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Sample records for rigid bottom boundary

  1. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  2. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  3. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  4. Refinement of the bottom boundary of the INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjencik, Milos

    2010-01-01

    No existing edition of the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) Manual addresses in depth the determination of the bottom boundary of the Scale, although a need for a definition is felt. The article introduces a method for determining the INES bottom boundary applicable to pressurized water reactors. This bottom boundary is put identical with the threshold of degradation of the installation's nuclear safety assurance. A comprehensive flowchart has been developed as the main outcome of the analysis of the nuclear safety assurance violation issue. The use of this flowchart in INES classification to replace the introductory question in the General INES Rating Procedure in the INES Manual is recommended. (orig.)

  5. Vortex statistics for turbulence in a container with rigid boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of vortex statistics for decaying two-dimensional turbulence in a square container with rigid no-slip walls is compared with a few available experimental results and with the scaling theory of two-dimensional turbulent decay as proposed by Carnevale et al. Power-law exponents......, computed from an ensemble average of several numerical runs, coincide with some experimentally obtained values, but not with data obtained from numerical simulations of decaying two-dimensional turbulence with periodic boundary conditions....

  6. Numerical simulations of the stratified oceanic bottom boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John R.

    Numerical simulations are used to consider several problems relevant to the turbulent oceanic bottom boundary layer. In the first study, stratified open channel flow is considered with thermal boundary conditions chosen to approximate a shallow sea. Specifically, a constant heat flux is applied at the free surface and the lower wall is assumed to be adiabatic. When the surface heat flux is strong, turbulent upwellings of low speed fluid from near the lower wall are inhibited by the stable stratification. Subsequent studies consider a stratified bottom Ekman layer over a non-sloping lower wall. The influence of the free surface is removed by using an open boundary condition at the top of the computational domain. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the outer layer stratification on the boundary layer structure. When the density field is initialized with a linear profile, a turbulent mixed layer forms near the wall, which is separated from the outer layer by a strongly stable pycnocline. It is found that the bottom stress is not strongly affected by the outer layer stratification. However, stratification reduces turbulent transport to the outer layer and strongly limits the boundary layer height. The mean shear at the top of the boundary layer is enhanced when the outer layer is stratified, and this shear is strong enough to cause intermittent instabilities above the pycnocline. Turbulence-generated internal gravity waves are observed in the outer layer with a relatively narrow frequency range. An explanation for frequency content of these waves is proposed, starting with an observed broad-banded turbulent spectrum and invoking linear viscous decay to explain the preferential damping of low and high frequency waves. During the course of this work, an open-source computational fluid dynamics code has been developed with a number of advanced features including scalar advection, subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation, and distributed memory

  7. Diffusive boundary layers at the bottom of gaps and cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzold, Merlin A.; Landel, Julien R.; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2017-11-01

    This work is motivated by the chemical decontamination of droplets of chemical warfare agents trapped in the gaps and cracks found in most man-made objects. We consider axial laminar flow within gaps with both straight and angled walls. We study the diffusive mass transfer from a source (e.g. a droplet surface) located at the bottom of the gap. This problem is similar to boundary layers and Graetz-type problems (heat transfer in pipe flow) with the added complication of a non-uniform lateral concentration profile due to the lateral variation of the velocity profile. We present 3D solutions for the diffusive boundary layer and demonstrate that a 2D mean-field model, for which we calculate series and similarity solutions, captures the essential physics. We demonstrate the immediate practical relevance of our findings by comparing decontamination of a droplet located in a gap and on an exposed surface.

  8. Jets from pulsed-ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles near a rigid boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brujan, Emil-Alexandru

    2017-06-01

    The dynamics of cavitation bubbles, generated from short (microsecond) pulses of ultrasound and situated near a rigid boundary, are investigated numerically. The temporal development of the bubble shape, bubble migration, formation of the liquid jet during bubble collapse, and the kinetic energy of the jet are investigated as a function of the distance between bubble and boundary. During collapse, the bubble migrates towards the boundary and the liquid jet reaches a maximum velocity between 80 m s-1 and 120 m s-1, depending on the distance between bubble and boundary. The conversion of bubble energy to kinetic energy of the jet ranges from 16% to 23%. When the bubble is situated in close proximity to the boundary, the liquid jet impacts the boundary with its maximum velocity, resulting in an impact pressure of the order of tens of MPa. The rapid expansion of the bubble, the impact of the liquid jet onto the nearby boundary material, and the high pressure developed inside the bubble at its minimum volume can all contribute to the boundary material damage. The high pressure developed during the impact of the liquid jet onto the biological material and the shearing forces acting on the material surface as a consequence of the radial flow of the jet outward from the impact site are the main damage mechanisms of rigid biological materials. The results are discussed with respect to cavitation damage of rigid biological materials, such as disintegration of renal stones and calcified tissue and collateral effects in pulsed ultrasound surgery.

  9. Axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom. Part I. Analysis of boundary layers and vertical circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Keita, E-mail: iga@aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564 (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    Axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom is investigated and its approximate solution with an analytic expression is obtained. The interior region, comprising the majority of the fluid, consists of two sub-regions. It is easily shown that a rigid-body rotational flow with the same rotation rate as that of the bottom is formed in the inner interior and that a potential flow with constant angular momentum occurs in the outer interior sub-region. However, the radius that divides these two sub-regions has not been determined. To determine this radius, the structures of the boundary layers are investigated in detail. These boundary layers surround the interior regions, and include the boundaries between the interior region and the side wall of the tank, between the interior and the bottom, and between the inner and outer interior sub-regions. By connecting the flows in the boundary layers, the vertical circulation as a whole is established, and consequently the radius dividing the two interior sub-regions is successfully determined as a function of the aspect ratio of the water layer region. This axisymmetric flow will be utilized as the basic state for investigating theoretically various non-axisymmetric phenomena observed in laboratory experiments. (paper)

  10. Jets from pulsed-ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles near a rigid boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brujan, Emil-Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of cavitation bubbles, generated from short (microsecond) pulses of ultrasound and situated near a rigid boundary, are investigated numerically. The temporal development of the bubble shape, bubble migration, formation of the liquid jet during bubble collapse, and the kinetic energy of the jet are investigated as a function of the distance between bubble and boundary. During collapse, the bubble migrates towards the boundary and the liquid jet reaches a maximum velocity between 80 m s −1 and 120 m s −1 , depending on the distance between bubble and boundary. The conversion of bubble energy to kinetic energy of the jet ranges from 16% to 23%. When the bubble is situated in close proximity to the boundary, the liquid jet impacts the boundary with its maximum velocity, resulting in an impact pressure of the order of tens of MPa. The rapid expansion of the bubble, the impact of the liquid jet onto the nearby boundary material, and the high pressure developed inside the bubble at its minimum volume can all contribute to the boundary material damage. The high pressure developed during the impact of the liquid jet onto the biological material and the shearing forces acting on the material surface as a consequence of the radial flow of the jet outward from the impact site are the main damage mechanisms of rigid biological materials. The results are discussed with respect to cavitation damage of rigid biological materials, such as disintegration of renal stones and calcified tissue and collateral effects in pulsed ultrasound surgery. (paper)

  11. Diffusion-accomodated rigid-body translations along grain boundaries in nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachurin, D.V.; Nazarov, A.A.; Shenderova, O.A.; Brenner, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    A model for the structural relaxation of grain boundaries (GBs) in nanostructured materials (NSMs) by diffusion-accommodated rigid body translations along GBs is proposed. The model is based on the results of recent computer simulations that have demonstrated that the GBs in NSMs retain a high-energy structure with random translational states due to severe geometrical constraints applied from neighboring grains (J. Appl. Phys. 78 (1995) 847; Scripta Metall. Mater. 33 (1995) 1245). The shear stresses within a GB caused by non-optimized rigid-body translations (RBTs) can be accommodated by diffusive flow of atoms along a GB. This mechanism is particularly important for low-angle and vicinal GBs, the energy of which noticeably depends on the rigid body translations. At moderate and high temperatures the model yields relaxation times that are very short and therefore GBs in NSMs can attain an equilibrium structure with optimized rigid body translations. In contrast, at room temperature the model predicts that in some metals non-equilibrium structures can be preserved for a long time, which may result in the observation of grain boundary structures different from those in coarse grained polycrystals

  12. Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    transport, (3) the process of wave transition in shallow water in the presence of strong alongshore currents, (4) the interaction between oblique...conducted in relatively deep water with bottom sediment comprised mostly of silt. One of the earlier studies for a wide shallow shelf was conducted off...wave asymmetry in combined flows and how this drives mass transport, (3) the process of wave transition in shallow water in the presence of strong

  13. Effects of the bottom boundary condition in numerical investigations of dense water cascading on a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Jarle; Alendal, Guttorm; Avlesen, Helge; Thiem, Øyvind

    2018-05-01

    The flow of dense water along continental slopes is considered. There is a large literature on the topic based on observations and laboratory experiments. In addition, there are many analytical and numerical studies of dense water flows. In particular, there is a sequence of numerical investigations using the dynamics of overflow mixing and entrainment (DOME) setup. In these papers, the sensitivity of the solutions to numerical parameters such as grid size and numerical viscosity coefficients and to the choices of methods and models is investigated. In earlier DOME studies, three different bottom boundary conditions and a range of vertical grid sizes are applied. In other parts of the literature on numerical studies of oceanic gravity currents, there are statements that appear to contradict choices made on bottom boundary conditions in some of the DOME papers. In the present study, we therefore address the effects of the bottom boundary condition and vertical resolution in numerical investigations of dense water cascading on a slope. The main finding of the present paper is that it is feasible to capture the bottom Ekman layer dynamics adequately and cost efficiently by using a terrain-following model system using a quadratic drag law with a drag coefficient computed to give near-bottom velocity profiles in agreement with the logarithmic law of the wall. Many studies of dense water flows are performed with a quadratic bottom drag law and a constant drag coefficient. It is shown that when using this bottom boundary condition, Ekman drainage will not be adequately represented. In other studies of gravity flow, a no-slip bottom boundary condition is applied. With no-slip and a very fine resolution near the seabed, the solutions are essentially equal to the solutions obtained with a quadratic drag law and a drag coefficient computed to produce velocity profiles matching the logarithmic law of the wall. However, with coarser resolution near the seabed, there may be a

  14. Large Eddy Simulations of a Bottom Boundary Layer Under a Shallow Geostrophic Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, S. P.; Simeonov, J.; Calantoni, J.

    2017-12-01

    The unstratified surf zone and the stratified shelf waters are often separated by dynamic fronts that can strongly impact the character of the Ekman bottom boundary layer. Here, we use large eddy simulations to study the turbulent bottom boundary layer associated with a geostrophic current on a stratified shelf of uniform depth. The simulations are initialized with a spatially uniform vertical shear that is in geostrophic balance with a pressure gradient due to a linear horizontal temperature variation. Superposed on the temperature front is a stable vertical temperature gradient. As turbulence develops near the bottom, the turbulence-induced mixing gradually erodes the initial uniform temperature stratification and a well-mixed layer grows in height until the turbulence becomes fully developed. The simulations provide the spatial distribution of the turbulent dissipation and the Reynolds stresses in the fully developed boundary layer. We vary the initial linear stratification and investigate its effect on the height of the bottom boundary layer and the turbulence statistics. The results are compared to previous models and simulations of stratified bottom Ekman layers.

  15. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  16. Field measurements of bottom boundary layer and suspend particle materials on Jyoban coast in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Sugimatsu, Kouichi; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Kawamata, Shigeru; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Udagawa, Toru; Suzuki, Akira

    2013-01-01

    To understand the characteristics of the bottom boundary layer (BBL), movements of suspended particle material (SPM) and its related radionuclide transport on Jyoban coast, the continuous monitoring of bottom environments using the mooring system and the intensive field survey of BBL with FRA-TRIPOD were performed. The observation results have shown the fundamental characteristics of BBL (vertical distributions of velocities and bottom roughness, etc.) and bottom turbidity variations. The turbidity at the shallow water depth (30 m) was strongly influenced by waves and turbid water generated on rough wave conditions was transported by the coastal currents with the several days period. Turbidities at the deeper depths (80 m and 130 m) were affected by semidiurnal internal tides. (author)

  17. Diffuse interface immersed boundary method for multi-fluid flows with arbitrarily moving rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra Kumar; Natarajan, Ganesh

    2018-05-01

    We present an interpolation-free diffuse interface immersed boundary method for multiphase flows with moving bodies. A single fluid formalism using the volume-of-fluid approach is adopted to handle multiple immiscible fluids which are distinguished using the volume fractions, while the rigid bodies are tracked using an analogous volume-of-solid approach that solves for the solid fractions. The solution to the fluid flow equations are carried out using a finite volume-immersed boundary method, with the latter based on a diffuse interface philosophy. In the present work, we assume that the solids are filled with a "virtual" fluid with density and viscosity equal to the largest among all fluids in the domain. The solids are assumed to be rigid and their motion is solved using Newton's second law of motion. The immersed boundary methodology constructs a modified momentum equation that reduces to the Navier-Stokes equations in the fully fluid region and recovers the no-slip boundary condition inside the solids. An implicit incremental fractional-step methodology in conjunction with a novel hybrid staggered/non-staggered approach is employed, wherein a single equation for normal momentum at the cell faces is solved everywhere in the domain, independent of the number of spatial dimensions. The scalars are all solved for at the cell centres, with the transport equations for solid and fluid volume fractions solved using a high-resolution scheme. The pressure is determined everywhere in the domain (including inside the solids) using a variable coefficient Poisson equation. The solution to momentum, pressure, solid and fluid volume fraction equations everywhere in the domain circumvents the issue of pressure and velocity interpolation, which is a source of spurious oscillations in sharp interface immersed boundary methods. A well-balanced algorithm with consistent mass/momentum transport ensures robust simulations of high density ratio flows with strong body forces. The

  18. Electrokinetic transport of rigid macroions in the thin double layer limit: a boundary element approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stuart A; Xin, Yao

    2005-08-15

    A boundary element (BE) procedure is developed to numerically calculate the electrophoretic mobility of highly charged, rigid model macroions in the thin double layer regime based on the continuum primitive model. The procedure is based on that of O'Brien (R.W. O'Brien, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 92 (1983) 204). The advantage of the present procedure over existing BE methodologies that are applicable to rigid model macroions in general (S. Allison, Macromolecules 29 (1996) 7391) is that computationally time consuming integrations over a large number of volume elements that surround the model particle are completely avoided. The procedure is tested by comparing the mobilities derived from it with independent theory of the mobility of spheres of radius a in a salt solution with Debye-Huckel screening parameter, kappa. The procedure is shown to yield accurate mobilities provided (kappa)a exceeds approximately 50. The methodology is most relevant to model macroions of mean linear dimension, L, with 1000>(kappa)L>100 and reduced absolute zeta potential (q|zeta|/k(B)T) greater than 1.0. The procedure is then applied to the compact form of high molecular weight, duplex DNA that is formed in the presence of the trivalent counterion, spermidine, under low salt conditions. For T4 DNA (166,000 base pairs), the compact form is modeled as a sphere (diameter=600 nm) and as a toroid (largest linear dimension=600 nm). In order to reconcile experimental and model mobilities, approximately 95% of the DNA phosphates must be neutralized by bound counterions. This interpretation, based on electrokinetics, is consistent with independent studies.

  19. Bottom boundary layer forced by finite amplitude long and short surface waves motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafty, H.; Lynett, P.

    2018-04-01

    A multiple-scale perturbation approach is implemented to solve the Navier-Stokes equations while including bottom boundary layer effects under a single wave and under two interacting waves. In this approach, fluid velocities and the pressure field are decomposed into two components: a potential component and a rotational component. In this study, the two components are exist throughout the entire water column and each is scaled with appropriate length and time scales. A one-way coupling between the two components is implemented. The potential component is assumed to be known analytically or numerically a prior, and the rotational component is forced by the potential component. Through order of magnitude analysis, it is found that the leading-order coupling between the two components occurs through the vertical convective acceleration. It is shown that this coupling plays an important role in the bottom boundary layer behavior. Its effect on the results is discussed for different wave-forcing conditions: purely harmonic forcing and impurely harmonic forcing. The approach is then applied to derive the governing equations for the bottom boundary layer developed under two interacting wave motions. Both motions-the shorter and the longer wave-are decomposed into two components, potential and rotational, as it is done in the single wave. Test cases are presented wherein two different wave forcings are simulated: (1) two periodic oscillatory motions and (2) short waves interacting with a solitary wave. The analysis of the two periodic motions indicates that nonlinear effects in the rotational solution may be significant even though nonlinear effects are negligible in the potential forcing. The local differences in the rotational velocity due to the nonlinear vertical convection coupling term are found to be on the order of 30% of the maximum boundary layer velocity for the cases simulated in this paper. This difference is expected to increase with the increase in wave

  20. Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjouy, C.; Ollivier, S.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Marsden, O.

    2015-01-01

    The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular – also called Von Neumann – regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

  1. ENERGETIC PARTICLE ANISOTROPIES AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARY. II. TRANSIENT FEATURES AND RIGIDITY DEPENDENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florinski, V.; Roux, J. A. le; Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    In the preceding paper, we showed that large second-order anisotropies of heliospheric ions measured by the Voyager 1 space probe during the August 2012 boundary crossing event could be explained by a magnetic shear across the heliopause preventing particles streaming along the magnetic field from escaping the inner heliosheath. According to Stone et al., the penetration distance of heliospheric ions into the outer heliosheath had a strong dependence on the particle’s Larmor radius. By comparing hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions with the same energy per nucleon, these authors argued that this effect must be attributed to larger cyclotron radii of heavier species rather than differences in velocity. We propose that gradient drift in a nonuniform magnetic field was the cause of both the large second-order anisotropies and the spatial differentiation based on the ion’s rigidity. A latitudinal gradient of magnetic field strength of about 10% per AU between 2012.7 and 2012.9 could have provided drift motion sufficient to match both LECP and CRS Voyager 1 observations. We explain the transient intensity dropout observed prior to the heliocliff using flux tube structures embedded in the heliosheath and magnetically connected to interstellar space. Finally, this paper reports a new indirect measurement of the plasma radial velocity at the heliopause on the basis of the time difference between two cosmic-ray telescopes measuring the same intensity dropout

  2. ENERGETIC PARTICLE ANISOTROPIES AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARY. II. TRANSIENT FEATURES AND RIGIDITY DEPENDENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florinski, V.; Roux, J. A. le [Department of Space Sciences, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    In the preceding paper, we showed that large second-order anisotropies of heliospheric ions measured by the Voyager 1 space probe during the August 2012 boundary crossing event could be explained by a magnetic shear across the heliopause preventing particles streaming along the magnetic field from escaping the inner heliosheath. According to Stone et al., the penetration distance of heliospheric ions into the outer heliosheath had a strong dependence on the particle’s Larmor radius. By comparing hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions with the same energy per nucleon, these authors argued that this effect must be attributed to larger cyclotron radii of heavier species rather than differences in velocity. We propose that gradient drift in a nonuniform magnetic field was the cause of both the large second-order anisotropies and the spatial differentiation based on the ion’s rigidity. A latitudinal gradient of magnetic field strength of about 10% per AU between 2012.7 and 2012.9 could have provided drift motion sufficient to match both LECP and CRS Voyager 1 observations. We explain the transient intensity dropout observed prior to the heliocliff using flux tube structures embedded in the heliosheath and magnetically connected to interstellar space. Finally, this paper reports a new indirect measurement of the plasma radial velocity at the heliopause on the basis of the time difference between two cosmic-ray telescopes measuring the same intensity dropout.

  3. The organizational and operational boundaries of triple bottom line reporting: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archel, Pablo; Fernández, Manuel; Larrinaga, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This article responds to Gray's (2002) call for normative research on social and environmental accounting (SEA) and Parker's (2005) call for active engagement in the process of designing SEA systems. More specifically, our investigation focuses on the study of boundary setting for triple bottom line (TBL) reporting, an issue that has been given more attention by practitioners than by researchers. The study reviews the consequences of boundary setting for the discharge of organizational accountability, from which it develops a framework to investigate TBL reporting boundaries and then reports on an empirical survey of best practice. It concludes that organizations are strategically setting and disclosing their boundaries instead of discharging their accountability and argues that such strategies have far-reaching consequences, because reporting boundaries are not only reflective of organizations but also have a constitutive role in their definition. A further consequence is that it calls into question the use of voluntary labeling, such as "in accordance" with Global Reporting Initiative; one implication being that further research into technical developments in TBL reporting could contribute to the discharge of organizational accountability.

  4. Hydrography and bottom boundary layer dynamics: Influence on inner shelf sediment mobility, Long Bay, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Leonard, L.A.; Snedden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the hydrography and bottom boundary-layer dynamics of two typical storm events affecting coastal North Carolina (NC); a hurricane and the passages of two small consecutive extratropical storms during November 2005. Two upward-looking 1200-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) were deployed on the inner shelf in northern Long Bay, NC at water depths of less than 15 m. Both instruments profiled the overlying water column in 0.35 in bins beginning at a height of 1.35 in above the bottom (mab). Simultaneous measurements of wind speed and direction, wave and current parameters, and acoustic backscatter were coupled with output from a bottom boundary layer (bbl) model to describe the hydrography and boundary layer conditions during each event. The bbl model also was used to quantify sediment transport in the boundary layer during each storm. Both study sites exhibited similar temporal variations in wave and current magnitude, however, wave heights during the November event were higher than waves associated with the hurricane. Near-bottom mean and subtidal currents, however, were of greater magnitude during the hurricane. Peak depth-integrated suspended sediment transport during the November event exceeded transport associated with the hurricane by 25-70%. Substantial spatial variations in sediment transport existed throughout both events. During both events, along-shelf sediment transport exceeded across-shelf transport and was related to the magnitude and direction of subtidal currents. Given the variations in sediment type across the bay, complex shoreline configuration, and local bathymetry, the sediment transport rates reported here are very site specific. However, the general hydrography associated with the two storms is representative of conditions across northern Long Bay. Since the beaches in the study area undergo frequent renourishment to counter the effects of beach erosion, the results of this study also are relevant to coastal

  5. Curvilinear immersed boundary method for simulating fluid structure interaction with complex 3D rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-08-01

    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A numerical method for solving the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear domains with complex immersed boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions the FSI algorithm is unconditionally unstable even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI

  6. A Viscous Fluid Flow through a Thin Channel with Mixed Rigid-Elastic Boundary: Variational and Asymptotic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the nonsteady Stokes flow in a thin tube structure composed by two thin rectangles with lateral elastic boundaries which are connected by a domain with rigid boundaries. After a variational approach of the problem which gives us existence, uniqueness, regularity results, and some a priori estimates, we construct an asymptotic solution. The existence of a junction region between the two rectangles imposes to consider, as part of the asymptotic solution, some boundary layer correctors that correspond to this region. We present and solve the problems for all the terms of the asymptotic expansion. For two different cases, we describe the order of steps of the algorithm of solving the problem and we construct the main term of the asymptotic expansion. By means of the a priori estimates, we justify our asymptotic construction, by obtaining a small error between the exact and the asymptotic solutions.

  7. Shape fabric development in rigid clast populations under pure shear: The influence of no-slip versus slip boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Meere, Patrick A.

    2015-09-01

    Shape fabrics of elliptical objects in rocks are usually assumed to develop by passive behavior of inclusions with respect to the surrounding material leading to shape-based strain analysis methods belonging to the Rf/ϕ family. A probability density function is derived for the orientational characteristics of populations of rigid ellipses deforming in a pure shear 2D deformation with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions. Using maximum likelihood a numerical method is developed for estimating finite strain in natural populations deforming for both mechanisms. Application to a natural example indicates the importance of the slip mechanism in explaining clast shape fabrics in deformed sediments.

  8. Rigid-body displacement perpendicular to a {211} twin boundary in Mo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gemperlová, Juliana; Vystavěl, Tomáš; Gemperle, Antonín; Pénisson, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2001), s. 1767-1778 ISSN 0141-8637 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010916; GA ČR GA202/99/1665 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : sigma=3 Mo bicrystal * rigid-body displacement * alfa- fringe method Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2001

  9. Engineering model for low-velocity impacts of multi-material cylinder on a rigid boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvare F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern ballistic problems involve the impact of multi-material projectiles. In order to model the impact phenomenon, different levels of analysis can be developed: empirical, engineering and simulation models. Engineering models are important because they allow the understanding of the physical phenomenon of the impact materials. However, some simplifications can be assumed to reduce the number of variables. For example, some engineering models have been developed to approximate the behavior of single cylinders when impacts a rigid surface. However, the cylinder deformation depends of its instantaneous velocity. At this work, an analytical model is proposed for modeling the behavior of a unique cylinder composed of two different metals cylinders over a rigid surface. Material models are assumed as rigid-perfectly plastic. Differential equation systems are solved using a numerical Runge-Kutta method. Results are compared with computational simulations using AUTODYN 2D hydrocode. It was found a good agreement between engineering model and simulation results. Model is limited by the impact velocity which is transition at the interface point given by the hydro dynamical pressure proposed by Tate.

  10. Inter-particle gap distribution and spectral rigidity of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with open boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krbalek, Milan; Hrabak, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP model) with open boundary conditions and present the analytical computations leading to the exact formula for distance clearance distribution, i.e. probability density for a clear distance between subsequent particles of the model. The general relation is rapidly simplified for the middle part of the one-dimensional lattice. Both the analytical formulas and their approximations are compared with the numerical representation of the TASEP model. Such a comparison is presented for particles occurring in the internal part as well as in the boundary part of the lattice. Furthermore, we introduce the pertinent estimation for the so-called spectral rigidity of the model. The results obtained are sequentially discussed within the scope of vehicular traffic theory.

  11. High speed observation of HIFU-induced cavitation cloud near curved rigid boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Z G; Wang, F B; Liu, S H; Wu, S J

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental study of the influence of surface curvature to the behaviour of HIFU-induced cavitation cloud. A Q-switched ruby pulse laser is used to induce cavitation nuclei in deionized water. A piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer (1.7 MHz) provides a focused ultrasound field to inspire the nucleus to cavitation cloud. A PZT probe type hydrophone is applied for measuring the HIFU sound field. It was observed that the motion of cavitation cloud located near the boundary is significantly influenced by the distance between cloud and boundary, as well as the curvature of the boundary. The curvature was defined by parameters λ and ξ. Convex boundary, concave boundary, and flat boundary correspond to ξ <1, ξ >1 and ξ = 1, respectively. Different behaviours of the cloud, including the migration of the cloud, the characteristics of oscillation, etc., were observed under different boundary curvatures by high-speed photography. Sonoluminescence of the acoustic cavitation bubble clouds were also studied to illustrate the characteristics of acoustic streaming

  12. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi [Division of Mechanical and Space Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kodama, Tetsuya [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: kobakazu@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  13. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  14. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  15. Velocity-based analysis of sediment incipient deposition in rigid boundary open channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Hafzullah; Safari, Mir Jafar Sadegh; Unal, Necati Erdem; Mohammadi, Mirali

    2017-11-01

    Drainage systems must be designed in a way to minimize undesired problems such as decrease in hydraulic capacity of the channel, blockage and transport of pollutants due to deposition of sediment. Channel design considering self-cleansing criteria are used to solve the sedimentation problem. Incipient deposition is one of the non-deposition self-cleansing design criteria that can be used as a conservative method for channel design. Experimental studies have been carried out in five different cross-section channels, namely trapezoidal, rectangular, circular, U-shape and V-bottom. Experiments were performed in a tilting flume using four different sizes of sands as sediment in nine different channel bed slopes. Two well-known methods, namely the Novak & Nalluri and Yang methods are considered for the analysis of sediment motion. Equations developed using experimental data are found to be in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that the design velocity depends on the shape of the channel cross-section. Rectangular and V-bottom channels need lower and higher incipient deposition velocities, respectively, in comparison with other channels.

  16. Bacterial diversity in the bottom boundary layer of the inner continental shelf of Oregon, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Bertagnolli, AD

    2011-06-21

    There have been few studies of the bacterial community within the bottom boundary layer (BBL) the turbulent region of the water column above the benthos in shallow seas. Typically, the BBL has large amounts of particulate organic matter suspended by turbulence, and it is often the first region of the water column to become hypoxic when oxygen declines. Communities at the surface (5 m) and in the BBL (1 to 10 m above the sea floor) were compared by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Multivariate statistical methods (hierarchical clustering, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM)) indicated that the microbial community of the BBL is distinct from the surface community. ANOSIM supported the distinction between surface and BBLs (R values 0.427 and 0.463, based on analysis with restriction enzymes BsuR1 and Hin6I, respectively, p < 0.1%). Six terminal restriction fragments showed an increase in abundance with depth. Cloning, screening and sequencing identified these as a novel environmental clade (Eastern North Pacific Chromatiales (ENPC) clade), the ARTIC96BD-19 clade of Gammaproteobacteria, the 6N14 and Agg8 clades of the phylum Planctomycetes, the OM60/NOR5 clade of Gammaproteobacteria, and uncultivated members of the Roseobacter clade in the MB11C09 and ULA23 subgroups. To the best of our knowledge, this analysis is the first to focus on the unique composition of microbial communities of the BBL in shallow, inner-shelf regions off the coast of Oregon, USA, and the first to report that an uncharacterized clade of Chromatiales is indigenous in this habitat.

  17. Bacterial diversity in the bottom boundary layer of the inner continental shelf of Oregon, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Bertagnolli, AD; Treusch, AH; Mason, OU; Stingl, Ulrich; Vergin, KL; Chan, F; Beszteri, B; Giovannoni, SJ

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies of the bacterial community within the bottom boundary layer (BBL) the turbulent region of the water column above the benthos in shallow seas. Typically, the BBL has large amounts of particulate organic matter suspended by turbulence, and it is often the first region of the water column to become hypoxic when oxygen declines. Communities at the surface (5 m) and in the BBL (1 to 10 m above the sea floor) were compared by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Multivariate statistical methods (hierarchical clustering, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM)) indicated that the microbial community of the BBL is distinct from the surface community. ANOSIM supported the distinction between surface and BBLs (R values 0.427 and 0.463, based on analysis with restriction enzymes BsuR1 and Hin6I, respectively, p < 0.1%). Six terminal restriction fragments showed an increase in abundance with depth. Cloning, screening and sequencing identified these as a novel environmental clade (Eastern North Pacific Chromatiales (ENPC) clade), the ARTIC96BD-19 clade of Gammaproteobacteria, the 6N14 and Agg8 clades of the phylum Planctomycetes, the OM60/NOR5 clade of Gammaproteobacteria, and uncultivated members of the Roseobacter clade in the MB11C09 and ULA23 subgroups. To the best of our knowledge, this analysis is the first to focus on the unique composition of microbial communities of the BBL in shallow, inner-shelf regions off the coast of Oregon, USA, and the first to report that an uncharacterized clade of Chromatiales is indigenous in this habitat.

  18. Investigation of nonlinear 2D bottom transportation dynamics in coastal zone on optimal curvilinear boundary adaptive grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhinov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the practically important tasks of hydrophysics for sea coastal systems is the problem of modeling and forecasting bottom sediment transportation. A number of problems connected to ship safety traffic, water medium condition near the coastal line etc. depends on forecasting bottom deposit transportation under natural and technogenic influences. Coastal systems are characterized by a complicated form of coastline - the presence of long, narrow and curvilinear peninsulas and bays. Water currents and waves near the beach are strongly depend on complicated coastal line and in turn, exert on the bottom sediment transportation near the shore. The use of rectangular grids in the construction of discrete models leads to significant errors in both the specification of boundary conditions and in the modeling of hydrophysical processes in the coastal zone. In this paper, we consider the construction of a finite-element approximation of the initial-boundary value problem for the spatially two-dimensional linearized equation of sediment transportation using optimal boundary-adaptive grid. First, the linearization of a spatially two-dimensional nonlinear parabolic equation on the time grid is performed-when the coefficients of the equation that are nonlinearly dependent on the bottom relief function are set on the previous time layer, and the corresponding initial conditions are used on the first time layer. The algorithm for constructing the grid is based on the procedure for minimizing the generalized Dirichlet functional. On the constructed grid, finite element approximation using bilinear basis functions is performed, which completes the construction of a discrete model for the given problem. The using of curvilinear boundary adaptive grids leads to decreasing of total grid number in 5-20 times and respectively the total modeling time and/or it allows to improve modeling accuracy.

  19. The effect of bottom boundary condition type on the behavior of adhesive contact of spherical probe on an elastic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X; Xu, W

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an investigation on the behavior of adhesive contact between a rigid sphere and an elastic film which is either perfectly bonded (case I) or in frictionless contact (case II) with a rigid substrate. By using linear fracture mechanics, we formulate an convenient semi-analytical approach to develop relations between the applied force, penetration depth and contact radius. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to verify the relationships. Our results reveal that the interfacial boundary conditions between the film and substrate have distinct effects on the adhesive contact behavior between the sphere and the film. The aim of the present study is to provide an instructive inspiration for controlling adhesion strength of the thin film subject to adhesive contact. (paper)

  20. Numerical study of ambient pressure for laser-induced bubble near a rigid boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, BeiBei; Zhang, HongChao; Han, Bing; Lu, Jian

    2012-07-01

    The dynamics of the laser-induced bubble at different ambient pressures was numerically studied by Finite Volume Method (FVM). The velocity of the bubble wall, the liquid jet velocity at collapse, and the pressure of the water hammer while the liquid jet impacting onto the boundary are found to increase nonlinearly with increasing ambient pressure. The collapse time and the formation time of the liquid jet are found to decrease nonlinearly with increasing ambient pressure. The ratios of the jet formation time to the collapse time, and the displacement of the bubble center to the maximal radius while the jet formation stay invariant when ambient pressure changes. These ratios are independent of ambient pressure.

  1. Finite element formulation of fluctuating hydrodynamics for fluids filled with rigid particles using boundary fitted meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Corato, M., E-mail: marco.decorato@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Slot, J.J.M., E-mail: j.j.m.slot@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hütter, M., E-mail: m.huetter@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); D' Avino, G., E-mail: gadavino@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maffettone, P.L., E-mail: pierluca.maffettone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Hulsen, M.A., E-mail: m.a.hulsen@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation–dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.

  2. Simulation of the steady-state energy transfer in rigid bodies, with convective-radiative boundary conditions, employing a minimum principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1992-08-01

    The energy transfer phenomenon in a rigid and opaque body that exchanges energy, with the environment, by convection and by diffuse thermal radiation is studied. The considered phenomenon is described by a partial differential equation, subjected to (nonlinear) boundary conditions. A minimum principle, suitable for a large class of energy transfer problems is presented. Some particular cases are simulated. (author)

  3. Cavitation and shock waves emission on the rigid boundary of water under mid-IR nanosecond laser pulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkin, A. V.; Bychkov, A. S.; Karabutov, A. A.; Potemkin, F. V.

    2018-06-01

    The processes of conversion of light energy into mechanical energy under mid-IR nanosecond laser excitation on a rigid boundary of water are investigated. Strong water absorption of Q-switched Cr:Yb:Ho:YSGG (2.85 µm, 6 mJ, 45 ns) laser radiation provides rapid energy deposition of ~8 kJ cm‑3 accompanied with strong mechanical transients. The evolution of shock waves and cavitation bubbles is studied using the technique of shadowgraphy and acoustic measurements, and the conversion efficiency into these energy channels for various laser fluence (0.75–2.0 J cm‑2) is calculated. For 6 mJ laser pulse with fluence of 2.0 J cm‑2, the conversion into shock wave energy reaches 67%. The major part of the shock wave energy (92%) is dissipated when the shock front travels the first 250 µm, and the remaining 8% is transferred to the acoustic far field. The calculated pressure in the vicinity of water-silicon interface is 0.9 GPa. Cavitation efficiency is significantly less and reaches up to 5% of the light energy. The results of the current study could be used in laser parameters optimization for micromachining and biological tissue ablation.

  4. Effect of cold cap boundary conditions on Joule-heating flow in the sloping bottom cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jiaju; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tsuzuki, Nobuyoshi; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2015-01-01

    Flow behavior in a sloping bottom cavity is observed to study the effect of cavity shape on flow behavior for Joule-heating flow. In the former study, a simple cubic cavity is applied to study the chaotic flow behavior of Joule-heating convection due to simplification as the real melter case is complicated. In this study, a sloping bottom cavity of the dimension one-fifth of the actual melter is applied to study the detail flow behavior. Carbon electrodes and top cooling surface are placed to make Joule-heating and the chaotic flow behavior. The working fluid is 80%wt Glycerol-water solution with LiCl as electrolyte. To observe the chaotic flow behavior spatio-temporally, Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) is applied in this experiment to obtain the one-dimensional continuous velocity profiles in the center line of cavity. Particle Image Velocity (PIV) method is also applied to observe the two-dimensional flow behavior and to examine the cross-check between UVP and PIV for the chaotic flow behavior with temperature distribution. The flow profiles of the former cubic cavity and the sloping bottom cavity are compared changing voltage magnitude and cooling temperature of the electrodes side to analyze the effect of cavity shape under Joule-heating condition. The flow behavior in the upper part of the sloping bottom cavity is similar to that in the cubic cavity in the experiment in whole cavity, the range down-flow achieved is larger than the cubic cavity. (author)

  5. Turbolent structures dependent on tidal currents in the bottom boundary layer of the Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavazzoni, S.; Crosera, F.

    1987-01-01

    The time series of horizontal and vertical turbolent velocity fluctutions u', w' have been recorded by means of an electromagnetic currentmeter in proximity of the bottom of a channel feeding the Venetian Lagoon. Simultaneous surface gradients have been recorded at two tide gauge stations, one upstream and the other downstream of the chosen test site. The time series of u', W' and u' w' values have been analysed using standard digital methods and, for each record, spectra, cross-spectra, cospectra, quadrature spectra, phase and coherence of u' and w' have been computed

  6. An Optimized Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layer Model for Arbitrary Bed Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Andrew. One of the sensitivities they studied included a three-order of magnitude variation in bottom ERDC/CHL TR-17-11 2 roughness length, the...Glenn (2000) model and σ in the present model. The Styles and Glenn (2000) model uses the secant method while the present model uses a variation ...The Sea, ed. E. D. Goldberg , I. N. McCave, J. J. O’Brien, J. H. Steele. 6, Interscience 538–577. Sorenson, K. S., O. S. Madsen, and L. D. Wright

  7. Turbulence in the presence of internal waves in the bottom boundary layer of the California inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachel M.; Simeonov, Julian A.; Calantoni, Joseph; Stacey, Mark T.; Variano, Evan A.

    2018-05-01

    Turbulence measurements were collected in the bottom boundary layer of the California inner shelf near Point Sal, CA, for 2 months during summer 2015. The water column at Point Sal is stratified by temperature, and internal bores propagate through the region regularly. We collected velocity, temperature, and turbulence data on the inner shelf at a 30-m deep site. We estimated the turbulent shear production ( P), turbulent dissipation rate ( ɛ), and vertical diffusive transport ( T), to investigate the near-bed local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget. We observed that the local TKE budget showed an approximate balance ( P ≈ ɛ) during the observational period, and that buoyancy generally did not affect the TKE balance. On a finer resolution timescale, we explored the balance between dissipation and models for production and observed that internal waves did not affect the balance in TKE at this depth.

  8. Impressions of the turbulence variability in a weakly stratified, flat-bottom deep-sea ‘boundary layer’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    The character of turbulent overturns in a weakly stratified deep-sea is investigated in some detail using 144 high-resolution temperature sensors at 0.7 m intervals, starting 5 m above the bottom. A 9-day, 1 Hz sampled record from the 912 m depth flat-bottom (<0.5% bottom-slope) mooring site in the

  9. Conditions for the occurrence of intense turbidity currents in the benthic boundary layer over a sloping bottom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhmur, VV

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of density currents over the continental slope of the ocean is investigated with allowance for the entrainment of the bottom sediments and background liquid in motion. A simple criterion is proposed for determining the possibility of evolving initially weak density currents into bottom

  10. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    variability in the internal tide, as well as transport of near-bottom sediment in the mid-self mud belt during the relatively quiescent summer months.

  11. Exploring the role of wave drag in the stable stratified oceanic and atmospheric bottom boundary layer in the cnrs-toulouse (cnrm-game) large stratified water flume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleczek, M.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Paci, A.; Calmer, R.; Belleudy, A.; Canonici, J.C.; Murguet, F.; Valette, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a laboratory experiment in the CNRM-GAME (Toulouse) stratified water flume of a stably stratified boundary layer, in order to quantify the momentum transfer due to orographically induced gravity waves by gently undulating hills in a boundary layer flow. In a stratified fluid, a

  12. Wave trapping by dual porous barriers near a wall in the presence of bottom undulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaligatla, R. B.; Manisha; Sahoo, T.

    2017-09-01

    Trapping of oblique surface gravity waves by dual porous barriers near a wall is studied in the presence of step type varying bottom bed that is connected on both sides by water of uniform depths. The porous barriers are assumed to be fixed at a certain distance in front of a vertical rigid wall. Using linear water wave theory and Darcy's law for flow past porous structure, the physical problem is converted into a boundary value problem. Using eigenfunction expansion in the uniform bottom bed region and modified mild-slope equation in the varying bottom bed region, the mathematical problem is handled for solution. Moreover, certain jump conditions are used to account for mass conservation at slope discontinuities in the bottom bed profile. To understand the effect of dual porous barriers in creating tranquility zone and minimum load on the sea wall, reflection coefficient, wave forces acting on the barrier and the wall, and surface wave elevation are computed and analyzed for different values of depth ratio, porous-effect parameter, incident wave angle, gap between the barriers and wall and slope length of undulated bottom. The study reveals that with moderate porosity and suitable gap between barriers and sea wall, using dual barriers an effective wave trapping system can be developed which will exert less wave force on the barriers and the rigid wall. The proposed wave trapping system is likely to be of immense help for protecting various facilities/ infrastructures in coastal environment.

  13. Wave Trapping by Dual Porous Barriers Near a Wall in the Presence of Bottom Undulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.B. Kaligatla; Manisha; T. Sahoo

    2017-01-01

    Trapping of oblique surface gravity waves by dual porous barriers near a wall is studied in the presence of step type varying bottom bed that is connected on both sides by water of uniform depths. The porous barriers are assumed to be fixed at a certain distance in front of a vertical rigid wall. Using linear water wave theory and Darcy's law for flow past porous structure, the physical problem is converted into a boundary value problem. Using eigenfunction expansion in the uniform bottom bed region and modified mild-slope equation in the varying bottom bed region, the mathematical problem is handled for solution. Moreover, certain jump conditions are used to account for mass conservation at slope discontinuities in the bottom bed profile. To understand the effect of dual porous barriers in creating tranquility zone and minimum load on the sea wall, reflection coefficient, wave forces acting on the barrier and the wall, and surface wave elevation are computed and analyzed for different values of depth ratio, porous-effect parameter, incident wave angle, gap between the barriers and wall and slope length of undulated bottom. The study reveals that with moderate porosity and suitable gap between barriers and sea wall, using dual barriers an effective wave trapping system can be developed which will exert less wave force on the barriers and the rigid wall. The proposed wave trapping system is likely to be of immense help for protecting various facilities/ infrastructures in coastal environment.

  14. Rigid Body Sampling and Individual Time Stepping for Rigid-Fluid Coupling of Fluid Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient and simple rigid-fluid coupling scheme with scientific programming algorithms for particle-based fluid simulation and three-dimensional visualization. Our approach samples the surface of rigid bodies with boundary particles that interact with fluids. It contains two procedures, that is, surface sampling and sampling relaxation, which insures uniform distribution of particles with less iterations. Furthermore, we present a rigid-fluid coupling scheme integrating individual time stepping to rigid-fluid coupling, which gains an obvious speedup compared to previous method. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  16. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2011-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  17. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P.; Schneider, O.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Vikas, P.; Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell'Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

  18. Bottom up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockenden, James

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the electric supply industries in Eastern Europe. The development of more competitive and efficient plant in Poland and work on emissions control ahead of EU membership; the Czech's complicated tariff system; Hungary's promised 8% return on investment in their electricity supply industry and its tariff problems; Bulgaria and Ukraine's desperate need for investment to build alternative plants to their aging nuclear plants; and demand outstripping supply in Romania are among the topics considered.. The viscous circle of poor service and low utility income is considered, and the top-down approach for breaking the cycle by improving plant efficiency, and the bottom up approach of improving plant income as practiced by Moldavia are explained. (UK)

  19. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  20. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  1. Large scale Brownian dynamics of confined suspensions of rigid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Brennan; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Donev, Aleksandar

    2017-12-01

    We introduce methods for large-scale Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulation of many rigid particles of arbitrary shape suspended in a fluctuating fluid. Our method adds Brownian motion to the rigid multiblob method [F. Balboa Usabiaga et al., Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 11(2), 217-296 (2016)] at a cost comparable to the cost of deterministic simulations. We demonstrate that we can efficiently generate deterministic and random displacements for many particles using preconditioned Krylov iterative methods, if kernel methods to efficiently compute the action of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa (RPY) mobility matrix and its "square" root are available for the given boundary conditions. These kernel operations can be computed with near linear scaling for periodic domains using the positively split Ewald method. Here we study particles partially confined by gravity above a no-slip bottom wall using a graphical processing unit implementation of the mobility matrix-vector product, combined with a preconditioned Lanczos iteration for generating Brownian displacements. We address a major challenge in large-scale BD simulations, capturing the stochastic drift term that arises because of the configuration-dependent mobility. Unlike the widely used Fixman midpoint scheme, our methods utilize random finite differences and do not require the solution of resistance problems or the computation of the action of the inverse square root of the RPY mobility matrix. We construct two temporal schemes which are viable for large-scale simulations, an Euler-Maruyama traction scheme and a trapezoidal slip scheme, which minimize the number of mobility problems to be solved per time step while capturing the required stochastic drift terms. We validate and compare these schemes numerically by modeling suspensions of boomerang-shaped particles sedimented near a bottom wall. Using the trapezoidal scheme, we investigate the steady-state active motion in dense suspensions of confined microrollers, whose

  2. Three-Dimensional Adjustment of Stratified Flow Over a Sloping Bottom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chapman, David

    2002-01-01

    This study focused on understanding how advection of density within the bottom boundary layer influence the three-dimensional structure, evolution, and dynamics of both the bottom boundary layer and the overlying (interior) flow...

  3. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  4. Birationally rigid varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhlikov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Birational rigidity is a striking and mysterious phenomenon in higher-dimensional algebraic geometry. It turns out that certain natural families of algebraic varieties (for example, three-dimensional quartics) belong to the same classification type as the projective space but have radically different birational geometric properties. In particular, they admit no non-trivial birational self-maps and cannot be fibred into rational varieties by a rational map. The origins of the theory of birational rigidity are in the work of Max Noether and Fano; however, it was only in 1970 that Iskovskikh and Manin proved birational superrigidity of quartic three-folds. This book gives a systematic exposition of, and a comprehensive introduction to, the theory of birational rigidity, presenting in a uniform way, ideas, techniques, and results that so far could only be found in journal papers. The recent rapid progress in birational geometry and the widening interaction with the neighboring areas generate the growing interest ...

  5. Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography

    KAUST Repository

    Dell, R.  W.; Pratt, L.  J.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom

  6. Elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Davis, L. C.

    1995-05-01

    We study the elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites with perfect bonding between fibers and matrix, and also with sliding boundary conditions. In the dilute region, there exists an exact analytical solution. Around the rigidity threshold we find the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio by decomposing the deformation into a compression mode and a rotation mode. For perfect bonding, both modes are important, whereas only the compression mode is operative for sliding boundary conditions. We employ the digital-image-based method and a finite element analysis to perform computer simulations which confirm our analytical predictions.

  7. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  8. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...

  9. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts......This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word...

  10. Three-Dimensional Adjustment of Stratified Flow Over a Sloping Bottom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chapman, David

    2002-01-01

    .... Results indicate the simple theories are relevant to the ocean and that the bottom boundary layer plays an important role in the behavior of ocean currents, even when the boundary layer is thin...

  11. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  12. Summer Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine using the Northeast Fishery Science Center standardized bottom trawl has been problematic due to large areas of hard...

  13. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  14. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  15. Rita Bottoms: Polyartist Librarian

    OpenAIRE

    Bottoms, Rita; Reti, Irene; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    2005-01-01

    Project Director Irene Reti conducted fourteen hours of interviews with Rita Bottoms, Head of Special Collections at the University Library, UC Santa Cruz, shortly before her retirement in March 2003. This oral history provides a vivid and intimate look at thirty-seven years behind the scenes in the library's Special Collections. For thirty-seven years Bottoms dedicated herself to collecting work by some of the most eminent writers and photographers of the twentieth century, includin...

  16. Rigid multibody system dynamics with uncertain rigid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr; Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS (France)

    2012-03-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction of a probabilistic model of uncertain rigid bodies for multibody system dynamics. We first construct a stochastic model of an uncertain rigid body by replacing the mass, the center of mass, and the tensor of inertia by random variables. The prior probability distributions of the stochastic model are constructed using the maximum entropy principle under the constraints defined by the available information. The generators of independent realizations corresponding to the prior probability distribution of these random quantities are further developed. Then several uncertain rigid bodies can be linked to each other in order to calculate the random response of a multibody dynamical system. An application is proposed to illustrate the theoretical development.

  17. Rigid body displacement fields of an in-plane-deformable curved beam based on conventional strain definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Joo; Min, Oak Key; Kim, Yong Woo

    1998-01-01

    To improve the convergence and the accuracy of a finite element, the finite element has to describe not only displacement and stress distributions in a static analysis but also rigid body displacements. In this paper, we consider the in-plane-deformable curved beam element to understand the descriptive capability of rigid body displacements of a finite element. We derive the rigid body displacement fields of a single finite element under various essential boundary conditions when the nodal displacements are caused by the rigid body displacement. We also examine the rigid body displacement fields of a quadratic curved beam element by employing the reduced minimization theory

  18. Rigidity of Glasses and Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, M. F.

    1998-03-01

    The simple yet powerful ideas of percolation theory have found their way into many different areas of research. In this talk we show how RIGIDITY PERCOLATION can be studied at a similar level of sophistication, using a powerful new program THE PEBBLE GAME (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. E) 53, 3682 (1996). that uses an integer algorithm. This program can analyse the rigidity of two and three dimensional networks containing more than one million bars and joints. We find the total number of floppy modes, and find the critical behavior as the network goes from floppy to rigid as more bars are added. We discuss the relevance of this work to network glasses, and how it relates to experiments that involve the mechanical properties like hardness and elasticity of covalent glassy networks like Ge_xAs_ySe_1-x-y and dicuss recent experiments that suggest that the rigidity transition may be first order (Xingwei Feng, W. J.Bresser and P. Boolchand, Phys. Rev. Lett 78), 4422 (1997).. This approach is also useful in macromolecules and proteins, where detailed information about the rigid domain structure can be obtained.

  19. Bottom-linked innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative......Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...

  20. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas A.; Lang, Robert J.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented. PMID:26473037

  1. Evaluation for rigidity of box construction of nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    A huge box-shaped structure (hereafter, called box construction) of reinforced concrete is presently utilized as the reactor building structure in nuclear power plants. Evaluation of the rigidity of the huge box construction is required for making a vibration analysis model of nuclear reactor buildings. It is necessary to handle the box construction as the plates to which the force in plane is applied. This paper describes that the bending theory in elementary beam theory is equivalent to a peculiar, orthogonally anisotropic plate, the shearing rigidity and film rigidity in y direction of which are put to infinity and the Poisson's ratio is put to zero, viewed from the two-dimensional theory of elasticity. The form factor of 1.2 for shearing deformation in rectangular cross section was calculated from the parabolic distribution of shearing stress intensity, and it is the maximum value. The factor is equal to 1.2 for slender beams, but smaller than 1.2 for short and thick beams, having tendency to converge to 1.0. The non-conformity of boundary conditions regarding the shearing force at the both ends of cantilevers does not affect very seriously the evaluation of shearing rigidity. From the above results, it was found that the application of the theory to the box construction was able to give the rigidity evaluation with sufficient engineering accuracy. The theory can also be applied to the evaluation of tube type ultrahigh buildings. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Bottom and top physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.; Fridman, A.; Gilman, F.J.; Herten, G.; Hinchliffe, I.; Jawahery, A.; Sanda, A.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schubert, K.R.

    1987-09-01

    The production of bottom quarks at the SSC and the formalism and phenomenology of observing CP violation in B meson decays is discussed. The production of a heavy t quark which decays into a real W boson, and what we might learn from its decays is examined

  3. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  4. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE–PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ∼6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE–PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE–PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation. (paper)

  5. Ocean Bottom Seismic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    EPR, the Clipperton and Orozco fracture zones , and along the coast of Mexico, were recorded for a two month period using ocean bottom seismometers...67. Tuthill, J.D., Lewis, B.R., and Garmany, J.D., 1981, Stonely waves, Lopez Island noise, and deep sea noise from I to 5 hz, Marine Geophysical...Patrol Pell Marine Science Library d/o Coast Guard R & D Center University of Rhode Island Avery Point Narragansett Bay Campus Groton, CT 06340

  6. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive......, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...

  7. Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.

  8. Functionally rigid bistable [2]rotaxanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sune; Leung, Ken C-F; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    defines an unambiguous distance of 1.5 nm over which the ring moves between the MPTTF and NP units. The degenerate NP/NP [2]rotaxane was used to investigate the shuttling barrier by dynamic 1H NMR spectroscopy for the movement of the CBPQT4+ ring across the new rigid spacer. It is evident from...... better control over the position of the ring component in the ground state but also for control over the location of the CBPQT4+ ring during solution-state switching experiments, triggered either chemically (1H NMR) or electrochemically (cyclic voltammetry). In this instance, the use of the rigid spacer......Two-station [2]rotaxanes in the shape of a degenerate naphthalene (NP) shuttle and a nondegenerate monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF)/NP redox-controllable switch have been synthesized and characterized in solution. Their dumbbell-shaped components are composed of polyether chains interrupted...

  9. Rigid body dynamics of mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    The second volume of Rigid Body Dynamics of Mechanisms covers applications via a systematic method for deriving model equations of planar and spatial mechanisms. The necessary theoretical foundations have been laid in the first volume that introduces the theoretical mechanical aspects of mechatronic systems. Here the focus is on the application of the modeling methodology to various examples of rigid-body mechanisms, simple planar ones as well as more challenging spatial problems. A rich variety of joint models, active constraints, plus active and passive force elements is treated. The book is intended for self-study by working engineers and students concerned with the control of mechanical systems, i.e. robotics, mechatronics, vehicles, and machine tools. The examples included are a likely source from which to choose models for university lectures.

  10. Associative memory through rigid origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms such as Miura Ori have proven useful in diverse contexts since they have only one degree of freedom that is easily controlled. We combine the theory of rigid origami and associative memory in frustrated neural networks to create structures that can ``learn'' multiple generic folding mechanisms and yet can be robustly controlled. We show that such rigid origami structures can ``recall'' a specific learned mechanism when induced by a physical impulse that only need resemble the desired mechanism (i.e. robust recall through association). Such associative memory in matter, seen before in self-assembly, arises due to a balance between local promiscuity (i.e., many local degrees of freedom) and global frustration which minimizes interference between different learned behaviors. Origami with associative memory can lead to a new class of deployable structures and kinetic architectures with multiple context-dependent behaviors.

  11. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  12. Signature of Thermal Rigidity Percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    To explore the role that temperature and percolation of rigidity play in determining the macroscopic properties, we propose a model that adds translational degrees of freedom to the spins of the well known Ising hamiltonian. In particular, the Ising model illustrate the longstanding idea that the growth of correlations on approach to a critical point could be describable in terms of the percolation of some sort of p hysical cluster . For certain parameters of this model we observe two well defined peaks of C V , that suggest the existence of two kinds of p hysical percolation , namely connectivity and rigidity percolation. Thermal fluctuations give rise to two different kinds of elementary excitations, i.e. droplets and configuron, as suggested by Angell in the framework of a bond lattice model approach. The later is reflected in the fluctuations of redundant constraints that gives stability to the structure and correlate with the order parameter

  13. Torsional rigidity, isospectrality and quantum graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Kaganovskiy, Leon

    2017-01-01

    We study torsional rigidity for graph and quantum graph analogs of well-known pairs of isospectral non-isometric planar domains. We prove that such isospectral pairs are distinguished by torsional rigidity. (paper)

  14. Rigidity of monodromies for Appell's hypergeometric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshishige Haraoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For monodromy representations of holonomic systems, the rigidity can be defined. We examine the rigidity of the monodromy representations for Appell's hypergeometric functions, and get the representations explicitly. The results show how the topology of the singular locus and the spectral types of the local monodromies work for the study of the rigidity.

  15. Ocean bottom seismometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, William A., Jr.

    Seismometers have been placed on the ocean bottom for about 45 years, beginning with the work of Ewing and Vine [1938], and their current use to measure signals from earthquakes and explosions constitutes an important research method for seismological studies. Approximately 20 research groups are active in the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Japan, Canada, and the United States. A review of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) instrument characteristics and OBS scientific studies may be found in Whitmarsh and Lilwall [1984]. OBS instrumentation is also important for land seismology. The recording systems that have been developed have been generally more sophisticated than those available for land use, and several modern land seismic recording systems are based on OBS recording system designs.The instrumentation developed for OBS work was the topic of a meeting held at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in July 1982. This article will discuss the state of the art of OBS Technology, some of the problems remaining to be solved, and some of the solutions proposed and implemented by OBS scientists and engineers. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of existing instrumentation.

  16. On Hydroelastic Body-Boundary Condition of Floating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu

    1996-01-01

    A general linear body boundary condition of hydroelastic analysis of arbitrary shaped floating structures generalizes the classic kinematic rigid-body (Timman-Newman) boundary condition for seakeeping problems. The new boundary condition is consistent with the existing theories under certain...

  17. Geometry, rigidity, and group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Farb, Benson; Zimmer, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The study of group actions is more than a hundred years old but remains to this day a vibrant and widely studied topic in a variety of mathematic fields. A central development in the last fifty years is the phenomenon of rigidity, whereby one can classify actions of certain groups, such as lattices in semi-simple Lie groups. This provides a way to classify all possible symmetries of important spaces and all spaces admitting given symmetries. Paradigmatic results can be found in the seminal work of George Mostow, Gergory Margulis, and Robert J. Zimmer, among others.The p

  18. Partial ring currents and cosmic ray magnetic cutoff rigidity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, M.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction on cosmic ray modulation and a description of the magnetosphere, and of some physical processes occurring within its boundaries are presented. 20 geomagnetic storms are analysed together with the cosmic ray intensities during these storms as measured by Neutron Monitors. Using a semi-empirical method, the variations in the magnetic cutoff rigidity for the mountain stations Pic du Midi and Jungfraujoch are deduced. These stations are the most sensitive for measuring these variations. The analysis shows that all analyzed storms have an asymmetric development phase. Often the asymmetry even continues during part of the recovery phase. It is shown that variations in magnetic cutoff rigidity occur only during the asymmetric phase of the storm. The largest variations are found when the cosmic ray station is located in the late afternoon-midnight sector. (Auth.)

  19. THE RIGIDITY OF THE EARTH'S INNER CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. BULLEN

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine and assess, in the
    light of recent evidence, the theory lliat the Earth's inner core has
    a significant rigidity.
    The presenee of an inner core in the Earth is revealed from
    observations of the seismie pliase PKP in the « sliadow zone » for
    which the epicentral distance A lies in the range 105" < A < 143".
    Miss I. Lehmann (r in 1936, followed by Gutenberg and Richter (2
    in 1938, atlrihuted these observations to tlie presence of an inner
    core; and Jeffreys (3 in 1939 applied Airy's theory of diffraetion
    near a caustic to sliow that the alternative theory of diffraetion
    round the outer boundary of the centrai core was not capable of
    explaining tlie observations in the shadow zone. The existence of the
    inner core has been fairly generallv accepted sinee tliis ealculation
    of Jeffreys.

  20. Bottom and top physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.; Gilman, F.J.; Herten, G.; Hinchliffe, I.; Jawahery, A.; Sanda, A.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schubert, K.R.; Fridman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The production of heavy quark flavors occurs primarily by the strong interactions and offers another arena in which to test QCD and to probe gluon distributions at very small values of x. Such quarks can also be produced as decay products of possible new, yet undiscovered particles, e.g., Higgs bosons, and therefore are a necessary key to reconstructing such particles. The decay products of heavy quarks, especially from their semileptonic decays, can themselves form a background to other new physics processes. The production of bottom quarks at the SSC and the formalism and phenomenology of observing CP violation in B meson decays is discussed. The production of a heavy t quark which decays into a real W boson, and what might be learned from its decays is examined

  1. Cylinder-type bottom reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, C.; Fritz, R.; Kissel, K.F.; Schoening, J.

    1982-01-01

    Proposal of a bottom reflector for gas-cooled nuclear reactor plants with a pebble bed of spherical fuel elements, where the horizontal forces acting from the core and the bottom reflector upon the side reflector are equally distributed. This is attained by the upper edge of the bottom reflector being placed levelly and by the angle of inclination of the recesses varying. (orig.) [de

  2. Bottom sample taker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbarenko, O V; Slonimskiy, L D

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the samples taken during offshore exploration from benthic sediments, the proposed design of the sample taker has a device which makes it possible to regulate the depth of submersion of the core lifter. For this purpose the upper part of the core lifter has an inner delimiting ring, and within the core lifter there is a piston suspended on a cable. The position of the piston in relation to the core lifter is previously assigned depending on the compactness of the benthic sediments and is fixed by tension of the cable which is held by a clamp in the cover of the core taker housing. When lowered to the bottom, the core taker is released, and under the influence of hydrostatic pressure of sea water, it enters the sediments. The magnitude of penetration is limited by the distance between the piston and the stopping ring. The piston also guarantees better preservation of the sample when the instrument is lifted to the surface.

  3. Rewetting during bottom flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1984-11-01

    A qualitative description of the rewetting process during bottom reflooding of a PWR is presented. Rewetting is seen as the end product of a path taken over a heat transfer surface which defines how the surface heat flux varies with surface temperature and with distance from the rewetting front. The main components are liquid contact, vapour convection and thermal radiation. In this paper the general topography of the heat transfer surface is deduced from consideration of the ways in which the conditions of the vapour and liquid phases in the flow are expected to vary with distance from the rewetting front. The deduced surface has a heat transfer ridge which decreases in height, and whose steep face moves to lower temperatures, with increasing distance from the rewetting front, and a valley which becomes negative with increasing distance. There is a different surface for each position along a subchannel, strongly influenced by the proximity of spacer grids, and by whether these grids are wet or dry. The form of this family of heat transfer surfaces is used to explain the phenomena of reflooding of clusters of heated rods. (U.K.)

  4. Effect of elastic boundaries in hydrostatic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobuev, A. N.; Tolstonogov, A. P.

    2010-03-01

    The possibility and conditions of use of the Bernoulli equation for description of an elastic pipeline were considered. It is shown that this equation is identical in form to the Bernoulli equation used for description of a rigid pipeline. It has been established that the static pressure entering into the Bernoulli equation is not identical to the pressure entering into the impulse-momentum equation. The hydrostatic problem on the pressure distribution over the height of a beaker with a rigid bottom and elastic walls, filled with a liquid, was solved.

  5. Shallow flows with bottom topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, van G.J.F.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Theunissen, R.; Rodi, W.; Uhlmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of dipolar vortex flows in a shallow fluid layer with bottom topography. Two cases are considered: a step topography and a linearly sloping bottom. It is found that viscous effects – i.e., no-slip conditions at the non-horizontal

  6. Chiral Orientation of Skeletal Muscle Cells Requires Rigid Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninghao Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconstitution of tissue morphology with inherent left–right (LR asymmetry is essential for tissue/organ functions. For skeletal muscle, the largest tissue in mammalian organisms, successful myogenesis requires the regulation of the LR asymmetry to form the appropriate muscle alignment. However, the key factor for reproducing the LR asymmetry of skeletal tissues in a controllable, engineering context remains largely unknown. Recent reports indicate that cell chirality may underlie the LR development in tissue morphogenesis. Here, we report that a rigid substrate is required for the chirality of skeletal muscle cells. By using alternating micropatterned cell-adherent and cell-repellent stripes on a rigid substrate, we found that C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts exhibited a unidirectional tilted orientation with respect to the stripe boundary. Importantly, such chiral orientation was reduced when soft substrates were used instead. In addition, we demonstrated the key role of actin stress fibers in the formation of the chiral orientation. This study reveals that a rigid substrate is required for the chiral pattern of myoblasts, paving the way for reconstructing damaged muscle tissue with inherent LR asymmetry in the future.

  7. Topological orders in rigid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors study a new kind of ordering topological order in rigid states (the states with no local gapless excitations). This paper concentrates on characterization of the different topological orders. As an example the authors discuss in detail chiral spin states of 2+1 dimensional spin systems. Chiral spin states are described by the topological Chern-Simons theories in the continuum limit. The authors show that the topological orders can be characterized by a non-Abelian gauge structure over the moduli space which parametrizes a family of the model Hamiltonians supporting topologically ordered ground states. In 2 + 1 dimensions, the non-Abelian gauge structure determines possible fractional statistics of the quasi-particle excitations over the topologically ordered ground states. The dynamics of the low lying global excitations is shown to be independent of random spatial dependent perturbations. The ground state degeneracy and the non-Abelian gauge structures discussed in this paper are very robust, even against those perturbations that break translation symmetry. The authors also discuss the symmetry properties of the degenerate ground states of chiral spin states. The authors find that some degenerate ground states of chiral spin states on torus carry non-trivial quantum numbers of the 90 degrees rotation

  8. Dimensionality controls cytoskeleton assembly and metabolism of fibroblast cells in response to rigidity and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Ochsner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Various physical parameters, including substrate rigidity, size of adhesive islands and micro-and nano-topographies, have been shown to differentially regulate cell fate in two-dimensional (2-D cell cultures. Cells anchored in a three-dimensional (3-D microenvironment show significantly altered phenotypes, from altered cell adhesions, to cell migration and differentiation. Yet, no systematic analysis has been performed that studied how the integrated cellular responses to the physical characteristics of the environment are regulated by dimensionality (2-D versus 3-D.Arrays of 5 or 10 microm deep microwells were fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. The actin cytoskeleton was compared for single primary fibroblasts adhering either to microfabricated adhesive islands (2-D or trapped in microwells (3-D of controlled size, shape, and wall rigidity. On rigid substrates (Young's Modulus = 1 MPa, cytoskeleton assembly within single fibroblast cells occurred in 3-D microwells of circular, rectangular, square, and triangular shapes with 2-D projected surface areas (microwell bottom surface area and total surface areas of adhesion (microwell bottom plus wall surface area that inhibited stress fiber assembly in 2-D. In contrast, cells did not assemble a detectable actin cytoskeleton in soft 3-D microwells (20 kPa, regardless of their shapes, but did so on flat, 2-D substrates. The dependency on environmental dimensionality was also reflected by cell viability and metabolism as probed by mitochondrial activities. Both were upregulated in 3-D cultured cells versus cells on 2-D patterns when surface area of adhesion and rigidity were held constant.These data indicate that cell shape and rigidity are not orthogonal parameters directing cell fate. The sensory toolbox of cells integrates mechanical (rigidity and topographical (shape and dimensionality information differently when cell adhesions are confined to 2-D or occur in a 3-D space.

  9. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  10. Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography

    KAUST Repository

    Dell, R. W.

    2015-03-25

    Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom boundary layers to date have concentrated on constant bottom slopes. We present a study of how diffusive boundary layers interact with various idealized topography, such as changes in bottom slope, slopes with corrugations and isolated sills. We use linear theory and numerical simulations in the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) model to show changes in bottom slope can cause convergences and divergences within the boundary layer, in turn causing fluid exchanges that reach far into the overlying fluid and alter stratification far from the bottom. We also identify several different regimes of boundary-layer behaviour for topography with oceanographically relevant size and shape, including reversing flows and overflows, and we develop a simple theory that predicts the regime boundaries, including what topographies will generate overflows. As observations also suggest there may be overflows in deep canyons where the flow passes over isolated bumps and sills, this parameter range may be particularly significant for understanding the role of boundary layers in the deep ocean.

  11. Emerging boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    of temporal and material variables have been applied as a means of exploring the processes leading to their socioconceptual anchorage. The outcome of this analysis is a series of interrelated, generative boundary principles, including boundaries as markers, articulations, process-related devices, and fixation...

  12. Changing Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing...

  13. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    2010-01-01

    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work...

  14. Bottom friction optimization for a better barotropic tide modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Martial; Lathuilière, Cyril; Son Hoang, Hong; Baraille, Rémy

    2015-04-01

    At a regional scale, barotropic tides are the dominant source of variability of currents and water heights. A precise representation of these processes is essential because of their great impacts on human activities (submersion risks, marine renewable energies, ...). Identified sources of error for tide modelling at a regional scale are the followings: bathymetry, boundary forcing and dissipation due to bottom friction. Nevertheless, bathymetric databases are nowadays known with a good accuracy, especially over shelves, and global tide models performances are better than ever. The most promising improvement is thus the bottom friction representation. The method used to estimate bottom friction is the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) which consists in the approximation of the gradient based on a fixed number of cost function measurements, regardless of the dimension of the vector to be estimated. Indeed, each cost function measurement is obtained by randomly perturbing every component of the parameter vector. An important feature of SPSA is its relative ease of implementation. In particular, the method does not require the development of tangent linear and adjoint version of the circulation model. Experiments are carried out to estimate bottom friction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) in barotropic mode (one isopycnal layer). The study area is the Northeastern Atlantic margin which is characterized by strong currents and an intense dissipation. Bottom friction is parameterized with a quadratic term and friction coefficient is computed with the water height and the bottom roughness. The latter parameter is the one to be estimated. Assimilated data are the available tide gauge observations. First, the bottom roughness is estimated taking into account bottom sediment natures and bathymetric ranges. Then, it is estimated with geographical degrees of freedom. Finally, the impact of the estimation of a mixed quadratic/linear friction

  15. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  16. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  17. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  18. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  19. Flexible and rigid cystoscopy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Jason R; Waterman, Bradley J; Jarrard, David F; Hedican, Sean P; Bruskewitz, Reginald C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the tolerability of rigid versus flexible cystoscopy in men. Similar studies, however, have not been performed in women. We sought to determine whether office-based flexible cystoscopy was better tolerated than rigid cystoscopy in women. Following full IRB approval, women were prospectively randomized in a single-blind manner. Patients were randomized to flexible or rigid cystoscopy and draped in the lithotomy position to maintain blinding of the study. Questionnaires evaluated discomfort before, during, and after cystoscopy. Thirty-six women were randomized to flexible (18) or rigid (18) cystoscopy. Indications were surveillance (16), hematuria (15), recurrent UTIs (2), voiding dysfunction (1), and other (2). All questionnaires were returned by 31/36 women. Using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS), median discomfort during the procedure for flexible and rigid cystoscopy were 1.4 and 1.8, respectively, in patients perceiving pain. Median recalled pain 1 week later was similar at 0.8 and 1.15, respectively. None of these differences were statistically significant. Flexible and rigid cystoscopy are well tolerated in women. Discomfort during and after the procedure is minimal in both groups. Urologists should perform either procedure in women based on their preference and skill level.

  20. Abyssal Upwelling and Downwelling and the role of boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Ferrari, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    The bottom-intensified mixing activity arising from the interaction of internal tides with bottom topography implies that the dianeutral advection in the ocean interior is downwards, rather than upwards as is required by continuity. The upwelling of Bottom Water through density surfaces in the deep ocean is however possible because of the sloping nature of the sea floor. A budget study of the abyss (deeper than 2000m) will be described that shows that while the upwelling of Bottom Water might be 25 Sv, this is achieved by very strong upwelling in the bottom turbulent boundary layer (of thickness 50m) of 100 Sv and strong downwelling in the ocean interior of 75 Sv. This downwelling occurs within 10 degrees of longitude of the continental boundaries. This near-boundary confined strong upwelling and downwelling clearly has implications for the Stommel-Arons circulation.

  1. Pressing technology for large bottoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, L.

    1986-01-01

    The technology has been selected of a circular plate bent into the shape of a trough, for pressing bottoms of pressure vessels from a circular plate of large diameter. The initial sheet is first bent in the middle by heating with the edges remaining straight. These are then welded longitudinally by electroslag welding and the circular shape is flame cut. The result will be a plate with a straight surface in the middle with raised edges which may be pressed into the desired shape. In this manner it is also possible to press pressure vessel bottoms with tube couplings from plates which are thickened in the middle and drilled; additional welding is then eliminated. Deformation from heat treatment may be avoided by the use of a fixture in the shape of a ring with a groove into which is fixed the edge of the bottom. During hardening of the bottom it will be necessary to care for the withdrawal of vapours and gases which would hamper uniform cooling. Bottom hardening with the grill and the cupola downwards has been proven. Deformation which occurs during treatment may to a certain extent be removed by calibration which cannot, however, be made without special fixtures and instruments. (J.B.)

  2. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  3. Open strings in the SL(2, R) WZWN model with solution for a rigidly rotating string

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Larsen, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Boundary conditions and gluing conditions for open strings and D-branes in the SL(2, R) WZWN model, corresponding to AdS , are discussed. Some boundary conditions and gluing conditions previously considered in the literature are shown to be incompatible with the variation principle. We then consi......Boundary conditions and gluing conditions for open strings and D-branes in the SL(2, R) WZWN model, corresponding to AdS , are discussed. Some boundary conditions and gluing conditions previously considered in the literature are shown to be incompatible with the variation principle. We...... then consider open string boundary conditions corresponding to a certain field-dependent gluing condition. This allows us to consider open strings with constant energy and angular momentum. Classically, these open strings naturally generalize the open strings in flat Minkowski space. For rigidly rotating open...

  4. Dynamic response and stability of semi-rigid frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Yasein, Omar Ali

    This dissertation presents a method to determine the load capacity as well as end member forces and deformations of frames with partial rigid joint connections by using the direct stiffness method. The connections are modeled as rotational springs attached at the ends of framed members. The lumped mass method, which is an approximate method, and the distributed mass method, which is an exact method, are also presented to compute the natural frequency of frames. The effects of the axial forces and the flexibility of joint connections are both included. Furthermore, the time-dependent response of semi-rigid frames subjected to periodic axial forces is formulated. The harmonic function is approximated by dividing the periodic function into n intervals and the periodic axial forces are evaluated at each time interval as constant forces using 'piecewise approximation'. The regions of instability of frames with different joint stiffness were determined using the characteristic equation method. The time-dependent part of the differential equation for free vibration of a framed member subjected to a harmonic force can be written in the form of the Mathieu-Hill equation where all characteristics of the Mathieu-Hill equation solutions can be used to determine the boundaries of instability regions.

  5. Slip Morphology of Elastic Strips on Frictional Rigid Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tomohiko G; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Hirofumi

    2017-04-28

    The morphology of an elastic strip subject to vertical compressive stress on a frictional rigid substrate is investigated by a combination of theory and experiment. We find a rich variety of morphologies, which-when the bending elasticity dominates over the effect of gravity-are classified into three distinct types of states: pinned, partially slipped, and completely slipped, depending on the magnitude of the vertical strain and the coefficient of static friction. We develop a theory of elastica under mixed clamped-hinged boundary conditions combined with the Coulomb-Amontons friction law and find excellent quantitative agreement with simulations and controlled physical experiments. We also discuss the effect of gravity in order to bridge the difference in the qualitative behaviors of stiff strips and flexible strings or ropes. Our study thus complements recent work on elastic rope coiling and takes a significant step towards establishing a unified understanding of how a thin elastic object interacts vertically with a solid surface.

  6. Identifying Floppy and Rigid Regions in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Kuhn, L. A.

    1998-03-01

    In proteins it is possible to separate hard covalent forces involving bond lengths and bond angles from other weak forces. We model the microstructure of the protein as a generic bar-joint truss framework, where the hard covalent forces and strong hydrogen bonds are regarded as rigid bar constraints. We study the mechanical stability of proteins using FIRST (Floppy Inclusions and Rigid Substructure Topography) based on a recently developed combinatorial constraint counting algorithm (the 3D Pebble Game), which is a generalization of the 2D pebble game (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, ``Generic Rigidity: The Pebble Game'', Phys. Rev. Lett.) 75, 4051-4054 (1995) for the special class of bond-bending networks (D. J. Jacobs, "Generic Rigidity in Three Dimensional Bond-bending Networks", Preprint Aug (1997)). This approach is useful in identifying rigid motifs and flexible linkages in proteins, and thereby determines the essential degrees of freedom. We will show some preliminary results from the FIRST analysis on the myohemerythrin and lyozyme proteins.

  7. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  8. Decay of the Bottom mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Van Phi; Duong Anh Duc

    1992-12-01

    The channels of the decay of Bottom mesons are deduced from a selection rule and the Lagrangians which are formed on the LxO(4) invariance and the principle of minimal structure. The estimation of the corresponding decay probabilities are considered. (author). 21 refs

  9. Bottom reflector for power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, C.; Kissel, K.F.; Schoening, J.; Schwiers, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    In pebble bed reactors erosion and damage due fuel elements movement on the surface of the bottom reflector should be minimized. This can be achieved by chamfering and/or rounding the cover edges of the graphite blocks and the edges between the drilled holes and the surface of the graphite block. (orig.) [de

  10. A physical approach to the numerical treatment of boundaries in gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, G.

    1981-01-01

    Two types of boundaries are considered: rigid walls, and artificial (open) boundaries which were arbitrarily drawn somewhere across a wider flow field. A set of partial differential equations (typically, the Euler equations) has an infinite number of solutions, each one defined by a set of initial and boundary conditions. The initial conditions remaining the same, any change in the boundary conditions will produce a new solution. To pose the problem well, a necessary and sufficient number of boundary conditions are prescribed.

  11. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  12. Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2016-01-01

    We consider the quantum version of Arnold’s generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. We show how the method can be extended to cosets, generalising the linear rigid rotor. As examples, we consider all connected and simply connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid. (paper)

  13. Durable bistable auxetics made of rigid solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiao; Liu, Lu; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano

    2018-02-01

    Bistable Auxetic Metamaterials (BAMs) are a class of monolithic perforated periodic structures with negative Poisson's ratio. Under tension, a BAM can expand and reach a second state of equilibrium through a globally large shape transformation that is ensured by the flexibility of its elastomeric base material. However, if made from a rigid polymer, or metal, BAM ceases to function due to the inevitable rupture of its ligaments. The goal of this work is to extend the unique functionality of the original kirigami architecture of BAM to a rigid solid base material. We use experiments and numerical simulations to assess performance, bistability and durability of rigid BAMs at 10,000 cycles. Geometric maps are presented to elucidate the role of the main descriptors of BAM architecture. The proposed design enables the realization of BAM from a large palette of materials, including elastic-perfectly plastic materials and potentially brittle materials.

  14. Rocking Rotation of a Rigid Disk Embedded in a Transversely Isotropic Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric problem of rocking rotation of a circular rigid disk embedded in a finite depth of a transversely isotropic half-space is analytically addressed. The rigid disk is assumed to be in frictionless contact with the elastic half-space. By virtue of appropriate Green's functions, the mixed boundary value problem is written as a dual integral equation. Employing further mathematical techniques, the integral equation is reduced to a well-known Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The results related to the contact stress distribution across the disk region and the equivalent rocking stiffness of the system are expressed in terms of the solution of the obtained Fredholm  integral  equation. When the rigid disk is located on the surface or at the remote boundary, the exact closed-form solutions are presented. For verification purposes, the limiting case of an isotropic half-space is considered and the results are verified with those available in the literature. The jump behavior in the results at the edge of the rigid disk for the case of an infinitesimal embedment is highlighted analytically for the first time. Selected numerical results are depicted for the contact stress distribution across the disk region, rocking stiffness of the system, normal stress, and displacement components along the radial axis. Moreover, effects of anisotropy on the rocking stiffness factor are discussed in detail.

  15. How soft is that pillow? The perceptual localization of the hand and the haptic assessment of contact rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Assaf; Karniel, Amir; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2011-04-27

    A new haptic illusion is described, in which the location of the mobile object affects the perception of its rigidity. There is theoretical and experimental support for the notion that limb position sense results from the brain combining ongoing sensory information with expectations arising from prior experience. How does this probabilistic state information affect one's tactile perception of the environment mechanics? In a simple estimation process, human subjects were asked to report the relative rigidity of two simulated virtual objects. One of the objects remained fixed in space and had various coefficients of stiffness. The other virtual object had constant stiffness but moved with respect to the subjects. Earlier work suggested that the perception of an object's rigidity is consistent with a process of regression between the contact force and the perceived amount of penetration inside the object's boundary. The amount of penetration perceived by the subject was affected by varying the position of the object. This, in turn, had a predictable effect on the perceived rigidity of the contact. Subjects' reports on the relative rigidity of the object are best accounted for by a probabilistic model in which the perceived boundary of the object is estimated based on its current location and on past observations. Therefore, the perception of contact rigidity is accounted for by a stochastic process of state estimation underlying proprioceptive localization of the hand.

  16. Effect of bottom stress formulation on modelled flow and turbidity maxima in cross-sections of tide-dominated estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schramkowski, G.P.; de Swart, H.E.; Schuttelaars, H.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model with a prognostic salinity field is used to investigate the effect of a partial slip bottom boundary condition on lateral flow and sediment distribution in a transect of a tidally dominated channel. The transect has a symmetrical Gaussian cross-channel bottom

  17. Effect of rigid inclusions on sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, M.N.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of recent theoretical studies on the effect of inert, rigid inclusions on the sintering of ceramic powder matrices are examined and compared with experimental data. The densification of glass matrix composites with inclusion volume fractions of ≤0.15 can be adequately explained by Scherer's theory for viscous sintering with rigid inclusions. Inclusions cause a vast reduction in the densification rates of polycrystalline matrix composites even at low inclusion volume fractions. Models put forward to explain the sintering of polycrystalline matrix composites are discussed

  18. Type number and rigidity of fibred surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, P E

    2001-01-01

    Infinitesimal l-th order bendings, 1≤l≤∞, of higher-dimensional surfaces are considered in higher-dimensional flat spaces (for l=∞ an infinitesimal bending is assumed to be an analytic bending). In terms of the Allendoerfer type number, criteria are established for the (r,l)-rigidity (in the terminology of Sabitov) of such surfaces. In particular, an (r,l)-infinitesimal analogue is proved of the classical theorem of Allendoerfer on the unbendability of surfaces with type number ≥3 and the class of (r,l)-rigid fibred surfaces is distinguished

  19. Rigid origami vertices: conditions and forcing sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Abel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an intrinsic necessary and sufficient condition for single-vertex origami crease patterns to be able to fold rigidly.  We classify such patterns in the case where the creases are pre-assigned to be mountains and valleys as well as in the unassigned case.  We also illustrate the utility of this result by applying it to the new concept of minimal forcing sets for rigid origami models, which are the smallest collection of creases that, when folded, will force all the other creases to fold in a prescribed way.

  20. Evaluating a method for automated rigid registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Vester-Christensen, Martin; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    to point distance. T-test for common mean are used to determine the performance of the two methods (supported by a Wilcoxon signed rank test). The performance influence of sampling density, sampling quantity, and norms is analyzed using a similar method.......We evaluate a novel method for fully automated rigid registration of 2D manifolds in 3D space based on distance maps, the Gibbs sampler and Iterated Conditional Modes (ICM). The method is tested against the ICP considered as the gold standard for automated rigid registration. Furthermore...

  1. Cascadia Initiative Ocean Bottom Seismograph Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, B.; Aderhold, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) provided instrumentation and operations support for the Cascadia Initiative community experiment. This experiment investigated geophysical processes across the Cascadia subduction zone through a combination of onshore and offshore seismic data. The recovery of Year 4 instruments in September 2015 marked the conclusion of a multi-year experiment that utilized 60 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBSs) specifically designed for the subduction zone boundary, including shallow/deep water deployments and active fisheries. The new instruments featured trawl-resistant enclosures designed by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) for shallow deployment [water depth ≤ 500 m], as well as new deep-water instruments designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Existing OBSIP instruments were also deployed along the Blanco Transform Fault and on the Gorda Plate through complementary experiments. Station instrumentation included weak and strong motion seismometers, differential pressure gauges (DPG) and absolute pressure gauges (APG). All data collected from the Cascadia, Blanco, and Gorda deployments is available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). The Cascadia Initiative is the largest amphibious seismic experiment undertaken to date, encompassing a diverse technical implementation and demonstrating an effective structure for community experiments. Thus, the results from Cascadia serve as both a technical and operational resource for the development of future community experiments, such as might be contemplated as part of the SZ4D Initiative. To guide future efforts, we investigate and summarize the quality of the Cascadia OBS data using basic metrics such as instrument recovery and more advanced metrics such as noise characteristics through power spectral density analysis. We also use this broad and diverse

  2. Axisymmetric scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid fixed spheroid

    OpenAIRE

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustic scattering of a zeroth-order Bessel acoustic beam centered on a rigid fixed (oblate or prolate) spheroid is provided. The unknown scattering coefficients of the spheroid are determined by solving a system of linear equations derived for the Neumann boundary condition. Numerical results for the modulus of the backscattered pressure (\\theta = \\pi) in the near-field an...

  3. Bottom friction. A practical approach to modelling coastal oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanos, Rodolfo; Jensen, Palle; Kofoed-Hansen, Henrik; Tornsfeldt Sørensen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Coastal processes imply the interaction of the atmosphere, the sea, the coastline and the bottom. The spatial gradients in this area are normally large, induced by orographic and bathymetric features. Although nowadays it is possible to obtain high-resolution bathymetry, the details of the seabed, e.g. sediment type, presence of biological material and living organisms are not available. Additionally, these properties as well as bathymetry can also be highly dynamic. These bottom characteristics are very important to describe the boundary layer of currents and waves and control to a large degree the dissipation of flows. The bottom friction is thus typically a calibration parameter in numerical modelling of coastal processes. In this work, we assess this process and put it into context of other physical processes uncertainties influencing wind-waves and currents in the coastal areas. A case study in the North Sea is used, particularly the west coast of Denmark, where water depth of less than 30 m cover a wide fringe along the coast, where several offshore wind farm developments are being carried out. We use the hydrodynamic model MIKE 21 HD and the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW to simulate atmosphere and tidal induced flows and the wind wave generation and propagation. Both models represent state of the art and have been developed for flexible meshes, ideal for coastal oceanography as they can better represent coastlines and allow a variable spatial resolution within the domain. Sensitivity tests to bottom friction formulations are carried out into context of other processes (e.g. model forcing uncertainties, wind and wave interactions, wind drag coefficient). Additionally, a map of varying bottom properties is generated based on a literature survey to explore the impact of the spatial variability. Assessment of different approaches is made in order to establish a best practice regarding bottom friction and coastal oceanographic modelling. Its contribution is also

  4. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-05

    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  5. Combinatorial and Algorithmic Rigidity: Beyond Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    44]. Theorems of Maxwell- Laman type were ob- tained in [9, 15, 43]. 2 3. Counting and Enumeration. As anticipated in the project, we relied on methods...decompositions. Graphs and Combinatorics, 25:219–238, 2009. [43] I. Streinu and L. Theran. Slider-pinning rigidity: a Maxwell- Laman -type theorem. Discrete and

  6. Birationally rigid varieties. I. Fano varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhlikov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The theory of birational rigidity of rationally connected varieties generalises the classical rationality problem. This paper gives a survey of the current state of this theory and traces its history from Noether's theorem and the Lueroth problem to the latest results on the birational superrigidity of higher-dimensional Fano varieties. The main components of the method of maximal singularities are considered.

  7. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  8. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  9. Rigidity Sensing Explained by Active Matter Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marcq, Philippe; Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko; Prost, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of traction forces exerted by living animal cells on their environment is a monotonically increasing and approximately sigmoidal function of the stiffness of the external medium. We rationalize this observation using active matter theory, and propose that adaptation to substrate rigidity results from an interplay between passive elasticity and active contractility.

  10. About deformation and rigidity in relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome

    2007-01-01

    The notion of deformation involves that of rigidity. In relativity, starting from Born's early definition of rigidity, some other ones have been proposed, offering more or less interesting aspects but also accompanied of undesired or even pathological properties. In order to clarify the origin of these difficulties presented by the notion of rigidity in relativity, we analyze with some detail significant aspects of the unambiguous classical, Newtonian, notion. In particular, the relative character of its kinetic definition is pointed out, allowing to predict and to understand the limitations imposed by Herglotz-Noether theorem. Also, its equivalent dynamic definition is obtained and, in contrast, its absolute character is shown. But in spite of this absolute character, the dynamic definition is shown to be not extensible to relativity. The metric deformation of Minkowski space by the presence of a gravitational field is interpreted as a universal deformation, and it is shown that, under natural conditions, only a simple deformation law is possible, relating locally, but in an one-to-one way, gravitational fields and gauge classes of two-forms. We argue that fields of unit vectors associated to the internal gauge class of two-forms of every space-time (and, in particular, of Minkowski space-time) are the relativistic analogues of the classical accelerated observers, i.e. of the classical rigid motions. Some other consequences of the universal law of gravitational deformation are commented

  11. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf

  12. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  13. Bottom head failure program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier this year the NRC staff presented a Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan (SECY-89-123) to the Commission and initiated work on that plan. Two of the near-term issues in that plan involve failure of the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel. These two issues are (1) depressurization and DCH and (2) BWR Mark I Containment Shell Meltthrough. ORNL has developed models for several competing failure mechanisms for BWRs. INEL has performed analytical and experimental work directly related to bottom head failure in connection with several programs. SNL has conducted a number of analyses and experimental activities to examine the failure of LWR vessels. In addition to the government-sponsored work mentioned above, EPRI and FAI performed studies on vessel failure for the Industry Degraded Core Rulemaking Program (IDCOR). EPRI examined the failure of a PWR vessel bottom head without penetrations, as found in some Combustion Engineering reactors. To give more attention to this subject as called for by the revised Severe Accident Research Plan, two things are being done. First, work previously done is being reviewed carefully to develop an overall picture and to determine the reliability of assumptions used in those studies. Second, new work is being planned for FY90 to try to complete a reasonable understanding of the failure process. The review and planning are being done in close cooperation with the ACRS. Results of this exercise will be presented in this paper

  14. Experiments on bubble dynamics between a free surface and a rigid wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. M.; Cui, P.; Wang, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted where the underwater bubble oscillates between two boundaries, a free surface and a horizontal rigid wall. The motion features of both the bubble and the free surface were investigated, via the consideration of two key factors, i.e., the non-dimensional distances from the bubble to the two boundaries. To support the investigation, experiments were conducted in the first place where the bubble oscillates near only one of the two boundaries. Then the other boundary was inserted at different positions to observe the changes in the motion features, including the types, maximum speed and height of the water spike and skirt, the form and speed of the jets, and bubble shapes. Correspondence is found between the motion features of the free surface and different stages of bubble oscillation. Intriguing details such as gas torus around the jet, double jets, bubble entrapment, and microjet of the water spike, etc., are observed.

  15. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Koul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.

  16. Homogenization models for thin rigid structured surfaces and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Jean-Jacques; Maurel, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    A homogenization method for thin microstructured surfaces and films is presented. In both cases, sound hard materials are considered, associated with Neumann boundary conditions and the wave equation in the time domain is examined. For a structured surface, a boundary condition is obtained on an equivalent flat wall, which links the acoustic velocity to its normal and tangential derivatives (of the Myers type). For a structured film, jump conditions are obtained for the acoustic pressure and the normal velocity across an equivalent interface (of the Ventcels type). This interface homogenization is based on a matched asymptotic expansion technique, and differs slightly from the classical homogenization, which is known to fail for small structuration thicknesses. In order to get insight into what causes this failure, a two-step homogenization is proposed, mixing classical homogenization and matched asymptotic expansion. Results of the two homogenizations are analyzed in light of the associated elementary problems, which correspond to problems of fluid mechanics, namely, potential flows around rigid obstacles.

  17. Consistent boundary conditions for open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, Ulf; Rocek, Martin; Nieuwenhuizen, Peter van

    2003-01-01

    We study boundary conditions for the bosonic, spinning (NSR) and Green-Schwarz open string, as well as for (1+1)-dimensional supergravity. We consider boundary conditions that arise from (1) extremizing the action, (2) BRST, rigid or local supersymmetry, or κ(Siegel)-symmetry of the action, (3) closure of the set of boundary conditions under the symmetry transformations, and (4) the boundary limits of bulk Euler-Lagrange equations that are 'conjugate' to other boundary conditions. We find corrections to Neumann boundary conditions in the presence of a bulk tachyon field. We discuss a boundary superspace formalism. We also find that path integral quantization of the open string requires an infinite tower of boundary conditions that can be interpreted as a smoothness condition on the doubled interval; we interpret this to mean that for a path-integral formulation of open strings with only Neuman boundary conditions, the description in terms of orientifolds is not just natural, but is actually fundamental

  18. The two-body problem of a pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Vereshchagin, M.; Gózdziewski, K.

    2012-01-01

    n this paper we consider the two-body problem of a spherical pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere. Due to the rotational and "re-labelling" symmetries, the system is shown to possess conservation of angular momentum and circulation. We follow a reduction procedure similar to that undertaken...... in the study of the two-body problem of a rigid body and a sphere so that the computed reduced non-canonical Hamiltonian takes a similar form. We then consider relative equilibria and show that the notions of locally central and planar equilibria coincide. Finally, we show that Riemann's theorem on pseudo......-rigid bodies has an extension to this system for planar relative equilibria....

  19. From Wage Rigidities to Labour Market Rigidities: A Turning-Point in Explaining Equilibrium Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Guerrazzi; Nicola Meccheri

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a critical discussion of the concept of labour market rigidity relevant to explaining unemployment. Starting from Keynes’s own view, we discuss how the concept of labour market flexibility has changed over time, involving nominal or real wage flexibility, contract flexibility or labour market institution flexibility. We also provide a critical assessment of the factors that lead the search framework highlighting labour market rigidities (frictions) to challenge the more wide...

  20. Acoustic scattering on spheroidal shapes near boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloh, Touvia

    2016-11-01

    A new expression for the Lamé product of prolate spheroidal wave functions is presented in terms of a distribution of multipoles along the axis of the spheroid between its foci (generalizing a corresponding theorem for spheroidal harmonics). Such an "ultimate" singularity system can be effectively used for solving various linear boundary-value problems governed by the Helmholtz equation involving prolate spheroidal bodies near planar or other boundaries. The general methodology is formally demonstrated for the axisymmetric acoustic scattering problem of a rigid (hard) spheroid placed near a hard/soft wall or inside a cylindrical duct under an axial incidence of a plane acoustic wave.

  1. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  2. boundary dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Camurdan

    1998-01-01

    are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.

  3. Financial Constraints and Nominal Price Rigidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco; Balleer, Almut; Hristov, Nikolay

    This paper investigates how financial market imperfections and the frequency of price adjustment interact. Based on new firm-level evidence for Germany, we document that financially constrained firms adjust prices more often than their unconstrained counterparts, both upwards and downwards. We show...... that these empirical patterns are consistent with a partial equilibrium menu-cost model with a working capital constraint. We then use the model to show how the presence of financial frictions changes profits and the price distribution of firms compared to a model without financial frictions. Our results suggest...... that tighter financial constraints are associated with higher nominal rigidities, higher prices and lower output. Moreover, in response to aggregate shocks, aggregate price rigidity moves substantially, the response of inflation is dampened, while output reacts more in the presence of financial frictions...

  4. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A.

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  5. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  6. Rigid cohomology over Laurent series fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazda, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors develop a new theory of p-adic cohomology for varieties over Laurent series fields in positive characteristic, based on Berthelot's theory of rigid cohomology. Many major fundamental properties of these cohomology groups are proven, such as finite dimensionality and cohomological descent, as well as interpretations in terms of Monsky-Washnitzer cohomology and Le Stum's overconvergent site. Applications of this new theory to arithmetic questions, such as l-independence and the weight monodromy conjecture, are also discussed. The construction of these cohomology groups, analogous to the Galois representations associated to varieties over local fields in mixed characteristic, fills a major gap in the study of arithmetic cohomology theories over function fields. By extending the scope of existing methods, the results presented here also serve as a first step towards a more general theory of p-adic cohomology over non-perfect ground fields. Rigid Cohomology over Laurent Series Fields...

  7. Dimensional Metrology of Non-rigid Parts Without Specialized Inspection Fixtures =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Vahid

    Quality control is an important factor for manufacturing companies looking to prosper in an era of globalization, market pressures and technological advances. Functionality and product quality cannot be guaranteed without this important aspect. Manufactured parts have deviations from their nominal (CAD) shape caused by the manufacturing process. Thus, geometric inspection is a very important element in the quality control of mechanical parts. We will focus here on the geometric inspection of non-rigid (flexible) parts which are widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. Non-rigid parts can have different forms in a free-state condition compared with their nominal models due to residual stress and gravity loads. To solve this problem, dedicated inspection fixtures are generally used in industry to compensate for the displacement of such parts for simulating the use state in order to perform geometric inspections. These fixtures and the installation and inspection processes are expensive and time-consuming. Our aim in this thesis is therefore to develop an inspection method which eliminates the need for specialized fixtures. This is done by acquiring a point cloud from the part in a free-state condition using a contactless measuring device such as optical scanning and comparing it with the CAD model for the deviation identification. Using a non-rigid registration method and finite element analysis, we numerically inspect the profile of a non-rigid part. To do so, a simulated displacement is performed using an improved definition of displacement boundary conditions for simulating unfixed parts. In addition, we propose a numerical method for dimensional metrology of non-rigid parts in a free-state condition based on the arc length measurement by calculating the geodesic distance using the Fast Marching Method (FMM). In this thesis, we apply our developed methods on industrial non-rigid parts with free-form surfaces simulated with different types of

  8. Modeling the Flexural Rigidity of Rod Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Mohammad; Knox, Barry E.; Ahmadi, Aphrodite

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrate eyes, the rod photoreceptor has a modified cilium with an extended cylindrical structure specialized for phototransduction called the outer segment (OS). The OS has numerous stacked membrane disks and can bend or break when subjected to mechanical forces. The OS exhibits axial structural variation, with extended bands composed of a few hundred membrane disks whose thickness is diurnally modulated. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have observed OS flexing and disruption in live transgenic Xenopus rods. Based on the experimental observations, we introduce a coarse-grained model of OS mechanical rigidity using elasticity theory, representing the axial OS banding explicitly via a spring-bead model. We calculate a bending stiffness of ∼105 nN⋅μm2, which is seven orders-of-magnitude larger than that of typical cilia and flagella. This bending stiffness has a quadratic relation to OS radius, so that thinner OS have lower fragility. Furthermore, we find that increasing the spatial frequency of axial OS banding decreases OS rigidity, reducing its fragility. Moreover, the model predicts a tendency for OS to break in bands with higher spring number density, analogous to the experimental observation that transgenic rods tended to break preferentially in bands of high fluorescence. We discuss how pathological alterations of disk membrane properties by mutant proteins may lead to increased OS rigidity and thus increased breakage, ultimately contributing to retinal degeneration. PMID:23442852

  9. Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)

  10. Lateral rigidity of cracked concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, A.; Chesi, C.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical results are discussed on the lateral rigidity of reinforced concrete structures with a given crack distribution. They have been favourably checked with experimental results for cylindrical shells under the effect of a thermal gradient producing vertical cracking or vertical plus horizontal cracking. The main effects characterizing the concrete behaviour are: (1) The shear transfer across a crack; (2) The shear transfer degradation after cyclic loading; (3) The tension stiffening provided by the concrete between crack and crack, in the normal stress transfer; (4) The temperature effect on the elastic moduli of concrete, when cracks are of thermal origin. Only the 1st effect is discussed on an experimental basis. Two broad cathegories of reinforced concrete structures have been investigated in this respect: shear walls of buildings and cylindrical containment structures. The main conclusions so far reached are: (1) Vertical cracks are unlikely to decrease the lateral rigidity to less than 80% of the original one, and to less than 90% when they do not involve the entire thickness of the wall; (2) The appearence of horizontal cracks can reduce the lateral rigidity by some 30% or more; (3) A noticeable but not yet evaluated influence is shown by cyclic loading. (orig.)

  11. Stresses in Circular Plates with Rigid Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikanov, N. L.; Koryagin, S. I.; Sharkov, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Calculations of residual stress fields are carried out by numerical and static methods, using the flat cross-section hypothesis. The failure of metal when exposed to residual stresses is, in most cases, brittle. The presence in the engineering structures of rigid elements often leads to the crack initiation and structure failure. This is due to the fact that rigid elements under the influence of external stresses are stress concentrators. In addition, if these elements are fixed by welding, the residual welding stresses can lead to an increase in stress concentration and, ultimately, to failure. The development of design schemes for such structures is a very urgent task for complex technical systems. To determine the stresses in a circular plate with a welded circular rigid insert under the influence of an external load, one can use the solution of the plane stress problem for annular plates in polar coordinates. The polar coordinates of the points are the polar radius and the polar angle, and the stress state is determined by normal radial stresses, tangential and shearing stresses. The use of the above mentioned design schemes, formulas, will allow more accurate determination of residual stresses in annular welded structures. This will help to establish the most likely directions of failure and take measures at the stages of designing, manufacturing and repairing engineering structures to prevent these failures. However, it must be taken into account that the external load, the presence of insulation can lead to a change in the residual stress field.

  12. 49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section...

  13. Coupling characteristics of rigid body motion and elastic deformation of a 3-PRR parallel manipulator with flexible links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuping; Mills, James K.; Cleghorn, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of multibody dynamics with flexible links is a challenging task, which not only involves the effect of rigid body motion on elastic deformations, but also includes the influence of elastic deformations on rigid body motion. This paper presents coupling characteristics of rigid body motions and elastic motions of a 3-PRR parallel manipulator with three flexible intermediate links. The intermediate links are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams with pinned-pinned boundary conditions based on the assumed mode method (AMM). Using Lagrange multipliers, the fully coupled equations of motions of the flexible parallel manipulator are developed by incorporating the rigid body motions with elastic motions. The mutual dependence of elastic deformations and rigid body motions are investigated from the analysis of the derived equations of motion. Open-loop simulation without joint motion controls and closed-loop simulation with joint motion controls are performed to illustrate the effect of elastic motion on rigid body motions and the coupling effect amongst flexible links. These analyses and results provide valuable insight to the design and control of the parallel manipulator with flexible intermediate links

  14. CT-3DRA registration for radiosurgery treatments: a comparison among rigid, affine and non rigid approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancanello, J.; Loeckx, D.; Francescon, P.; Calvedon, C.; Avanzo, M.; Cora, S.; Scalchi, P.; Cerveri, P.; Ferrigno, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims at comparing rigid, affine and Local Non Rigid (LNR) CT-3D Rotational Angiography (CT-3DRA) registrations based on mutual information. 10 cranial and 1 spinal cases have been registered by rigid and affine transformations; while LNR has been applied to the cases where residual deformation must be corrected. An example of CT-3DRA registration without regularization term and an example of LNR using the similarity criterion and the regularization term as well as 3D superposition of the 3DRA before and after the registration without the regularization term are presented. All the registrations performed by rigid transformation converged to an acceptable solution. The results about the robustness test in axial direction are reported. Conclusions: For cranial cases, affine transformation endowed with threshold-segmentation pre-processing can be considered the most favourable solution for almost all registrations; for some cases, LNR provides more accurate results. For the spinal case rigid transformation is the most suitable when immobilizing patient during examinations; in this case the increase of accuracy by using LNR registrations seems to be not significant

  15. ANALYSIS OF A RIGID WALL IN AN ELASTIC WEIGHTY HALF-PLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dmitrieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of stress-strain state of a rigid wall in an elastic weighty half-plane with a broken outline is carried out. To this end, the auxiliary problem of displacements definition in an elastic weighty quarter-plane was solved. Ritz method derived a formula to determine the displacements of elastic flat wedge boundaries in view of its own weight. On the basis of the received expressions the algorithm of displacements definition of a crack in an elastic weighty half-plane with a broken outline is developed. Analytical calculation of a rigid vertical wall located in an elastic weighty half-plane under the influence of a horizontal load, carried out by two methods: by Zhemochkin's method and finite difference method. In the problem statement an elastic half-plane is considered a model of the soil medium, therefore, only compressive normal stresses can arise on the connection of the wall with the elastic base. This assumption implies occurrence of discontinuities soil medium, and leads for the wall to an emergence of two dividing points of boundary conditions. The determination of the boundaries contact of the wall with the elastic half-plane, are not known in advance, is performed by iteratively way at each step set the position of dividing points of boundary conditions and the system of canonical equations of a corresponding method is written.  If tensile stresses appear in wall-base contact and/or there is overlap of the crack edges occurs, then proceeds to the next iteration. Analysis of the results shows that the bending moment and shear forces in sections of the rigid wall in a broken weighty half-plane differ slightly from the same diagrams constructed for a rigid wall in an elastic weightless half-plane. The verification of the results of analytical calculation with the results received by using the LIRA 9.6 that implements the finite element method is obtained. The calculation results for the rigid wall in an elastic weighty half

  16. Boundary terms in Nambu-Goto string action

    OpenAIRE

    Hadasz, Leszek; Wegrzyn, Pawel

    1994-01-01

    We investigate classical strings defined by the Nambu-Goto action with the boundary term added. We demonstrate that the latter term has a significant bearing on the string dynamics. It is confirmed that new action terms that depend on higher order derivatives of string coordinates cannot be considered as continuous perturbations from the starting string functional. In the case the boundary term reduces to the Gauss-Bonnet term, a stability analysis is performed on the rotating rigid string so...

  17. Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.

  18. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid

  19. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  20. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  1. Rigidity of complete generic shrinking Ricci solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Zhou, Jundong; Wang, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Let (Mn , g , X) be a complete generic shrinking Ricci soliton of dimension n ≥ 3. In this paper, by employing curvature inequalities, the formula of X-Laplacian for the norm square of the trace-free curvature tensor, the weak maximum principle and the estimate of the scalar curvature of (Mn , g) , we prove some rigidity results for (Mn , g , X) . In particular, it is showed that (Mn , g , X) is isometric to Rn or a finite quotient of Sn under a pointwise pinching condition. Moreover, we establish several optimal inequalities and classify those shrinking solitons for equalities.

  2. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.

  3. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  4. Optimized imaging using non-rigid registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkels, Benjamin; Binev, Peter; Blom, Douglas A.; Dahmen, Wolfgang; Sharpley, Robert C.; Vogt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary improvements of modern imaging devices offer access to data with unprecedented information content. However, widely used image processing methodologies fall far short of exploiting the full breadth of information offered by numerous types of scanning probe, optical, and electron microscopies. In many applications, it is necessary to keep measurement intensities below a desired threshold. We propose a methodology for extracting an increased level of information by processing a series of data sets suffering, in particular, from high degree of spatial uncertainty caused by complex multiscale motion during the acquisition process. An important role is played by a non-rigid pixel-wise registration method that can cope with low signal-to-noise ratios. This is accompanied by formulating objective quality measures which replace human intervention and visual inspection in the processing chain. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of siliceous zeolite material exhibits the above-mentioned obstructions and therefore serves as orientation and a test of our procedures. - Highlights: • Developed a new process for extracting more information from a series of STEM images. • An objective non-rigid registration process copes with distortions. • Images of zeolite Y show retrieval of all information available from the data set. • Quantitative measures of registration quality were implemented. • Applicable to any serially acquired data, e.g. STM, AFM, STXM, etc

  5. Perceptual learning: top to bottom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Jones, Pete R; Moore, David R

    2014-06-01

    Perceptual learning has traditionally been portrayed as a bottom-up phenomenon that improves encoding or decoding of the trained stimulus. Cognitive skills such as attention and memory are thought to drive, guide and modulate learning but are, with notable exceptions, not generally considered to undergo changes themselves as a result of training with simple perceptual tasks. Moreover, shifts in threshold are interpreted as shifts in perceptual sensitivity, with no consideration for non-sensory factors (such as response bias) that may contribute to these changes. Accumulating evidence from our own research and others shows that perceptual learning is a conglomeration of effects, with training-induced changes ranging from the lowest (noise reduction in the phase locking of auditory signals) to the highest (working memory capacity) level of processing, and includes contributions from non-sensory factors that affect decision making even on a "simple" auditory task such as frequency discrimination. We discuss our emerging view of learning as a process that increases the signal-to-noise ratio associated with perceptual tasks by tackling noise sources and inefficiencies that cause performance bottlenecks, and present some implications for training populations other than young, smart, attentive and highly-motivated college students. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    .After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies......This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....

  7. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  8. Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors.

  9. Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rader, A J

    2010-01-01

    The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors

  10. Open rigid string with the Gauss-Bonnet term in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.V.; Pirozhenko, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the Gaussian curvature in the rigid string action on the interquark potential is investigated. The linearized equations of motion and boundary conditions, following from the modified string action, are obtained. The equation, defining the eigenfrequency spectrum of the string oscillations is derived. On this basis the interquark potential generated by the string is calculated in one-loop approximation. A substantial influence of the topological term in the string action on the interquark potential at the distances of hadronic size order or less is revealed

  11. Coherent distributions for the rigid rotator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorescu, Marius [CP 15-645, Bucharest 014700 (Romania)

    2016-06-15

    Coherent solutions of the classical Liouville equation for the rigid rotator are presented as positive phase-space distributions localized on the Lagrangian submanifolds of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. These solutions become Wigner-type quasiprobability distributions by a formal discretization of the left-invariant vector fields from their Fourier transform in angular momentum. The results are consistent with the usual quantization of the anisotropic rotator, but the expected value of the Hamiltonian contains a finite “zero point” energy term. It is shown that during the time when a quasiprobability distribution evolves according to the Liouville equation, the related quantum wave function should satisfy the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  12. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  13. Observational properties of rigidly rotating dust configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyas, Batyr; Malafarina, Daniele [Nazarbayev University, Department of Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Yang, Jinye [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    We study the observational properties of a class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations describing stationary, axially symmetric, rigidly rotating dust (i.e. non-interacting particles). We ask the question whether such solutions can describe astrophysical rotating dark matter clouds near the center of galaxies and we probe the possibility that they may constitute an alternative to supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. We show that light emission from accretion disks made of ordinary baryonic matter in this space-time has several differences with respect to the emission of light from similar accretion disks around black holes. The shape of the iron Kα line in the reflection spectrum of accretion disks can potentially distinguish this class of solutions from the Kerr metric, but this may not be possible with current X-ray missions. (orig.)

  14. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, Vik S; Kharlamov, V M

    2002-01-01

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p g =q=0 and K 2 =9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem

  15. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France)

    2002-02-28

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p{sub g}=q=0 and K{sup 2}=9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem.

  16. Management of rigid post-traumatic kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Hwa, S Y; Lin, L C; Pai, W M; Chen, P Q; Au, M K

    1996-10-01

    Rigid post-traumatic kyphosis after fracture of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine represents a failure of initial management of the injury. Kyphosis moves the center of gravity anterior. The kyphosis and instability may result in pain, deformity, and increased neurologic deficits. Management for symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis always has presented a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. To evaluate the surgical results of one stage posterior correction for rigid symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. The management for post-traumatic kyphosis remains controversial. Anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior procedures have been advocated by different authors and show various degrees of success. One vertebra immediately above and below the level of the deformity was instrumented posteriorly by a transpedicular system (internal fixator AO). Posterior decompression was performed by excision of the spinal process and bilateral laminectomy. With the deformed vertebra through the pedicle, the vertebral body carefully is removed around the pedicle level, approximating a wedge shape. The extent to which the deformed vertebral body should be removed is determined by the attempted correction. Correction of the deformity is achieved by manipulation of the operating table and compression of the adjacent Schanz screws above and below the lesion. Thirteen patients with post-traumatic kyphosis with symptoms of fatigue and pain caused by slow progression of kyphotic deformities received posterior decompression, correction, and stabilization as a definitive treatment. The precorrection kyphosis ranged from 30-60 degrees, with a mean of 40 degrees +/- 10.8 degrees. After correction, kyphosis was reduced to an average of 1.5 degrees +/- 3.8 degrees, with a range from -5 degrees to 5 degrees. The average angle of correction was 38.8 degrees +/- 10.4 degrees, with a range from 25 degrees to 60 degrees. Significant difference was found

  17. Dual Quaternion Variational Integrator for Rigid Body Dynamic Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiafeng; Halse, Karl Henning

    2016-01-01

    In rigid body dynamic simulations, often the algorithm is required to deal with general situations where both reference point and inertia matrix are arbitrarily de- fined. We introduce a novel Lie group variational integrator using dual quaternion for simulating rigid body dynamics in all six degrees of freedom. Dual quaternion is used to represent rigid body kinematics and one-step Lie group method is used to derive dynamic equations. The combination of these two becomes the first Lie group ...

  18. Tile-based rigidization surface parametric design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner Munoz, Laura; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-03-01

    Inflatable technologies have proven useful in consumer goods as well as in more recent applications including civil structures, aerospace, medical, and robotics. However, inflatable technologies are typically lacking in their ability to provide rigid structural support. Particle jamming improves upon this by providing structures which are normally flexible and moldable but become rigid when air is removed. Because these are based on an airtight bladder filled with loose particles, they always occupy the full volume of its rigid state, even when not rigidized. More recent developments in layer jamming have created thin, compact rigidizing surfaces replacing the loose volume of particles with thinly layered surface materials. Work in this area has been applied to several specific applications with positive results but have not generally provided the broader understanding of the rigidization performance as a function of design parameters required for directly adapting layer rigidization technology to other applications. This paper presents a parametric design study of a new layer jamming vacuum rigidization architecture: tile-based vacuum rigidization. This form of rigidization is based on layers of tiles contained within a thin vacuum bladder which can be bent, rolled, or otherwise compactly stowed, but when deployed flat, can be vacuumed and form a large, flat, rigid plate capable of supporting large forces both localized and distributed over the surface. The general architecture and operation detailing rigidization and compliance mechanisms is introduced. To quantitatively characterize the rigidization behavior, prototypes rigidization surfaces are fabricated and an experimental technique is developed based on a 3-point bending test. Performance evaluation metrics are developed to describe the stiffness, load-bearing capacity, and internal slippage of tested prototypes. A set of experimental parametric studies are performed to better understand the impact of

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  20. SOFIA - A simulation tool for bottom founded and floating offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Eggert; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a recently developed simulation tool, SOFIA (Simulation Of Floaters In Action), suitable for modeling slender bottom founded and moored/freely floating space frame structures exposed to environmental loads. In contrast to traditional rigid body formulations of floating...... and structure domains, which are coupled through the structural equation of motion. The structural domain is handled by means of the finite element method, while large displacements and stress stiffening effects, exhibited by moored floating structures, are inherently included due to a co-rotational element...... formulation. The fluid domain is modeled by an appropriate water wave theory, and the hydrodynamic loads are evaluated at the instantaneous fluid-structure interface by means of a relative Morison equation. The equation of motion is solved in time domain, which makes SOFIA capable of handling bottom founded...

  1. Non-rigid ultrasound image registration using generalized relaxation labeling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Park, MoonHo; Woo, Kyoung-Gu; Ku, Jeonghun; Park, Hee-Jun

    2013-03-01

    This research proposes a novel non-rigid registration method for ultrasound images. The most predominant anatomical features in medical images are tissue boundaries, which appear as edges. In ultrasound images, however, other features can be identified as well due to the specular reflections that appear as bright lines superimposed on the ideal edge location. In this work, an image's local phase information (via the frequency domain) is used to find the ideal edge location. The generalized relaxation labeling process is then formulated to align the feature points extracted from the ideal edge location. In this work, the original relaxation labeling method was generalized by taking n compatibility coefficient values to improve non-rigid registration performance. This contextual information combined with a relaxation labeling process is used to search for a correspondence. Then the transformation is calculated by the thin plate spline (TPS) model. These two processes are iterated until the optimal correspondence and transformation are found. We have tested our proposed method and the state-of-the-art algorithms with synthetic data and bladder ultrasound images of in vivo human subjects. Experiments show that the proposed method improves registration performance significantly, as compared to other state-of-the-art non-rigid registration algorithms.

  2. Vision-based stress estimation model for steel frame structures with rigid links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Park, Jun Su; Oh, Byung Kwan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a stress estimation model for the safety evaluation of steel frame structures with rigid links using a vision-based monitoring system. In this model, the deformed shape of a structure under external loads is estimated via displacements measured by a motion capture system (MCS), which is a non-contact displacement measurement device. During the estimation of the deformed shape, the effective lengths of the rigid link ranges in the frame structure are identified. The radius of the curvature of the structural member to be monitored is calculated using the estimated deformed shape and is employed to estimate stress. Using MCS in the presented model, the safety of a structure can be assessed gauge-freely. In addition, because the stress is directly extracted from the radius of the curvature obtained from the measured deformed shape, information on the loadings and boundary conditions of the structure are not required. Furthermore, the model, which includes the identification of the effective lengths of the rigid links, can consider the influences of the stiffness of the connection and support on the deformation in the stress estimation. To verify the applicability of the presented model, static loading tests for a steel frame specimen were conducted. By comparing the stress estimated by the model with the measured stress, the validity of the model was confirmed.

  3. The geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes for different solar wind and geomagnetic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.; Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Qin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Studying the access of the cosmic rays (CRs) into the magnetosphere is important to understand the coupling between the magnetosphere and the solar wind. In this paper we numerically studied CRs' magnetospheric access with vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities using the method proposed by Smart and Shea (1999). By the study of CRs' vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes we obtain the CRs' window (CRW) whose boundary is determined when the vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities drop to a value lower than a threshold value. Furthermore, we studied the area of CRWs and found out they are sensitive to different parameters, such as the z component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the solar wind dynamic pressure, AE index, and Dst index. It was found that both the AE index and Dst index have a strong correlation with the area of CRWs during strong geomagnetic storms. However, during the medium storms, only AE index has a strong correlation with the area of CRWs, while Dst index has a much weaker correlation with the area of CRWs. This result on the CRW can be used for forecasting the variation of the cosmic rays during the geomagnetic storms.

  4. Cathodic protection simulation of above ground storage tank bottom: Experimental and numerical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Marcelo [Inspection Department, Rio de Janeiro Refinery - REDUC, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brasil, Simone L.D.C. [Chemistry School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baptista, Walmar [Corrosion Department, Research Centre - CENPES, Petrobras (Brazil); Miranda, Luiz de [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Program, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brito, Rosane F. [Corrosion Department, Research Centre, CENPES, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The deterioration history of Above ground Storage Tanks (AST) of Petrobras' refineries - shows that the great incidence of corrosion in the AST bottom is at the external side. This is a problem in the disposability of storage crude oil and other final products. At this refinery, all AST's are built over a concrete base with a lot of pile to support the structure and distribute the charge homogeneously. Because of this it is very difficult to use cathodic protection as an anti-corrosive method for each one of these tanks. This work presents an alternative cathodic protection system to protect the external side of the tank bottom using a new metallic bottom, placed at different distance from the original one. The space between the two bottoms was filled with one of two kinds of soils, sand or clay, more conductive than the concrete. Using a prototype tank it was studied the potential distributions over the new tank bottom for different system parameters, as soil resistivity, number and position of anodes localized in the old bottom. These experimental results were compared to numerical simulations, carried out using a software based on the Boundary Element Method. The computer simulation validates this protection method, confirming to be a very useful tool to define the optimized cathodic protection system configuration. (authors)

  5. Bottom Scour Observed Under Hurricane Ivan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teague, William J; Jarosz, Eva; Keen, Timothy R; Wang, David W; Hulbert, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Observations that extensive bottom scour along the outer continental shelf under Hurricane Ivan resulted in the displacement of more than 100 million cubic meters of sediment from a 35x15 km region...

  6. Algebraic Methods for Counting Euclidean Embeddings of Rigid Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.Z. Emiris; E.P. Tsigaridas; A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios); E.R. Gasner

    2009-01-01

    textabstract The study of (minimally) rigid graphs is motivated by numerous applications, mostly in robotics and bioinformatics. A major open problem concerns the number of embeddings of such graphs, up to rigid motions, in Euclidean space. We capture embeddability by polynomial systems

  7. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment.

  8. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment

  9. The theory of pseudo-rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Harley

    1988-01-01

    This monograph concerns the development, analysis, and application of the theory of pseudo-rigid bodies. It collects together our work on that subject over the last five years. While some results have appeared else­ where, much of the work is new. Our objective in writing this mono­ graph has been to present a new theory of the deformation of bodies, one that has not only a firm theoretical basis, but also the simplicity to serve as an effective tool in practical problems. Consequently, the main body of the treatise is a multifaceted development of the theory, from foundations to explicit solutions to linearizations to methods of approximation. The fact that this variety of aspects, each examined in considerable detail, can be collected together in a single, unified treat­ ment gives this theory an elegance that we feel sets it apart from many others. While our goal has always been to give a complete treatment of the theory as it now stands, the work here is not meant to be definitive. Theories are not ent...

  10. Almost Poisson integration of rigid body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, M.A.; Krishnaprasad, P.S.; Li-Sheng Wang

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the numerical integration of Lie-Poisson systems using the mid-point rule. Since such systems result from the reduction of hamiltonian systems with symmetry by lie group actions, we also present examples of reconstruction rules for the full dynamics. A primary motivation is to preserve in the integration process, various conserved quantities of the original dynamics. A main result of this paper is an O(h 3 ) error estimate for the Lie-Poisson structure, where h is the integration step-size. We note that Lie-Poisson systems appear naturally in many areas of physical science and engineering, including theoretical mechanics of fluids and plasmas, satellite dynamics, and polarization dynamics. In the present paper we consider a series of progressively complicated examples related to rigid body systems. We also consider a dissipative example associated to a Lie-Poisson system. The behavior of the mid-point rule and an associated reconstruction rule is numerically explored. 24 refs., 9 figs

  11. Rigid multipodal platforms for metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Valášek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review the recent progress in molecular platforms that form rigid and well-defined contact to a metal surface are discussed. Most of the presented examples have at least three anchoring units in order to control the spatial arrangement of the protruding molecular subunit. Another interesting feature is the lateral orientation of these foot structures which, depending on the particular application, is equally important as the spatial arrangement of the molecules. The numerous approaches towards assembling and organizing functional molecules into specific architectures on metal substrates are reviewed here. Particular attention is paid to variations of both, the core structures and the anchoring groups. Furthermore, the analytical methods enabling the investigation of individual molecules as well as monomolecular layers of ordered platform structures are summarized. The presented multipodal platforms bearing several anchoring groups form considerably more stable molecule–metal contacts than corresponding monopodal analogues and exhibit an enlarged separation of the functional molecules due to the increased footprint, as well as restrict tilting of the functional termini with respect to the metal surface. These platforms are thus ideally suited to tune important properties of the molecule–metal interface. On a single-molecule level, several of these platforms enable the control over the arrangement of the protruding rod-type molecular structures (e.g., molecular wires, switches, rotors, sensors with respect to the surface of the substrate.

  12. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  13. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  14. Making the results of bottom-up energy savings comparable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Service Directive (ESD has pushed forward the issue of energy savings calculations without clarifying the methodological basis. Savings achieved in the Member States are calculated with rather non-transparent and hardly comparable Bottom-up (BU methods. This paper develops the idea of parallel evaluation tracks separating the Member States’ issue of ESD verification and comparable savings calculations. Comparability is ensured by developing a standardised BU calculation kernel for different energy efficiency improvement (EEI actions which simultaneously depicts the different calculation options in a structured way (e.g. baseline definition, system boundaries, double counting. Due to the heterogeneity of BU calculations the approach requires a central database where Member States feed in input data on BU actions according to a predefined structure. The paper demonstrates the proposed approach including a concrete example of application.

  15. RIGIDITY, SENSITIVITY AND QUALITY OF ATTACHMENT - THE ROLE OF MATERNAL RIGIDITY IN THE EARLY SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PREMATURE-INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTCHER, PR; KALVERBOER, A; MINDERAA, RB; VANDOORMAAL, EF; TENWOLDE, Y

    1993-01-01

    The associations between a mother's rigidity, her sensitivity in early (3 month) interaction and the quality of her premature infant's attachment at 13 months were investigated. Rigidity as a personality characteristic was not found to be significantly associated with sensitivity or quality of

  16. Numerical analysis of the cylindrical rigidity of the vertical steel tank shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergey; Tarasenko, Alexander; Chepur, Petr

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the study of rigidity of a vertical steel cylindrical tank and its structural elements with the development of inhomogeneous subsidence in ANSYS software complex. The limiting case is considered in this paper: a complete absence of a base sector that varies along an arc of a circle. The subsidence zone is modeled by the parameter n. A finite-element model of vertical 20000 m3 steel tank has been created, taking into account all structural elements of tank metal structures, including the support ring, beam frame and roof sheets. Various combinations of vertical steel tank loading are analyzed. For operational loads, the most unfavorable combination is considered. Calculations were performed for the filled and emptied tank. Values of the maximum possible deformations of the outer contour of the bottom are obtained with the development of inhomogeneous base subsidence for the given tank size. The obtained parameters of intrinsic rigidity (deformability) of vertical steel tank can be used in the development of new regulatory and technical documentation for tanks.

  17. Wave boundary layer over a stone-covered bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Martin; Hatipoglu, Figen; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation on wave boundary layers over a bed with large roughness, simulating stone/rock/armour block cover on the sea bottom. The roughness elements used in the experiments were stones the size of 1.4cm and 3.85cm in one group of experiments...

  18. Reversible Rigidity Control Using Low Melting Temperature Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    Inspired by nature, materials able to achieve rapid rigidity changes have important applications for human body protection in military and many other areas. This talk presents the fabrication and design of soft-matter technologies that exhibit rapid reversible rigidity control. Fabricated with a masked deposition technique, the soft-matter composite contains liquid-phase and phase-changing metal alloys embedded in a soft and highly stretchable elastomer. The composite material can reversibly change its rigidity by three orders of magnitude and sustain large deformation.

  19. The Almost Periodic Rigidity of Crystallographic Bar-Joint Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Badri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A crystallographic bar-joint framework, C in Rd, is shown to be almost periodically infinitesimally rigid if and only if it is strictly periodically infinitesimally rigid and the rigid unit mode (RUM spectrum, Ω (C, is a singleton. Moreover, the almost periodic infinitesimal flexes of C are characterised in terms of a matrix-valued function, ΦC(z, on the d-torus, Td, determined by a full rank translation symmetry group and an associated motif of joints and bars.

  20. APPLICATION OF RIGID LINKS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Fialko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A special finite element modelling rigid links is proposed for the linear static and buckling analysis. Unlike the classical approach based on the theorems of rigid body kinematics, the proposed approach preserves the similarity between the adjacency graph for a sparse matrix and the adjacency graph for nodes of the finite element model, which allows applying sparse direct solvers more effectively. Besides, the proposed approach allows significantly reducing the number of nonzero entries in the factored stiffness matrix in comparison with the classical one, which greatly reduces the duration of the solution. For buckling problems of structures containing rigid bodies, this approach gives correct results. Several examples demonstrate its efficiency.

  1. A Method of Function Space for Vertical Impedance Function of a Circular Rigid Foundation on a Transversely Isotropic Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Eskandari-Ghadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with investigation of vertical impedance function of a surface rigid circular foundation resting on a semi-infinite transversely isotropic alluvium. To this end, the equations of motion in cylindrical coordinate system, which because of axissymmetry are two coupled equations, are converted into one partial differential equation using a method of potential function. The governing partial differential equation for the potential function is solved via implementing Hankel integral transforms in radial direction. The vertical and radial components of displacement vector are determined with the use of transformed displacement-potential function relationships. The mixed boundary conditions at the surface are satisfied by specifying the traction between the rigid foundation and the underneath alluvium in a special function space introduced in this paper, where the vertical displacements are forced to satisfy the rigid boundary condition. Through exercising these restraints, the normal traction and then the vertical impedance function are obtained. The results are then compared with the existing results in the literature for the simpler case of isotropic half-space, which shows an excellent agreement. Eventually, the impedance functions are presented in terms of dimensionless frequency for different materials. The method presented here may be used to obtain the impedance function in any other direction as well as in buried footing in layered media.

  2. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  3. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  4. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  5. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  6. Verification of the Rigidity of the Coulomb Field in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, S. V.; Bulyzhenkov, I. É.

    2018-06-01

    Laplace, analyzing the stability of the Solar System, was the first to calculate that the velocity of the motion of force fields can significantly exceed the velocity of light waves. In electrodynamics, the Coulomb field should rigidly accompany its source for instantaneous force action in distant regions. Such rigid motion was recently inferred from experiments at the Frascati Beam Test Facility with short beams of relativistic electrons. The comments of the authors on their observations are at odds with the comments of theoreticians on retarded potentials, which motivates a detailed study of the positions of both sides. Predictions of measurements, based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials, are used to propose an unambiguous scheme for testing the rigidity of the Coulomb field. Realization of the proposed experimental scheme could independently refute or support the assertions of the Italian physicists regarding the rigid motion of Coulomb fields and likewise the nondual field approach to macroscopic reality.

  7. Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2011-12-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions

  8. Rigid body motion in stereo 3D simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between torque and angular momentum. Consequently, the understanding of physical laws and conservation principles in free rigid body motion is hampered. This paper presents the capabilities of a 3D simulation, which aims to clarify these questions to the students, who are taught mechanics in the general physics course. The rigid body motion simulations may be observed at http://ialms.net/sim/, and are intended to complement traditional learning practices, not replace them, as the author shares the opinion that no simulation may fully resemble reality.

  9. Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel concept utilizing resin infusion to rigidize inflatable structures was developed at JSC ES. This ICA project intends to complete manufacturing of a prototype...

  10. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  11. Re-analysis of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.V.; Larrabee, D.A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria include particles which are not trapped in the self-field of the configuration. The modification of these studies required to exclude untrapped particles is derived

  12. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. Rigidity ... Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China; College of Mathematics and Information Science, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, People's Republic of China ...

  13. Role of Rigid Endoscopic Detorsion in the Management of Sigmoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had emergency surgery, with gangrenous bowel noted in 43 (72%) ... of any stable patient with clinical and radiological features ... peritonitis, underwent repeat rigid sigmoidoscopy. ... endoscopic detorsion was successful in all six cases.

  14. Magnetism and magnetostriction in a degenerate rigid band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, K.; Barbara, B.

    1990-09-01

    We investigate the influence of the spin-orbit coupling on the magnetic and magnetoelastic phenomena in ferromagnetic band systems. The description is within the Stoner model of a degenerate rigid band, for temperature T = O. (author). 14 refs

  15. Stabilization of Rigid Body Dynamics by Internal and External Torques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloch, A. M; Krishnaprasad, P. S; Marsden, J. E; Sanchez de Alvarez, G

    1990-01-01

    ...] with quadratic feedback torques for internal rotors. We show that with such torques, the equations for the rigid body with momentum wheels are Hamiltonian with respect to a Lie-Poisson bracket structure. Further...

  16. Anti-synchronization of the rigid body exhibiting chaotic dynamics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on a method derived from nonlinear control theory, we present a ... In this framework, the active control technique is modified and employed to design control ... state space of the two rigid bodies was verified by numerical simulations.

  17. Probing magnetic bottom and crustal temperature variations along the Red Sea margin of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, D.; Salem, A.; Abdelaziz, A.M.S.; Elawadi, E.; Morgan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Over 50 magnetic bottom depths derived from spectra of magnetic anomalies in Eastern Egypt along the Red Sea margin show variable magnetic bottoms ranging from 10 to 34. km. The deep magnetic bottoms correspond more closely to the Moho depth in the region, and not the depth of 580??C, which lies significantly deeper on the steady state geotherms. These results support the idea of Wasilewski and coworkers that the Moho is a magnetic boundary in continental regions. Reduced-to-pole magnetic highs correspond to areas of Younger Granites that were emplaced toward the end of the Precambrian. Other crystalline Precambrian units formed earlier during the closure of ocean basins are not strongly magnetic. In the north, magnetic bottoms are shallow (10-15. km) in regions with a high proportion of these Younger Granites. In the south, the shoaling of the magnetic bottom associated with the Younger Granites appears to be restricted to the Aswan and Ras Banas regions. Complexity in the variation of magnetic bottom depths may arise due to a combination of factors: i) regions of Younger (Precambrian) Granites with high magnetite content in the upper crust, leaving behind low Curie temperature titanomagnetite components in the middle and lower crust, ii) rise in the depth of 580??C isotherm where the crust may have been heated due to initiation of intense magmatism at the time of the Red Sea rifting (~. 20. Ma), and iii) the contrast of the above two factors with respect to the neighboring regions where the Moho and/or Curie temperature truncates lithospheric ferromagnetism. Estimates of fractal and centroid magnetic bottoms in the oceanic regions of the Red Sea are significantly below the Moho in places suggesting that oceanic uppermost mantle may be serpentinized to the depth of 15-30 km in those regions. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. On boundary superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.

  19. Boundary terms in the Nambu-Goto string action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Wȩgrzyn, Paweł

    1995-03-01

    We investigate classical strings defined by the Nambu-Goto action with the boundary term added. We demonstrate that the latter term has a significant bearing on the string dynamics. It is confirmed that new action terms that depend on higher order derivatives of string coordinates cannot be considered as continuous perturbations from the starting string functional. In the case when the boundary term reduces to the Gauss-Bonnet term, a stability analysis is performed on the rotating rigid string solution. We determine the most generic solution that the fluctuations grow to. Longitudinal string excitations are found. The Regge trajectories are nonlinear.

  20. Boundary terms in the Nambu-Goto string action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, L.; Wegrzyn, P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate classical strings defined by the Nambu-Goto action with the boundary term added. We demonstrate that the latter term has a significant bearing on the string dynamics. It is confirmed that new action terms that depend on higher order derivatives of string coordinates cannot be considered as continuous perturbations from the starting string functional. In the case when the boundary term reduces to the Gauss-Bonnet term, a stability analysis is performed on the rotating rigid string solution. We determine the most generic solution that the fluctuations grow to. Longitudinal string excitations are found. The Regge trajectories are nonlinear

  1. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analys...

  2. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  3. Coil in bottom part of splitter magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-resistant coil being bedded into the bottom part of a splitter magnet. This very particular magnet split the beam into 3 branches, for 3 target stations in the West-Area. See Annual Report 1975, p.176, Figs.14 and 15.

  4. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  5. Bottom fauna of the Malacca Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Bottom fauna of Malacca Strait (connecting the Indian Ocean with Pacific) in the depth range of 80 to 1350 m, is dominated by meiofauna which exceeds macrofauna by 12.5 times in weight and by more than 780 times in population density. Standing crop...

  6. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays

  7. Bottom water circulation in Cascadia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Susan L.; Paul Johnson, H.; Hammond, Douglas E.

    2009-10-01

    A combination of beta spiral and minimum length inverse methods, along with a compilation of historical and recent high-resolution CTD data, are used to produce a quantitative estimate of the subthermocline circulation in Cascadia Basin. Flow in the North Pacific Deep Water, from 900-1900 m, is characterized by a basin-scale anticyclonic gyre. Below 2000 m, two water masses are present within the basin interior, distinguished by different potential temperature-salinity lines. These water masses, referred to as Cascadia Basin Bottom Water (CBBW) and Cascadia Basin Deep Water (CBDW), are separated by a transition zone at about 2400 m depth. Below the depth where it freely communicates with the broader North Pacific, Cascadia Basin is renewed by northward flow through deep gaps in the Blanco Fracture Zone that feeds the lower limb of a vertical circulation cell within the CBBW. Lower CBBW gradually warms and returns to the south at lighter density. Isopycnal layer renewal times, based on combined lateral and diapycnal advective fluxes, increase upwards from the bottom. The densest layer, existing in the southeast quadrant of the basin below ˜2850 m, has an advective flushing time of 0.6 years. The total volume flushing time for the entire CBBW is 2.4 years, corresponding to an average water parcel residence time of 4.7 years. Geothermal heating at the Cascadia Basin seafloor produces a characteristic bottom-intensified temperature anomaly and plays an important role in the conversion of cold bottom water to lighter density within the CBBW. Although covering only about 0.05% of the global seafloor, the combined effects of bottom heat flux and diapycnal mixing within Cascadia Basin provide about 2-3% of the total required global input to the upward branch of the global thermohaline circulation.

  8. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  9. Local and social facets of planetary boundaries: right to nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahiluoto, Helena; Kuisma, Miia; Kuokkanen, Anna; Mikkilä, Mirja; Linnanen, Lassi

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient flows exceed the planetary boundaries. The boundaries and the current excesses vary spatially. Such variations have both an ecological and a social facet. We explored the spatial variation using a bottom-up approach. The local critical boundaries were determined through the current or accumulated flow of the preceding five years before the planetary boundary criteria were met. Finland and Ethiopia served as cases with contrasting ecology and wealth. The variation in excess depends on historical global inequities in the access to nutrients. Globally, the accumulated use per capita is 2300 kg reactive nitrogen (N r ) and 200 kg phosphorus (P). For Finland, the accumulated use per capita is 3400 kg N r and 690 kg P, whereas for Ethiopia, it is 26 kg N r and 12 kg P. The critical N boundary in Finland is currently exceeded by 40 kg cap −1 a −1 and the accumulated excess is 65 kg cap −1 a −1 , while the global current excess is 24 kg cap −1 a −1 and there is space in Ethiopia to increase even the accumulated flow. The critical P boundary is exceeded in Finland and (although less so) in Ethiopia, but for contrary reasons: (1) the excessive past inflow to the agrifood system in Finland and (2) the excessive outflow from the agrifood system triggered by deficits in inflow and waste management in Ethiopia. The critical boundaries set by Finnish marine systems are lower and those set by freshwaters are higher than the planetary boundaries downscaled per capita. The shift to dominance of internal loading in watercourses represents a tipping point. We conclude that food security within the safe boundaries requires global redistribution of nutrients in residues, soils and sediments and of rights to use nutrients. Bottom-up assessments reveal local dynamics that shed new light on the relevant boundary criteria and on estimates and remedies. (letter)

  10. Ocean Bottom Seismograph Performance during the Cascadia Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderhold, K.; Evers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) provides instrumentation and operations support for the Cascadia Initiative community experiment. This experiment investigates geophysical processes across the Cascadia subduction zone through a combination of onshore and offshore seismic data. The recovery of Year 4 instruments in September 2015 marks the conclusion of a multi-year experiment that utilized 60 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBSs) specifically designed for the subduction zone boundary, including shallow/deep water deployments and active fisheries. The new instruments feature trawl-resistant enclosures designed by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) for shallow deployment [water depth ≤ 500 m], as well as new deep-water instruments designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Existing OBSIP instruments were also deployed along the Blanco Transform Fault and on the Gorda Plate through complementary experiments. Stations include differential pressure gauges (DPG) and absolute pressure gauges (APG). All data collected from the Cascadia, Blanco, and Gorda deployments will be freely available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). The Cascadia Initiative is the largest amphibious seismic experiment undertaken to date and demonstrates an effective structure for community experiments through collaborative efforts from the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team (CIET), OBSIP (institutional instrument contributors [LDEO, SIO, WHOI] and Management Office [IRIS]), and the IRIS DMC. The successes and lessons from Cascadia are a vital resource for the development of a Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). To guide future efforts, we investigate the quality of the Cascadia OBS data using basic metrics such as instrument recovery and more advanced metrics such as noise characteristics through power spectral density analysis. We also use this broad and

  11. Simulating coupled dynamics of a rigid-flexible multibody system and compressible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Tian, Qiang; Hu, HaiYan

    2018-04-01

    As a subsequent work of previous studies of authors, a new parallel computation approach is proposed to simulate the coupled dynamics of a rigid-flexible multibody system and compressible fluid. In this approach, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to model the compressible fluid, the natural coordinate formulation (NCF) and absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) are used to model the rigid and flexible bodies, respectively. In order to model the compressible fluid properly and efficiently via SPH method, three measures are taken as follows. The first is to use the Riemann solver to cope with the fluid compressibility, the second is to define virtual particles of SPH to model the dynamic interaction between the fluid and the multibody system, and the third is to impose the boundary conditions of periodical inflow and outflow to reduce the number of SPH particles involved in the computation process. Afterwards, a parallel computation strategy is proposed based on the graphics processing unit (GPU) to detect the neighboring SPH particles and to solve the dynamic equations of SPH particles in order to improve the computation efficiency. Meanwhile, the generalized-alpha algorithm is used to solve the dynamic equations of the multibody system. Finally, four case studies are given to validate the proposed parallel computation approach.

  12. Research of vibration resistance of non-rigid shafts turning with various technological set-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevykh Sergey L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the definition of the stability range of a dynamic system for turning non-rigid shafts with different technological set-ups: standard and developed ones; they are improved as a result of this research. The topicality of the study is due to the fact that processing such parts is associated with significant difficulties caused by deformation of the workpiece under the cutting force as well as occurrence of vibration of the part during processing, they are so intense and in practice they force to significantly reduce the cutting regime, recur to multiple-pass operation, lead to premature deterioration of the cutter, as a result, reduce the productivity of machining shafts on metal-cutting machines. In this connection, the purpose of the present research is to determine the boundaries of the stability regions with intensive turning of non-rigid shafts. In the article the basic theoretical principles of construction of a mathematical system focused on the process of non-free cutting of a dynamic machine are justified. By means of the developed mathematical model interrelations are established and legitimacies of influence of various technological set-ups on stability of the dynamic system of the machine-tool-device-tool-blank are revealed. The conducted researches allow to more objectively represent difficult processes that occur in a closed dynamic system of a machine.

  13. An Experimental Comparison Between Flexible and Rigid Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzodinma, Jaylon; Macphee, David

    2017-11-01

    This study uses experimental and computational research methods to compare the aerodynamic performance of rigid and flexible airfoils at a low Reynolds number throughout varying angles of attack. This research can be used to improve the design of small wind turbines, micro-aerial vehicles, and any other devices that operate at low Reynolds numbers. Experimental testing was conducted in the University of Alabama's low-speed wind tunnel, and computational testing was conducted using the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM. For experimental testing, polyurethane-based (rigid) airfoils and silicone-based (flexible) airfoils were constructed using acrylic molds for NACA 0012 and NACA 2412 airfoil profiles. Computer models of the previously-specified airfoils were also created for a computational analysis. Both experimental and computational data were analyzed to examine the critical angles of attack, the lift and drag coefficients, and the occurrence of laminar boundary separation for each airfoil. Moreover, the computational simulations were used to examine the resulting flow fields, in order to provide possible explanations for the aerodynamic performances of each airfoil type. EEC 1659710.

  14. Long-rod penetration: the transition zone between rigid and hydrodynamic penetration modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-feng Lou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-rod penetration in a wide range of velocity means that the initial impact velocity varies in a range from tens of meters per second to several kilometers per second. The long rods maintain rigid state when the impact velocity is low, the nose of rod deforms and even is blunted when the velocity gets higher, and the nose erodes and fails to lead to the consumption of long projectile when the velocity is very high due to instantaneous high pressure. That is, from low velocity to high velocity, the projectile undergoes rigid rods, deforming non-erosive rods, and erosive rods. Because of the complicated changes of the projectile, no well-established theoretical model and numerical simulation have been used to study the transition zone. Based on the analysis of penetration behavior in the transition zone, a phenomenological model to describe target resistance and a formula to calculate penetration depth in transition zone are proposed, and a method to obtain the boundary velocity of transition zone is determined. A combined theoretical analysis model for three response regions is built by analyzing the characteristics in these regions. The penetration depth predicted by this combined model is in good agreement with experimental result.

  15. Singular solutions for the rigid plastic double slip and rotation model under plane strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, S.; Lyamina, E.

    2018-02-01

    In the mechanics of granular and other materials the system of equations comprising the rigid plastic double slip and rotation model together with the stress equilibrium equations under plane strain conditions forms a hyperbolic system. Boundary value problems for this system of equations can involve a frictional interface. An envelope of characteristics may coincide with this interface. In this case, the solution is singular. In particular, some components of the strain rate tensor approach infinity in the vicinity of the frictional interface. Such behavior of solutions is in qualitative agreement with experimental data that show that a narrow layer of localized plastic deformation is often generated near frictional interfaces. The present paper deals with asymptotic analysis of the aforementioned system of equations in the vicinity of an envelope of characteristics. It is shown that the shear strain rate and the spin component in a local coordinate system connected to the envelope follow an inverse square root rule in its vicinity.

  16. Bubble jet impact on a rigid wall of different stand-off parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S; Wang, S P; Zhang, A M

    2015-01-01

    One of the key features of the dynamics of a bubble near a rigid wall is the development of a high liquid jet, generating highly localized pressure on the wall. In present study, the boundary integral method is employed to simulate this phenomenon, and the vortex ring model is introduced to handle the discontinued potential of the toroidal bubble. Meanwhile, the pressure induced in the whole process is calculated by an auxiliary function. The effect of the stand-off parameter on the bubble dynamics and the pressure on the wall is investigated, and a double-peaked structure occurs in the pressure profile after the jet impact in some cases, which is associated with the jet impact and the high internal pressure inside the bubble

  17. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium–indium–tin (Galinstan ® ) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy. (paper)

  18. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-08-01

    We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium-indium-tin (Galinstan®) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy.

  19. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  20. The 2010 Southern California Ocean Bottom Seismometer Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, C. M.; Kohler, M. D.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    Subduction, mid-ocean ridge spreading, and transpressional deformation are all processes that played important roles in the evolution of the diffuse Pacific-North America plate boundary offshore Southern California. Existing seismic data for the boundary typically end at the coastline due to the fact that onshore data collection is easier and more feasible. As a result, current models for plate boundary deformation and mantle flow lack data from nearly half the plate boundary offshore. In August 2010, twenty-four broadband and ten short period ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed on a research cruise as part of a year-long passive OBS experiment off the coast of Southern California. The Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment (ALBACORE) will study local seismicity, and crustal and upper mantle seismic structure. Studies using onshore data have shown a high velocity anomaly that exists in the region of convergence under the Transverse Ranges. The Transverse Ranges belong to a large crustal block that experienced clockwise rotation of at least ninety degrees. Geologic studies indicate that the entire Channel Islands on the western end belongs to the region of convergence and have been a part of this rotation. In anticipation of OBS data analysis, a hypothetical velocity model is being developed for the crust and uppermost mantle for the region under the Channel Islands. P-wave arrival times are predicted by propagating teleseismic waves through the model. Different possible P-wave arrival patterns are explored by varying the lithospheric thickness. The long-term goal for developing this model will be to compare it with the actual OBS travel-time residual data to assess the best-fitting model. In preparation for the ALBACORE cruise, existing gravity data near the Channel Island region were examined for correlations with geologic features. Gravity data collected during the ALBACORE cruise will help

  1. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  2. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1997-01-01

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories

  3. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... triple) liners, are extremely effective in preventing leachate from entering into the environment. In addition, the risk of polluting the groundwater at a landfill by any leakage of leachate depends on several factors related to siting of the landfill: distance to the water table, distance to surface...... water bodies, and the properties of the soil beneath the landfill. In addition to the lining and drainage systems described in this chapter, the siting and hydrogeology of the landfill site (Chapter 10.12) and the top cover (Chapter 10.9) are also part of the barrier system, contributing to reducing...

  4. A non-hydrostatic flat-bottom ocean model entirely based on Fourier expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, A.

    2005-01-01

    We show how to implement free-slip and no-slip boundary conditions in a three dimensional Boussinesq flat-bottom ocean model based on Fourier expansion. Our method is inspired by the immersed or virtual boundary technique in which the effect of boundaries on the flow field is modeled by a virtual force field. Our method, however, explicitly depletes the velocity on the boundary induced by the pressure, while at the same time respecting the incompressibility of the flow field. Spurious spatial oscillations remain at a negligible level in the simulated flow field when using our technique and no filtering of the flow field is necessary. We furthermore show that by using the method presented here the residual velocities at the boundaries are easily reduced to a negligible value. This stands in contradistinction to previous calculations using the immersed or virtual boundary technique. The efficiency is demonstrated by simulating a Rayleigh impulsive flow, for which the time evolution of the simulated flow is compared to an analytic solution, and a three dimensional Boussinesq simulation of ocean convection. The second instance is taken form a well studied oceanographic context: A free slip boundary condition is applied on the upper surface, the modeled sea surface, and a no-slip boundary condition to the lower boundary, the modeled ocean floor. Convergence properties of the method are investigated by solving a two dimensional stationary problem at different spatial resolutions. The work presented here is restricted to a flat ocean floor. Extensions of our method to ocean models with a realistic topography are discussed.

  5. Benthic boundary layer. IOS observational and modelling programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.; Richards, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Near bottom currents, measured at three sites in the N.E. Atlantic, reveal the eddying characteristics of the flow. Eddies develop, migrate and decay in ways best revealed by numerical modelling simulations. Eddies control the thickness of the bottom mixed layer by accumulating and thickening or spreading and thinning the bottom waters. At the boundaries of eddies benthic fronts form providing a path for upward displacement of the bottom water. An experiment designed to estimate vertical diffusivity is performed. The flux of heat into the bottom of the Iberian basin through Discovery Gap is deduced from year long current measurements. The flux is supposed balanced by geothermal heating through the sea floor and diapycnal diffusion in the water. A diffusivity of 1.5 to 4 cm 2 s -1 is derived for the bottom few hundred meters of the deep ocean. Experiments to estimate horizontal diffusivity are described. If a tracer is discharged from the sea bed the volume of sea water in which it is found increases with time and after 20 years will fill an ocean basin of side 1000 km to a depth of only 1 to 2 km. (author)

  6. DEM Simulation of Biaxial Compression Experiments of Inherently Anisotropic Granular Materials and the Boundary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Xia Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of discrete element method (DEM numerical simulations is significantly dependent on the particle-scale parameters and boundary conditions. To verify the DEM models, two series of biaxial compression tests on ellipse-shaped steel rods are used. The comparisons on the stress-strain relationship, strength, and deformation pattern of experiments and simulations indicate that the DEM models are able to capture the key macro- and micromechanical behavior of inherently anisotropic granular materials with high fidelity. By using the validated DEM models, the boundary effects on the macrodeformation, strain localization, and nonuniformity of stress distribution inside the specimens are investigated using two rigid boundaries and one flexible boundary. The results demonstrate that the boundary condition plays a significant role on the stress-strain relationship and strength of granular materials with inherent fabric anisotropy if the stresses are calculated by the force applied on the wall. However, the responses of the particle assembly measured inside the specimens are almost the same with little influence from the boundary conditions. The peak friction angle obtained from the compression tests with flexible boundary represents the real friction angle of particle assembly. Due to the weak lateral constraints, the degree of stress nonuniformity under flexible boundary is higher than that under rigid boundary.

  7. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  8. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  9. Rigid external maxillary distraction and rhinoplasty for pyknodysostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Altan; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus; Sencimen, Metin; Akcam, Timur; Olmez, Hüseyin; Basa, Selçuk

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the treatment of an 33-year-old female patient with pyknodysostosis by rigid external distraction II midface distraction system. The patient with pyknodysostosis described in this report had severe midfacial hypoplasia. Correction of this by use of routine orthognathic surgery would require osteosynthesis and bone grafting. Risk of infection and/or nonunion after such a surgical procedure was considered too great, and therefore the possibility of treatment by distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla was evaluated. The rigid external distraction II midface distraction system was used to relocate the hypoplastic maxilla at anterior-inferior projection. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as the primary reconstructive method for maxillofacial deformities in patients with sclerosing bone dysplasias, since this is the second reported case treated successfully with rigid external distraction.

  10. Rigidity of outermost MOTS: the initial data version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Gregory J.

    2018-03-01

    In the paper Commun Anal Geom 16(1):217-229, 2008, a rigidity result was obtained for outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTSs) that do not admit metrics of positive scalar curvature. This allowed one to treat the "borderline case" in the author's work with R. Schoen concerning the topology of higher dimensional black holes (Commun Math Phys 266(2):571-576, 2006). The proof of this rigidity result involved bending the initial data manifold in the vicinity of the MOTS within the ambient spacetime. In this note we show how to circumvent this step, and thereby obtain a pure initial data version of this rigidity result and its consequence concerning the topology of black holes.

  11. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.

  12. Mitral stenosis due to pannus overgrowth after rigid ring annuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takeshi; Kato, Seiya; Tayama, Eiki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Aoyagi, Shigeaki

    2010-03-01

    Although mitral stenosis (MS) due to pannus overgrowth after mitral valve repair for rheumatic mitral regurgitation (MR) is not uncommon, it is extremely rare in relation to non-rheumatic mitral regurgitation. Whilst it has been suggested that the rigid annuloplasty ring induces pannus overgrowth in the same manner as the flexible ring, to date only in cases using the flexible ring has pannus formation been confirmed by a pathological examination after redo surgery. The case is described of a woman who had undergone mitral valve repair using a 28 mm rigid ring three years previously because of non-rheumatic MR, and subsequently suffered from MS due to pannus formation over the annuloplasty ring. To the present authors' knowledge, this is the first report of MS due to pannus formation after mitral valve repair using a rigid annuloplasty ring to treat non-rheumatic MR documented at reoperation.

  13. Rigid-plastic seismic design of reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues; Bento, R.; Levtchitch, V.

    2007-01-01

    structural strength with respect to a pre-defined performance parameter using a rigid-plastic response spectrum, which is characteristic of the ground motion alone. The maximum strength demand at any point is solely dependent on the intensity of the ground motion, which facilitates the task of distributing......In this paper a new seismic design procedure for Reinforced Concrete (R/C) structures is proposed-the Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design (RPSD) method. This is a design procedure based on Non-Linear Time-History Analysis (NLTHA) for systems expected to perform in the non-linear range during a lifetime...... earthquake event. The theoretical background is the Theory of Plasticity (Rigid-Plastic Structures). Firstly, a collapse mechanism is chosen and the corresponding stress field is made safe outside the regions where plastic behaviour takes place. It is shown that this allows the determination of the required...

  14. A concise introduction to mechanics of rigid bodies multidisciplinary engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, L

    2017-01-01

    This updated second edition broadens the explanation of rotational kinematics and dynamics — the most important aspect of rigid body motion in three-dimensional space and a topic of much greater complexity than linear motion. It expands treatment of vector and matrix, and includes quaternion operations to describe and analyze rigid body motion which are found in robot control, trajectory planning, 3D vision system calibration, and hand-eye coordination of robots in assembly work, etc. It features updated treatments of concepts in all chapters and case studies. The textbook retains its comprehensiveness in coverage and compactness in size, which make it easily accessible to the readers from multidisciplinary areas who want to grasp the key concepts of rigid body mechanics which are usually scattered in multiple volumes of traditional textbooks. Theoretical concepts are explained through examples taken from across engineering disciplines and links to applications and more advanced courses (e.g. industrial rob...

  15. Large deflection analysis of a pre-stressed annular plate with a rigid boss under axisymmetric loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y. H.; Chen, K. S.; Roberts, D. C.; Spearing, S. M.

    2001-11-01

    The large deflection analysis of a pre-stressed annular plate with a central rigid boss subjected to axisymmetric loading is presented. The factors affecting the transition from plate behaviour to membrane behaviour (e.g. thickness, in-plane tension and material properties) are studied. The effect of boss size and pre-tension on the effective stiffness of the plate are investigated. The extent of the bending boundary layers at the edges of the plate are quantified. All results are presented in non-dimensional form. The design implications for microelectromechanical system components are assessed.

  16. Spatial variability of the wave bottom boundary layer over movable rippled beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Abudo, S.; Foster, D.L.; Henriquez, M.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the spatially dependent velocity field over movable bed forms subjected to slightly skewed and asymmetric regular wave forcing were collected. The dynamics between the ripple elements is dominated by coherent vortices, characterized by the swirling strength, and evidenced in the

  17. Local Similarity in the Stable Boundary Layer and Mixing-Length Approaches : Consistency of Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wiel, B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; De Ronde, W.H.; Jonker, H.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    In stably stratified flows vertical movement of eddies is limited by the fact that kinetic energy is converted into potential energy, leading to a buoyancy displacement scale z B . Our new mixing-length concept for turbulent transport in the stable boundary layer follows a rigid-wall analogy, in the

  18. Local similarity in the stable boundary layer and mixing-length approaches: consistency of concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; Ronde, W.H.; Jonker, H.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    In stably stratified flows vertical movement of eddies is limited by the fact that kinetic energy is converted into potential energy, leading to a buoyancy displacement scale z B . Our new mixing-length concept for turbulent transport in the stable boundary layer follows a rigid-wall analogy, in the

  19. Local similarity in the stable boundary layer and mixing-length approaches : consistency of concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; Ronde, de W.H.; Jonker, H.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    In stably stratified flows vertical movement of eddies is limited by the fact that kinetic energy is converted into potential energy, leading to a buoyancy displacement scale zB. Our new mixing-length concept for turbulent transport in the stable boundary layer follows a rigid-wall analogy, in the

  20. Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.

  1. Non-rigid image registration using bone growth model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Gramkow, Claus; Kreiborg, Sven

    1997-01-01

    Non-rigid registration has traditionally used physical models like elasticity and fluids. These models are very seldom valid models of the difference between the registered images. This paper presents a non-rigid registration algorithm, which uses a model of bone growth as a model of the change...... between time sequence images of the human mandible. By being able to register the images, this paper at the same time contributes to the validation of the growth model, which is based on the currently available medical theories and knowledge...

  2. Rigid particle revisited: Extrinsic curvature yields the Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deriglazov, Alexei, E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Depto. de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen, E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-01

    We reexamine the model of relativistic particle with higher-derivative linear term on the first extrinsic curvature (rigidity). The passage from classical to quantum theory requires a number of rather unexpected steps which we report here. We found that, contrary to common opinion, quantization of the model in terms of so(3.2)-algebra yields massive Dirac equation. -- Highlights: •New way of canonical quantization of relativistic rigid particle is proposed. •Quantization made in terms of so(3.2) angular momentum algebra. •Quantization yields massive Dirac equation.

  3. Extremal surfaces and the rigidity of null geodesic incompleteness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, I P Costa e; Flores, J L

    2015-01-01

    An important, if relatively less well known aspect of the singularity theorems in Lorentzian geometry, is to understand how their conclusions fare upon weakening or suppression of one or more of their hypotheses. Then, theorems with modified conclusion may arise, showing that those conclusions will fail only in special cases, at least some of which may be described. These are the so-called rigidity theorems, and have many important examples in the specialized literature. In this paper, we prove rigidity results for generalized plane waves and certain globally hyperbolic spacetimes in the presence of extremal compact surfaces. (paper)

  4. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of this...

  5. Bottom Trawl Survey Protocol Development (HB0706, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruise objectives include: 1) Investigate performance characteristics of new research bottom trawl; 2) Develop standard operating procedures for the NEFSC Bottom...

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  7. Estimating flexural rigidity and load magnitude required for formation of Ross Island flexure moat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S.; Harry, D. L.; Wenman, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Lithospheric flexural subsidence around Ross Island in West Antarctica led to formation of the Ross Island flexure moat. This subsidence was caused by two major volcanic phases on Ross Island. The first phase saw the first surficial expression of Ross Island and volcanism at Mt. Bird to the north of Ross Island, which lasted from 5.2 - 2.9 Ma. The second phase lasted from 1.78 Ma to present and is comprised of eruptions from Mt. Terror to the east, Mt. Erebus to the west and Hut Point Peninsula (HPP) to the south of Ross Island. Flexural subsidence of the lithosphere due to volcanism on Ross Island led to formation of a sedimentary moat around the island, which is preserved in stratigraphy imaged on seismic reflection profiles. We identified 5 unconformities (from deepest upward Ri, RMU1, RMU2, RMU3, RMU4) in the seismic surveys which correspond to flexural subsidence episodes around Ross Island since early Pliocene. Ri (4.4 Ma) lies near the bottom of the flexural moat and RMU4 near the seafloor and top of the moat fill. These unconformities were used to make isopach maps to constrain flexure modeling of the area. Isopach maps show circular or semi-circular flexure basins around Ross Island which is approximated using a continuous plate, point load flexure model. We used Ri - sea floor isopach to constrain flexure models for 5 profiles centered on 4 volcanic centers and trending radially out of Ross Island. Flexure models along two profiles beginning on Mt. Bird and one profile off HPP show a flexural rigidity range of 1.47 - 6.44 x 1018 Nm with load center of mass on Mt. Bird and on HPP, respectively. A similar model along a profile initiating on Mt. Terror, passing through Mt Erebus and extending west of Ross Island across the moat, yielded a higher flexural rigidity estimate of 2.03 x 1019 Nm with load centered at Mt. Erebus. A flexure model to the north east of Ross Island along a profile beginning at Mt Terror and trending north, provide the highest flexural

  8. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  9. a New Technique Based on Mini-Uas for Estimating Water and Bottom Radiance Contributions in Optically Shallow Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hugo, M. A.; Barrado, C.; Pastor, E.

    2015-08-01

    The mapping of nearshore bathymetry based on spaceborne radiometers is commonly used for QC ocean colour products in littoral waters. However, the accuracy of these estimates is relatively poor with respect to those derived from Lidar systems due in part to the large uncertainties of bottom depth retrievals caused by changes on bottom reflectivity. Here, we present a method based on mini unmanned aerial vehicles (UAS) images for discriminating bottom-reflected and water radiance components by taking advantage of shadows created by different structures sitting on the bottom boundary. Aerial surveys were done with a drone Draganfly X4P during October 1 2013 in optically shallow waters of the Saint Lawrence Estuary, and during low tide. Colour images with a spatial resolution of 3 mm were obtained with an Olympus EPM-1 camera at 10 m height. Preliminary results showed an increase of the relative difference between bright and dark pixels (dP) toward the red wavelengths of the camera's receiver. This is suggesting that dP values can be potentially used as a quantitative proxy of bottom reflectivity after removing artefacts related to Fresnel reflection and bottom adjacency effects.

  10. Simulation of Wind turbines in the atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    as well as turbulent inflow condition. For generating turbulent inflow, a model is used in which a turbulent plane is introduced in the domain and convected in each time step, using Taylor's frozen hypothesis. The results of different simulations are analysed and compared in terms of mean values...... the computational costs scale rapidly with Reynolds number and domain size[1]. An approach to overcome these deficiencies is to use a wall modeling near the walls and then use a coarser grid at the first grid level above the ground. This could be performed by using simplified Navier-Stokes equations in the boundary...... condition is used in the bottom, a symmetry boundary on the top and periodic boundaries on the sides as well as inlet and outlet boundaries. For the temperature, a fixed value of 285 K is applied from the ground up to a height of 1 km and the temperature increases linearly with the rate of 3.5 degrees per...

  11. Viscoelastic materials with anisotropic rigid particles: stress-deformation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we have derived constitutive equations for the stress tensor of a viscoelastic material with anisotropic rigid particles. We have assumed that the material has fading memory. The expressions are valid for slow and small deformations from equilibrium, and for systems that are nearly

  12. Rigidity and bradykinesia reduce interlimb coordination in Parkinsonian gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winogrodzka, Ania; Wagenaar, Robert C.; Booij, Jan; Wolters, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of rigidity and bradykinesia and the extent of dopaminergic degeneration on interlimb coordination during walking in early, drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Design: The interlimb coordination was examined during a systematic manipulation of

  13. Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C González

    Full Text Available Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.

  14. Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars) that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.

  15. Patient satisfaction related to rigid external distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermont, Bas; Jansma, J.; Bierman, M. W. J.; Stegenga, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction with treatment among cleft lip and palate patients who underwent maxillary advancement using a rigid external distraction (RED) device. Nine patients (four boys, five girls), mean age 17.7 years (SD 4.0), were included in the study. Outcome measures

  16. Short Communication: Statistical determination of the rigidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the graph of load against displacement, the rigidity in flexion at different moisture levels was determined from which the Young modulus was calculated. Linear regression models were fitted to the data and the results showed significant correlation coefficients between the Young modulus and moisture content for each ...

  17. Connect-disconnect coupling for preadjusted rigid shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkowski, F. W.; Holmberg, A.

    1969-01-01

    Coupling device enables a rigid shaft to be connected to or disconnected from a fixed base without disturbing the point of adjustment of the shaft in a socket or causing the shaft to rotate. The coupling consists of an externally threaded, internally slotted boss extending from the fixed base.

  18. Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured viscoelastic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, M.W.L.; Michels, M.A.J.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with rigidity percolation in composite materials consisting of a dispersion of mineral particles in a microstructured viscoelastic matrix. The viscoelastic matrix in this specific case is a hydrocarbon refinery residue. In a set of model random composites the mean interparticle

  19. Centrifuge modelling of rigid piles in soft clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, R.T.; Poder, M.; Truong, P.

    2016-01-01

    of this study is to employ centrifuge modelling in order to derive experimental p-y curves for rigid piles embedded in over-consolidated soft clay. A kaolin clay sample was prepared and pre-consolidated by applying a constant pressure at the soil surface, while different over-consolidation ratios were achieved...

  20. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  1. Study of rigidity of semiconducting vanadate glasses and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These parameters along with the coordination number of the glasses affect the glass transition temperature. The correlation between the elastic moduli and thermal properties of these samples showed that 0.25MoO3–0.25PbO–0.5V2O5 glass is the most rigid and has an applicable glass transition temperature for coating.

  2. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Math. Sci.) Vol. 126, No. 2, May 2016, pp. 253–260. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere. HONGWEI XU1 and DENGYUN YANG2,∗. 1Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027,. People's Republic of China. 2College of Mathematics and ...

  3. Accuracy limit of rigid 3-point water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Saeed; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2016-08-01

    Classical 3-point rigid water models are most widely used due to their computational efficiency. Recently, we introduced a new approach to constructing classical rigid water models [S. Izadi et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 3863 (2014)], which permits a virtually exhaustive search for globally optimal model parameters in the sub-space that is most relevant to the electrostatic properties of the water molecule in liquid phase. Here we apply the approach to develop a 3-point Optimal Point Charge (OPC3) water model. OPC3 is significantly more accurate than the commonly used water models of same class (TIP3P and SPCE) in reproducing a comprehensive set of liquid bulk properties, over a wide range of temperatures. Beyond bulk properties, we show that OPC3 predicts the intrinsic charge hydration asymmetry (CHA) of water — a characteristic dependence of hydration free energy on the sign of the solute charge — in very close agreement with experiment. Two other recent 3-point rigid water models, TIP3PFB and H2ODC, each developed by its own, completely different optimization method, approach the global accuracy optimum represented by OPC3 in both the parameter space and accuracy of bulk properties. Thus, we argue that an accuracy limit of practical 3-point rigid non-polarizable models has effectively been reached; remaining accuracy issues are discussed.

  4. Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using phenylacetylene based rigid-rod linkers (PhA), we have successfully synthesized two fullerene derivatives, C60-PhA and C60-PhA-C60. The absorption spectral features of C60, as well as that of the phenylacetylene moiety are retained in the monomeric forms of these fullerene derivatives, ruling out the possibility ...

  5. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  6. Flexible (Polyactive®) versus rigid (hydroxyapatite) dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.J.; Heethaar, J.; Cune, M.S.; de Putter, C.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    1997-01-01

    In a beagle dog study, the peri-implant bone changes around flexible (Polyactive®) and rigid hydroxyapatite (HA) implants were investigated radiographically by quantitative digital subtraction analysis and by assessment of marginal bone height, with the aid of a computerized method. A loss of

  7. "Mind the trap": mindfulness practice reduces cognitive rigidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Greenberg

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the relation between mindfulness practice and cognitive rigidity by using a variation of the Einstellung water jar task. Participants were required to use three hypothetical jars to obtain a specific amount of water. Initial problems were solvable by the same complex formula, but in later problems ("critical" or "trap" problems solving was possible by an additional much simpler formula. A rigidity score was compiled through perseverance of the complex formula. In Experiment 1, experienced mindfulness meditators received significantly lower rigidity scores than non-meditators who had registered for their first meditation retreat. Similar results were obtained in randomized controlled Experiment 2 comparing non-meditators who underwent an eight meeting mindfulness program with a waiting list group. The authors conclude that mindfulness meditation reduces cognitive rigidity via the tendency to be "blinded" by experience. Results are discussed in light of the benefits of mindfulness practice regarding a reduced tendency to overlook novel and adaptive ways of responding due to past experience, both in and out of the clinical setting.

  8. A survey on stability and rigidity results for Lie algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, Marius; Schätz, Florian; Struchiner, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We give simple and unified proofs of the known stability and rigidity results for Lie algebras, Lie subalgebras and Lie algebra homomorphisms. Moreover, we investigate when a Lie algebra homomorphism is stable under all automorphisms of the codomain (including outer automorphisms).

  9. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section 886.5916 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... against the cornea of the eye to correct vision conditions. The device is made of various materials, such...

  10. Knowledge-In-Action: An Example with Rigid Body Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Sayonara Salvador Cabral; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the resolution of a paper-and-pencil problem, by eight undergraduate students majoring in engineering (six) and physics (two) at the Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The problem concerns kinetics of a rigid body, and the analysis was done in the light of Johnson-Lairds…

  11. Non-rigid registration by geometry-constrained diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Nielsen, Mads

    1999-01-01

    Assume that only partial knowledge about a non-rigid registration is given so that certain point, curves, or surfaces in one 3D image map to certain points, curves, or surfaces in another 3D image. We are facing the aperture problem because along the curves and surfaces, point correspondences...

  12. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  13. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  14. Pemanfaatan Bottom Ash Sebagai Agregat Buatan

    OpenAIRE

    Nuciferani, Felicia Tria; Antoni, Antoni; Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the possible use of bottom ash as artificial aggregates. It is found that the pelletizer method by using mixer without blade is one possibility to manufacture artificial aggregates. The optimum mixture composition of artificial aggregate is found to be 3 BA : 1FA : 0,5 C , by weight, and immersed once in cement slurry. The water content in ssd condition is 27% with the compressive strength of the aggregate 2.4 MPa on the seventh day. Concrete produced with ...

  15. Development of debris resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Kyung; Sohn, Dong Seong; Yim, Jeong Sik; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Song, Kee Nam; Oh, Dong Seok; Rhu, Ho Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Seong Soo; Oh, Jong Myung

    1993-12-01

    Debris-related fuel failures have been identified as one of the major causes of fuel failures. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. For this development, mechanical strength test and pressure drop test were performed, and the test results were analyzed. And the laser cutting, laser welding and electron beam welding technology, which were the core manufacturing technology of DRBEP, were developed. Final design were performed, and the final drawing and specifications were prepared. The prototype of DRBEP was manufactured according to the developed munufacturing procedure. (Author)

  16. Bottom nozzle of a LWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The bottom nozzle consists of a transverse element in form of box having a bending resistant grid structure which has an outer peripheral frame of cross-section corresponding to that of the fuel assembly and which has walls defining large cells. The transverse element has a retainer plate with a regular array of openings. The retainer plate is fixed above and parallel to the grid structure with a spacing in order to form, between the grid structure and the retainer plate a free space for tranquil flow of cooling water and for debris collection [fr

  17. Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to equipment for filtering liquids and more particularly to filter assemblies for use with radioactive by-products of nuclear power plants. The invention provides a compact, bottom-loaded filter assembly that can be quickly and safely loaded and unloaded without the use of complex remote equipment. The assembly is integrally shielded and does not require external shielding. The closure hatch may be automatically aligned to facilitate quick sealing attachment after replacement of the filter cartridge, and the filter cartridge may be automatically positioned within the filter housing during the replacement operation

  18. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.; Strikman, M.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1991-01-01

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 10 9 B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 10 9 B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs

  19. Neoliberalism Viewed From the Bottom Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the assumption that it is pivotal to include a bottom up perspective to understand the way in which the welfare system functions, this chapter sets out to explore the lived experience of neoliberalism. The purpose is to gain insight into the consequences of neoliberalism from...... the viewpoint of the vulnerable benefit claimants who encounter it on a daily basis. The analysis is based on a qualitative longitudinal study conducted from 2013 to 2015, which shows how, in varying ways, clients routinely cope with being part of a neoliberal welfare state: by resignation, by taking action...

  20. Revisiting the round bottom flask rainbow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmke, Markus; Selmke, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    A popular demonstration experiment in optics uses a round-bottom flask filled with water to project a circular rainbow on a screen with a hole through which the flask is illuminated. We show how the vessel's wall shifts the first- and second-order bows towards each other and consequently reduces the width of Alexander's dark band. We address the challenge this introduces in observing Alexander's dark band, and explain the importance of a sufficient distance between the flask and the screen. The wall-effect also introduces a splitting of the bows that can easily be misinterpreted.

  1. On two-point boundary correlations in the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomo, F.; Pronko, A. G.

    2005-05-01

    The six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions on an N × N square lattice is considered. The two-point correlation function describing the probability of having two vertices in a given state at opposite (top and bottom) boundaries of the lattice is calculated. It is shown that this two-point boundary correlator is expressible in a very simple way in terms of the one-point boundary correlators of the model on N × N and (N - 1) × (N - 1) lattices. In alternating sign matrix (ASM) language this result implies that the doubly refined x-enumerations of ASMs are just appropriate combinations of the singly refined ones.

  2. Strategic rigidity and foresight for technology adoption among electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Arsalan Nisar; Palacios, Miguel; Ruiz, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The variation in the adoption of a technology as a major source of competitive advantage has been attributed to the wide-ranging strategic foresight and the integrative capability of a firm. These possible areas of competitive advantage can exist in the periphery of the firm's strategic vision and can get easily blurred as a result of rigidness and can permeate in the decision-making process of the firm. This article explores how electric utility firms with a renewable energy portfolio can become strategically rigid in terms of adoption of newer technologies. The reluctance or delay in the adoption of new technology can be characterized as strategic rigidness, brought upon as a result of a firm's core competence or core capability in the other, more conventional technology arrangement. This paper explores the implications of such rigidness on the performance of a firm and consequently on the energy eco-system. The paper substantiates the results by emphasizing the case of Iberdrola S.A., an incumbent firm as a wind energy developer and its adoption decision behavior. We illustrate that the very routines that create competitive advantage for firms in the electric utility industry are vulnerable as they might also develop as sources of competitive disadvantage, when firms confront environmental change and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Present a firm-level perspective on technology adoption behavior among electric utilities. • Firms with mature technology can become rigid towards newer technologies. • Case study analysis of a major electric utility firm. • Implications of ‘technology rigidness’ on the energy eco-system

  3. Matrix rigidity regulates cancer cell growth and cellular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Tilghman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix have an important role in cell growth and differentiation. However, it is unclear as to what extent cancer cells respond to changes in the mechanical properties (rigidity/stiffness of the microenvironment and how this response varies among cancer cell lines.In this study we used a recently developed 96-well plate system that arrays extracellular matrix-conjugated polyacrylamide gels that increase in stiffness by at least 50-fold across the plate. This plate was used to determine how changes in the rigidity of the extracellular matrix modulate the biological properties of tumor cells. The cell lines tested fall into one of two categories based on their proliferation on substrates of differing stiffness: "rigidity dependent" (those which show an increase in cell growth as extracellular rigidity is increased, and "rigidity independent" (those which grow equally on both soft and stiff substrates. Cells which grew poorly on soft gels also showed decreased spreading and migration under these conditions. More importantly, seeding the cell lines into the lungs of nude mice revealed that the ability of cells to grow on soft gels in vitro correlated with their ability to grow in a soft tissue environment in vivo. The lung carcinoma line A549 responded to culture on soft gels by expressing the differentiated epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of the mesenchymal transcription factor Slug.These observations suggest that the mechanical properties of the matrix environment play a significant role in regulating the proliferation and the morphological properties of cancer cells. Further, the multiwell format of the soft-plate assay is a useful and effective adjunct to established 3-dimensional cell culture models.

  4. Matrix Rigidity Regulates Cancer Cell Growth and Cellular Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilghman, Robert W.; Cowan, Catharine R.; Mih, Justin D.; Koryakina, Yulia; Gioeli, Daniel; Slack-Davis, Jill K.; Blackman, Brett R.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Parsons, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix have an important role in cell growth and differentiation. However, it is unclear as to what extent cancer cells respond to changes in the mechanical properties (rigidity/stiffness) of the microenvironment and how this response varies among cancer cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we used a recently developed 96-well plate system that arrays extracellular matrix-conjugated polyacrylamide gels that increase in stiffness by at least 50-fold across the plate. This plate was used to determine how changes in the rigidity of the extracellular matrix modulate the biological properties of tumor cells. The cell lines tested fall into one of two categories based on their proliferation on substrates of differing stiffness: “rigidity dependent” (those which show an increase in cell growth as extracellular rigidity is increased), and “rigidity independent” (those which grow equally on both soft and stiff substrates). Cells which grew poorly on soft gels also showed decreased spreading and migration under these conditions. More importantly, seeding the cell lines into the lungs of nude mice revealed that the ability of cells to grow on soft gels in vitro correlated with their ability to grow in a soft tissue environment in vivo. The lung carcinoma line A549 responded to culture on soft gels by expressing the differentiated epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of the mesenchymal transcription factor Slug. Conclusions/Significance These observations suggest that the mechanical properties of the matrix environment play a significant role in regulating the proliferation and the morphological properties of cancer cells. Further, the multiwell format of the soft-plate assay is a useful and effective adjunct to established 3-dimensional cell culture models. PMID:20886123

  5. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  6. Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  7. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  8. The petroleum industry improving the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.I.

    1992-01-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production business environment has presented many challenges over the last decade, notably price volatility and rising costs. Managing the margin and changing a company's cost structure to improve the bottom line is a major issue with company executives. The experiences of Oryx Energy Company since its spinoff from Sun Company in 1988 are used as an example of a company makeover. A generalized exploration and production income statement is employed to present industry cost/portfolio relationships and strategies for improving the bottom line. At Oryx, three major strategies were set in place to enhance shareholder value: an increased emphasis on applied technology, including horizontal drilling, advanced 3-dimensional seismic prospecting, and intensive use of interactive computer workstations; international expansion; and an emphasis on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, deemphasizing the onshore U.S. and the gas processing business. Specific strategies are outlined in the areas of increasing revenues, reducing production cost and exploration expense, and controlling general and administrative expenses. 8 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Roll type conducting polymer legs for rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teahoon Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A roll-type conducting polymer film was explored as a flexible organic p-type thermoelectric leg using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT doped with tosylate. The PEDOT films were prepared through solution casting polymerization and rolled up for a roll-type leg. Due to the high flexibility, the roll-type PEDOT leg enabled easy contact to both top and bottom electrodes. Simulation on the dynamic heat transfer and convective cooling for a vertically roosted rod- and roll-type PEDOT leg showed that the temperature difference (ΔT between the hot and cold sides of the leg was much higher in the roll than that of the rod. The PEDOT legs were integrated with n-type Bi2Te3 blocks, to give a 36-couple rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator (RF-TEG. The maximum output voltage from the 36-couple RF-TEG under a ΔT of 7.9 K was determined as 36.7 mV along with a high output power of 115 nW. A wearable RF-TEG was prepared upon the combination of the 36-couple RF-TEG with an arm warmer, to afford an output voltage of 10.6 mV, which was generated constantly and steadily from human wrist heat.

  10. Experimental characterization of fire-induced response of rigid polyurethane foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.Y.; Gill, W.; Moore, J.W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Reported is the result of an experimental investigation of fire-induced response of a 96 kg/m{sup 3} closed cell rigid polyurethane foam. The specimen is 0.37 m in diameter, and 152 mm thick, placed in a cylindrical test vessel. The fire condition is simulated by heating the bottom of the test vessel to 1283 K using a radiant heat source. Real-time x-ray shows that the degradation process involves the progression of a charring front into the virgin material. The charred region has a regular and graded structure consisting of a packed bubble outer layer and successive layers of thin shells. The layer-to-layer permeability appears to be poor. There are indications that gas vents laterally. The shell-like structure might be the result of lateral venting. Although the foam degradation process is quite complicated, the in-depth temperature responses in the uncharted foam appear to be consistent with steady state ablation. The measured temperature responses are well represented by the exponential distribution for steady state ablation. An estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the foam is obtained from the ablation model. The experiment is part of a more comprehensive program to develop material response models of foams and encapsulants.

  11. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  12. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  13. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  14. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  15. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  16. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  17. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  18. HUC 8 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  19. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  20. Sensitivity quantification of airport concrete pavement stress responses associated with top-down and bottom-up cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rezaei-Tarahomi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s rigid pavement design standard employs the NIKE3D-FAA software to compute critical pavement responses of concrete airport pavement structures. NIKE3D-FAA is a modification of the original NIKE3D three-dimensional finite element analysis program developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL of the U.S. Department of Energy, and is currently used in the FAA’s FAARFIELD program. This study evaluated the sensitivity of NIKE3D-FAA rigid pavement responses with respect to top-down and bottom-up cracking. The analysis was conducted by positioning a Boeing 777-300ER (B777-300ERaircraft at different locations (interior, corner, and edge of slab as baseline while varying other NIKE3D-FAA inputs, including rigid pavement geometric features, mechanical properties of paving and foundation materials, equivalent temperature gradient and thermal coefficient of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC layers. Several sensitivity charts were developed by examining the sensitivity of critical pavement responses to each input variation. Sensitivity evaluations were performed using a normalized sensitivity index (NSI as the quantitative metric. Using such sensitivity evaluation, the most significant NIKE3D-FAA input parameters for generating an effective synthetic database that will lower computational cost for future modeling developments were identified. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, Airfield concrete pavement, Finite element analysis, Top down cracking

  1. Boundaries, Discrimination, and Interethnic Conflict in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enze Han

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region has been afflicted by Uighur political activism and ethnic violence for the past few decades. Interethnic relations between the Uighurs and Han Chinese have been extremely tense. Why is Xinjiang so vulnerable to interethnic violence? Why are intergroup
    dynamics between the Uighurs and Han Chinese so volatile? This paper examines Uighur–Han Chinese relations in contemporary Xinjiang and probes conditions that facilitate interethnic violence. Utilizing Fredrik Barth’s approach to ethnicity that emphasizes boundaries, this paper examines in detail how the rigid interethnic boundary between the Uighurs and Han Chinese has been constructed and strengthened in Xinjiang. Perceived differences have generated mutual distrust and discrimination between the two groups that make intergroup communication and understanding difficult and therefore very limited. In situations such as that in Xinjiang, where a rigid intergroup boundary is in place and civic engagements across groups are lacking, intergroup conflict is
    extremely hard to avoid.

  2. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...

  3. Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A specification is given for a bottom loaded filter assembly for filtering radioactive liquids through a replaceable cartridge filter, which includes a lead-filled jacket enveloping a housing having a chamber therein for the filter cartridge. A track arrangement carries a hatch for sealing the chamber. A spacer plug supports the cartridge within guide means associated with the inlet conduit in the chamber. The plug and cartridge drop out of the chamber when the hatch is unbolted and moved laterally of the chamber along the track. During cartridge replacement a new plug and cartridge are supported in the guide means by a spacer bar inserted across the track means under the chamber. The hatch is then slid under the chamber and bolted to a flange on the housing, engaging an O-ring to seal the chamber. (author)

  4. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design

  5. Discovering bottom squark coannihilation at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Lastovicka, Tomas; Nomerotski, Andrei; Lastovicka-Medin, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    We study the potential of the international linear collider (ILC) at √(s)=500 GeV to probe new dark matter motivated scenario where the bottom squark (sbottom) is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. For this scenario, which is virtually impossible for the LHC to test, the ILC has a potential to cover a large fraction of the parameter space. The challenge is due to a very low energy of jets, below 20-30 GeV, which pushes the jet clustering and flavor tagging algorithms to their limits. The process of sbottom pair production was studied within the SiD detector concept. We demonstrate that ILC offers a unique opportunity to test the supersymmetry parameter space motivated by the sbottom-neutralino coannihilation scenario in cases when the sbottom production is kinematically accessible. The study was done with the full SiD simulation and reconstruction chain including all standard model and beam backgrounds.

  6. Scraping the bottom of the barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, L.F. [PETROBRAS (Brazil)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on technologies for upgrading residual streams to improve refiners margins, and reports on the refining technology programme (PROTER) set up by the Brazilian PETROBRAS company. Details are given of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) pilot units at PETROBRAS's CENPES Research and Development Centre in Rio de Janeiro State, the development of new proprietary closed cyclone technology, the Ultramist feedstock injection device, the feed nozzle, and the high accessibility catalyst. FCC units at PETROBRAS, FCC ongoing projects, and the use of delayed coking to convert low value residues to high value residues are described along with other bottom of barrel projects such as residue hydrocracking, hydropyrolysis, and the production of a stable fuel emulsion from an asphalt residue stream.

  7. Analysis of Peach Bottom turbine trip tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Lu, M.S.; Hsu, C.J.; Shier, W.G.; Diamond, D.J.; Levine, M.M.; Odar, F.

    1979-01-01

    Current interest in the analysis of turbine trip transients has been generated by the recent tests performed at the Peach Bottom (Unit 2) reactor. Three tests, simulating turbine trip transients, were performed at different initial power and coolant flow conditions. The data from these tests provide considerable information to aid qualification of computer codes that are currently used in BWR design analysis. The results are presented of an analysis of a turbine trip transient using the RELAP-3B and the BNL-TWIGL computer codes. Specific results are provided comparing the calculated reactor power and system pressures with the test data. Excellent agreement for all three test transients is evident from the comparisons

  8. Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A bottom loaded filter assembly for filtering radioactive liquids through a replaceable cartridge filter is disclosed. The filter assembly includes a lead-filled jacket enveloping a housing having a chamber therein for the filter cartridge. A track arrangement carries a hatch for sealing the chamber. A spacer plug supports the cartridge within guide means associated with the inlet conduit in the chamber. The plug and cartridge drop out of the chamber when the hatch is unbolted and move laterally of the chamber. During cartridge replacement, a new plug and cartridge are supported in the guide means by a spacer bar inserted across the track means under the chamber. The hatch is then slid under the chamber and bolted to the vessel, engaging an o-ring to seal the chamber

  9. Pediatric mandibular fractures treated by rigid internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G B

    1993-09-01

    Mandibular fractures in the pediatric patient population are relatively uncommon. These patients present with their own unique treatment requirements. Most fractures have been treated conservatively by dental splints. Closed reduction techniques with maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in very young children can pose several concerns, including cooperation, compliance and adequate nutritional intake. Rigid internal fixation of unstable mandibular fractures using miniplates and screws circumvents the need for MMF and allows immediate jaw mobilization. At major pediatric trauma institutions, there has been an increasing trend toward the use of this treatment when open reduction is necessary. This article presents a report of a five-year-old child who presented with bilateral mandibular fractures and was treated by rigid internal fixation and immediate mandibular mobilization.

  10. Handedness in shearing auxetics creates rigid and compliant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Jeffrey Ian; MacCurdy, Robert; Manchester, Zachary; Chin, Lillian; Cellucci, Daniel; Rus, Daniela

    2018-05-01

    In nature, repeated base units produce handed structures that selectively bond to make rigid or compliant materials. Auxetic tilings are scale-independent frameworks made from repeated unit cells that expand under tension. We discovered how to produce handedness in auxetic unit cells that shear as they expand by changing the symmetries and alignments of auxetic tilings. Using the symmetry and alignment rules that we developed, we made handed shearing auxetics that tile planes, cylinders, and spheres. By compositing the handed shearing auxetics in a manner inspired by keratin and collagen, we produce both compliant structures that expand while twisting and deployable structures that can rigidly lock. This work opens up new possibilities in designing chemical frameworks, medical devices like stents, robotic systems, and deployable engineering structures.

  11. Rigid inclusions-Comparison between analytical and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perez, R.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares different analytical methods for analysis of rigid inclusions with finite element modeling. First of all, the load transfer in the distribution layer is analyzed for its different thicknesses and different inclusion grids to define the range between results obtained by analytical and numerical methods. The interaction between the soft soil and the inclusion in the estimation of settlements is studied as well. Considering different stiffness of the soft soil, settlements obtained analytical and numerically are compared. The influence of the soft soil modulus of elasticity on the neutral point depth was also performed by finite elements. This depth has a great importance for the definition of the total length of rigid inclusion. (Author)

  12. Rigidity of complete noncompact bach-flat n-manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Feng, Pinghua

    2012-11-01

    Let (Mn,g) be a complete noncompact Bach-flat n-manifold with the positive Yamabe constant and constant scalar curvature. Assume that the L2-norm of the trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor R∘m is finite. In this paper, we prove that (Mn,g) is a constant curvature space if the L-norm of R∘m is sufficiently small. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (Mn,g) with positive scalar curvature. This can be viewed as a generalization of our earlier results of 4-dimensional Bach-flat manifolds with constant scalar curvature R≥0 [Y.W. Chu, A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 61 (2011) 516-521]. Furthermore, when n>9, we derive a rigidity result for R<0.

  13. Rigid-beam model of a high-efficiency magnicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, D.E.; Tallerico, P.J.; Humphries, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The magnicon is a new type of high-efficiency deflection-modulated amplifier developed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia. The prototype pulsed magnicon achieved an output power of 2.4 MW and an efficiency of 73% at 915 MHz. This paper presents the results of a rigid-beam model for a 700-MHz, 2.5-MW 82%-efficient magnicon. The rigid-beam model allows for characterization of the beam dynamics by tracking only a single electron. The magnicon design presented consists of a drive cavity; passive cavities; a pi-mode, coupled-deflection cavity; and an output cavity. It represents an optimized design. The model is fully self-consistent, and this paper presents the details of the model and calculated performance of a 2.5-MW magnicon

  14. MRS2016: Rigid Moon Rotation Series in the Relativistic Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkevich, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    The rigid Moon rotation problem is studied for the relativistic (kinematical) case, in which the geodetic perturbations in the Moon rotation are taken into account. As the result of this research the high-precision Moon Rotation Series MRS2016 in the relativistic approximation was constructed for the first time and the discrepancies between the high-precision numerical and the semi-analytical solutions of the rigid Moon rotation were investigated with respect to the fixed ecliptic of epoch J2000, by the numerical and analytical methods. The residuals between the numerical solution and MRS2016 in the perturbing terms of the physical librations do not exceed 80 mas and 10 arc seconds over 2000 and 6000 years, respectively.

  15. BC Hydro triple bottom line report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-08-01

    British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro) published this document which measures the environmental, social and economic performance of the company. It is a complement to BC Hydro's 2002 Annual Report. The report was prepared to better understand the company's business in terms of its commitment to being an environmentally, socially, and economically responsible company (the three bottom lines). BC Hydro proved its ability to integrate the three bottom lines in decision making processes by carefully examining the environmental, social and economical impacts of programs such as Power Smart, Green and Alternative Energy, and Water Use Planning. All indicators point to BC Hydro achieving its commitment of providing a minimum of 10 per cent of new demand through 2010 with new green energy sources. Water Use Plans were developed for hydroelectric generating stations, and they should all be in place by 2003. Efficiencies realised through the Power Smart program offset the increases in greenhouse gas associated with increased energy demand. Juvenile sturgeon raised in a hatchery were released into the Columbia River in May 2002. The completion of a 40-kilometre trail on the Sunshine Coast was helped by a financial contribution from BC Hydro in the amount of 23,000 dollars. Safety improvements were implemented at eight facilities, such as dam remediation, dam surveillance and instrumentation updates. Scholarships were awarded across the province, along with additional donations to non-profit organizations. Co-op positions were provided for 150 students. Internal energy efficiency programs were successful. Planning is under way for significant maintenance work and equipment replacement projects as the transmission and distribution infrastructure ages. The number of reported indicators was expanded this year. In turn, they were aligned with the revised Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. tabs

  16. Peach Bottom HTGR decommissioning and component removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, E.J.; Steward, K.P.; Iacono, J.V.

    1977-07-01

    The prime objective of the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program was to validate specific HTGR design codes and predictions by comparison of actual and predicted physics, thermal, fission product, and materials behavior in Peach Bottom. Three consecutive phases of the program provide input to the HTGR design methods verifications: (1) Nondestructive fuel and circuit gamma scanning; (2) removal of steam generator and primary circuit components; and (3) Laboratory examinations of removed components. Component removal site work commenced with establishment of restricted access areas and installation of controlled atmosphere tents to retain relative humidity at <30%. A mock-up room was established to test and develop the tooling and to train operators under simulated working conditions. Primary circuit ducting samples were removed by trepanning, and steam generator access was achieved by a combination of arc gouging and grinding. Tubing samples were removed using internal cutters and external grinding. Throughout the component removal phase, strict health physics, safety, and quality assurance programs were implemented. A total of 148 samples of primary circuit ducting and steam generator tubing were removed with no significant health physics or safety incidents. Additionally, component removal served to provide access fordetermination of cesium plateout distribution by gamma scanning inside the ducts and for macroexamination of the steam generator from both the water and helium sides. Evaluations are continuing and indicate excellent performance of the steam generator and other materials, together with close correlation of observed and predicted fission product plateout distributions. It is concluded that such a program of end-of-life research, when appropriately coordinated with decommissioning activities, can significantly advance nuclear plant and fuel technology development

  17. Polarity of translation boundaries in antiferroelectric PbZrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xian-Kui, E-mail: xiankui.wei@epfl.ch [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL–Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Peter Grünberg Institute and Ernst Ruska Center for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Jia, Chun-Lin [Peter Grünberg Institute and Ernst Ruska Center for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); International Centre of Dielectric Research, The School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Roleder, Krystian [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice 40007 (Poland); Setter, Nava [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL–Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Strain-free rigid model and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes are used to investigate the polarity of translation boundaries in antiferroelectric PbZrO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • Domain boundaries in antiferroelectric PbZrO{sub 3} show polar and antipolar property. • The antiphase boundary can split into “sub-domains”. • Polarization reversal possibly exists inside the translation boundaries. • Thermal treatment can alter morphology and density of the translation boundaries. - Abstract: The polarity of translation boundaries (TBs) in antiferroelectric PbZrO{sub 3} is investigated. We show that previous experimentally reported polar property of R{sub III-1} type TB can be well approximated by a strain-free rigid model. Based on this, the modeling investigation suggests that there are two additional polar TBs, three antipolar-like TBs and one antipolar antiphase boundary. High-resolution scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy study reveals that the straight R{sub III-1} type TB can split into “sub-domains” with possible polarization reversal, suggesting the occurrence of ferroic orders at the TBs. In addition, dependence of morphology and density of the TBs on thermal treatments is discussed according to our results.

  18. Acoustic scattering of a Bessel vortex beam by a rigid fixed spheroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Partial-wave series representation of the acoustic scattering field of high-order Bessel vortex beams by rigid oblate and prolate spheroids using the modal matching method is developed. The method, which is applicable to slightly elongated objects at low-to-moderate frequencies, requires solving a system of linear equations which depends on the partial-wave index n and the order of the Bessel vortex beam m using truncated partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs), and satisfying the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface in the least-squares sense. This original semi-analytical approach developed for Bessel vortex beams is demonstrated for finite oblate and prolate spheroids, where the mathematical functions describing the spheroidal geometry are written in a form involving single angular (polar) integrals that are numerically computed. The transverse (θ = π / 2) and 3D scattering directivity patterns are evaluated in the far-field for both prolate and oblate spheroids, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid) not exceeding 3:1, the half-cone angle β and order m of the Bessel vortex beam, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kr0. Periodic oscillations in the magnitude plots of the far-field scattering form function are observed, which result from the interference of the reflected waves with the circumferential (Franz') waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3D directivity patterns illustrate the far-field scattering from the spheroid, that vanishes in the forward (θ = 0) and backward (θ = π) directions. Particular applications in underwater acoustics and scattering, acoustic levitation and the detection of submerged elongated objects using Bessel vortex waves to name a few, would benefit from the results of the present investigation.

  19. Simulation of rotary-drum and repose tests for frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    The effects of rotation rate and interparticle friction on the bulk flow behavior in rotating horizontal cylinders are studied via particle-dynamic simulations. Assemblies of inelastic, frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters are utilized, and rotation rates from quasistatic to centrifuging are examined. Flow phenomena explored include size segregation, avalanching, slumping and centrifuging. Simulated drum flows with two sizes of frictional spheres showed very rapid segregation of species perpendicular to the drum axis; however, simulations of up to 10 revolutions, utilizing periodic-boundary ends, did not exhibit the experimentally observed axial segregation into stripes. Angles of repose for uniform-sized spheres in slowly rotating cylinders varied from 13 to 31 degrees as the friction coefficient varied from 0.02 to 1.0. For simulated rotation rates higher than the threshold to obtain uniform flow conditions, the apparent angle of repose increases as the rotation rats increases, consistent with experiments. Also, simulations with rigid clusters of 4 spheres in a tetrahedral shape or 8 spheres in a cubical arrangement, demonstrate that particle shape strongly influences the repose angle. Simulations of cubical 8-sphere clusters, with a surface coefficient of friction of 0.1, produced apparent angles of repose exceeding 35 degrees, compared to 23 degrees for assemblies of single spheres interacting with the same force model parameters. Centrifuging flows at very high rotation rates exist as stationary beds moving exactly as the outer rotating wall. At somewhat slower speeds the granular bed remains in contact with the wall but exhibits surface sliding down the rising inner bed surface, moving a short distance on each revolution. At still slower speeds particles rain from the surface of the upper half of the rotating bed.

  20. A rigid lamb syndrome in sheep in Rhodesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudert, C P; Lawrence, J A; Foggin, C; Barlow, R M

    1978-04-29

    A syndrome characterised by the birth of lambs with varying degrees of rigidity of the limbs and spine has been encountered on several occasions in Rhodesia. Outbreaks have occurred in autumn-born lambs from Dorper ewes grazing heavily fertilised Star grass cv No 2 (Cynodon aethiopicus) pastures. The condition appears to be exacerbated by the application of sulphur to the pasture and is partly prevented by the administration of selenium and vitamin E to the ewes before lambing. The aetiology is unknown.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics mathematical models for rigid bodies with a liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Lukovsky, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to analytically approximate methods in the nonlinear dynamics of a rigid body with cavities partly filled by liquid. It combines several methods and compares the results with experimental data. It is useful for experienced and early-stage readers interested in analytical approaches to fluid-structure interaction problems, the fundamental mathematical background and modeling the dynamics of such complex mechanical systems.

  2. Steady fall of a rigid body in viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Is. (2005), s. 2113-2119 ISSN 0362-546X. [Invited Talks from the Fourth World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts (WCNA 2004). Orlando , 30.7.2004-7.8.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2005

  3. NOLB: Nonlinear Rigid Block Normal Mode Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann , Alexandre; Grudinin , Sergei

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We present a new conceptually simple and computationally efficient method for nonlinear normal mode analysis called NOLB. It relies on the rotations-translations of blocks (RTB) theoretical basis developed by Y.-H. Sanejouand and colleagues. We demonstrate how to physically interpret the eigenvalues computed in the RTB basis in terms of angular and linear velocities applied to the rigid blocks and how to construct a nonlinear extrapolation of motion out of these veloci...

  4. Oscillations of manometric tubular springs with rigid end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherentsov, D. A.; Pirogov, S. P.; Dorofeev, S. M.; Ryabova, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of attenuating oscillations of manometric tubular springs (MTS) taking into account the rigid tip. The dynamic MTS model is presented in the form of a thin-walled curved rod oscillating in the plane of curvature of the central axis. Equations for MTS oscillations are obtained in accordance with the d’Alembert principle in projections onto the normal and tangential. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is used to solve the equations obtained.

  5. On Polya's inequality for torsional rigidity and first Dirichlet eigenvalue

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, M. van den; Ferone, V.; Nitsch, C.; Trombetti, C.

    2016-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be an open set in Euclidean space with finite Lebesgue measure $|\\Omega|$. We obtain some properties of the set function $F:\\Omega\\mapsto \\R^+$ defined by $$ F(\\Omega)=\\frac{T(\\Omega)\\lambda_1(\\Omega)}{|\\Omega|} ,$$ where $T(\\Omega)$ and $\\lambda_1(\\Omega)$ are the torsional rigidity and the first eigenvalue of the Dirichlet Laplacian respectively. We improve the classical P\\'olya bound $F(\\Omega)\\le 1,$ and show that $$F(\\Omega)\\le 1- \

  6. Gas-induced friction and diffusion of rigid rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetz, Lukas; Hornberger, Klaus; Stickler, Benjamin A.

    2018-05-01

    We derive the Boltzmann equation for the rotranslational dynamics of an arbitrary convex rigid body in a rarefied gas. It yields as a limiting case the Fokker-Planck equation accounting for friction, diffusion, and nonconservative drift forces and torques. We provide the rotranslational friction and diffusion tensors for specular and diffuse reflection off particles with spherical, cylindrical, and cuboidal shape, and show that the theory describes thermalization, photophoresis, and the inverse Magnus effect in the free molecular regime.

  7. Polyester Polyols from Waste PET Bottles for Polyurethane Rigid Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Evtimova, Rozeta; Lozeva, Yordanka; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Wotzka, Michael; Wagner, Peter; Behrendt, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified process to produce polyester polyols from PET wastes derived from the “bottle fraction residue” of the German Dual System (DSD) [11] employing a waste oligoester condensate of the polyesterification process with the addition of some glycols of longer chain and occasional modification with further dicarboxylic acids to produce polyester polyols of a broad range of properties which are further reacted to form polyurethane or polyisocyanurate rigid foams for insul...

  8. Modyfication of the Rigid Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusław Czupryński; Joanna Liszkowska; Joanna Paciorek-Sadowska

    2014-01-01

    The effect of polyethylene glycol 1500 on physicomechanical properties of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR) foams has been studied. It was found that application of polyethylene glycol 1500 for synthesis of foams in amount from 0% to 20% w/w had an effect on reduction of brittleness and softening point, while the greater the increase in compressive strength the higher its content in foam composition was. Wastes from production of these foams were ground and subjected to glycolysis...

  9. Contested Boundaries: psychiatry, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities--entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public.

  10. A bottom-driven mechanism for distributed faulting in the Gulf of California rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Patricia; Tan, Eh; Contreras, Juan; Lavier, Luc

    2017-11-01

    Observations of active faulting in the continent-ocean transition of the Northern Gulf of California show multiple oblique-slip faults distributed in a 200 × 70 km2 area developed some time after a westward relocation of the plate boundary at 2 Ma. In contrast, north and south of this broad pull-apart structure, major transform faults accommodate Pacific-North America plate motion. Here we propose that the mechanism for distributed brittle deformation results from the boundary conditions present in the Northern Gulf, where basal shear is distributed between the Cerro Prieto strike-slip fault (southernmost fault of the San Andreas fault system) and the Ballenas Transform Fault. We hypothesize that in oblique-extensional settings whether deformation is partitioned in a few dip-slip and strike-slip faults, or in numerous oblique-slip faults may depend on (1) bottom-driven, distributed extension and shear deformation of the lower crust or upper mantle, and (2) the rift obliquity. To test this idea, we explore the effects of bottom-driven shear on the deformation of a brittle elastic-plastic layer with the help of pseudo-three dimensional numerical models that include side forces. Strain localization results when the basal shear abruptly increases in a step-function manner while oblique-slip on numerous faults dominates when basal shear is distributed. We further explore how the style of faulting varies with obliquity and demonstrate that the style of delocalized faulting observed in the Northern Gulf of California is reproduced in models with an obliquity of 0.7 and distributed basal shear boundary conditions, consistent with the interpreted obliquity and boundary conditions of the study area.

  11. Rigid or flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal clinics? Appraisal through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-06-01

    Rigid sigmoidoscopy is sometimes performed at first presentation in colorectal clinics. We assessed the feasibility of flexible sigmoidoscopy in similar situations by comparing it with rigid sigmoidoscopy as a first investigative tool.

  12. Towards Sub-Microarsecond Rigid Earth Nutation Series in the Hamiltonian Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souchay, Jean; Folgueira, M

    2000-01-01

    ...) are based on the works of Kinoshita (1977) and Wahr (1979). In Kinoshita's work, the rigid Earth nutation series were calculated by the application of the Hamiltonian canonical equations to the rotation of the rigid and elliptical Earth...

  13. Experimental consequences of predicted charge rigidity of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in superconductors the charged superfluid is about a million times more rigid than the normal electron fluid. We point out that this physics should give rise to large changes in the bulk and surface plasmon dispersion relations of metals entering the superconducting state, that have not yet been experimentally detected and would be in stark contradiction with the expected behavior within conventional BCS-London theory. We also propose that this explains the puzzling experimental observations of Avramenko et al. on electron sound propagation in superconductors and the puzzling experiments of de Heer et al. detecting large electric dipole moments in small metal clusters, as well as the Tao effect on aggregation of superconducting microparticles in an electric field. Associated with the enhanced charge rigidity is a large increase in the electric screening length of superconductors at low temperatures that has not yet been experimentally detected. The physical origin of the enhanced charge rigidity and its relation to other aspects of the theory of hole superconductivity is discussed.

  14. Field dependent cosmic ray streaming at high rigidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Data from underground μ meson telescopes at depths of 25, 40, and 80 mwe covering the period 1965--1973 have been analyzed as a function of interplanetary magnetic field direction. Cosmic ray streaming both in and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, with directions dependent on the sense of the interplanetary magnetic field, is observed throughout the period at all depths. The field dependent streaming in the ecliptic plane exhibits some variability in amplitude and phase but contains a component in the direction perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field direction which is consistent with B x delN streaming due to a perpendicular cosmic ray density gradient pointing southward (higher density below the ecliptic plane than above it). In the case of the field dependent streaming perpendicular to the ecliptic plane the direction of the streaming has remained remarkably consistent over the 9-year period. One possible source of this streaming is B x delN streaming due to a radial heliocentric cosmic ray density gradient; this possibility is discussed along with other possible sources. There does not appear to be an obvious variation in the amplitude of the field dependent streaming either in or perpendicular to the ecliptic plane with increasing rigidity; both effects are still apparent at rigidities well above the 52-GV threshold rigidity of the Socorro 80-mwe telescope. The amplitudes of both anisotropies appear larger at solar maximum than at solar minimum

  15. Rigid Body Energy Minimization on Manifolds for Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hanieh; Beglov, Dmitri; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Vajda, Sandor; Vakili, Pirooz; Kozakov, Dima

    2012-11-13

    Virtually all docking methods include some local continuous minimization of an energy/scoring function in order to remove steric clashes and obtain more reliable energy values. In this paper, we describe an efficient rigid-body optimization algorithm that, compared to the most widely used algorithms, converges approximately an order of magnitude faster to conformations with equal or slightly lower energy. The space of rigid body transformations is a nonlinear manifold, namely, a space which locally resembles a Euclidean space. We use a canonical parametrization of the manifold, called the exponential parametrization, to map the Euclidean tangent space of the manifold onto the manifold itself. Thus, we locally transform the rigid body optimization to an optimization over a Euclidean space where basic optimization algorithms are applicable. Compared to commonly used methods, this formulation substantially reduces the dimension of the search space. As a result, it requires far fewer costly function and gradient evaluations and leads to a more efficient algorithm. We have selected the LBFGS quasi-Newton method for local optimization since it uses only gradient information to obtain second order information about the energy function and avoids the far more costly direct Hessian evaluations. Two applications, one in protein-protein docking, and the other in protein-small molecular interactions, as part of macromolecular docking protocols are presented. The code is available to the community under open source license, and with minimal effort can be incorporated into any molecular modeling package.

  16. Crack identification for rigid pavements using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaddin Ersoz, Ahmet; Pekcan, Onur; Teke, Turker

    2017-09-01

    Pavement condition assessment is an essential piece of modern pavement management systems as rehabilitation strategies are planned based upon its outcomes. For proper evaluation of existing pavements, they must be continuously and effectively monitored using practical means. Conventionally, truck-based pavement monitoring systems have been in-use in assessing the remaining life of in-service pavements. Although such systems produce accurate results, their use can be expensive and data processing can be time consuming, which make them infeasible considering the demand for quick pavement evaluation. To overcome such problems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used as an alternative as they are relatively cheaper and easier-to-use. In this study, we propose a UAV based pavement crack identification system for monitoring rigid pavements’ existing conditions. The system consists of recently introduced image processing algorithms used together with conventional machine learning techniques, both of which are used to perform detection of cracks on rigid pavements’ surface and their classification. Through image processing, the distinct features of labelled crack bodies are first obtained from the UAV based images and then used for training of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model. The performance of the developed SVM model was assessed with a field study performed along a rigid pavement exposed to low traffic and serious temperature changes. Available cracks were classified using the UAV based system and obtained results indicate it ensures a good alternative solution for pavement monitoring applications.

  17. Green waste cooking oil-based rigid polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderus, N. F.; Tahir, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    Polyurethane is a versatile polymer traditionally prepared using petroleum-based raw material. Petroleum, however, is a non-renewable material and polyurethane produced was found to be non-biodegradable. In quest for a more environmentally friendly alternative, wastecooking oil, a highly abundant domestic waste with easily derivatized structure, is a viable candidate to replace petroleum. In this study,an investigation to determine physical and chemical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out. WCO was first adsorbed by using coconut husk activated carbon adsorbent prior to be used for polyol synthesis. The purified WCO was then used to synthesize polyol via transesterification reaction to yield alcohol groups in the WCO chains structure. Finally, the WCO-based polyol was used to prepare rigid PU foam. The optimum formulation for PU formation was found to be 90 polyol: 60 glycerol: 54 water: 40 diethanolamine: 23 diisocyanate. The rigid PU foam has density of 208.4 kg/m3 with maximum compressive strength and capability to receive load at 0.03 MPa and 0.09 kN, respectively. WCO-based PU can potentially be used to replace petroleum-based PU as house construction materials such as insulation panels.

  18. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  19. Numerical study of compressible magnetoconvection with an open transitional boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanami, H.; Tajima, T.

    1990-08-01

    We study by computer simulation nonlinear evolution of magnetoconvection in a system with a dynamical open boundary between the convection region and corona of the sun. We study a model in which the fluid is subject to the vertical gravitation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and high stratification, through an MHD code with the MacCormack-Donner cell hybrid scheme in order to well represent convective phenomena. Initially the vertical fluid flux penetrates from the convectively unstable zone at the bottom into the upper diffuse atmosphere. As the instability develops, the magnetic fields are twisted by the convection motion and the folding magnetic fields is observed. When the magnetic pressure is comparable to the thermal pressure in the upper layer of convective zone, strong flux expulsion from the convective cell interior toward the cell boundary appears. Under appropriate conditions our simulation exhibits no shock formation incurred by the fluid convected to the photosphere, in contrast to earlier works with box boundaries. The magnetic field patterns observed are those of concentrated magnetic flux tubes, accumulation of dynamo flux near the bottom boundary, pinched flux near the downdraft region, and the surface movement of magnetic flux toward the downdraft region. Many of these computationally observed features are reminiscent of solar observations of the fluid and magnetic structures of their motions

  20. Re-initiation of bottom water formation in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Tae; Chang, Kyung-Il; Nam, SungHyun; Rho, TaeKeun; Kang, Dong-Jin; Lee, Tongsup; Park, Kyung-Ae; Lobanov, Vyacheslav; Kaplunenko, Dmitry; Tishchenko, Pavel; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2018-01-25

    The East Sea (Japan Sea), a small marginal sea in the northwestern Pacific, is ventilated deeply down to the bottom and sensitive to changing surface conditions. Addressing the response of this marginal sea to the hydrological cycle and atmospheric forcing would be helpful for better understanding present and future environmental changes in oceans at the global and regional scales. Here, we present an analysis of observations revealing a slowdown of the long-term deepening in water boundaries associated with changes of water formation rate. Our results indicate that bottom (central) water formation has been enhanced (reduced) with more (less) oxygen supply to the bottom (central) layer since the 2000s. This paper presents a new projection that allows a three-layered deep structure, which retains bottom water, at least until 2040, contrasting previous results. This projection considers recent increase of slope convections mainly due to the salt supply via air-sea freshwater exchange and sea ice formation and decrease of open-ocean convections evidenced by reduced mixed layer depth in the northern East Sea, resulting in more bottom water and less central water formations. Such vigorous changes in water formation and ventilation provide certain implications on future climate changes.

  1. Multiscale multiphysics and multidomain models—Flexibility and rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Kelin; Opron, Kristopher; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The emerging complexity of large macromolecules has led to challenges in their full scale theoretical description and computer simulation. Multiscale multiphysics and multidomain models have been introduced to reduce the number of degrees of freedom while maintaining modeling accuracy and achieving computational efficiency. A total energy functional is constructed to put energies for polar and nonpolar solvation, chemical potential, fluid flow, molecular mechanics, and elastic dynamics on an equal footing. The variational principle is utilized to derive coupled governing equations for the above mentioned multiphysical descriptions. Among these governing equations is the Poisson-Boltzmann equation which describes continuum electrostatics with atomic charges. The present work introduces the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity (CEWAR). The essence of CEWAR is to formulate the shear modulus as a continuous function of atomic rigidity. As a result, the dynamics complexity of a macromolecular system is separated from its static complexity so that the more time-consuming dynamics is handled with continuum elasticity theory, while the less time-consuming static analysis is pursued with atomic approaches. We propose a simple method, flexibility-rigidity index (FRI), to analyze macromolecular flexibility and rigidity in atomic detail. The construction of FRI relies on the fundamental assumption that protein functions, such as flexibility, rigidity, and energy, are entirely determined by the structure of the protein and its environment, although the structure is in turn determined by all the interactions. As such, the FRI measures the topological connectivity of protein atoms or residues and characterizes the geometric compactness of the protein structure. As a consequence, the FRI does not resort to the interaction Hamiltonian and bypasses matrix diagonalization, which underpins most other flexibility analysis methods. FRI's computational complexity is of O

  2. Bang-Bang Practical Stabilization of Rigid Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpelloni, Edoardo

    In this thesis, we study the problem of designing a practical stabilizer for a rigid body equipped with a set of actuators generating only constant thrust. Our motivation stems from the fact that modern space missions are required to accurately control the position and orientation of spacecraft actuated by constant-thrust jet-thrusters. To comply with the performance limitations of modern thrusters, we design a feedback controller that does not induce high-frequency switching of the actuators. The proposed controller is hybrid and it asymptotically stabilizes an arbitrarily small compact neighborhood of the target position and orientation of the rigid body. The controller is characterized by a hierarchical structure comprising of two control layers. At the low level of the hierarchy, an attitude controller stabilizes the target orientation of the rigid body. At the high level, after the attitude controller has steered the rigid body sufficiently close to its desired orientation, a position controller stabilizes the desired position. The size of the neighborhood being stabilized by the controller can be adjusted via a proper selection of the controller parameters. This allows us to stabilize the rigid body to virtually any degree of accuracy. It is shown that the controller, even in the presence of measurement noise, does not induce high-frequency switching of the actuators. The key component in the design of the controller is a hybrid stabilizer for the origin of double-integrators affected by bounded external perturbations. Specifically, both the position and the attitude stabilizers consist of multiple copies of such a double-integrator controller. The proposed controller is applied to two realistic spacecraft control problems. First, we apply the position controller to the problem of stabilizing the relative position between two spacecraft flying in formation in the vicinity of the L2 libration point of the Sun-Earth system as a part of a large space telescope

  3. Study on the Delimitation of the Urban Development Boundary in a Special Economic Zone: A Case Study of the Central Urban Area of Doumen in Zhuhai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since it implemented open-door policies, China has become the fastest growing economy in the world, and its urbanization level has steadily improved. Taking a special economic zone as the object of study, this paper delineates the urban development boundary of the Central Urban Area of Doumen. Using multiple models and methods, the urban development rigid and elastic boundaries are delineated separately, with the rigid boundary serving as the premise and foundation for delineating the elastic boundary. The results are as follows. First, the scale of the urban development rigid boundary is 79.60 km². Moreover, the scales of the urban development elastic boundaries in 2020 and 2026 are 24.51 km² and 28.53 km², respectively. Second, by delimiting the urban development elastic boundary, the compactness of urban land will be improved. Third, the urban development boundary of this paper is reasonable in theory. This paper suggests that the urban development boundary can curb urban sprawl and guide rational urban development, which is conducive to optimizing an urban spatial layout.

  4. The diagnostic role of thoracoscope in undiagnosed pleural effusion: Rigid versus flexible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoud Abdel Mageid Shaheen

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Thoracoscopy using either fibreoptic bronchoscope or rigid thoracoscope is safe and well tolerated. Rigid thoracoscope has a higher diagnostic yield, easier handling, better orientation and is less expensive. Nevertheless, fibreoptic bronchoscope is an alternative technique if rigid thoracoscopy is not available.

  5. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method. Susqueda Dam case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-07-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  6. A combined rigid/deformable plate tectonic model for the evolution of the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. G.; Glover, C. T.; Adriasola Munoz, A. C.; Harris, J. P.; Goodrich, M.

    2012-04-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions are essential for placing geological information in its correct spatial context, understanding depositional environments, defining basin dimensions and evolution, and serve as a basis for palaeogeographic mapping and for palaeo-climate modelling. Traditional 'rigid' plate reconstructions often result in misfits (overlaps and underfits) in the geometries of juxtaposed plate margins when restored to their pre-rift positions. This has been attributed to internal deformation pre- and/or syn- continental break-up. Poorly defined continent-ocean boundaries add to these problems. To date, few studies have integrated continental extension within a global model. Recent plate tectonic reconstructions based on the relative motions of Africa, Madagascar, India and Antarctica during the break-up of eastern Gondwana have not taken into account the effects of deformation; particularly between India and Madagascar, and India and the Seychelles. A deformable plate model is in development that builds on the current rigid plate model to describe the complex multiphase break-up history between Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles and India, the associated magmatic activity and subsequent India/Eurasia collision. The break-up of eastern Gondwana occurred in the mid Jurassic by rifting between Africa and the India-Madagascar-Australian-Antarctica plates, followed by the Late Jurassic drift of India away from Australia and the Cretaceous break-up of Australia and Antarctica. The northwards drift of the Seychelles-India block in the Tertiary was accommodated by the opening of the Laxmi Basin. This was followed by the eruption of the extensive Deccan flood basalts and the separation of India and the Seychelles. Crustal domains on volcanic margins can be very difficult to define due to the accretion of magmatic material. On these margins, there is much speculation on the position of the continent-ocean boundary and the timing of rifting and sea-floor spreading. The

  7. Bottom friction models for shallow water equations: Manning’s roughness coefficient and small-scale bottom heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonova, Tatyana; Khoperskov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The correct description of the surface water dynamics in the model of shallow water requires accounting for friction. To simulate a channel flow in the Chezy model the constant Manning roughness coefficient is frequently used. The Manning coefficient nM is an integral parameter which accounts for a large number of physical factors determining the flow braking. We used computational simulations in a shallow water model to determine the relationship between the Manning coefficient and the parameters of small-scale perturbations of a bottom in a long channel. Comparing the transverse water velocity profiles in the channel obtained in the models with a perturbed bottom without bottom friction and with bottom friction on a smooth bottom, we constructed the dependence of nM on the amplitude and spatial scale of perturbation of the bottom relief.

  8. Rapid Determination of Appropriate Source Models for Tsunami Early Warning using a Depth Dependent Rigidity Curve: Method and Numerical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Y.; Miranda, G. J. A.; Gusman, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, tsunami early warning technique has been improved using tsunami waveforms observed at the ocean bottom pressure gauges such as NOAA DART system or DONET and S-NET systems in Japan. However, for tsunami early warning of near field tsunamis, it is essential to determine appropriate source models using seismological analysis before large tsunamis hit the coast, especially for tsunami earthquakes which generated significantly large tsunamis. In this paper, we develop a technique to determine appropriate source models from which appropriate tsunami inundation along the coast can be numerically computed The technique is tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off Central America. In this study, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, then the fault length and width were determined from scaling relationships. At first, the slip amount was calculated from the seismic moment with a constant rigidity of 3.5 x 10**10N/m2. The tsunami numerical simulation was carried out and compared with the observed tsunami. For the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake, the computed tsunami was much smaller than the observed one. For the 2004 El Astillero earthquake, the computed tsunami was overestimated. In order to solve this problem, we constructed a depth dependent rigidity curve, similar to suggested by Bilek and Lay (1999). The curve with a central depth estimated by the W-phase inversion was used to calculate the slip amount of the fault model. Using those new slip amounts, tsunami numerical simulation was carried out again. Then, the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas for the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake were well explained by the computed one. The other tsunamis from the other three earthquakes were also reasonably well explained

  9. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  10. Boundary-Object Trimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt

    2014-01-01

    implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...

  11. Minnesota County Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  12. Boundaries of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.

  13. Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua

    2018-06-01

    A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.

  14. Conformal boundary loop models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    We study a model of densely packed self-avoiding loops on the annulus, related to the Temperley-Lieb algebra with an extra idempotent boundary generator. Four different weights are given to the loops, depending on their homotopy class and whether they touch the outer rim of the annulus. When the weight of a contractible bulk loop x≡q+q -1 element of (-2,2], this model is conformally invariant for any real weight of the remaining three parameters. We classify the conformal boundary conditions and give exact expressions for the corresponding boundary scaling dimensions. The amplitudes with which the sectors with any prescribed number and types of non-contractible loops appear in the full partition function Z are computed rigorously. Based on this, we write a number of identities involving Z which hold true for any finite size. When the weight of a contractible boundary loop y takes certain discrete values, y r ≡([r+1] q )/([r] q ) with r integer, other identities involving the standard characters K r,s of the Virasoro algebra are established. The connection with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the O(n) model is discussed in detail, and new scaling dimensions are derived. When q is a root of unity and y=y r , exact connections with the A m type RSOS model are made. These involve precise relations between the spectra of the loop and RSOS model transfer matrices, valid in finite size. Finally, the results where y=y r are related to the theory of Temperley-Lieb cabling

  15. Cohomological rigidity of manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Erokhovets, N. Yu.; Masuda, M.; Panov, T. E.; Park, S.

    2017-04-01

    A family of closed manifolds is said to be cohomologically rigid if a cohomology ring isomorphism implies a diffeomorphism for any two manifolds in the family. Cohomological rigidity is established here for large families of 3-dimensional and 6-dimensional manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes. The class \\mathscr{P} of 3-dimensional combinatorial simple polytopes P different from tetrahedra and without facets forming 3- and 4-belts is studied. This class includes mathematical fullerenes, that is, simple 3- polytopes with only 5-gonal and 6-gonal facets. By a theorem of Pogorelov, any polytope in \\mathscr{P} admits in Lobachevsky 3-space a right-angled realisation which is unique up to isometry. Our families of smooth manifolds are associated with polytopes in the class \\mathscr{P}. The first family consists of 3-dimensional small covers of polytopes in \\mathscr{P}, or equivalently, hyperbolic 3-manifolds of Löbell type. The second family consists of 6-dimensional quasitoric manifolds over polytopes in \\mathscr{P}. Our main result is that both families are cohomologically rigid, that is, two manifolds M and M' from either family are diffeomorphic if and only if their cohomology rings are isomorphic. It is also proved that if M and M' are diffeomorphic, then their corresponding polytopes P and P' are combinatorially equivalent. These results are intertwined with classical subjects in geometry and topology such as the combinatorics of 3-polytopes, the Four Colour Theorem, aspherical manifolds, a diffeomorphism classification of 6-manifolds, and invariance of Pontryagin classes. The proofs use techniques of toric topology. Bibliography: 69 titles.

  16. Vertical dimensional stability and rigidity of occlusal registration materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary P; Wu, Edis; Heckman, M Elizabeth; Alderman, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Dimensionally accurate occlusal registration records are essential for restorative dentistry; moreover, since records are not used immediately or may be used more than once, the registration material should exhibit accuracy over time (a concept known as dimensional stability). It has been speculated that materials with increased hardness or rigidity should produce more accurate registration records due to an increased resistance to distortion. This study compared the rigidity and associated dimensional accuracy of a recently marketed bisacrylic occlusal registration material and a vinyl polysiloxane (VPS). Maxillary and mandibular typodont arches were mounted on a plasterless articulator from which teeth No. 3, 13, and 15 had been removed to simulate edentulous spaces. After preparing teeth No. 2, 4, 12, and 14 as bridge abutments, the remaining teeth were equilibrated selectively to produce even anterior contact. Four digital photographs were taken to make vertical interarch measurements at four locations (teeth No. 3, 7, 10, and 14). Following initial photos (controls), 10 interocclusal records were made using each registration material, with material placed only in the segments in which teeth were prepared. The records were used for mounting the maxillary arch against the mandibular arch after 48, 72, and 120 hours. There were significant effects on vertical dimensional change related to arch location, material, and mounting time. Both materials demonstrated significantly larger posterior vertical openings than anterior vertical openings, while the bisacrylate produced a larger posterior opening than VPS at 48 and 72 hours and a larger anterior opening at all mounting times. There also was a significant difference in hardness/rigidity due to material and measurement time; at all measurement times, bisacrylate exhibited a significantly higher hardness number.

  17. Revisiting Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we revisit Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows. The oblique collision between a particle and a flat wall is analyzed by adopting the classic rigid-body theory and a more realistic semianalytical model. Based on the kinetic granular theory, the input parameter for the partial-slip boundary conditions, specularity coefficient, which is not measurable in experiments, is then interpreted as a function of the particle-wall restitution coefficient, the frictional coefficient, and the normalized slip velocity at the wall. An analytical expression for the specularity coefficient is suggested for a flat, frictional surface with a low frictional coefficient. The procedure for determining the specularity coefficient for a more general problem is outlined, and a working approximation is provided.

  18. Rigid body formulation in a finite element context with contact interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refachinho de Campos, Paulo R.; Gay Neto, Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    The present work proposes a formulation to employ rigid bodies together with flexible bodies in the context of a nonlinear finite element solver, with contact interactions. Inertial contributions due to distribution of mass of a rigid body are fully developed, considering a general pole position associated with a single node, representing a rigid body element. Additionally, a mechanical constraint is proposed to connect a rigid region composed by several nodes, which is useful for linking rigid/flexible bodies in a finite element environment. Rodrigues rotation parameters are used to describe finite rotations, by an updated Lagrangian description. In addition, the contact formulation entitled master-surface to master-surface is employed in conjunction with the rigid body element and flexible bodies, aiming to consider their interaction in a rigid-flexible multibody environment. New surface parameterizations are presented to establish contact pairs, permitting pointwise interaction in a frictional scenario. Numerical examples are provided to show robustness and applicability of the methods.

  19. Friction effects on lateral loading behavior of rigid piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole

    2012-01-01

    taking into account the shear frictional resistance along the pile. For this purpose efficient three dimensional finite element models of different diameter have been developed. The increase of the side friction and of the diameter of the pile is shown to alter the failure pattern and increase...... the lateral capacity of the pile. The obtained p - y curves demonstrate the importance of the aforementioned parameters in the design of rigid piles, as the reduction of friction along the interface reduces not only the ultimate load but also the stiffness of the soil-pile response. Read More: http...

  20. Cosmic ray fluctuations at rigidities 4 to 180 GV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benko, G.; Erdoes, G.; Stehlik, M.; Katz, M.E.; Nosov, S.F.

    1986-07-01

    The power spectral density of cosmic ray fluctuations observed at both underground and ground level during the years 1976-1980 was calculated. The spectral index is independent of the phase of solar cycle in the frequency range of 5x10 -7 - 5x10 -5 Hz and its value is equal to 2. The level of fluctuations shows a weak dependence on the rigidity (R) of the particles P∼R -2/3 . The obtained experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  1. Microstructural Dynamics and Rheology of Suspensions of Rigid Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason E.; Snook, Braden

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics and rheology of suspensions of rigid, non-Brownian fibers in Newtonian fluids are reviewed. Experiments, theories, and computer simulations are considered, with an emphasis on suspensions at semidilute and concentrated conditions. In these suspensions, interactions between the particles strongly influence the microstructure and rheological properties of the suspension. The interactions can arise from hydrodynamic disturbances, giving multibody interactions at long ranges and pairwise lubrication forces over short distances. For concentrated suspensions, additional interactions due to excluded volume (contacts) and adhesive forces are addressed. The relative importance of the various interactions as a function of fiber concentration is assessed.

  2. On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)

  3. Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle. 461. = a. ∫. M u2(1+q)+ 2 a f 2 − 2. ∫. M u2q+1f 〈∇f, ∇u〉. − (2q + 1). ∫. M u2qf 2|∇u|2, which gives a .... that depends on n, ϵ and q. We now try to transform (2.15) the right hand side only involved u in the power two. For that, we use Young's inequality: ab ≤ βsas.

  4. Tilting mode in rigidly rotating field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, R.A.; Milovich, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The tilting-mode stability of field-reversed configurations is analyzed taking into account plasma rotational effects that had not been included in previous theoretical treatments. It is shown that for a rigidly rotating plasma in stationary equilibrium, stability can be attained if the plasma rotational energy is of the same order as the thermal energy. Since presently available values of the rotational velocities are quite lower than required by the stabilization mechanism considered here, the contribution of this effect to the overall stability of the mode does not appear to be significant

  5. Rigid supersymmetry from conformal supergravity in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, Alessandro; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego; Schmude, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We study the rigid limit of 5d conformal supergravity with minimal supersymmetry on Riemannian manifolds. The necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution is the existence of a conformal Killing vector. Whenever a certain SU(2) curvature becomes abelian the backgrounds define a transversally holomorphic foliation. Subsequently we turn to the question under which circumstances these backgrounds admit a kinetic Yang-Mills term in the action of a vector multiplet. Here we find that the conformal Killing vector has to be Killing. We supplement the discussion with various appendices.

  6. Numerical rigid plastic modelling of shear capacity of keyed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    Keyed shear joints are currently designed using simple and conservative design formulas, yet these formulas do not take the local mechanisms in the concrete core of the joint into account. To investigate this phenomenon a rigid, perfectly plastic finite element model of keyed joints is used....... The model is formulated for second-order conic optimisation as a lower bound problem, which yields a statically admissible stress field that satisfies the yield condition in every point. The dual solution to the problem can be interpreted as the collapse mode and will be used to analyse the properties...

  7. Nonlinear complex dynamics and Keynesian rigidity: A short introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovero, Edgardo

    2005-09-01

    The topic of this paper is to show that the greater acceptance and intense use of complex nonlinear dynamics in macroeconomics makes sense only within the neoKeynesian tradition. An example is presented regarding the behavior of an open-economy two-sector growth model endowed with Keynesian rigidity. The Keynesian view that structural instability globally exists in the aggregate economy is put forward, and therefore the need arises for policy to alleviate this instability in the form of dampened fluctuations is presented as an alternative view for macroeconomic theorizing.

  8. Euler-Poincare Reduction of Externall Forced Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2004-01-01

    If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system affected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincaré reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modelling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincaré reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  9. Euler-Poincare Reduction of a Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2005-01-01

    |If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system afected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincare reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modeling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincare reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  10. Euler-Poincaré Reduction of a Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2004-01-01

    If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system affected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincaré reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modelling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincaré reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  11. The Chinese Race to the Bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out among what Lian Si (2009) has called China’s ‘ant tribe’, referring to the millions of unemployed Chinese college graduates who live in the outskirts of Beijing and to some extent share the predicament of China’s migrant workers. Education...... graduates, Jing Jing and Bai Gang, who attempted but partly failed to transcend the boundary between rural and urban China, I show how their quests for social mobility and a more fulfilling life were tied to economic, legal and cultural constraints. I argue that the quest for a better life through...... educational migration may lead to physical mobility, but that existential mobility is lacking and this sometimes leads to instances of suicide, just as is the case for Chinese migrant workers who feel trapped in appalling working conditions....

  12. 12 Trace Metals Distribution in Fish Tissues, Bottom Sediments and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Abstract. Water samples, bottom sediments, Tilapia, and Cat Fish from Okumeshi River in Delta state of Nigeria were analysed ... Keywords: Trace metals, Fish Tissues, Water, Bottom sediments, Okumeshi River. Introduction ..... Grey Mangroove Avicemmia marina (Forsk). ... sewage treatment plant oulet pipe extension on.

  13. Monitoring of metals in Tilapia nilotica tissues, bottom sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), bottom sediments and water were collected from Nworie River and Oguta Lake. The muscle, liver and gills of the fish as well as the bottom sediments and water were analysed for Al, Cr, Cd, Pb, As, Zn, Mn, Co, Se, Cu, Ni and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometer to highlight the importance ...

  14. Bottom-feeding for blockbuster businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, David; Tomlinson, Doug; Scott, Larry

    2003-03-01

    Marketing experts tell companies to analyze their customer portfolios and weed out buyer segments that don't generate attractive returns. Loyalty experts stress the need to aim retention programs at "good" customers--profitable ones- and encourage the "bad" ones to buy from competitors. And customer-relationship-management software provides ever more sophisticated ways to identify and eliminate poorly performing customers. On the surface, the movement to banish unprofitable customers seems reasonable. But writing off a customer relationship simply because it is currently unprofitable is at best rash and at worst counterproductive. Executives shouldn't be asking themselves, How can we shun unprofitable customers? They need to ask, How can we make money off the customers that everyone else is shunning? When you look at apparently unattractive segments through this lens, you often see opportunities to serve those segments in ways that fundamentally change customer economics. Consider Paychex, a payroll-processing company that built a nearly billion-dollar business by serving small companies. Established players had ignored these customers on the assumption that small companies couldn't afford the service. When founder Tom Golisano couldn't convince his bosses at Electronic Accounting Systems that they were missing a major opportunity, he started a company that now serves 390,000 U.S. customers, each employing around 14 people. In this article, the authors look closely at bottom-feeders--companies that assessed the needs of supposedly unattractive customers and redesigned their business models to turn a profit by fulfilling those needs. And they offer lessons other executives can use to do the same.

  15. Axisymmetric scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid fixed spheroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Farid G

    2015-10-01

    Based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustic scattering of a zeroth-order Bessel acoustic beam centered on a rigid fixed (oblate or prolate) spheroid is provided. The unknown scattering coefficients of the spheroid are determined by solving a system of linear equations derived for the Neumann boundary condition. Numerical results for the modulus of the backscattered pressure (θ = π) in the near field and the backscattering form function in the far field for both prolate and oblate spheroids are presented and discussed, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid), the half-cone angle of the Bessel beam, and the dimensionless frequency. The plots display periodic oscillations (versus the dimensionless frequency) because of the interference of specularly reflected waves in the backscattering direction with circumferential Franz' waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3-D directivity patterns illustrate the near- and far-field axisymmetric scattering. Investigations in underwater acoustics, particle levitation, scattering, and the detection of submerged elongated objects and other related applications utilizing Bessel waves would benefit from the results of the present study.

  16. An investigation on the noise reduction performance of profiled rigid median barriers at highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Monazzam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Median barriers as a portion of a divided highway are provided to minimize the cross-median crashes. Moreover, median barriers similar to roadside noise barriers could protect people from transportation noise. Thus, there is a need to investigate various median barrier models to identify changes of insertion loss over a simple rigid barrier. In order to estimate the acoustical influence of median barrier′s profile in the shadow zone, different median barrier models are presented and their insertion losses are calculated over a frequency range from 50 to 4000 Hz using a two-dimensional boundary element method. The present investigation has clearly revealed that among the profiled median barriers, T-shape, Y-shape, and L-shape provide better performance than that of the other shapes. It is also found that among inclined barriers, V-shape barrier significantly presents higher values of attenuation. Based on the calculation of different geometrics, it has been shown that a further 2 dB (A in efficiency could be obtained by a better design of the median barrier which is labeled model "L."

  17. Two Back Stress Hardening Models in Rate Independent Rigid Plastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Su-Jin

    In the present work, the constitutive relations based on the combination of two back stresses are developed using the Armstrong-Frederick, Phillips and Ziegler’s type hardening rules. Various evolutions of the kinematic hardening parameter can be obtained by means of a simple combination of back stress rate using the rule of mixtures. Thus, a wide range of plastic deformation behavior can be depicted depending on the dominant back stress evolution. The ultimate back stress is also determined for the present combined kinematic hardening models. Since a kinematic hardening rule is assumed in the finite deformation regime, the stress rate is co-rotated with respect to the spin of substructure obtained by incorporating the plastic spin concept. A comparison of the various co-rotational rates is also included. Assuming rigid plasticity, the continuum body consists of the elastic deformation zone and the plastic deformation zone to form a hybrid finite element formulation. Then, the plastic deformation behavior is investigated under various loading conditions with an assumption of the J2 deformation theory. The plastic deformation localization turns out to be strongly dependent on the description of back stress evolution and its associated hardening parameters. The analysis for the shear deformation with fixed boundaries is carried out to examine the deformation localization behavior and the evolution of state variables.

  18. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  19. Reactor pressure boundary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Lee, B. S.

    2002-04-01

    With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database

  20. Design of semi-rigid type of flexible pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranshoo Solanki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the study presented in this paper is to develop design curves for performance prediction of stabilized layers and to compare semi-rigid flexible pavement designs between the empirical AASHTO 1993 and the mechanistic-empirical pavement design methodologies. Specifically, comparisons were made for a range of different sections consisting of cementitious layers stabilized with different types and percentages of additives. It is found that the design thickness is influenced by the type of soil, additive, selection of material property and design method. Cost comparisons of sections stabilized with different percentage and type of additives showed that CKD-stabilization provides economically low cost sections as compared to lime- and CFA-stabilized sections. Knowledge gained from the parametric analysis of different sections using AASHTO 1993 and MEPDG is expected to be useful to pavement designers and others in implementation of the new MEPDG for future pavement design. Keywords: Semi-rigid, Mechanistic, Resilient modulus, Fatigue life, Reliability, Traffic

  1. Normalized inverse characterization of sound absorbing rigid porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Tomasz G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the inverse characterization of sound absorbing rigid porous media, based on standard measurements of the surface acoustic impedance of a porous sample. The model parameters need to be normalized to have a robust identification procedure which fits the model-predicted impedance curves with the measured ones. Such a normalization provides a substitute set of dimensionless (normalized) parameters unambiguously related to the original model parameters. Moreover, two scaling frequencies are introduced, however, they are not additional parameters and for different, yet reasonable, assumptions of their values, the identification procedure should eventually lead to the same solution. The proposed identification technique uses measured and computed impedance curves for a porous sample not only in the standard configuration, that is, set to the rigid termination piston in an impedance tube, but also with air gaps of known thicknesses between the sample and the piston. Therefore, all necessary analytical formulas for sound propagation in double-layered media are provided. The methodology is illustrated by one numerical test and by two examples based on the experimental measurements of the acoustic impedance and absorption of porous ceramic samples of different thicknesses and a sample of polyurethane foam.

  2. A Soft Gripper with Rigidity Tunable Elastomer Strips as Ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasab, Amir Mohammadi; Sabzehzar, Amin; Tatari, Milad; Majidi, Carmel; Shan, Wanliang

    2017-12-01

    Like their natural counterparts, soft bioinspired robots capable of actively tuning their mechanical rigidity can rapidly transition between a broad range of motor tasks-from lifting heavy loads to dexterous manipulation of delicate objects. Reversible rigidity tuning also enables soft robot actuators to reroute their internal loading and alter their mode of deformation in response to intrinsic activation. In this study, we demonstrate this principle with a three-fingered pneumatic gripper that contains "programmable" ligaments that change stiffness when activated with electrical current. The ligaments are composed of a conductive, thermoplastic elastomer composite that reversibly softens under resistive heating. Depending on which ligaments are activated, the gripper will bend inward to pick up an object, bend laterally to twist it, and bend outward to release it. All of the gripper motions are generated with a single pneumatic source of pressure. An activation-deactivation cycle can be completed within 15 s. The ability to incorporate electrically programmable ligaments in a pneumatic or hydraulic actuator has the potential to enhance versatility and reduce dependency on tubing and valves.

  3. Jet Ventilation during Rigid Bronchoscopy in Adults: A Focused Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Putz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indications for rigid bronchoscopy for interventional pulmonology have increased and include stent placements and transbronchial cryobiopsy procedures. The shared airway between anesthesiologist and pulmonologist and the open airway system, requiring specific ventilation techniques such as jet ventilation, need a good understanding of the procedure to reduce potentially harmful complications. Appropriate adjustment of the ventilator settings including pause pressure and peak inspiratory pressure reduces the risk of barotrauma. High frequency jet ventilation allows adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal even in cases of tracheal stenosis up to frequencies of around 150 min−1; however, in an in vivo animal model, high frequency jet ventilation along with normal frequency jet ventilation (superimposed high frequency jet ventilation has been shown to improve oxygenation by increasing lung volume and carbon dioxide removal by increasing tidal volume across a large spectrum of frequencies without increasing barotrauma. General anesthesia with a continuous, intravenous, short-acting agent is safe and effective during rigid bronchoscopy procedures.

  4. Non-rigid registration of tomographic images with Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Ar; Isoardi, Ra; Mato, G

    2007-01-01

    Spatial image registration of deformable body parts such as thorax and abdomen has important medical applications, but at the same time, it represents an important computational challenge. In this work we propose an automatic algorithm to perform non-rigid registration of tomographic images using a non-rigid model based on Fourier transforms. As a measure of similarity, we use the correlation coefficient, finding that the optimal order of the transformation is n = 3 (36 parameters). We apply this method to a digital phantom and to 7 pairs of patient images corresponding to clinical CT scans. The preliminary results indicate a fairly good agreement according to medical experts, with an average registration error of 2 mm for the case of clinical images. For 2D images (dimensions 512x512), the average running time for the algorithm is 15 seconds using a standard personal computer. Summarizing, we find that intra-modality registration of the abdomen can be achieved with acceptable accuracy for slight deformations and can be extended to 3D with a reasonable execution time

  5. Biomimetic model systems of rigid hair beds: Part II - Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Mani S. S.; Hood, Kaitlyn; Hosoi, Anette

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans - such as lobsters, crabs and stomapods - have hairy appendages that they use to recognize and track odorants in the surrounding fluid. An array of rigid hairs impedes flow at different rates depending on the spacing between hairs and the Reynolds number, Re. At larger Reynolds number (Re>1), fluid travels through the hairs rather than around them, a phenomenon called leakiness. Crustaceans flick their appendages at different speeds in order to manipulate the leakiness between the hairs, allowing the hairs to either detect the odors in a sample of fluid or collect a new sample. Theoretical and numerical studies predict that there is a fast flow region near the hairs that moves closer to the hairs as Re increases. Here, we test this theory experimentally. We 3D printed rigid hairs with an aspect ratio of 30:1 in rectangular arrays with different hair packing fractions. We custom built an experimental setup which establishes poiseuille flow at intermediate Re, Re <=200. We track the flow dynamics through the hair beds using tracer particles and Particle Imaging Velocimetry. We will then compare the modelling predictions with the experimental outcomes.

  6. Modyfication of the Rigid Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Czupryński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polyethylene glycol 1500 on physicomechanical properties of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR foams has been studied. It was found that application of polyethylene glycol 1500 for synthesis of foams in amount from 0% to 20% w/w had an effect on reduction of brittleness and softening point, while the greater the increase in compressive strength the higher its content in foam composition was. Wastes from production of these foams were ground and subjected to glycolysis in diethylene glycol with the addition of ethanolamine and zinc stearate. Liquid brown products were obtained. Properties of the resulting products were defined in order to determine their suitability for synthesis of new foams. It was found that glycolysate 6 was the most suitable for reuse and its application in different amounts allowed us to prepare 4 new foams (nos. 25, 26, 27, and 28. Properties of foams prepared in this manner were determined and, on their basis, the suitability of glycolysates for production of rigid PUR-PIR foams was evaluated.

  7. Heat Transfer Modeling for Rigid High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through a high-temperature, high-porosity, rigid multiple-fiber fibrous insulation was modeled using a thermal model previously used to model heat transfer in flexible single-fiber fibrous insulation. The rigid insulation studied was alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) at densities between 130 and 260 kilograms per cubic meter. The model consists of using the diffusion approximation for radiation heat transfer, a semi-empirical solid conduction model, and a standard gas conduction model. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were estimated from steady-state thermal measurements in nitrogen gas at various temperatures and environmental pressures. The heat transfer modeling methodology was evaluated by comparison with standard thermal conductivity measurements, and steady-state thermal measurements in helium and carbon dioxide gases. The heat transfer model is applicable over the temperature range of 300 to 1360 K, pressure range of 0.133 to 101.3 x 10(exp 3) Pa, and over the insulation density range of 130 to 260 kilograms per cubic meter in various gaseous environments.

  8. Finite-difference analysis of shells impacting rigid barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotin, S.D.; Witmer, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plants must be protected from the adverse effects of missile impacts. A significant category of missile impact involves deformable structures (pressure vessel components, whipping pipes) striking relatively rigid targets (concrete walls, bumpers) which act as protective devices. The response and interaction of these structures is needed to assess the adequacy of these barriers for protecting vital safety related equipment. The present investigation represents an initial attempt to develop an efficient numerical procedure for predicting the deformations and impact force time-histories of shells which impact upon a rigid target. The general large-deflection equations of motion of the shell are expressed in finite-difference form in space and integrated in time through application of the central-difference temporal operator. The effect of material nonlinearities is treated by a mechanical sublayer material model which handles the strain-hardening, Bauschinger, and strain-rate effects. The general adequacy of this shell treatment has been validated by comparing predictions with the results of various experiments in which structures have been subjected to well-defined transient forcing functions (typically high-explosive impulse loading). The 'new' ingredient addressed in the present study involves an accounting for impact interaction and response of both the target structure and the attacking body. (Auth.)

  9. Origami-Inspired Folding of Thick, Rigid Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Brian P.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Zirbel, Shannon; Howell, Larry; Lang, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To achieve power of 250 kW or greater, a large compression ratio of stowed-to-deployed area is needed. Origami folding patterns were used to inspire the folding of a solar array to achieve synchronous deployment; however, origami models are generally created for near-zero-thickness material. Panel thickness is one of the main challenges of origami-inspired design. Three origami-inspired folding techniques (flasher, square twist, and map fold) were created with rigid panels and hinges. Hinge components are added to the model to enable folding of thick, rigid materials. Origami models are created assuming zero (or near zero) thickness. When a material with finite thickness is used, the panels are required to bend around an increasingly thick fold as they move away from the center of the model. The two approaches for dealing with material thickness are to use membrane hinges to connect the panels, or to add panel hinges, or hinges of the same thickness, at an appropriate width to enable folding.

  10. Awake craniotomy using electromagnetic navigation technology without rigid pin fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed A; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2015-11-01

    We report our institutional experience using an electromagnetic navigation system, without rigid head fixation, for awake craniotomy patients. The StealthStation® S7 AxiEM™ navigation system (Medtronic, Inc.) was used for this technique. Detailed preoperative clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, patient education and contrast-enhanced MRI (thickness 1.5mm) were performed for each patient. The AxiEM Mobile Emitter was typically placed in a holder, which was mounted to the operating room table, and a non-invasive patient tracker was used as the patient reference device. A monitored conscious sedation technique was used in all awake craniotomy patients, and the AxiEM Navigation Pointer was used for navigation during the procedure. This offers the same accuracy as optical navigation, but without head pin fixation or interference with intraoperative neurophysiological techniques and surgical instruments. The application of the electromagnetic neuronavigation technology without rigid head fixation during an awake craniotomy is accurate, and offers superior patient comfort. It is recommended as an effective adjunctive technique for the conduct of awake surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantum theory of gauge fields and rigid processes calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, I.V.

    1981-01-01

    Elementary statement of the basic data on the nature of quark interactions and their role in the high energy processes is presented in the first part of the paper. The second part of the paper deals with gauge theory (GT) of strong interactions (chromodynamics (CD)) and its application in calculation of rigid processes with quark participation. It is based on the method of functional integration (MFI). A comparatively simple representation of the MFI in the quantum theory and formulation of the perturbation theory for gauge fields are given. A derivation of the rules of diagram technique is presented. Renormalization invariance of the theory and the basic for CD phenomenon of asymptotical freedom are discussed. Theory application in calculation of certain effects at high energies is considered. From the CD view point considered is a parton model on the base of which ''rigid'' stage of evolution of quark and gluon jets produced at high energies can be quantitatively described and some quantitative experimental tests of the CD are suggested [ru

  12. Collisions of Constrained Rigid Body Systems with Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Shen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed for the general collision problem of two rigid body systems with constraints (e.g., articulated systems, such as massy linkages in which the relative tangential velocity at the point of contact and the associated friction force can change direction during the collision. This is beyond the framework of conventional methods, which can give significant and very obvious errors for this problem, and both extends and consolidates recent work. A new parameterization and theory characterize if, when and how the relative tangential velocity changes direction during contact. Elastic and dissipative phenomena and different values for static and kinetic friction coefficients are included. The method is based on the explicitly physical analysis of events at the point of contact. Using this method, Example 1 resolves (and corrects a paradox (in the literature of the collision of a double pendulum with the ground. The method fundamentally subsumes other recent models and the collision of rigid bodies; it yields the same results as conventional methods when they would apply (Example 2. The new method reformulates and extends recent approaches in a completely physical context.

  13. Dynamics of parallel robots from rigid bodies to flexible elements

    CERN Document Server

    Briot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    This book starts with a short recapitulation on basic concepts, common to any types of robots (serial, tree structure, parallel, etc.), that are also necessary for computation of the dynamic models of parallel robots. Then, as dynamics requires the use of geometry and kinematics, the general equations of geometric and kinematic models of parallel robots are given. After, it is explained that parallel robot dynamic models can be obtained by decomposing the real robot into two virtual systems: a tree-structure robot (equivalent to the robot legs for which all joints would be actuated) plus a free body corresponding to the platform. Thus, the dynamics of rigid tree-structure robots is analyzed and algorithms to obtain their dynamic models in the most compact form are given. The dynamic model of the real rigid parallel robot is obtained by closing the loops through the use of the Lagrange multipliers. The problem of the dynamic model degeneracy near singularities is treated and optimal trajectory planning for cro...

  14. Iterative CT reconstruction with correction for known rigid motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, Johan [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Kim, Jung-Ha; Fulton, Roger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia). Medical Physics

    2011-07-01

    In PET/CT brain imaging, correction for motion may be needed, in particular for children and psychiatric patients. Motion is more likely to occur in the lengthy PET measurement, but also during the short CT acquisition patient motion is possible. Rigid motion of the head can be measured independently from the PET/CT system with optical devices. In this paper, we propose a method and some preliminary simulation results for iterative CT reconstruction with correction for known rigid motion. We implemented an iterative algorithm for fully 3D reconstruction from helical CT scans. The motion of the head is incorporated in the system matrix as a view-dependent motion of the CT-system. The first simulation results indicate that some motion patterns may produce loss of essential data. This loss precludes exact reconstruction and results in artifacts in the reconstruction, even when motion is taken into account. However, by reducing the pitch during acquisition, the same motion pattern no longer caused artifacts in the motion corrected image. (orig.)

  15. A method for measuring the inertia properties of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, M.; Mastinu, G.; Previati, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the inertia properties of rigid bodies is presented. Given a rigid body and its mass, the method allows to measure (identify) the centre of gravity location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the body under consideration is connected. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the inertia properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation. After the body is positioned on the test rig, the full identification procedure takes less than 10 min. The natural frequencies of the pendulum and the accelerations involved are quite low, making this method suitable for many practical applications. In this paper, the proposed method is described and two test rigs are presented: the first is developed for bodies up to 3500 kg and the second for bodies up to 400 kg. A validation of the measurement method is performed with satisfactory results. The test rig holds a third part quality certificate according to an ISO 9001 standard and could be scaled up to measure the inertia properties of huge bodies, such as trucks, airplanes or even ships.

  16. Measurement of Spindle Rigidity by using a Magnet Loader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Taku; Matsubara, Atsushi; Fujita, Tomoya; Muraki, Toshiyuki; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Kazuyuki

    The static rigidity of a rotating spindle in the radial direction is investigated in this research. A magnetic loading device (magnet loader) has been developed for the measurement. The magnet loader, which has coils and iron cores, generates the electromagnetic force and attracts a dummy tool attached to the spindle. However, the eddy current is generated in the dummy tool with the spindle rotation and reduces the attractive force at high spindle speed. In order to understand the magnetic flux and eddy current in the dummy tool, the electromagnetic field analysis by FEM was carried out. Grooves on the attraction surface of the dummy tool were designed to cut the eddy current flow. The dimension of the groove were decided based on the FEM analysis, and the designed tool were manufactured and tested. The test result shows that the designed tool successfully reduces the eddy current and recovers the attractive force. By using the magnet loader and the grooved tool, the spindle rigidity can be measured when the spindle rotates with a speed up to 10,000 min-1.

  17. Synthesis of rigid polyurethane foams from phosphorylated biopolyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Juan Carlos; López-Pedrajas, Daniel; Pérez, Ángel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Carmona, Manuel

    2017-08-18

    Renewable resources are playing a key role on the synthesis of biodegradable polyols. Moreover, the incorporation of covalently linked additives is increasing in importance in the polyurethane (PU) market. In this work, previously epoxidized grape seed oil and methyl oleate were transformed into phosphorylated biopolyols through an acid-catalyzed ring-opening hydrolysis in the presence of H 3 PO 4 . The formation of phosphate polyesters was confirmed by FT-IR and 31 P-NMR. However, the synthesis of a high-quality PU rigid foam was not possible using exclusively these polyols attending to their low hydroxyl value. In that way, different rigid PU foams were prepared from the phosphorylated biopolyols and the commercial polyol Alcupol R4520. It was observed that phosphorylated biopolyols can be incorporated up to a 57 wt.% in the PU synthesis without significant structural changes with respect to the commercial foam. Finally, thermogravimetric and EDAX analyses revealed an improvement of thermal stability by the formation of a protective phosphorocarbonaceous char layer.

  18. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

  19. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  20. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-05-01

    A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

  1. Regional boundaries study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavatsky, S.; Phaneuf, P.; Topaz, D.; Ward, D.

    1978-02-01

    The NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) has elected to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of its existing regional boundary alignment because of the anticipated future growth of nuclear power generating facilities and corresponding inspection requirements. This report documents a management study designed to identify, analyze, and evaluate alternative regional boundary configurations for the NRC/IE regions. Eight boundary configurations were chosen for evaluation. These configurations offered alternatives ranging from two to ten regions, and some included the concepts of subregional or satellite offices. Each alternative configuration was evaluated according to three major criteria: project workload, cost, and office location. Each major criterion included elements such as management control, program uniformity, disruption, costs, and coordination with other agencies. The conclusion reached was that regional configurations with regions of equal and relatively large workloads, combined with the concepts of subregional or satellite offices, may offer a significant benefit to the Office of Inspection and Enforcement and the Commission and are worthy of further study. A phased implementation plan, which is suitable to some configurations, may help mitigate the disruption created by realignment

  2. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary......, IT designers and project managers should attend to the specific ways in which boundaries are inevitably enacted and to the ways in which care is already shared. This will provide them with opportunities to use the potentials of new identities and concerns that emerge from changing the organisation...

  3. Forces and torques on rigid inclusions in an elastic environment: Resulting matrix-mediated interactions, displacements, and rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljiz, Mate; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2017-05-01

    Embedding rigid inclusions into elastic matrix materials is a procedure of high practical relevance, for instance, for the fabrication of elastic composite materials. We theoretically analyze the following situation. Rigid spherical inclusions are enclosed by a homogeneous elastic medium under stick boundary conditions. Forces and torques are directly imposed from outside onto the inclusions or are externally induced between them. The inclusions respond to these forces and torques by translations and rotations against the surrounding elastic matrix. This leads to elastic matrix deformations, and in turn results in mutual long-ranged matrix-mediated interactions between the inclusions. Adapting a well-known approach from low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics, we explicitly calculate the displacements and rotations of the inclusions from the externally imposed or induced forces and torques. Analytical expressions are presented as a function of the inclusion configuration in terms of displaceability and rotateability matrices. The role of the elastic environment is implicitly included in these relations. That is, the resulting expressions allow a calculation of the induced displacements and rotations directly from the inclusion configuration, without having to explicitly determine the deformations of the elastic environment. In contrast to the hydrodynamic case, compressibility of the surrounding medium is readily taken into account. We present the complete derivation based on the underlying equations of linear elasticity theory. In the future, the method will, for example, be helpful to characterize the behavior of externally tunable elastic composite materials, to accelerate numerical approaches, as well as to improve the quantitative interpretation of microrheological results.

  4. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  5. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  6. A bottom-driven mechanism for distributed faulting: Insights from the Gulf of California Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, P.; Tan, E.; Choi, E.; Contreras, J.; Lavier, L. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of California is a young oblique rift that displays a variation in rifting style along strike. Despite the rapid localization of strain in the Gulf at 6 Ma, the northern rift segment has the characteristics of a wide rift, with broadly distributed extensional strain and small gradients in topography and crustal thinning. Observations of active faulting in the continent-ocean transition of the Northern Gulf show multiple oblique-slip faults distributed in a 200 x 70 km2area developed some time after a westward relocation of the plate boundary at 2 Ma. In contrast, north and south of this broad pull-apart structure, major transform faults accommodate Pacific-North America plate motion. Here we propose that the mechanism for distributed brittle deformation results from the boundary conditions present in the Northern Gulf, where basal shear is distributed between the Cerro Prieto strike-slip fault (southernmost fault of the San Andreas fault system) and the Ballenas Transform fault. We hypothesize that in oblique-extensional settings whether deformation is partitioned in a few dip-slip and strike-slip faults, or in numerous oblique-slip faults may depend on (1) bottom-driven, distributed extension and shear deformation of the lower crust or upper mantle, and (2) the rift obliquity. To test this idea, we explore the effects of bottom-driven shear on the deformation of a brittle elastic-plastic layer with pseudo-three dimensional numerical models that include side forces. Strain localization results when the basal shear is a step-function while oblique-slip on numerous faults dominates when basal shear is distributed. We further investigate how the style of faulting varies with obliquity and demonstrate that the style of faulting observed in the Northern Gulf of California is reproduced in models with an obliquity of 0.7 and distributed basal shear boundary conditions, consistent with the interpreted obliquity and boundary conditions of the study area. Our

  7. A Study of diffusion and grain boundaries in ionic compounds by the molecular dynamic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakasidis, Theodoros

    1995-01-01

    In the first part, we present a model of variable cationic charges based on a rigid ion potential. In order to implement the model we performed static and dynamic simulations in calcium fluoride. The structural properties do not depend on the way the model is adjusted but the anion diffusion and the high frequency dielectric constant do. These results allowed to specify the criteria to adjust the variable charge model. As indicated by the behaviour of optical phonons this model introduced a supplementary polarisation mechanism to the rigid ion model. In the second part of this work, we studied the structural and diffusional behaviour of a high angle tilt grain boundary in NiO by molecular dynamics, using a usual rigid ion model. We examined structures with and without point defects between 0 K and 2500 K. The structure without defects presents always the lowest potential energy. In the others structures the defects can cluster and sometimes cause local changes in the boundary. Computer simulated images of high resolution electron microscopy, produced using these structures, present a similarity with the experimental ones. We calculated in the same boundary the diffusion coefficient of a doubly charged nickel vacancy between 2250 K and 2650 K. The atomic trajectories reveal the existence of preferential migration paths for the vacancy. The grain boundary diffusion is slightly anisotropic which is in agreement with an extrapolation of experimental results. A similar study in the volume reveals a migration energy higher than in the grain boundary. The calculated quantities allow for an estimation of the nickel diffusion acceleration due to the boundary. This acceleration is significant, but lower than the one measured by certain authors in polycrystalline, NiO; other authors studying bicrystals have not observed any acceleration. (author) [fr

  8. Stability of impulsively-driven natural convection with unsteady base state: implications of an adiabatic boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, Christian F.; Nino, Yarko

    2011-01-01

    Stability conditions of a quiescent, horizontally infinite fluid layer with adiabatic bottom subject to sudden cooling from above are studied. Here, at difference from Rayleigh-Benard convection, the temperature base state is never steady. Instability limits are studied using linear analysis while stability is analyzed using the energy method. Critical stability curves in terms of Rayleigh numbers and convection onset times were obtained for several kinematic boundary conditions. Stability curves resulting from energy and linear approaches exhibit the same temporal growth rate for large values of time, suggesting a bound for the temporal asymptotic behavior of the energy method. - Highlights: → Non-penetrative convection appears after a time-evolving temperature base state. → Global stability and instability limits were analyzed. → Critical Rayleigh numbers were computed for different kinematic boundary conditions. → Adiabatic, bottom boundary was found to have a de-stabilizing effect. → System is less stable than in Benard convection.

  9. Boundary Layer Effect on Behavior of Discrete Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliáš, Jan

    2017-02-10

    The paper studies systems of rigid bodies with randomly generated geometry interconnected by normal and tangential bonds. The stiffness of these bonds determines the macroscopic elastic modulus while the macroscopic Poisson's ratio of the system is determined solely by the normal/tangential stiffness ratio. Discrete models with no directional bias have the same probability of element orientation for any direction and therefore the same mechanical properties in a statistical sense at any point and direction. However, the layers of elements in the vicinity of the boundary exhibit biased orientation, preferring elements parallel with the boundary. As a consequence, when strain occurs in this direction, the boundary layer becomes stiffer than the interior for the normal/tangential stiffness ratio larger than one, and vice versa. Nonlinear constitutive laws are typically such that the straining of an element in shear results in higher strength and ductility than straining in tension. Since the boundary layer tends, due to the bias in the elemental orientation, to involve more tension than shear at the contacts, it also becomes weaker and less ductile. The paper documents these observations and compares them to the results of theoretical analysis.

  10. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations......, however, have had a strong emphasis on lab experiments with little focus on full scale bottom ash upgrading methods. The introduction of regulatory limit values restricting leaching from utilized bottom ashes, has created a need for a better understanding of how lab scale experiences can be utilized...

  11. Peabody Western Coal cuts costs with bottom-dump haulers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perla, S.; Baecker, G.; Morgan, W. [Empire Machinery, Mesa, AZ (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A new hauling concept has been introduced at the Black Mesa and Kayenta coal mines of the Peabody Western Coal Co. in northern Arizona, USA. The article describes the switch from Caterpillar 992 wheel loaders with 136 t bottom-dump trucks to 272 t bottom-dump trucks. Cat 789 off-highway trucks were modified to pull bottom-dump trucks. Haulage costs per ton of coal and cost per ton-mile have fallen significantly since the introduction of the new large hauling method. 7 figs., 2 photos.

  12. Acoustic Profiling of Bottom Sediments in Large Oil Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svet, V. D.; Tsysar', S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Characteristic features of acoustic profiling of bottom sediments in large oil storage tanks are considered. Basic acoustic parameters of crude oil and bottom sediments are presented. It is shown that, because of the presence of both transition layers in crude oil and strong reverberation effects in oil tanks, the volume of bottom sediments that is calculated from an acoustic surface image is generally overestimated. To reduce the error, additional post-processing of acoustic profilometry data is proposed in combination with additional measurements of viscosity and tank density distributions in vertical at several points of the tank.

  13. Spreading of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, E.; Tarakanov, R. Y.; Zenk, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the transport of bottom water from its source region in the Weddell Sea through the abyssal channels of the Atlantic Ocean. The research brings together the recent observations and historical data. A strong flow of Antarctic Bottom Water through the Vema Channel is analyzed. The mean speed of the flow is 30 cm/s. A temperature increase was found in the deep Vema Channel, which has been observed for 30 years already. The flow of bottom water in the northern part of the Bra...

  14. Convection Cells in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Katherine; Mellado, Juan-Pedro

    2017-04-01

    In dry, shear-free convective boundary layers (CBLs), the turbulent flow of air is known to organise itself on large scales into coherent, cellular patterns, or superstructures, consisting of fast, narrow updraughts and slow, wide downdraughts which together form circulations. Superstructures act as transport mechanisms from the surface to the top of the boundary layer and vice-versa, as opposed to small-scale turbulence, which only modifies conditions locally. This suggests that a thorough investigation into superstructure properties may help us better understand transport across the atmospheric boundary layer as a whole. Whilst their existence has been noted, detailed studies into superstructures in the CBL have been scarce. By applying methods which are known to successfully isolate similar large-scale patterns in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we can assess the efficacy of those detection techniques in the CBL. In addition, through non-dimensional analysis, we can systematically compare superstructures in various convective regimes. We use direct numerical simulation of four different cases for intercomparison: Rayleigh-Bénard convection (steady), Rayleigh-Bénard convection with an adiabatic top lid (quasi-steady), a stably-stratified CBL (quasi-steady) and a neutrally-stratified CBL (unsteady). The first two are non-penetrative and the latter two penetrative. We find that although superstructures clearly emerge from the time-mean flow in the non-penetrative cases, they become obscured by temporal averaging in the CBL. This is because a rigid lid acts to direct the flow into counter-rotating circulation cells whose axis of rotation remains stationary, whereas a boundary layer that grows in time and is able to entrain fluid from above causes the circulations to not only grow in vertical extent, but also to move horizontally and merge with neighbouring circulations. Spatial filtering is a useful comparative technique as it can be performed on boundary

  15. An analytical two-flow model to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Ming

    1997-06-01

    An analytical two-flow model is derived from the radiative transfer equation to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance. The model utilizes unique boundary conditions, including the surface slope of the downwelling and upwelling irradiance as well as the influence of wind and bottom reflectance on simulated surface reflectance. The developed model provides a simple mathematical concept for understanding the irradiant light flux and associated processes in coastal or fresh water as well as turbid estuarine waters. The model is applied to data from the Banana River and coastal Atlantic Ocean water off the east coast of central Florida, USA. The two-flow irradiance model is capable of simulating realistic above-surface reflectance signatures under wind-roughened air-water surface given realistic input parameters including a specular flux conversion coefficient, absorption coefficient, backscattering coefficient, atmospheric visibility, bottom reflectance, and water depth. The root-mean-squared error of the calculated above-surface reflectances is approximately 3% in the Banana River and is less than 15% in coastal Atlantic Ocean off the east of Florida. Result of the subsurface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the specular conversion coefficient is the most sensitive parameter in the model, followed by the beam attenuation coefficient, absorption coefficient, water depth, backscattering coefficient, specular irradiance, diffuse irradiance, bottom reflectance, and wind speed. On the other hand, result of the above-surface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the wind speed is the most important parameter, followed by bottom reflectance, attenuation coefficient, water depth, conversion coefficient, specular irradiance, downwelling irradiance, absorption coefficient, and backscattering coefficient. Model results depend on the accuracy of these parameters to a large degree and

  16. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning......: whether an innovation idea is created internally or externally and whether an innovation process relies on external knowledge resources. This yields four possible types of innovation, which represent the nuanced variation of outside-in innovations. Using historical data from Canada for 1945...

  17. Leonhard Euler and the mechanics of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, J. E.; Marquina, M. L.; Marquina, V.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present the original ideas and the construction of the rigid bodies theory realised by Leonhard Euler between 1738 and 1775. The number of treatises written by Euler on this subject is enormous, including the most notorious Scientia Navalis (1749), Decouverte d’un noveau principe de mecanique (1752), Du mouvement de rotation des corps solides autour d’un axe variable (1765), Theoria motus corporum solidorum seu rigidorum (1765) and Nova methodus motu corporum rigidorum determinandi (1776), in which he developed the ideas of the instantaneous rotation axis, the so-called Euler equations and angles, the components of what is now known as the inertia tensor, the principal axes of inertia, and, finally, the generalisation of the translation and rotation movement equations for any system. Euler, the man who ‘put most of mechanics into its modern form’ (Truesdell 1968 Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin: Springer) p 106).

  18. Investigation of Drag Coefficient for Rigid Ballute-like Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel; Mastromarino, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    One common method of decelerating an object during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing is the use of parachutes. Another deceleration technology is the ballute - a combination of balloon and parachute. A CFD study was conducted using commercially available software to investigate the flow-field and the coefficient of drag for various rigid ballute-like shapes at varying Reynolds numbers. The impact of size and placement of the burble-fence as well as number, size, and shape of inlets was considered. Recent experimental measurements conducted during NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator program revealed a much higher coefficient of drag (Cd) for ballutes than previously encountered. Using atmospheric drag to slow down and land reduces the need for heavy fuel and rocket engines and thus, high values of drag are desired. Funding for this work, in part, provided by the CT Space Grant Consortium.

  19. Technical rigidity and appropriate technology in less-developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D J.C. [Univ. of Strathyclyde, England; McBain, N S; Solomon, R F

    1980-05-01

    The extent to which the use of capital-intensive methods in LDCs can properly be ascribed to the inherent rigidity of the factor proportions embodied in modern technology - rather than to distortions and aberrrations in the process of technology choice - is still a matter of considerable uncertainty after two decades of debate. In this study, an engineering-based index is developed to summarize the opportunities for, and barriers to, substitution of labor for capital in a wide range of industries. The index is used to compare the technology actually installed in manufacturing in Ghana, the Philippines, Turkey, and Malaysia with the feasible alternatives. The finding that opportunities for use of labor-intensive methods are to a large extent exploited is interpreted as casting doubt on the ability of even the most appropriate choice from currently feasible technologies to reduce unemployment significantly. 46 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  20. On the dynamics of semi-rigid chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Talavera, R.; Alexander-Katz, R.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of a semi-rigid polymer chain is studied. The force structure of the chain is derived from the statistics generated through a Wiener measure whose end-to-end distance is that of a Kratky-Porod chain. Additionally, the dissipative terms in the equation of motion will contain, besides the usual Stokes' term, a non-local friction term (internal viscosity) which is quadratic in the normal mode q, in order to take into account the resistance to changes in curvature. The analytical shape of this term is the same as the one introduced by Edwards and Freed. We show that this model of stiff chain reproduces both asymptotic limits: the flexible and the rod limits for the elastic moduli. A form for the internal viscosity coefficient is deduced from a phenomenological approach, which has the right solvent viscosity dependency as obtained by MacInnes. (Author)

  1. Radiographic evaluation of fracture healing after rigid plate fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavolainen, P.; Karaharju, E.; Slaetis, P.; Waris, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental osteotomies were made in 35 rabbit tibio-fibular bones and fixed with rigid stainless steel osteosynthesis plates (DCP/ASIF). The radiographic and histopathologic appearances in the healing osteotomies and adjacent bone were analysed at intervals from 3 up to 24 weeks postoperatively. Radiologically the osteotomy had closed at 9 weeks and microscopically this could be confirmed as longitudinal orientation of the cutter heads across the osteotomy gap with longitudinal orientation of the bone structure. The healing of the osteotomy was accompanied by gross structural changes in the adjacent cortical bone with loss of intracortical and subendosteal osteons, cementing lines and intermediate tissue between the osteons. This was characterized by decreasing attenuation of the cortical bone after healing of the osteotomy and should clinically be regarded as an indication for removal of the implant. (Auth.)

  2. Rigid Calabi-Yau threefolds, Picard Eisenstein series and instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, L; Kleinschmidt, A; Nilsson, B E W; Persson, D; Pioline, B

    2013-01-01

    Type IIA string theory compactified on a rigid Calabi-Yau threefold gives rise to a classical moduli space that carries an isometric action of U(2, 1). Various quantum corrections break this continuous isometry to a discrete subgroup. Focussing on the case where the intermediate Jacobian of the Calabi-Yau admits complex multiplication by the ring of quadratic imaginary integers O_d, we argue that the remaining quantum duality group is an arithmetic Picard modular group PU(2, 1; O_d). Based on this proposal we construct an Eisenstein series invariant under this duality group and study its non-Abelian Fourier expansion. This allows the prediction of non-perturbative effects, notably the contribution of D2- and NS5-brane instantons. The present work extends our previous analysis in 0909.4299 which was restricted to the special case of the Gaussian integers O_1 = Z[i].

  3. Rigid Calabi-Yau threefolds, Picard Eisenstein series and instantons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Nilsson, B. E. W.; Persson, D.; Pioline, B.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIA string theory compactified on a rigid Calabi-Yau threefold gives rise to a classical moduli space that carries an isometric action of U(2, 1). Various quantum corrections break this continuous isometry to a discrete subgroup. Focussing on the case where the intermediate Jacobian of the Calabi-Yau admits complex multiplication by the ring of quadratic imaginary integers d, we argue that the remaining quantum duality group is an arithmetic Picard modular group PU(2, 1; d). Based on this proposal we construct an Eisenstein series invariant under this duality group and study its non-Abelian Fourier expansion. This allows the prediction of non-perturbative effects, notably the contribution of D2- and NS5-brane instantons. The present work extends our previous analysis in 0909.4299 which was restricted to the special case of the Gaussian integers 1 = Bbb Z[i].

  4. Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-05-01

    We show that a two-dimensional elastic phononic crystal comprising rigid cylinders in a solid matrix possesses a large complete band gap below a cut-off frequency. A mechanical model reveals that the band gap is induced by negative effective mass density, which is affirmed by an effective medium theory based on field averaging. We demonstrate, by two examples, that such elastic phononic crystals can be utilized to design small devices to control low-frequency elastic waves. One example is a waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic crystal loaded with solid inclusions. The effective mass density and reciprocal of the modulus of the single-layer elastic phononic crystal are simultaneously near zero. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  5. Persistence-Driven Durotaxis: Generic, Directed Motility in Rigidity Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Elizaveta A.; Raab, Matthew; Discher, Dennis E.; Storm, Cornelis

    2017-02-01

    Cells move differently on substrates with different rigidities: the persistence time of their motion is higher on stiffer substrates. We show that this behavior—in and of itself—results in a net flux of cells directed up a soft-to-stiff gradient. Using simple random walk models with varying persistence and stochastic simulations, we characterize the propensity to move in terms of the durotactic index also measured in experiments. A one-dimensional model captures the essential features and highlights the competition between diffusive spreading and linear, wavelike propagation. Persistence-driven durokinesis is generic and may be of use in the design of instructive environments for cells and other motile, mechanosensitive objects.

  6. Matrix methods applied to engineering rigid body mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, T.

    The purpose of this book is to present the solution of a range of rigorous body mechanics problems using a matrix formulation of vector algebra. Essential theory concerning kinematics and dynamics is formulated in terms of matrix algebra. The solution of kinematics and dynamics problems is discussed, taking into account the velocity and acceleration of a point moving in a circular path, the velocity and acceleration determination for a linkage, the angular velocity and angular acceleration of a roller in a taper-roller thrust race, Euler's theroem on the motion of rigid bodies, an automotive differential, a rotating epicyclic, the motion of a high speed rotor mounted in gimbals, and the vibration of a spinning projectile. Attention is given to the activity of a force, the work done by a conservative force, the work and potential in a conservative system, the equilibrium of a mechanism, bearing forces due to rotor misalignment, and the frequency of vibrations of a constrained rod.

  7. JOINT RIGIDITY ASSESSMENT WITH PIEZOELECTRIC WAFERS AND ACOUSTIC WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Angela C.; Maji, Arup K.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an interest in the development of rapid deployment satellites. In a modular satellite design, different panels of specific functions can be pre-manufactured. The satellite can then be assembled and tested just prior to deployment. Traditional vibration testing is time-consuming and expensive. An alternative test method to evaluate the connection between two plates will be proposed. The method investigated and described employs piezoelectric wafers to induce and sense lamb waves in two aluminum plates, which were joined by steel brackets to form an 'L-Style' joint. Lamb wave behavior and piezoelectric material properties will be discussed; the experimental setup and results will be presented. A set of 4 piezoelectric ceramic wafers were used alternately as source and sensor. The energy transmitted was shown to correlate with a mechanical assessment of the joint, demonstrating that this method of testing is a feasible and reliable way to inspect the rigidity of joints.

  8. Capital-Skill Complementarity and Rigid Relative Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    be countercyclical. The labor market is competitivein the United States and therefore relative wages of skilled labor are expected to becountercyclical. We find that the business cycle development of the two economiesis consistent with capital-skill complementarity.Keywords: capital-skill complementarity, relative......The relative demand for skills has increased considerably in many OECD countriesduring recent decades. This development is potentially explained by capital-skillcomplementarity and high growth rates of capital equipment. When productionfunctions are characterized by capital-skill complementarity......, relative wages and employmentof skilled labor are countercyclical because capital equipment is a quasi-fixed factor in the short run. The exact behavior of the two variables depends onrelative wage flexibility. Relative wages are rigid in Denmark, implying that the employmentshare of skills should...

  9. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Given, M F

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps. Twenty patients were included in our study. Indications for ureteric stent insertion included stone disease (n = 7), malignancy (n = 8) and transplant anastomotic strictures (n = 5). Stent retrieval was carried out for proximal stent placement\\/migration in seven patients and encrustation in the remaining 13. Twenty-two stents were successfully retrieved in 20 patients. There was one technical failure (5%). There were no major complications. We had four minor complications, which included nephrostomy site pain (n = 2), periprocedural sepsis (n = 1) and a small urinoma (n = 1). All patients settled with conservative management. Percutaneous radiologically guided antegrade ureteric stent removal with an alligator forceps is safe and effective, particularly when initial surgical removal has failed.

  10. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies and Flexible Beam Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    of rigid bodies and flexible beam structures with emphasis on the rotational motion. The first part deals with motion in a rotating frame of reference. A novel approach where the equations of motion are formulated in a hybrid state-space in terms of local displacements and global velocities is presented...... quaternion parameters or nine convected base vector components. In both cases, the equations of motion are obtained via Hamilton’s equations by including the kinematic constraints associated with the redundant rotation description by means of Lagrange multipliers. A special feature of the formulation...... of the global components of the position vectors and associated convected base vectors for the element nodes. The kinematics is expressed in a homogeneous quadratic form and the constitutive stiffness is derived from complementary energy of a set of equilibrium modes, each representing a state of constant...

  11. Liquid crystallinity in flexible and rigid rod polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Galen T.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    We apply an anisotropic version of the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) integral equation description of flexible polymers to analyze athermal liquid crystallinity. The polymers are characterized by a statistical segment length, σ o , and by a physical hard-core thickness, d, that prevents the overlap of monomers on different chains. At small segment densities, ρ, the microscopic length scale d is irrelevant (as it must be in the universal semidilute regime), but becomes important in concentrated solutions and melts. Under the influence of the excluded volume interactions alone, the chains undergo a lyotropic, first-order isotropic-nematic transition at a concentration dependent upon the dimensionless ''aspect ratio,'' σ o /d. The transition becomes weaker as d→0, becoming second order, as has been previously shown. We extend the theory to describe the transition of rigid, thin rods, and discuss the evolution of the anisotropic liquid structure in the ordered phase. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Equilibrium stability of strained epitaxial layers on a rigid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, E.; Kosterlitz, J.M.; Ying, S.C.

    1987-07-01

    A simple theory of the equilibrium stability of an strained epitaxial layer on a rigid substrate is presented. We generalise the Frankvan der Merwe model of a single layer and consider N layers of adsorbate on a substrate. Continuum elasticity theory is used to describe each layer, but the coupling between layers is treated ina discrete fashion. Our method interpolates between a few layers and the thick film limit of standard dislocation theory, and in this limit the standard results are obtained. In addition, we developed a variational approach which agrees well with our exact calculations. The advantage of our method over previous ores is that it allows to perform stability analyses of arbitrary superlattice configurations. (author) [pt

  13. Damageable contact between an elastic body and a rigid foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, M.; Fernández, J. R.; Silva, A.

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the contact problem between an elastic body and a rigid obstacle is studied, including the development of material damage which results from internal compression or tension. The variational problem is formulated as a first-kind variational inequality for the displacements coupled with a parabolic partial differential equation for the damage field. The existence of a unique local weak solution is stated. Then, a fully discrete scheme is introduced using the finite element method to approximate the spatial variable and an Euler scheme to discretize the time derivatives. Error estimates are derived on the approximate solutions, from which the linear convergence of the algorithm is deduced under suitable regularity conditions. Finally, three two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the accuracy and the behaviour of the scheme.

  14. Two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.; Huang, L. H.; Yang, F. P. Y. [Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-15

    The present study analytically reinvestigates the two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed that was studied by Mei, Yeung, and Liu [“Lifting of a large object from a porous seabed,” J. Fluid Mech. 152, 203 (1985)]. Mei, Yeung, and Liu proposed a model that treats the bed as a rigid porous medium and performed relevant experiments. In their model, they assumed the gap flow comes from the periphery of the gap, and there is a shear layer in the porous medium; the flow in the gap is described by adhesion approximation [D. J. Acheson, Elementary Fluid Dynamics (Clarendon, Oxford, 1990), pp. 243-245.] and the pore flow by Darcy’s law, and the slip-flow condition proposed by Beavers and Joseph [“Boundary conditions at a naturally permeable wall,” J. Fluid Mech. 30, 197 (1967)] is applied to the bed interface. In this problem, however, the gap flow initially mainly comes from the porous bed, and the shear layer may not exist. Although later the shear effect becomes important, the empirical slip-flow condition might not physically respond to the shear effect, and the existence of the vertical velocity affects the situation so greatly that the slip-flow condition might not be appropriate. In contrast, the present study proposes a more general model for the problem, applying Stokes flow to the gap, the Brinkman equation to the porous medium, and Song and Huang’s [“Laminar poroelastic media flow,” J. Eng. Mech. 126, 358 (2000)] complete interfacial conditions to the bed interface. The exact solution to the problem is found and fits Mei’s experiments well. The breakout phenomenon is examined for different soil beds, mechanics that cannot be illustrated by Mei’s model are revealed, and the theoretical breakout times obtained using Mei’s model and our model are compared. The results show that the proposed model is more compatible with physics and provides results that are more precise.

  15. A virtual pebble game to ensemble average graph rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    The body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm is commonly used to calculate network rigidity properties in proteins and polymeric materials. To account for fluctuating interactions such as hydrogen bonds, an ensemble of constraint topologies are sampled, and average network properties are obtained by averaging PG characterizations. At a simpler level of sophistication, Maxwell constraint counting (MCC) provides a rigorous lower bound for the number of internal degrees of freedom (DOF) within a body-bar network, and it is commonly employed to test if a molecular structure is globally under-constrained or over-constrained. MCC is a mean field approximation (MFA) that ignores spatial fluctuations of distance constraints by replacing the actual molecular structure by an effective medium that has distance constraints globally distributed with perfect uniform density. The Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) algorithm is a MFA that retains spatial inhomogeneity in the density of constraints on all length scales. Network fluctuations due to distance constraints that may be present or absent based on binary random dynamic variables are suppressed by replacing all possible constraint topology realizations with the probabilities that distance constraints are present. The VPG algorithm is isomorphic to the PG algorithm, where integers for counting "pebbles" placed on vertices or edges in the PG map to real numbers representing the probability to find a pebble. In the VPG, edges are assigned pebble capacities, and pebble movements become a continuous flow of probability within the network. Comparisons between the VPG and average PG results over a test set of proteins and disordered lattices demonstrate the VPG quantitatively estimates the ensemble average PG results well. The VPG performs about 20% faster than one PG, and it provides a pragmatic alternative to averaging PG rigidity characteristics over an ensemble of constraint topologies. The utility of the VPG falls in between the most

  16. A rigid motion correction method for helical computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J-H; Kyme, A; Fulton, R; Nuyts, J; Kuncic, Z

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to compensate for six degree-of-freedom rigid motion in helical CT of the head. The method is demonstrated in simulations and in helical scans performed on a 16-slice CT scanner. Scans of a Hoffman brain phantom were acquired while an optical motion tracking system recorded the motion of the bed and the phantom. Motion correction was performed by restoring projection consistency using data from the motion tracking system, and reconstructing with an iterative fully 3D algorithm. Motion correction accuracy was evaluated by comparing reconstructed images with a stationary reference scan. We also investigated the effects on accuracy of tracker sampling rate, measurement jitter, interpolation of tracker measurements, and the synchronization of motion data and CT projections. After optimization of these aspects, motion corrected images corresponded remarkably closely to images of the stationary phantom with correlation and similarity coefficients both above 0.9. We performed a simulation study using volunteer head motion and found similarly that our method is capable of compensating effectively for realistic human head movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first practical demonstration of generalized rigid motion correction in helical CT. Its clinical value, which we have yet to explore, may be significant. For example it could reduce the necessity for repeat scans and resource-intensive anesthetic and sedation procedures in patient groups prone to motion, such as young children. It is not only applicable to dedicated CT imaging, but also to hybrid PET/CT and SPECT/CT, where it could also ensure an accurate CT image for lesion localization and attenuation correction of the functional image data. (paper)

  17. Inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars in Cowling approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastaun, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we investigate inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars, i.e. modes for which the Coriolis force is dominant. This is done using the assumption of a fixed spacetime (Cowling approximation). We present frequencies and eigenfunctions for a sequence of stars with a polytropic equation of state, covering a broad range of rotation rates. The modes were obtained with a nonlinear general relativistic hydrodynamic evolution code. We further show that the eigenequations for the oscillation modes can be written in a particularly simple form for the case of arbitrary fast but rigid rotation. Using these equations, we investigate some general characteristics of inertial modes, which are then compared to the numerically obtained eigenfunctions. In particular, we derive a rough analytical estimate for the frequency as a function of the number of nodes of the eigenfunction, and find that a similar empirical relation matches the numerical results with unexpected accuracy. We investigate the slow rotation limit of the eigenequations, obtaining two different sets of equations describing pressure and inertial modes. For the numerical computations we only considered axisymmetric modes, while the analytic part also covers nonaxisymmetric modes. The eigenfunctions suggest that the classification of inertial modes by the quantum numbers of the leading term of a spherical harmonic decomposition is artificial in the sense that the largest term is not strongly dominant, even in the slow rotation limit. The reason for the different structure of pressure and inertial modes is that the Coriolis force remains important in the slow rotation limit only for inertial modes. Accordingly, the scalar eigenequation we obtain in that limit is spherically symmetric for pressure modes, but not for inertial modes

  18. Information dynamics of boundary perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragness, Haley; Hansen, Niels Christian; Vuust, Peter

    It has long been noted that expert musicians lengthen notes at phrase boundaries in expressive performance. Recently, we have extended research on this phenomenon by showing that undergraduates with no formal musical training and children as young as 3 years lengthen phrase boundaries during self...... uncertain than low-entropy contexts. Because phrase boundaries tend to afford high-entropy continuations, thus generating uncertain expectations in the listener, one possibility is that boundary perception is directly related to entropy. In other words, it may be hypothesized that entropy underlies...... on predictive uncertainty to the timing domain, as well as potentially answer key questions relating to boundary perception in musical listening....

  19. Palaeoenvironment and Shark Evolution across the K/T-boundary on Southern Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolfssen, Jan Schulz

    The chondrichthyan faunal evolution across the Cretaceous/Tertiary-boundary, have been analysed from collected fossil shark teeth from Stevns Klint, Faxe Kalkbrud and a few other localities in Denmark. The teeth have been collected from the upper Maastrichtian Chalk, the K/T-boundary clay Fiskeler...... isotopes extracted from the shark teeth have revealed that the sea surface temperature fell slightly prior to the boundary and may have declined almost four degrees centigrade across the K/T-boundary. Subsequently the temperature rose during the deposition the upper layer of Fiskeler and the Cerithium...... Limestone. The striking fall in shark diversity prior to the boundary cannot be explained by a bolide impact and must have another explanation. This could have been caused by a sudden change in bathymetry. The calculated temperature range between sea surface and bottom water temperatures could suggest so...

  20. An Analysis of Hole Trapping at Grain Boundary or Poly-Si Floating-Body MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Taejin; Baek, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the characteristics of the floating body effect of poly-silicon with grain boundary by SENTAURUS™ TCAD simulation. As drain voltage increases, impact ionization occurs at the drain-channel junction. And these holes created by impact ionization are deposited on the bottom of the body to change the threshold voltage. This feature, the kink effect, is also observed in fully depleted silicon on insulator because grain boundary of the poly-silicon serve as a storage to trap the holes. We simulate the transfer curve depending on the density and position of the grain boundary. The trap density of the grain boundary affects the device characteristics significantly. However similar properties appear except where the grain boundary is located on the drain side.

  1. Psychological Prices and Price Rigidity in Grocery Retailing: Analysis of German Scanner Data

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Roland; Moeser, Anke

    2005-01-01

    A substantial degree of price rigidity has been reported for branded foods in various studies with scanner data. One possible explanation for price rigidity is the existence of psychological pricing points. We analyze to which extent psychological pricing plays a role in grocery retailing and whether it contributes to price rigidity of branded foods in Germany. Psychological pricing defined here as just-below-the-round-figure-pricing is empirically analyzed with scanner data of weekly prices ...

  2. Use of beam probes for rigidity calibration of the A1900 fragment separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginter, T.N. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Farinon, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Baumann, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Hausmann, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kwan, E.; Naviliat Cuncic, O. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Portillo, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Rogers, A.M.; Stetson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Villari, A.C.C. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Williams, S.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Use of a beam-based approach is presented for establishing a rigidity calibration for the A1900 fragment separator located at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. Also presented is why an alternative approach to the rigidity calibration – using detailed field maps of individual magnetic components – is not a feasible basis for deriving an accurate calibration. The level of accuracy achieved for the rigidity calibration is ±0.1%.

  3. NMFS Bottom Longline Analytical Dataset Provided to NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories has conducted standardized bottom longline surveys in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic since...

  4. Study of tritium permeation through Peach Bottom Steam Generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Baugh, W.A.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1977-06-01

    The report describes the equipment developed, samples tested, procedures used, and results obtained in the tritium permeation tests conducted on steam generator tubing samples which were removed from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 reactor

  5. The Bottom Line: Industry and the Environment in South Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Bottom Line is a major new contribution to the debates on industry and the ... and the environmental management of small and medium-sized enterprises. ... book will appeal to industrial managers, environmentalists, lawyers, engineers, ...

  6. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  7. Net-bottom Cage Inserts for Water Bird Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Belle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available My Bright Idea is a net-bottomed cage insert, which is used to support pelagic avian casualties. The idea was designed and modified by the International Bird Rescue in California (Bird Rescue.

  8. NEFSC 2011 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1105, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  9. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    transportation applications such as structural fill, road base material, and as snow ... normal fine particles resulting in weak porous paste, modulus of elasticity is ..... with the porous structure and high absorptivity of fine particles of bottom ash.

  10. Monitoring changes in stream bottom sediments and benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether the analysis of stream bottom sediments could be used to assess sediment pollution generated by highway construction. Most of the work completed to date has involved testing and refining methods for the co...

  11. SIMULATION OF ANALYTICAL TRANSIENT WAVE DUE TO DOWNWARD BOTTOM THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugih Sudharma Tjandra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Generation process is an important part of understanding waves, especially tsunami. Large earthquake under the sea is one major cause of tsunamis. The sea surface deforms as a response from the sea bottom motion caused by the earthquake. Analytical description of surface wave generated by bottom motion can be obtained from the linearized dispersive model. For a bottom motion in the form of a downward motion, the result is expressed in terms of improper integral. Here, we focus on analyzing the convergence of this integral, and then the improper integral is approximated into a finite integral so that the integral can be evaluated numerically. Further, we simulate free surface elevation for three different type of bottom motions, classified as impulsive, intermediate, and slow  movements. We demonstrate that the wave propagating to the right, with a depression as the leading wave, followed with subsequent wave crests. This phenomena is often observed in most tsunami events.

  12. NEFSC 2002 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0210, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  13. Weaver Bottoms Wildlife Habitat Restoration: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Mary M; Damberg, Carol

    1994-01-01

    .... The Weaver Bottoms Rehabilitation Project is a large scale wetland restoration project that is directed at regaining lost habitat by creating hydrological and energy conditions conducive to marsh growth and production. Davis et al. (1993...

  14. Development of cask body integrated with bottom plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takuji; Sasaki, Tomoharu; Koyama, Yoichi; Kumagai, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Yuichi; Takasa, Seiju

    2017-01-01

    The main parts of a metal cask for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel consists of main body, neutron shield material and external cylinder. The forged main body has been manufactured as a cup shape by welding of 'forged body' and 'forged bottom plate' which are independently forged. JSW has developed the manufacturing technology of 'cask body integrated with bottom plate' which has no weld line with the goal of cost reduction, manufacturing period shortening and further reliability improvement. Manufacturing for the prototype of 'cask body integrated with bottom plate' has completed to verify mechanical properties and uniformity of the product which satisfy the specified values stipulated in JSME Code S FA1 2007 edition. Here, we report the manufacturing technology and obtained properties of 'cask body integrated with bottom plate'. (author)

  15. NEFSC 2002 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0203, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  16. NEFSC 2008 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0803, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  17. NEFSC 2004 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0401, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  18. NEFSC 2005 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0508, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  19. NEFSC 2003 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (DE0303, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  20. NEFSC 2011 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1102, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....