Skinner, Emily Neil


    Rigor in qualitative research has been based upon criteria of credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability. Drawing upon articles published during our editorship of the "Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy," we illustrate how the use of digital data in research study reporting may enhance these areas of rigor,…

  3. Onset of rigor mortis is earlier in red muscle than in white muscle. (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Nakajima, M; Sakurada, K; Hatanaka, K; Ikegaya, H; Matsuda, Y; Iwase, H


    Rigor mortis is thought to be related to falling ATP levels in muscles postmortem. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in three rat leg muscles in liquid paraffin kept at 37 degrees C or 25 degrees C--two red muscles, red gastrocnemius (RG) and soleus (SO) and one white muscle, white gastrocnemius (WG). Onset, half and full rigor mortis occurred earlier in RG and SO than in WG both at 37 degrees C and at 25 degrees C even though RG and WG were portions of the same muscle. This suggests that rigor mortis directly reflects the postmortem intramuscular ATP level, which decreases more rapidly in red muscle than in white muscle after death. Rigor mortis was more retarded at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C in each type of muscle.

  4. Semantically-Rigorous Systems Engineering Modeling Using Sysml and OWL (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Steven; Rouquette, Nicolas F.


    The Systems Modeling Language (SysML) has found wide acceptance as a standard graphical notation for the domain of systems engineering. SysML subsets and extends the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to define conventions for expressing structural, behavioral, and analytical elements, and relationships among them. SysML-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, and have been used for diverse projects in military aerospace, scientific exploration, and civil engineering. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) has found wide acceptance as a standard notation for knowledge representation. OWL-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, as well as auxiliary assets such as reasoners and application programming interface libraries, etc. OWL has been applied to diverse projects in a wide array of fields. While the emphasis in SysML is on notation, SysML inherits (from UML) a semantic foundation that provides for limited reasoning and analysis. UML's partial formalization (FUML), however, does not cover the full semantics of SysML, which is a substantial impediment to developing high confidence in the soundness of any conclusions drawn therefrom. OWL, by contrast, was developed from the beginning on formal logical principles, and consequently provides strong support for verification of consistency and satisfiability, extraction of entailments, conjunctive query answering, etc. This emphasis on formal logic is counterbalanced by the absence of any graphical notation conventions in the OWL standards. Consequently, OWL has had only limited adoption in systems engineering. The complementary strengths and weaknesses of SysML and OWL motivate an interest in combining them in such a way that we can benefit from the attractive graphical notation of SysML and the formal reasoning of OWL. This paper describes an approach to achieving that combination.

  5. High and low rigor temperature effects on sheep meat tenderness and ageing. (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Peachey, Bridget M; Lowe, Timothy E; Ingram, John R; Cook, Christian J


    Immediately after electrical stimulation, the paired m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) of 40 sheep were boned out and wrapped tightly with a polyethylene cling film. One of the paired LT's was chilled in 15°C air to reach a rigor mortis (rigor) temperature of 18°C and the other side was placed in a water bath at 35°C and achieved rigor at this temperature. Wrapping reduced rigor shortening and mimicked meat left on the carcass. After rigor, the meat was aged at 15°C for 0, 8, 26 and 72 h and then frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1×1 cm cross-section. The shear force values of meat for 18 and 35°C rigor were similar at zero ageing, but as ageing progressed, the 18 rigor meat aged faster and became more tender than meat that went into rigor at 35°C (Prigor at each ageing time were significantly different (Prigor were still significantly greater. Thus the toughness of 35°C meat was not a consequence of muscle shortening and appears to be due to both a faster rate of tenderisation and the meat tenderising to a greater extent at the lower temperature. The cook loss at 35°C rigor (30.5%) was greater than that at 18°C rigor (28.4%) (P<0.01) and the colour Hunter L values were higher at 35°C (P<0.01) compared with 18°C, but there were no significant differences in a or b values.

  6. Pedagogy and Academic Success in Prelicensure Nursing Education. (United States)

    Murray, Teri A


    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of the New Careers in Nursing (NCIN) program; highlight the features of the NCIN Preentry Immersion program designed to help students achieve academic success; introduce two NCIN innovation teaching projects that used active learning strategies to foster student engagement; and conduct an integrative review on the pedagogies used to foster academic success in nursing education. The integrative review revealed that interactive pedagogies fostered student engagement and increased the students' knowledge acquisition, competence, confidence, and satisfaction. Significant variations in the methodological rigor for the studies included in this review were noted in addition to nebulousness between nursing education research and evaluation. The review validated the need for more rigorous research in nursing education to improve the students' academic experience and subsequent success of all nursing students, including those from underrepresented or disadvantaged backgrounds, enrolled in prelicensure nursing education programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between academic assessment and psychological distress among medical students: a systematic review. (United States)

    Lyndon, Mataroria P; Strom, Joanna M; Alyami, Hussain M; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Wilson, Nichola C; Singh, Primal P; Lemanu, Daniel P; Yielder, Jill; Hill, Andrew G


    A systematic review was conducted to determine the relationship between academic assessment and medical student psychological distress with the aim of informing assessment practices. A systematic literature search of six electronic databases (Medline, Medline IN PROCESS, PubMed, EMBASE, Psychinfo, ERIC) from 1991 to May 2014 was completed. Articles focusing on academic assessment and its relation to stress or anxiety of medical students were included. From 3,986 potential titles, 82 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 23 studies met review inclusion criteria. Studies focused on assessment stress or anxiety, and assessment performance. Consistent among the studies was the finding that assessment invokes stress or anxiety, perhaps more so for female medical students. A relationship may exist between assessment stress or anxiety and impaired performance. Significant risks of bias were common in study methodologies. There is evidence to suggest academic assessment is associated with psychological distress among medical students. However, differences in the types of measures used by researchers limited our ability to draw conclusions about which methods of assessment invoke greater distress. More rigorous study designs and the use of standardized measures are required. Future research should consider differences in students' perceived significance of assessments, the psychological effects of constant exposure to assessment, and the role of assessment in preparing students for clinical practice.

  8. Teaching and Learning the Language of Science: A Case Study of Academic Language Acquisition in a Dual Language Middle School (United States)

    Gose, Robin Margaretha

    English language learners (EL) are the fastest growing sub-group of the student population in California, yet ELs also score the lowest on the science section of the California Standardized Tests. In the area of bilingual education, California has dramatically changed its approach to English learners since the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998, which called for most EL instruction to be conducted in English (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). In reality, this means that EL students are often placed in programs that focus on basic language skills rather than rigorous content, meaning that they are not getting access to grade level science content (Lee & Fradd, 1998). As a result, many EL students exit eighth grade without a strong foundation in science, and they continue to score below their English-speaking peers on standardized achievements. While the usefulness of the academic language construct remains controversial (Bailey, 2012), the language used in science instruction is nevertheless often unfamiliar to both EL and English proficient students. The discourse is frequently specialized for discipline-specific interactions and activities (Bailey, 2007; Lemke, 1990). This qualitative case study examined academic language instruction in three middle school science classrooms at a dual language charter school. The goal was to understand how teachers integrate academic language and content for linguistically diverse students. The findings fom this study indicate that targeting language instruction in isolation from science content instruction prohibits students from engaging in the "doing of science" and scientific discourse, or the ability to think, reason, and communicate about science. The recommendations of this study support authentically embedding language development into rigorous science instruction in order to maximize opportunities for learning in both domains.


    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    6, 7 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Decoding the Human Genome, Scientific basis and ethic and social aspects by S.E. Antonarakis and A. Mauron / Univ. of Geneva Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges, Ethical and social aspects of genomics. Academic Training Françoise Benz Tel. 73127

  10. Rigorous classification and carbon accounting principles for low and Zero Carbon Cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Scott; Sgouridis, Sgouris


    A large number of communities, new developments, and regions aim to lower their carbon footprint and aspire to become 'zero carbon' or 'Carbon Neutral.' Yet there are neither clear definitions for the scope of emissions that such a label would address on an urban scale, nor is there a process for qualifying the carbon reduction claims. This paper addresses the question of how to define a zero carbon, Low Carbon, or Carbon Neutral urban development by proposing hierarchical emissions categories with three levels: Internal Emissions based on the geographical boundary, external emissions directly caused by core municipal activities, and internal or external emissions due to non-core activities. Each level implies a different carbon management strategy (eliminating, balancing, and minimizing, respectively) needed to meet a Net Zero Carbon designation. The trade-offs, implications, and difficulties of implementing carbon debt accounting based upon these definitions are further analyzed. - Highlights: → A gap exists in comprehensive and standardized accounting methods for urban carbon emissions. → We propose a comprehensive and rigorous City Framework for Carbon Accounting (CiFCA). → CiFCA classifies emissions hierarchically with corresponding carbon management strategies. → Adoption of CiFCA allows for meaningful comparisons of claimed performance of eco-cities.

  11. Academic Training: 2004 - 2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    1st Term - 01 October to 17 December 2004 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME New Trends in Fusion Research by A. Fasoli, EPFL, Lausanne, CH 11, 12, 13 October Physics at e+e- linear collider by K. Desch, DESY, Hamburg, D 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 November LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Standard Model by R. Barbieri, CERN-PH-TH 6, 7, 8, 9 10 December The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc) will be published in the CERN Bulletin, the WWW, and by notices before each term and for each series of lectures. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: or fill in an 'application for training' form a...

  12. Towards a New Basel Accord with More Rigorous Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru PRUNEA


    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis made the banking sector more vulnerable to shocks. The system was characterised by weaknesses: too much leverage in the banking; not enough high quality capital to absorb losses and excessive credit growth based on underwriting standards and under pricing of liquidity. This article is about a new accord Basel III and the view of this framework. Basel III will be finalized before November 2010, and will be implemented by the end of 2012. Basel III is going to be implemented in the United States. All G–20 countries should adopt progressively this capital framework. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and national authorities should develop and agree a global framework for promoting a stronger liquidity in financial institutions. The reform program is to raise the resilience of the banking sector through promoting more sustainable growth, both in the near term and over the long therm. The initiatives of Basel Committee will develop a set of reforms based on four steps: public consultation, impact assessment, overall calibration and macroeconomic impact assessment over the transition period.

  13. Healthcare market research examined. Relevant, rigorous and highly regulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Douglas


    Full Text Available [The abstract of this article is not available. Here are the first sentences of the article. The full text is freely available upon registration]Market research is invariably confused with marketing – but, in fact, the two disciplines are very different. Put in its simplest terms, marketing is about promotion whilst market research is about understanding. Accordingly, data collected for market research purposes are used in a completely different way to that gathered for marketing, with research practices heavily regulated to ensure high ethical standards.Let’s begin with a definition of what, exactly, market research is. According to the ICC/ESOMAR International Code 2007 (a definition also adopted by the European Pharmaceutical Market Research Association, it is: «the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals or organisations using the statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the applied social sciences to gain insight or support decision-making. The identity of respondents will not be revealed to the user of the information without explicit consent and no sales approach will be made to them as a direct result of their having provided information».

  14. Optimal full motion video registration with rigorous error propagation (United States)

    Dolloff, John; Hottel, Bryant; Doucette, Peter; Theiss, Henry; Jocher, Glenn


    Optimal full motion video (FMV) registration is a crucial need for the Geospatial community. It is required for subsequent and optimal geopositioning with simultaneous and reliable accuracy prediction. An overall approach being developed for such registration is presented that models relevant error sources in terms of the expected magnitude and correlation of sensor errors. The corresponding estimator is selected based on the level of accuracy of the a priori information of the sensor's trajectory and attitude (pointing) information, in order to best deal with non-linearity effects. Estimator choices include near real-time Kalman Filters and batch Weighted Least Squares. Registration solves for corrections to the sensor a priori information for each frame. It also computes and makes available a posteriori accuracy information, i.e., the expected magnitude and correlation of sensor registration errors. Both the registered sensor data and its a posteriori accuracy information are then made available to "down-stream" Multi-Image Geopositioning (MIG) processes. An object of interest is then measured on the registered frames and a multi-image optimal solution, including reliable predicted solution accuracy, is then performed for the object's 3D coordinates. This paper also describes a robust approach to registration when a priori information of sensor attitude is unavailable. It makes use of structure-from-motion principles, but does not use standard Computer Vision techniques, such as estimation of the Essential Matrix which can be very sensitive to noise. The approach used instead is a novel, robust, direct search-based technique.


    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    25, 26, 27, 28 February and 1st March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 LECTURE SERIES Neutrino masses and oscillations by A. de Rujula / CERN-TH This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127

  16. Differential rigor development in red and white muscle revealed by simultaneous measurement of tension and stiffness. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Takemori, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Maki


    Based on the molecular mechanism of rigor mortis, we have proposed that stiffness (elastic modulus evaluated with tension response against minute length perturbations) can be a suitable index of post-mortem rigidity in skeletal muscle. To trace the developmental process of rigor mortis, we measured stiffness and tension in both red and white rat skeletal muscle kept in liquid paraffin at 37 and 25 degrees C. White muscle (in which type IIB fibres predominate) developed stiffness and tension significantly more slowly than red muscle, except for soleus red muscle at 25 degrees C, which showed disproportionately slow rigor development. In each of the examined muscles, stiffness and tension developed more slowly at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. In each specimen, tension always reached its maximum level earlier than stiffness, and then decreased more rapidly and markedly than stiffness. These phenomena may account for the sequential progress of rigor mortis in human cadavers.

  17. Studies on the estimation of the postmortem interval. 3. Rigor mortis (author's transl). (United States)

    Suzutani, T; Ishibashi, H; Takatori, T


    The authors have devised a method for classifying rigor mortis into 10 types based on its appearance and strength in various parts of a cadaver. By applying the method to the findings of 436 cadavers which were subjected to medico-legal autopsies in our laboratory during the last 10 years, it has been demonstrated that the classifying method is effective for analyzing the phenomenon of onset, persistence and disappearance of rigor mortis statistically. The investigation of the relationship between each type of rigor mortis and the postmortem interval has demonstrated that rigor mortis may be utilized as a basis for estimating the postmortem interval but the values have greater deviation than those described in current textbooks.

  18. 75 FR 29732 - Career and Technical Education Program-Promoting Rigorous Career and Technical Education Programs... (United States)


    ... rigorous knowledge and skills in English- language arts and mathematics that employers and colleges expect... specialists and to access the student outcome data needed to meet annual evaluation and reporting requirements...

  19. Rigorous derivation from Landau-de Gennes theory to Ericksen-Leslie theory


    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Pingwen; Zhang, Zhifei


    Starting from Beris-Edwards system for the liquid crystal, we present a rigorous derivation of Ericksen-Leslie system with general Ericksen stress and Leslie stress by using the Hilbert expansion method.

  20. Iowa Lakes Community College: Partnerships for Academic and Economic Success in a Rapidly Evolving Wind-Energy Industry (United States)

    Mohni, Mary; Rogers, Jolene; Zeitz, Al


    Iowa Lakes Community College responded to a national need for wind-energy technicians. The Wind-Energy and Turbine Program aligned industry and academic competencies with experiential learning components to foster exploration of additional renewable energy applications. Completers understand both the physical and academic rigor a career in wind…

  1. Emotional Intelligence, Academic Procrastination and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Itwas therefore recommended that efforts should be made to look into other pressing factors like self-esteem, teacher's attitude, student's attitude, parental background among others which may be influencing student's poor academic achievement. Key words: Emotional Intelligence, Academic Procrastination, Academic ...

  2. Changes in the contractile state, fine structure and metabolism of cardiac muscle cells during the development of rigor mortis. (United States)

    Vanderwee, M A; Humphrey, S M; Gavin, J B; Armiger, L C


    Transmural slices from the left anterior papillary muscle of dog hearts were maintained for 120 min in a moist atmosphere at 37 degrees C. At 15-min intervals tissue samples were taken for estimation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and for electron microscopic examination. At the same time the deformability under standard load of comparable regions of an adjacent slice of tissue was measured. ATP levels fell rapidly during the first 45 to 75 min after excision of the heart. During a subsequent further decline in ATP, the mean deformability of myocardium fell from 30 to 12% indicating the development of rigor mortis. Conversely, G6P levels increased during the first decline in adenosine triphosphate but remained relatively steady thereafter. Whereas many of the myocardial cells fixed after 5 min contracted on contact with glutaraldehyde, all cells examined after 15 to 40 min were relaxed. A progressive increase in the proportion of contracted cells was observed during the rapid increase in myocardial rigidity. During this late contraction the cells showed morphological evidence of irreversible injury. These findings suggest that ischaemic myocytes contract just before actin and myosin become strongly linked to maintain the state of rigor mortis.

  3. Academic detailing. (United States)

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S


    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  4. Bounding Averages Rigorously Using Semidefinite Programming: Mean Moments of the Lorenz System (United States)

    Goluskin, David


    We describe methods for proving bounds on infinite-time averages in differential dynamical systems. The methods rely on the construction of nonnegative polynomials with certain properties, similarly to the way nonlinear stability can be proved using Lyapunov functions. Nonnegativity is enforced by requiring the polynomials to be sums of squares, a condition which is then formulated as a semidefinite program (SDP) that can be solved computationally. Although such computations are subject to numerical error, we demonstrate two ways to obtain rigorous results: using interval arithmetic to control the error of an approximate SDP solution, and finding exact analytical solutions to relatively small SDPs. Previous formulations are extended to allow for bounds depending analytically on parametric variables. These methods are illustrated using the Lorenz equations, a system with three state variables ( x, y, z) and three parameters (β ,σ ,r). Bounds are reported for infinite-time averages of all eighteen moments x^ly^mz^n up to quartic degree that are symmetric under (x,y)\\mapsto (-x,-y). These bounds apply to all solutions regardless of stability, including chaotic trajectories, periodic orbits, and equilibrium points. The analytical approach yields two novel bounds that are sharp: the mean of z^3 can be no larger than its value of (r-1)^3 at the nonzero equilibria, and the mean of xy^3 must be nonnegative. The interval arithmetic approach is applied at the standard chaotic parameters to bound eleven average moments that all appear to be maximized on the shortest periodic orbit. Our best upper bound on each such average exceeds its value on the maximizing orbit by less than 1%. Many bounds reported here are much tighter than would be possible without computer assistance.

  5. Academic Freedom and Student Grading in Greek Higher Education (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni


    The issue of who has the final say on academic standards (grading), academics or managers, has hitherto not arisen in Greece. Professors entitled to research, to teach and to inquire is a freedom expressed by the Greek Constitution. This article presents a contemporary view and raises concerns about the future and the longevity of academic freedom…

  6. Comparison of the reusable standard GlideScope® video laryngoscope and the disposable cobalt GlideScope® video laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in an academic emergency department: a retrospective review. (United States)

    Sakles, John C; Patanwala, Asad E; Mosier, Jarrod; Dicken, John; Holman, Nathan


    The objective was to compare the first-pass success and clinical performance characteristics of the reusable standard GlideScope® video laryngoscope (sGVL) and the disposable Cobalt GlideScope® video laryngoscope (cGVL). This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data recorded into a continuous quality improvement database at an urban academic emergency department (ED). The intent of the database is to evaluate operator performance and to track practice patterns used for intubation in the ED. Between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2013, operators recorded all consecutive intubations performed in the ED. The database included patient demographics and detailed information about each intubation, such as device(s) used, reason for device selection, method of intubation, difficult airway characteristics, number of intubation attempts, and outcome of each attempt. The operator also evaluated the presence of lens fogging and extent of lens contamination. The primary outcome measure was first-pass success. Secondary outcome measures were ultimate success, Cormack-Lehane (CL) view of the airway, presence of lens fogging, and extent of lens contamination. Only adult patients age 18 years or older intubated with the sGVL or cGVL using a stylet, and who had data forms completed at the time of intubation, were included in this study. A total of 583 intubations were included in the study, 504 with the sGVL and 79 with cGVL. First pass success was achieved in 81.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]=77.3% to 84.3%) of patients in the sGVL group and in 58.2% (95% CI=46.6% to 69.2%) of patients in the cGVL group. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the sGVL was associated with a higher first pass success than the cGVL (odds ratio [OR]=3.3, 95% CI=1.9 to 5.8). The ultimate success of the sGVL was 92.1% (95% CI=89.4% to 94.3%) and the cGVL was 72.2% (95% CI=60.9% to 81.7%). A CL grade I or II view was obtained in 93.2% (95% CI=90.7% to 95.3%) in the sGVL group

  7. Rigor or Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research: Perspectives, Strategies, Reconceptualization, and Recommendations. (United States)

    Cypress, Brigitte S

    Issues are still raised even now in the 21st century by the persistent concern with achieving rigor in qualitative research. There is also a continuing debate about the analogous terms reliability and validity in naturalistic inquiries as opposed to quantitative investigations. This article presents the concept of rigor in qualitative research using a phenomenological study as an exemplar to further illustrate the process. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Lincoln and Guba, strategies congruent with qualitative perspective for ensuring validity to establish the credibility of the study are described. A synthesis of the historical development of validity criteria evident in the literature during the years is explored. Recommendations are made for use of the term rigor instead of trustworthiness and the reconceptualization and renewed use of the concept of reliability and validity in qualitative research, that strategies for ensuring rigor must be built into the qualitative research process rather than evaluated only after the inquiry, and that qualitative researchers and students alike must be proactive and take responsibility in ensuring the rigor of a research study. The insights garnered here will move novice researchers and doctoral students to a better conceptual grasp of the complexity of reliability and validity and its ramifications for qualitative inquiry.

  8. Single-case synthesis tools I: Comparing tools to evaluate SCD quality and rigor. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kathleen N; Ledford, Jennifer R; Severini, Katherine E; Pustejovsky, James E; Barton, Erin E; Lloyd, Blair P


    Tools for evaluating the quality and rigor of single case research designs (SCD) are often used when conducting SCD syntheses. Preferred components include evaluations of design features related to the internal validity of SCD to obtain quality and/or rigor ratings. Three tools for evaluating the quality and rigor of SCD (Council for Exceptional Children, What Works Clearinghouse, and Single-Case Analysis and Design Framework) were compared to determine if conclusions regarding the effectiveness of antecedent sensory-based interventions for young children changed based on choice of quality evaluation tool. Evaluation of SCD quality differed across tools, suggesting selection of quality evaluation tools impacts evaluation findings. Suggestions for selecting an appropriate quality and rigor assessment tool are provided and across-tool conclusions are drawn regarding the quality and rigor of studies. Finally, authors provide guidance for using quality evaluations in conjunction with outcome analyses when conducting syntheses of interventions evaluated in the context of SCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the Status of Training Quality of Ophthalmologic Residents in Khatam-Ol-Anbia Hospital in Mashhad, Based on the Standards of EFQM Organizational Excellence Model in the Academic Year 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Derakhshan


    general perception; educational, research, and pedagogy; support and guidance; and for loyalty, honesty, and values; were obtained as 6.19, 6.39, 6.61, and 7.44, respectively. The total score was obtained to be 129.32 (out of the standard 200 according to the criterion of customer results in EFQM model. Moreover, the status of training quality of learners in Ophthalmology residency in terms of gender and academic years did not show a significant difference. However, the mean value of indices in native residents showed a higher number in comparison with the students who declared themselves as non-native, indicating a significant difference (P=0.01.Conclusions: In this research, the general status of training quality of Ophthalmology residents, based on the required mean value and extraction of the total score obtained, reveals a higher than average level. These results, together with the difference in the mean value of indices in the native and non-native residents can act as a guide for decision-making and managerial policymaking in this subspecialty therapeutic, educational, and research hospital.Keywords: ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE, EFQM, TRAINING QUALITY, RESIDENTS

  10. The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration Instrument Review Project: a methodology to promote rigorous evaluation. (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C; Stanick, Cameo F; Martinez, Ruben G; Weiner, Bryan J; Kim, Mimi; Barwick, Melanie; Comtois, Katherine A


    science. Despite numerous constructs having greater than 20 available instruments, which implies saturation, preliminary results suggest that few instruments stem from gold standard development procedures. We anticipate identifying few high-quality, psychometrically sound instruments once our evidence-based assessment rating criteria have been applied. The results of this methodology may enhance the rigor of implementation science evaluations by systematically facilitating access to psychometrically validated instruments and identifying where further instrument development is needed.

  11. The effect of temperature on the mechanical aspects of rigor mortis in a liquid paraffin model. (United States)

    Ozawa, Masayoshi; Iwadate, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Sari; Asakura, Kumiko; Ochiai, Eriko; Maebashi, Kyoko


    Rigor mortis is an important phenomenon to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic medicine. Rigor mortis is affected by temperature. We measured stiffness of rat muscles using a liquid paraffin model to monitor the mechanical aspects of rigor mortis at five temperatures (37, 25, 10, 5 and 0°C). At 37, 25 and 10°C, the progression of stiffness was slower in cooler conditions. At 5 and 0°C, the muscle stiffness increased immediately after the muscles were soaked in cooled liquid paraffin and then muscles gradually became rigid without going through a relaxed state. This phenomenon suggests that it is important to be careful when estimating the postmortem interval in cold seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiological Control Technician: Standardized technician Qualification Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Qualification Standard states and defines the knowledge and skill requirements necessary for successful completion of the Radiological Control Technician Training Program. The standard is divided into three phases: Phase I concerns RCT Academic training. There are 13 lessons associated with the core academics program and 19 lessons associated with the site academics program. The staff member should sign the appropriate blocks upon successful completion of the examination for that lesson or group of lessons. In addition, facility specific lesson plans may be added to meet the knowledge requirements in the Job Performance Measures (JPM) of the practical program. Phase II concerns RCT core/site practical (JPMs) training. There are thirteen generic tasks associated with the core practical program. Both the trainer/evaluator and student should sign the appropriate block upon successful completion of the JPM. In addition, facility specific tasks may be added or generic tasks deleted based on the results of the facility job evaluation. Phase III concerns the oral examination board successful completion of the oral examination board is documented by the signature of the chairperson of the board. Upon completion of all of the standardized technician qualification requirements, final qualification is verified by the student and the manager of the Radiological Control Department and acknowledged by signatures on the qualification standard. The completed Qualification Standard shall be maintained as an official training record

  13. Quality properties of pre- and post-rigor beef muscle after interventions with high frequency ultrasound. (United States)

    Sikes, Anita L; Mawson, Raymond; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn


    The delivery of a consistent quality product to the consumer is vitally important for the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for using high frequency ultrasound applied to pre- and post-rigor beef muscle on the metabolism and subsequent quality. High frequency ultrasound (600kHz at 48kPa and 65kPa acoustic pressure) applied to post-rigor beef striploin steaks resulted in no significant effect on the texture (peak force value) of cooked steaks as measured by a Tenderometer. There was no added benefit of ultrasound treatment above that of the normal ageing process after ageing of the steaks for 7days at 4°C. Ultrasound treatment of post-rigor beef steaks resulted in a darkening of fresh steaks but after ageing for 7days at 4°C, the ultrasound-treated steaks were similar in colour to that of the aged, untreated steaks. High frequency ultrasound (2MHz at 48kPa acoustic pressure) applied to pre-rigor beef neck muscle had no effect on the pH, but the calculated exhaustion factor suggested that there was some effect on metabolism and actin-myosin interaction. However, the resultant texture of cooked, ultrasound-treated muscle was lower in tenderness compared to the control sample. After ageing for 3weeks at 0°C, the ultrasound-treated samples had the same peak force value as the control. High frequency ultrasound had no significant effect on the colour parameters of pre-rigor beef neck muscle. This proof-of-concept study showed no effect of ultrasound on quality but did indicate that the application of high frequency ultrasound to pre-rigor beef muscle shows potential for modifying ATP turnover and further investigation is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrocardiogram artifact caused by rigors mimicking narrow complex tachycardia: a case report. (United States)

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Indrakumar, Jegarajah


    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. Rigors due to shivering can cause electrocardiogram artifacts mimicking various cardiac rhythm abnormalities. We describe an 80-year-old Sri Lankan man with an abnormal electrocardiogram mimicking narrow complex tachycardia during the immediate post-operative period. Electrocardiogram changes caused by muscle tremor during rigors could mimic a narrow complex tachycardia. Identification of muscle tremor as a cause of electrocardiogram artifact can avoid unnecessary pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention to prevent arrhythmias.

  15. Increased scientific rigor will improve reliability of research and effectiveness of management (United States)

    Sells, Sarah N.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Barker, Kristin J.; Forshee, Shannon C.; Keever, Allison; Goerz, James W.; Mitchell, Michael S.


    Rigorous science that produces reliable knowledge is critical to wildlife management because it increases accurate understanding of the natural world and informs management decisions effectively. Application of a rigorous scientific method based on hypothesis testing minimizes unreliable knowledge produced by research. To evaluate the prevalence of scientific rigor in wildlife research, we examined 24 issues of the Journal of Wildlife Management from August 2013 through July 2016. We found 43.9% of studies did not state or imply a priori hypotheses, which are necessary to produce reliable knowledge. We posit that this is due, at least in part, to a lack of common understanding of what rigorous science entails, how it produces more reliable knowledge than other forms of interpreting observations, and how research should be designed to maximize inferential strength and usefulness of application. Current primary literature does not provide succinct explanations of the logic behind a rigorous scientific method or readily applicable guidance for employing it, particularly in wildlife biology; we therefore synthesized an overview of the history, philosophy, and logic that define scientific rigor for biological studies. A rigorous scientific method includes 1) generating a research question from theory and prior observations, 2) developing hypotheses (i.e., plausible biological answers to the question), 3) formulating predictions (i.e., facts that must be true if the hypothesis is true), 4) designing and implementing research to collect data potentially consistent with predictions, 5) evaluating whether predictions are consistent with collected data, and 6) drawing inferences based on the evaluation. Explicitly testing a priori hypotheses reduces overall uncertainty by reducing the number of plausible biological explanations to only those that are logically well supported. Such research also draws inferences that are robust to idiosyncratic observations and

  16. Establishing an Integrative Medicine Program Within an Academic Health Center: Essential Considerations. (United States)

    Eisenberg, David M; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Post, Diana E; Hrbek, Andrea L; O'Connor, Bonnie B; Osypiuk, Kamila; Wayne, Peter M; Buring, Julie E; Levy, Donald B


    Integrative medicine (IM) refers to the combination of conventional and "complementary" medical services (e.g., chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, mindfulness training). More than half of all medical schools in the United States and Canada have programs in IM, and more than 30 academic health centers currently deliver multidisciplinary IM care. What remains unclear, however, is the ideal delivery model (or models) whereby individuals can responsibly access IM care safely, effectively, and reproducibly in a coordinated and cost-effective way.Current models of IM across existing clinical centers vary tremendously in their organizational settings, principal clinical focus, and services provided; practitioner team composition and training; incorporation of research activities and educational programs; and administrative organization (e.g., reporting structure, use of medical records, scope of clinical practice) and financial strategies (i.e., specific business plans and models for sustainability).In this article, the authors address these important strategic issues by sharing lessons learned from the design and implementation of an IM facility within an academic teaching hospital, the Brigham and Women's Hospital at Harvard Medical School; and review alternative options based on information about IM centers across the United States.The authors conclude that there is currently no consensus as to how integrative care models should be optimally organized, implemented, replicated, assessed, and funded. The time may be right for prospective research in "best practices" across emerging models of IM care nationally in an effort to standardize, refine, and replicate them in preparation for rigorous cost-effectiveness evaluations.

  17. The Economics of Academic Advancement Within Surgery. (United States)

    Baimas-George, Maria; Fleischer, Brian; Korndorffer, James R; Slakey, Douglas; DuCoin, Christopher

    The success of an academic surgeon's career is often viewed as directly related to academic appointment; therefore, the sequence of promotion is a demanding, rigorous process. This paper seeks to define the financial implication of academic advancement across different surgical subspecialties. Data was collected from the Association of American Medical College's 2015 report of average annual salaries. Assumptions included 30 years of practice, 5 years as assistant professor, and 10 years as associate professor before advancement. The base formula used was: (average annual salary) × (years of practice [30 years - fellowship/research years]) + ($50,000 × years of fellowship/research) = total adjusted lifetime salary income. There was a significant increase in lifetime salary income with advancement from assistant to associate professor in all subspecialties when compared to an increase from associate to full professor. The greatest increase in income from assistant to associate professor was seen in transplant and cardiothoracic surgery (35% and 27%, respectively). Trauma surgery and surgical oncology had the smallest increases of 8% and 9%, respectively. With advancement to full professor, the increase in lifetime salary income was significantly less across all subspecialties, ranging from 1% in plastic surgery to 8% in pediatric surgery. When analyzing the economics of career advancement in academic surgery, there is a substantial financial benefit in lifetime income to becoming an associate professor in all fields; whereas, advancement to full professor is associated with a drastically reduced economic benefit. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VIII. Estimation of time since death by repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis on rats. (United States)

    Krompecher, T


    The development of the intensity of rigor mortis was monitored in nine groups of rats. The measurements were initiated after 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 15, 24, and 48 h post mortem (p.m.) and lasted 5-9 h, which ideally should correspond to the usual procedure after the discovery of a corpse. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. Measurements initiated early after death resulted in curves with a rising portion, a plateau, and a descending slope. Delaying the initial measurement translated into shorter rising portions, and curves initiated 8 h p.m. or later are comprised of a plateau and/or a downward slope only. Three different phases were observed suggesting simple rules that can help estimate the time since death: (1) if an increase in intensity was found, the initial measurements were conducted not later than 5 h p.m.; (2) if only a decrease in intensity was observed, the initial measurements were conducted not earlier than 7 h p.m.; and (3) at 24 h p.m., the resolution is complete, and no further changes in intensity should occur. Our results clearly demonstrate that repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis allow a more accurate estimation of the time since death of the experimental animals than the single measurement method used earlier. A critical review of the literature on the estimation of time since death on the basis of objective measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis is also presented.

  19. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson


    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  20. Standards, Assessments & Opting Out, Spring 2015 (United States)

    Advance Illinois, 2015


    In the spring, Illinois students will take new state assessments that reflect the rigor and relevance of the new Illinois Learning Standards. But some classmates will sit out and join the pushback against standardized testing. Opt-out advocates raise concerns about over-testing, and the resulting toll on students as well as the impact on classroom…

  1. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens). (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I


    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Rigorous lower bound on the dynamic critical exponent of some multilevel Swendsen-Wang algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Sokal, A.D.


    We prove the rigorous lower bound z exp ≥α/ν for the dynamic critical exponent of a broad class of multilevel (or ''multigrid'') variants of the Swendsen-Wang algorithm. This proves that such algorithms do suffer from critical slowing down. We conjecture that such algorithms in fact lie in the same dynamic universality class as the stanard Swendsen-Wang algorithm

  3. Rigorous approximation of stationary measures and convergence to equilibrium for iterated function systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatolo, Stefano; Monge, Maurizio; Nisoli, Isaia


    We study the problem of the rigorous computation of the stationary measure and of the rate of convergence to equilibrium of an iterated function system described by a stochastic mixture of two or more dynamical systems that are either all uniformly expanding on the interval, either all contracting. In the expanding case, the associated transfer operators satisfy a Lasota–Yorke inequality, we show how to compute a rigorous approximations of the stationary measure in the L "1 norm and an estimate for the rate of convergence. The rigorous computation requires a computer-aided proof of the contraction of the transfer operators for the maps, and we show that this property propagates to the transfer operators of the IFS. In the contracting case we perform a rigorous approximation of the stationary measure in the Wasserstein–Kantorovich distance and rate of convergence, using the same functional analytic approach. We show that a finite computation can produce a realistic computation of all contraction rates for the whole parameter space. We conclude with a description of the implementation and numerical experiments. (paper)

  4. Double phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain during rigor mortis of bovine Longissimus muscle. (United States)

    Muroya, Susumu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Shibata, Masahiro; Chikuni, Koichi


    To investigate changes in myosin light chains (MyLCs) during postmortem aging of the bovine longissimus muscle, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results of fluorescent differential gel electrophoresis showed that two spots of the myosin regulatory light chain (MyLC2) at pI values of 4.6 and 4.7 shifted toward those at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6, respectively, by 24 h postmortem when rigor mortis was completed. Meanwhile, the MyLC1 and MyLC3 spots did not change during the 14 days postmortem. Phosphoprotein-specific staining of the gels demonstrated that the MyLC2 proteins at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6 were phosphorylated. Furthermore, possible N-terminal region peptides containing one and two phosphoserine residues were detected in each mass spectrum of the MyLC2 spots at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6, respectively. These results demonstrated that MyLC2 became doubly phosphorylated during rigor formation of the bovine longissimus, suggesting involvement of the MyLC2 phosphorylation in the progress of beef rigor mortis. Bovine; myosin regulatory light chain (RLC, MyLC2); phosphorylation; rigor mortis; skeletal muscle.

  5. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail:


    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R{sup {infinity}}, we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  6. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.


    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R ∞ , we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  7. Beyond the RCT: Integrating Rigor and Relevance to Evaluate the Outcomes of Domestic Violence Programs (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Epstein, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.


    Programs for domestic violence (DV) victims and their families have grown exponentially over the last four decades. The evidence demonstrating the extent of their effectiveness, however, often has been criticized as stemming from studies lacking scientific rigor. A core reason for this critique is the widespread belief that credible evidence can…

  8. A plea for rigorous conceptual analysis as central method in transnational law design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, R.; van der Kaaij, H.


    Although shared problems are generally easily identified in transnational law design, it is considerably more difficult to design frameworks that transcend the peculiarities of local law in a univocal fashion. The following exposition is a plea for giving more prominence to rigorous conceptual

  9. College Readiness in California: A Look at Rigorous High School Course-Taking (United States)

    Gao, Niu


    Recognizing the educational and economic benefits of a college degree, education policymakers at the federal, state, and local levels have made college preparation a priority. There are many ways to measure college readiness, but one key component is rigorous high school coursework. California has not yet adopted a statewide college readiness…

  10. Electronic Transcripts--EDI in Academic Administration. (United States)

    Carson, E. W.


    Newly developed electronic data interchange (EDI) standards for exchanging academic records between colleges and universities are explained. It is argued that implementation of the new standards in college registrar and admissions offices can improve speed, costs, and accuracy and provide a prototype for a variety of campus business applications.…

  11. Evaluation of physical dimension changes as nondestructive measurements for monitoring rigor mortis development in broiler muscles. (United States)

    Cavitt, L C; Sams, A R


    Studies were conducted to develop a non-destructive method for monitoring the rate of rigor mortis development in poultry and to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical stimulation (ES). In the first study, 36 male broilers in each of two trials were processed at 7 wk of age. After being bled, half of the birds received electrical stimulation (400 to 450 V, 400 to 450 mA, for seven pulses of 2 s on and 1 s off), and the other half were designated as controls. At 0.25 and 1.5 h postmortem (PM), carcasses were evaluated for the angles of the shoulder, elbow, and wing tip and the distance between the elbows. Breast fillets were harvested at 1.5 h PM (after chilling) from all carcasses. Fillet samples were excised and frozen for later measurement of pH and R-value, and the remainder of each fillet was held on ice until 24 h postmortem. Shear value and pH means were significantly lower, but R-value means were higher (P rigor mortis by ES. The physical dimensions of the shoulder and elbow changed (P rigor mortis development and with ES. These results indicate that physical measurements of the wings maybe useful as a nondestructive indicator of rigor development and for monitoring the effectiveness of ES. In the second study, 60 male broilers in each of two trials were processed at 7 wk of age. At 0.25, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 h PM, carcasses were evaluated for the distance between the elbows. At each time point, breast fillets were harvested from each carcass. Fillet samples were excised and frozen for later measurement of pH and sacromere length, whereas the remainder of each fillet was held on ice until 24 h PM. Shear value and pH means (P rigor mortis development. Elbow distance decreased (P rigor development and was correlated (P rigor mortis development in broiler carcasses.

  12. Expediting the Quest for Quality: The Role of IQAC in Academic Audit (United States)

    Nitonde, Rohidas


    Academic Audit is an important tool to control and maintain standards in academic sector. It has been found highly relevant by the experts across the world. Academic audit helps institutions to introspect and improve their quality. The present paper intends to probe into the possible role of Internal Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) in Academic Audit…

  13. 77 FR 53224 - Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (United States)


    ... develop and test the standard. CMECS has been applied in projects in a variety of geographies. A rigorous... components allows users to apply CMECS to the scale and specificity that best suits their needs. Modifiers...

  14. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hunt

    Full Text Available Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs, in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries.We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques.Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process.Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be

  15. Web Usability Policies/Standards/Guidelines Do Not Influence Practices at ARL Academic Libraries. A Review of: Chen, Yu‐Hui, Carol Anne Germain and Huahai Yang. “An Exploration into the Practices of Library Web Usability in ARL Academic Libraries.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60.5 (2009: 953‐68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandra Protzko


    Full Text Available Objective – To survey the current status of Web usability Policies/Standards/Guidelines (PSGs found in academic libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL. Researchers sought to investigate whether PSGs are in place, the levels of difficulty surrounding implementation, the impact of PSGs on design, testing, and resource allocation, and the relationship between ARL ranking and usability practice or PSGs.Design – Survey.Setting – North America.Subjects – Academic libraries of the ARL.Methods – An 18‐question survey consisting of multiple choice, Likert scale, and open‐ended questions was sent to all 113 ARL libraries in November 2007. Survey recipients were selected as the person in charge of Web site usability by visiting library Web sites and phone inquiry. The survey was concluded in January 2008 with a response rate of 74% (84 institutions. The researchers used t‐test to detect any difference in ARL library ranking between libraries with and without PSGs. Pair‐wise t‐tests were conducted to identify gaps in difficulty implementing PSGs. In addition, they used Pearson’s Correlation to investigate any significant correlations between variables such as ARL rank and resource allocation.Main Results – Of the 84 respondents, 34 (40% have general library Web PSGs and 25 (30% have specific usability PSGs; 41 (49% have at least one type of in‐library PSG. Of the 43 (51% libraries that do not have PSGs, 30 (36% are at universities with institutional Web usability PSGs; 26 (87% follow those guidelines. There was no statistically significant relationship between ARL ranking and PSG status (see Table 1. The authors asked about difficulty in implementing PSGs. Of the 32 libraries responding to a question about general library Web PSGs, most had slight or moderate difficulty. Twenty‐three libraries with specific usability PSGs identified difficulty levels; some had no difficulty, but a majority had moderate difficulty

  16. Academic Entitlement and Academic Performance in Graduating Pharmacy Students


    Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.


    Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.

  17. [A new formula for the measurement of rigor mortis: the determination of the FRR-index (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Forster, B; Ropohl, D; Raule, P


    The manual examination of rigor mortis as currently used and its often subjective evaluation frequently produced highly incorrect deductions. It is therefore desirable that such inaccuracies should be replaced by the objective measuring of rigor mortis at the extremities. To that purpose a method is described which can also be applied in on-the-spot investigations and a new formula for the determination of rigor mortis--indices (FRR) is introduced.

  18. Commercializing Academic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric


    the importance of academic patenting. Our findings suggest that academic involvement in patenting results in a citation premium, as academic patents appear to generate more forward citations. We also find that in the European context of changing research objectives and funding sources since the mid-1990s...

  19. The Academic Adviser (United States)

    Darling, Ruth


    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  20. Measurements of the degree of development of rigor mortis as an indicator of stress in slaughtered pigs. (United States)

    Warriss, P D; Brown, S N; Knowles, T G


    The degree of development of rigor mortis in the carcases of slaughter pigs was assessed subjectively on a three-point scale 35 minutes after they were exsanguinated, and related to the levels of cortisol, lactate and creatine kinase in blood collected at exsanguination. Earlier rigor development was associated with higher concentrations of these stress indicators in the blood. This relationship suggests that the mean rigor score, and the frequency distribution of carcases that had or had not entered rigor, could be used as an index of the degree of stress to which the pigs had been subjected.

  1. Use of the Rigor Mortis Process as a Tool for Better Understanding of Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Effect of the Ante-Mortem Stress on the Progression of Rigor Mortis in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). (United States)

    Diouf, Boucar; Rioux, Pierre


    Presents the rigor mortis process in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) as a tool for better understanding skeletal muscle metabolism. Describes an activity that demonstrates how rigor mortis is related to the post-mortem decrease of muscular glycogen and ATP, how glycogen degradation produces lactic acid that lowers muscle pH, and how…

  2. A rigorous pole representation of multilevel cross sections and its practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, R.N.


    In this article a rigorous method for representing the multilevel cross sections and its practical applications are described. It is a generalization of the rationale suggested by de Saussure and Perez for the s-wave resonances. A computer code WHOPPER has been developed to convert the Reich-Moore parameters into the pole and residue parameters in momentum space. Sample calculations have been carried out to illustrate that the proposed method preserves the rigor of the Reich-Moore cross sections exactly. An analytical method has been developed to evaluate the pertinent Doppler-broadened line shape functions. A discussion is presented on how to minimize the number of pole parameters so that the existing reactor codes can be best utilized

  3. Rigorous simulations of a helical core fiber by the use of transformation optics formalism. (United States)

    Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw


    We report for the first time on rigorous numerical simulations of a helical-core fiber by using a full vectorial method based on the transformation optics formalism. We modeled the dependence of circular birefringence of the fundamental mode on the helix pitch and analyzed the effect of a birefringence increase caused by the mode displacement induced by a core twist. Furthermore, we analyzed the complex field evolution versus the helix pitch in the first order modes, including polarization and intensity distribution. Finally, we show that the use of the rigorous vectorial method allows to better predict the confinement loss of the guided modes compared to approximate methods based on equivalent in-plane bending models.

  4. Estimation of the time since death--reconsidering the re-establishment of rigor mortis. (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Kunz, Michaela; Gehl, Axel; Sehner, Susanne; Raupach, Tobias; Beck-Bornholdt, Hans-Peter


    In forensic medicine, there is an undefined data background for the phenomenon of re-establishment of rigor mortis after mechanical loosening, a method used in establishing time since death in forensic casework that is thought to occur up to 8 h post-mortem. Nevertheless, the method is widely described in textbooks on forensic medicine. We examined 314 joints (elbow and knee) of 79 deceased at defined time points up to 21 h post-mortem (hpm). Data were analysed using a random intercept model. Here, we show that re-establishment occurred in 38.5% of joints at 7.5 to 19 hpm. Therefore, the maximum time span for the re-establishment of rigor mortis appears to be 2.5-fold longer than thought so far. These findings have major impact on the estimation of time since death in forensic casework.

  5. Quality of nuchal translucency measurements correlates with broader aspects of program rigor and culture of excellence. (United States)

    Evans, Mark I; Krantz, David A; Hallahan, Terrence; Sherwin, John; Britt, David W


    To determine if nuchal translucency (NT) quality correlates with the extent to which clinics vary in rigor and quality control. We correlated NT performance quality (bias and precision) of 246,000 patients with two alternative measures of clinic culture - % of cases for whom nasal bone (NB) measurements were performed and % of requisitions correctly filled for race-ethnicity and weight. When requisition errors occurred in 5% (33%), the curve lowered to 0.93 MoM (p 90%, MoM was 0.99 compared to those quality exists independent of individual variation in NT quality, and two divergent indices of program rigor are associated with NT quality. Quality control must be program wide, and to effect continued improvement in the quality of NT results across time, the cultures of clinics must become a target for intervention. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. A Framework for Rigorously Identifying Research Gaps in Qualitative Literature Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Bloch, Christoph; Kranz, Johann


    Identifying research gaps is a fundamental goal of literature reviewing. While it is widely acknowledged that literature reviews should identify research gaps, there are no methodological guidelines for how to identify research gaps in qualitative literature reviews ensuring rigor and replicability....... Our study addresses this gap and proposes a framework that should help scholars in this endeavor without stifling creativity. To develop the framework we thoroughly analyze the state-of-the-art procedure of identifying research gaps in 40 recent literature reviews using a grounded theory approach....... Based on the data, we subsequently derive a framework for identifying research gaps in qualitative literature reviews and demonstrate its application with an example. Our results provide a modus operandi for identifying research gaps, thus enabling scholars to conduct literature reviews more rigorously...

  7. Derivation of basic equations for rigorous dynamic simulation of cryogenic distillation column for hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Naruse, Yuji


    The basic equations are derived for rigorous dynamic simulation of cryogenic distillation columns for hydrogen isotope separation. The model accounts for such factors as differences in latent heat of vaporization among the six isotopic species of molecular hydrogen, decay heat of tritium, heat transfer through the column wall and nonideality of the solutions. Provision is also made for simulation of columns with multiple feeds and multiple sidestreams. (author)

  8. Rigor mortis development in turkey breast muscle and the effect of electrical stunning. (United States)

    Alvarado, C Z; Sams, A R


    Rigor mortis development in turkey breast muscle and the effect of electrical stunning on this process are not well characterized. Some electrical stunning procedures have been known to inhibit postmortem (PM) biochemical reactions, thereby delaying the onset of rigor mortis in broilers. Therefore, this study was designed to characterize rigor mortis development in stunned and unstunned turkeys. A total of 154 turkey toms in two trials were conventionally processed at 20 to 22 wk of age. Turkeys were either stunned with a pulsed direct current (500 Hz, 50% duty cycle) at 35 mA (40 V) in a saline bath for 12 seconds or left unstunned as controls. At 15 min and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h PM, pectoralis samples were collected to determine pH, R-value, L* value, sarcomere length, and shear value. In Trial 1, the samples obtained for pH, R-value, and sarcomere length were divided into surface and interior samples. There were no significant differences between the surface and interior samples among any parameters measured. Muscle pH significantly decreased over time in stunned and unstunned birds through 2 h PM. The R-values increased to 8 h PM in unstunned birds and 24 h PM in stunned birds. The L* values increased over time, with no significant differences after 1 h PM for the controls and 2 h PM for the stunned birds. Sarcomere length increased through 2 h PM in the controls and 12 h PM in the stunned fillets. Cooked meat shear values decreased through the 1 h PM deboning time in the control fillets and 2 h PM in the stunned fillets. These results suggest that stunning delayed the development of rigor mortis through 2 h PM, but had no significant effect on the measured parameters at later time points, and that deboning turkey breasts at 2 h PM or later will not significantly impair meat tenderness.

  9. Rigor force responses of permeabilized fibres from fast and slow skeletal muscles of aged rats. (United States)

    Plant, D R; Lynch, G S


    1. Ageing is generally associated with a decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength and a slowing of muscle contraction, factors that impact upon the quality of life for the elderly. The mechanisms underlying this age-related muscle weakness have not been fully resolved. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the decrease in muscle force as a consequence of age could be attributed partly to a decrease in the number of cross-bridges participating during contraction. 2. Given that the rigor force is proportional to the approximate total number of interacting sites between the actin and myosin filaments, we tested the null hypothesis that the rigor force of permeabilized muscle fibres from young and old rats would not be different. 3. Permeabilized fibres from the extensor digitorum longus (fast-twitch; EDL) and soleus (predominantly slow-twitch) muscles of young (6 months of age) and old (27 months of age) male F344 rats were activated in Ca2+-buffered solutions to determine force-pCa characteristics (where pCa = -log(10)[Ca2+]) and then in solutions lacking ATP and Ca2+ to determine rigor force levels. 4. The rigor forces for EDL and soleus muscle fibres were not different between young and old rats, indicating that the approximate total number of cross-bridges that can be formed between filaments did not decline with age. We conclude that the age-related decrease in force output is more likely attributed to a decrease in the force per cross-bridge and/or decreases in the efficiency of excitation-contraction coupling.

  10. Rigorous Integration of Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equations in Chebyshev Basis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzetkulič, Tomáš


    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2015), s. 183-205 ISSN 1017-1398 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10048; GA ČR GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Initial value problem * Rigorous integration * Taylor model * Chebyshev basis Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2015

  11. A rigorous proof of the Landau-Peierls formula and much more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briet, Philippe; Cornean, Horia; Savoie, Baptiste


    We present a rigorous mathematical treatment of the zero-field orbital magnetic susceptibility of a non-interacting Bloch electron gas, at fixed temperature and density, for both metals and semiconductors/insulators. In particular, we obtain the Landau-Peierls formula in the low temperature and d...... and density limit as conjectured by Kjeldaas and Kohn (Phys Rev 105:806–813, 1957)....

  12. Association Between Maximal Skin Dose and Breast Brachytherapy Outcome: A Proposal for More Rigorous Dosimetric Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttino, Laurie W.; Heffernan, Jill; Vera, Robyn; Rosu, Mihaela; Ramakrishnan, V. Ramesh; Arthur, Douglas W.


    Purpose: Multiple investigations have used the skin distance as a surrogate for the skin dose and have shown that distances 4.05 Gy/fraction. Conclusion: The initial skin dose recommendations have been based on safe use and the avoidance of significant toxicity. The results from the present study have suggested that patients might further benefit if more rigorous constraints were applied and if the skin dose were limited to 120% of the prescription dose.

  13. Academic Training: Academic Training Lectures-Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia


    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  14. Re-establishment of rigor mortis: evidence for a considerably longer post-mortem time span. (United States)

    Crostack, Chiara; Sehner, Susanne; Raupach, Tobias; Anders, Sven


    Re-establishment of rigor mortis following mechanical loosening is used as part of the complex method for the forensic estimation of the time since death in human bodies and has formerly been reported to occur up to 8-12 h post-mortem (hpm). We recently described our observation of the phenomenon in up to 19 hpm in cases with in-hospital death. Due to the case selection (preceding illness, immobilisation), transfer of these results to forensic cases might be limited. We therefore examined 67 out-of-hospital cases of sudden death with known time points of death. Re-establishment of rigor mortis was positive in 52.2% of cases and was observed up to 20 hpm. In contrast to the current doctrine that a recurrence of rigor mortis is always of a lesser degree than its first manifestation in a given patient, muscular rigidity at re-establishment equalled or even exceeded the degree observed before dissolving in 21 joints. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe that the phenomenon appears to be independent of body or ambient temperature.

  15. Application of the rigorous method to x-ray and neutron beam scattering on rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goray, Leonid I.


    The paper presents a comprehensive numerical analysis of x-ray and neutron scattering from finite-conducting rough surfaces which is performed in the frame of the boundary integral equation method in a rigorous formulation for high ratios of characteristic dimension to wavelength. The single integral equation obtained involves boundary integrals of the single and double layer potentials. A more general treatment of the energy conservation law applicable to absorption gratings and rough mirrors is considered. In order to compute the scattering intensity of rough surfaces using the forward electromagnetic solver, Monte Carlo simulation is employed to average the deterministic diffraction grating efficiency due to individual surfaces over an ensemble of realizations. Some rules appropriate for numerical implementation of the theory at small wavelength-to-period ratios are presented. The difference between the rigorous approach and approximations can be clearly seen in specular reflectances of Au mirrors with different roughness parameters at wavelengths where grazing incidence occurs at close to or larger than the critical angle. This difference may give rise to wrong estimates of rms roughness and correlation length if they are obtained by comparing experimental data with calculations. Besides, the rigorous approach permits taking into account any known roughness statistics and allows exact computation of diffuse scattering.

  16. Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement : mediating and additive effects


    Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David


    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...

  17. A Draft Conceptual Framework of Relevant Theories to Inform Future Rigorous Research on Student Service-Learning Outcomes (United States)

    Whitley, Meredith A.


    While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…

  18. Feedback for relatedness and competence : Can feedback in blended learning contribute to optimal rigor, basic needs, and motivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bombaerts, G.; Nickel, P.J.


    We inquire how peer and tutor feedback influences students' optimal rigor, basic needs and motivation. We analyze questionnaires from two courses in two subsequent years. We conclude that feedback in blended learning can contribute to rigor and basic needs, but it is not clear from our data what

  19. Optimal correction and design parameter search by modern methods of rigorous global optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, K.; Berz, M.


    Frequently the design of schemes for correction of aberrations or the determination of possible operating ranges for beamlines and cells in synchrotrons exhibit multitudes of possibilities for their correction, usually appearing in disconnected regions of parameter space which cannot be directly qualified by analytical means. In such cases, frequently an abundance of optimization runs are carried out, each of which determines a local minimum depending on the specific chosen initial conditions. Practical solutions are then obtained through an often extended interplay of experienced manual adjustment of certain suitable parameters and local searches by varying other parameters. However, in a formal sense this problem can be viewed as a global optimization problem, i.e. the determination of all solutions within a certain range of parameters that lead to a specific optimum. For example, it may be of interest to find all possible settings of multiple quadrupoles that can achieve imaging; or to find ahead of time all possible settings that achieve a particular tune; or to find all possible manners to adjust nonlinear parameters to achieve correction of high order aberrations. These tasks can easily be phrased in terms of such an optimization problem; but while mathematically this formulation is often straightforward, it has been common belief that it is of limited practical value since the resulting optimization problem cannot usually be solved. However, recent significant advances in modern methods of rigorous global optimization make these methods feasible for optics design for the first time. The key ideas of the method lie in an interplay of rigorous local underestimators of the objective functions, and by using the underestimators to rigorously iteratively eliminate regions that lie above already known upper bounds of the minima, in what is commonly known as a branch-and-bound approach. Recent enhancements of the Differential Algebraic methods used in particle


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Adler


    Full Text Available Traditional education has focused on teaching individuals the tools to succeed academically and professionally, and students’ progress has been measured according to their performance within this limited paradigm of success. Various decades of rigorous international research have shown that skills exist for building the elements of well-being, and that these can be taught and learned. Furthermore, these skills should be taught, since well-being has both intrinsic value (human beings innately desire well-being as well as instrumental value (well-being generates desirable life outcomes, including physical health, professional and academic success, better relationships with others, less violence and drug consumption, among others. Based on the most rigorous scientific research, positive education teaches the skills and knowledge that individuals need to have successful academic and professional lives, as well as to flourish as human beings and live a fulfilling life.

  1. Motivation and academic achievement in medical students. (United States)

    Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh


    Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students' academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007-2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. In view of our observations, students' academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation.

  2. Etnic background and academic performance in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Sanchez-Jabba


    Full Text Available In Colombia, students from an ethnic group have a lower academic achievement with respect totheir non-ethnic peers in standardized test scores on math and language. This gap is persistentat a state level, especially in high ethnic density states. Using information from the state academictest (SABER 11, this study corroborates the existence of an academic gap between ethnicand non-ethnic students and, additionally, decomposes it in factors related to observable characteristics,such as family and school; and non-observable factors. The methodology proposed byBlinder and Oaxaca applied to quantile regression is used in order to determine the existence oftest score gaps throughout the distribution of academic performance. Results indicate that forstates where there is a statistically significant gap, a sizeable portion of it is attributed to nonobservablefactors. Nonetheless, at distinct levels of academic performance, the gap size and theextent to which it can be attributed non-observable factors vary according to the state

  3. Physically active academic lessons in elementary children. (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M


    Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. We will review the on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors of academic procrastination


    Kranjec, Eva; Košir, Katja; Komidar, Luka


    This study investigated dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression as factors of academic procrastination. Our main research interest was to examine the role of specific dimensions of perfectionism as moderators in the relationship between anxiety and depression and academic procrastination. Four scales were administered on the sample of 403 students: perfectionism scale FMPS, academic procrastination scale APS-SI, depression scale CESD and anxiety scale STAI-X2. The results showed ...

  5. Testing the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Riles, K


    The Large Electron Project (LEP) accelerator near Geneva, more than any other instrument, has rigorously tested the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particles. LEP measurements have probed the theory from many different directions and, so far, the Standard Model has prevailed. The rigour of these tests has allowed LEP physicists to determine unequivocally the number of fundamental 'generations' of elementary particles. These tests also allowed physicists to ascertain the mass of the top quark in advance of its discovery. Recent increases in the accelerator's energy allow new measurements to be undertaken, measurements that may uncover directly or indirectly the long-sought Higgs particle, believed to impart mass to all other particles.

  6. From Academic to Post-Academic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Ghaneirad


    Full Text Available This paper studies the cultural change in science from academic science to post-academic science by the use of documentary studying and analytical reasoning. The aim of this study is determining the direction of cultural change in science and comparing it with cultural change in society.The knowledge production which surrounds academy has little relationship with the values of society and epistemological norms regulate scientists' behavior from within the scientific system. But in post-academic science the relationship between science and society operates in the same line with market and government and science produce within the social context and scientists' behavior controlled by the norms out of the scientific system. So the culture of science has changed because science applied to meet the requirements of market and industry. The result is that contrary to cultural change in society that goes from materialism to post-materialism, cultural change in science moves from post-materialism to materialism.

  7. Unmet Need: Improving mHealth Evaluation Rigor to Build the Evidence Base. (United States)

    Mookherji, Sangeeta; Mehl, Garrett; Kaonga, Nadi; Mechael, Patricia


    mHealth-the use of mobile technologies for health-is a growing element of health system activity globally, but evaluation of those activities remains quite scant, and remains an important knowledge gap for advancing mHealth activities. In 2010, the World Health Organization and Columbia University implemented a small-scale survey to generate preliminary data on evaluation activities used by mHealth initiatives. The authors describe self-reported data from 69 projects in 29 countries. The majority (74%) reported some sort of evaluation activity, primarily nonexperimental in design (62%). The authors developed a 6-point scale of evaluation rigor comprising information on use of comparison groups, sample size calculation, data collection timing, and randomization. The mean score was low (2.4); half (47%) were conducting evaluations with a minimum threshold (4+) of rigor, indicating use of a comparison group, while less than 20% had randomized the mHealth intervention. The authors were unable to assess whether the rigor score was appropriate for the type of mHealth activity being evaluated. What was clear was that although most data came from mHealth projects pilots aimed for scale-up, few had designed evaluations that would support crucial decisions on whether to scale up and how. Whether the mHealth activity is a strategy to improve health or a tool for achieving intermediate outcomes that should lead to better health, mHealth evaluations must be improved to generate robust evidence for cost-effectiveness assessment and to allow for accurate identification of the contribution of mHealth initiatives to health systems strengthening and the impact on actual health outcomes.

  8. Effect of muscle restraint on sheep meat tenderness with rigor mortis at 18°C. (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Wells, Robyn W


    The effect on shear force of skeletal restraint and removing muscles from lamb m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) immediately after slaughter and electrical stimulation was undertaken at a rigor temperature of 18°C (n=15). The temperature of 18°C was achieved through chilling of electrically stimulated sheep carcasses in air at 12°C, air flow 1-1.5 ms(-2). In other groups, the muscle was removed at 2.5 h post-mortem and either wrapped or left non-wrapped before being placed back on the carcass to follow carcass cooling regimes. Following rigor mortis, the meat was aged for 0, 16, 40 and 65 h at 15°C and frozen. For the non-stimulated samples, the meat was aged for 0, 12, 36 and 60 h before being frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1 × 1 cm cross-section. Commencement of ageing was considered to take place at rigor mortis and this was taken as zero aged meat. There were no significant differences in the rate of tenderisation and initial shear force for all treatments. The 23% cook loss was similar for all wrapped and non-wrapped situations and the values decreased slightly with longer ageing durations. Wrapping was shown to mimic meat left intact on the carcass, as it prevented significant prerigor shortening. Such techniques allows muscles to be removed and placed in a controlled temperature environment to enable precise studies of ageing processes.

  9. Study Design Rigor in Animal-Experimental Research Published in Anesthesia Journals. (United States)

    Hoerauf, Janine M; Moss, Angela F; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Bartels, Karsten


    Lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies has been identified as an impediment for translation of basic mechanistic research into effective clinical therapies. Indeed, the National Institutes of Health has revised its grant application process to require more rigorous study design, including sample size calculations, blinding procedures, and randomization steps. We hypothesized that the reporting of such metrics of study design rigor has increased over time for animal-experimental research published in anesthesia journals. PubMed was searched for animal-experimental studies published in 2005, 2010, and 2015 in primarily English-language anesthesia journals. A total of 1466 publications were graded on the performance of sample size estimation, randomization, and blinding. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess linear trends over time for the primary outcome of whether or not a metric was reported. Interrater agreement for each of the 3 metrics (power, randomization, and blinding) was assessed using the weighted κ coefficient in a 10% random sample of articles rerated by a second investigator blinded to the ratings of the first investigator. A total of 1466 manuscripts were analyzed. Reporting for all 3 metrics of experimental design rigor increased over time (2005 to 2010 to 2015): for power analysis, from 5% (27/516), to 12% (59/485), to 17% (77/465); for randomization, from 41% (213/516), to 50% (243/485), to 54% (253/465); and for blinding, from 26% (135/516), to 38% (186/485), to 47% (217/465). The weighted κ coefficients and 98.3% confidence interval indicate almost perfect agreement between the 2 raters beyond that which occurs by chance alone (power, 0.93 [0.85, 1.0], randomization, 0.91 [0.85, 0.98], and blinding, 0.90 [0.84, 0.96]). Our hypothesis that reported metrics of rigor in animal-experimental studies in anesthesia journals have increased during the past decade was confirmed. More consistent reporting, or explicit justification for absence

  10. Rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.R.


    We have exactly calculated the rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets (SC's) by means of graph expansion and a combinatorial approach and investigated the asymptotic behaviour in the limit of long distance. The result show there is no long range correlation between spins at any finite temperature which indicates no existence of phase transition and thus finally confirms the conclusion produced by the renormalization group method and other physical arguments. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  11. An efficient and rigorous thermodynamic library and optimal-control of a cryogenic air separation unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp


    -linear model based control to achieve optimal techno-economic performance. Accordingly, this work presents a computationally efficient and novel approach for solving a tray-by-tray equilibrium model and its implementation for open-loop optimal-control of a cryogenic distillation column. Here, the optimisation...... objective is to reduce the cost of compression in a volatile electricity market while meeting the production requirements, i.e. product flow rate and purity. This model is implemented in Matlab and uses the ThermoLib rigorous thermodynamic library. The present work represents a first step towards plant...

  12. A study into first-year engineering education success using a rigorous mixed methods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Bogaard, M.E.D.; de Graaff, Erik; Verbraek, Alexander


    The aim of this paper is to combine qualitative and quantitative research methods into rigorous research into student success. Research methods have weaknesses that can be overcome by clever combinations. In this paper we use a situated study into student success as an example of how methods...... using statistical techniques. The main elements of the model were student behaviour and student disposition, which were influenced by the students’ perceptions of the education environment. The outcomes of the qualitative studies were useful in interpreting the outcomes of the structural equation...

  13. Supersymmetry and the Parisi-Sourlas dimensional reduction: A rigorous proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.; Landau, L.J.; Perez, J.F.


    Functional integrals that are formally related to the average correlation functions of a classical field theory in the presence of random external sources are given a rigorous meaning. Their dimensional reduction to the Schwinger functions of the corresponding quantum field theory in two fewer dimensions is proven. This is done by reexpressing those functional integrals as expectations of a supersymmetric field theory. The Parisi-Sourlas dimensional reduction of a supersymmetric field theory to a usual quantum field theory in two fewer dimensions is proven. (orig.)

  14. A Rigorous Treatment of Energy Extraction from a Rotating Black Hole (United States)

    Finster, F.; Kamran, N.; Smoller, J.; Yau, S.-T.


    The Cauchy problem is considered for the scalar wave equation in the Kerr geometry. We prove that by choosing a suitable wave packet as initial data, one can extract energy from the black hole, thereby putting supperradiance, the wave analogue of the Penrose process, into a rigorous mathematical framework. We quantify the maximal energy gain. We also compute the infinitesimal change of mass and angular momentum of the black hole, in agreement with Christodoulou’s result for the Penrose process. The main mathematical tool is our previously derived integral representation of the wave propagator.

  15. Benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments. (United States)

    Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann


    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.

  16. Language and Academic Abilities in Children with Selective Mutism (United States)

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.


    We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…

  17. Paying the Piper: The Costs and Consequences of Academic Advancement (United States)

    Casey, Ashley; Fletcher, Tim


    In many professions there are qualifications to gain and professional standards to achieve. Lawyers pass the bar and doctors pass their boards. In academic life the equivalent is a doctorate, closely followed by a profile of peer-reviewed publication. To hold a doctoral degree is the common requirement to become "academic" but does it…

  18. The Relationship between Learning Style and Academic Achievement. (United States)

    Farrell-Moskwa, Claire

    A study investigated the correlation between students' learning styles and their academic achievement on report cards and standardized tests. Subjects were 58 fifth-grade students in a suburban middle school. The "Learning Style Inventory" by Brown and Cooper was administered to this population, and students' academic averages and…

  19. Contingent and Marginalised? Academic Development and Part-Time Teachers (United States)

    Anderson, Valerie


    Academics employed on non-standard contracts are a numerically significant part of the labour market in higher education. Concerns about access to formal academic development for this staff group have been articulated in many countries in the context of increasing emphasis on teaching quality assessment and employment regulation of…

  20. Teaching Adolescent ELs to Write Academic-Style Persuasive Essays (United States)

    Ramos, Kathleen


    The wide adoption of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in the U.S. has increased expectations for all teachers to prepare all learners to read and write in academic ways. More knowledge is needed about instructional approaches that may lead adolescent English learners (ELs) to meet this goal. Developing academic literacy practices…

  1. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter. (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John


    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  2. Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening Variable ... This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior ...

  3. Thinking Academic Freedom (United States)

    Lange, Lis


    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  4. Academic Work and Performativity (United States)

    Kenny, John


    Neoliberal reforms in higher education have resulted in corporate managerial practices in universities and a drive for efficiency and productivity in teaching and research. As a result, there has been an intensification of academic work, increased stress for academics and an emphasis on accountability and performativity in universities. This paper…

  5. Patterns of Academic Procrastination. (United States)

    Day, Victor; Mensink, David; O'Sullivan, Michael


    Uses the Academic Procrastination Questionnaire to measure procrastination and six possible patterns underlying it among undergraduate students. Finds that the most common patterns for clients involved Evaluation Anxiety or being Discouraged/Depressed, or Dependent. Supports individualized assessment and solutions for academic procrastination. (SC)

  6. Marketing Academic Libraries (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.


    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  7. Establishing an academic biobank in a resourcechallenged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the development of a quality-management system, including standard operating procedures and a quality-control regimen. Here, we provide a summary of 10 important considerations for initiating and establishing an academic research biobank in a low-resource setting. These include addressing ethical, legal, technical, ...

  8. An Electronic Publishing Model for Academic Publishers. (United States)

    Gold, Jon D.


    Describes an electronic publishing model based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and considers its use by an academic publisher. Highlights include how SGML is used to produce an electronic book, hypertext, methods of delivery, intellectual property rights, and future possibilities. Sample documents are included. (two references) (LRW)

  9. Relocalising academic literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana; Holm, Lars


    This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine the negot......This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine...... the negotiation and relocalisation of academic literacy among students of the international master’s programme, Anthropology of Education and Globalisation (AEG), University of Aarhus, Denmark. The article draws on an understanding of academic literacy as a local practice situated in the social and institutional...... contexts in which it appears. Based on qualitative interviews with eleven AEG-students, we analyse students’ individual experiences of, and perspectives on, the academic literacy practices of this study programme. Our findings reveal contradictory understandings of internationalism and indicate a learning...

  10. Parent Management Training-Oregon Model: Adapting Intervention with Rigorous Research. (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Kjøbli, John


    Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO(®) ) is a set of theory-based parenting programs with status as evidence-based treatments. PMTO has been rigorously tested in efficacy and effectiveness trials in different contexts, cultures, and formats. Parents, the presumed agents of change, learn core parenting practices, specifically skill encouragement, limit setting, monitoring/supervision, interpersonal problem solving, and positive involvement. The intervention effectively prevents and ameliorates children's behavior problems by replacing coercive interactions with positive parenting practices. Delivery format includes sessions with individual families in agencies or families' homes, parent groups, and web-based and telehealth communication. Mediational models have tested parenting practices as mechanisms of change for children's behavior and found support for the theory underlying PMTO programs. Moderating effects include children's age, maternal depression, and social disadvantage. The Norwegian PMTO implementation is presented as an example of how PMTO has been tailored to reach diverse populations as delivered by multiple systems of care throughout the nation. An implementation and research center in Oslo provides infrastructure and promotes collaboration between practitioners and researchers to conduct rigorous intervention research. Although evidence-based and tested within a wide array of contexts and populations, PMTO must continue to adapt to an ever-changing world. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  11. Efficiency versus speed in quantum heat engines: Rigorous constraint from Lieb-Robinson bound (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Tajima, Hiroyasu


    A long-standing open problem whether a heat engine with finite power achieves the Carnot efficiency is investgated. We rigorously prove a general trade-off inequality on thermodynamic efficiency and time interval of a cyclic process with quantum heat engines. In a first step, employing the Lieb-Robinson bound we establish an inequality on the change in a local observable caused by an operation far from support of the local observable. This inequality provides a rigorous characterization of the following intuitive picture that most of the energy emitted from the engine to the cold bath remains near the engine when the cyclic process is finished. Using this description, we prove an upper bound on efficiency with the aid of quantum information geometry. Our result generally excludes the possibility of a process with finite speed at the Carnot efficiency in quantum heat engines. In particular, the obtained constraint covers engines evolving with non-Markovian dynamics, which almost all previous studies on this topic fail to address.

  12. Rigorous RG Algorithms and Area Laws for Low Energy Eigenstates in 1D (United States)

    Arad, Itai; Landau, Zeph; Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas


    One of the central challenges in the study of quantum many-body systems is the complexity of simulating them on a classical computer. A recent advance (Landau et al. in Nat Phys, 2015) gave a polynomial time algorithm to compute a succinct classical description for unique ground states of gapped 1D quantum systems. Despite this progress many questions remained unsolved, including whether there exist efficient algorithms when the ground space is degenerate (and of polynomial dimension in the system size), or for the polynomially many lowest energy states, or even whether such states admit succinct classical descriptions or area laws. In this paper we give a new algorithm, based on a rigorously justified RG type transformation, for finding low energy states for 1D Hamiltonians acting on a chain of n particles. In the process we resolve some of the aforementioned open questions, including giving a polynomial time algorithm for poly( n) degenerate ground spaces and an n O(log n) algorithm for the poly( n) lowest energy states (under a mild density condition). For these classes of systems the existence of a succinct classical description and area laws were not rigorously proved before this work. The algorithms are natural and efficient, and for the case of finding unique ground states for frustration-free Hamiltonians the running time is {\\tilde{O}(nM(n))} , where M( n) is the time required to multiply two n × n matrices.

  13. Upgrading geometry conceptual understanding and strategic competence through implementing rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) (United States)

    Nugraheni, Z.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.


    To reach higher order thinking skill, needed to be mastered the conceptual understanding and strategic competence as they are two basic parts of high order thinking skill (HOTS). RMT is a unique realization of the cognitive conceptual construction approach based on Feurstein with his theory of Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. This was quasi-experimental research which compared the experimental class that was given Rigorous Mathematical Thinking (RMT) as learning method and the control class that was given Direct Learning (DL) as the conventional learning activity. This study examined whether there was different effect of two learning model toward conceptual understanding and strategic competence of Junior High School Students. The data was analyzed by using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and obtained a significant difference between experimental and control class when considered jointly on the mathematics conceptual understanding and strategic competence (shown by Wilk’s Λ = 0.84). Further, by independent t-test is known that there was significant difference between two classes both on mathematical conceptual understanding and strategic competence. By this result is known that Rigorous Mathematical Thinking (RMT) had positive impact toward Mathematics conceptual understanding and strategic competence.

  14. "Snow White" Coating Protects SpaceX Dragon's Trunk Against Rigors of Space (United States)

    McMahan, Tracy


    He described it as "snow white." But NASA astronaut Don Pettit was not referring to the popular children's fairy tale. Rather, he was talking about the white coating of the Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) Dragon spacecraft that reflected from the International Space Station s light. As it approached the station for the first time in May 2012, the Dragon s trunk might have been described as the "fairest of them all," for its pristine coating, allowing Pettit to clearly see to maneuver the robotic arm to grab the Dragon for a successful nighttime berthing. This protective thermal control coating, developed by Alion Science and Technology Corp., based in McLean, Va., made its bright appearance again with the March 1 launch of SpaceX's second commercial resupply mission. Named Z-93C55, the coating was applied to the cargo portion of the Dragon to protect it from the rigors of space. "For decades, Alion has produced coatings to protect against the rigors of space," said Michael Kenny, senior chemist with Alion. "As space missions evolved, there was a growing need to dissipate electrical charges that build up on the exteriors of spacecraft, or there could be damage to the spacecraft s electronics. Alion's research led us to develop materials that would meet this goal while also providing thermal controls. The outcome of this research was Alion's proprietary Z-93C55 coating."

  15. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen


    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  16. Differential algebras with remainder and rigorous proofs of long-term stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, Martin


    It is shown how in addition to determining Taylor maps of general optical systems, it is possible to obtain rigorous interval bounds for the remainder term of the n-th order Taylor expansion. To this end, the three elementary operations of addition, multiplication, and differentiation in the Differential Algebraic approach are augmented by suitable interval operations in such a way that a remainder bound of the sum, product, and derivative is obtained from the Taylor polynomial and remainder bound of the operands. The method can be used to obtain bounds for the accuracy with which a Taylor map represents the true map of the particle optical system. In a more general sense, it is also useful for a variety of other numerical problems, including rigorous global optimization of highly complex functions. Combined with methods to obtain pseudo-invariants of repetitive motion and extensions of the Lyapunov- and Nekhoroshev stability theory, the latter can be used to guarantee stability for storage rings and other weakly nonlinear systems

  17. How to Map Theory: Reliable Methods Are Fruitless Without Rigorous Theory. (United States)

    Gray, Kurt


    Good science requires both reliable methods and rigorous theory. Theory allows us to build a unified structure of knowledge, to connect the dots of individual studies and reveal the bigger picture. Some have criticized the proliferation of pet "Theories," but generic "theory" is essential to healthy science, because questions of theory are ultimately those of validity. Although reliable methods and rigorous theory are synergistic, Action Identification suggests psychological tension between them: The more we focus on methodological details, the less we notice the broader connections. Therefore, psychology needs to supplement training in methods (how to design studies and analyze data) with training in theory (how to connect studies and synthesize ideas). This article provides a technique for visually outlining theory: theory mapping. Theory mapping contains five elements, which are illustrated with moral judgment and with cars. Also included are 15 additional theory maps provided by experts in emotion, culture, priming, power, stress, ideology, morality, marketing, decision-making, and more (see all at ). Theory mapping provides both precision and synthesis, which helps to resolve arguments, prevent redundancies, assess the theoretical contribution of papers, and evaluate the likelihood of surprising effects.

  18. Rigorous Combination of GNSS and VLBI: How it Improves Earth Orientation and Reference Frames (United States)

    Lambert, S. B.; Richard, J. Y.; Bizouard, C.; Becker, O.


    Current reference series (C04) of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) are produced by a weighted combination of Earth orientation parameters (EOP) time series built up by combination centers of each technique (VLBI, GNSS, Laser ranging, DORIS). In the future, we plan to derive EOP from a rigorous combination of the normal equation systems of the four techniques.We present here the results of a rigorous combination of VLBI and GNSS pre-reduced, constraint-free, normal equations with the DYNAMO geodetic analysis software package developed and maintained by the French GRGS (Groupe de Recherche en GeÌodeÌsie Spatiale). The used normal equations are those produced separately by the IVS and IGS combination centers to which we apply our own minimal constraints.We address the usefulness of such a method with respect to the classical, a posteriori, combination method, and we show whether EOP determinations are improved.Especially, we implement external validations of the EOP series based on comparison with geophysical excitation and examination of the covariance matrices. Finally, we address the potential of the technique for the next generation celestial reference frames, which are currently determined by VLBI only.

  19. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy? (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka


    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  20. Arts Education Academics' Perceptions of eLearning & Teaching in Australian Early Childhood and Primary ITE Degrees (United States)

    Baker, William J.; Hunter, Mary Ann; Thomas, Sharon


    This article presents the findings of an investigation of eLearning & teaching in Arts education in Australian Initial Teacher Education (ITE) degrees. This project used survey and interviews to collect data from academics in 16 universities in 5 Australian states regarding their experiences of eLearning and Arts education. A rigorous and…

  1. Rigor or Restriction: Examining Close Reading with High School English Language Learners (United States)

    Thomason, Betty; Brown, Clara Lee; Ward, Natalia


    English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing student subgroup in the United States, and public schools have the challenging task of teaching ELLs both English language and academic content. In spite of the attention given to improving outcomes for ELLs, the achievement gap between ELLs and native English speakers persists, especially…

  2. Three on a Match: Gary A. Olson on Rigor, Reliability, and Quality Control in Digital Scholarship (United States)

    Jensen, Kyle


    This interview examines the relationship between digital scholarship and the politics of higher education. In doing so, it advances a series of recommendations that aim to help digital scholars and digital scholarship achieve an increased level of stature in the academic community.

  3. Modeling and Analyzing Academic Researcher Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Huu Nguyen


    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for analyzing the mechanism of the behavior of academic researchers whose interests are tangled and vary widely in academic factors (the intrinsic satisfaction in conducting research, the improvement in individual research ability, etc. or non-academic factors (career rewards, financial rewards, etc.. Furthermore, each researcher also has his/her different academic stances in their preferences about academic freedom and academic entrepreneurship. Understanding the behavior of academic researchers will contribute to nurture young researchers, to improve the standard of research and education as well as to boost collaboration in academia-industry. In particular, as open innovation is increasingly in need of the involvement of university researchers, to establish a successful approach to entice researchers into enterprises’ research, companies must comprehend the behavior of university researchers who have multiple complex motivations. The paper explores academic researchers' behaviors through optimizing their utility functions, i.e. the satisfaction obtained by their research outputs. This paper characterizes these outputs as the results of researchers' 3C: Competence (the ability to implement the research, Commitment (the effort to do the research, and Contribution (finding meaning in the research. Most of the previous research utilized the empirical methods to study researcher's motivation. Without adopting economic theory into the analysis, the past literature could not offer a deeper understanding of researcher's behavior. Our contribution is important both conceptually and practically because it provides the first theoretical framework to study the mechanism of researcher's behavior. Keywords: Academia-Industry, researcher behavior, ulrich model’s 3C.

  4. Dosimetric effects of edema in permanent prostate seed implants: a rigorous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Yue Ning; Wang Xiaohong; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Peschel, Richard; Nath, Ravinder


    Purpose: To derive a rigorous analytic solution to the dosimetric effects of prostate edema so that its impact on the conventional pre-implant and post-implant dosimetry can be studied for any given radioactive isotope and edema characteristics. Methods and Materials: The edema characteristics observed by Waterman et al (Int. J. Rad. Onc. Biol. Phys, 41:1069-1077; 1998) was used to model the time evolution of the prostate and the seed locations. The total dose to any part of prostate tissue from a seed implant was calculated analytically by parameterizing the dose fall-off from a radioactive seed as a single inverse power function of distance, with proper account of the edema-induced time evolution. The dosimetric impact of prostate edema was determined by comparing the dose calculated with full consideration of prostate edema to that calculated with the conventional dosimetry approach where the seed locations and the target volume are assumed to be stationary. Results: A rigorous analytic solution on the relative dosimetric effects of prostate edema was obtained. This solution proved explicitly that the relative dosimetric effects of edema, as found in the previous numerical studies by Yue et. al. (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 43, 447-454, 1999), are independent of the size and the shape of the implant target volume and are independent of the number and the locations of the seeds implanted. It also showed that the magnitude of relative dosimetric effects is independent of the location of dose evaluation point within the edematous target volume. It implies that the relative dosimetric effects of prostate edema are universal with respect to a given isotope and edema characteristic. A set of master tables for the relative dosimetric effects of edema were obtained for a wide range of edema characteristics for both 125 I and 103 Pd prostate seed implants. Conclusions: A rigorous analytic solution of the relative dosimetric effects of prostate edema has been

  5. Academic Carelessness, Bootstrapping, and the Cybernetic Investigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Drayson


    Full Text Available The following discussion is concerned with certain forms of poor practice in academic publishing that give rise to “academic urban legends.” It suggests that rather than simply consider phenomena such as poor citation practices and circular reporting as mistakes, misunderstandings, and evidence of lack of rigor, we might also read them as evidence of a particular kind of creativity—for which misunderstandings, assump-tions, and failures of diligence are mechanisms by which potentially influential ideas manifest. Reflecting particularly on a critique of the debate surrounding pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement and its use by university staff and students, the following will argue that investigators within the disciplines concerned with the effects or development of these technologies are themselves implicated as potential subjects. Alongside reflections from science fiction studies that offer insights into the experiential dimension of reading and misreading, this paper offers some insights regarding how we might think of mistakes and misunderstandings as a form of bootstrapping and a source of creativity in scientific and technological development.

  6. An Academic-Marketing Collaborative to Promote Depression Care: A Tale of Two Cultures (United States)

    Kravitz, Richard L.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Bell, Robert A.; Rochlen, Aaron B.; Duberstein, Paul; Riby, Caroline H.; Caccamo, Anthony F.; Slee, Christina K.; Cipri, Camille S.; Paterniti, Debora A.


    information. A member of the academic team was present and consulted closely during production. Challenges included reconciling the marketing tradition of audience segmentation with the overall project goal of reaching as broad an audience as possible; integrating research findings across dimensions of words, images, music, and tone; and dealing with misunderstandings related to project scope and budget. Conclusion Mixed methods research can usefully inform PSAs that incorporate patient perspectives and are produced to professional standards. However, tensions between the academic and commercial worlds exist and must be addressed. Practice implications With certain caveats, implementation and dissemination researchers should consider opporutnities to join forces with marketing specialists. The results of such collaborations should be rigorously evaluated. PMID:21862274

  7. Study of the quality characteristics in cold-smoked salmon (Salmo salar) originating from pre- or post-rigor raw material. (United States)

    Birkeland, S; Akse, L


    Improved slaughtering procedures in the salmon industry have caused a delayed onset of rigor mortis and, thus, a potential for pre-rigor secondary processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rigor status at time of processing on quality traits color, texture, sensory, microbiological, in injection salted, and cold-smoked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Injection of pre-rigor fillets caused a significant (Prigor processed fillets; however, post-rigor (1477 ± 38 g) fillets had a significant (P>0.05) higher fracturability than pre-rigor fillets (1369 ± 71 g). Pre-rigor fillets were significantly (Prigor fillets (37.8 ± 0.8) and had significantly lower (Prigor processed fillets. This study showed that similar quality characteristics can be obtained in cold-smoked products processed either pre- or post-rigor when using suitable injection salting protocols and smoking techniques. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Publishing to become an 'ideal academic'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca


    over a two-year period in a recently merged Finnish university. I focus specifically on how a translocal discourse of competitive performance measurement and standards of academic excellence are accomplished in the local construction of the “ideal academic” as a person who publishes articles in A level...... journals. While the construct is hard for anyone to live up to, it would seem to be more difficult for some people than for others. The current obsession with getting published in top journals place those women, who are heavily engaged in teaching activities and with responsibilities besides academic work...

  9. The Application of an Army Prospective Payment Model Structured on the Standards Set Forth by the CHAMPUS Maximum Allowable Charges and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services: An Academic Approach (United States)


    To) 29-04-2005 Final Report July 2004 to July 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The appli’eation of an army prospective payment model structured...Z39.18 Prospective Payment Model 1 The Application of an Army Prospective Payment Model Structured on the Standards Set Forth by the CHAMPUS Maximum...Health Care Administration 20060315 090 Prospective Payment Model 2 Acknowledgments I would like to acknowledge my wife, Karen, who allowed me the

  10. Paulo Leminski : um estudo sobre o rigor e o relaxo em suas poesias


    Dhynarte de Borba e Albuquerque


    O trabalho examina a trajetória da poesia de Paulo Leminski, buscando estabelecer os termos do humor, da pesquisa metalingüística e do eu-lírico, e que não deixa de exibir traços da poesia marginal dos 70. Um autor que trabalhou com a busca do rigor concretista mediante os procedimentos da fala cotidiana mais ou menos relaxada. O esforço poético do curitibano Leminski é uma “linha que nunca termina” – ele escreveu poesias, romances, peças de publicidade, letras de música e fez traduções. Em t...

  11. Rigorous decoupling between edge states in frustrated spin chains and ladders (United States)

    Chepiga, Natalia; Mila, Frédéric


    We investigate the occurrence of exact zero modes in one-dimensional quantum magnets of finite length that possess edge states. Building on conclusions first reached in the context of the spin-1/2 X Y chain in a field and then for the spin-1 J1-J2 Heisenberg model, we show that the development of incommensurate correlations in the bulk invariably leads to oscillations in the sign of the coupling between edge states, and hence to exact zero energy modes at the crossing points where the coupling between the edge states rigorously vanishes. This is true regardless of the origin of the frustration (e.g., next-nearest-neighbor coupling or biquadratic coupling for the spin-1 chain), of the value of the bulk spin (we report on spin-1/2, spin-1, and spin-2 examples), and of the value of the edge-state emergent spin (spin-1/2 or spin-1).

  12. Using Project Complexity Determinations to Establish Required Levels of Project Rigor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Thomas D.


    This presentation discusses the project complexity determination process that was developed by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for implementation at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The complexity determination process was developed to address the diversity of NNSS project types, size, and complexity; to fill the need for one procedure but with provision for tailoring the level of rigor to the project type, size, and complexity; and to provide consistent, repeatable, effective application of project management processes across the enterprise; and to achieve higher levels of efficiency in project delivery. These needs are illustrated by the wide diversity of NNSS projects: Defense Experimentation, Global Security, weapons tests, military training areas, sensor development and testing, training in realistic environments, intelligence community support, sensor development, environmental restoration/waste management, and disposal of radioactive waste, among others.

  13. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research. (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S


    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research.

  14. Release of major ions during rigor mortis development in kid Longissimus dorsi muscle. (United States)

    Feidt, C; Brun-Bellut, J


    Ionic strength plays an important role in post mortem muscle changes. Its increase is due to ion release during the development of rigor mortis. Twelve alpine kids were used to study the effects of chilling and meat pH on ion release. Free ions were measured in Longissimus dorsi muscle by capillary electrophoresis after water extraction. All free ion concentrations increased after death, but there were differences between ions. Temperature was not a factor affecting ion release in contrast to ultimate pH value. Three release mechanisms are believed to coexist: a passive binding to proteins, which stops as pH decreases, an active segregation which stops as ATP disappears and the production of metabolites due to anaerobic glycolysis.

  15. Revisiting the scientific method to improve rigor and reproducibility of immunohistochemistry in reproductive science. (United States)

    Manuel, Sharrón L; Johnson, Brian W; Frevert, Charles W; Duncan, Francesca E


    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a robust scientific tool whereby cellular components are visualized within a tissue, and this method has been and continues to be a mainstay for many reproductive biologists. IHC is highly informative if performed and interpreted correctly, but studies have shown that the general use and reporting of appropriate controls in IHC experiments is low. This omission of the scientific method can result in data that lacks rigor and reproducibility. In this editorial, we highlight key concepts in IHC controls and describe an opportunity for our field to partner with the Histochemical Society to adopt their IHC guidelines broadly as researchers, authors, ad hoc reviewers, editorial board members, and editors-in-chief. Such cross-professional society interactions will ensure that we produce the highest quality data as new technologies emerge that still rely upon the foundations of classic histological and immunohistochemical principles.

  16. Rigorous approach to the comparison between experiment and theory in Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Chen, F; Decca, R S; Fischbach, E; Krause, D E; Lopez, D; Mohideen, U; Mostepanenko, V M


    In most experiments on the Casimir force the comparison between measurement data and theory was done using the concept of the root-mean-square deviation, a procedure that has been criticized in the literature. Here we propose a special statistical analysis which should be performed separately for the experimental data and for the results of the theoretical computations. In so doing, the random, systematic and total experimental errors are found as functions of separation, taking into account the distribution laws for each error at 95% confidence. Independently, all theoretical errors are combined to obtain the total theoretical error at the same confidence. Finally, the confidence interval for the differences between theoretical and experimental values is obtained as a function of separation. This rigorous approach is applied to two recent experiments on the Casimir effect

  17. Direct integration of the S-matrix applied to rigorous diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iff, W; Lindlein, N; Tishchenko, A V


    A novel Fourier method for rigorous diffraction computation at periodic structures is presented. The procedure is based on a differential equation for the S-matrix, which allows direct integration of the S-matrix blocks. This results in a new method in Fourier space, which can be considered as a numerically stable and well-parallelizable alternative to the conventional differential method based on T-matrix integration and subsequent conversions from the T-matrices to S-matrix blocks. Integration of the novel differential equation in implicit manner is expounded. The applicability of the new method is shown on the basis of 1D periodic structures. It is clear however, that the new technique can also be applied to arbitrary 2D periodic or periodized structures. The complexity of the new method is O(N 3 ) similar to the conventional differential method with N being the number of diffraction orders. (fast track communication)

  18. Rigorous description of holograms of particles illuminated by an astigmatic elliptical Gaussian beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y J; Ren, K F; Coetmellec, S; Lebrun, D, E-mail: [UMR 6614/CORIA, CNRS and Universite et INSA de Rouen Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)


    The digital holography is a non-intrusive optical metrology and well adapted for the measurement of the size and velocity field of particles in the spray of a fluid. The simplified model of an opaque disk is often used in the treatment of the diagrams and therefore the refraction and the third dimension diffraction of the particle are not taken into account. We present in this paper a rigorous description of the holographic diagrams and evaluate the effects of the refraction and the third dimension diffraction by comparison to the opaque disk model. It is found that the effects are important when the real part of the refractive index is near unity or the imaginary part is non zero but small.

  19. A new method for deriving rigorous results on ππ scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Dita, P.


    We develop a new approach to the problem of constraining the ππ scattering amplitudes by means of the axiomatically proved properties of unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The method is based on the solution of an extremal problem on a convex set of analytic functions and provides a global description of the domain of values taken by any finite number of partial waves at an arbitrary set of unphysical energies, compatible with unitarity, the bounds at complex energies derived from generalized dispersion relations and the crossing integral relations. From this doma domain we obtain new absolute bounds for the amplitudes as well as rigorous correlations between the values of various partial waves. (author)

  20. Rigorous Numerics for ill-posed PDEs: Periodic Orbits in the Boussinesq Equation (United States)

    Castelli, Roberto; Gameiro, Marcio; Lessard, Jean-Philippe


    In this paper, we develop computer-assisted techniques for the analysis of periodic orbits of ill-posed partial differential equations. As a case study, our proposed method is applied to the Boussinesq equation, which has been investigated extensively because of its role in the theory of shallow water waves. The idea is to use the symmetry of the solutions and a Newton-Kantorovich type argument (the radii polynomial approach) to obtain rigorous proofs of existence of the periodic orbits in a weighted ℓ1 Banach space of space-time Fourier coefficients with exponential decay. We present several computer-assisted proofs of the existence of periodic orbits at different parameter values.

  1. Study design elements for rigorous quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research. (United States)

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Dowd, Bryan


    Quasi-experiments are likely to be the workhorse study design used to generate evidence about the comparative effectiveness of alternative treatments, because of their feasibility, timeliness, affordability and external validity compared with randomized trials. In this review, we outline potential sources of discordance in results between quasi-experiments and experiments, review study design choices that can improve the internal validity of quasi-experiments, and outline innovative data linkage strategies that may be particularly useful in quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research. There is an urgent need to resolve the debate about the evidentiary value of quasi-experiments since equal consideration of rigorous quasi-experiments will broaden the base of evidence that can be brought to bear in clinical decision-making and governmental policy-making.

  2. Increasing rigor in NMR-based metabolomics through validated and open source tools. (United States)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Romero, Pedro R; Westler, William M; Baskaran, Kumaran; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L


    The metabolome, the collection of small molecules associated with an organism, is a growing subject of inquiry, with the data utilized for data-intensive systems biology, disease diagnostics, biomarker discovery, and the broader characterization of small molecules in mixtures. Owing to their close proximity to the functional endpoints that govern an organism's phenotype, metabolites are highly informative about functional states. The field of metabolomics identifies and quantifies endogenous and exogenous metabolites in biological samples. Information acquired from nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and the published literature, as processed by statistical approaches, are driving increasingly wider applications of metabolomics. This review focuses on the role of databases and software tools in advancing the rigor, robustness, reproducibility, and validation of metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A rigorous phenomenological analysis of the ππ scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Dita, P.; Sararu, M.


    The constraining power of the present experimental data, combined with the general theoretical knowledge about ππ scattering, upon the scattering lengths of this process, is investigated by means of a rigorous functional method. We take as input the experimental phase shifts and make no hypotheses about the high energy behaviour of the amplitudes, using only absolute bounds derived from axiomatic field theory and exact consequences of crossing symmetry. In the simplest application of the method, involving only the π 0 π 0 S-wave, we explored numerically a number of values proposed by various authors for the scattering lengths a 0 and a 2 and found that no one appears to be especially favoured. (author)

  4. New tools for Content Innovation and data sharing: Enhancing reproducibility and rigor in biomechanics research. (United States)

    Guilak, Farshid


    We are currently in one of the most exciting times for science and engineering as we witness unprecedented growth in our computational and experimental capabilities to generate new data and models. To facilitate data and model sharing, and to enhance reproducibility and rigor in biomechanics research, the Journal of Biomechanics has introduced a number of tools for Content Innovation to allow presentation, sharing, and archiving of methods, models, and data in our articles. The tools include an Interactive Plot Viewer, 3D Geometric Shape and Model Viewer, Virtual Microscope, Interactive MATLAB Figure Viewer, and Audioslides. Authors are highly encouraged to make use of these in upcoming journal submissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; He, Jianfeng; Song, Tie; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Xie, Runsheng; Zhong, Haojie; Wu, Xiaocheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun


    Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6%) in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI) data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed) model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250). The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  6. Rigorous Multicomponent Reactive Separations Modelling: Complete Consideration of Reaction-Diffusion Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, A.; Meyer, M.; Rouzineau, D.; Prevost, M.; Alix, P.; Laloue, N.


    This paper gives the first step of the development of a rigorous multicomponent reactive separation model. Such a model is highly essential to further the optimization of acid gases removal plants (CO 2 capture, gas treating, etc.) in terms of size and energy consumption, since chemical solvents are conventionally used. Firstly, two main modelling approaches are presented: the equilibrium-based and the rate-based approaches. Secondly, an extended rate-based model with rigorous modelling methodology for diffusion-reaction phenomena is proposed. The film theory and the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations are used in order to characterize multicomponent interactions. The complete chain of chemical reactions is taken into account. The reactions can be kinetically controlled or at chemical equilibrium, and they are considered for both liquid film and liquid bulk. Thirdly, the method of numerical resolution is described. Coupling the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations with chemical equilibrium equations leads to a highly non-linear Differential-Algebraic Equations system known as DAE index 3. The set of equations is discretized with finite-differences as its integration by Gear method is complex. The resulting algebraic system is resolved by the Newton- Raphson method. Finally, the present model and the associated methods of numerical resolution are validated for the example of esterification of methanol. This archetype non-electrolytic system permits an interesting analysis of reaction impact on mass transfer, especially near the phase interface. The numerical resolution of the model by Newton-Raphson method gives good results in terms of calculation time and convergence. The simulations show that the impact of reactions at chemical equilibrium and that of kinetically controlled reactions with high kinetics on mass transfer is relatively similar. Moreover, the Fick's law is less adapted for multicomponent mixtures where some abnormalities such as counter

  7. Rigorous upper bounds for transport due to passive advection by inhomogeneous turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Smith, R.A.


    A variational procedure, due originally to Howard and explored by Busse and others for self-consistent turbulence problems, is employed to determine rigorous upper bounds for the advection of a passive scalar through an inhomogeneous turbulent slab with arbitrary generalized Reynolds number R and Kubo number K. In the basic version of the method, the steady-state energy balance is used as a constraint; the resulting bound, though rigorous, is independent of K. A pedagogical reference model (one dimension, K = ∞) is described in detail; the bound compares favorably with the exact solution. The direct-interaction approximation is also worked out for this model; it is somewhat more accurate than the bound, but requires considerably more labor to solve. For the basic bound, a general formalism is presented for several dimensions, finite correlation length, and reasonably general boundary conditions. Part of the general method, in which a Green's function technique is employed, applies to self-consistent as well as to passive problems, and thereby generalizes previous results in the fluid literature. The formalism is extended for the first time to include time-dependent constraints, and a bound is deduced which explicitly depends on K and has the correct physical scalings in all regimes of R and K. Two applications from the theory of turbulent plasmas ae described: flux in velocity space, and test particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields. For the velocity space problem the simplest bound reproduces Dupree's original scaling for the strong turbulence diffusion coefficient. For the case of stochastic magnetic fields, the scaling of the bounds is described for the magnetic diffusion coefficient as well as for the particle diffusion coefficient in the so-called collisionless, fluid, and double-streaming regimes

  8. Rigor mortis development at elevated temperatures induces pale exudative turkey meat characteristics. (United States)

    McKee, S R; Sams, A R


    Development of rigor mortis at elevated post-mortem temperatures may contribute to turkey meat characteristics that are similar to those found in pale, soft, exudative pork. To evaluate this effect, 36 Nicholas tom turkeys were processed at 19 wk of age and placed in water at 40, 20, and 0 C immediately after evisceration. Pectoralis muscle samples were taken at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h post-mortem and analyzed for R-value (an indirect measure of adenosine triphosphate), glycogen, pH, color, and sarcomere length. At 4 h, the remaining intact Pectoralis muscle was harvested, and aged on ice 23 h, and analyzed for drip loss, cook loss, shear values, and sarcomere length. By 15 min post-mortem, the 40 C treatment had higher R-values, which persisted through 4 h. By 1 h, the 40 C treatment pH and glycogen levels were lower than the 0 C treatment; however, they did not differ from those of the 20 C treatment. Increased L* values indicated that color became more pale by 2 h post-mortem in the 40 C treatment when compared to the 20 and 0 C treatments. Drip loss, cook loss, and shear value were increased whereas sarcomere lengths were decreased as a result of the 40 C treatment. These findings suggested that elevated post-mortem temperatures during processing resulted in acceleration of rigor mortis and biochemical changes in the muscle that produced pale, exudative meat characteristics in turkey.

  9. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? Methods We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6% in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. Results A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250. The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. Conclusions This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  10. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions. (United States)

    Pavlacky, David C; Lukacs, Paul M; Blakesley, Jennifer A; Skorkowsky, Robert C; Klute, David S; Hahn, Beth A; Dreitz, Victoria J; George, T Luke; Hanni, David J


    Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17). We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1) determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2) estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous statistical

  11. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pavlacky

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1 coordination across organizations and regions, 2 meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3 rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17. We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1 determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2 estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous

  12. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.


    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  13. Academic Self-Perception and Its Relationship to Academic Performance (United States)

    Stringer, Ronald W.; Heath, Nancy


    One hundred and fifty-five students (average age, 10 years 7 months) were initially tested on reading, arithmetic, and academic self-perception. One year later they were tested again. Initial academic scores accounted for a large proportion of the variance in later academic scores. The children's self-perceptions of academic competence accounted…

  14. Academic librarianship today

    CERN Document Server


    Intended for use by both librarians and students in LIS programs, Academic Librarianship Today is the most current, comprehensive overview of the field available today. Key features include: Each chapter was commissioned specifically for this new book, and the authors are highly regarded academic librarians or library school faculty— or both Cutting-edge topics such as open access, copyright, digital curation and preservation, emerging technologies, new roles for academic librarians, cooperative collection development and resource sharing, and patron-driven acquisitions are explored in depth Each chapter ends with thought-provoking questions for discussion and carefully constructed assignments that faculty can assign or adapt for their courses The book begins with Gilman’s introduction, an overview that briefly synthesizes the contents of the contributors’ chapters by highlighting major themes. The main part of the book is organized into three parts: The Academic Library Landscape Today, ...

  15. Declaration of Academic Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÇETİNSAYA


    Full Text Available 1. Universities are the institutions where all the opinions, various truth claims as well as social and political problems are discussed in a liberal and civilized way and the complicated problems are expressed clearly without any oppression and prevention. 2. Academic freedom includes first and foremost the right of freedom of research and thus freedom of using the essential knowledge methods, the right of possessing the necessary tools and conditions required for the research and the rights of scientific production, informing, learning and dissemination. 3. Academics possess the rights to benefit from the academic freedom without any limitation, to research and investigate according to their own preferences and interests, and to teach these without being exposed to any oppression and prevention. 4. This freedom of teaching that the academics have should not be used in a manner restricting students' freedom of learning; academics should avoid from being dogmatic in the research and education processes and respect students' rights of thinking differently and expressing themselves. 5. Academics accordingly should lead the students to evaluate and understand the new thoughts as a whole and to be tolerant to the thoughts they do not agree and to think in various ways. Also, academics should encourage the students to create their own opinions based on evidences and enable them to express these opinions freely and respect their freedom of expression. 6. Campuses should be safe environments where the students can express their own opinions freely. Suppressing the intellectual diversity and the plurality of viewpoints will decrease the productivity of teaching and learning process, restrict students' freedom of learning, and constrain the chance of formation of critical and in-depth thinking. 7. Critical thinking develops only in the campuses where various thoughts are expressed in a liberal way. Students should feel that they would not be prevented

  16. Googilum academic gaveshana librarikalum


    Vijayakumar, J. K.


    Describes about two projects of Google such as "Google Scholar" and "Google Print".It also describes how the traditional library based academic research information search can be affected by these two projects.

  17. Academic goals in surgery. (United States)

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Kann, Brian


    The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is important to realize that achieving these goals requires a delicate personal balance between work and home life, and the key ways in which to achieve success require establishment of well thought-out goals, a reliable support structure, realistic and clear expectations, and frequent re-evaluation.

  18. Administering an Academic Department. (United States)

    Hicks, Donald W.; Sperry, John B.


    Clarifies the possible forms of leadership taken by the administrator of an academic department. Discusses such elements as authoritarian leadership, faculty consensus, power and responsibility, input factors, types of decision making, faculty recruiting, and authoritarian versus democratic approach. (CT)

  19. The academic quilting bee. (United States)

    Mayer, Anita P; Files, Julia A; Ko, Marcia G; Blair, Janis E


    In medicine, the challenges faced by female faculty members who are attempting to achieve academic advancement have been well described. Various strategies have been proposed to increase academic productivity to aid the promotion of women in medicine. We propose an innovative collaboration strategy that encourages completion of an academic writing project. This strategy acknowledges the challenges inherent in achieving work-life balance and utilizes a collaborative work style with a group of peer physicians. The model is designed to encourage the completion and collation of independently prepared sections of an academic paper within a setting that emphasizes social networking and collaboration. This approach has many similarities to the construction of a quilt during a "quilting bee."

  20. Academic Engagement and Commercialisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Tartari, Valentina; McKelvey, Maureen


    A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university–industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists’ involvement in these activities to which we refer......, and pursued by academics to access resources supporting their research agendas. We conclude by identifying future research needs, opportunities for methodological improvement and policy interventions....

  1. Whistleblowing in academic medicine. (United States)

    Rhodes, R; Strain, J J


    Although medical centres have established boards, special committees, and offices for the review and redress of breaches in ethical behaviour, these mechanisms repeatedly prove themselves ineffective in addressing research misconduct within the institutions of academic medicine. As the authors see it, institutional design: (1) systematically ignores serious ethical problems, (2) makes whistleblowers into institutional enemies and punishes them, and (3) thereby fails to provide an ethical environment. The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine.

  2. Guest Editorial: The "NGSS" Case Studies: All Standards, All Students (United States)

    Miller, Emily; Januszyk, Rita


    To teachers of diverse classrooms, more rigorous standards in science may seem intimidating, as the past years of rigid accountability have failed to close the achievement gap. However, the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") were written with all students in mind, with input and full review by a diversity and equity…

  3. Effects of Pre and Post-Rigor Marinade Injection on Some Quality Parameters of Longissimus Dorsi Muscles (United States)

    Fadıloğlu, Eylem Ezgi; Serdaroğlu, Meltem


    Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pre and post-rigor marinade injections on some quality parameters of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. Three marinade formulations were prepared with 2% NaCl, 2% NaCl+0.5 M lactic acid and 2% NaCl+0.5 M sodium lactate. In this study marinade uptake, pH, free water, cooking loss, drip loss and color properties were analyzed. Injection time had significant effect on marinade uptake levels of samples. Regardless of marinate formulation, marinade uptake of pre-rigor samples injected with marinade solutions were higher than post rigor samples. Injection of sodium lactate increased pH values of samples whereas lactic acid injection decreased pH. Marinade treatment and storage period had significant effect on cooking loss. At each evaluation period interaction between marinade treatment and injection time showed different effect on free water content. Storage period and marinade application had significant effect on drip loss values. Drip loss in all samples increased during the storage. During all storage days, lowest CIE L* value was found in pre-rigor samples injected with sodium lactate. Lactic acid injection caused color fade in pre-rigor and post-rigor samples. Interaction between marinade treatment and storage period was found statistically significant (p<0.05). At day 0 and 3, the lowest CIE b* values obtained pre-rigor samples injected with sodium lactate and there were no differences were found in other samples. At day 6, no significant differences were found in CIE b* values of all samples. PMID:29805282

  4. Shifting Gears: Standards, Assessments, Curriculum, & Instruction. (United States)

    Dougherty, Eleanor

    This book is designed to help educators move from a system that measures students against students to one that values mastery of central concepts and skills, striving for proficiency in publicly acknowledged standards of academic performance. It aims to connect the operative parts of standards-based education (standards, assessment, curriculum,…

  5. Mentoring in academic medicine: a systematic review. (United States)

    Sambunjak, Dario; Straus, Sharon E; Marusić, Ana


    Mentoring, as a partnership in personal and professional growth and development, is central to academic medicine, but it is challenged by increased clinical, administrative, research, and other educational demands on medical faculty. Therefore, evidence for the value of mentoring needs to be evaluated. To systematically review the evidence about the prevalence of mentorship and its relationship to career development. MEDLINE, Current Contents, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases from the earliest available date to May 2006. We identified all studies evaluating the effect of mentoring on career choices and academic advancement among medical students and physicians. Minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the study population and availability of extractable data. No restrictions were placed on study methods or language. The literature search identified 3640 citations. Review of abstracts led to retrieval of 142 full-text articles for assessment; 42 articles describing 39 studies were selected for review. Of these, 34 (87%) were cross-sectional self-report surveys with small sample size and response rates ranging from 5% to 99%. One case-control study nested in a survey used a comparison group that had not received mentoring, and 1 cohort study had a small sample size and a large loss to follow-up. Less than 50% of medical students and in some fields less than 20% of faculty members had a mentor. Women perceived that they had more difficulty finding mentors than their colleagues who are men. Mentorship was reported to have an important influence on personal development, career guidance, career choice, and research productivity, including publication and grant success. Mentoring is perceived as an important part of academic medicine, but the evidence to support this perception is not strong. Practical recommendations on mentoring in

  6. Academic Motivations and Academic Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students


    Gamze Sarikoc


    Aim: Academic motivation and academic self-efficacy play important roles in the learning process. They increase academic achievement and the attainment of educational goals, thus providing opportunities in the training of qualified nurses. This study was conducted to determine nursing students%u2019 academic motivation and academic self-efficacy levels. Material and Method: This is a descriptive study. A total of 346 students who are attending a nursing school as either a first, second, third...

  7. The effect of rigor mortis on the passage of erythrocytes and fluid through the myocardium of isolated dog hearts. (United States)

    Nevalainen, T J; Gavin, J B; Seelye, R N; Whitehouse, S; Donnell, M


    The effect of normal and artificially induced rigor mortis on the vascular passage of erythrocytes and fluid through isolated dog hearts was studied. Increased rigidity of 6-mm thick transmural sections through the centre of the posterior papillary muscle was used as an indication of rigor. The perfusibility of the myocardium was tested by injecting 10 ml of 1% sodium fluorescein in Hanks solution into the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery. In prerigor hearts (20 minute incubation) fluorescein perfused the myocardium evenly whether or not it was preceded by an injection of 10 ml of heparinized dog blood. Rigor mortis developed in all hearts after 90 minutes incubation or within 20 minutes of perfusing the heart with 50 ml of 5 mM iodoacetate in Hanks solution. Fluorescein injected into hearts in rigor did not enter the posterior papillary muscle and adjacent subendocardium whether or not it was preceded by heparinized blood. Thus the vascular occlusion caused by rigor in the dog heart appears to be so effective that it prevents flow into the subendocardium of small soluble ions such as fluorescein.

  8. Academic Procrastination on Worker Students


    Muzaqi, Sugito; Arumsari, Andini Dwi


    Academic procrastination is to delay the work in the academic field. Academic procrastination occurs because students who work less able to divide his time well, between work and college. Students who work doing academic procrastination because it is less able to regulate themselves. Self-regulation is the ability to control their own behavior and one of the prime movers of the human personality. In the process of self-regulation, academic procrastination students who need to understand the i...

  9. A systematic review of the use of theory in the design of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies and interpretation of the results of rigorous evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the use of cognitive, behavioural, and organisational theories in implementation research. However, the extent of use of theory in implementation research is uncertain. Methods We conducted a systematic review of use of theory in 235 rigorous evaluations of guideline dissemination and implementation studies published between 1966 and 1998. Use of theory was classified according to type of use (explicitly theory based, some conceptual basis, and theoretical construct used and stage of use (choice/design of intervention, process/mediators/moderators, and post hoc/explanation. Results Fifty-three of 235 studies (22.5% were judged to have employed theories, including 14 studies that explicitly used theory. The majority of studies (n = 42 used only one theory; the maximum number of theories employed by any study was three. Twenty-five different theories were used. A small number of theories accounted for the majority of theory use including PRECEDE (Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation, diffusion of innovations, information overload and social marketing (academic detailing. Conclusions There was poor justification of choice of intervention and use of theory in implementation research in the identified studies until at least 1998. Future research should explicitly identify the justification for the interventions. Greater use of explicit theory to understand barriers, design interventions, and explore mediating pathways and moderators is needed to advance the science of implementation research.

  10. A systematic review of the use of theory in the design of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies and interpretation of the results of rigorous evaluations. (United States)

    Davies, Philippa; Walker, Anne E; Grimshaw, Jeremy M


    There is growing interest in the use of cognitive, behavioural, and organisational theories in implementation research. However, the extent of use of theory in implementation research is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of use of theory in 235 rigorous evaluations of guideline dissemination and implementation studies published between 1966 and 1998. Use of theory was classified according to type of use (explicitly theory based, some conceptual basis, and theoretical construct used) and stage of use (choice/design of intervention, process/mediators/moderators, and post hoc/explanation). Fifty-three of 235 studies (22.5%) were judged to have employed theories, including 14 studies that explicitly used theory. The majority of studies (n = 42) used only one theory; the maximum number of theories employed by any study was three. Twenty-five different theories were used. A small number of theories accounted for the majority of theory use including PRECEDE (Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation), diffusion of innovations, information overload and social marketing (academic detailing). There was poor justification of choice of intervention and use of theory in implementation research in the identified studies until at least 1998. Future research should explicitly identify the justification for the interventions. Greater use of explicit theory to understand barriers, design interventions, and explore mediating pathways and moderators is needed to advance the science of implementation research.

  11. Layout optimization of DRAM cells using rigorous simulation model for NTD (United States)

    Jeon, Jinhyuck; Kim, Shinyoung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Kuechler, Bernd; Zimmermann, Rainer; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Schmoeller, Thomas; Do, Mun-hoe; Choi, Jung-Hoe


    scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements. High resist impact and difficult model data acquisition demand for a simulation model that hat is capable of extrapolating reliably beyond its calibration dataset. We use rigorous simulation models to provide that predictive performance. We have discussed the need of a rigorous mask optimization process for DRAM contact cell layout yielding mask layouts that are optimal in process performance, mask manufacturability and accuracy. In this paper, we have shown the step by step process from analytical illumination source derivation, a NTD and application tailored model calibration to layout optimization such as OPC and SRAF placement. Finally the work has been verified with simulation and experimental results on wafer.

  12. Whistleblowing in academic medicine (United States)

    Rhodes, R; Strain, J


    The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine. PMID:14872069

  13. More than just a hobby: building an academic career in global emergency medicine. (United States)

    Martin, Ian B K; Levine, Adam C; Kayden, Stephanie; Hauswald, Mark


    As the specialty of emergency medicine (EM) continues to spread around the world, a growing number of academic emergency physicians have become involved in global EM development, research, and teaching. While academic departments have always found this work laudable, they have only recently begun to accept global EM as a rigorous academic pursuit in its own right. This article describes how emergency physicians can translate their global health work into "academic currency" within both the clinician-educator and clinician-researcher tracks. The authors discuss the impact of various types of additional training, including global EM fellowships, for launching a career in global EM. Clearly delineated clinician-researcher and clinician-educator tracks are important for documenting achievement in global EM. Reflecting a growing interest in global health, more of today's EM faculty members are ascending the academic ranks as global EM specialists. Whether attempting to climb the academic ladder as a clinician-educator or clinician-researcher, advanced planning and the firm support of one's academic chair is crucial to the success of the promotion process. Given the relative youth of the subspecialty of global EM, however, it will take time for the pathways to academic promotion to become well delineated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Library Standards: Evidence of Library Effectiveness and Accreditation. (United States)

    Ebbinghouse, Carol


    Discusses accreditation standards for libraries based on experiences in an academic law library. Highlights include the accreditation process; the impact of distance education and remote technologies on accreditation; and a list of Internet sources of standards and information. (LRW)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaoyuan Liu; Kord Smith; Benoit Forget; Javier Ortensi


    A new method for computing homogenized assembly neutron transport cross sections and dif- fusion coefficients that is both rigorous and computationally efficient is proposed in this paper. In the limit of a homogeneous hydrogen slab, the new method is equivalent to the long-used, and only-recently-published CASMO transport method. The rigorous method is used to demonstrate the sources of inaccuracy in the commonly applied “out-scatter” transport correction. It is also demonstrated that the newly developed method is directly applicable to lattice calculations per- formed by Monte Carlo and is capable of computing rigorous homogenized transport cross sections for arbitrarily heterogeneous lattices. Comparisons of several common transport cross section ap- proximations are presented for a simple problem of infinite medium hydrogen. The new method has also been applied in computing 2-group diffusion data for an actual PWR lattice from BEAVRS benchmark.

  16. Building an Evidence Base to Inform Interventions for Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Call for Rigorous Evaluation (United States)

    Burrus, Barri B.; Scott, Alicia Richmond


    Adolescent parents and their children are at increased risk for adverse short- and long-term health and social outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to support these young families. We studied the evidence base and found a dearth of rigorously evaluated programs. Strategies from successful interventions are needed to inform both intervention design and policies affecting these adolescents. The lack of rigorous evaluations may be attributable to inadequate emphasis on and sufficient funding for evaluation, as well as to challenges encountered by program evaluators working with this population. More rigorous program evaluations are urgently needed to provide scientifically sound guidance for programming and policy decisions. Evaluation lessons learned have implications for other vulnerable populations. PMID:22897541

  17. Personality, Academic Self-Efficacy, Academic Locus of Control and Academic Procrastination Among University Students


    Yazıcı, Hikmet; Albayrak, Elif; Reisoğlu, Serpil


    There are several variables to determine academic procrastination behavior among university students. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among big five personality, academic self-efficacy, academic locus of control and academic procrastination. Research group consisted of 885 university students (Female=496, Male=389) in 2012/2013 academic year in Karadeniz Technical University. Results from study indicated that responsibility and amenability subscales of b...

  18. Academic Training: 2003 - 2004 Academic Training Programme

    CERN Multimedia


    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 3rd Term - 5 April to 2nd July 2004 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 April Complex Systems, Chaos and Measurements by P. Collet / Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France 26, 27, 28, 29 April The Theory of Heavy Ion Collisions by U. Wiedemann / CERN-PH/TH 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 May Particle Identification at the LHC by D. Fournier / LAL, Orsay, France 1, 2, 3, 4 June Neural Systems, Genetic Algorithms by V. Robles Forcada and M. Perez Hernandez / Univ. Politecnica de Madrid E. 7, 8, 9, June Real Time Process Control by T. Riesco / CERN-TS 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 June The Cosmic Microwave Background by M. Zaldarriaga / Harvard University, USA 21, 22, 23, June Fixed Target Physics at CERN : Results and Prospects by J. Engelen / CERN-DG 28, 29, 30 June, 1, 2, July Search for Dark Matter by B. Sadoulet / Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstrac...

  19. Revisiting the constant growth angle: Estimation and verification via rigorous thermal modeling (United States)

    Virozub, Alexander; Rasin, Igal G.; Brandon, Simon


    Methods for estimating growth angle ( θgr) values, based on the a posteriori analysis of directionally solidified material (e.g. drops) often involve assumptions of negligible gravitational effects as well as a planar solid/liquid interface during solidification. We relax both of these assumptions when using experimental drop shapes from the literature to estimate the relevant growth angles at the initial stages of solidification. Assumed to be constant, we use these values as input into a rigorous heat transfer and solidification model of the growth process. This model, which is shown to reproduce the experimental shape of a solidified sessile water drop using the literature value of θgr=0∘, yields excellent agreement with experimental profiles using our estimated values for silicon ( θgr=10∘) and germanium ( θgr=14.3∘) solidifying on an isotropic crystalline surface. The effect of gravity on the solidified drop shape is found to be significant in the case of germanium, suggesting that gravity should either be included in the analysis or that care should be taken that the relevant Bond number is truly small enough in each measurement. The planar solidification interface assumption is found to be unjustified. Although this issue is important when simulating the inflection point in the profile of the solidified water drop, there are indications that solidified drop shapes (at least in the case of silicon) may be fairly insensitive to the shape of this interface.

  20. EarthLabs Modules: Engaging Students In Extended, Rigorous Investigations Of The Ocean, Climate and Weather (United States)

    Manley, J.; Chegwidden, D.; Mote, A. S.; Ledley, T. S.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K.


    EarthLabs, envisioned as a national model for high school Earth or Environmental Science lab courses, is adaptable for both undergraduate middle school students. The collection includes ten online modules that combine to feature a global view of our planet as a dynamic, interconnected system, by engaging learners in extended investigations. EarthLabs support state and national guidelines, including the NGSS, for science content. Four modules directly guide students to discover vital aspects of the oceans while five other modules incorporate ocean sciences in order to complete an understanding of Earth's climate system. Students gain a broad perspective on the key role oceans play in fishing industry, droughts, coral reefs, hurricanes, the carbon cycle, as well as life on land and in the seas to drive our changing climate by interacting with scientific research data, manipulating satellite imagery, numerical data, computer visualizations, experiments, and video tutorials. Students explore Earth system processes and build quantitative skills that enable them to objectively evaluate scientific findings for themselves as they move through ordered sequences that guide the learning. As a robust collection, EarthLabs modules engage students in extended, rigorous investigations allowing a deeper understanding of the ocean, climate and weather. This presentation provides an overview of the ten curriculum modules that comprise the EarthLabs collection developed by TERC and found at Evaluation data on the effectiveness and use in secondary education classrooms will be summarized.

  1. A Rigorous Investigation on the Ground State of the Penson-Kolb Model (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Hua; Tian, Guang-Shan; Han, Ru-Qi


    By using either numerical calculations or analytical methods, such as the bosonization technique, the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model has been previously studied by several groups. Some physicists argued that, as far as the existence of superconductivity in this model is concerned, it is canonically equivalent to the negative-U Hubbard model. However, others did not agree. In the present paper, we shall investigate this model by an independent and rigorous approach. We show that the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model is nondegenerate and has a nonvanishing overlap with the ground state of the negative-U Hubbard model. Furthermore, we also show that the ground states of both the models have the same good quantum numbers and may have superconducting long-range order at the same momentum q = 0. Our results support the equivalence between these models. The project partially supported by the Special Funds for Major State Basic Research Projects (G20000365) and National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10174002

  2. Complexities and Controversies in Himalayan Research: A Call for Collaboration and Rigor for Better Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Singh


    Full Text Available The Himalaya range encompasses enormous variation in elevation, precipitation, biodiversity, and patterns of human livelihoods. These mountains modify the regional climate in complex ways; the ecosystem services they provide influence the lives of almost 1 billion people in 8 countries. However, our understanding of these ecosystems remains rudimentary. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report that erroneously predicted a date for widespread glacier loss exposed how little was known of Himalayan glaciers. Recent research shows how variably glaciers respond to climate change in different Himalayan regions. Alarmist theories are not new. In the 1980s, the Theory of Himalayan Degradation warned of complete forest loss and devastation of downstream areas, an eventuality that never occurred. More recently, the debate on hydroelectric construction appears driven by passions rather than science. Poor data, hasty conclusions, and bad science plague Himalayan research. Rigorous sampling, involvement of civil society in data collection, and long-term collaborative research involving institutions from across the Himalaya are essential to improve knowledge of this region.

  3. Rigorous Mathematical Thinking Approach to Enhance Students’ Mathematical Creative and Critical Thinking Abilities (United States)

    Hidayat, D.; Nurlaelah, E.; Dahlan, J. A.


    The ability of mathematical creative and critical thinking are two abilities that need to be developed in the learning of mathematics. Therefore, efforts need to be made in the design of learning that is capable of developing both capabilities. The purpose of this research is to examine the mathematical creative and critical thinking ability of students who get rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) approach and students who get expository approach. This research was quasi experiment with control group pretest-posttest design. The population were all of students grade 11th in one of the senior high school in Bandung. The result showed that: the achievement of mathematical creative and critical thinking abilities of student who obtain RMT is better than students who obtain expository approach. The use of Psychological tools and mediation with criteria of intentionality, reciprocity, and mediated of meaning on RMT helps students in developing condition in critical and creative processes. This achievement contributes to the development of integrated learning design on students’ critical and creative thinking processes.

  4. A Rigorous Theory of Many-Body Prethermalization for Periodically Driven and Closed Quantum Systems (United States)

    Abanin, Dmitry; De Roeck, Wojciech; Ho, Wen Wei; Huveneers, François


    Prethermalization refers to the transient phenomenon where a system thermalizes according to a Hamiltonian that is not the generator of its evolution. We provide here a rigorous framework for quantum spin systems where prethermalization is exhibited for very long times. First, we consider quantum spin systems under periodic driving at high frequency {ν}. We prove that up to a quasi-exponential time {τ_* ˜ e^{c ν/log^3 ν}}, the system barely absorbs energy. Instead, there is an effective local Hamiltonian {\\widehat D} that governs the time evolution up to {τ_*}, and hence this effective Hamiltonian is a conserved quantity up to {τ_*}. Next, we consider systems without driving, but with a separation of energy scales in the Hamiltonian. A prime example is the Fermi-Hubbard model where the interaction U is much larger than the hopping J. Also here we prove the emergence of an effective conserved quantity, different from the Hamiltonian, up to a time {τ_*} that is (almost) exponential in {U/J}.

  5. Coupling of Rigor Mortis and Intestinal Necrosis during C. elegans Organismal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy R. Galimov


    Full Text Available Organismal death is a process of systemic collapse whose mechanisms are less well understood than those of cell death. We previously reported that death in C. elegans is accompanied by a calcium-propagated wave of intestinal necrosis, marked by a wave of blue autofluorescence (death fluorescence. Here, we describe another feature of organismal death, a wave of body wall muscle contraction, or death contraction (DC. This phenomenon is accompanied by a wave of intramuscular Ca2+ release and, subsequently, of intestinal necrosis. Correlation of directions of the DC and intestinal necrosis waves implies coupling of these death processes. Long-lived insulin/IGF-1-signaling mutants show reduced DC and delayed intestinal necrosis, suggesting possible resistance to organismal death. DC resembles mammalian rigor mortis, a postmortem necrosis-related process in which Ca2+ influx promotes muscle hyper-contraction. In contrast to mammals, DC is an early rather than a late event in C. elegans organismal death.

  6. Inosine-5'-monophosphate is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis of skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Matsuishi, Masanori; Tsuji, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Megumi; Kitamura, Natsumi; Tanaka, Sachi; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Okitani, Akihiro


    The object of the present study was to reveal the action of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) toward myofibrils in postmortem muscles. IMP solubilized isolated actomyosin within a narrow range of KCl concentration, 0.19-0.20 mol/L, because of the dissociation of actomyosin into actin and myosin, but it did not solubilize the proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl. However, IMP could solubilize both proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl in the presence of 1 m mol/L pyrophosphate or 1.0-3.3 m mol/L adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP). Thus, we presumed that pyrophosphate and ADP released thin filaments composed of actin, and thick filaments composed of myosin from restraints of myofibrils, and then both filaments were solubilized through the IMP-induced dissociation of actomyosin. Thus, we concluded that IMP is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis because of its ability to break the association between thick and thin filaments. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Alternative pre-rigor foreshank positioning can improve beef shoulder muscle tenderness. (United States)

    Grayson, A L; Lawrence, T E


    Thirty beef carcasses were harvested and the foreshank of each side was independently positioned (cranial, natural, parallel, or caudal) 1h post-mortem to determine the effect of foreshank angle at rigor mortis on the sarcomere length and tenderness of six beef shoulder muscles. The infraspinatus (IS), pectoralis profundus (PP), serratus ventralis (SV), supraspinatus (SS), teres major (TM) and triceps brachii (TB) were excised 48 h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sarcomere length evaluations. All muscles except the SS had altered (P<0.05) sarcomere lengths between positions; the cranial position resulted in the longest sarcomeres for the SV and TB muscles whilst the natural position had longer sarcomeres for the PP and TM muscles. The SV from the cranial position had lower (P<0.05) shear than the caudal position and TB from the natural position had lower (P<0.05) shear than the parallel or caudal positions. Sarcomere length was moderately correlated (r=-0.63; P<0.01) to shear force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coupling of Rigor Mortis and Intestinal Necrosis during C. elegans Organismal Death. (United States)

    Galimov, Evgeniy R; Pryor, Rosina E; Poole, Sarah E; Benedetto, Alexandre; Pincus, Zachary; Gems, David


    Organismal death is a process of systemic collapse whose mechanisms are less well understood than those of cell death. We previously reported that death in C. elegans is accompanied by a calcium-propagated wave of intestinal necrosis, marked by a wave of blue autofluorescence (death fluorescence). Here, we describe another feature of organismal death, a wave of body wall muscle contraction, or death contraction (DC). This phenomenon is accompanied by a wave of intramuscular Ca 2+ release and, subsequently, of intestinal necrosis. Correlation of directions of the DC and intestinal necrosis waves implies coupling of these death processes. Long-lived insulin/IGF-1-signaling mutants show reduced DC and delayed intestinal necrosis, suggesting possible resistance to organismal death. DC resembles mammalian rigor mortis, a postmortem necrosis-related process in which Ca 2+ influx promotes muscle hyper-contraction. In contrast to mammals, DC is an early rather than a late event in C. elegans organismal death. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rigor mortis and the epileptology of Charles Bland Radcliffe (1822-1889). (United States)

    Eadie, M J


    Charles Bland Radcliffe (1822-1889) was one of the physicians who made major contributions to the literature on epilepsy in the mid-19th century, when the modern understanding of the disorder was beginning to emerge, particularly in England. His experimental work was concerned with the electrical properties of frog muscle and nerve. Early in his career he related his experimental findings to the phenomenon of rigor mortis and concluded that, contrary to the general belief of the time, muscle contraction depended on the cessation of nerve input, and muscle relaxation on its presence. He adhered to this counter-intuitive interpretation throughout his life and, based on it, produced an epileptology that was very different from those of his contemporaries and successors. His interpretations were ultimately without any direct influence on the advance of knowledge. However, his idea that withdrawal of an inhibitory process released previously suppressed muscular contractile powers, when applied to the brain rather than the periphery of the nervous system, permitted Hughlings Jackson to explain certain psychological phenomena that accompany or follow some epileptic events. As well, Radcliffe was one of the chief early advocates for potassium bromide, the first effective anticonvulsant.

  10. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression. (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne


    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

  11. Methodological Challenges in Sustainability Science: A Call for Method Plurality, Procedural Rigor and Longitudinal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik von Wehrden


    Full Text Available Sustainability science encompasses a unique field that is defined through its purpose, the problem it addresses, and its solution-oriented agenda. However, this orientation creates significant methodological challenges. In this discussion paper, we conceptualize sustainability problems as wicked problems to tease out the key challenges that sustainability science is facing if scientists intend to deliver on its solution-oriented agenda. Building on the available literature, we discuss three aspects that demand increased attention for advancing sustainability science: 1 methods with higher diversity and complementarity are needed to increase the chance of deriving solutions to the unique aspects of wicked problems; for instance, mixed methods approaches are potentially better suited to allow for an approximation of solutions, since they cover wider arrays of knowledge; 2 methodologies capable of dealing with wicked problems demand strict procedural and ethical guidelines, in order to ensure their integration potential; for example, learning from solution implementation in different contexts requires increased comparability between research approaches while carefully addressing issues of legitimacy and credibility; and 3 approaches are needed that allow for longitudinal research, since wicked problems are continuous and solutions can only be diagnosed in retrospect; for example, complex dynamics of wicked problems play out across temporal patterns that are not necessarily aligned with the common timeframe of participatory sustainability research. Taken together, we call for plurality in methodologies, emphasizing procedural rigor and the necessity of continuous research to effectively addressing wicked problems as well as methodological challenges in sustainability science.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available According to many of its traditional critics, the main weakness in Kantian moral-political philosophy resides in its impossibility of admitting exceptions. In nuce, all these critical positions have converged, despite their reciprocal heterogeneity, in the so called accuse of moral rigorism (unjustly, I would say directed against Kant’s moral and political perspective. As such, basically, I will seek to defend Kant against this type of criticism, by showing that any perspective attempting to evaluate Kant’s ethics on the grounds of its capacity or incapacity to admit exceptions is apriorily doomed to lack of sense, in its two logical alternatives, i.e. either as nonsense (predicating about empty notions, or as tautology (formulating ad hoc definitions and criteria with respect to Kant’s system and then claiming that it does not hold with respect to them. Essentially, I will try to show that Kantian ethics can organically immunize itself epistemologically against any such so called antirigorist criticism.

  13. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Marchal

    Full Text Available Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs' greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately.

  14. Applying rigorous decision analysis methodology to optimization of a tertiary recovery project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackowski, R.K.; Stevens, C.E.; Masoner, L.O.; Attanucci, V.; Larson, J.L.; Aslesen, K.S.


    This paper reports that the intent of this study was to rigorously look at all of the possible expansion, investment, operational, and CO 2 purchase/recompression scenarios (over 2500) to yield a strategy that would maximize net present value of the CO 2 project at the Rangely Weber Sand Unit. Traditional methods of project management, which involve analyzing large numbers of single case economic evaluations, was found to be too cumbersome and inaccurate for an analysis of this scope. The decision analysis methodology utilized a statistical approach which resulted in a range of economic outcomes. Advantages of the decision analysis methodology included: a more organized approach to classification of decisions and uncertainties; a clear sensitivity method to identify the key uncertainties; an application of probabilistic analysis through the decision tree; and a comprehensive display of the range of possible outcomes for communication to decision makers. This range made it possible to consider the upside and downside potential of the options and to weight these against the Unit's strategies. Savings in time and manpower required to complete the study were also realized

  15. Rigorous numerical study of strong microwave photon-magnon coupling in all-dielectric magnetic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymov, Ivan S., E-mail: [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Hutomo, Jessica; Nam, Donghee; Kostylev, Mikhail [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)


    We demonstrate theoretically a ∼350-fold local enhancement of the intensity of the in-plane microwave magnetic field in multilayered structures made from a magneto-insulating yttrium iron garnet (YIG) layer sandwiched between two non-magnetic layers with a high dielectric constant matching that of YIG. The enhancement is predicted for the excitation regime when the microwave magnetic field is induced inside the multilayer by the transducer of a stripline Broadband Ferromagnetic Resonance (BFMR) setup. By means of a rigorous numerical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation consistently with the Maxwell's equations, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics in the multilayer. We reveal a strong photon-magnon coupling, which manifests itself as anti-crossing of the ferromagnetic resonance magnon mode supported by the YIG layer and the electromagnetic resonance mode supported by the whole multilayered structure. The frequency of the magnon mode depends on the external static magnetic field, which in our case is applied tangentially to the multilayer in the direction perpendicular to the microwave magnetic field induced by the stripline of the BFMR setup. The frequency of the electromagnetic mode is independent of the static magnetic field. Consequently, the predicted photon-magnon coupling is sensitive to the applied magnetic field and thus can be used in magnetically tuneable metamaterials based on simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability achievable thanks to the YIG layer. We also suggest that the predicted photon-magnon coupling may find applications in microwave quantum information systems.

  16. Rigorous numerical modeling of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy (United States)

    Chen, Xinzhong; Lo, Chiu Fan Bowen; Zheng, William; Hu, Hai; Dai, Qing; Liu, Mengkun


    Over the last decade, scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy have been widely used in nano-photonics and material research due to their fine spatial resolution and broad spectral range. A number of simplified analytical models have been proposed to quantitatively understand the tip-scattered near-field signal. However, a rigorous interpretation of the experimental results is still lacking at this stage. Numerical modelings, on the other hand, are mostly done by simulating the local electric field slightly above the sample surface, which only qualitatively represents the near-field signal rendered by the tip-sample interaction. In this work, we performed a more comprehensive numerical simulation which is based on realistic experimental parameters and signal extraction procedures. By directly comparing to the experiments as well as other simulation efforts, our methods offer a more accurate quantitative description of the near-field signal, paving the way for future studies of complex systems at the nanoscale.

  17. Rigorous constraints on the matrix elements of the energy–momentum tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lowdon


    Full Text Available The structure of the matrix elements of the energy–momentum tensor play an important role in determining the properties of the form factors A(q2, B(q2 and C(q2 which appear in the Lorentz covariant decomposition of the matrix elements. In this paper we apply a rigorous frame-independent distributional-matching approach to the matrix elements of the Poincaré generators in order to derive constraints on these form factors as q→0. In contrast to the literature, we explicitly demonstrate that the vanishing of the anomalous gravitomagnetic moment B(0 and the condition A(0=1 are independent of one another, and that these constraints are not related to the specific properties or conservation of the individual Poincaré generators themselves, but are in fact a consequence of the physical on-shell requirement of the states in the matrix elements and the manner in which these states transform under Poincaré transformations.

  18. Rigorous, robust and systematic: Qualitative research and its contribution to burn care. An integrative review. (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; de Jong, A E E; McLean, L


    Qualitative methods are progressively being implemented by researchers for exploration within healthcare. However, there has been a longstanding and wide-ranging debate concerning the relative merits of qualitative research within the health care literature. This integrative review aimed to exam the contribution of qualitative research in burns care and subsequent rehabilitation. Studies were identified using an electronic search strategy using the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) and Scopus of peer reviewed primary research in English between 2009 to April 2014 using Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method as a guide for analysis. From the 298 papers identified, 26 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies there was an average of 22 participants involved in each study with a range of 6-53 participants conducted across 12 nations that focussed on burns prevention, paediatric burns, appropriate acquisition and delivery of burns care, pain and psychosocial implications of burns trauma. Careful and rigorous application of qualitative methodologies promotes and enriches the development of burns knowledge. In particular, the key elements in qualitative methodological process and its publication are critical in disseminating credible and methodologically sound qualitative research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Rigorous analysis of image force barrier lowering in bounded geometries: application to semiconducting nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Mendels, Dan; Epstein, Ariel


    Bounded geometries introduce a fundamental problem in calculating the image force barrier lowering of metal-wrapped semiconductor systems. In bounded geometries, the derivation of the barrier lowering requires calculating the reference energy of the system, when the charge is at the geometry center. In the following, we formulate and rigorously solve this problem; this allows combining the image force electrostatic potential with the band diagram of the bounded geometry. The suggested approach is applied to spheres as well as cylinders. Furthermore, although the expressions governing cylindrical systems are complex and can only be evaluated numerically, we present analytical approximations for the solution, which allow easy implementation in calculated band diagrams. The results are further used to calculate the image force barrier lowering of metal-wrapped cylindrical nanowires; calculations show that although the image force potential is stronger than that of planar systems, taking the complete band-structure into account results in a weaker effect of barrier lowering. Moreover, when considering small diameter nanowires, we find that the electrostatic effects of the image force exceed the barrier region, and influence the electronic properties of the nanowire core. This study is of interest to the nanowire community, and in particular for the analysis of nanowire I−V measurements where wrapped or omega-shaped metallic contacts are used. (paper)

  20. Rigorous Statistical Bounds in Uncertainty Quantification for One-Layer Turbulent Geophysical Flows (United States)

    Qi, Di; Majda, Andrew J.


    Statistical bounds controlling the total fluctuations in mean and variance about a basic steady-state solution are developed for the truncated barotropic flow over topography. Statistical ensemble prediction is an important topic in weather and climate research. Here, the evolution of an ensemble of trajectories is considered using statistical instability analysis and is compared and contrasted with the classical deterministic instability for the growth of perturbations in one pointwise trajectory. The maximum growth of the total statistics in fluctuations is derived relying on the statistical conservation principle of the pseudo-energy. The saturation bound of the statistical mean fluctuation and variance in the unstable regimes with non-positive-definite pseudo-energy is achieved by linking with a class of stable reference states and minimizing the stable statistical energy. Two cases with dependence on initial statistical uncertainty and on external forcing and dissipation are compared and unified under a consistent statistical stability framework. The flow structures and statistical stability bounds are illustrated and verified by numerical simulations among a wide range of dynamical regimes, where subtle transient statistical instability exists in general with positive short-time exponential growth in the covariance even when the pseudo-energy is positive-definite. Among the various scenarios in this paper, there exist strong forward and backward energy exchanges between different scales which are estimated by the rigorous statistical bounds.

  1. A Rigorous Temperature-Dependent Stochastic Modelling and Testing for MEMS-Based Inertial Sensor Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Pagiatakis


    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the effect of changing the temperature points on MEMS-based inertial sensor random error. We collect static data under different temperature points using a MEMS-based inertial sensor mounted inside a thermal chamber. Rigorous stochastic models, namely Autoregressive-based Gauss-Markov (AR-based GM models are developed to describe the random error behaviour. The proposed AR-based GM model is initially applied to short stationary inertial data to develop the stochastic model parameters (correlation times. It is shown that the stochastic model parameters of a MEMS-based inertial unit, namely the ADIS16364, are temperature dependent. In addition, field kinematic test data collected at about 17 °C are used to test the performance of the stochastic models at different temperature points in the filtering stage using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF. It is shown that the stochastic model developed at 20 °C provides a more accurate inertial navigation solution than the ones obtained from the stochastic models developed at −40 °C, −20 °C, 0 °C, +40 °C, and +60 °C. The temperature dependence of the stochastic model is significant and should be considered at all times to obtain optimal navigation solution for MEMS-based INS/GPS integration.

  2. A Rigorous Temperature-Dependent Stochastic Modelling and Testing for MEMS-Based Inertial Sensor Errors. (United States)

    El-Diasty, Mohammed; Pagiatakis, Spiros


    In this paper, we examine the effect of changing the temperature points on MEMS-based inertial sensor random error. We collect static data under different temperature points using a MEMS-based inertial sensor mounted inside a thermal chamber. Rigorous stochastic models, namely Autoregressive-based Gauss-Markov (AR-based GM) models are developed to describe the random error behaviour. The proposed AR-based GM model is initially applied to short stationary inertial data to develop the stochastic model parameters (correlation times). It is shown that the stochastic model parameters of a MEMS-based inertial unit, namely the ADIS16364, are temperature dependent. In addition, field kinematic test data collected at about 17 °C are used to test the performance of the stochastic models at different temperature points in the filtering stage using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). It is shown that the stochastic model developed at 20 °C provides a more accurate inertial navigation solution than the ones obtained from the stochastic models developed at -40 °C, -20 °C, 0 °C, +40 °C, and +60 °C. The temperature dependence of the stochastic model is significant and should be considered at all times to obtain optimal navigation solution for MEMS-based INS/GPS integration.

  3. Diffraction-based overlay measurement on dedicated mark using rigorous modeling method (United States)

    Lu, Hailiang; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Qingyun; Chen, Yonghui; Zhou, Chang


    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is widely evaluated by numerous authors, results show DBO can provide better performance than Imaging Based Overlay (IBO). However, DBO has its own problems. As well known, Modeling based DBO (mDBO) faces challenges of low measurement sensitivity and crosstalk between various structure parameters, which may result in poor accuracy and precision. Meanwhile, main obstacle encountered by empirical DBO (eDBO) is that a few pads must be employed to gain sufficient information on overlay-induced diffraction signature variations, which consumes more wafer space and costs more measuring time. Also, eDBO may suffer from mark profile asymmetry caused by processes. In this paper, we propose an alternative DBO technology that employs a dedicated overlay mark and takes a rigorous modeling approach. This technology needs only two or three pads for each direction, which is economic and time saving. While overlay measurement error induced by mark profile asymmetry being reduced, this technology is expected to be as accurate and precise as scatterometry technologies.

  4. Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for OCD metrology (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Liu, Shiyuan; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei


    In most cases of optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, when applying rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) to optical modeling, a high order of Fourier harmonics is usually set up to guarantee the convergence of the final results. However, the total number of floating point operations grows dramatically as the truncation order increases. Therefore, it is critical to choose an appropriate order to obtain high computational efficiency without losing much accuracy in the meantime. In this paper, the convergence order associated with the structural and optical parameters has been estimated through simulation. The results indicate that the convergence order is linear with the period of the sample when fixing the other parameters, both for planar diffraction and conical diffraction. The illuminated wavelength also affects the convergence of a final result. With further investigations concentrated on the ratio of illuminated wavelength to period, it is discovered that the convergence order decreases with the growth of the ratio, and when the ratio is fixed, convergence order jumps slightly, especially in a specific range of wavelength. This characteristic could be applied to estimate the optimum convergence order of given samples to obtain high computational efficiency.

  5. Conformational distributions and proximity relationships in the rigor complex of actin and myosin subfragment-1. (United States)

    Nyitrai, M; Hild, G; Lukács, A; Bódis, E; Somogyi, B


    Cyclic conformational changes in the myosin head are considered essential for muscle contraction. We hereby show that the extension of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer method described originally by Taylor et al. (Taylor, D. L., Reidler, J., Spudich, J. A., and Stryer, L. (1981) J. Cell Biol. 89, 362-367) allows determination of the position of a labeled point outside the actin filament in supramolecular complexes and also characterization of the conformational heterogeneity of an actin-binding protein while considering donor-acceptor distance distributions. Using this method we analyzed proximity relationships between two labeled points of S1 and the actin filament in the acto-S1 rigor complex. The donor (N-[[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl]-5-naphthylamine-1-sulfonate) was attached to either the catalytic domain (Cys-707) or the essential light chain (Cys-177) of S1, whereas the acceptor (5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein) was attached to the actin filament (Cys-374). In contrast to the narrow positional distribution (assumed as being Gaussian) of Cys-707 (5 +/- 3 A), the positional distribution of Cys-177 was found to be broad (102 +/- 4 A). Such a broad positional distribution of the label on the essential light chain of S1 may be important in accommodating the helically arranged acto-myosin binding relative to the filament axis.

  6. Bioethics and academic freedom. (United States)

    Singer, Peter


    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  7. Advertising by academic medical centers. (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Welch, H Gilbert


    . Advertising to attract patients is common among top academic medical centers but is not subjected to the oversight standard for clinical research. Many of the ads seemed to place the interests of the medical center before the interests of the patients.



    K. Di; Y. Liu; B. Liu; M. Peng


    Chang'E-1(CE-1) and Chang'E-2(CE-2) are the two lunar orbiters of China's lunar exploration program. Topographic mapping using CE-1 and CE-2 images is of great importance for scientific research as well as for preparation of landing and surface operation of Chang'E-3 lunar rover. In this research, we developed rigorous sensor models of CE-1 and CE-2 CCD cameras based on push-broom imaging principle with interior and exterior orientation parameters. Based on the rigorous sensor model, the 3D c...

  9. Dynamics of the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Donoghue, John F; Holstein, Barry R


    Describing the fundamental theory of particle physics and its applications, this book provides a detailed account of the Standard Model, focusing on techniques that can produce information about real observed phenomena. The book begins with a pedagogic account of the Standard Model, introducing essential techniques such as effective field theory and path integral methods. It then focuses on the use of the Standard Model in the calculation of physical properties of particles. Rigorous methods are emphasized, but other useful models are also described. This second edition has been updated to include recent theoretical and experimental advances, such as the discovery of the Higgs boson. A new chapter is devoted to the theoretical and experimental understanding of neutrinos, and major advances in CP violation and electroweak physics have been given a modern treatment. This book is valuable to graduate students and researchers in particle physics, nuclear physics and related fields.

  10. The Academic Publishing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Wenzel, Tim Ole; Schmidt, Florian


    The case starts with introducing the outstanding profitability of academic journal publishers such as Elsevier and then dives into describing the research process from an idea to conducting research and to publishing the results in academic journals. Subsequently, demand and supply for scientific...... journals and papers are discussed including drivers and involved parties. Furthermore, the case describes competition between suppliers, customers, and publishers. In sum, the case study features a rich description of the industry’s many unusual attributes which allows for discussing the benefits...

  11. #IWD2016 Academic Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna


    What academics or books have inspired you in your writing and research, or helped to make sense of the world around you? In this feature essay, Ninna Meier returns to her experience of reading Hannah Arendt as she sought to understand work and how it relates to value production in capitalist...... economies. Meier recounts how Arendt’s book On Revolution (1963) forged connective threads between the ‘smallest parts’ and the ‘largest wholes’ and showed how academic work is never fully relegated to the past, but can return in new iterations across time....

  12. Using Mindfulness to Build a Transformative School Culture: A Phenomenological Study of Elementary School Principals Who Create an Atmosphere of Academic Rigor and Teacher Effectiveness (United States)

    FitzGerald, Susan


    This study focused on the motivations and discernment leading to the transformational leadership approach and showed there is continuing momentum in the area towards mindful engagement to build trust in a school culture. The purpose of the study was to investigate how transformational leaders build a culture through trust and commitment within a…

  13. Off the Radar and Ubiquitous: Text Messaging and Its Relationship to "Drama" and Cyberbullying in an Affluent, Academically Rigorous US High School (United States)

    Allen, Kathleen P.


    This mixed methods study explores text messaging in a suburban US high school. Survey questions were answered by students (mean age 16.0; SD = 1.23) regarding the prevalence of bullying and victimization via text messaging. Students and staff members responded to a survey item regarding perceptions of hostile text messaging. Both students and…

  14. Neighborhood crime and school climate as predictors of elementary school academic quality: a cross-lagged panel analysis. (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L; Sirkman, Gabriel M


    Past research has found negative relationships between neighborhood structural disadvantage and students' academic outcomes. Comparatively little work has evaluated the associations between characteristics of neighborhoods and schools themselves. This study explored the longitudinal, reciprocal relationships between neighborhood crime and school-level academic achievement within 500 urban schools. Results revealed that higher neighborhood crime (and particularly violent crime) predicted decreases in school academic achievement across time. School climate emerged as one possible mechanism within this relationship, with higher neighborhood crime predicting decreases in socioemotional learning and safety, but not academic rigor. All three dimensions of school climate were predictive of changes in academic achievement. Although this research supports a primarily unidirectional hypothesis of neighborhoods' impacts on embedded settings, additional work is needed to understand these relationships using additional conceptualizations of neighborhood climate.

  15. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities (United States)

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong


    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  16. Premise for Standardized Sepsis Models. (United States)

    Remick, Daniel G; Ayala, Alfred; Chaudry, Irshad; Coopersmith, Craig M; Deutschman, Clifford; Hellman, Judith; Moldawer, Lyle; Osuchowski, Marcin


    Sepsis morbidity and mortality exacts a toll on patients and contributes significantly to healthcare costs. Preclinical models of sepsis have been used to study disease pathogenesis and test new therapies, but divergent outcomes have been observed with the same treatment even when using the same sepsis model. Other disorders such as diabetes, cancer, malaria, obesity and cardiovascular diseases have used standardized, preclinical models that allow laboratories to compare results. Standardized models accelerate the pace of research and such models have been used to test new therapies or changes in treatment guidelines. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandated that investigators increase data reproducibility and the rigor of scientific experiments and has also issued research funding announcements about the development and refinement of standardized models. Our premise is that refinement and standardization of preclinical sepsis models may accelerate the development and testing of potential therapeutics for human sepsis, as has been the case with preclinical models for other disorders. As a first step towards creating standardized models, we suggest 1) standardizing the technical standards of the widely used cecal ligation and puncture model and 2) creating a list of appropriate organ injury and immune dysfunction parameters. Standardized sepsis models could enhance reproducibility and allow comparison of results between laboratories and may accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis.

  17. Mastering the Content- The Challenges of an Academic Course Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Baca


    There should be high academic standards for all students, but to expect everyone, regardless oftheir ability (and disability to meet those standards simultaneously, is inadequate and inherentlyunfair. Just as they learn differently, students test differently. In order to respect these social,emotional and cognitive differences, instruction needs to be differentiated, apart from beingrelevant in terms of content.

  18. Pedagogical Techniques of Improvisation Instructors without Academic Credentials (United States)

    Salonen, Richard Wayne


    The importance of music improvisation can be seen in its inclusion in the National Standards for Music Education and the accreditation standards for the National Association of Schools of Music. The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogical techniques and materials of improvisation instructors who do not hold academic credentials. The…

  19. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C.; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Oleson, Kathryn C.; Lindgren, Kristen P.


    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive—albeit less important—behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles—non-procrastinators, academic productive procrastinators, non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators, and classic procrastinators. Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts. PMID:28804158

  20. Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature. (United States)

    Zacks, Shlomo; Hen, Meirav


    Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon in academic settings. It has been studied from many different theoretical angles, and a variety of causes and consequences have been suggested. Recent studies support the notion that academic procrastination can be seen from a situational perspective and as a failure in learning self-regulation. It suggests that interventions should address situational as well as deficits in self-regulation to help students overcome their procrastinating tendencies. The present review examined the recent literature on causes and consequences of academic procrastination and the limited number of studies of academic interventions for academic procrastination. Findings of this review strengthen the need to further study the topic of academic interventions for academic procrastination and to develop effective interventions. At the end of this review, several suggestions for the development of academic interventions are outlined.

  1. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes. (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C; Wormington, Stephanie V; Oleson, Kathryn C; Lindgren, Kristen P


    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive-albeit less important-behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles- non-procrastinators , academic productive procrastinators , non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators , and classic procrastinators . Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts.

  2. Academic Work and Performance (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.


    Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…

  3. On Academic Boredom (United States)

    Baghdadchi, Amir


    The kind of boredom experienced in academia is unique. Neither a purely subjective nor objective phenomenon, it is the product of the way research is organized into papers, seminars, and conferences, as well as of a deep implicit metaphor that academic argument is a form of warfare. In this respect, the concepts of boredom and rigour are closely…

  4. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka


    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  5. Kompetenceprofil for academic developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Rie; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    gerne vil udføre? Vi vil også diskutere hvilke positive og negative konsekvenser en (mulig fælles nordisk) kompetenceprofil kunne få.Referencer:Ansela, M. & Maikkola, M. (2007). ACADEMIC DEVELOPER’S COMPETENCE-BASED DESCRIPTION:Core and basic competences. Retrieved 22/01/15 at

  6. Academic Vocational Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren; Keller, Hanne Dauer; Stegeager, Nikolaj


    Danish society puts a high value on education which is traditionally seen as a crucial vehicle for development in all spheres of social and economic life. Large sums are spent on work-related adult learning, an important example being academically based masters programs. Yet, the actual effects o......, with examples, a framework for designing educational programs which can help make academic teaching relevant to production-oriented life in organizations. The paper may be read as a statement from which criteria for evaluating the said masters programs can be generated.......Danish society puts a high value on education which is traditionally seen as a crucial vehicle for development in all spheres of social and economic life. Large sums are spent on work-related adult learning, an important example being academically based masters programs. Yet, the actual effects...... of such educational investment in terms of improved workplace efficiency remain obscure both with respect to the organization and the individual. Academically acquired knowledge is generally admitted not to affect work-related outcomes to any significant extent. The three authors of this paper are all involved...

  7. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics (United States)

    Arnold, Kimberly E.


    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  8. Participatory academic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Janus Holst; Nørgård, Rikke Toft


    understanding of participation in edu-cation can move educatees’ learning beyond institutions through focusing on educatees as researchers, participat-ing in society, building a research community and obtaining academic citizenship. Further, the article discusses how a value-based, vision-driven approach...

  9. Correlates of Academic Procrastination. (United States)

    Milgram, Norman A.; And Others


    Investigated concurrent correlates of academic procrastination in Israeli college preparatory students (n=113). Procrastination in one course of study was found to be moderately correlated with procrastination in another but not to procrastination in routine tasks of daily living. Procrastination was weakly related to emotional upset about it and…

  10. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn


    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  11. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan


    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...

  12. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.


    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  13. Summary of Research 1997, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boger, Dan


    This report contains information of research projects in the interdisciplinary groups, Command, Control, and Communications Academic Group, Information Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic...

  14. Robust Trypsin Coating on Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers in Rigorous Conditions and Its Uses for Protein Digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Byoung Chan; Jun, Seung-Hyun; Chang, Mun Seock; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Smith, Richard D.; Gu, Man Bock; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Beom S.; Kim, Jungbae


    An efficient protein digestion in proteomic analysis requires the stabilization of proteases such as trypsin. In the present work, trypsin was stabilized in the form of enzyme coating on electrospun polymer nanofibers (EC-TR), which crosslinks additional trypsin molecules onto covalently-attached trypsin (CA-TR). EC-TR showed better stability than CA-TR in rigorous conditions, such as at high temperatures of 40 °C and 50 °C, in the presence of organic co-solvents, and at various pH's. For example, the half-lives of CA-TR and EC-TR were 0.24 and 163.20 hours at 40 ºC, respectively. The improved stability of EC-TR can be explained by covalent-linkages on the surface of trypsin molecules, which effectively inhibits the denaturation, autolysis, and leaching of trypsin. The protein digestion was performed at 40 °C by using both CA-TR and EC-TR in digesting a model protein, enolase. EC-TR showed better performance and stability than CA-TR by maintaining good performance of enolase digestion under recycled uses for a period of one week. In the same condition, CA-TR showed poor performance from the beginning, and could not be used for digestion at all after a few usages. The enzyme coating approach is anticipated to be successfully employed not only for protein digestion in proteomic analysis, but also for various other fields where the poor enzyme stability presently hampers the practical applications of enzymes.

  15. Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola


    The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)

  16. Rigor mortis at the myocardium investigated by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Bonzon, Jérôme; Schön, Corinna A; Schwendener, Nicole; Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Kara, Levent; Persson, Anders; Jackowski, Christian


    Post-mortem cardiac MR exams present with different contraction appearances of the left ventricle in cardiac short axis images. It was hypothesized that the grade of post-mortem contraction may be related to the post-mortem interval (PMI) or cause of death and a phenomenon caused by internal rigor mortis that may give further insights in the circumstances of death. The cardiac contraction grade was investigated in 71 post-mortem cardiac MR exams (mean age at death 52 y, range 12-89 y; 48 males, 23 females). In cardiac short axis images the left ventricular lumen volume as well as the left ventricular myocardial volume were assessed by manual segmentation. The quotient of both (LVQ) represents the grade of myocardial contraction. LVQ was correlated to the PMI, sex, age, cardiac weight, body mass and height, cause of death and pericardial tamponade when present. In cardiac causes of death a separate correlation was investigated for acute myocardial infarction cases and arrhythmic deaths. LVQ values ranged from 1.99 (maximum dilatation) to 42.91 (maximum contraction) with a mean of 15.13. LVQ decreased slightly with increasing PMI, however without significant correlation. Pericardial tamponade positively correlated with higher LVQ values. Variables such as sex, age, body mass and height, cardiac weight and cause of death did not correlate with LVQ values. There was no difference in LVQ values for myocardial infarction without tamponade and arrhythmic deaths. Based on the observation in our investigated cases, the phenomenon of post-mortem myocardial contraction cannot be explained by the influence of the investigated variables, except for pericardial tamponade cases. Further research addressing post-mortem myocardial contraction has to focus on other, less obvious factors, which may influence the early post-mortem phase too. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Generic Model for Relative Adjustment Between Optical Sensors Using Rigorous Orbit Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Islam


    Full Text Available The classical calibration or space resection is the fundamental task in photogrammetry. The lack of sufficient knowledge of interior and exterior orientation parameters lead to unreliable results in the photogrammetric process. One of the earliest in approaches using in photogrammetry was the plumb line calibration method. This method is suitable to recover the radial and decentering lens distortion coefficients, while the remaining interior(focal length and principal point coordinates and exterior orientation parameters have to be determined by a complimentary method. As the lens distortion remains very less it not considered as the interior orientation parameters, in the present rigorous sensor model. There are several other available methods based on the photogrammetric collinearity equations, which consider the determination of exterior orientation parameters, with no mention to the simultaneous determination of inner orientation parameters. Normal space resection methods solve the problem using control points, whose coordinates are known both in image and object reference systems. The non-linearity of the model and the problems, in point location in digital images and identifying the maximum GPS measured control points are the main drawbacks of the classical approaches. This paper addresses mathematical model based on the fundamental assumption of collineariy of three points of two Along-Track Stereo imagery sensors and independent object point. Assuming this condition it is possible to extract the exterior orientation (EO parameters for a long strip and single image together, without and with using the control points. Moreover, after extracting the EO parameters the accuracy for satellite data products are compared in with using single and with no control points.

  18. Rigorous Performance Evaluation of Smartphone GNSS/IMU Sensors for ITS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Gikas


    Full Text Available With the rapid growth in smartphone technologies and improvement in their navigation sensors, an increasing amount of location information is now available, opening the road to the provision of new Intelligent Transportation System (ITS services. Current smartphone devices embody miniaturized Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and other sensors capable of providing user position, velocity and attitude. However, it is hard to characterize their actual positioning and navigation performance capabilities due to the disparate sensor and software technologies adopted among manufacturers and the high influence of environmental conditions, and therefore, a unified certification process is missing. This paper presents the analysis results obtained from the assessment of two modern smartphones regarding their positioning accuracy (i.e., precision and trueness capabilities (i.e., potential and limitations based on a practical but rigorous methodological approach. Our investigation relies on the results of several vehicle tracking (i.e., cruising and maneuvering tests realized through comparing smartphone obtained trajectories and kinematic parameters to those derived using a high-end GNSS/IMU system and advanced filtering techniques. Performance testing is undertaken for the HTC One S (Android and iPhone 5s (iOS. Our findings indicate that the deviation of the smartphone locations from ground truth (trueness deteriorates by a factor of two in obscured environments compared to those derived in open sky conditions. Moreover, it appears that iPhone 5s produces relatively smaller and less dispersed error values compared to those computed for HTC One S. Also, the navigation solution of the HTC One S appears to adapt faster to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting a somewhat different data filtering approach for the iPhone 5s. Testing the accuracy of the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors for a number of

  19. Analysis of specular resonance in dielectric bispheres using rigorous and geometrical-optics theories. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hideki T; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Miyano, Kenjiro


    We have recently identified the resonant scattering from dielectric bispheres in the specular direction, which has long been known as the specular resonance, to be a type of rainbow (a caustic) and a general phenomenon for bispheres. We discuss the details of the specular resonance on the basis of systematic calculations. In addition to the rigorous theory, which precisely describes the scattering even in the resonance regime, the ray-tracing method, which gives the scattering in the geometrical-optics limit, is used. Specular resonance is explicitly defined as strong scattering in the direction of the specular reflection from the symmetrical axis of the bisphere whose intensity exceeds that of the scattering from noninteracting bispheres. Then the range of parameters for computing a particular specular resonance is specified. This resonance becomes prominent in a wide range of refractive indices (from 1.2 to 2.2) in a wide range of size parameters (from five to infinity) and for an arbitrarily polarized light incident within an angle of 40 degrees to the symmetrical axis. This particular scattering can stay evident even when the spheres are not in contact or the sizes of the spheres are different. Thus specular resonance is a common and robust phenomenon in dielectric bispheres. Furthermore, we demonstrate that various characteristic features in the scattering from bispheres can be explained successfully by using intuitive and simple representations. Most of the significant scatterings other than the specular resonance are also understandable as caustics in geometrical-optics theory. The specular resonance becomes striking at the smallest size parameter among these caustics because its optical trajectory is composed of only the refractions at the surfaces and has an exceptionally large intensity. However, some characteristics are not accounted for by geometrical optics. In particular, the oscillatory behaviors of their scattering intensity are well described by

  20. Unforgivable Sinners? Epistemological and Psychological Naturalism in Husserl’s Philosophy as a Rigorous Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sebastiano Staiti


    Full Text Available In this paper I present and assess Husserl's arguments against epistomological and psychological naturalism in his essay Philosophy as a Rigorous Science. I show that his critique is directed against positions that are generally more extreme than most currently debated variants of naturalism. However, Husserl has interesting thoughts to contribute to philosophy today. First, he shows that there is an important connection between naturalism in epistemology (which in his view amounts to the position that the validity of logic can be reduced to the validity natural laws of thinking and naturalism in psychology (which in his view amounts to the position that all psychic occurrences are merely parallel accompaniments of physiological occurrences. Second, he shows that a strong version of epistemological naturalism is self-undermining and fails to translate the cogency of logic in psychological terms. Third, and most importantly for current debates, he attacks Cartesianism as a form of psychological naturalism because of its construal of the psyche as a substance. Against this position, Husserl defends the necessity to formulate new epistemic aims for the investigation of consciousness. He contends that what is most interesting about consciousness is not its empirical fact but its transcendental function of granting cognitive access to all kinds of objects (both empirical and ideal. The study of this function requires a specific method (eidetics that cannot be conflated with empirical methods. I conclude that Husserl's analyses offer much-needed insight into the fabric of consciousness and compelling arguments against unwarranted metaphysical speculations about the relationship between mind and body.

  1. A Development of Advanced Rigorous 2 Step System for the High Resolution Residual Dose Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Jea Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Hyun [Kyoto University, Sennan (Japan)


    In these days, an activation problem such as residual radiation is one of the important issues. The activated devices and structures can emit the residual radiation. Therefore, the activation should be properly analyzed to make a plan for design, operation, and decontamination of nuclear facilities. For activation calculation, Rigorous 2 Step (R2S) method is introduced as following strategy: (1) the particle transport calculation is performed for an object geometry to get particle spectra and total fluxes; (2) inventories of each cell are calculated by using flux information according to irradiation and decay history; (3) the residual gamma distribution was evaluated by transport code, if needed. This scheme is based on cell calculation of used geometry. In this method, the particle spectra and total fluxes are obtained by mesh tally for activation calculation. It is useful to reduce the effects of gradient flux information. Nevertheless, several limitations are known as follows: Firstly, high relative error of spectra, when lots of meshes were used; secondly, different flux information from spectrum of void in mesh-tally. To calculate high resolution residual dose, several method are developed such as R2Smesh and MCR2S unstructured mesh. The R2Smesh method products better efficiency for obtaining neutron spectra by using fine/coarse mesh. Also, the MCR2S unstructured mesh can effectively separate void spectrum. In this study, the AR2S system was developed to combine the features of those mesh based R2S method. To confirm the AR2S system, the simple activation problem was evaluated and compared with R2S method using same division. Those results have good agreement within 0.83 %. Therefore, it is expected that the AR2S system can properly estimate an activation problem.

  2. Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moretti, Valter [Trento Univ., Povo (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica ' ' F. Severi' ' , GNFM, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)

  3. Why Do Academics Use Academic Social Networking Sites? (United States)

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Pieterse, Efrat


    Academic social-networking sites (ASNS) such as and ResearchGate are becoming very popular among academics. These sites allow uploading academic articles, abstracts, and links to published articles; track demand for published articles, and engage in professional interaction. This study investigates the nature of the use and the…

  4. The Effect of Academic Advising on Academic Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although academic advising in Kenyan universities exists, no research has been done to find out how it impacts on students' educational and career goals. This research aimed at establishing the effect of academic advising on academic performance and the influence of year of study and gender on students' tendency to ...

  5. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest (United States)

    Thornton, Elaine


    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…

  6. Atlantic salmon skin and fillet color changes effected by perimortem handling stress, rigor mortis, and ice storage. (United States)

    Erikson, U; Misimi, E


    The changes in skin and fillet color of anesthetized and exhausted Atlantic salmon were determined immediately after killing, during rigor mortis, and after ice storage for 7 d. Skin color (CIE L*, a*, b*, and related values) was determined by a Minolta Chroma Meter. Roche SalmoFan Lineal and Roche Color Card values were determined by a computer vision method and a sensory panel. Before color assessment, the stress levels of the 2 fish groups were characterized in terms of white muscle parameters (pH, rigor mortis, and core temperature). The results showed that perimortem handling stress initially significantly affected several color parameters of skin and fillets. Significant transient fillet color changes also occurred in the prerigor phase and during the development of rigor mortis. Our results suggested that fillet color was affected by postmortem glycolysis (pH drop, particularly in anesthetized fillets), then by onset and development of rigor mortis. The color change patterns during storage were different for the 2 groups of fish. The computer vision method was considered suitable for automated (online) quality control and grading of salmonid fillets according to color.

  7. Post mortem rigor development in the Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) breast muscle (pectoralis): factors which may affect the tenderness. (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Muller, Nina; Frylinck, Lorinda; Hoffman, Louwrens C


    Baseline research on the toughness of Egyptian goose meat is required. This study therefore investigates the post mortem pH and temperature decline (15 min-4 h 15 min post mortem) in the pectoralis muscle (breast portion) of this gamebird species. It also explores the enzyme activity of the Ca(2+)-dependent protease (calpain system) and the lysosomal cathepsins during the rigor mortis period. No differences were found for any of the variables between genders. The pH decline in the pectoralis muscle occurs quite rapidly (c = -0.806; ultimate pH ∼ 5.86) compared with other species and it is speculated that the high rigor temperature (>20 °C) may contribute to the increased toughness. No calpain I was found in Egyptian goose meat and the µ/m-calpain activity remained constant during the rigor period, while a decrease in calpastatin activity was observed. The cathepsin B, B & L and H activity increased over the rigor period. Further research into the connective tissue content and myofibrillar breakdown during aging is required in order to know if the proteolytic enzymes do in actual fact contribute to tenderisation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Rigorous Line-Based Transformation Model Using the Generalized Point Strategy for the Rectification of High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hu


    Full Text Available High precision geometric rectification of High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI is the basis of digital mapping and Three-Dimensional (3D modeling. Taking advantage of line features as basic geometric control conditions instead of control points, the Line-Based Transformation Model (LBTM provides a practical and efficient way of image rectification. It is competent to build the mathematical relationship between image space and the corresponding object space accurately, while it reduces the workloads of ground control and feature recognition dramatically. Based on generalization and the analysis of existing LBTMs, a novel rigorous LBTM is proposed in this paper, which can further eliminate the geometric deformation caused by sensor inclination and terrain variation. This improved nonlinear LBTM is constructed based on a generalized point strategy and resolved by least squares overall adjustment. Geo-positioning accuracy experiments with IKONOS, GeoEye-1 and ZiYuan-3 satellite imagery are performed to compare rigorous LBTM with other relevant line-based and point-based transformation models. Both theoretic analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the rigorous LBTM is more accurate and reliable without adding extra ground control. The geo-positioning accuracy of satellite imagery rectified by rigorous LBTM can reach about one pixel with eight control lines and can be further improved by optimizing the horizontal and vertical distribution of control lines.

  9. Useful, Used, and Peer Approved: The Importance of Rigor and Accessibility in Postsecondary Research and Evaluation. WISCAPE Viewpoints (United States)

    Vaade, Elizabeth; McCready, Bo


    Traditionally, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners have perceived a tension between rigor and accessibility in quantitative research and evaluation in postsecondary education. However, this study indicates that both producers and consumers of these studies value high-quality work and clear findings that can reach multiple audiences. The…

  10. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.


    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  11. Running continuous academic adoption programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tobias Alsted

    Running successful academic adoption programmes requires executive support, clear strategies, tactical resources and organisational agility. These two presentations will discuss the implementation of strategic academic adoption programs down to very concrete tool customisations to meet specific...

  12. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.

  13. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.

  14. Integrated Factors Correlating Undergraduate Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated Factors Correlating Undergraduate Academic Achievement in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Thus, it is study investigated the integrated factors determining academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

  15. Effects of Peer Tutoring and Academic Self-Monitoring on the Mathematics Vocabulary Performance of Secondary Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Hott, Brittany L.; Evmenova, Anya; Brigham, Frederick J.


    This study examined the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring coupled with academic self-monitoring on the mathematics vocabulary acquisition of students with emotional or behavioral disabilities (EBD). Six middle school students from diverse backgrounds with EBD attending a public, urban middle school participated in the study. A rigorous multiple…

  16. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students. (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  17. Academic Digital Library Construction Evaluation: Measures and Approaches


    Wang , Qiyun


    Through review norms, standards and practice related to academic digital library construction evaluation at home and abroad, on the basis of investigation and study on the digital library evaluation at home and abroad, for status quo of the academic digital library construction, using qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis method, with methods and indicators for the traditional library evaluation system as a reference coordinates, put forward a comprehensive evaluation index system of...

  18. Workplace culture in academic libraries the early 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Blessinger, Kelly


    Workplace culture refers to conditions that collectively influence the work atmosphere. These can include policies, norms, and unwritten standards for behavior. This book focuses on various aspects of workplace culture in academic libraries from the practitioners' viewpoint, as opposed to that of the theoretician. The book asks the following questions: What conditions contribute to an excellent academic library work environment? What helps to make a particular academic library a great place to work? Articles focus on actual programs while placing the discussion in a scholarly context. The book

  19. Determinants of Academic Startups’ Orientation toward International Business Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Suzuki


    Full Text Available This study explores the determinants of academic startups’ orientation toward international business expansion, focusing on their technological capabilities, availability of public support, the regional characteristics of their locations, and the research standards of their parent universities. Using unique survey data on 448 academic startups in Japan and by estimating an ordered logit model, we find that academic startups are strongly oriented toward expanding their businesses internationally if they have strong technological capabilities, receive public support, are established in regions with a high ratio of exporting small firms, or are affiliated with a parent university with an excellent research reputation.

  20. Academic capitalism and academic culture: A case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mendoza


    Full Text Available This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this department and they consider industrial sponsorship as a highly effective vehicle for enhancing the quality of education of students and pursuing their scientific interests. This study provides valuable insights to federal and institutional policiescreated to foster industry-academia partnerships and commercialization of academic research.

  1. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption (United States)

    Changgeng, Li


    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  2. Life Stress and Academic Burnout (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen


    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  3. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance (United States)

    Emery, Kim


    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  4. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey J.


    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  5. The Constitution and Academic Freedom. (United States)

    Gilbertson, Eric R.

    During the past 150 years U.S. courts have demonstrated a special protectiveness toward academics and academic institutions. Academic freedom was not a concern when the U.S. Constitution and the First Amendment were drafted and is not mentioned in the "Federalist Papers." However, decisions by a series of Supreme Court justices led to…

  6. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.


    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  7. Standardization Documents (United States)


    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  8. Computer Anxiety, Academic Stress, and Academic Procrastination on College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Rahardjo


    Full Text Available Academic procrastination is fairly and commonly found among college students. The lack of understanding in making the best use of computer technology may lead to anxiety in terms of operating computer hence cause postponement in completing course assignments related to computer operation. On the other hand, failure in achieving certain academic targets as expected by parents and/or the students themselves also makes students less focused and leads to tendency of postponing many completions of course assignments. The aim of this research is to investigate contribution of anxiety in operating computer and academic stress toward procrastination on students. As much as 65 students majoring in psychology became participants in this study. The results showed that anxiety in operating computer and academic stress play significant role in influencing academic procrastination among social sciences students. In terms of academic procrastination tendencies, anxiety in operating computer and academic stress, male students have higher percentage than female students.

  9. Policies to Optimize Physician Billing Data in Academic Alternative Relationship Payment Plans: Practices and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceara Tess Cunningham


    According to the majority of our respondents, financial disincentives (i.e. income at risk, financial clawbacks appear to be most effective as a mechanism to motivate physicians within an academic APP to submit their billings. However, key barriers to successful implementation and delivery of academic APPs include a lack of alignment between government stakeholders, academic leadership and APP physician members and differences in the organizational and accountability structures of APP plans between academic facilities. It is necessary in moving forward to achieve commonly defined standards and frameworks between the various APP models across provinces and academic institutions.

  10. How academics face the world: a study of 5829 homepage pictures. (United States)

    Churches, Owen; Callahan, Rebecca; Michalski, Dana; Brewer, Nicola; Turner, Emma; Keage, Hannah Amy Diane; Thomas, Nicole Annette; Nicholls, Mike Elmo Richard


    It is now standard practice, at Universities around the world, for academics to place pictures of themselves on a personal profile page maintained as part of their University's web-site. Here we investigated what these pictures reveal about the way academics see themselves. Since there is an asymmetry in the degree to which emotional information is conveyed by the face, with the left side being more expressive than the right, we hypothesised that academics in the sciences would seek to pose as non-emotional rationalists and put their right cheek forward, while academics in the arts would express their emotionality and pose with the left cheek forward. We sourced 5829 pictures of academics from their University websites and found that, consistent with the hypotheses, there was a significant difference in the direction of face posing between science academics and English academics with English academics showing a more leftward orientation. Academics in the Fine Arts and Performing Arts however, did not show the expected left cheek forward bias. We also analysed profile pictures of psychology academics and found a greater bias toward presenting the left check compared to science academics which makes psychologists appear more like arts academics than scientists. These findings indicate that the personal website pictures of academics mirror the cultural perceptions of emotional expressiveness across disciplines.

  11. Evaluation of Academic Performance, Academic Motivation, Hope for the Future and Life Satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of a Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armaghan Eslami


    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to investigate the evaluation of academic achievement, academic motivation and hope for the future and life satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of the Medical Sciences University of Ahvaz and their relationship with the school years passed.Methods: The samples in this study were all pharmacy students studying in the College of Pharmacy, the Medical University of Ahvaz in the year 93-94. Moreover, standard questionnaires were used by this study for collecting data. In order to collect data with regard to hope, life satisfaction, motivation and academic satisfaction, the questionnaire of Snyder hope Scale (1991, Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire (SWLS, lepper motivation scale (2005 and Bahrani and Jokar questionnaire (1378 were used respectively.Moreover, data on Academic performance were acquired using the score of the students and the number of students dropping out in each entry and the data were analysed by using SPSS 20.Results: The results did not indicate any significant different in an investigation of five class of students and from four variables of hope, Academic motivation, academic achievement, life satisfaction. But contrast test for combined group showed that academic motivation and academic performance in freshmen students are significantly higher than the other four inputs.Third-year students possess less Academic motivation than other students.Senior students' Academic performance was also significantly lower than of students from other school years.Conclusion: freshmen students face challenges of the new environment, and this affects their academic performance. Besides in the third year of pharmacy school curriculum, pharmacy students pass the basic exam and the main pharmaceutical courses start for them, this might be the reason that their intrinsic motivation increase.  

  12. Causality as a Rigorous Notion and Quantitative Causality Analysis with Time Series (United States)

    Liang, X. S.


    Given two time series, can one faithfully tell, in a rigorous and quantitative way, the cause and effect between them? Here we show that this important and challenging question (one of the major challenges in the science of big data), which is of interest in a wide variety of disciplines, has a positive answer. Particularly, for linear systems, the maximal likelihood estimator of the causality from a series X2 to another series X1, written T2→1, turns out to be concise in form: T2→1 = [C11 C12 C2,d1 — C112 C1,d1] / [C112 C22 — C11C122] where Cij (i,j=1,2) is the sample covariance between Xi and Xj, and Ci,dj the covariance between Xi and ΔXj/Δt, the difference approximation of dXj/dt using the Euler forward scheme. An immediate corollary is that causation implies correlation, but not vice versa, resolving the long-standing debate over causation versus correlation. The above formula has been validated with touchstone series purportedly generated with one-way causality that evades the classical approaches such as Granger causality test and transfer entropy analysis. It has also been applied successfully to the investigation of many real problems. Through a simple analysis with the stock series of IBM and GE, an unusually strong one-way causality is identified from the former to the latter in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a "Giant" for the computer market. Another example presented here regards the cause-effect relation between the two climate modes, El Niño and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). In general, these modes are mutually causal, but the causality is asymmetric. To El Niño, the information flowing from IOD manifests itself as a propagation of uncertainty from the Indian Ocean. In the third example, an unambiguous one-way causality is found between CO2 and the global mean temperature anomaly. While it is confirmed that CO2 indeed drives the recent global warming

  13. Rigorous study of the gap equation for an inhomogeneous superconducting state near T/sub c/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, C.


    A rigorous analytic study of the self-consistent gap equation (symobolically Δ=F/sub T/Δ), for an inhomogeneous superconducting state, is presented in the Bogoliubov formulation. The gap function Δ (r) is taken to simulate a planar normal-superconducting phase boundary: Δ (r) =Δ/sub infinity/ tanh(αΔ/sub infinity/z/v/sub F/) THETA (z), where Δ/sub infinity/(T) is the equilibrium gap, v/subF/ is the Fermi velocity, and THETA (z) is a unit step function. First a special space integral of the gap equation proportional∫ 0 /sub +//sup infinity/(F/sub T/-Δ)(dΔ/dz) dz is evaluated essentially exactly, except for a nonperturbative WKBJ approximation used in solving the Bogoliubov--de Gennes equations. It is then expanded near the transition temperature T/sub c/ in power of Δ/sub infinity/proportional (1-T/T/sub c/) 1 / 2 , demonstrating an exact cancellation of a subseries of ''anomalous-order'' terms. The leading surviving term is found to agree in order, but not in magnitude, with the Ginzburg-Landau-Gor'kov (GLG) approximation. The discrepancy is found to be linked to the slope discontinuity in our chosen Δ. A contour-integral technique in a complex-energy plane is then devised to evaluate the local value of F/sub T/-Δ exactly. Our result reveals that near T/sub c/ this method can reproduce the GLG result essentially everywhere, except within a BCS coherence length not xi (T) exclamation from a singularity in Δ, where F/sub T/-Δ can have a singular contribution with an ''anomalous'' local magnitude, not expected from the GLG approach. This anomalous term precisely accounts for the discrepancy found in the special integral of the gap equation as mentioned above, and likely explains the ultimate origin of the anomalous terms found in the free energy of an isolated vortex line by Cleary

  14. Ar-Ar_Redux: rigorous error propagation of 40Ar/39Ar data, including covariances (United States)

    Vermeesch, P.


    Rigorous data reduction and error propagation algorithms are needed to realise Earthtime's objective to improve the interlaboratory accuracy of 40Ar/39Ar dating to better than 1% and thereby facilitate the comparison and combination of the K-Ar and U-Pb chronometers. Ar-Ar_Redux is a new data reduction protocol and software program for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology which takes into account two previously underappreciated aspects of the method: 1. 40Ar/39Ar measurements are compositional dataIn its simplest form, the 40Ar/39Ar age equation can be written as: t = log(1+J [40Ar/39Ar-298.5636Ar/39Ar])/λ = log(1 + JR)/λ Where λ is the 40K decay constant and J is the irradiation parameter. The age t does not depend on the absolute abundances of the three argon isotopes but only on their relative ratios. Thus, the 36Ar, 39Ar and 40Ar abundances can be normalised to unity and plotted on a ternary diagram or 'simplex'. Argon isotopic data are therefore subject to the peculiar mathematics of 'compositional data', sensu Aitchison (1986, The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Data, Chapman & Hall). 2. Correlated errors are pervasive throughout the 40Ar/39Ar methodCurrent data reduction protocols for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology propagate the age uncertainty as follows: σ2(t) = [J2 σ2(R) + R2 σ2(J)] / [λ2 (1 + R J)], which implies zero covariance between R and J. In reality, however, significant error correlations are found in every step of the 40Ar/39Ar data acquisition and processing, in both single and multi collector instruments, during blank, interference and decay corrections, age calculation etc. Ar-Ar_Redux revisits every aspect of the 40Ar/39Ar method by casting the raw mass spectrometer data into a contingency table of logratios, which automatically keeps track of all covariances in a compositional context. Application of the method to real data reveals strong correlations (r2 of up to 0.9) between age measurements within a single irradiation batch. Propertly taking

  15. Peridynamics as a rigorous coarse-graining of atomistics for multiscale materials design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Aidun, John Bahram; Silling, Stewart Andrew; Sears, Mark P.; Kamm, James R.; Parks, Michael L.


    This report summarizes activities undertaken during FY08-FY10 for the LDRD Peridynamics as a Rigorous Coarse-Graining of Atomistics for Multiscale Materials Design. The goal of our project was to develop a coarse-graining of finite temperature molecular dynamics (MD) that successfully transitions from statistical mechanics to continuum mechanics. The goal of our project is to develop a coarse-graining of finite temperature molecular dynamics (MD) that successfully transitions from statistical mechanics to continuum mechanics. Our coarse-graining overcomes the intrinsic limitation of coupling atomistics with classical continuum mechanics via the FEM (finite element method), SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics), or MPM (material point method); namely, that classical continuum mechanics assumes a local force interaction that is incompatible with the nonlocal force model of atomistic methods. Therefore FEM, SPH, and MPM inherit this limitation. This seemingly innocuous dichotomy has far reaching consequences; for example, classical continuum mechanics cannot resolve the short wavelength behavior associated with atomistics. Other consequences include spurious forces, invalid phonon dispersion relationships, and irreconcilable descriptions/treatments of temperature. We propose a statistically based coarse-graining of atomistics via peridynamics and so develop a first of a kind mesoscopic capability to enable consistent, thermodynamically sound, atomistic-to-continuum (AtC) multiscale material simulation. Peridynamics (PD) is a microcontinuum theory that assumes nonlocal forces for describing long-range material interaction. The force interactions occurring at finite distances are naturally accounted for in PD. Moreover, PDs nonlocal force model is entirely consistent with those used by atomistics methods, in stark contrast to classical continuum mechanics. Hence, PD can be employed for mesoscopic phenomena that are beyond the realms of classical continuum mechanics and

  16. Updated Design Standards and Guidance from the What Works Clearinghouse: Regression Discontinuity Designs and Cluster Designs (United States)

    Cole, Russell; Deke, John; Seftor, Neil


    The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) maintains design standards to identify rigorous, internally valid education research. As education researchers advance new methodologies, the WWC must revise its standards to include an assessment of the new designs. Recently, the WWC has revised standards for two emerging study designs: regression discontinuity…

  17. Leading the Transition from the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards to the General Assessment (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rieke, Rebekah


    Schools are facing many changes in the ways that teaching, learning, and assessment take place. Most states are moving from individual state standards to the new Common Core State Standards, which will be fewer, higher, and more rigorous than most current state standards. As the next generation of assessments used for accountability are rolled…

  18. Standards of Quality: Accreditation Guidelines Redesigned (United States)

    Forsythe, Hazel; Andrews, Frances; Stanley, M. Sue; Anderson, Carol L.


    To ensure optimal standards for AAFCS program accreditation, the Council for Accreditation (CFA) conducted a review and revision of the "2001 AAFCS Standards for Accreditation." The CFA took a three-pronged approach including (a) a review of academic accreditations that had relationships to the FCS disciplines, (b) concept, content, and process…

  19. Plagiarism in Academic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eugenia Rojas-Porras


    Full Text Available The ethical and social responsibility of citing the sources in a scientific or artistic work is undeniable. This paper explores, in a preliminary way, academic plagiarism in its various forms. It includes findings based on a forensic analysis. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness on the importance of considering these details when writing and publishing a text. Hopefully, this analysis may put the issue under discussion.

  20. Service Innovation In Academic Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh


    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to investigate whether management and employees in academic libraries involve users in library service innovations and what these user roles are. Design/methodology/approach – The article first reviews the literature focusing on innovation, new product...... development, new service development and library science with specific focus on users and management. Subsequently the research uses a case study approach to investigate management and customer involvement in a Danish academic library. Findings – Results from the case study show that academic libraries...... in academic library service innovations on the basis of an in-depth case study of a Danish academic library....

  1. Academic Manager or Managed Academic? Academic Identity Schisms in Higher Education (United States)

    Winter, Richard


    The relationship between values and academic identity has received scant attention in the higher education literature with some notable exceptions (Churchman, 2006; Harley, 2002; Henkel, 2005). This paper contends that the perceived need to align all academics around corporate values and goals has given rise to academic identity schisms in higher…

  2. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Academic Procrastination, Satisfaction with Academic Life and Academic Performance (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç


    Introduction: Procrastination has become one of the most researched topics due its adverse effects on the both general and student population in social sciences. The general tendency toward delaying academic tasks has been conceptualized as academic procrastination in academic setting. It is a prevalent issue among students and a numerous students…

  3. Monuments to Academic Carelessness (United States)


    In 1942, Katherine Frost Bruner published an article titled “Of psychological writing: Being some valedictory remarks on style.” It was published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, the journal for which she served as editorial assistant between 1937 and 1941. Her collection of advice to writing scholars has been widely quoted, including by several editions of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The most frequently quoted message in Bruner’s article deals with the importance of making sure that references in academic texts are complete and accurate. Exploring the citation history of this particular message reveals an ironic point: the great majority of those who have quoted Bruner’s words on reference accuracy have not done so accurately. The case may serve as a reminder of the importance of the basic academic principle of striving to use primary sources. The most startling finding in this study is how frequently this principle is violated, even by authors who advise and educate academic writers. PMID:28479644

  4. Administrative skills for academic physicians. (United States)

    Aluise, J J; Scmitz, C C; Bland, C J; McArtor, R E


    To function effectively within the multifaceted environment of the academic medical center, academic physicians need to heighten their understanding of the economics of the health care system, and further develop their leadership and managerial skills. A literature base on organizational development and management education now exists that addresses the unique nature of the professional organization, including academic medical centers. This article describes an administration development curriculum for academic physicians. Competency statements, instructional strategies and references provide the academic physician with guidelines for expanding their professional expertise to include organizational and management skills. The continuing success of the academic medical center as a responsive health care system may depend upon the degree to which academic physicians gain sophistication in self-management and organizational administration.

  5. A Rigorous, Compositional, and Extensible Framework for Dynamic Fault Tree Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudali, H.; Sandhu, R.; Crouzen, Pepijn; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    Fault trees (FT) are among the most prominent formalisms for reliability analysis of technical systems. Dynamic FTs extend FTs with support for expressing dynamic dependencies among components. The standard analysis vehicle for DFTs is state-based, and treats the model as a CTMC, a continuous-time

  6. Critical Thinking and Formative Assessments: Increasing the Rigor in Your Classroom (United States)

    Moore, Betsy; Stanley, Todd


    Develop your students' critical thinking skills and prepare them to perform competitively in the classroom, on state tests, and beyond. In this book, Moore and Stanley show you how to effectively instruct your students to think on higher levels, and how to assess their progress. As states move toward common achievement standards, teachers have…

  7. Effect of pre-rigor stretch and various constant temperatures on the rate of post-mortem pH fall, rigor mortis and some quality traits of excised porcine biceps femoris muscle strips. (United States)

    Vada-Kovács, M


    Porcine biceps femoris strips of 10 cm original length were stretched by 50% and fixed within 1 hr post mortem then subjected to temperatures of 4 °, 15 ° or 36 °C until they attained their ultimate pH. Unrestrained control muscle strips, which were left to shorten freely, were similarly treated. Post-mortem metabolism (pH, R-value) and shortening were recorded; thereafter ultimate meat quality traits (pH, lightness, extraction and swelling of myofibrils) were determined. The rate of pH fall at 36 °C, as well as ATP breakdown at 36 and 4 °C, were significantly reduced by pre-rigor stretch. The relationship between R-value and pH indicated cold shortening at 4 °C. Myofibrils isolated from pre-rigor stretched muscle strips kept at 36 °C showed the most severe reduction of hydration capacity, while paleness remained below extreme values. However, pre-rigor stretched myofibrils - when stored at 4 °C - proved to be superior to shortened ones in their extractability and swelling.

  8. Maternal-child health fellowship: maintaining the rigor of family medicine obstetrics. (United States)

    Magee, Susanna R; Radlinski, Heidi; Nothnagle, Melissa


    The United States has a growing shortage of maternity care providers. Family medicine maternity care fellowships can address this growing problem by training family physicians to manage high-risk pregnancies and perform cesarean deliveries. This paper describes the impact of one such program-the Maternal Child Health (MCH) Fellowship through the Department of Family Medicine at Brown University and the careers of its graduates over 20 years (1991--2011). Fellowship graduates were mailed a survey regarding their training, current practice and teaching roles, and career satisfaction. Seventeen of 23 fellows (74%) responded to the survey. The majority of our fellowship graduates provide maternity care. Half of our respondents are primary surgeons in cesarean sections, and the majority of these work in community hospitals. Nearly all of our graduates maintain academic appointments and teach actively in their respective departments of family medicine. Our maternal child health fellowship provides family physicians with the opportunity to develop advanced skills needed to provide maternity care for underserved communities and teaching skills to train the next generation of maternal child health care providers.

  9. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V


    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  10. Reconsideration of the sequence of rigor mortis through postmortem changes in adenosine nucleotides and lactic acid in different rat muscles. (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Iwadate, K; Nakajima, M


    We examined the changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lactic acid, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in five different rat muscles after death. Rigor mortis has been thought to occur simultaneously in dead muscles and hence to start in small muscles sooner than in large muscles. In this study we found that the rate of decrease in ATP was significantly different in each muscle. The greatest drop in ATP was observed in the masseter muscle. These findings contradict the conventional theory of rigor mortis. Similarly, the rates of change in ADP and lactic acid, which are thought to be related to the consumption or production of ATP, were different in each muscle. However, the rate of change of AMP was the same in each muscle.

  11. Authorization of Animal Experiments Is Based on Confidence Rather than Evidence of Scientific Rigor (United States)

    Nathues, Christina; Würbel, Hanno


    animal experiments are lacking important information about experimental conduct that determines the scientific validity of the findings, which may be critical for the weight attributed to the benefit of the research in the harm–benefit analysis. Similar to manuscripts getting accepted for publication despite poor reporting of measures against bias, applications for animal experiments may often be approved based on implicit confidence rather than explicit evidence of scientific rigor. Our findings shed serious doubt on the current authorization procedure for animal experiments, as well as the peer-review process for scientific publications, which in the long run may undermine the credibility of research. Developing existing authorization procedures that are already in place in many countries towards a preregistration system for animal research is one promising way to reform the system. This would not only benefit the scientific validity of findings from animal experiments but also help to avoid unnecessary harm to animals for inconclusive research. PMID:27911892

  12. Addressing Three Common Myths about the Next Generation Science Standards (United States)

    Huff, Kenneth L.


    Although the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) were released over two years ago, misconceptions about what they are--and are not--persist. The "NGSS" provide for consistent science education opportunities for all students--regardless of demographics--with a level of rigor expected in every location and…

  13. Assessment of the Methodological Rigor of Case Studies in the Field of Management Accounting Published in Journals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Mucio Marques


    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the methodological rigor of case studies in management accounting published in Brazilian journals. The study is descriptive. The data were collected using documentary research and content analysis, and 180 papers published from 2008 to 2012 in accounting journals rated as A2, B1, and B2 that were classified as case studies were selected. Based on the literature, we established a set of 15 criteria that we expected to be identified (either explicitly or implicitly in the case studies to classify those case studies as appropriate from the standpoint of methodological rigor. These criteria were partially met by the papers analyzed. The aspects less aligned with those proposed in the literature were the following: little emphasis on justifying the need to understand phenomena in context; lack of explanation of the reason for choosing the case study strategy; the predominant use of questions that do not enable deeper analysis; many studies based on only one source of evidence; little use of data and information triangulation; little emphasis on the data collection method; a high number of cases in which confusion between case study as a research strategy and as data collection method were detected; a low number of papers reporting the method of data analysis; few reports on a study's contributions; and a minority highlighting the issues requiring further research. In conclusion, the method used to apply case studies to management accounting must be improved because few studies showed rigorous application of the procedures that this strategy requires.

  14. The rigorous stochastic matrix multiplication scheme for the calculations of reduced equilibrium density matrices of open multilevel quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin


    Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems

  15. Effects of well-boat transportation on the muscle pH and onset of rigor mortis in Atlantic salmon. (United States)

    Gatica, M C; Monti, G; Gallo, C; Knowles, T G; Warriss, P D


    During the transport of salmon (Salmo salar), in a well-boat, 10 fish were sampled at each of six stages: in cages after crowding at the farm (stage 1), in the well-boat after loading (stage 2), in the well-boat after eight hours transport and before unloading (stage 3), in the resting cages immediately after finishing unloading (stage 4), after 24 hours resting in cages, (stage 5) and in the processing plant after pumping from the resting cages (stage 6). The water in the well-boat was at ambient temperature with recirculation to the sea. At each stage the fish were stunned percussively and bled by gill cutting. Immediately after death, and then every three hours for 18 hours, the muscle pH and rigor index of the fish were measured. At successive stages the initial muscle pH of the fish decreased, except for a slight gain in stage 5, after they had been rested for 24 hours. The lowest initial muscle pH was observed at stage 6. The fishes' rigor index showed that rigor developed more quickly at each successive stage, except for a slight decrease in rate at stage 5, attributable to the recovery of muscle reserves.

  16. Tradition Meets Innovation: Transforming Academic Medical Culture at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine


    Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann


    Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past twenty years. While the academic physician’s triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic medical centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around r...

  17. Academic workload management towards learning, components of academic work


    Ocvirk, Aleksandra; Trunk Širca, Nada


    This paper deals with attributing time value to academic workload from the point of view of an HEI, management of teaching and an individual. We have conducted a qualitative study aimed at analysing documents on academic workload in terms of its definition, and at analysing the attribution of time value to components of academic work in relation to the proportion of workload devoted to teaching in the sense of ensuring quality and effectiveness of learning, and in relation to financial implic...

  18. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal


    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  19. Schooling Background and Academic Academic Achievement of Agricultural Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar


    Full Text Available In our society academic achievement is considered as a key criterion to judge one’s total potentiality and capability. Academic achievement is seen as a students’ grade point averages in many academic settings. Academic achievement has become an index of students’ future in this highly competitive world and Agricultural education is no exception.  Hence it becomes necessary to find out the factors that determine better academic performance. In this context the present study had been carried out to find out the possible relationship between schooling background and academic achievement of agriculture students. The students admitted in Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai, Vellore between 1999 and 2009 formed the subjects of the study. Findings of the study revealed that determinants like gender, type of school and stream of education had a significant role in the academic achievement of the students. Medium of instruction in HSC did influence the academic achievement but not significantly. It was also found that students who performed well in their HSC did perform well in their undergraduate programme also. This confirms that previous educational outcomes are the most important indicators of student’s future achievement and schooling background has a significant role in academic achievement of students.

  20. Academic procrastination and academic performance: An initial basis for intervention. (United States)

    Goroshit, Marina


    Academic procrastination is a prevalent phenomenon with a range of negative outcomes. Many studies focused on causes and correlates of academic procrastination; however, the study of interventions for academic procrastination is scarce. The present study is an initial effort to study the relationship between academic procrastination, online course participation, and achievement, as a basis for developing an intervention for academic procrastination. Findings indicated that studying procrastination was negatively associated with final exam grade as well as with the three online course participation measures. Final exam grade was positively associated with two of the online course participation measures, and they positively correlated with each other. In addition, results indicated that studying procrastination, in combination with online course participation measures, explained about 50% of variance in final exam's grade. Frequency of activities in course Web site had the strongest positive effect on final exam's grade. These findings strengthen the notion that studying procrastination is an impediment to students' academic performance and outcomes and clarifies the need to develop and study academic interventions for academic procrastination as a means to decrease its prevalence in academic settings.