Is blade element momentum theory (BEM) enough for smart rotor design
Yu, W.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; van Kuik, G.A.M.
2014-01-01
Smart rotor emerges as an innovation technique to reduce the impact of dynamic loading on wind turbines. Local movements of distributed aerodynamic devices will enhance the non-uniformity and dynamic effects of loading, which will challenge the applicability of the blade element momentum theory
Blade-Element/Momentum Technique for Rotors operating in Wind Tunnels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft
2003-01-01
small, since important properties of the blade boundary layer otherwise cannot be captured correctly. On the other hand, severe problems with wind tunnel blockage may be the result if the ratio between the areas of the rotor and the wind tunnel cross section is too big. In all cases, wind tunnel...... wallcorrections are needed in order that measured data corresponds to unconstrained flow conditions. The present work is based on a model for ducted axial fans by Sørensen and Sørensen [5], modified to account for free (unbounded) turbines [6]. Here, we extend the model to acount for wind turbines placed in wind...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Døssing, Mads; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian
2012-01-01
The blade element momentum (BEM) method is widely used for calculating the quasi-steady aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines. Recently, the BEM method has been expanded to include corrections for wake expansion and the pressure due to wake rotation (), and more accurate solutions can now...... by the positive effect of wake rotation, which locally causes the efficiency to exceed the Betz limit. Wake expansion has a negative effect, which is most important at high tip speed ratios. It was further found that by using , it is possible to obtain a 5% reduction in flap bending moment when compared with BEM....... In short, allows fast aerodynamic calculations and optimizations with a much higher degree of accuracy than the traditional BEM model. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, M.; Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Y.; Varshney, A.K.; Gupta, D.K.
2014-01-01
We undertake the present work to treat 232 Th with a soft rotor formula used recently by C. Bihari et. al for γ-band and modified by J.B. Gupta et. al. It describes energy in terms of moment of inertia and softness parameter
Re-analysis of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovelace, R.V.; Larrabee, D.A.; Fleischmann, H.H.
1978-01-01
Previous studies of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria include particles which are not trapped in the self-field of the configuration. The modification of these studies required to exclude untrapped particles is derived
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2016-01-01
Although there exists a large variety of methods for predicting performance and loadings of wind turbines, the only approach used today by wind turbine manufacturers is based on the blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory by Glauert (Aerodynamic theory. Springer, Berlin, pp. 169-360, 1935). A basic...... assumption in the BEM theory is that the flow takes place in independent stream tubes and that the loading is determined from two-dimensional sectional airfoil characteristics....
Truncated exponential-rigid-rotor model for strong electron and ion rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.; Fleischmann, H.H.
1979-01-01
A comprehensive study of exponential-rigid-rotor equilibria for strong electron and ion rings indicates the presence of a sizeable percentage of untrapped particles in all equilibria with aspect-ratios R/a approximately <4. Such aspect-ratios are required in fusion-relevant rings. Significant changes in the equilibria are observed when untrapped particles are excluded by the use of a truncated exponential-rigid-rotor distribution function. (author)
Improved blade element momentum theory for wind turbine aerodynamic computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Zhenye; Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong
2016-01-01
Blade element momentum (BEM) theory is widely used in aerodynamic performance predictions and design applications for wind turbines. However, the classic BEM method is not quite accurate which often tends to under-predict the aerodynamic forces near root and over-predict its performance near tip....... for the MEXICO rotor. Results show that the improved BEM theory gives a better prediction than the classic BEM method, especially in the blade tip region, when comparing to the MEXICO measurements. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Active vibration reduction of rigid rotor by kinematic excitation of bushes of journal bearings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Ondrouch
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Possibilities of active lateral vibration reduction of a symmetric, rigid rotor supported by journal bearings are given. They were obtained by computational modelling. Efficiency of the feedback P and PD controllers in the stable revolution interval was examined. The linearized rotor system model was used. The results of the theoretical analysis are assigned for a testing stand where the bearing bush motions are deactivated by piezoelectric actuators connected to the controllers.
Almost-global tracking for a rigid body with internal rotors
Nayak, Aradhana; Banavar, Ravi N.
2017-01-01
Almost-global orientation trajectory tracking for a rigid body with external actuation has been well studied in the literature, and in the geometric setting as well. The tracking control law relies on the fact that a rigid body is a simple mechanical system (SMS) on the $3-$dimensional group of special orthogonal matrices. However, the problem of designing feedback control laws for tracking using internal actuation mechanisms, like rotors or control moment gyros, has received lesser attention...
Modelling of magnetorheological squeeze film dampers for vibration suppression of rigid rotors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Ferfecki, Petr; Kozánek, Jan
2017-01-01
Roč. 127, Jul SI (2017), s. 191-197 ISSN 0020-7403 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06621S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : squeeze film damper * magnetorheological fluid * bilinear material * rigid rotor * frequency response Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.884, year: 2016
Gas-induced friction and diffusion of rigid rotors
Martinetz, Lukas; Hornberger, Klaus; Stickler, Benjamin A.
2018-05-01
We derive the Boltzmann equation for the rotranslational dynamics of an arbitrary convex rigid body in a rarefied gas. It yields as a limiting case the Fokker-Planck equation accounting for friction, diffusion, and nonconservative drift forces and torques. We provide the rotranslational friction and diffusion tensors for specular and diffuse reflection off particles with spherical, cylindrical, and cuboidal shape, and show that the theory describes thermalization, photophoresis, and the inverse Magnus effect in the free molecular regime.
AERFORCE: Subroutine package for unsteady blade-element/momentum calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjoerck, Anders
2000-05-01
A subroutine package, called AERFORCE, for the calculation of aerodynamic forces of wind turbine rotors has been written. The subroutines are written in FORTRAN. AERFORCE requires the input of airfoil aerodynamic data via tables as function of angle of attack, the turbine blade and rotor geometry and wind and blade velocities as input. The method is intended for use in an aeroelastic code. Wind and blade velocities are given at a sequence of time steps and blade forces are returned. The aerodynamic method is basically a Blade-Element/Momentum method. The method is fast and coded to be used in time simulations. In order to obtain a steady state solution a time simulation to steady state conditions has to be carried out. The BEM-method in AERFORCE includes extensions for: Dynamic inflow: Unsteady modeling of the inflow for cases with unsteady blade loading or unsteady wind. Extensions to BEM-theory for inclined flow to the rotor disc (yaw model). Unsteady blade aerodynamics: The inclusion of 2D attached flow unsteady aerodynamics and a semi-empirical model for 2D dynamic stall.
Experimental analysis of a rigid rotor supported on aerodynamic foil journal bearings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arghir M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Aerodynamic foil bearings are highly non linear components used or intending to be used for supporting high speed rotors (>30 krpm of low size rotating machines (<400 kW. The non linear character comes from the highly deformable structure of the bearing made of thin steel sheets and from the Coulomb friction forces arising during dynamic displacements. The present work shows the non linear response of a rigid rotor supported by a pair of such bearings and entrained at 82 krpm. The measurements performed during the coast down revealed sub synchronous and asynchronous vibrations of the rotor and their multiples. A simplified theoretical model reproduces qualitatively some of these non linear characteristics.
The blade element momentum (BEM) method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre
2017-01-01
The current chapter presents the blade element momentum (BEM) method. The BEM method for a steady uniform inflow is presented in a first section. Some of the ad-hoc corrections that are usually added to the algorithm are discussed in a second section. An exception is made to the tip-loss correction...... which is introduced early in the algorithm formulation for practical reasons. The ad-hoc corrections presented are: the tip-loss correction, the high-thrust correction (momentum breakdown) and the correction for wake rotation. The formulation of an unsteady BEM code is given in a third section...
Tessarzik, J. M.
1975-01-01
Experimental tests were conducted to demonstrate the ability of the influence coefficient method to achieve precise balance of flexible rotors of virtually any design for operation through virtually any speed range. Various practical aspects of flexible-rotor balancing were investigated. Tests were made on a laboratory quality machine having a 122 cm (48 in.) long rotor weighing 50 kg (110 lb) and covering a speed range up to 18000 rpm. The balancing method was in every instance effective, practical, and economical and permitted safe rotor operation over the full speed range covering four rotor bending critical speeds. Improved correction weight removal methods for rotor balancing were investigated. Material removal from a rotating disk was demonstrated through application of a commercially available laser.
Bykov, V. G.; Kovachev, A. S.
2018-05-01
A statically unbalanced rotor in viscoelastic orthotropic supports equipped with an automatic ball balancer (ABB), the axis of symmetry of which does not coincide with the symmetry axis of the rotor, is considered. Based on an analysis of the equations describing the stationary modes of motion of the system, the principal impossibility of complete balancing of the rotor is shown. The possibility of the existence of two types of stationary modes is established, one of which has a constant average amplitude of residual vibration equal to the eccentricity of the ABB. The solution corresponding to this almost balanced mode is constructed analytically. A study is made of its asymptotic stability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronert, H.; Vetter, J.; Eckert, M.
1978-01-01
In the field of hollow high speed rotors there is an increasing demand for progressively higher speeds of safe operation. High speed operation causes support bearings to be carefully designed if the rotor speed is to pass safely through its critical speed of operation where intense vibration is experienced. Also the rotational speed is limited by the peripheral velocity and strength of the outside surface portion of the rotor. The invention proposes that elemental boron, which has great tensile strength and lightness be used to provide a major part of a hollow rotor so that increased operating speeds can be attained. Such a rotor is usable to provide a high speed centrifuge drum. (author)
Improved fixed point iterative method for blade element momentum computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Zhenye; Shen, Wen Zhong; Chen, Jin
2017-01-01
The blade element momentum (BEM) theory is widely used in aerodynamic performance calculations and optimization applications for wind turbines. The fixed point iterative method is the most commonly utilized technique to solve the BEM equations. However, this method sometimes does not converge...... are addressed through both theoretical analysis and numerical tests. A term from the BEM equations equals to zero at a critical inflow angle is the source of the convergence problems. When the initial inflow angle is set larger than the critical inflow angle and the relaxation methodology is adopted...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Ferfecki, Petr; Kozánek, Jan
2013-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 2 (2013), s. 223-234 ISSN 1802-680X. [COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS 2012 /28./. Špičák, 12.11.2012-14.11.2012] Institutional support : RVO:61388998 Keywords : rigid rotors * controllable damping * hybrid magnetorheological dampers * transient response Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery
Stability of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings: Comparison of two fundamental approaches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar; von Osmanski, Alexander Sebastian
2016-01-01
. This paper compares two fundamental methods for predicting the OSI. One is based on a nonlinear time domain simulation and another is based on a linearised frequency domain method and a perturbation of the Reynolds equation. Both methods are based on equivalent models and should predict similar results......High speed direct drive motors enable the use of Air Foil Bearings (AFB) in a wide range of applications due to the elimination of gear forces. Unfortunately, AFB supported rotors are lightly damped, and an accurate prediction of their Onset Speed of Instability (OSI) is therefore important...
Active Robust Control of Elastic Blade Element Containing Magnetorheological Fluid
Sivrioglu, Selim; Cakmak Bolat, Fevzi
2018-03-01
This research study proposes a new active control structure to suppress vibrations of a small-scale wind turbine blade filled with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and actuated by an electromagnet. The aluminum blade structure is manufactured using the airfoil with SH3055 code number which is designed for use on small wind turbines. An interaction model between MR fluid and the electromagnetic actuator is derived. A norm based multi-objective H2/H∞ controller is designed using the model of the elastic blade element. The H2/H∞ controller is experimentally realized under the impact and steady state aerodynamic load conditions. The results of experiments show that the MR fluid is effective for suppressing vibrations of the blade structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fábio Lúcio Santos
2009-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with an analytical model of a rigid rotor supported by hydrodynamic journal bearings where the plane separation technique together with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to predict the location and magnitude of the correction masses for balancing the rotor bearing system. The rotating system is modeled by applying the rigid shaft Stodola-Green model, in which the shaft gyroscopic moments and rotatory inertia are accounted for, in conjunction with the hydrodynamic cylindrical journal bearing model based on the classical Reynolds equation. A linearized perturbation procedure is employed to render the lubrication equations from the Reynolds equation, which allows predicting the eight linear force coefficients associated with the bearing direct and cross-coupled stiffness and damping coefficients. The results show that the methodology presented is efficient for balancing rotor systems. This paper gives a step further in the monitoring process, since Artificial Neural Network is normally used to predict, not to correct the mass unbalance. The procedure presented can be used in turbo machinery industry to balance rotating machinery that require continuous inspections. Some simulated results will be used in order to clarify the methodology presented.
Design of horizontal-axis wind turbine using blade element momentum method
Bobonea, Andreea; Pricop, Mihai Victor
2013-10-01
The study of mathematical models applied to wind turbine design in recent years, principally in electrical energy generation, has become significant due to the increasing use of renewable energy sources with low environmental impact. Thus, this paper shows an alternative mathematical scheme for the wind turbine design, based on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) Theory. The results from the BEM method are greatly dependent on the precision of the lift and drag coefficients. The basic of BEM method assumes the blade can be analyzed as a number of independent element in spanwise direction. The induced velocity at each element is determined by performing the momentum balance for a control volume containing the blade element. The aerodynamic forces on the element are calculated using the lift and drag coefficient from the empirical two-dimensional wind tunnel test data at the geometric angle of attack (AOA) of the blade element relative to the local flow velocity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian; Døssing, Mads
2010-01-01
A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non-dimensiona......A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menke, Lorenz Harry, E-mail: lnz2004@mindspring.com [University of Pittsburgh (United States)
2012-05-15
This paper derives all 36 analytical solutions of the energy eigenvalues for nuclear electric quadrupole interaction Hamiltonian and equivalent rigid asymmetric rotor for polynomial degrees 1 through 4 using classical algebraic theory. By the use of double-parameterization the full general solution sets are illustrated in a compact, symmetric, structural, and usable form that is valid for asymmetry parameter {eta} is an element of (- {infinity}, + {infinity}). These results are useful for code developers in the area of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC), Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) and rotational spectroscopy who want to offer exact solutions whenever possible, rather that resorting to numerical solutions. In addition, by using standard linear algebra methods, the characteristic equations of all integer and half-integer spins I from 0 to 15, inclusive are represented in a compact and naturally parameterized form that illustrates structure and symmetries. This extends Nielson's listing of characteristic equations for integer spins out to I = 15, inclusive.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauptmann, S; Bülk, M; Cheng, P W; Schön, L; Erbslöh, S; Boorsma, K; Grasso, F; Kühn, M
2014-01-01
Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK
Hauptmann, S.; Bülk, M.; Schön, L.; Erbslöh, S.; Boorsma, K.; Grasso, F.; Kühn, M.; Cheng, P. W.
2014-12-01
Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK.
Calibrated Blade-Element/Momentum Theory Aerodynamic Model of the MARIN Stock Wind Turbine: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goupee, A.; Kimball, R.; de Ridder, E. J.; Helder, J.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.
2015-04-02
In this paper, a calibrated blade-element/momentum theory aerodynamic model of the MARIN stock wind turbine is developed and documented. The model is created using open-source software and calibrated to closely emulate experimental data obtained by the DeepCwind Consortium using a genetic algorithm optimization routine. The provided model will be useful for those interested in validating interested in validating floating wind turbine numerical simulators that rely on experiments utilizing the MARIN stock wind turbine—for example, the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30’s Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continued, with Correlation project.
Balancing High-Speed Rotors at Low Speed
Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.
1986-01-01
Flexible balancing reduces vibrations at operating speeds. Highspeed rotors in turbomachines dynamically balanced at fraction of operating rotor speed. New method takes into account rotor flexible rather than rigid.
2017-01-01
top rotor superimposes an effective correlation time, τe, onto a symmetric top rotor to account for internal motion. 2. THEORY The purpose...specifically describe how simple 13C relaxation theory is used to describe quantitatively simple molecular 3 motions. More-detailed accounts ...of nuclear magnetic relaxation can be found in a number of basic textbooks (i.e., Farrar and Becker, 1971; Fukushima and Roeder, 1981; Harris, 1986
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2016-01-01
The classical blade-element/momentum (BE/M) method, which is used together with different types of corrections (e.g. the Prandtl or Glauert tip correction), is today the most basic tool in the design of wind turbine rotors. However, there are other classical techniques based on a combination...
Numerical Simulations of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines Using the Blade Element Momentum Theory
Javaherchi, Teymour; Thulin, Oskar; Aliseda, Alberto
2011-11-01
Energy extraction from the available kinetic energy in tidal currents via Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines has recently attracted scientists' attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. The strongest tidal resources have a concentrated nature that require close turbine spacing in a farm of MHK turbines. This tight spacing, however, will lead to interaction of the downstream turbines with the turbulent wake generated by upstream turbines. This interaction can significantly reduce the power generated and possibly result in structural failure before the expected service life is completed. Development of a numerical methodology to study the turbine-wake interaction can provide a tool for optimization of turbine spacing to maximize the power generated in turbine arrays. In this work, we will present numerical simulations of the flow field in a farm of horizontal axis MHK turbines using the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT). We compare the value of integral variables (i.e. efficiency, power, torque and etc.) calculated for each turbine in the farm for different arrangements with varying streamwise and lateral offsets between turbines. We find that BEMT provides accurate estimates of turbine efficiency under uniform flow conditions, but overpredicts the efficiency of downstream turbines when they are strongly affected by the wakes. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Søren Bøgh; Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar
2013-01-01
A stable rotor—supported laterally by passive magnetic bearings and longitudinally by magnetic forces and a clutch—loses suddenly its contact to the clutch and executes abruptly longitudinal movements away from its original equilibrium position as a result of small increases in angular velocity...... by MCMB using several configurations of magnet distribution are described based on an accurate nonlinear model able to reliably reproduce the rotor-bearing dynamic behaviour. Such investigations lead to: (a) clear physical explanation about the reasons for the rotor's unstable behaviour, losing its...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ning, S. A.; Hayman, G.; Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.
2014-12-01
Blade element momentum methods, though conceptually simple, are highly useful for analyzing wind turbines aerodynamics and are widely used in many design and analysis applications. A new version of AeroDyn is being developed to take advantage of new robust solution methodologies, conform to a new modularization framework for National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST, utilize advanced skewed-wake analysis methods, fix limitations with previous implementations, and to enable modeling of highly flexible and nonstraight blades. This paper reviews blade element momentum theory and several of the options available for analyzing skewed inflow. AeroDyn implementation details are described for the benefit of users and developers. These new options are compared to solutions from the previous version of AeroDyn and to experimental data. Finally, recommendations are given on how one might select from the various available solution approaches.
Schmied, J.; Pradetto, J. C.
1994-01-01
The combination of a high-speed motor, dry gas seals, and magnetic bearings realized in this unit facilitates the elimination of oil. The motor is coupled with a quill shaft to the compressor. This yields higher natural frequencies of the rotor than with the use of a diaphragm coupling and helps to maintain a sufficient margin of the maximum speed to the frequency of the second compressor bending mode. However, the controller of each bearing then has to take the combined modes of both machines into account. The requirements for the controller to ensure stability and sufficient damping of all critical speeds are designed and compared with the implemented controller. The calculated closed loop behavior was confirmed experimentally, except the stability of some higher modes due to slight frequency deviations of the rotor model to the actual rotor. The influence of a mechanical damper as a device to provide additional damping to high models is demonstrated theoretically. After all, it was not necessary to install the damper, since all modes cold be stabilized by the controller.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
von Osmanski, Alexander Sebastian; Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar
2017-01-01
Despite decades of research, the dynamics of air foil bearings (AFBs) are not yet fully captured by any model,suggesting that the fundamental mechanisms of the AFB and their relative merits are not yet fully understood. The recent years have seen promising results from nonlinear time domain models......, allowing the dynamic pressure–compliance interaction and the unsteady terms of the compressible Reynolds equation to be considered. By including the simple elastic foundation model (SEFM) in a fully coupled simultaneous time integration, the dynamics of a rotor supported by industrial AFBs have previously...
Smart Rotor Modeling: Aero-Servo-Elastic Modeling of a Smart Rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergami, Leonardo
the trailing edge flap deflection to actively reduce the fatigue loads on the structure. The performance of the smart rotor configuration and its control algorithms are finally quantified by aero-servo-elastic simulations of the smart rotor turbine operating in a standard turbulent wind field.......This book presents the formulation of an aero-servo-elastic model for a wind turbine rotor equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF), a smart rotor configuration. As the name suggests, an aero-servo-elastic model consists of three main components: an aerodynamic model, a structural model......, and a control model. The book first presents an engineering type of aerodynamic model that accounts for the dynamic effects of flap deflection. The aerodynamic model is implemented in a Blade Element Momentum framework, and coupled with a multi-body structural model in the aero-servoelastic simulation code HAWC...
Performance improvement of small-scale rotors by passive blade twist control
Lv, Peng; Prothin, Sebastien; Mohd Zawawi, Fazila; Bénard, Emmanuel; Morlier, Joseph; Moschetta, Jean-Marc
2015-01-01
A passive twist control is proposed as an adaptive way to maximize the overall efficiency of the small-scale rotor blade for multifunctional aircrafts. Incorporated into a database of airfoil characteristics, Blade Element Momentum Theory is implemented to obtain the blade optimum twist rates for hover and forward flight. In order to realize the required torsion of blade between hover and forward flight, glass/epoxy laminate blade is proposed based on Centrifugal Force Induced Twist concept. ...
Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.
1982-01-01
A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.
Wind Turbine Rotor Simulation via CFD Based Actuator Disc Technique Compared to Detailed Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esmail Mahmoodi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized Actuator Disc (AD is used to model the wind turbine rotor of the MEXICO experiment, a collaborative European wind turbine project. The AD model as a combination of CFD technique and User Defined Functions codes (UDF, so-called UDF/AD model is used to simulate loads and performance of the rotor in three different wind speed tests. Distributed force on the blade, thrust and power production of the rotor as important designing parameters of wind turbine rotors are focused to model. A developed Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory as a code based numerical technique as well as a full rotor simulation both from the literature are included into the results to compare and discuss. The output of all techniques is compared to detailed measurements for validation, which led us to final conclusions.
Rotor Design for Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Søren Hjort
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs can increase mass flow through the rotor substantially, but have often failed to fulfill expectations. We address high-performance diffusers, and investigate the design requirements for a DAWT rotor to efficiently convert the available energy to shaft energy. Several factors can induce wake stall scenarios causing significant energy loss. The causality between these stall mechanisms and earlier DAWT failures is discussed. First, a swirled actuator disk CFD code is validated through comparison with results from a far wake swirl corrected blade-element momentum (BEM model, and horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT reference results. Then, power efficiency versus thrust is computed with the swirled actuator disk (AD code for low and high values of tip-speed ratios (TSR, for different centerbodies, and for different spanwise rotor thrust loading distributions. Three different configurations are studied: The bare propeller HAWT, the classical DAWT, and the high-performance multi-element DAWT. In total nearly 400 high-resolution AD runs are generated. These results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that dedicated DAWT rotors can successfully convert the available energy to shaft energy, provided the identified design requirements for swirl and axial loading distributions are satisfied.
Modern rotor balancing - Emerging technologies
Zorzi, E. S.; Von Pragenau, G. L.
1985-01-01
Modern balancing methods for flexible and rigid rotors are explored. Rigid rotor balancing is performed at several hundred rpm, well below the first bending mode of the shaft. High speed balancing is necessary when the nominal rotational speed is higher than the first bending mode. Both methods introduce weights which will produce rotor responses at given speeds that will be exactly out of phase with the responses of an unbalanced rotor. Modal balancing seeks to add weights which will leave other rotor modes unaffected. Also, influence coefficients can be determined by trial and error addition of weights and recording of their effects on vibration at speeds of interest. The latter method is useful for balancing rotors at other than critical speeds and for performing unified balancing beginning with the first critical speed. Finally, low-speed flexible balancing permits low-speed tests and adjustments of rotor assemblies which will not be accessible when operating in their high-speed functional configuration. The method was developed for the high pressure liquid oxygen turbopumps for the Shuttle.
Walter, C. A.; Braun, A.; Fotopoulos, G.
2017-12-01
Research is being conducted to develop an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) that is capable of reliably and efficiently collecting high resolution, industry standard magnetic data (magnetic data with a fourth difference of +/- 0.05 nT) via an optically pumped vapour magnetometer. The benefits of developing a UAS with these capabilities include improvements in the resolution of localized airborne surveys (2.5 km by 2.5 km) and the ability to conduct 3D magnetic gradiometry surveys in the observation gap evident between traditional terrestrial and manned airborne magnetic surveys (surface elevation up to 120 m). Quantifying the extent of an optically pumped vapour magnetometer's 3D orientation variations, while in-flight and suspended under a UAS, is a significant advancement to existing knowledge as optically pumped magnetometers have an orientation-dependent (to the primary magnetic field vector) process for measuring the magnetic field. This study investigates the orientation characteristics of a GEM Systems potassium vapour magnetometer, GSMP-35U, while semi-rigidly suspended 3 m under a DJI S900, heavy-lift multi-rotor UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) during an airborne surveying campaign conducted Northeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. A nine degrees of freedom IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit), the Adafruit GY-80, was used to quantify the 3D orientation variations (yaw, pitch and roll) of the magnetic sensor during flight. The orientation and magnetic datasets were indexed and linked with a date and time stamp (within 1 ms) via a Raspberry Pi 2, acting as an on-board computer and data storage system. Analysing the two datasets allowed for the in-flight orientation variations of the potassium vapour magnetometer to be directly compared with the gathered magnetic and signal quality data of the magnetometer. The in-flight orientation characteristics of the magnetometer were also quantified for a range of air-speeds and flight maneuvers throughout the survey. Overall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Lin; Liu, Xiongwei; Renevier, Nathalie; Stables, Matthew; Hall, George M.
2014-01-01
Due to the increasing size and flexibility of large wind turbine blades, accurate and reliable aeroelastic modelling is playing an important role for the design of large wind turbines. Most existing aeroelastic models are linear models based on assumption of small blade deflections. This assumption is not valid anymore for very flexible blade design because such blades often experience large deflections. In this paper, a novel nonlinear aeroelastic model for large wind turbine blades has been developed by combining BEM (blade element momentum) theory and mixed-form formulation of GEBT (geometrically exact beam theory). The nonlinear aeroelastic model takes account of large blade deflections and thus greatly improves the accuracy of aeroelastic analysis of wind turbine blades. The nonlinear aeroelastic model is implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics and validated with a series of benchmark calculation tests. The results show that good agreement is achieved when compared with experimental data, and its capability of handling large deflections is demonstrated. Finally the nonlinear aeroelastic model is applied to aeroelastic modelling of the parked WindPACT 1.5 MW baseline wind turbine, and reduced flapwise deflection from the nonlinear aeroelastic model is observed compared to the linear aeroelastic code FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). - Highlights: • A novel nonlinear aeroelastic model for wind turbine blades is developed. • The model takes account of large blade deflections and geometric nonlinearities. • The model is reliable and efficient for aeroelastic modelling of wind turbine blades. • The accuracy of the model is verified by a series of benchmark calculation tests. • The model provides more realistic aeroelastic modelling than FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence)
An Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Icing on Wind Turbine Rotor Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raja, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen
2016-01-01
Wind Turbine is highly nonlinear plant whose dynamics changes with change in aerodynamics of the rotor blade. Power extracted from the wind turbine is a function of coefficient of power (Cp). Wind turbine installed in the cold climate areas has an icing on its rotor blade which might change its...... aerodynamics. This paper is an experimental investigation of the aerodynamic changes occur due to effect of ice accumulated on the rotor blades of wind turbine. We have tested three small scale model of the NREL's 5MW rotor blade with same profile but simulated different icing effect on them. These models...... are printed with 3D printer and tested one by one in a Wind Tunnel. Lift, drag and moment coefficients are calculated from the measured experimental data and program WT-Perf based on blade-element momentum (BEM) theory is used to predict the performance of wind turbine. Cp curves generated from the test...
Stabilization of Rigid Body Dynamics by Internal and External Torques
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bloch, A. M; Krishnaprasad, P. S; Marsden, J. E; Sanchez de Alvarez, G
1990-01-01
...] with quadratic feedback torques for internal rotors. We show that with such torques, the equations for the rigid body with momentum wheels are Hamiltonian with respect to a Lie-Poisson bracket structure. Further...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quell, P. [aerodyn Energiesysteme GmbH, Rendsburg (Germany)
1996-12-31
Developments in the MW range are a further illustration of the well-known problem that a linear increase of the rotor surface area will result in an overproportional increase of mass. One classical approach for reducing weight is the installation of a two-blade rotor with a swivelling hub. In the course of the development activities for the 1.2 MW A1200 wind power system of Autoflug Energietechnik GmbH, it was investigated whether a pendulum hub is a technically and economically feasible concept for a plant of this size. For this purpose, two otherwise identical plants were projected and compared, one with a rigid hub and the other with a swivelling hub. Both systems were simulated using the dynamic program GAROS. With the loads thus determined, both concepts are detailed enough to permit a comprehensive cost comparison in consideration of the masses, the resulting cost, performance and reliability. [Deutsch] Der Entwicklungsprozess der Megawatt-Anlagen verdeutlicht den aus frueheren Untersuchungen bekannten Zusammenhang eines ueberproportionalen Massenzuwachses bei linear steigender Rotorflaeche. Ein klassischer Ansatz zur Reduzierung des Anlagengewichtes ist der Einsatz eines Zweiblatt-Rotors in Verbindung mit einer Pendelnabe. Im Rahmen der Entwicklungstaetigkeit fuer die 1,2 MW-Windkraftanlage A 1200 der Fa. Autoflug Energietechnik GmbH wurde untersucht, inwieweit der Einsatz einer Pendelnabe fuer eine Anlage dieser Groessenordnung ein technisch und wirtschaftlich sinnvolles Konzept darstellen kann. Dazu wurden zwei grundsaetzlich gleiche Anlagen mit Zweiblatt-Rotor unter Verwendung einer Pendelnabe und einer starren Nabe konzipiert und gegenuebergestellt. Zur Bewertung des Anlagenverhaltens sowie zur Ermittlung realitaetsnaher Belastungen werden sowohl die Anlagenversion mit Pendelnabe als auch die Version mit starrer Nabe mit dem Dynamikprogramm GAROS simuliert. Basierend auf den ermittelten Lasten werden beide Konzepte so detailliert, dass ein umfassender
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, Jolanta
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Systematic approach to eco-design of steam turbine rotor blades was applied. • Eco-innovative solutions are based on structural and technological change. • At the stage of detailed design the variants were analyzed using LCA. • Main achieved benefits: energy and material savings, lower environmental impact. • Benefits related to the possible scale of the solution practical application. - Abstract: Eco-design of steam turbine blades could be one of the possibilities of decreasing the environmental impact of energy systems based on turbines. The paper investigates the eco-design approach to elaboration of the rotor blades and packages. The purpose is to present the course of eco-design of the rotor blades and the rotor packages taking account of eco-design assumptions, solutions and the concept itself. The following eco-design variants of the rotor blades and the rotor packages are considered: elements of the rotor blades made separately (baseline variant of the rotor blades); elements of the rotor blades made of one piece of material; blades in packages made separately and welded (baseline variant of the rotor packages); packages milled as integral elements. At the stage of detailed design, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in relation to a functional unit – the rotor blades and packages ready for installation in a steam turbine, which is the stage of the turbine. The obtained results indicate that eco-innovative solutions for the turbine blades and packages could be achieved through structural and technological changes. Applying new solutions of the rotor blades may produce the following main benefits: 3.3% lower use of materials, 29.4% decrease in energy consumption at the manufacturing stage, 7.7% decrease in the environmental impact in the life cycle. In relation to the rotor packages, the following main benefits may be achieved: 20.5% lower use of materials, 25.0% decrease in energy consumption at the production stage, 16
Topological dynamics in supramolecular rotors.
Palma, Carlos-Andres; Björk, Jonas; Rao, Francesco; Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V
2014-08-13
Artificial molecular switches, rotors, and machines are set to establish design rules and applications beyond their biological counterparts. Herein we exemplify the role of noncovalent interactions and transient rearrangements in the complex behavior of supramolecular rotors caged in a 2D metal-organic coordination network. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and molecular dynamics modeling of a supramolecular rotor with respective rotation rates matching with 0.2 kcal mol(-1) (9 meV) precision, identify key steps in collective rotation events and reconfigurations. We notably reveal that stereoisomerization of the chiral trimeric units entails topological isomerization whereas rotation occurs in a topology conserving, two-step asynchronous process. In supramolecular constructs, distinct displacements of subunits occur inducing a markedly lower rotation barrier as compared to synchronous mechanisms of rigid rotors. Moreover, the chemical environment can be instructed to control the system dynamics. Our observations allow for a definition of mechanical cooperativity based on a significant reduction of free energy barriers in supramolecules compared to rigid molecules.
Evaluation of effect of oil film of rotor bearing
Alekseeva, L. B.; Maksarov, V. V.
2018-03-01
The high-rpm rotors were subjected to the dynamic analysis. Oscillations of a rotor spinning in gapped bearings were considered. It was stated that the rotor necks motion pattern depends on a lot of factors: a ratio of static and dynamic loads on the bearing, radial clearance size, presence of oil film between a neck and a bearing, elastic and inertial properties of a mounting group. The most unfavourable mode where static and dynamic loads are equal was detected without taking into account the oil film impact. The impact of oil film on the bearing assembly dynamics is significant in high-rpm rotors. The presence of oil film can possibly cause rotor buckling failure and self-starting. Rotor motion stability in small was studied. Herewith, various schemes were considered. Expressions, determining the stability zones of a rigid rotor on the fixed support and the supports with elastic and inertial elements, were given.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smit, Jeroen; Bernhammer, Lars O.; Navalkar, Sachin T.
2016-01-01
to fatigue damage have been identified. In these regions, the turbine energy output can be increased by deflecting the trailing edge (TE) flap in order to track the maximum power coefficient as a function of local, instantaneous speed ratios. For this purpose, the TE flap configuration for maximum power...... generation has been using blade element momentum theory. As a first step, the operation in non-uniform wind field conditions was analysed. Firstly, the deterministic fluctuation in local tip speed ratio due to wind shear was evaluated. The second effect is associated with time delays in adapting the rotor...
Reference Model 2: "Rev 0" Rotor Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2011-12-01
The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Norbut, T G.J.
1975-10-09
The feet of rotor blades, with their trapezoidal or dove-tailed cross-sections are, as usual, fastened in corresponding grooves in the drive shaft. The juntion of the groove flank, which, on its outer end, runs radially to the axis of the drive shaft, to the cylinder surface of the drive shaft between the grooves, therefore vertically to the first level takes place not relatively sharp-edged or with only little edge radius, but rather takes place in increasing radii which vary throughout the circumference. The touching of surfaces with the radial blade foot which exits the groove can thus be tight or at a normal assembly tolerance. Avoidance or reduction of load-tension concentrations and of unbalanced load distribution on the foot anchors of the rotor blades is possible. Ceramic and other brittle material can be used besides monolithic materials, and also fiber-reinforced metallic or inorganic and organic composite materials such as boron/aluminum, graphite/epoxy, 'Borsic'-titanium, as well as other organic polymer materials like silicon resin.
Optimal Aerodynamic Design of Conventional and Coaxial Helicopter Rotors in Hover and Forward Flight
Giovanetti, Eli B.
This dissertation investigates the optimal aerodynamic performance and design of conventional and coaxial helicopters in hover and forward flight using conventional and higher harmonic blade pitch control. First, we describe a method for determining the blade geometry, azimuthal blade pitch inputs, optimal shaft angle (rotor angle of attack), and division of propulsive and lifting forces among the components that minimize the total power for a given forward flight condition. The optimal design problem is cast as a variational statement that is discretized using a vortex lattice wake to model inviscid forces, combined with two-dimensional drag polars to model profile losses. The resulting nonlinear constrained optimization problem is solved via Newton iteration. We investigate the optimal design of a compound vehicle in forward flight comprised of a coaxial rotor system, a propeller, and optionally, a fixed wing. We show that higher harmonic control substantially reduces required power, and that both rotor and propeller efficiencies play an important role in determining the optimal shaft angle, which in turn affects the optimal design of each component. Second, we present a variational approach for determining the optimal (minimum power) torque-balanced coaxial hovering rotor using Blade Element Momentum Theory including swirl. We show that the optimal hovering coaxial rotor generates only a small percentage of its total thrust on the portion of the lower rotor operating in the upper rotor's contracted wake, resulting in an optimal design with very different upper and lower rotor twist and chord distributions. We also show that the swirl component of induced velocity has a relatively small effect on rotor performance at the disk loadings typical of helicopter rotors. Third, we describe a more refined model of the wake of a hovering conventional or coaxial rotor. We approximate the rotor or coaxial rotors as actuator disks (though not necessarily uniformly loaded
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)
1997-08-01
Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)
Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave
2016-01-01
We consider the quantum version of Arnold’s generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. We show how the method can be extended to cosets, generalising the linear rigid rotor. As examples, we consider all connected and simply connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid. (paper)
Initial design of a stall-controlled wind turbine rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nygaard, T.A. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway)
1997-08-01
A model intended for initial design of stall-controlled wind turbine rotors is described. The user specifies relative radial position of an arbitrary number of airfoil sections, referring to a data file containing lift-and drag curves. The data file is on the same format as used in the commercial blade-element code BLADES-/2/, where lift- and drag coefficients are interpolated from tables as function of Reynolds number, relative thickness and angle of attack. The user can set constraints on a selection of the following: Maximum power; Maximum thrust in operation; Maximum root bending moment in operation; Extreme root bending moment, parked rotor; Tip speed; Upper and lower bounds on optimisation variables. The optimisation variables can be selected from: Blade radius; Rotational speed; Chord and twist at an arbitrary number of radial positions. The user can chose linear chord distribution and a hyperbola-like twist distribution to ensure smooth planform and twist, or cubic spline interpolation for one or both. The aerodynamic model is based on classical strip theory with Prandtl tip loss correction, supplemented by empirical data for high induction factors. (EG)
Dynamic response of a rub-impact rotor system under axial thrust
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
An, Xueli; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xiang, Xiuqiao; Li, Chaoshun; Luo, Zhimeng [Huazhong University of Science andTechnology, College of Hydroelectric and Digitalization Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei (China)
2009-11-15
A model of a rigid rotor system under axial thrust with rotor-to-stator is developed based on the classic impact theory and is analyzed by the Lagrangian dynamics. The rubbing condition is modeled using the elastic impact-contact idealization, which consists of normal and tangential forces at the rotor-to-stator contact point. Mass eccentricity and rotating speed are used as control parameters to simulate the response of rotor system. The motions of periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic are found in the rotor system response. Mass eccentricity plays an important role in creating chaotic phenomena. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xiaomin; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)
2013-07-01
It is well established that the power generated by a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) is a function of the number of blades, the tip speed ratio (blade tip speed/wind free stream velocity) and the lift to drag ratio (CL /CD) of the airfoil sections of the blade. The airfoil sections used in HAWT are generally thick airfoils such as the S, DU, FX, Flat-back and NACA 6-series of airfoils. These airfoils vary in (CL /CD) for a given blade and ratio and therefore the power generated by HAWT for different blade airfoil sections will vary. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the effect of different airfoil sections on HAWT performance using the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. In this study, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given blade and ratio and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated by the turbine can be significantly increased. Parametric studies are also conducted by varying the turbine diameter.
Helicopter Rotor Load Prediction Using a Geometrically Exact Beam with Multicomponent Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Hyun-Ku; Viswamurthy, S.R.; Park, Sang Chul
2010-01-01
In this paper, an accurate structural dynamic analysis was developed for a helicopter rotor system including rotor control components, which was coupled to various aerodynamic and wake models in order to predict an aeroelastic response and the loads acting on the rotor. Its blade analysis was based...... rotor-blade/control-system model was loosely coupled with various inflow and wake models in order to simulate both hover and forward-flight conditions. The resulting rotor blade response and pitch link loads are in good agreement with those predicted byCAMRADII. The present analysis features both model...... on an intrinsic formulation of moving beams implemented in the time domain. The rotor control system was modeled as a combination of rigid and elastic components. A multicomponent analysis was then developed by coupling the beam finite element model with the rotor control system model to obtain a complete rotor-blade/control...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Kozánek, Jan; Ferfecki, Petr
2014-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 2 (2014), s. 75-81 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : rigid rotors * controllable damping * hybrid magnetorheological dampers * vibration stability Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.
2016-01-01
The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.
Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen
1999-01-01
Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.
Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system
Spera, D. A.
1976-01-01
Preliminary estimates are presented of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system. Preliminary blade design utilizes a tapered tubular aluminum spar which supports nonstructural aluminum ribs and skin and is joined to the rotor hub by a steel shank tube. Stresses in the shank of the blade are calculated for static, rated, and overload operating conditions. Blade vibrations were limited to the fundamental flapping modes, which were elastic cantilever bending for hingeless rotor blades and rigid-body rotation for teetering rotor blades. The MOSTAB-C computer code was used to calculate aerodynamic and mechanical loads. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. The hingeless rotor analyzed does not appear to be structurally stable during overloads.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José F. Herbert-Acero
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a novel framework for the aerodynamic design and optimization of blades for small horizontal axis wind turbines (WT. The framework is based on a state-of-the-art blade element momentum model, which is complemented with the XFOIL 6.96 software in order to provide an estimate of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of small WT (SWT rotors for a wide range of operational conditions. The design variables are (1 the airfoil shape at the different blade span positions and the radial variation of the geometrical variables of (2 chord length, (3 twist angle, and (4 thickness along the blade span. A wind tunnel validation study of optimized rotors based on the NACA 4-digit airfoil series is presented. Based on the experimental data, improvements in terms of the aerodynamic efficiency, the cut-in wind speed, and the amount of material used during the manufacturing process were achieved. Recommendations for the aerodynamic design of SWT rotors are provided based on field experience.
Usage of modal synthesis method with condensation in rotor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeman V.
2008-11-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vibration and modal analysis of rotors composed of a flexible shaft and several flexible disks. The shaft is modelled as a one dimensional continuum whereon flexible disks modelled as a three dimensional continuum are rigid mounted to shaft. The presented approach allows to introduce continuously distributed centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. The finite element method was used for shaft and disks discretization. The modelling of such flexible multi-body rotors with large DOF number is based on the system decomposition into subsystems and on the modal synthesis method with condensation. Lower vibration mode shapes of the mutually uncoupled and non-rotating subsystems are used for creation of the rotor condensed mathematical model. An influence of the different level of a rotor condensation model on the accuracy of calculated eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors is discussed.
Cascade Analysis of a Floating Wind Turbine Rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliassen, Lene; Jakobsen, Jasna B; Knauer, Andreas; Nielsen, Finn Gunnar
2014-01-01
Mounting a wind turbine on a floating foundation introduces more complexity to the aerodynamic loading. The floater motion contains a wide range of frequencies. To study some of the basic dynamic load effect on the blades due to these motions, a two-dimensional cascade approach, combined with a potential vortex method, is used. This is an alternative method to study the aeroelastic behavior of wind turbines that is different from the traditional blade element momentum method. The analysis tool demands little computational power relative to a full three dimensional vortex method, and can handle unsteady flows. When using the cascade plane, a ''cut'' is made at a section of the wind turbine blade. The flow is viewed parallel to the blade axis at this cut. The cascade model is commonly used for analysis of turbo machineries. Due to the simplicity of the code it requires little computational resources, however it has limitations in its validity. It can only handle two-dimensional potential flow, i.e. including neither three-dimensional effects, such as the tip loss effect, nor boundary layers and stall effects are modeled. The computational tool can however be valuable in the overall analysis of floating wind turbines, and evaluation of the rotor control system. A check of the validity of the vortex panel code using an airfoil profile is performed, comparing the variation of the lift force, to the theoretically derived Wagner function. To analyse the floating wind turbine, a floating structure with hub height 90 m is chosen. An axial motion of the rotor is considered
Linear dynamic coupling in geared rotor systems
David, J. W.; Mitchell, L. D.
1986-01-01
The effects of high frequency oscillations caused by the gear mesh, on components of a geared system that can be modeled as rigid discs are analyzed using linear dynamic coupling terms. The coupled, nonlinear equations of motion for a disc attached to a rotating shaft are presented. The results of a trial problem analysis show that the inclusion of the linear dynamic coupling terms can produce significant changes in the predicted response of geared rotor systems, and that the produced sideband responses are greater than the unbalanced response. The method is useful in designing gear drives for heavy-lift helicopters, industrial speed reducers, naval propulsion systems, and heavy off-road equipment.
A bistable mechanism for chord extension morphing rotors
Johnson, Terrence; Frecker, Mary; Gandhi, Farhan
2009-03-01
Research efforts have shown that helicopter rotor blade morphing is an effective means to improve flight performance. Previous example of rotor blade morphing include using smart-materials for trailing deflection and rotor blade twist and tip twist, the development of a comfortable airfoil using compliant mechanisms, the use of a Gurney flap for air-flow deflection and centrifugal force actuated device to increase the span of the blade. In this paper we explore the use of a bistable mechanism for rotor morphing, specifically, blade chord extension using a bistable arc. Increasing the chord of the rotor blade is expected to generate more lift-load and improve helicopter performance. Bistable or "snap through" mechanisms have multiple stable equilibrium states and are a novel way to achieve large actuation output stroke. Bistable mechanisms do not require energy input to maintain a stable equilibrium state as both states do not require locking. In this work, we introduce a methodology for the design of bistable arcs for chord morphing using the finite element analysis and pseudo-rigid body model, to study the effect of different arc types, applied loads and rigidity on arc performance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)
1997-12-31
The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...
Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter
2014-01-01
This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme. Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology. The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...
Pukhlikov, Aleksandr
2013-01-01
Birational rigidity is a striking and mysterious phenomenon in higher-dimensional algebraic geometry. It turns out that certain natural families of algebraic varieties (for example, three-dimensional quartics) belong to the same classification type as the projective space but have radically different birational geometric properties. In particular, they admit no non-trivial birational self-maps and cannot be fibred into rational varieties by a rational map. The origins of the theory of birational rigidity are in the work of Max Noether and Fano; however, it was only in 1970 that Iskovskikh and Manin proved birational superrigidity of quartic three-folds. This book gives a systematic exposition of, and a comprehensive introduction to, the theory of birational rigidity, presenting in a uniform way, ideas, techniques, and results that so far could only be found in journal papers. The recent rapid progress in birational geometry and the widening interaction with the neighboring areas generate the growing interest ...
Multidisciplinary Optimization of Tilt Rotor Blades Using Comprehensive Composite Modeling Technique
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; McCarthy, Thomas R.; Rajadas, John N.
1997-01-01
An optimization procedure is developed for addressing the design of composite tilt rotor blades. A comprehensive technique, based on a higher-order laminate theory, is developed for the analysis of the thick composite load-carrying sections, modeled as box beams, in the blade. The theory, which is based on a refined displacement field, is a three-dimensional model which approximates the elasticity solution so that the beam cross-sectional properties are not reduced to one-dimensional beam parameters. Both inplane and out-of-plane warping are included automatically in the formulation. The model can accurately capture the transverse shear stresses through the thickness of each wall while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the inner and outer surfaces of the beam. The aerodynamic loads on the blade are calculated using the classical blade element momentum theory. Analytical expressions for the lift and drag are obtained based on the blade planform with corrections for the high lift capability of rotor blades. The aerodynamic analysis is coupled with the structural model to formulate the complete coupled equations of motion for aeroelastic analyses. Finally, a multidisciplinary optimization procedure is developed to improve the aerodynamic, structural and aeroelastic performance of the tilt rotor aircraft. The objective functions include the figure of merit in hover and the high speed cruise propulsive efficiency. Structural, aerodynamic and aeroelastic stability criteria are imposed as constraints on the problem. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function is used to formulate the multiobjective function problem. The search direction is determined by the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. The optimum results are compared with the baseline values and show significant improvements in the overall performance of the tilt rotor blade.
Refined Betz limit for rotors with a finite number of blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2008-01-01
The criterion of Betz for optimum rotors with a finite number of blades is revisited and used to determine the performance of wind turbines. The Betz criterion states that ideal efficiency is obtained when the distribution of circulation along the blade produces a rigidly helicoid wake that moves...... model is consistent with the general momentum theory and enables for the first time to determine the theoretical maximum efficiency of rotors with an arbitrary number of blades....
Determination of Scaled Wind Turbine Rotor Characteristics from Three Dimensional RANS Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burmester, S; Gueydon, S; Make, M
2016-01-01
Previous studies have shown the importance of 3D effects when calculating the performance characteristics of a scaled down turbine rotor [1-4]. In this paper the results of 3D RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) computations by Make and Vaz [1] are taken to calculate 2D lift and drag coefficients. These coefficients are assigned to FAST (Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) tool from NREL) as input parameters. Then, the rotor characteristics (power and thrust coefficients) are calculated using BEMT. This coupling of RANS and BEMT was previously applied by other parties and is termed here the RANS-BEMT coupled approach. Here the approach is compared to measurements carried out in a wave basin at MARIN applying Froude scaled wind, and the direct 3D RANS computation. The data of both a model and full scale wind turbine are used for the validation and verification. The flow around a turbine blade at full scale has a more 2D character than the flow properties around a turbine blade at model scale (Make and Vaz [1]). Since BEMT assumes 2D flow behaviour, the results of the RANS-BEMT coupled approach agree better with the results of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation at full- than at model-scale. (paper)
The vibrational behaviour of a cracked turbine rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grabowski, B.
1978-01-01
In order to detect an incipient crack on a turbine rotor with the aid of measurement of the shaft vibrations, these must be known in the first place the effects of a crack on the vibrational behavior of a rotor. For this purpose a method using the modal analysis is presented here. The rigidity depending on the angle of rotation at the position of the crack is accounted for by means of a model. Because of the composition of the computer code there may also be worked with measured values for the rigidity. The results of the calculations show that within the range of speeds, in which for many turbines the operating speed lies, a crack will cause distinct variations of the shaft vibrations. The crack stimulates vibrations with frequencies of rotation and frequencies of double-rotation. Both may be used for crack detection. Because of the strong dependence of the size of the amplitudes of vibration on the design of the rotor and the position of the crack each rotor should be subject to a detailed crack calculation for a better judgement of the measured values. (orig.) [de
Utilization of fiber reinforced plastics in rotor blades of wind turbines. WF Information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1980-01-01
In order to produce wind power plants of the future with high power (1-5 MW), the wind turbines are constructed with large rotor diameters (up to 145 m). The rotor blade has to be designed for a service life of at least 25 years. The fiber bonded or hybrid structure (metal + fiber composite material) is certainly attractive, especially in corrosive environment, compared to conventional metal constructions (steel or aluminum in welded, riveted, or bolted form). Light, rigid, and dynamically high-strength rotor blades can be built with fiber reinforced plastics. The present report gives a survey of the material problems arising in such plants.
Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2008-01-15
We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)
Matrix methods applied to engineering rigid body mechanics
Crouch, T.
The purpose of this book is to present the solution of a range of rigorous body mechanics problems using a matrix formulation of vector algebra. Essential theory concerning kinematics and dynamics is formulated in terms of matrix algebra. The solution of kinematics and dynamics problems is discussed, taking into account the velocity and acceleration of a point moving in a circular path, the velocity and acceleration determination for a linkage, the angular velocity and angular acceleration of a roller in a taper-roller thrust race, Euler's theroem on the motion of rigid bodies, an automotive differential, a rotating epicyclic, the motion of a high speed rotor mounted in gimbals, and the vibration of a spinning projectile. Attention is given to the activity of a force, the work done by a conservative force, the work and potential in a conservative system, the equilibrium of a mechanism, bearing forces due to rotor misalignment, and the frequency of vibrations of a constrained rod.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takizuka, Takakazu; Takada, Shoji; Kosugiyama, Shinichi; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Xing, Yan
2003-01-01
A program for research and development on magnetic bearing suspended rotor dynamics was planned for the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300) plant. The magnetic bearing to suspend the turbo-machine rotor of GTHTR300 is unique because the required load capacity is much larger than that of existing one. The turbo-compressor and generator rotors, each of which is suspended by two radial bearings, pass over the first and the second critical speeds to bending mode, respectively. The rotor design fulfilled the standard limit of vibration amplitude of 75 μm at the rated rotational speed by optimising the stiffness of the magnetic bearings. A test apparatus was designed in the program. The test apparatus is composed of 1/3-scale two test rotors simulating turbo-compressor and generator rotors which are connected by a flexible coupling or a rigid coupling. Because the load capacity is almost in proportion to the projected area of the bearing, the load capacity of the magnetic bearing is almost 1/10 of the actual one. The test rotors were designed so that their critical speeds and vibration modes match the actual ones. The test will verify the rotor design and demonstrate the rotor vibration control technology of the magnetic bearing. This paper shows the outline of the test device and the test plan for the magnetic bearing suspended rotor system. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)
Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....
Homopolar motor with dual rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, J.S.
1998-12-01
A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.
Homopolar motor with dual rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1998-01-01
A homopolar motor (10) has a field rotor (15) mounted on a frame (11) for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor (17) mounted for rotation on said frame (11) within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor (15). The two rotors (15, 17) are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism (19), so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.
2016-01-01
nonlinear coupled dynamics of the rotor-bearing system. The nonlinear forces from the thermomechanical shape memory alloy springs and from the passive magnetic bearings are coupled to the rotor and bearing housing dynamics. The equations of motion describing rotor tilt and bearing housing lateral motion......Helical pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) springs are integrated into a dynamic system consisting of a rigid rotor supported by passive magnetic bearings. The aim is to determine the utility of SMAs for vibration attenuation via their mechanical hysteresis, and for adaptation of the dynamic...
Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor concept definition study
Carlson, R. G.; Beno, E. A.; Ulisnik, H. D.
1983-01-01
As part of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) Program a number of advanced rotor system designs were conceived and investigated. From these, several were chosen that best meet the started ITR goals with emphasis on stability, reduced weight and hub drag, simplicity, low head moment stiffness, and adequate strength and fatigue life. It was concluded that obtaining low hub moment stiffness was difficult when only the blade flexibility of bearingless rotor blades is considered, unacceptably low fatigue life being the primary problem. Achieving a moderate hub moment stiffness somewhat higher than state of the art articulated rotors in production today is possible within the fatigue life constraint. Alternatively, low stiffness is possible when additional rotor elements, besides the blades themselves, provide part of the rotor flexibility. Two primary designs evolved as best meeting the general ITR requirements that presently exist. An I shaped flexbeam with an external torque tube can satisfy the general goals but would have either higher stiffness or reduced fatigue life. The elastic gimbal rotor can achieve a better combination of low stiffness and high fatigue life but would be a somewhat heavier design and possibly exhibit a higher risk of aeromechanical instability.
Ren, Zhengyi; Huang, Tong; Feng, Jiajia; Zhou, Yuanwei
2018-05-01
In this paper, a 600Wh vertical maglev energy storage flywheel rotor system is taken as a model. The motion equation of a rigid rotor considering the gyroscopic effect and the center of mass offset is obtained by the centroid theorem, and the experimental verification is carried out. Using the state variable method, the Matlab software was used to program and simulate the radial displacement and radial electromagnetic force of the rotor system at each speed. The results show that the established system model is in accordance with the designed 600Wh vertical maglev energy storage flywheel model. The results of the simulation analysis are helpful to further understand the dynamic nature of the flywheel rotor at different transient speeds.
Flowfield analysis of helicopter rotor in hover and forward flight based on CFD
Zhao, Qinghe; Li, Xiaodong
2018-05-01
The helicopter rotor field is simulated in hover and forward flight based on Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD). In hover case only one rotor is simulated with the periodic boundary condition in the rotational coordinate system and the grid is fixed. In the non-lift forward flight case, the total rotor is simulated in inertia coordinate system and the whole grid moves rigidly. The dual-time implicit scheme is applied to simulate the unsteady flowfield on the movement grids. The k – ω turbulence model is employed in order to capture the effects of turbulence. To verify the solver, the flowfield around the Caradonna-Tung rotor is computed. The comparison shows a good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar
2014-01-01
with a multibody system composed of rigid rotor and flexible foundation. The magnetic eccentricities of the shaft magnets are modelled using the distances (amplitudes) and directions (phase angles) between the shaft axis and the centre of the magnetic fields generated. A perturbation method, i.e. harmonic......-linear stiffness. In this investigation passive magnetic bearings using axially- aligned neodymium cylinder magnets are investigated. The cylinder magnets are axially magnetised for rotor as well as bearings. Compared to bearings with radial magnetisation, the magnetic stiffness of axially-aligned bearings...... is considerably lower, nevertheless they allow for asymmetric stiffness mounting, and it could be beneficial for rotor stabilization. A theoretical model is proposed to describe the non-linear rotor-bearing dynamics. It takes into account non-linear behaviour of the magnetic forces and their interaction...
DeSmidt, Hans A.; Smith, Edward C.; Bill, Robert C.; Wang, Kon-Well
2013-01-01
This project develops comprehensive modeling and simulation tools for analysis of variable rotor speed helicopter propulsion system dynamics. The Comprehensive Variable-Speed Rotorcraft Propulsion Modeling (CVSRPM) tool developed in this research is used to investigate coupled rotor/engine/fuel control/gearbox/shaft/clutch/flight control system dynamic interactions for several variable rotor speed mission scenarios. In this investigation, a prototypical two-speed Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT) is proposed and designed to achieve 50 percent rotor speed variation. The comprehensive modeling tool developed in this study is utilized to analyze the two-speed shift response of both a conventional single rotor helicopter and a tiltrotor drive system. In the tiltrotor system, both a Parallel Shift Control (PSC) strategy and a Sequential Shift Control (SSC) strategy for constant and variable forward speed mission profiles are analyzed. Under the PSC strategy, selecting clutch shift-rate results in a design tradeoff between transient engine surge margins and clutch frictional power dissipation. In the case of SSC, clutch power dissipation is drastically reduced in exchange for the necessity to disengage one engine at a time which requires a multi-DCT drive system topology. In addition to comprehensive simulations, several sections are dedicated to detailed analysis of driveline subsystem components under variable speed operation. In particular an aeroelastic simulation of a stiff in-plane rotor using nonlinear quasi-steady blade element theory was conducted to investigate variable speed rotor dynamics. It was found that 2/rev and 4/rev flap and lag vibrations were significant during resonance crossings with 4/rev lagwise loads being directly transferred into drive-system torque disturbances. To capture the clutch engagement dynamics, a nonlinear stick-slip clutch torque model is developed. Also, a transient gas-turbine engine model based on first principles mean
Internal rotor friction instability
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1990-01-01
The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.
Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente
2006-01-01
We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...
Quantum charged rigid membrane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)
2011-03-21
The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.
Quantum charged rigid membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain
2011-01-01
The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.
Flexible-Rotor Balancing Demonstration
Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.
1986-01-01
Report describes method for balancing high-speed rotors at relatively low speeds and discusses demonstration of method on laboratory test rig. Method ensures rotor brought up to speeds well over 20,000 r/min smoothly, without excessive vibration amplitude at critical speeds or at operating speed.
Rotor and wind turbine formalism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre
2017-01-01
The main conventions used in this book for the study of rotors are introduced in this chapter. The main assumptions and notations are provided. The formalism specific to wind turbines is presented. The forces, moments, velocities and dimensionless coefficients used in the study of rotors...
Theoretical study of asymmetric super-rotors: Alignment and orientation
Omiste, Juan J.
2018-02-01
We report a theoretical study of the optical centrifuge acceleration of an asymmetric top molecule interacting with an electric static field by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the rigid rotor approximation. A detailed analysis of the mixing of the angular momentum in both the molecular and the laboratory fixed frames allows us to deepen the understanding of the main features of the acceleration process, for instance, the effective angular frequency of the molecule at the end of the pulse. For the case of the SO2 molecular super-rotor, we show numerically that it rotates around one internal axis and that its dynamics is confined to the plane defined by the polarization axis of the laser, in agreement with experimental findings. Furthermore, we consider the orientation patterns induced by the dc field, showing the characteristics of their structure as a function of the strength of the static field and the initial configuration of the fields.
Rigid multipodal platforms for metal surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michal Valášek
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this review the recent progress in molecular platforms that form rigid and well-defined contact to a metal surface are discussed. Most of the presented examples have at least three anchoring units in order to control the spatial arrangement of the protruding molecular subunit. Another interesting feature is the lateral orientation of these foot structures which, depending on the particular application, is equally important as the spatial arrangement of the molecules. The numerous approaches towards assembling and organizing functional molecules into specific architectures on metal substrates are reviewed here. Particular attention is paid to variations of both, the core structures and the anchoring groups. Furthermore, the analytical methods enabling the investigation of individual molecules as well as monomolecular layers of ordered platform structures are summarized. The presented multipodal platforms bearing several anchoring groups form considerably more stable molecule–metal contacts than corresponding monopodal analogues and exhibit an enlarged separation of the functional molecules due to the increased footprint, as well as restrict tilting of the functional termini with respect to the metal surface. These platforms are thus ideally suited to tune important properties of the molecule–metal interface. On a single-molecule level, several of these platforms enable the control over the arrangement of the protruding rod-type molecular structures (e.g., molecular wires, switches, rotors, sensors with respect to the surface of the substrate.
Rotor Rolling over a Water-Lubricated Bearing
Shatokhin, V. F.
2018-02-01
The article presents the results of studying the effect of forces associated with secondary damping coefficients (gyroscopic forces) on the development of asynchronous rolling of the rotor over a water-lubricated bearing. The damping forces act against the background of other exciting forces in the rotor-supports system, in particular, the exciting forces of contact interaction between the rotor and bearing. The article considers a rotor resting on supports rubbing against the bearing and the occurrence of self-excited vibration in the form of asynchronous roll-over. The rotor supports are made in the form of plain-type water-lubricated bearings. The plain-type bearing's lubrication stiffness and damping forces are determined using the wellknown algorithms taking into account the physical properties of water serving as lubrication of the bearing. The bearing sliding pair is composed of refractory materials. The lubrication layer in such bearings is thinner than that used in oil-lubricated bearings with white metal lining, and there is no white metal layer in waterlubricated bearings. In case of possible deviations from normal operation of the installation, the rotating rotor comes into direct contact with the liner's rigid body. Unsteady vibrations are modeled using a specially developed software package for calculating the vibration of rotors that rub against the turbine (pump) stator elements. The stiffness of the bearing liner with the stator support structure is specified by a dependence in the force-deformation coordinate axes. In modeling the effect of damping forces, the time moment corresponding to the onset of asynchronous rolling-over with growing vibration amplitudes is used as the assessment criterion. With a longer period of time taken for the rolling-over to develop, it becomes possible to take the necessary measures in response to actuation of the equipment set safety system, which require certain time for implementing them. It is shown that the
Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor hub concept definition
Dixon, P. G. C.
1983-01-01
Two variations of the helicopter bearingless main rotor hub concept are proposed as bases for further development in the preliminary design phase of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) program. This selection was the result of an evaluation of three bearingless hub concepts and two articulated hub concepts with elastomeric bearings. The characteristics of each concept were evaluated by means of simplified methodology. These characteristics included the assessment of stability, vulnerability, weight, drag, cost, stiffness, fatigue life, maintainability, and reliability.
A finite element-based algorithm for rubbing induced vibration prediction in rotors
Behzad, Mehdi; Alvandi, Mehdi; Mba, David; Jamali, Jalil
2013-10-01
In this paper, an algorithm is developed for more realistic investigation of rotor-to-stator rubbing vibration, based on finite element theory with unilateral contact and friction conditions. To model the rotor, cross sections are assumed to be radially rigid. A finite element discretization based on traditional beam theories which sufficiently accounts for axial and transversal flexibility of the rotor is used. A general finite element discretization model considering inertial and viscoelastic characteristics of the stator is used for modeling the stator. Therefore, for contact analysis, only the boundary of the stator is discretized. The contact problem is defined as the contact between the circular rigid cross section of the rotor and “nodes” of the stator only. Next, Gap function and contact conditions are described for the contact problem. Two finite element models of the rotor and the stator are coupled via the Lagrange multipliers method in order to obtain the constrained equation of motion. A case study of the partial rubbing is simulated using the algorithm. The synchronous and subsynchronous responses of the partial rubbing are obtained for different rotational speeds. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to the initial clearance, the stator stiffness, the damping parameter, and the coefficient of friction. There is a good agreement between the result of this research and the experimental result in the literature.
Wind tower with vertical rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dietz, A
1978-08-03
The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rijkhoff, Jan
2010-01-01
classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts......This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word...
Dynamic Behavior of Wind Turbine by a Mixed Flexible-Rigid Multi-Body Model
Wang, Jianhong; Qin, Datong; Ding, Yi
A mixed flexible-rigid multi-body model is presented to study the dynamic behavior of a horizontal axis wind turbine. The special attention is given to flexible body: flexible rotor is modeled by a newly developed blade finite element, support bearing elasticities, variations in the number of teeth in contact as well as contact tooth's elasticities are mainly flexible components in the power train. The couple conditions between different subsystems are established by constraint equations. The wind turbine model is generated by coupling models of rotor, power train and generator with constraint equations together. Based on this model, an eigenproblem analysis is carried out to show the mode shape of rotor and power train at a few natural frequencies. The dynamic responses and contact forces among gears under constant wind speed and fixed pitch angle are analyzed.
Soft hub for bearingless rotors
Dixon, Peter G. C.
1991-01-01
Soft hub concepts which allow the direct replacement of articulated rotor systems by bearingless types without any change in controllability or need for reinforcement to the drive shaft and/or transmission/fuselage attachments of the helicopter were studied. Two concepts were analyzed and confirmed for functional and structural feasibility against a design criteria and specifications established for this effort. Both systems are gimballed about a thrust carrying universal elastomeric bearing. One concept includes a set of composite flexures for drive torque transmittal from the shaft to the rotor, and another set (which is changeable) to impart hub tilting stiffness to the rotor system as required to meet the helicopter application. The second concept uses a composite bellows flexure to drive the rotor and to augment the hub stiffness provided by the elastomeric bearing. Each concept was assessed for weight, drag, ROM cost, and number of parts and compared with the production BO-105 hub.
Wetzel, Kyle Kristopher
2014-06-24
A wind turbine includes a rotor having a hub and at least one blade having a torsionally rigid root, an inboard section, and an outboard section. The inboard section has a forward sweep relative to an elastic axis of the blade and the outboard section has an aft sweep.
Rigid multibody system dynamics with uncertain rigid bodies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr; Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS (France)
2012-03-15
This paper is devoted to the construction of a probabilistic model of uncertain rigid bodies for multibody system dynamics. We first construct a stochastic model of an uncertain rigid body by replacing the mass, the center of mass, and the tensor of inertia by random variables. The prior probability distributions of the stochastic model are constructed using the maximum entropy principle under the constraints defined by the available information. The generators of independent realizations corresponding to the prior probability distribution of these random quantities are further developed. Then several uncertain rigid bodies can be linked to each other in order to calculate the random response of a multibody dynamical system. An application is proposed to illustrate the theoretical development.
Rigidity of Glasses and Macromolecules
Thorpe, M. F.
1998-03-01
The simple yet powerful ideas of percolation theory have found their way into many different areas of research. In this talk we show how RIGIDITY PERCOLATION can be studied at a similar level of sophistication, using a powerful new program THE PEBBLE GAME (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. E) 53, 3682 (1996). that uses an integer algorithm. This program can analyse the rigidity of two and three dimensional networks containing more than one million bars and joints. We find the total number of floppy modes, and find the critical behavior as the network goes from floppy to rigid as more bars are added. We discuss the relevance of this work to network glasses, and how it relates to experiments that involve the mechanical properties like hardness and elasticity of covalent glassy networks like Ge_xAs_ySe_1-x-y and dicuss recent experiments that suggest that the rigidity transition may be first order (Xingwei Feng, W. J.Bresser and P. Boolchand, Phys. Rev. Lett 78), 4422 (1997).. This approach is also useful in macromolecules and proteins, where detailed information about the rigid domain structure can be obtained.
Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors
Welch, Gerard E.
1996-01-01
A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.
A soft rotor concept - design, verification and potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasmussen, F; Thirstrup Petersen, J [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
This paper contains results from development and testing of a two-bladed soft rotor for an existing 15 kW flexible wind turbine. The new concept is characterised as a free yawing down wind turbine with nacelle tilting flexibility and a two-bladed teetering rotor with three-point supported flexible blades with built-in structural couplings. The power and the loads are controlled by active stall and active coning. The concept has been developed by extensive application of aero-elastic predictions, numerical optimisation and stability analysis in order to obtain optimal aero-elastic response and minimal loads. The flexible blades and the principle of active coning allow the blades to deflect with the wind to such an extent that the loads are reduced to between 25 and 50% of the loads for a similar rigid rotor. All conceptual design principles have been focused on application to large MW turbines, and aero-elastic predictions for an upscale 1 MW version show that this would have approximately identical characteristisc, without being particularly optimised for the actual size. (au)
Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations
Evans, Thomas A.; Lang, Robert J.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.
2015-01-01
Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented. PMID:26473037
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt
. At present, there is no generally accepted method for determination of dynamic seal forces. Therefore, large uncertainties must be expected when modelling dynamic seal forces and consequently also in rotor-dynamic stability analysis. This thesis focuses on i) closed loop identification of uncertain AMB...... parameters, ii) closed loop identification of unknown stiffness and damping coefficients of a dynamicseal model and iii) the design of AMB controllers to handle dynamic seal forces. Controllers that can guarantee stability and performance in the presence of uncertainseal forces are of special interest...... the uncertaintiesin seal forces and for LPV control synthesis, to compensate for known changes in seal forces due to changes in operating conditions. A rotor dynamic test facility with a rigid rotor, two radial AMBs and one annular test seal is used for i) closed loop identification of parameters in the AMB...
Rotor assembly and assay method
Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.
1993-09-07
A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.
Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer
Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel
2015-06-01
We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.
Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel
2015-01-01
We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE–PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ∼6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE–PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE–PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation. (paper)
Analytical methods in rotor dynamics
Dimarogonas, Andrew D; Chondros, Thomas G
2013-01-01
The design and construction of rotating machinery operating at supercritical speeds was, in the 1920s, an event of revolutionary importance for the then new branch of dynamics known as rotor dynamics. In the 1960s, another revolution occurred: In less than a decade, imposed by operational and economic needs, an increase in the power of turbomachinery by one order of magnitude took place. Dynamic analysis of complex rotor forms became a necessity, while the importance of approximate methods for dynamic analysis was stressed. Finally, the emergence of fracture mechanics, as a new branch of applied mechanics, provided analytical tools to investigate crack influence on the dynamic behavior of rotors. The scope of this book is based on all these developments. No topics related to the well-known classical problems are included, rather the book deals exclusively with modern high-power turbomachinery.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuerva-Tejero, A; Lopez-Garcia, O; González-Meruelo, F; Marangoni, D
2014-01-01
The values of the tip speed ratio and blade pitch angle that yield maximum power coefficient are calculated for a rotor operating in yawed conditions. In a first step, the power coefficient is determined using a model based on the blade element momentum theory (BEMT) which includes a Prandtl-Glauert root-tip losses correction, a non-uniform model for the axial and tangential induction factors, and a model of the rotational augmentation effects. The BEMT model is validated with the experimental data from the NREL-UAE. The maximum values of the power coefficient are determined for different yaw angles and the corresponding values of the tip speed ratio and blade control angle are obtained. The maximum power coefficient using these optimum laws is compared to the maximum power coefficient using the optimum laws of the non-yawed case and it is shown that there is a gain in the power coefficient. For the case study presented in this paper it has been found that for yaw angles of 30° about 10% of the power coefficient can be recovered
Cuerva-Tejero, A.; Lopez-Garcia, O.; Marangoni, D.; González-Meruelo, F.
2014-12-01
The values of the tip speed ratio and blade pitch angle that yield maximum power coefficient are calculated for a rotor operating in yawed conditions. In a first step, the power coefficient is determined using a model based on the blade element momentum theory (BEMT) which includes a Prandtl-Glauert root-tip losses correction, a non-uniform model for the axial and tangential induction factors, and a model of the rotational augmentation effects. The BEMT model is validated with the experimental data from the NREL-UAE. The maximum values of the power coefficient are determined for different yaw angles and the corresponding values of the tip speed ratio and blade control angle are obtained. The maximum power coefficient using these optimum laws is compared to the maximum power coefficient using the optimum laws of the non-yawed case and it is shown that there is a gain in the power coefficient. For the case study presented in this paper it has been found that for yaw angles of 30° about 10% of the power coefficient can be recovered.
Zhang, Xiayang; Zhu, Ming; Zhao, Meijuan; Wu, Zhe
2018-05-01
Based on a typical wing-rotor thrust model on the airship, the dynamic influence of the gyroscopic effects from the tip rotor acting on the overall coupled system has been analyzed. Meanwhile, the flexibility at the capsule boundary has been studied, as well. Hamilton's principle is employed to derive the general governing equations and the numerical Rayleigh-Ritz method is finally chosen in actual frequency computations. A new set of shape functions are put forward and verified which take most of the couplings among dimensions into account. The parameter studies are also conducted to make deep investigations. The results demonstrate that the inherent frequencies are significantly affected by the rotor speed and the flexible capsule condition. When rotor revolves, the modal shapes have reached into complex states and the components of each mode will change with the increment of rotor speed. The flexibility will also greatly reduce the entire frequencies compared with the rigid case. It is also demonstrated that the inherent property will be significantly affected by the mounting geometry, rotor inertia, the structural stiffness, and rotor speed.
Energy characteristics of Darrieus rotor ( review)
Gorelov, D. N.
2010-09-01
Presented below is the review of the results of experimental studies of energy characteristics of Darrieus rotor with vertical rotation axis. Influence of main geometry parameters of the rotor on its energy characteristics has been analyzed. It is shown that Darrieus rotor may have the higher level of energy characteristics than the best propeller wind turbines.
Flywheels Would Compensate for Rotor Imbalance
Hrastar, J. A. S.
1982-01-01
Spinning flywheels within rotor can null imbalance forces in rotor. Flywheels axes are perpendicular to each other and to rotor axis. Feedback signals from accelerometers or strain gages in platform control flywheel speeds and rotation directions. Concept should be useful for compensating rotating bodies on Earth. For example, may be applied to large industrial centrifuge, particularly if balance changes during operation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moroz, E. [Univ. of Texas at El Paso, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, El Paso, TX (United States)
1997-12-31
An experimental investigation into the acoustic noise from a small (7.6 m diameter) teetered rotor wind turbine, set at various yaw angles up to 90 degrees of yaw, was conducted. The results revealed a 1/3 octave spectra which was dominated by a broad peak in the higher frequency range, at all yaw angles investigated. This prompted a theoretical investigation to reveal the mechanisms producing the dominant feature in the experimentally obtained noise spectra and resulted in the development of a wind turbine aerodynamic noise prediction coce, WTNOISE. The location near busy roads and the relatively rough terrain of the wind test site caused difficulties in obtaining useful noise spectral information below 500Hz. However, sufficiently good data was obtained above 500Hz to clearly show a dominant `hump` in the spectrum, centered between 3000 and 4000Hz. Although the local Reynolds number for the blade elements was around 500,000 and one might expect Laminar flow over a significant portion of the blade, the data did not match the noise spectra predicted when Laminar flow was assumed. Given the relatively poor surface quality of the rotor blades and the high turbulence of the test site it was therefore assumed that the boundary layer on the blade may have tripped relatively early and that the turbulent flow setting should be used. This assumption led to a much better correlation between experiment and predictions. The WTNOISE code indicated that the broad peak in the spectrum was most likely caused by trailing edge bluntness noise. Unfortunately time did not allow for modifications to the trailing edge to be investigated. (au)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rijkhoff, Jan
2008-01-01
Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive......, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...
Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies?
Smarandache, Florentin
2013-10-01
In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.
Functionally rigid bistable [2]rotaxanes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Sune; Leung, Ken C-F; Aprahamian, Ivan
2007-01-01
defines an unambiguous distance of 1.5 nm over which the ring moves between the MPTTF and NP units. The degenerate NP/NP [2]rotaxane was used to investigate the shuttling barrier by dynamic 1H NMR spectroscopy for the movement of the CBPQT4+ ring across the new rigid spacer. It is evident from...... better control over the position of the ring component in the ground state but also for control over the location of the CBPQT4+ ring during solution-state switching experiments, triggered either chemically (1H NMR) or electrochemically (cyclic voltammetry). In this instance, the use of the rigid spacer......Two-station [2]rotaxanes in the shape of a degenerate naphthalene (NP) shuttle and a nondegenerate monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF)/NP redox-controllable switch have been synthesized and characterized in solution. Their dumbbell-shaped components are composed of polyether chains interrupted...
Rigid body dynamics of mechanisms
Hahn, Hubert
2003-01-01
The second volume of Rigid Body Dynamics of Mechanisms covers applications via a systematic method for deriving model equations of planar and spatial mechanisms. The necessary theoretical foundations have been laid in the first volume that introduces the theoretical mechanical aspects of mechatronic systems. Here the focus is on the application of the modeling methodology to various examples of rigid-body mechanisms, simple planar ones as well as more challenging spatial problems. A rich variety of joint models, active constraints, plus active and passive force elements is treated. The book is intended for self-study by working engineers and students concerned with the control of mechanical systems, i.e. robotics, mechatronics, vehicles, and machine tools. The examples included are a likely source from which to choose models for university lectures.
Associative memory through rigid origami
Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael
2015-03-01
Mechanisms such as Miura Ori have proven useful in diverse contexts since they have only one degree of freedom that is easily controlled. We combine the theory of rigid origami and associative memory in frustrated neural networks to create structures that can ``learn'' multiple generic folding mechanisms and yet can be robustly controlled. We show that such rigid origami structures can ``recall'' a specific learned mechanism when induced by a physical impulse that only need resemble the desired mechanism (i.e. robust recall through association). Such associative memory in matter, seen before in self-assembly, arises due to a balance between local promiscuity (i.e., many local degrees of freedom) and global frustration which minimizes interference between different learned behaviors. Origami with associative memory can lead to a new class of deployable structures and kinetic architectures with multiple context-dependent behaviors.
Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.
1985-01-01
Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd
Signature of Thermal Rigidity Percolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huerta, Adrián
2013-01-01
To explore the role that temperature and percolation of rigidity play in determining the macroscopic properties, we propose a model that adds translational degrees of freedom to the spins of the well known Ising hamiltonian. In particular, the Ising model illustrate the longstanding idea that the growth of correlations on approach to a critical point could be describable in terms of the percolation of some sort of p hysical cluster . For certain parameters of this model we observe two well defined peaks of C V , that suggest the existence of two kinds of p hysical percolation , namely connectivity and rigidity percolation. Thermal fluctuations give rise to two different kinds of elementary excitations, i.e. droplets and configuron, as suggested by Angell in the framework of a bond lattice model approach. The later is reflected in the fluctuations of redundant constraints that gives stability to the structure and correlate with the order parameter
Rotor for a brushless micromotor
Gilles, P.-A.; Delamare, J.; Cugat, O.
2002-04-01
Synchronous planar micromotors are studied at LEG, with diameters ranging from φ 3 to φ 8 mm. They combine state-of-the-art collective means of fabrication with watch industry techniques. This paper describes the design, simulation, fabrication and magnetisation of disc-shaped SmCo rotors with several axial pairs of poles.
Dynamic Analysis of Composite Rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. P. Singh
1996-01-01
accounted for. Material damping is also taken into account. The layerwise theory is compared with conventionally used equivalent modulus beam theory. Some interesting case studies are presented. The effect of various parameters on dynamic behavior and stability of a composite rotor is presented.
Dynamic Analysis of a Rotor System Supported on Squeeze Film Damper with Air Entrainment
Zhang, Wei; Han, Bingbing; Zhang, Kunpeng; Ding, Qian
2017-12-01
Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) are widely used in compressors and turbines to suppress the vibration while traversing critical speeds. In practical applications, air ingestion from the outside environment and cavitation may lead to a foamy lubricant that weakens oil film damping and dynamic performance of rotor system. In this paper, a rigid rotor model is established considering both lateral and pitching vibration under different imbalance excitations to evaluate the effect of air entrainment on rotor system. Tests with three different imbalances are carried out on a rotor-SFD apparatus. Volume controlled air in mixture ranging from pure oil to all air are supplied to the SFD. The transient response of rotor is measured in the experiments. The results show that two-phase flow produces significant influence on the system stability and dynamical response. The damping properties are weakened by entrained air, such as the damping on high frequency components of rolling ball bearing. Super-harmonic resonance and bifurcation are observed, as well as the low frequency components due to air entrainment.
Torsional rigidity, isospectrality and quantum graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Kaganovskiy, Leon
2017-01-01
We study torsional rigidity for graph and quantum graph analogs of well-known pairs of isospectral non-isometric planar domains. We prove that such isospectral pairs are distinguished by torsional rigidity. (paper)
Three dimensional computations of the flow around a LM19 rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hambraeus, T. [FFA, Bromma (Sweden)
1997-12-31
To achieve insight in the flow phenomenon occurring in wind power engineering modeling of the flow through the basic governing equations, Navier-Stokes and Euler, can be a great complement to experiments and other computational methods such as the BEM (Blade Element Momentum). Navier-Stokes methods is regularly used in prediction of air-foil flows but then mostly under attached flow conditions. One of the main differences between air-foil computations for aircraft industry and computations for wind turbine applications is that the former is not very interested in separated flow while for the latter case this is part of the operating conditions. It has been noted that separated flow poses problems since the most popular turbulence models such as Baldwin-Lomax and the {kappa}-{epsilon} model seems to over estimate the amount of turbulent viscosity produced and thus suppressing the separation. The work with finding better turbulence models is presently an area with large amount of research offering improved models. However, in the present report only the two mentioned turbulence models have been used. The present report shows computational results obtained with the Navier-Stokes solver EU-RANUS. First the results from a two-dimensional verification cases are shown to verify that the solver produces results comparable with other solvers. The flow computed is attached flow and slightly separated flow over the so called Profile-A. Secondly three dimensional computations of the flow over a full three dimensional rotor at attached and stalled conditions is shown. The computed results are compared with measured power data from field experiments. (EG)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doessing, M.
2011-05-15
During the last decades the annual energy produced by wind turbines has increased dramatically and wind turbines are now available in the 5MW range. Turbines in this range are constantly being developed and it is also being investigated whether turbines as large as 10-20MW are feasible. The design of very large machines introduces new problems in the practical design, and optimization tools are necessary. These must combine the dynamic effects of both aerodynamics and structure in an integrated optimization environment. This is referred to as aeroelastic optimization. The Risoe DTU optimization software HAWTOPT has been used in this project. The quasi-steady aerodynamic module have been improved with a corrected blade element momentum method. A structure module has also been developed which lays out the blade structural properties. This is done in a simplified way allowing fast conceptual design studies and with focus on the overall properties relevant for the aeroelastic properties. Aeroelastic simulations in the time domain were carried out using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. With these modules coupled to HAWTOPT, optimizations have been made. In parallel with the developments of the mentioned numerical modules, focus has been on analysis and a fundamental understanding of the key parameters in wind turbine design. This has resulted in insight and an effective design methodology is presented. Using the optimization environment a 5MW wind turbine rotor has been optimized for reduced fatigue loads due to apwise bending moments. Among other things this has indicated that airfoils for wind turbine blades should have a high lift coefficient. The design methodology proved to be stable and a help in the otherwise challenging task of numerical aeroelastic optimization. (Author)
Rigidity of monodromies for Appell's hypergeometric functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshishige Haraoka
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For monodromy representations of holonomic systems, the rigidity can be defined. We examine the rigidity of the monodromy representations for Appell's hypergeometric functions, and get the representations explicitly. The results show how the topology of the singular locus and the spectral types of the local monodromies work for the study of the rigidity.
Geometry, rigidity, and group actions
Farb, Benson; Zimmer, Robert J
2011-01-01
The study of group actions is more than a hundred years old but remains to this day a vibrant and widely studied topic in a variety of mathematic fields. A central development in the last fifty years is the phenomenon of rigidity, whereby one can classify actions of certain groups, such as lattices in semi-simple Lie groups. This provides a way to classify all possible symmetries of important spaces and all spaces admitting given symmetries. Paradigmatic results can be found in the seminal work of George Mostow, Gergory Margulis, and Robert J. Zimmer, among others.The p
Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links
Scarborough, Lloyd H., III
Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional
Rotor calculations for neutron spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gobert, G.
1968-01-01
The determination of stress in a rotating disk plane of symmetry normal to the axis of rotation has been studied by a number of investigators. In a recent paper Reich gives an operating process for an analytical solution in an asymmetric rotating disk. In the report we give the calculation of finite difference stress solutions applicable to the two rotating disks. The equations are then programmed for the 360.75 computer by Fortran methods concerning the rotors of choppers. (author) [fr
Material sampling for rotor evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mercaldi, D.; Parker, J.
1990-01-01
Decisions regarding continued operation of aging rotating machinery must often be made without adequate knowledge of rotor material conditions. Physical specimens of the material are not generally available due to lack of an appropriate sampling technique or the high cost and inconvenience of obtaining such samples. This is despite the fact that examination of such samples may be critical to effectively assess the degradation of mechanical properties of the components in service or to permit detailed examination of microstructure and surface flaws. Such information permits a reduction in the uncertainty of remaining life estimates for turbine rotors to avoid unnecessarily premature and costly rotor retirement decisions. This paper describes the operation and use of a recently developed material sampling device which machines and recovers an undeformed specimen from the surface of rotor bores or other components for metallurgical analysis. The removal of the thin, wafer-like sample has a negligible effect on the structural integrity of these components, due to the geometry and smooth surface finish of the resulting shallow depression. Samples measuring approximately 0.03 to 0.1 inches (0.76 to 2.5 mm) thick by 0.5 to 1.0 inch (1.3 to 2.5 cm) in diameter can be removed without mechanical deformation or thermal degradation of the sample or the remaining component material. The device is operated remotely from a control console and can be used externally or internally on any surface for which there is at least a three inch (7.6 cm) working clearance. Application of the device in two case studies of turbine-generator evaluations are presented
Experimental and theoretical analysis of a rigid rotor supported by air foil bearings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jon Steffen; Hansen, Asger J. T.; Santos, Ilmar
2015-01-01
The popularity of compressors utilizing foil bearings is increasing. Their mechanical design is challenging, and an accurate prediction of the bearing coefficients is important. A mathematical model taking into account the foil structure, and the detailed geometry of a three pad foil bearing...
Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Gupta
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL wires when activated, (ii tension in wires because of phase recovery stresses, and (iii variation of support stiffness by three times because of activation of SMA in rotor supports. It is shown by numerical examples that substantial variation in rotor critical speeds can be achieved by a combination of these factors which can be effectively used to avoid resonance during rotor coast up/down.
Optimization of wind turbine rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nygaard, Tor Anders
1999-07-01
The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest
Experimental investigation of main rotor wake
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stepanov Robert
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, experimental results of rotor wake in hover mode are presented. The experiments were carried out with a rotor rig model in the T-1K wind tunnel in Kazan National Research Technical University (Kazan Aviation Institute. The rotor consisted of four identical blades. The Q-criterion was used to identify tip vortices for a 2D case. The results were then compared with two different wake models.
Strong, Ductile Rotor For Cryogenic Flowmeters
Royals, W. T.
1993-01-01
Improved magnetic flowmeter rotor resists cracking at cryogenic temperatures, yet provides adequate signal to magnetic pickup outside flowmeter housing. Consists mostly of stainless-steel alloy 347, which is ductile and strong at low temperatures. Small bead of stainless-steel alloy 410 welded in groove around circumference of round bar of stainless-steel alloy 347; then rotor machined from bar. Tips of rotor blades contain small amounts of magnetic alloy, and passage of tips detected.
A practical approach to flexible rotor balancing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, M.I.; Chohan, G.Y.; Khan, M.Z.
2001-01-01
There are various conventional methods for flexible rotor balancing. These :methods have been applied successfully for balancing cylindrical rotors since long. One of these mostly used is modal balancing. Besides its usefulness, difficulties are encountered when sufficient number of balancing planes are not available under certain conditions where a rotor is enclosed at its both ends by discs. In this work, a practical technique of counter balancing has been introduced. This technique has proved its importance in balancing the rotors. We would discuss efficiency of this technique over the conventional modal balancing. (author)
Variable Speed Rotor System, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...
Thermal state of a turbofan rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bileka, B D; Diachenko, A M; Orinichev, I S
1988-01-01
Results of an experimental study of the thermal state of a combined turbofan rotor consisting of a peripheral turbine stage and a central fan stage are reported. In particular, attention is given to the effect of gas temperature, air flow rate, and rotation speed on temperature distributions at characteristic points of the rotor. The relative dimensionless temperatures of the turbofan rotor are shown to be constant under all the regimes investigated. An approximate method is proposed for calculating the temperature of the rotor elements, and the results of calculations are compared with experimental data.
Energy from Swastika-Shaped Rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McCulloch M. E.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available It is suggested here that a swastika-shaped rotor exposed to waves will rotate in the di- rection its arms are pointing (towards the arm-tips due to a sheltering effect. A formula is derived to predict the motion obtainable from swastika rotors of different sizes given the ocean wave height and phase speed and it is suggested that the rotor could provide a new, simpler method of wave energy generation. It is also proposed that the swastika rotor could generate energy on a smaller scale from sound waves and Brownian motion, and potentially the zero point field.
Aeroelastic characteristics of composite bearingless rotor blades
Bielawa, R. L.
1976-01-01
Owing to the inherent unique structural features of composite bearingless rotors, various assumptions upon which conventional rotor aeroelastic analyses are formulated, are violated. Three such features identified are highly nonlinear and time-varying structural twist, structural redundancy in bending and torsion, and for certain configurations a strongly coupled low frequency bending-torsion mode. An examination of these aeroelastic considerations and appropriate formulations required for accurate analyses of such rotor systems is presented. Also presented are test results from a dynamically scaled model rotor and complementary analytic results obtained with the appropriately reformulated aeroelastic analysis.
CFD calculations on the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a tilt-rotor in a conversion mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Peng
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In order to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a tilt-rotor in a conversion mode, a virtual blade model (VBM and an real blade model (RBM are established respectively. A new multi-layer moving-embedded grid technique is proposed to reduce the numerical dissipation of the tilt-rotor wake in a conversion mode. In this method, a grid system generated abound the rotor accounts for rigid blade motions, and a new searching scheme named adaptive inverse map (AIM is established to search corresponding donor elements in the present moving-embedded grid system to translate information among the different computational zones. A dual-time method is employed to fulfill unsteady calculations on the flowfield of the tilt-rotor, and a second-order centered difference scheme considering artificial viscosity is used to calculate the flux. In order to improve the computing efficiency, the single program multiple data (SPMD model parallel acceleration technology is adopted, according to the characteristic of the current grid system. The lift and drag coefficients of an NACA0012 airfoil, the dynamic pressure distributions below a typical rotor plane, and the sectional pressure distributions on a three-bladed Branum–Tung tilt-rotor in hover flight are calculated respectively, and the present VBM and RBM are validated by comparing the calculated results with available experimental data. Then, unsteady aerodynamic forces and flowfields of an XV-15 tilt-rotor in different modes, such as a fixed conversion mode at different tilt angles (15°, 30°, 60° and a whole conversion mode which converses from 0° to 90°, are numerically simulated by the VBM and RBM respectively. By analyses and comparisons on the simulated results of unsteady aerodynamic forces of the tilt-rotor in different modes, some meaningful conclusions about distorted blade-tip vortex distribution and unsteady aerodynamic force variation in a conversion mode are obtained, and these
Bonkobara, Yasuhiro; Mori, Hiroki; Kondou, Takahiro; Ayabe, Takashi
Self-synchronized phenomena generated in rotor-type oscillators mounted on a straight-line spring-mass system are investigated experimentally and analytically. In the present study, we examine the occurrence region and pattern of self-synchronization in two types of coupled oscillators: rigidly coupled oscillators and elastically coupled oscillators. It is clarified that the existence regions of stable solutions are governed mainly by the linear natural frequency of each spring-mass system. The results of numerical analysis confirm that the self-synchronized solutions of the elastically coupled oscillators correspond to those of the rigidly coupled oscillators. In addition, the results obtained in the present study are compared with the previously reported results for a metronome system and a moving apparatus and the different properties of the phenomena generated in the rotor-type oscillators and the pendulum-type oscillators are shown in terms of the construction of branches of self-synchronized solution and the stability.
Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network
Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.
2013-01-01
The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Ruiqin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Liwen; Cui, Yan; Shen, Wenfei
2017-01-01
Highlights: •A thermal-mechanical coupled finite element model was developed to simulate the whole process. •Heat capacity added layer was used to extend the limited time for the process. •Shrink-fitted experiments were performed to verify the simulation results. -- Abstract: The rotor-can of reactor coolant pump (RCP) is generally assembled on the rotor using shrink fitting technique. The rotor-can is characterized by large height and ultrathin-walled cylinder, thus, its rigidity is weak and heat capacity is quite limited. The shrink fitting process has to be completed within a short limited-time, which makes it difficult for rotor to insert in the rotor-can completely. In order to solve this problem, a new method was proposed to extend the limited time by using a heat capacity added layer (HCAL) during the shrink fitting process. A thermal-mechanical coupled finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate the whole process. The transient heat exchange with a narrow gap between rotor and rotor-can during the shrink fitting process was taken into consideration. The limited time was predicted by calculating and analyzing the evolutions of temperature field and radial displacement field of the rotor-can. The simulation results indicate that the limited time of the shrink fitting process can be significantly extended with the increase of HCAL in thickness. Then, shrink fitting experiments were performed to confirm the extending effect of the HCAL. The experimental results of limited time show good agreement with the predicted values. The current results will certainly help the designer to improve the shrink fitting technique.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuoka, Leo, E-mail: leo-matsuoka@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8527 (Japan); Segawa, Etsuo [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yuki, Kenta [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8527 (Japan); Konno, Norio [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Obata, Nobuaki [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)
2017-06-09
We performed a mathematical analysis of the time-dependent dynamics of a quantum-kicked rotor implemented in a diatomic molecule under the condition of ideal quantum resonance. We examined a model system featuring a diatomic molecule in a periodic train of terahertz pulses, regarding the molecule as a rigid rotor with the state-dependent transition moment and including the effect of the magnetic quantum number M. We derived the explicit expression for the asymptotic distribution of a rotational population by making the transition matrix correspondent with a sequence of ultraspherical polynomials. The mathematical results obtained were validated by numerical simulations. - Highlights: • The behavior of the molecular quantum-kicked rotor was mathematically investigated. • The matrix elements were made correspondent with the ultraspherical polynomials. • The explicit formula for asymptotic distribution was obtained. • Complete agreement with the numerical simulation was verified.
Flap-lag stability data for a small-scale isolated hingeless rotor in forward flight
Mcnulty, Michael J.
1989-01-01
An isolated, hingeless rotor with discrete flap and lead-lag flexures and relatively rigid blades was tested in the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate's 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The lead-lag stability of a structurally simple rotor configuration in forward flight was determined. The model tested had no cyclic pitch control, and was therefore operated untrimmed at several collective pitch angles, at shaft angles from 0 deg to -20 deg, and at advance ratios as high as 0.55. Two inplane natural frequencies, 0.61/rev and 0.72/rev, were tested for configuration both with and without structural flap lag coupling. Concomitant hover testing of the model was also conducted. Representative plots of the frequency and damping data are presented to show general trends, and complete tabular data and model properties information are included for use in detailed correlation exercises. The most prominent feature of the forward flight data is an abrupt increase in damping with advance ratio at certain high-speed, high shaft-angle conditions, with high flapping loads. The hover data are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical results for hingeless rotors without kinematic couplings. Overall, the data quality is very good and the data are expected to be useful in the development and validation of rotor aeroelastic stability analyses.
Mechanical model development of rolling bearing-rotor systems: A review
Cao, Hongrui; Niu, Linkai; Xi, Songtao; Chen, Xuefeng
2018-03-01
The rolling bearing rotor (RBR) system is the kernel of many rotating machines, which affects the performance of the whole machine. Over the past decades, extensive research work has been carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of RBR systems. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no comprehensive review on RBR modelling has been reported yet. To address this gap in the literature, this paper reviews and critically discusses the current progress of mechanical model development of RBR systems, and identifies future trends for research. Firstly, five kinds of rolling bearing models, i.e., the lumped-parameter model, the quasi-static model, the quasi-dynamic model, the dynamic model, and the finite element (FE) model are summarized. Then, the coupled modelling between bearing models and various rotor models including De Laval/Jeffcott rotor, rigid rotor, transfer matrix method (TMM) models and FE models are presented. Finally, the paper discusses the key challenges of previous works and provides new insights into understanding of RBR systems for their advanced future engineering applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoyan Ye
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In order to study the water lubricated bearing-rotor system in seawater desalination pump, this paper is based on the coupling between the lubricating flow field and the rotor dynamics. The fluid-solid interaction (FSI method, Rigid Body, was adopted to study the journal orbit of the bearing-rotor system under the periodic unbalancing load. The influences of geometric and working parameter to the journal orbit were combined to analyze the stability and reliability of the bearing-rotor system. The result shows that increasing the rotating speed would increase the journal whirling amplitude and the system sensitivity to the external excitation and unbalancing load were promoted; increasing the aspect ratio would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the inlet pressure would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the unbalancing load would reduce the stability margin and the system is easy to be unstable if obstructed; increasing the radial clearance would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable. The attitude angle has no influence on the journal whirling amplitude but would influence the stability of system and the value of attitude angle should not be large.
Multiple piece turbine rotor blade
Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A
2013-05-21
A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.
Innovative multi rotor wind turbine designs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kale, S.A.; Sapali, S.N. [College of Engineering. Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pune (India)
2012-07-01
Among the renewable energy sources, today wind energy is the most recognized and cost effective. Developers and researchers in this sector are optimistic and continuously working innovatively to improve the technology. The wind power obtained is proportional to the swept area of wind turbine. The swept area is increased by using a single rotor of large diameter or multi rotors in array. The rotor size is growing continuously with mature technology. Multi rotor technology has a long history and the multi rotor concept persists in a variety of modern innovative systems but the concept has fallen out of consideration in mainstream design from the perception that is complex and unnecessary as very large single rotor units are now technically feasible. This work addresses the evaluation of different multi rotor wind turbine systems. These innovative wind turbines are evaluated on the basis of feasibility, technological advantages, security of expected power performance, cost, reliability, impact of innovative system, comparison with existing wind turbine design. The findings of this work will provide guidelines for the practical and economical ways for further research on the multi rotor wind turbines. (Author)
impedance calculations of induction machine rotor conductors.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
computed. The parallel R-L network shown in figure 3 is used in the modeling of the rotor bars. The network total impedance is given by,. (19). Where,. 5. simulation Results. MATLAB m-file for the calculation of the total impedance of the rectangular and trapezoidal rotor bars is developed [10]. The parameters of the bars.
Composite hub/metal blade compressor rotor
Yao, S.
1978-01-01
A low cost compressor rotor was designed and fabricated for a small jet engine. The rotor hub and blade keepers were compression molded with graphite epoxy. Each pair of metallic blades was held in the hub by a keeper. All keepers were locked in the hub with circumferential windings. Feasibility of fabrication was demonstrated in this program.
Flapping inertia for selected rotor blades
Berry, John D.; May, Matthew J.
1991-01-01
Aerodynamics of helicopter rotor systems cannot be investigated without consideration for the dynamics of the rotor. One of the principal properties of the rotor which affects the rotor dynamics is the inertia of the rotor blade about its root attachment. Previous aerodynamic investigation have been performed on rotor blades with a variety of planforms to determine the performance differences due to blade planform. The blades tested for this investigation have been tested on the U.S. Army 2 meter rotor test system (2MRTS) in the NASA Langley 14 by 22 foot subsonic tunnel for hover performance. This investigation was intended to provide fundamental information on the flapping inertia of five rotor blades with differing planforms. The inertia of the bare cuff and the cuff with a blade extension were also measured for comparison with the inertia of the blades. Inertia was determined using a swing testing technique, using the period of oscillation to determine the effective flapping inertia. The effect of damping in the swing test was measured and described. A comparison of the flapping inertials for rectangular and tapered planform blades of approximately the same mass showed the tapered blades to have a lower inertia, as expected.
Substantially parallel flux uncluttered rotor machines
Hsu, John S.
2012-12-11
A permanent magnet-less and brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by polyphase alternating currents. An uncluttered rotor is positioned within the magnetic rotating field and is spaced apart from the stator. An excitation core is spaced apart from the stator and the uncluttered rotor and magnetically couples the uncluttered rotor. The brushless excitation source generates a magnet torque by inducing magnetic poles near an outer peripheral surface of the uncluttered rotor, and the stator currents also generate a reluctance torque by a reaction of the difference between the direct and quadrature magnetic paths of the uncluttered rotor. The system can be used either as a motor or a generator
Computational Analysis of Multi-Rotor Flows
Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
Interactional aerodynamics of multi-rotor flows has been studied for a quadcopter representing a generic quad tilt-rotor aircraft in hover. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the separation distances between rotors, and also fuselage and wings on the performance and efficiency of multirotor systems. Three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a spatially 5th order accurate scheme, dual-time stepping, and the Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model. The results show that the separation distances as well as the wings have significant effects on the vertical forces of quadroror systems in hover. Understanding interactions in multi-rotor flows would help improve the design of next generation multi-rotor drones.
Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data
Envia, Edmane
2011-01-01
NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.
Rotors stress analysis and design
Vullo, Vincenzo
2013-01-01
Stress and strain analysis of rotors subjected to surface and body loads, as well as to thermal loads deriving from temperature variation along the radius, constitutes a classic subject of machine design. Nevertheless attention is limited to rotor profiles for which governing equations are solvable in closed form. Furthermore very few actual engineering issues may relate to structures for which stress and strain analysis in the linear elastic field and, even more, under non-linear conditions (i.e. plastic or viscoelastic conditions) produces equations to be solved in closed form. Moreover, when a product is still in its design stage, an analytical formulation with closed-form solution is of course simpler and more versatile than numerical methods, and it allows to quickly define a general configuration, which may then be fine-tuned using such numerical methods. In this view, all subjects are based on analytical-methodological approach, and some new solutions in closed form are presented. The analytical formul...
Topological orders in rigid states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, X.G.
1990-01-01
The authors study a new kind of ordering topological order in rigid states (the states with no local gapless excitations). This paper concentrates on characterization of the different topological orders. As an example the authors discuss in detail chiral spin states of 2+1 dimensional spin systems. Chiral spin states are described by the topological Chern-Simons theories in the continuum limit. The authors show that the topological orders can be characterized by a non-Abelian gauge structure over the moduli space which parametrizes a family of the model Hamiltonians supporting topologically ordered ground states. In 2 + 1 dimensions, the non-Abelian gauge structure determines possible fractional statistics of the quasi-particle excitations over the topologically ordered ground states. The dynamics of the low lying global excitations is shown to be independent of random spatial dependent perturbations. The ground state degeneracy and the non-Abelian gauge structures discussed in this paper are very robust, even against those perturbations that break translation symmetry. The authors also discuss the symmetry properties of the degenerate ground states of chiral spin states. The authors find that some degenerate ground states of chiral spin states on torus carry non-trivial quantum numbers of the 90 degrees rotation
Development of an aeroelastic methodology for surface morphing rotors
Cook, James R.
Helicopter performance capabilities are limited by maximum lift characteristics and vibratory loading. In high speed forward flight, dynamic stall and transonic flow greatly increase the amplitude of vibratory loads. Experiments and computational simulations alike have indicated that a variety of active rotor control devices are capable of reducing vibratory loads. For example, periodic blade twist and flap excitation have been optimized to reduce vibratory loads in various rotors. Airfoil geometry can also be modified in order to increase lift coefficient, delay stall, or weaken transonic effects. To explore the potential benefits of active controls, computational methods are being developed for aeroelastic rotor evaluation, including coupling between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) solvers. In many contemporary CFD/CSD coupling methods it is assumed that the airfoil is rigid to reduce the interface by single dimension. Some methods retain the conventional one-dimensional beam model while prescribing an airfoil shape to simulate active chord deformation. However, to simulate the actual response of a compliant airfoil it is necessary to include deformations that originate not only from control devices (such as piezoelectric actuators), but also inertial forces, elastic stresses, and aerodynamic pressures. An accurate representation of the physics requires an interaction with a more complete representation of loads and geometry. A CFD/CSD coupling methodology capable of communicating three-dimensional structural deformations and a distribution of aerodynamic forces over the wetted blade surface has not yet been developed. In this research an interface is created within the Fully Unstructured Navier-Stokes (FUN3D) solver that communicates aerodynamic forces on the blade surface to University of Michigan's Nonlinear Active Beam Solver (UM/NLABS -- referred to as NLABS in this thesis). Interface routines are developed for
14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main rotor structure. 27.547 Section 27.547... structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section. (b) [Reserved] (c) The main rotor structure must be designed to withstand the following...
Apparatus and method for magnetically unloading a rotor bearing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanders, Seth Robert
2018-02-13
An apparatus and method for unloading a rotor bearing is described. The apparatus includes an electromagnet for levitating the rotor. In one embodiment, a sensor of the magnetic field near the electromagnet is used to control the current to levitate the rotor. In another embodiment, a method is provided that includes rotating the rotor, increasing the current to levitate the rotor and decrease the gap between electromagnet and rotor, and then reducing the current to levitate the rotor with a minimal amount of electric power to the electromagnet.
Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1992-01-01
Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.
Diagnosis of wind turbine rotor system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niemann, Hans Henrik; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian
2016-01-01
is based on available standard sensors on wind turbines. The method can be used both on-line as well as off-line. Faults or changes in the rotor system will result in asymmetries, which can be monitored and diagnosed. This can be done by using the multi-blade coordinate transformation. Changes in the rotor......This paper describes a model free method for monitoring and fault diagnosis of the elements in a rotor system for a wind turbine. The diagnosis as well as the monitoring is done without using any model of the wind turbine and the applied controller or a description of the wind profile. The method...
Nixon, Mark W.
1993-01-01
There is a potential for improving the performance and aeroelastic stability of tiltrotors through the use of elastically-coupled composite rotor blades. To study the characteristics of tiltrotors with these types of rotor blades it is necessary to formulate a new analysis which has the capabilities of modeling both a tiltrotor configuration and an anisotropic rotor blade. Background for these formulations is established in two preliminary investigations. In the first, the influence of several system design parameters on tiltrotor aeroelastic stability is examined for the high-speed axial flight mode using a newly-developed rigid-blade analysis with an elastic wing finite element model. The second preliminary investigation addresses the accuracy of using a one-dimensional beam analysis to predict frequencies of elastically-coupled highly-twisted rotor blades. Important aspects of the new aeroelastic formulations are the inclusion of a large steady pylon angle which controls tilt of the rotor system with respect to the airflow, the inclusion of elastic pitch-lag coupling terms related to rotor precone, the inclusion of hub-related degrees of freedom which enable modeling of a gimballed rotor system and engine drive-train dynamics, and additional elastic coupling terms which enable modeling of the anisotropic features for both the rotor blades and the tiltrotor wing. Accuracy of the new tiltrotor analysis is demonstrated by a comparison of the results produced for a baseline case with analytical and experimental results reported in the open literature. Two investigations of elastically tailored blades on a baseline tiltrotor are then conducted. One investigation shows that elastic bending-twist coupling of the rotor blade is a very effective means for increasing the flutter velocity of a tiltrotor, and the magnitude of coupling required does not have an adverse effect on performance or blade loads. The second investigation shows that passive blade twist control via
Reversible airfoils for stopped rotors in high speed flight
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemiec, Robert; Jacobellis, George; Gandhi, Farhan
2014-01-01
This study starts with the design of a reversible airfoil rib for stopped-rotor applications, where the sharp trailing-edge morphs into the rounded leading-edge, and vice-versa. A NACA0012 airfoil is approximated in a piecewise linear manner and straight, rigid outer profile links used to define the airfoil contour. The end points of the profile links connect to control links, each set on a central actuation rod via an offset. Chordwise motion of the actuation rod moves the control and the profile links and reverses the airfoil. The paper describes the design methodology and evolution of the final design, based on which two reversible airfoil ribs were fabricated and used to assemble a finite span reversible rotor/wing demonstrator. The profile links were connected by Aluminum strips running in the spanwise direction which provided stiffness as well as support for a pre-tensioned elastomeric skin. An inter-rib connector with a curved-front nose piece supports the leading-edge. The model functioned well and was able to reverse smoothly back-and-forth, on application and reversal of a voltage to the motor. Navier–Stokes CFD simulations (using the TURNS code) show that the drag coefficient of the reversible airfoil (which had a 13% maximum thickness due to the thickness of the profile links) was comparable to that of the NACA0013 airfoil. The drag of a 16% thick elliptical airfoil was, on average, about twice as large, while that of a NACA0012 in reverse flow was 4–5 times as large, even prior to stall. The maximum lift coefficient of the reversible airfoil was lower than the elliptical airfoil, but higher than the NACA0012 in reverse flow operation. (paper)
Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prabhakar R. Marur
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.
Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip
158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip
158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.
Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivasseau, V.
1980-01-01
We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)
Thermomechanical Behavior of Rotor with Rubbing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy T. Sawicki
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents an analytical study of the dynamics and stability of rotors subjected to rubbing due to contact with seals, taking account of associated thermal effects. The seal interaction force acting on the shaft gives rise to a friction force, which is a source of heating and can induce so-called spiral vibrations. A mathematical model that has been developed couples the heat-conduction equation with the equations for motion of the rotor. Numerical simulations have been conducted that show the thermomechanical behavior of the rotor at various operating conditions. A procedure for analyzing the stability of multibearing rotors based on the system eigenvalue analysis and the state-space approach has been proposed. Finally, the experimental data related to full annular rub have been presented.
Open rotor noise impact on airport communities.
2011-07-01
The highly tonal noise spectra produced by Open Rotor (OR) engines differ greatly from the relatively : smooth, atonal noise spectra produced by typical Turbofan (TF) engines. Understanding the effects of : these spectral differences on received nois...
Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors
Groves, Scott E.; Deteresa, Steven J.
1998-01-01
An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.
Valve-aided twisted Savonius rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaya Rajkumar, M.; Saha, U.K.
2006-05-15
Accessories, such as end plates, deflecting plates, shielding and guide vanes, may increase the power of a Savonius rotor, but make the system structurally complex. In such cases, the rotor can develop a relatively large torque at small rotational speeds and is cheap to build, however it harnesses only a small fraction of the incident wind energy. Another proposition for increasing specific output is to place non-return valves inside the concave side of the blades. Such methods have been studied experimentally with a twisted-blade Thus improving a Savonius rotor's energy capture. This new concept has been named as the 'Valve-Aided Twisted Savonius'rotor. Tests were conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel to evaluate performance. This mechanism is found to be independent of flow direction, and shows potential for large machines. [Author].
Flexible and rigid cystoscopy in women.
Gee, Jason R; Waterman, Bradley J; Jarrard, David F; Hedican, Sean P; Bruskewitz, Reginald C; Nakada, Stephen Y
2009-01-01
Previous studies have evaluated the tolerability of rigid versus flexible cystoscopy in men. Similar studies, however, have not been performed in women. We sought to determine whether office-based flexible cystoscopy was better tolerated than rigid cystoscopy in women. Following full IRB approval, women were prospectively randomized in a single-blind manner. Patients were randomized to flexible or rigid cystoscopy and draped in the lithotomy position to maintain blinding of the study. Questionnaires evaluated discomfort before, during, and after cystoscopy. Thirty-six women were randomized to flexible (18) or rigid (18) cystoscopy. Indications were surveillance (16), hematuria (15), recurrent UTIs (2), voiding dysfunction (1), and other (2). All questionnaires were returned by 31/36 women. Using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS), median discomfort during the procedure for flexible and rigid cystoscopy were 1.4 and 1.8, respectively, in patients perceiving pain. Median recalled pain 1 week later was similar at 0.8 and 1.15, respectively. None of these differences were statistically significant. Flexible and rigid cystoscopy are well tolerated in women. Discomfort during and after the procedure is minimal in both groups. Urologists should perform either procedure in women based on their preference and skill level.
Recent quality of ultra large rotor shafts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Akira; Kinoshita, Shushi; Morita, Kikuo; Kikuchi, Hideo; Takada, Masayoshi
1983-01-01
Large size and high quality are required for rotor shafts accompanying recent trend of thermal and nuclear power generation toward large capacity. As for the low pressure rotor shafts for large capacity turbines, the disks and a shaft tend to be made into one body instead of conventional shrink fit construction, because of the experience of rotor accidents and the improvement of reliability. Therefore the ingots required become more and more large, and excellent production techniques are required for steel making, forging and heat treatment. Kobe Steel Ltd. have made about 20 large generator shafts from 420 t and 500 t ingots, and confirmed their stable high quality. Also a one-body low pressure rotor of 2600 mm diameter was made for trial, and its quality was examined. It was confirmed that the effect of forging and heat treatment was given sufficiently, and the production techniques for super-large one-body rotors were established. In steel making, vacuum degassing was applied twice to decrease hydrogen content, and VV restriction forging and pre-stage treatment were carried out. The properties of large rotors are reported. (Kako, I.)
Dynamic Gust Load Analysis for Rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuting Dai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic load of helicopter rotors due to gust directly affects the structural stress and flight performance for helicopters. Based on a large deflection beam theory, an aeroelastic model for isolated helicopter rotors in the time domain is constructed. The dynamic response and structural load for a rotor under the impulse gust and slope-shape gust are calculated, respectively. First, a nonlinear Euler beam model with 36 degrees-of-freedoms per element is applied to depict the structural dynamics for an isolated rotor. The generalized dynamic wake model and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model are applied to calculate the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic forces on rotors. Then, we transformed the differential aeroelastic governing equation to an algebraic one. Hence, the widely used Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is employed to simulate the dynamic gust load. An isolated helicopter rotor with four blades is studied to validate the structural model and the aeroelastic model. The modal frequencies based on the Euler beam model agree well with published ones by CAMRAD. The flap deflection due to impulse gust with the speed of 2m/s increases twice to the one without gust. In this numerical example, results indicate that the bending moment at the blade root is alleviated due to elastic effect.
Self-propulsion of a body with rigid surface and variable coefficient of lift in a perfect fluid
Ramodanov, Sergey M.; Tenenev, Valentin A.; Treschev, Dmitry V.
2012-11-01
We study the system of a 2D rigid body moving in an unbounded volume of incompressible, vortex-free perfect fluid which is at rest at infinity. The body is equipped with a gyrostat and a so-called Flettner rotor. Due to the latter the body is subject to a lifting force (Magnus effect). The rotational velocities of the gyrostat and the rotor are assumed to be known functions of time (control inputs). The equations of motion are presented in the form of the Kirchhoff equations. The integrals of motion are given in the case of piecewise continuous control. Using these integrals we obtain a (reduced) system of first-order differential equations on the configuration space. Then an optimal control problem for several types of the inputs is solved using genetic algorithms.
Rigid Body Sampling and Individual Time Stepping for Rigid-Fluid Coupling of Fluid Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaokun Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient and simple rigid-fluid coupling scheme with scientific programming algorithms for particle-based fluid simulation and three-dimensional visualization. Our approach samples the surface of rigid bodies with boundary particles that interact with fluids. It contains two procedures, that is, surface sampling and sampling relaxation, which insures uniform distribution of particles with less iterations. Furthermore, we present a rigid-fluid coupling scheme integrating individual time stepping to rigid-fluid coupling, which gains an obvious speedup compared to previous method. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis for a Jeffcott Rotor with Seal and Air-Film Bearing Excitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuefang Wang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear coupling vibration and bifurcation of a high-speed centrifugal compressor with a labyrinth seal and two air-film journal bearings are presented in this paper. The rotary shaft and disk are modeled as a rigid Jeffcott rotor. Muszynska's model is used to express the seal force with multiple parameters. For air-film journal bearings, the model proposed by Zhang et al. is adopted to express unsteady bearing forces. The Runge-Kutta method is used to numerically determine the vibration responses of the disk center and the bearings. Bifurcation diagrams for transverse motion of the rotor are presented with parameters of rotation speed and pressure drop of the seal. Multiple subharmonic, periodic, and quasiperiodic motions are presented with two seal-pressure drops. The bifurcation characteristics show inherent interactions between forces of the air-film bearings and the seal, presenting more complicated rotor dynamics than the one with either of the forces alone. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained with parameters of pressure drop and seal length determined for the sake of operation safety.
Strong coupling and quasispinor representations of the SU(3) rotor model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rowe, D.J.; De Guise, H.
1992-01-01
We define a coupling scheme, in close parallel to the coupling scheme of Elliott and Wilsdon, in which nucleonic intrinsic spins are strongly coupled to SU(3) spatial wave functions. The scheme is proposed for shell-model calculations in strongly deformed nuclei and for semimicroscopic analyses of rotations in odd-mass nuclei and other nuclei for which the spin-orbit interaction is believed to play an important role. The coupling scheme extends the domain of utility of the SU(3) model, and the symplectic model, to heavy nuclei and odd-mass nuclei. It is based on the observation that the low angular-momentum states of an SU(3) irrep have properties that mimic those of a corresponding irrep of the rotor algebra. Thus, we show that strongly coupled spin-SU(3) bands behave like strongly coupled rotor bands with properties that approach those of irreducible representations of the rigid-rotor algebra in the limit of large SU(3) quantum numbers. Moreover, we determine that the low angular-momentum states of a strongly coupled band of states of half-odd integer angular momentum behave to a high degree of accuracy as if they belonged to an SU(3) irrep. These are the quasispinor SU(3) irreps referred to in the title. (orig.)
Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) concept definition study
Hughes, C. W.
1983-01-01
Studies were conducted by Hughes Helicopters, Inc. (HHI) for the Applied Technology Laboratory and Aeromechanics Laboratory, U.S. Army Research and Technology Laboratories (AVRADCOM) and the Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Results of predesign studies of advanced main rotor hubs, including bearingless designs, are presented in this report. In addition, the Government's rotor design goals and specifications were reviewed and evaluated. Hub concepts were designed and qualitatively evaluated in order to select the two most promising concepts for further development. Various flexure designs, control systems, and pitchcase designs were investigated during the initial phases of this study. The two designs selected for additional development were designated the V-strap and flat-strap cruciform hubs. These hubs were designed for a four bladed rotor and were sized for 18,400 pounds gross weight with the same diameter (62 feet) and solidity (23 inch chord) as the existing rotor on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA).
Electric Drive Control with Rotor Resistance and Rotor Speed Observers Based on Fuzzy Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Ben Regaya
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Many scientific researchers have proposed the control of the induction motor without speed sensor. These methods have the disadvantage that the variation of the rotor resistance causes an error of estimating the motor speed. Thus, simultaneous estimation of the rotor resistance and the motor speed is required. In this paper, a scheme for estimating simultaneously the rotor resistance and the rotor speed of an induction motor using fuzzy logic has been developed. We present a method which is based on two adaptive observers using fuzzy logic without affecting each other and a simple algorithm in order to facilitate the determination of the optimal values of the controller gains. The control algorithm is proved by the simulation tests. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the two observers of the proposed method even in the case of variation of the rotor resistance.
THE DESIGN OF AXIAL PUMP ROTORS USING THE NUMERICAL METHODS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali BEAZIT
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The researches in rotor theory, the increasing use of computers and the connection between design and manufacturing of rotors, have determined the revaluation and completion of classical rotor geometry. This paper presents practical applications of mathematical description of rotor geometry. A program has been created to describe the rotor geometry for arbitrary shape of the blade. The results can be imported by GAMBIT - a processor for geometry with modeling and mesh generations, to create a mesh needed in hydrodynamics analysis of rotor CFD. The results obtained are applicable in numerical methods and are functionally convenient for CAD/CAM systems.
Overview of the Novel Intelligent JAXA Active Rotor Program
Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada; Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Young, Larry A.
2010-01-01
The Novel Intelligent JAXA Active Rotor (NINJA Rotor) program is a cooperative effort between JAXA and NASA, involving a test of a JAXA pressure-instrumented, active-flap rotor in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The objectives of the program are to obtain an experimental database of a rotor with active flaps and blade pressure instrumentation, and to use that data to develop analyses to predict the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of rotors with active flaps. An overview of the program is presented, including a description of the rotor and preliminary pretest calculations.
Identifying Floppy and Rigid Regions in Proteins
Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Kuhn, L. A.
1998-03-01
In proteins it is possible to separate hard covalent forces involving bond lengths and bond angles from other weak forces. We model the microstructure of the protein as a generic bar-joint truss framework, where the hard covalent forces and strong hydrogen bonds are regarded as rigid bar constraints. We study the mechanical stability of proteins using FIRST (Floppy Inclusions and Rigid Substructure Topography) based on a recently developed combinatorial constraint counting algorithm (the 3D Pebble Game), which is a generalization of the 2D pebble game (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, ``Generic Rigidity: The Pebble Game'', Phys. Rev. Lett.) 75, 4051-4054 (1995) for the special class of bond-bending networks (D. J. Jacobs, "Generic Rigidity in Three Dimensional Bond-bending Networks", Preprint Aug (1997)). This approach is useful in identifying rigid motifs and flexible linkages in proteins, and thereby determines the essential degrees of freedom. We will show some preliminary results from the FIRST analysis on the myohemerythrin and lyozyme proteins.
Durable bistable auxetics made of rigid solids
Shang, Xiao; Liu, Lu; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano
2018-02-01
Bistable Auxetic Metamaterials (BAMs) are a class of monolithic perforated periodic structures with negative Poisson's ratio. Under tension, a BAM can expand and reach a second state of equilibrium through a globally large shape transformation that is ensured by the flexibility of its elastomeric base material. However, if made from a rigid polymer, or metal, BAM ceases to function due to the inevitable rupture of its ligaments. The goal of this work is to extend the unique functionality of the original kirigami architecture of BAM to a rigid solid base material. We use experiments and numerical simulations to assess performance, bistability and durability of rigid BAMs at 10,000 cycles. Geometric maps are presented to elucidate the role of the main descriptors of BAM architecture. The proposed design enables the realization of BAM from a large palette of materials, including elastic-perfectly plastic materials and potentially brittle materials.
Smart rotor modeling aero-servo-elastic modeling of a smart rotor with adaptive trailing edge flaps
Bergami, Leonardo
2014-01-01
A smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators actively reduces the variation of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. Smart rotors feature?promising load alleviation potential and might provide the technological breakthrough required by the next generation of large wind turbine rotors.The book presents the aero-servo-elastic model of a smart rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for active load alleviation and provides an insight on the rotor aerodynamic, structural and control modeling. A novel model for the unsteady aerodynam
A rotor optimization using regression analysis
Giansante, N.
1984-01-01
The design and development of helicopter rotors is subject to the many design variables and their interactions that effect rotor operation. Until recently, selection of rotor design variables to achieve specified rotor operational qualities has been a costly, time consuming, repetitive task. For the past several years, Kaman Aerospace Corporation has successfully applied multiple linear regression analysis, coupled with optimization and sensitivity procedures, in the analytical design of rotor systems. It is concluded that approximating equations can be developed rapidly for a multiplicity of objective and constraint functions and optimizations can be performed in a rapid and cost effective manner; the number and/or range of design variables can be increased by expanding the data base and developing approximating functions to reflect the expanded design space; the order of the approximating equations can be expanded easily to improve correlation between analyzer results and the approximating equations; gradients of the approximating equations can be calculated easily and these gradients are smooth functions reducing the risk of numerical problems in the optimization; the use of approximating functions allows the problem to be started easily and rapidly from various initial designs to enhance the probability of finding a global optimum; and the approximating equations are independent of the analysis or optimization codes used.
Effect of rigid inclusions on sintering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahaman, M.N.; De Jonghe, L.C.
1988-01-01
The predictions of recent theoretical studies on the effect of inert, rigid inclusions on the sintering of ceramic powder matrices are examined and compared with experimental data. The densification of glass matrix composites with inclusion volume fractions of ≤0.15 can be adequately explained by Scherer's theory for viscous sintering with rigid inclusions. Inclusions cause a vast reduction in the densification rates of polycrystalline matrix composites even at low inclusion volume fractions. Models put forward to explain the sintering of polycrystalline matrix composites are discussed
Type number and rigidity of fibred surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, P E
2001-01-01
Infinitesimal l-th order bendings, 1≤l≤∞, of higher-dimensional surfaces are considered in higher-dimensional flat spaces (for l=∞ an infinitesimal bending is assumed to be an analytic bending). In terms of the Allendoerfer type number, criteria are established for the (r,l)-rigidity (in the terminology of Sabitov) of such surfaces. In particular, an (r,l)-infinitesimal analogue is proved of the classical theorem of Allendoerfer on the unbendability of surfaces with type number ≥3 and the class of (r,l)-rigid fibred surfaces is distinguished
Rigid origami vertices: conditions and forcing sets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zachary Abel
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We develop an intrinsic necessary and sufficient condition for single-vertex origami crease patterns to be able to fold rigidly. We classify such patterns in the case where the creases are pre-assigned to be mountains and valleys as well as in the unassigned case. We also illustrate the utility of this result by applying it to the new concept of minimal forcing sets for rigid origami models, which are the smallest collection of creases that, when folded, will force all the other creases to fold in a prescribed way.
Evaluating a method for automated rigid registration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darkner, Sune; Vester-Christensen, Martin; Larsen, Rasmus
2007-01-01
to point distance. T-test for common mean are used to determine the performance of the two methods (supported by a Wilcoxon signed rank test). The performance influence of sampling density, sampling quantity, and norms is analyzed using a similar method.......We evaluate a novel method for fully automated rigid registration of 2D manifolds in 3D space based on distance maps, the Gibbs sampler and Iterated Conditional Modes (ICM). The method is tested against the ICP considered as the gold standard for automated rigid registration. Furthermore...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Hua; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Haoran
2013-01-01
Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory is a widely used technique for prediction of wind turbine aerodynamics performance, but the reliability of airfoil data is an important factor to improve the prediction accuracy of aerodynamic loads and power using a BEM code. The airfoil characteristics used...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aboozar Heydari
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of nonlinear forces due to the electromagnetic field of bearing and the unbalancing force on nonlinear vibration behavior of a rotor is investigated. The rotor is modeled as a rigid body that is supported by two magnetic bearings with eight-polar structures. The governing dynamics equations of the system that are coupled nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations (ODEs are derived, and for solving these equations, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM is used. By applying HPM, the possibility of presenting a harmonic semi-analytical solution, is provided. In fact, with equality the coefficient of auxiliary parameter (p, the system of coupled nonlinear second order and non-homogenous differential equations are obtained so that consists of unbalancing effects. By considering some initial condition for displacement and velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions, free vibration analysis is done and next, the forced vibration analysis under the effect of harmonic forces also is investigated. Likewise, various parameters on the vibration behavior of rotor are studied. Changes in amplitude and response phase per excitation frequency are investigated. Results show that by increasing excitation frequency, the motion amplitude is also increases and by passing the critical speed, it decreases. Also it shows that the magnetic bearing system performance is in stable maintenance of rotor. The parameters affecting on vibration behavior, has been studied and by comparison the results with the other references, which have a good precision up to 2nd order of embedding parameter, it implies the accuracy of this method in current research.
Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.
1985-01-01
The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.
Tip Vortex and Wake Characteristics of a Counterrotating Open Rotor
VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.
2012-01-01
One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and trajectory as well as the rotor wake decay and turbulence character. The tip clearance vortex trajectory is compared to results from previously developed models. Forward rotor wake velocity profiles are shown. Results are presented in a form as to assist numerical modeling of Open Rotor system aerodynamics and acoustics.
Prediction of helicopter rotor noise in hover
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kusyumov A.N.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Two mathematical models are used in this work to estimate the acoustics of a hovering main rotor. The first model is based on the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations using the formulation of Farassat. An analytical approach is followed for this model, to determine the thickness and load noise contributions of the rotor blade in hover. The second approach allows using URANS and RANS CFD solutions and based on numerical solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations. The employed test cases correspond to a model rotor available at the KNRTUKAI aerodynamics laboratory. The laboratory is equipped with a system of acoustic measurements, and comparisons between predictions and measurements are to be attempted as part of this work.
Prediction of helicopter rotor noise in hover
Kusyumov, A. N.; Mikhailov, S. A.; Garipova, L. I.; Batrakov, A. S.; Barakos, G.
2015-05-01
Two mathematical models are used in this work to estimate the acoustics of a hovering main rotor. The first model is based on the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations using the formulation of Farassat. An analytical approach is followed for this model, to determine the thickness and load noise contributions of the rotor blade in hover. The second approach allows using URANS and RANS CFD solutions and based on numerical solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations. The employed test cases correspond to a model rotor available at the KNRTUKAI aerodynamics laboratory. The laboratory is equipped with a system of acoustic measurements, and comparisons between predictions and measurements are to be attempted as part of this work.
Aircraft rotor blade with passive tuned tab
Campbell, T. G. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A structure for reducing vibratory airloading in a rotor blade with a leading edge and a trailing edge includes a cut out portion at the trailing edge. A substantially wedge shaped cross section, inertially deflectable tab, also with a leading edge and a trailing edge is pivotally mounted in the cut out portion. The trailing edge of the tab may move above and below the rotor blade. A torsion strap applies force against the tab when the trailing edge of the tab is above and below the rotor blade. A restraining member is slidably movable along the torsion strap to vary torsional biasing force supplied by the torsion bar to the tab. A plurality of movable weights positioned between plates vary a center of gravity of the tab. Skin of the tab is formed from unidirectional graphite and fiberglass layers. Sliders coupled with a pinned degree of freedom at rod eliminate bending of tab under edgewise blade deflection.
Wind Turbine Rotors with Active Vibration Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Martin Nymann
that the basic modes of a wind turbine blade can be effectively addressed by an in-blade ‘active strut’ actuator mechanism. The importance of accounting for background mode flexibility is demonstrated. Also, it is shown that it is generally possible to address multiple beam modes with multiple controllers, given...... in the targeted modes and the observed spill-over to other modes is very limited and generally stabilizing. It is shown that physical controller positioning for reduced background noise is important to the calibration. By simulation of the rotor response to both simple initial conditions and a stochastic wind......This thesis presents a framework for structural modeling, analysis and active vibration damping of rotating wind turbine blades and rotors. A structural rotor model is developed in terms of finite beam elements in a rotating frame of reference. The element comprises a representation of general...
Manufacture of large monoblock LP rotor forgings and their quality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Akira; Kinoshita, Shushi; Kohno, Masayoshi; Miyakawa, Mutsuhiro; Kikuchi, Hideo
1986-01-01
This paper describes the manufacturing and the quality of large monoblock low pressure rotors forged from 360 ton and 420 ton ingots. To obtain good and homogenous mechanical properties throughout a rotor, a computer was used to determine the heat treatment conditions. It was found that the technique was very effective at predicting mechanical properties of a monoblock rotor. Mechanical properties including the fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation characteristics of monoblock rotor forgings proved satisfactory. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juing-Shian Chiou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper has implemented nonlinear control strategy for the single tilt tri-rotor aerial robot. Based on Newton-Euler’s laws, the linear and nonlinear mathematical models of tri-rotor UAVs are obtained. A numerical analysis using Newton-Raphson method is chosen for finding hovering equilibrium point. Back-stepping nonlinear controller design is based on constructing Lyapunov candidate function for closed-loop system. By imitating the linguistic logic of human thought, fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs are designed based on control rules and membership functions, which are much less rigid than the calculations computers generally perform. Effectiveness of the controllers design scheme is shown through nonlinear simulation model on each channel.
Adjoint-Based Design of Rotors Using the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Noninertial Reference Frame
Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Jones, William T.
2010-01-01
Optimization of rotorcraft flowfields using an adjoint method generally requires a time-dependent implementation of the equations. The current study examines an intermediate approach in which a subset of rotor flowfields are cast as steady problems in a noninertial reference frame. This technique permits the use of an existing steady-state adjoint formulation with minor modifications to perform sensitivity analyses. The formulation is valid for isolated rigid rotors in hover or where the freestream velocity is aligned with the axis of rotation. Discrete consistency of the implementation is demonstrated by using comparisons with a complex-variable technique, and a number of single- and multipoint optimizations for the rotorcraft figure of merit function are shown for varying blade collective angles. Design trends are shown to remain consistent as the grid is refined.
Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar
2002-01-01
The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement...
Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2009-08-01
This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.
Simple theoretical models for composite rotor blades
Valisetty, R. R.; Rehfield, L. W.
1984-01-01
The development of theoretical rotor blade structural models for designs based upon composite construction is discussed. Care was exercised to include a member of nonclassical effects that previous experience indicated would be potentially important to account for. A model, representative of the size of a main rotor blade, is analyzed in order to assess the importance of various influences. The findings of this model study suggest that for the slenderness and closed cell construction considered, the refinements are of little importance and a classical type theory is adequate. The potential of elastic tailoring is dramatically demonstrated, so the generality of arbitrary ply layup in the cell wall is needed to exploit this opportunity.
CFD simulations of the MEXICO rotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik
2011-01-01
The wake behind a wind turbine model is investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and results are compared with measurements. The turbine investigated is the three‐bladed test rotor (D = 4.5 m) used in the Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions (MEXICO) wind tunnel experiment....... During the MEXICO experiment, particle image velocimetry measurements of the induction upstream and downstream of the rotor were performed for different operating conditions, giving a unique dataset to verify theoretical models and CFD models. The present paper first describes the efforts in reproducing...
Investigation of processes due to deuterium pellets impinging on a rigid wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoener, M.
1982-04-01
Pellets accelerated with a centrifuge - for refuelling thermonuclear plasmas - ought not to be noticeably deformed, let alone destroyed. This happens if the relative velocity between the pellet and the rotor catching it is too high. This report describes an apparatus for determining the variation in shape of deuterium pellets as a function of the relative velocity. In this method the pellet, produced by extrusion, is electromagnetically accelerated by means of metal carriers from which they are separated and shot at a stationary, rigid wall. The impact of the pellet on the target is recorded in seven pictures by spark cinematography and the impact velocity is measured with light barriers. The critical impact velocity for cylindrical deuterium pellets is found to be 48 m/s. Up to this relative velocity deuterium pellets retain their shape, irrespective of the direction of incidence. (orig.)
Rigid-body rotation of an electron cloud in divergent magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fruchtman, A.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.
2013-01-01
For a given voltage across a divergent poloidal magnetic field, two electric potential distributions, each supported by a rigid-rotor electron cloud rotating with a different frequency, are found analytically. The two rotation frequencies correspond to the slow and fast rotation frequencies known in uniform plasma. Due to the centrifugal force, the equipotential surfaces, that correspond to the two electric potential distributions, diverge more than the magnetic surfaces do, the equipotential surfaces in the fast mode diverge largely in particular. The departure of the equipotential surfaces from the magnetic field surfaces may have a significant focusing effect on the ions accelerated by the electric field. The focusing effect could be important for laboratory plasma accelerators as well as for collimation of astrophysical jets
Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics
Tretyakov, Mikhail
2016-01-05
Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.
Combinatorial and Algorithmic Rigidity: Beyond Two Dimensions
2012-12-01
44]. Theorems of Maxwell- Laman type were ob- tained in [9, 15, 43]. 2 3. Counting and Enumeration. As anticipated in the project, we relied on methods...decompositions. Graphs and Combinatorics, 25:219–238, 2009. [43] I. Streinu and L. Theran. Slider-pinning rigidity: a Maxwell- Laman -type theorem. Discrete and
Birationally rigid varieties. I. Fano varieties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pukhlikov, A V
2007-01-01
The theory of birational rigidity of rationally connected varieties generalises the classical rationality problem. This paper gives a survey of the current state of this theory and traces its history from Noether's theorem and the Lueroth problem to the latest results on the birational superrigidity of higher-dimensional Fano varieties. The main components of the method of maximal singularities are considered.
Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams
Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...
Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics
Tretyakov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.
Rigidity Sensing Explained by Active Matter Theory
Marcq, Philippe; Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko; Prost, Jacques
2011-01-01
The magnitude of traction forces exerted by living animal cells on their environment is a monotonically increasing and approximately sigmoidal function of the stiffness of the external medium. We rationalize this observation using active matter theory, and propose that adaptation to substrate rigidity results from an interplay between passive elasticity and active contractility.
About deformation and rigidity in relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coll, Bartolome
2007-01-01
The notion of deformation involves that of rigidity. In relativity, starting from Born's early definition of rigidity, some other ones have been proposed, offering more or less interesting aspects but also accompanied of undesired or even pathological properties. In order to clarify the origin of these difficulties presented by the notion of rigidity in relativity, we analyze with some detail significant aspects of the unambiguous classical, Newtonian, notion. In particular, the relative character of its kinetic definition is pointed out, allowing to predict and to understand the limitations imposed by Herglotz-Noether theorem. Also, its equivalent dynamic definition is obtained and, in contrast, its absolute character is shown. But in spite of this absolute character, the dynamic definition is shown to be not extensible to relativity. The metric deformation of Minkowski space by the presence of a gravitational field is interpreted as a universal deformation, and it is shown that, under natural conditions, only a simple deformation law is possible, relating locally, but in an one-to-one way, gravitational fields and gauge classes of two-forms. We argue that fields of unit vectors associated to the internal gauge class of two-forms of every space-time (and, in particular, of Minkowski space-time) are the relativistic analogues of the classical accelerated observers, i.e. of the classical rigid motions. Some other consequences of the universal law of gravitational deformation are commented
Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip
2010-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf
Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niken Chatarina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.
Dovetail Rotor Construction For Permanent-Magnet Motors
Kintz, Lawrence J., Jr.; Puskas, William J.
1988-01-01
New way of mounting magnets in permanent-magnet, electronically commutated, brushless dc motors. Magnets wedge shaped, tapering toward center of rotor. Oppositely tapered pole pieces, electron-beam welded to rotor hub, retain magnets against centrifugal force generated by spinning rotor. To avoid excessively long electron-beam welds, pole pieces assembled in segments rather than single long bars.
Vibration amplitude rule study for rotor under large time scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xuan; Zuo Jianli; Duan Changcheng
2014-01-01
The rotor is an important part of the rotating machinery; its vibration performance is one of the important factors affecting the service life. This paper presents both theoretical analyses and experimental demonstrations of the vibration rule of the rotor under large time scales. The rule can be used for the service life estimation of the rotor. (authors)
Diagnostics of the vibrations of complex rotor systems
Yugraytis, I. Y.; Ragulskis, K. M.; Ionushas, R. A.; Karuzhene, I. P.
1973-01-01
The parameters of the imbalance of a complex rotor system, having n parallel rotors and having six degrees of freedom, can be determined from the parameters of the vibrations of two appropriate degrees of freedom. This considerably simplifies diagnostics of the vibrations of complex rotor systems.
Hydraulic performance of sluice gate with unloaded upstream rotor ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... compared to the flow under rotor and weir flow conditions. The video analysis also indicated that significant perturbation exists for the rotor angular speed. The normalized perturbation intensity varied from a minimum of 8% to a maximum of 60%. Keywords: sluice gate, rotor, angular speed, video analysis, hydropower ...
Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roshan Koul
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.
The two-body problem of a pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Vereshchagin, M.; Gózdziewski, K.
2012-01-01
n this paper we consider the two-body problem of a spherical pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere. Due to the rotational and "re-labelling" symmetries, the system is shown to possess conservation of angular momentum and circulation. We follow a reduction procedure similar to that undertaken...... in the study of the two-body problem of a rigid body and a sphere so that the computed reduced non-canonical Hamiltonian takes a similar form. We then consider relative equilibria and show that the notions of locally central and planar equilibria coincide. Finally, we show that Riemann's theorem on pseudo......-rigid bodies has an extension to this system for planar relative equilibria....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.
2016-01-01
In this work, the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a vertical rigid rotor interacting with a flexible foundation by means of two passive magnetic bearings is quantified and evaluated. The quantification is based on theoretical and experimental investigation of the non-uniformity (anisotropy......) of the magnetic field and the weak nonlinearity of the magnetic forces. Through mathematical modelling the nonlinear equations of motion are established for describing the shaft and bearing housing lateral dynamics coupled via the nonlinear and non-uniform magnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved...
Rotor Systems of Aircraft Jet Engines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ján Kamenický
2000-01-01
engine's both coaxial rotors, their supports (including their hydrodynamic dampers, and its casing as well. Besides the short description of the engine design peculiarities and of its calculating model, there is also a short description of the used method of calculations, with focus on its peculiarities as well. Finally, some results of calculations and conclusions that follow from them are presented.
Development of the optimum rotor theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; van Kuik, Gijs A.M.
The purpose of this study is the examination of optimum rotor theories with ideal load distributions along the blades, to analyze some of the underlying ideas and concepts, as well as to illuminate them. The book gives the historical background of the issue and presents the analysis of the problems...
Piezoelectric actuation of helicopter rotor blades
Lieven, Nicholas A. J.
2001-07-01
The work presented in this paper is concerned with the application of embedded piezo-electric actuators in model helicopter rotor blades. The paper outlines techniques to define the optimal location of actuators to excite particular modes of vibration whilst the blade is rotating. Using composite blades the distribution of strain energy is defined using a Finite Element model with imposed rotor-dynamic and aerodynamics loads. The loads are specified through strip theory to determine the position of maximum bending moment and thus the optimal location of the embedded actuators. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on a 1/4 scale fixed cyclic pitch rotor head. Measurement of the blade displacement is achieved by using strain gauges. In addition a redundant piezo-electric actuator is used to measure the blades' response characteristics. The addition of piezo-electric devices in this application has been shown to exhibit adverse aeroelastic effects, such as counter mass balancing and increased drag. Methods to minimise these effects are suggested. The outcome of the paper is a method for defining the location and orientation of piezo-electric devices in rotor-dynamic applications.
Warm damper for a superconducting rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooper, G.D.
1984-01-01
A warm damper for a superconducting rotor is described which uses a laminar assembly of a conductive tube and a plurality of support tubes. The conductive tube is soldered to axially adjacent support tubes and the resulting composite tube is explosively welded to two or more support tubes disposed adjacent to its radially inner and outer surfaces
Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor
Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.
2016-06-07
A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.
Boresonic inspection of power plant rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rennie, I.S.
1990-01-01
Continental Field Machining and NEI Parsons together are able to provide an on site machining and boresonic inspection service. NEI Parsons existing boresonic equipment is described together with a summary of results obtained during the inspection of eighty rotors. A computer controlled automatic inspection system, planned to be in operation early in 1990, is also described
The Evolution of Rotor and Blade Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tangler, J.
2000-08-01
The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective of the evolution of rotor and blade design during the last 20 years. This evolution is a balanced integration of economic, aerodynamic, structural dynamic, noise, and aesthetic considerations, which are known to be machine type and size dependent.
Marco Guerrazzi; Nicola Meccheri
2009-01-01
This paper offers a critical discussion of the concept of labour market rigidity relevant to explaining unemployment. Starting from Keynes’s own view, we discuss how the concept of labour market flexibility has changed over time, involving nominal or real wage flexibility, contract flexibility or labour market institution flexibility. We also provide a critical assessment of the factors that lead the search framework highlighting labour market rigidities (frictions) to challenge the more wide...
Method for repairing a steam turbine or generator rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, R.E.; Amos, D.R.
1987-01-01
A method is described for repairing low alloy steel steam turbine or generator rotors, the method comprising: a. machining mating attachments on a replacement end and a remaining portion of the original rotor; b. mating the replacement end and the original rotor; c. welding the replacement end to the original rotor by narrow-gap gas metal arc or submerged arc welding up to a depth of 1/2-2 inches from the rotor surface; d. gas tungsten arc welding the remaining 1/2-2 inches; e. boring out the mating attachment and at least the inside 1/4 inch of the welding; and f. inspecting the bore
T700 power turbine rotor multiplane/multispeed balancing demonstration
Burgess, G.; Rio, R.
1979-01-01
Research was conducted to demonstrate the ability of influence coefficient based multispeed balancing to control rotor vibration through bending criticals. Rotor dynamic analyses were conducted of the General Electric T700 power turbine rotor. The information was used to generate expected rotor behavior for optimal considerations in designing a balance rig and a balance technique. The rotor was successfully balanced 9500 rpm. Uncontrollable coupling behavior prevented observations through the 16,000 rpm service speed. The balance technique is practical and with additional refinement it can meet production standards.
Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor
Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.
2016-06-01
Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.
Rotor Performance Enhancement Using Slats on the Inner Part of a 10MW Rotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaunaa, Mac; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.
2013-01-01
The present work continues the investigations of using slats on the inner parts of wind turbine rotors by using an updated version of the 2D CFD based airfoil/slat design tool earlier used by the authors in combination with the rotor design methods from [8] to design slats for 0:1 > r=R > 0......:3 for the LightRotor baseline 10 MW reference rotor [10]. For the slatted case, a retwisting of the slatted inner part of the rotor was allowed for the slats to be able to work as intended. The new addition to the 2D CFD based design tool is that the representation of the airfoil and slats are done using splines......, thus allowing for a much broader design space than in the previous works where only the position, size and additional camber of the slat airfoil could be adjusted. The aerodynamic performance of a slatted rotor is for the first time evaluated using 3D CFD in this work, and the results are compared...
Rotor Performance Enhancement Using Slats on the Inner Part of a 10MW Rotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The present work continues the investigations of using slats on the inner parts of wind turbine rotors by using an updated version of the 2D CFD based airfoil/slat design tool earlier used by the authors in combination with the rotor design methods from [8] to design slats for 0:1 > r=R > 0......:3 for the LightRotor baseline 10 MW reference rotor [10]. For the slatted case, a retwisting of the slatted inner part of the rotor was allowed for the slats to be able to work as intended. The new addition to the 2D CFD based design tool is that the representation of the airfoil and slats are done using splines......, thus allowing for a much broader design space than in the previous works where only the position, size and additional camber of the slat airfoil could be adjusted. The aerodynamic performance of a slatted rotor is for the first time evaluated using 3D CFD in this work, and the results are compared...
Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles
Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN
2011-05-03
A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.
Rotor for a line start permanent magnet machine
Melfi, Mike; Schiferl, Rich; Umans, Stephen
2017-07-11
A rotor comprises laminations with a plurality of rotor bar slots with an asymmetric arrangement about the rotor. The laminations also have magnet slots equiangularly spaced about the rotor. The magnet slots extend near to the rotor outer diameter and have permanent magnets disposed in the magnet slots creating magnetic poles. The magnet slots may be formed longer than the permanent magnets disposed in the magnets slots and define one or more magnet slot apertures. The permanent magnets define a number of poles and a pole pitch. The rotor bar slots are spaced from adjacent magnet slots by a distance that is at least 4% of the pole pitch. Conductive material is disposed in the rotor bar slots, and in some embodiments, may be disposed in the magnet slot apertures.
Financial Constraints and Nominal Price Rigidities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Menno, Dominik Francesco; Balleer, Almut; Hristov, Nikolay
This paper investigates how financial market imperfections and the frequency of price adjustment interact. Based on new firm-level evidence for Germany, we document that financially constrained firms adjust prices more often than their unconstrained counterparts, both upwards and downwards. We show...... that these empirical patterns are consistent with a partial equilibrium menu-cost model with a working capital constraint. We then use the model to show how the presence of financial frictions changes profits and the price distribution of firms compared to a model without financial frictions. Our results suggest...... that tighter financial constraints are associated with higher nominal rigidities, higher prices and lower output. Moreover, in response to aggregate shocks, aggregate price rigidity moves substantially, the response of inflation is dampened, while output reacts more in the presence of financial frictions...
Rigidity of the magic pentagram game
Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A.
2018-01-01
A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.
Rigidity of the magic pentagram game.
Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A
2018-01-01
A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.
Rigid cohomology over Laurent series fields
Lazda, Christopher
2016-01-01
In this monograph, the authors develop a new theory of p-adic cohomology for varieties over Laurent series fields in positive characteristic, based on Berthelot's theory of rigid cohomology. Many major fundamental properties of these cohomology groups are proven, such as finite dimensionality and cohomological descent, as well as interpretations in terms of Monsky-Washnitzer cohomology and Le Stum's overconvergent site. Applications of this new theory to arithmetic questions, such as l-independence and the weight monodromy conjecture, are also discussed. The construction of these cohomology groups, analogous to the Galois representations associated to varieties over local fields in mixed characteristic, fills a major gap in the study of arithmetic cohomology theories over function fields. By extending the scope of existing methods, the results presented here also serve as a first step towards a more general theory of p-adic cohomology over non-perfect ground fields. Rigid Cohomology over Laurent Series Fields...
Roger, Michel; Schram, Christophe; Moreau, Stéphane
2014-01-01
A linear analytical model is developed for the chopping of a cylindrical vortex by a flat-plate airfoil, with or without a span-end effect. The major interest is the contribution of the tip-vortex produced by an upstream rotating blade in the rotor-rotor interaction noise mechanism of counter-rotating open rotors. Therefore the interaction is primarily addressed in an annular strip of limited spanwise extent bounding the impinged blade segment, and the unwrapped strip is described in Cartesian coordinates. The study also addresses the interaction of a propeller wake with a downstream wing or empennage. Cylindrical vortices are considered, for which the velocity field is expanded in two-dimensional gusts in the reference frame of the airfoil. For each gust the response of the airfoil is derived, first ignoring the effect of the span end, assimilating the airfoil to a rigid flat plate, with or without sweep. The corresponding unsteady lift acts as a distribution of acoustic dipoles, and the radiated sound is obtained from a radiation integral over the actual extent of the airfoil. In the case of tip-vortex interaction noise in CRORs the acoustic signature is determined for vortex trajectories passing beyond, exactly at and below the tip radius of the impinged blade segment, in a reference frame attached to the segment. In a second step the same problem is readdressed accounting for the effect of span end on the aerodynamic response of a blade tip. This is achieved through a composite two-directional Schwarzschild's technique. The modifications of the distributed unsteady lift and of the radiated sound are discussed. The chained source and radiation models provide physical insight into the mechanism of vortex chopping by a blade tip in free field. They allow assessing the acoustic benefit of clipping the rear rotor in a counter-rotating open-rotor architecture.
Modeling the Flexural Rigidity of Rod Photoreceptors
Haeri, Mohammad; Knox, Barry E.; Ahmadi, Aphrodite
2013-01-01
In vertebrate eyes, the rod photoreceptor has a modified cilium with an extended cylindrical structure specialized for phototransduction called the outer segment (OS). The OS has numerous stacked membrane disks and can bend or break when subjected to mechanical forces. The OS exhibits axial structural variation, with extended bands composed of a few hundred membrane disks whose thickness is diurnally modulated. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have observed OS flexing and disruption in live transgenic Xenopus rods. Based on the experimental observations, we introduce a coarse-grained model of OS mechanical rigidity using elasticity theory, representing the axial OS banding explicitly via a spring-bead model. We calculate a bending stiffness of ∼105 nN⋅μm2, which is seven orders-of-magnitude larger than that of typical cilia and flagella. This bending stiffness has a quadratic relation to OS radius, so that thinner OS have lower fragility. Furthermore, we find that increasing the spatial frequency of axial OS banding decreases OS rigidity, reducing its fragility. Moreover, the model predicts a tendency for OS to break in bands with higher spring number density, analogous to the experimental observation that transgenic rods tended to break preferentially in bands of high fluorescence. We discuss how pathological alterations of disk membrane properties by mutant proteins may lead to increased OS rigidity and thus increased breakage, ultimately contributing to retinal degeneration. PMID:23442852
Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.
2004-01-01
A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)
Lateral rigidity of cracked concrete structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castellani, A.; Chesi, C.
1979-01-01
Numerical results are discussed on the lateral rigidity of reinforced concrete structures with a given crack distribution. They have been favourably checked with experimental results for cylindrical shells under the effect of a thermal gradient producing vertical cracking or vertical plus horizontal cracking. The main effects characterizing the concrete behaviour are: (1) The shear transfer across a crack; (2) The shear transfer degradation after cyclic loading; (3) The tension stiffening provided by the concrete between crack and crack, in the normal stress transfer; (4) The temperature effect on the elastic moduli of concrete, when cracks are of thermal origin. Only the 1st effect is discussed on an experimental basis. Two broad cathegories of reinforced concrete structures have been investigated in this respect: shear walls of buildings and cylindrical containment structures. The main conclusions so far reached are: (1) Vertical cracks are unlikely to decrease the lateral rigidity to less than 80% of the original one, and to less than 90% when they do not involve the entire thickness of the wall; (2) The appearence of horizontal cracks can reduce the lateral rigidity by some 30% or more; (3) A noticeable but not yet evaluated influence is shown by cyclic loading. (orig.)
Stresses in Circular Plates with Rigid Elements
Velikanov, N. L.; Koryagin, S. I.; Sharkov, O. V.
2018-05-01
Calculations of residual stress fields are carried out by numerical and static methods, using the flat cross-section hypothesis. The failure of metal when exposed to residual stresses is, in most cases, brittle. The presence in the engineering structures of rigid elements often leads to the crack initiation and structure failure. This is due to the fact that rigid elements under the influence of external stresses are stress concentrators. In addition, if these elements are fixed by welding, the residual welding stresses can lead to an increase in stress concentration and, ultimately, to failure. The development of design schemes for such structures is a very urgent task for complex technical systems. To determine the stresses in a circular plate with a welded circular rigid insert under the influence of an external load, one can use the solution of the plane stress problem for annular plates in polar coordinates. The polar coordinates of the points are the polar radius and the polar angle, and the stress state is determined by normal radial stresses, tangential and shearing stresses. The use of the above mentioned design schemes, formulas, will allow more accurate determination of residual stresses in annular welded structures. This will help to establish the most likely directions of failure and take measures at the stages of designing, manufacturing and repairing engineering structures to prevent these failures. However, it must be taken into account that the external load, the presence of insulation can lead to a change in the residual stress field.
49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.
2010-10-01
... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stancanello, J.; Loeckx, D.; Francescon, P.; Calvedon, C.; Avanzo, M.; Cora, S.; Scalchi, P.; Cerveri, P.; Ferrigno, G.
2004-01-01
This work aims at comparing rigid, affine and Local Non Rigid (LNR) CT-3D Rotational Angiography (CT-3DRA) registrations based on mutual information. 10 cranial and 1 spinal cases have been registered by rigid and affine transformations; while LNR has been applied to the cases where residual deformation must be corrected. An example of CT-3DRA registration without regularization term and an example of LNR using the similarity criterion and the regularization term as well as 3D superposition of the 3DRA before and after the registration without the regularization term are presented. All the registrations performed by rigid transformation converged to an acceptable solution. The results about the robustness test in axial direction are reported. Conclusions: For cranial cases, affine transformation endowed with threshold-segmentation pre-processing can be considered the most favourable solution for almost all registrations; for some cases, LNR provides more accurate results. For the spinal case rigid transformation is the most suitable when immobilizing patient during examinations; in this case the increase of accuracy by using LNR registrations seems to be not significant
[Treatment of organic waste gas by adsorption rotor].
Zhu, Run-Ye; Zheng, Liang-Wei; Mao, Yu-Bo; Wang, Jia-De
2013-12-01
The adsorption rotor is applicable to treating organic waste gases with low concentration and high air volume. The performance of adsorption rotor for purifying organic waste gases was investigated in this paper. Toluene was selected as the simulative gaseous pollutant and the adsorption rotor was packed with honeycomb modified 13X molecular sieves (M-13X). Experimental results of the fixed adsorption and the rotor adsorption were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that some information on the fixed adsorption was useful for the rotor adsorption. Integrating the characteristics of the adsorbents, waste gases and the structures of the rotor adsorption, the formulas on optimal rotor speed and cycle removal efficiency of the adsorption rotor were deduced, based on the mass and heat balances of the adsorbing process. The numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental data, which meant that the formulas on optimal rotor speed and cycle removal efficiency could be effectively applied in design and operation of the adsorption rotor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan Ren
2014-01-01
Full Text Available For magnetically suspended rigid rotors (MSRs with significant gyroscopic effects, phase lag of the control channel is the main factor influencing the system nutation stability and decoupling performance. At first, this paper proves that the phase lag of the cross channel instead of the decentralized channel is often the main factor influencing the system nutation stability at high speeds. Then a modified cross feedback control strategy based on the phase compensation of cross channel is proposed to improve the stability and decoupling performances. The common issues associated with the traditional control methods have been successfully resolved by this method. Analysis, simulation, and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed control method.
INTEGRATION OF THE ROTATION OF AN EARTH-LIKE BODY AS A PERTURBED SPHERICAL ROTOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrer, Sebastian; Lara, Martin
2010-01-01
For rigid bodies close to a sphere, we propose an analytical solution that is free from elliptic integrals and functions, and can be fundamental for application to perturbed problems. After reordering the Hamiltonian as a perturbed spherical rotor, the Lie-series solution is generated up to an arbitrary order. Using the inertia parameters of different solar system bodies, the comparison of the approximate series solution with the exact analytical one shows that the precision reached with relatively low orders is at the same level of the observational accuracy for the Earth and Mars. Thus, for instance, the periodic errors of the mathematical solution are confined to the microarcsecond level with a simple second-order truncation for the Earth. On the contrary, higher orders are required for the mathematical solution to reach a precision at the expected level of accuracy of proposed new theories for the rotational dynamics of the Moon.
Closed continuous-flow centrifuge rotor
Breillatt, Jr., Julian P.; Remenyik, Carl J.; Sartory, Walter K.; Thacker, Louis H.; Penland, William Z.
1976-01-01
A blood separation centrifuge rotor having a generally parabolic core disposed concentrically and spaced apart within a housing having a similarly shaped cavity. Blood is introduced through a central inlet and into a central passageway enlarged downwardly to decrease the velocity of the entrant blood. Septa are disposed inside the central passageway to induce rotation of the entrant blood. A separation chamber is defined between the core and the housing wherein the whole blood is separated into red cell, white cell, and plasma zones. The zones are separated by annular splitter blades disposed within the separation chamber. The separated components are continuously removed through conduits communicating through a face seal to the outside of the rotor.
The Dynamics of Rotor with Rubbing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy T. Sawicki
1999-01-01
characteristics of rub-induced rotor response, initial conditions, as well as appropriate ranges of system parameters. Of special interest are the changes in the apparent nonlinearity of the system dynamics as rubs are induced at different rotor speeds. In particular, starting with 2nd order sub/superharmonics, which are symptomatic of quadratic nonlinearity, progressively higher order polynomial behavior is excited, i.e., cubic, giving rise to 3rd order sub/superharmonics. As the speed is transitioned between such apparent nonlinearities, chaotic like behavior is induced because of the lack of whole or rational tone tuning between the apparent system frequency and the external source noise. The cause of such behavior will be discussed in detail along with the results of several parametric studies.
Design study of prestressed rotor spar concept
Gleich, D.
1980-01-01
Studies on the Bell Helicopter 540 Rotor System of the AH-1G helicopter were performed. The stiffness, mass and geometric configurations of the Bell blade were matched to give a dynamically similar prestressed composite blade. A multi-tube, prestressed composite spar blade configuration was designed for superior ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost. The composite spar prestresses, imparted during fabrication, are chosen to maintain compression in the high strength cryogenically stretchformed 304-L stainless steel liner and tension in the overwrapped HTS graphite fibers under operating loads. This prestressing results in greatly improved crack propagation and fatigue resistance as well as enhanced fiber stiffness properties. Advantages projected for the prestressed composite rotor spar concept include increased operational life and improved ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost.
Aerodynamic design of the National Rotor Testbed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-10-01
A new wind turbine blade has been designed for the National Rotor Testbed (NRT) project and for future experiments at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility with a specific focus on scaled wakes. This report shows the aerodynamic design of new blades that can produce a wake that has similitude to utility scale blades despite the difference in size and location in the atmospheric boundary layer. Dimensionless quantities circulation, induction, thrust coefficient, and tip-speed-ratio were kept equal between rotor scales in region 2 of operation. The new NRT design matched the aerodynamic quantities of the most common wind turbine in the United States, the GE 1.5sle turbine with 37c model blades. The NRT blade design is presented along with its performance subject to the winds at SWiFT. The design requirements determined by the SWiFT experimental test campaign are shown to be met.
Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics
Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.
2017-10-01
This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.
SMART Rotor Development and Wind Tunnel Test
2009-09-01
amplifier and control system , and data acquisition, processing, and display systems . Boeing�s LRTS (Fig. 2), consists of a sled structure that...Support Test Stand Sled Tail Sting Outrigger Arm Figure 2: System integration test at whirl tower Port Rotor Balance Main Strut Flap Tail...demonstrated. Finally, the reliability of the flap actuation system was successfully proven in more than 60 hours of wind tunnel testing
Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations
Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.
2012-12-01
Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid
Transonic airfoil design for helicopter rotor applications
Hassan, Ahmed A.; Jackson, B.
1989-01-01
Despite the fact that the flow over a rotor blade is strongly influenced by locally three-dimensional and unsteady effects, practical experience has always demonstrated that substantial improvements in the aerodynamic performance can be gained by improving the steady two-dimensional charateristics of the airfoil(s) employed. The two phenomena known to have great impact on the overall rotor performance are: (1) retreating blade stall with the associated large pressure drag, and (2) compressibility effects on the advancing blade leading to shock formation and the associated wave drag and boundary-layer separation losses. It was concluded that: optimization routines are a powerful tool for finding solutions to multiple design point problems; the optimization process must be guided by the judicious choice of geometric and aerodynamic constraints; optimization routines should be appropriately coupled to viscous, not inviscid, transonic flow solvers; hybrid design procedures in conjunction with optimization routines represent the most efficient approach for rotor airfroil design; unsteady effects resulting in the delay of lift and moment stall should be modeled using simple empirical relations; and inflight optimization of aerodynamic loads (e.g., use of variable rate blowing, flaps, etc.) can satisfy any number of requirements at design and off-design conditions.
A rigid porous filter and filtration method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.
1998-12-01
The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.
Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials
2014-12-01
Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.
Rigidity of complete generic shrinking Ricci solitons
Chu, Yawei; Zhou, Jundong; Wang, Xue
2018-01-01
Let (Mn , g , X) be a complete generic shrinking Ricci soliton of dimension n ≥ 3. In this paper, by employing curvature inequalities, the formula of X-Laplacian for the norm square of the trace-free curvature tensor, the weak maximum principle and the estimate of the scalar curvature of (Mn , g) , we prove some rigidity results for (Mn , g , X) . In particular, it is showed that (Mn , g , X) is isometric to Rn or a finite quotient of Sn under a pointwise pinching condition. Moreover, we establish several optimal inequalities and classify those shrinking solitons for equalities.
An experimental study on improvement of Savonius rotor performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.H. Mahmoud
2012-03-01
In this work different geometries of Savonius wind turbine are experimentally studied in order to determine the most effective operation parameters. It was found that, the two blades rotor is more efficient than three and four ones. The rotor with end plates gives higher efficiency than those of without end plates. Double stage rotors have higher performance compared to single stage rotors. The rotors without overlap ratio (β are better in operation than those with overlap. The results show also that the power coefficient increases with rising the aspect ratio (α. The conclusions from the measurements of the static torque for each rotor at different wind speeds verify the above summarized results of this work.
Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids
Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.
1992-12-22
A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.
HPOTP low-speed flexible rotor balancing, phase 1
Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.
1985-01-01
A method was developed that shows promise in overcoming many balancing limitations. This method establishes one or more windows for low speed, out-of-housing balancing of flexible rotors. These windows are regions of speed and support flexibility where two conditions are simultaneously fulfilled. First, the rotor system behaves flexibly; therefore, there is separation among balance planes. Second, the response due to balance weights is large enough to reliably measure. The analytic formulation of the low-speed flexible rotor balancing method is described. The results of proof-of-principle tests conducted under the program are presented. Based on this effort, it is concluded that low speed flexible rotor balancing is a viable technology. In particular, the method can be used to balance a rotor bearing system at low speed which results in smooth operation above more than one bending critical speed. Furthermore, this balancing methodology is applicable to SSME turbopump rotors.
Rotor blade boundary layer measurement hardware feasibility demonstration
Clark, D. R.; Lawton, T. D.
1972-01-01
A traverse mechanism which allows the measurement of the three dimensional boundary layers on a helicopter rotor blade has been built and tested on a full scale rotor to full scale conditions producing centrifugal accelerations in excess of 400 g and Mach numbers of 0.6 and above. Boundary layer velocity profiles have been measured over a range of rotor speeds and blade collective pitch angles. A pressure scanning switch and transducer were also tested on the full scale rotor and found to be insensitive to centrifugal effects within the normal main rotor operating range. The demonstration of the capability to measure boundary layer behavior on helicopter rotor blades represents the first step toward obtaining, in the rotating system, data of a quality comparable to that already existing for flows in the fixed system.
Rotor calculations for neutron spectroscopy; Calculs des rotors de spectrometres a neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gobert, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
The determination of stress in a rotating disk plane of symmetry normal to the axis of rotation has been studied by a number of investigators. In a recent paper Reich gives an operating process for an analytical solution in an asymmetric rotating disk. In the report we give the calculation of finite difference stress solutions applicable to the two rotating disks. The equations are then programmed for the 360.75 computer by Fortran methods concerning the rotors of choppers. (author) [French] La determination des contraintes dans les disques symetriques, en rotation a ete etudiee par de nombreux auteurs. Dans un recent rapport, Reich donne une solution pour le calcul des disques asymetriques. Ce rapport concerne l'application du calcul des contraintes par differences finies aux deux types de rotors. Les equations ecrites en langage Fortran pour l'ordinateur 360.75 concerne les rotors de choppers. (auteur)
Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes
Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.
1987-07-17
A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.
Uranium accumulation in CTF and ETF-II rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-06-01
In the expanding technology of uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge, efforts are being made to become more and more familar with the reactions taking place inside the rotor tube while the machine is operational. Inspection of the rotor after shutdown shows where uranium containing compounds are deposited. A study of these deposits from several ETF, CTF and CPL rotors has provided insight as to accumulation amounts, its composition and deposition parameters involved
Rotor blade online monitoring and fault diagnosis technology research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tesauro, Angelo; Pavese, Christian; Branner, Kim
Rotor blade online monitoring and fault diagnosis technology is an important way to find blade failure mechanisms and thereby improve the blade design. Condition monitoring of rotor blades is necessary in order to ensure the safe operation of the wind turbine, make the maintenance more economical...... of the rotor, icing and lightning. Research is done throughout the world in order to develop and improve such measurement systems. Commercial hardware and software available for the described purpose is presented in the report....
Khazaei, Somayeh; Sebastiani, Daniel
2017-11-01
We study the influence of rotational coupling between a pair of methyl rotators on the tunneling spectrum in condensed phase. Two interacting adjacent methyl groups are simulated within a coupled-pair model composed of static rotational potential created by the chemical environment and the interaction potential between two methyl groups. We solve the two-dimensional time-independent Schrödinger equation analytically by expanding the wave functions on the basis set of two independent free-rotor functions. We investigate three scenarios which differ with respect to the relative strength of single-rotor and coupling potential. For each scenario, we illustrate the dependence of the energy level scheme on the coupling strength. It is found that the main determinant of splitting energy levels tends to be a function of the ratio of strengths of coupling and single-rotor potential. The tunnel splitting caused by coupling is maximized for the coupled rotors in which their total hindering potential is relatively shallow. Such a weakly hindered methyl rotational potential is predicted for 4-methylpyridine at low temperature. The experimental observation of multiple tunneling peaks arising from a single type of methyl group in 4-methylpyridine in the inelastic neutron scattering spectrum is widely attributed to the rotor-rotor coupling. In this regard, using a set of first-principles calculations combined with the nudged elastic band method, we investigate the rotational potential energy surface (PES) of the coaxial pairs of rotors in 4-methylpyridine. A Numerov-type method is used to numerically solve the two-dimensional time-independent Schrödinger equation for the calculated 2D-density functional theory profile. Our computed energy levels reproduce the observed tunneling transitions well. Moreover, the calculated density distribution of the three methyl protons resembles the experimental nuclear densities obtained from the Fourier difference method. By mapping the
Equations of motion for a rotor blade, including gravity, pitch action and rotor speed variations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose
2007-01-01
This paper extends Hodges-Dowell's partial differential equations of blade motion, by including the effects from gravity, pitch action and varying rotor speed. New equations describing the pitch action and rotor speeds are also derived. The physical interpretation of the individual terms...... in the equations is discussed. The partial differential equations of motion are approximated by ordinary differential equations of motion using an assumed mode method. The ordinary differential equations are used to simulate a sudden pitch change of a rotating blade. This work is a part of a project on pitch blade...
Numerical modeling of a rotor misalignment; Modelado numerico del desalineamiento de un rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leon Pina, Roberto
2009-12-15
In the turbo-machinery area after an unbalancing, the misalignment is the fault that most frequently appears, and this one has been little studied compared to the unbalance. The misalignment appears when the geometric centers of two shafts and/or bearings do not coincide, these differences take place by different factors such as: incorrect installation of the bearings or rotors, thermal effects, or rotor weight, to mention some of them. The of the misalignment diagnosis continues being an area little studied, since the effects it generates are complex and include diverse physical processes reason why it presents/displays similar symptoms to those of other faults; thus, one of the methods that are used to diagnose this fault, is based on analyzing the vibration phantoms but this works only under particular conditions. In order to reproduce the dynamic behavior of a misaligned rotor, in the present work non-linear simplified models of the supports are used, whose objective is to contribute to facilitate future studies of the flow-dynamic behavior of the bearing, helping to identify the type and magnitude of the existing non-linearity in the supports and leaning in the analysis of the vibratory behavior of misaligned rotors observed in the field. [Spanish] En el area de turbomaquinaria despues del desbalance, el desalineamiento es la falla que se presenta con mayor frecuencia, y esta se ha estudiado poco comparada con el desbalance. El desalineamiento se presenta cuando los centros geometricos de dos flechas y/o chumaceras no coinciden, estas diferencias se producen por diferentes factores como: instalacion incorrecta de las chumaceras o rotores, efectos termicos, o el peso del rotor, por mencionar algunos. El diagnostico del desalineamiento sigue siendo una area poco estudiada, ya que los efectos que genera son complejos y abarcan diversos procesos fisicos por lo que presenta sintomas similares a los de otras fallas; asi, uno de los metodos que se utilizan para
Public policies targeting labour market rigidities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.
Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.
Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G
2017-05-01
Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.
Optimized imaging using non-rigid registration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkels, Benjamin; Binev, Peter; Blom, Douglas A.; Dahmen, Wolfgang; Sharpley, Robert C.; Vogt, Thomas
2014-01-01
The extraordinary improvements of modern imaging devices offer access to data with unprecedented information content. However, widely used image processing methodologies fall far short of exploiting the full breadth of information offered by numerous types of scanning probe, optical, and electron microscopies. In many applications, it is necessary to keep measurement intensities below a desired threshold. We propose a methodology for extracting an increased level of information by processing a series of data sets suffering, in particular, from high degree of spatial uncertainty caused by complex multiscale motion during the acquisition process. An important role is played by a non-rigid pixel-wise registration method that can cope with low signal-to-noise ratios. This is accompanied by formulating objective quality measures which replace human intervention and visual inspection in the processing chain. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of siliceous zeolite material exhibits the above-mentioned obstructions and therefore serves as orientation and a test of our procedures. - Highlights: • Developed a new process for extracting more information from a series of STEM images. • An objective non-rigid registration process copes with distortions. • Images of zeolite Y show retrieval of all information available from the data set. • Quantitative measures of registration quality were implemented. • Applicable to any serially acquired data, e.g. STM, AFM, STXM, etc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronov, I.N.
1999-01-01
The attempts to development of the rotor-dampers universal model with ability of fast correction of the parameters of mock-up rotor and dampers, their construction were made. The model that takes into account viscous characteristics of the material of the centrifuge rotor and allows research numerically into the rotor behaviour during over-speeding is suggested. The examples of calculations as show good effect of electromagnetic damping on the dynamics of the centrifuge rotor are given [ru
Note: Attenuation motion of acoustically levitated spherical rotor
Lü, P.; Hong, Z. Y.; Yin, J. F.; Yan, N.; Zhai, W.; Wang, H. P.
2016-11-01
Here we observe the attenuation motion of spherical rotors levitated by near-field acoustic radiation force and analyze the factors that affect the duration time of free rotation. It is found that the rotating speed of freely rotating rotor decreases exponentially with respect to time. The time constant of exponential attenuation motion depends mainly on the levitation height, the mass of rotor, and the depth of concave ultrasound emitter. Large levitation height, large mass of rotor, and small depth of concave emitter are beneficial to increase the time constant and hence extend the duration time of free rotation.
Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials
Shi, Jun [Glastonbury, CT; Bombara, David [New Hartford, CT; Green, Kevin E [Broad Brook, CT; Bird, Connic [Rocky Hill, CT; Holowczak, John [South Windsor, CT
2009-05-05
A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.
PIV in a model wind turbine rotor wake
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Naumov, Igor; Karbadin, Ivan
2013-01-01
Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the flow in the wake of scale model of a horizontal axis wind turbine is presented Near the rotor, measurements are made in vertical planes intersecting the rotor axis These planes capture flow effect from the tip and root vortices...... perpendicular to the rotor axis is used to investigate the dynamics in the far wake Here, a precessing core is found and data indicate that the Strouhal number of the precessing is independent of the rotor speed...
Dynamic Analysis of Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors
Lobitz, D. W.
1981-01-01
The dynamic response characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) rotor are important factors governing the safety and fatigue life of VAWT systems. The principal problems are the determination of critical rotor speeds (resonances) and the assessment of forced vibration response amplitudes. The solution to these problems is complicated by centrifugal and Coriolis effects which can have substantial influence on rotor resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The primary tools now in use for rotor analysis are described and discussed. These tools include a lumped spring mass model (VAWTDYN) and also finite-element based approaches. The accuracy and completeness of current capabilities are also discussed.
Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft
Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.
Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.
2005-01-01
Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)
Numerical simulation of a hovering rotor using embedded grids
Duque, Earl-Peter N.; Srinivasan, Ganapathi R.
1992-01-01
The flow field for a rotor blade in hover was computed by numerically solving the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations on embedded grids. In this work, three embedded grids were used to discretize the flow field - one for the rotor blade and two to convect the rotor wake. The computations were performed at two hovering test conditions, for a two-bladed rectangular rotor of aspect ratio six. The results compare fairly with experiment and illustrates the use of embedded grids in solving helicopter type flow fields.
Helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity - Some key ideas and insights
Friedmann, Peretz P.
1990-01-01
Four important current topics in helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity are discussed: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities in rotary-wing aeroelasticity; (2) structural modeling, free vibration, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage areomechanical problems and their active control; and (4) use of higher-harmonic control for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors in forward flight. The discussion attempts to provide an improved fundamental understanding of the current state of the art. In this way, future research can be focused on problems which remain to be solved instead of producing marginal improvements on problems which are already understood.
THEORY OF MUM FOR METAL SPHERICAL ROTOR WITH CONTACTLESS SUSPENSION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
He Xiaoxia; Gao Zhongyu; Wang Yongliang
2004-01-01
Based on the motion equations of an unbalanced spherical rotor with contactless suspension,three methods of MUM (mass unbalance measurement) are put forward to measure the total mass unbalance,radical mass unbalance and radical mass unbalance of the rotor.Total mass unbalance is obtained when the unbalanced rotor plays as a simple pendulum in static situation.The pendulant period and pendulant midpoint indicate magnitude and direction of total mass unbalance of the rotor respectively.Analysis of the motion equations by using the averaging method yields that the rotor will do a special side oscillation when an auxiliary system makes the rotor spin about its pole axis which is orientating toward the local vertical.The radical mass unbalance can be obtained by building a proper displacement sensor to sense the amplitude of the side oscillation.Necessary analysis of the motion equations also shows that when the rotor spins at a small angular velocity and the rotary axis is perpendicular to the vertical,the pole axis of the rotor will precess slowly about the vertical by virtue of the axial mass unbalance.The axial mass unbalance can be estimated from the time history of the spin vector of the rotor.Finally,measurement precision of the three methods is compared and how the external torque affects the measurement precision for the three methods are examined.
Production of intermediate energy beams by high speed rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nutt, C.W.; Bale, T.J.; Cosgrove, P.; Kirby, M.J.
1975-01-01
A rotor apparatus intended for the study of gas/surface interaction processes is presently nearing completion. The carbon fiber rotors under consideration are constructed with shapes derived from long thin cylindrical rods oriented with the longest axis in a horizontal plane, and spun in a horizontal plane about an axis which is perpendicular to the long axis and passes through the mid-point of the cylinder. The beam formation processes are discussed and rotor diagrams presented. Performance of these types of high speed rotor show them to have a very important future as sources of intermediate energy molecular beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Hua; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2012-01-01
Blade element moment (BEM) is a widely used technique for prediction of wind turbine aerodynamics performance, the reliability of airfoil data is an important factor to improve the prediction accuracy of aerodynamic loads and power using a BEM code. The method of determination of angle of attack ...
Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity
Rader, A. J.
2010-03-01
The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors.
Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rader, A J
2010-01-01
The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors
Coherent distributions for the rigid rotator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grigorescu, Marius [CP 15-645, Bucharest 014700 (Romania)
2016-06-15
Coherent solutions of the classical Liouville equation for the rigid rotator are presented as positive phase-space distributions localized on the Lagrangian submanifolds of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. These solutions become Wigner-type quasiprobability distributions by a formal discretization of the left-invariant vector fields from their Fourier transform in angular momentum. The results are consistent with the usual quantization of the anisotropic rotator, but the expected value of the Hamiltonian contains a finite “zero point” energy term. It is shown that during the time when a quasiprobability distribution evolves according to the Liouville equation, the related quantum wave function should satisfy the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.
Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.
Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming
2015-09-01
Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.
Observational properties of rigidly rotating dust configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ilyas, Batyr; Malafarina, Daniele [Nazarbayev University, Department of Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Yang, Jinye [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany)
2017-07-15
We study the observational properties of a class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations describing stationary, axially symmetric, rigidly rotating dust (i.e. non-interacting particles). We ask the question whether such solutions can describe astrophysical rotating dark matter clouds near the center of galaxies and we probe the possibility that they may constitute an alternative to supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. We show that light emission from accretion disks made of ordinary baryonic matter in this space-time has several differences with respect to the emission of light from similar accretion disks around black holes. The shape of the iron Kα line in the reflection spectrum of accretion disks can potentially distinguish this class of solutions from the Kerr metric, but this may not be possible with current X-ray missions. (orig.)
On real structures on rigid surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikov, Vik S; Kharlamov, V M
2002-01-01
We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p g =q=0 and K 2 =9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem
On real structures on rigid surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France)
2002-02-28
We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p{sub g}=q=0 and K{sup 2}=9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem.
Management of rigid post-traumatic kyphosis.
Wu, S S; Hwa, S Y; Lin, L C; Pai, W M; Chen, P Q; Au, M K
1996-10-01
Rigid post-traumatic kyphosis after fracture of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine represents a failure of initial management of the injury. Kyphosis moves the center of gravity anterior. The kyphosis and instability may result in pain, deformity, and increased neurologic deficits. Management for symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis always has presented a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. To evaluate the surgical results of one stage posterior correction for rigid symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. The management for post-traumatic kyphosis remains controversial. Anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior procedures have been advocated by different authors and show various degrees of success. One vertebra immediately above and below the level of the deformity was instrumented posteriorly by a transpedicular system (internal fixator AO). Posterior decompression was performed by excision of the spinal process and bilateral laminectomy. With the deformed vertebra through the pedicle, the vertebral body carefully is removed around the pedicle level, approximating a wedge shape. The extent to which the deformed vertebral body should be removed is determined by the attempted correction. Correction of the deformity is achieved by manipulation of the operating table and compression of the adjacent Schanz screws above and below the lesion. Thirteen patients with post-traumatic kyphosis with symptoms of fatigue and pain caused by slow progression of kyphotic deformities received posterior decompression, correction, and stabilization as a definitive treatment. The precorrection kyphosis ranged from 30-60 degrees, with a mean of 40 degrees +/- 10.8 degrees. After correction, kyphosis was reduced to an average of 1.5 degrees +/- 3.8 degrees, with a range from -5 degrees to 5 degrees. The average angle of correction was 38.8 degrees +/- 10.4 degrees, with a range from 25 degrees to 60 degrees. Significant difference was found
Reliable actuators for twin rotor MIMO system
Rao, Vidya S.; V. I, George; Kamath, Surekha; Shreesha, C.
2017-11-01
Twin Rotor MIMO System (TRMS) is a bench mark system to test flight control algorithms. One of the perturbations on TRMS which is likely to affect the control system is actuator failure. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable control system, which includes H infinity controller along with redundant actuators. Reliable control refers to the design of a control system to tolerate failures of a certain set of actuators or sensors while retaining desired control system properties. Output of reliable controller has to be transferred to the redundant actuator effectively to make the TRMS reliable even under actual actuator failure.
Flowfield Characteristics on a Retreating Rotor Blade
2015-12-03
Rotating Disk, IMECE2013 ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition. 21-NOV-13, . : , Michael Mayo, Nicholas Motahari...Number: Discipline Brandon Liberi 0.00 Jackson Merkl 0.00 Vaibhav Kumar 0.00 Nicholas Motahari 0.00 Ryan McMullen 0.00 0.00 5 NAME Total Number...horizontal and vertical pixel position of the far ends of the rotor hub and performing an inverse tan operation. Davis 7.2 software by LaVision was used to
Bragg rotor spectrometer for tokamak diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnsley, R.; Evans, K.D.; Peacock, N.J.
1986-01-01
This paper discusses high thru'put broad band (1-24 angstrom) x-ray spectrometer having absolute calibration for wavelength and intensity and demonstrated on the DITE tokamak. This instrument has a self-contained vacuum system which allows full spatial scans of the DITE plasma. Data acquisition and drive mechanism for the rotor and filter selection are operated remotely from a SADA. Results are presented of fast spectral surveys and λ-lock time-evolution of impurity emission during neutral beam injection. Spatial scans of the absolute impurity concentrations are derived
Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.
2015-01-01
in these developments. Although he cooperated with other famous aerodynamicists like Prandtl, his contribution is not well recognized as most of his publications are in Russian. The paper discusses the role of the English, Russian and German research schools in the beginning of the Twentieth Century...... is the basis of current rotor design codes. He applied some assumptions limiting the validity to moderate and high tip speed ratios. Sorensen and van Kuik published a solution for wind turbines with very low tip speed ratios, which is now expanded to propellers as well, with one remaining assumption...
Design optimization for active twist rotor blades
Mok, Ji Won
This dissertation introduces the process of optimizing active twist rotor blades in the presence of embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. Optimum design of active twist blades is a complex task, since it involves a rich design space with tightly coupled design variables. The study presents the development of an optimization framework for active helicopter rotor blade cross-sectional design. This optimization framework allows for exploring a rich and highly nonlinear design space in order to optimize the active twist rotor blades. Different analytical components are combined in the framework: cross-sectional analysis (UM/VABS), an automated mesh generator, a beam solver (DYMORE), a three-dimensional local strain recovery module, and a gradient based optimizer within MATLAB. Through the mathematical optimization problem, the static twist actuation performance of a blade is maximized while satisfying a series of blade constraints. These constraints are associated with locations of the center of gravity and elastic axis, blade mass per unit span, fundamental rotating blade frequencies, and the blade strength based on local three-dimensional strain fields under worst loading conditions. Through pre-processing, limitations of the proposed process have been studied. When limitations were detected, resolution strategies were proposed. These include mesh overlapping, element distortion, trailing edge tab modeling, electrode modeling and foam implementation of the mesh generator, and the initial point sensibility of the current optimization scheme. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of this process. Optimization studies were performed on the NASA/Army/MIT ATR blade case. Even though that design was built and shown significant impact in vibration reduction, the proposed optimization process showed that the design could be improved significantly. The second example, based on a model scale of the AH-64D Apache blade, emphasized the capability of this framework to
Several rotor noise sources and treatments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tangler, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)
1997-12-31
Noise has been a design consideration in the development of advanced blades and turbines at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. During atmospheric testing associated with these efforts various types of aeroacoustic noise have been encountered. This presentation discusses several of these noise sources and treatments used to mitigate or eliminate the noise. Tonal noise resulting from tip-vortex/trailing-edge interaction and laminar separation bubbles was found to be easily eliminated. Impulsive noise resulting from blade/vortex interaction for rotors that furl and that due to tower shadow can be mitigated by various means. (au)
Frederick, G. R.; Winemiller, J. R.; Savino, J. M.
1982-01-01
Three designs of a guyed cylindrical tower and its foundation for an intermediate size horizontal axis wind turbine generator are discussed. The primary difference in the three designs is the configuration of the rotor. Two configurations are two-blade rotors with teetering hubs - one with full span pitchable blades, the other with fixed pitch blades. The third configuration is a three-bladed rotor with a rigid hub and fixed pitch blades. In all configurations the diameter of the rotor is 38 meters and the axis of rotation is 30.4 meters above grade, and the power output is 200 kW and 400 kW. For each configuration the design is based upon for the most severe loading condition either operating wind or hurricane conditions. The diameter of the tower is selected to be 1.5 meters (since it was determined that this would provide sufficient space for access ladders within the tower) with guy rods attached at 10.7 meters above grade. Completing a design requires selecting the required thicknesses of the various cylindrical segments, the number and diameter of the guy rods, the number and size of soil anchors, and the size of the central foundation. The lower natural frequencies of vibration are determined for each design to ensure that operation near resonance does not occur. Finally, a cost estimate is prepared for each design. A preliminary design and cost estimate of a cantilever tower (cylindrical and not guyed) and its foundation is also presented for each of the three configurations.
Dual Quaternion Variational Integrator for Rigid Body Dynamic Simulation
Xu, Jiafeng; Halse, Karl Henning
2016-01-01
In rigid body dynamic simulations, often the algorithm is required to deal with general situations where both reference point and inertia matrix are arbitrarily de- fined. We introduce a novel Lie group variational integrator using dual quaternion for simulating rigid body dynamics in all six degrees of freedom. Dual quaternion is used to represent rigid body kinematics and one-step Lie group method is used to derive dynamic equations. The combination of these two becomes the first Lie group ...
Tile-based rigidization surface parametric design study
Giner Munoz, Laura; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Kim, Wonhee
2018-03-01
Inflatable technologies have proven useful in consumer goods as well as in more recent applications including civil structures, aerospace, medical, and robotics. However, inflatable technologies are typically lacking in their ability to provide rigid structural support. Particle jamming improves upon this by providing structures which are normally flexible and moldable but become rigid when air is removed. Because these are based on an airtight bladder filled with loose particles, they always occupy the full volume of its rigid state, even when not rigidized. More recent developments in layer jamming have created thin, compact rigidizing surfaces replacing the loose volume of particles with thinly layered surface materials. Work in this area has been applied to several specific applications with positive results but have not generally provided the broader understanding of the rigidization performance as a function of design parameters required for directly adapting layer rigidization technology to other applications. This paper presents a parametric design study of a new layer jamming vacuum rigidization architecture: tile-based vacuum rigidization. This form of rigidization is based on layers of tiles contained within a thin vacuum bladder which can be bent, rolled, or otherwise compactly stowed, but when deployed flat, can be vacuumed and form a large, flat, rigid plate capable of supporting large forces both localized and distributed over the surface. The general architecture and operation detailing rigidization and compliance mechanisms is introduced. To quantitatively characterize the rigidization behavior, prototypes rigidization surfaces are fabricated and an experimental technique is developed based on a 3-point bending test. Performance evaluation metrics are developed to describe the stiffness, load-bearing capacity, and internal slippage of tested prototypes. A set of experimental parametric studies are performed to better understand the impact of
Experimental Study on a Rotor for WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy
This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power conversion capabilities of one single rotor of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly on defining the optimal weight distribution in the rotor in order to improve the hydraulic performance through...
Causal Scale of Rotors in a Cardiac System
Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Prieto-Castrillo, Francisco; Kawakatsu, Mari; Dehghani, Nima
2018-04-01
Rotors of spiral waves are thought to be one of the potential mechanisms that maintain atrial fibrillation (AF). However, disappointing clinical outcomes of rotor mapping and ablation to eliminate AF raise a serious doubt on rotors as a macro-scale mechanism that causes the micro-scale behavior of individual cardiomyocytes to maintain spiral waves. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the causal relationship between rotors and spiral waves in a numerical model of cardiac excitation. To accomplish the aim, we described the system in a series of spatiotemporal scales by generating a renormalization group, and evaluated the causal architecture of the system by quantifying causal emergence. Causal emergence is an information-theoretic metric that quantifies emergence or reduction between micro- and macro-scale behaviors of a system by evaluating effective information at each scale. We found that the cardiac system with rotors has a spatiotemporal scale at which effective information peaks. A positive correlation between the number of rotors and causal emergence was observed only up to the scale of peak causation. We conclude that rotors are not the universal mechanism to maintain spiral waves at all spatiotemporal scales. This finding may account for the conflicting benefit of rotor ablation in clinical studies.
The rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Vortex theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Wood, David H.
2015-01-01
This is the second of two articles with the main, and largely self-explanatory, title "Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky". This article considers rotors with finite number of blades and is subtitled "Vortex theories". The first article with subtitle "Momentum theories", assessed the starring...
Modeling of high speed micro rotors in moderate flow confinement
Dikmen, E.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Sas, P.; Bergen, B.
2008-01-01
The recent developments in high speed micro rotating machinery lead to the need for multiphysical modeling of the rotor and the surrounding medium. In this study, thermal and flow induced effects on rotor dynamics of geometries with moderate flow confinement are studied. The structure is modeled via
A viscosity and density meter with a magnetically suspended rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bano, Mikulas; Strharsky, Igor; Hrmo, Igor
2003-01-01
A device for measuring the viscosity and density of liquids is presented. It is a Couette-type viscometer that uses a submerged rotor to measure the viscosity without errors originating in the contact of the rotor with the sample/air boundary. The inner cylinder is a glass rotor suspended in the liquid, and the outer cylinder is also made of glass. The rotor is stabilized on the axis of the outer cylinder by an electromagnetic force controlled by feedback from the rotor's vertical position. In the lower part of the rotor is an aluminum cylinder located in a magnetic field generated by rotating permanent magnets. The interaction of this rotating magnetic field with eddy currents generated in the aluminum cylinder causes rotation of the rotor. This rotation is optically detected, and viscosity is calculated from the measured angular velocity of rotor. The density of the liquid is calculated from the applied vertical equilibrating force. A computer controls the whole measurement. The device works at constant temperature or while scanning temperature. The sample volume is 1.6 ml, and the accuracy of measurement of both viscosity and density is ∼0.1%. The range of measured densities is (0.7-1.4) g/ml, and viscosity can be measured in the range (3x10 -4 -0.3) Pa s. The shear rate of the viscosity measurement varies in the range (20-300) s-1. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.02 K
Simulations of wind turbine rotor with vortex generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.
2016-01-01
This work presents simulations of the DTU 10MW wind turbine rotor equipped with vortex generators (VGs) on the inner part of the blades. The objective is to study the influence of different VG configurations on rotor performance and in particular to investigate the radial dependence of VGs, i...
Stability of Rotor Systems: A Complex Modelling Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian; Stoustrup, Jakob
1996-01-01
A large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a complex matrix differential equation of secondorder. The angular velocity of the rotor plays the role of a parameter. We apply the Lyapunov matrix equation in a complex setting and prove two new stability results which are compared...
Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Resor, Brian Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richards, Phillip William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-05-01
A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.
Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations
Kussmann, A.; Molly, J.; Muser, D.
1980-01-01
The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.
Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kussmann, A; Molly, J P; Muser, D
1979-06-01
The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.
Towards Efficient Fluid-Structure-Control Interaction for Smart Rotors
Gillebaart, T.
2016-01-01
One of the solutions to speed up the energy transition is the smart rotor concept: wind turbine blades with actively controlled Trailing Edge Flaps. In the past decade feasibility studies (both numerical and experimental) have been performed to assess the applicability of smart rotors in future
Aerodynamic loads and rotor performance for the Darrieus wind turbines
Paraschivoiu, I.
1981-12-01
Aerodynamic blade loads and rotor performance are studied for the Darrieus windmill by using a double-multiple streamtube model. The Darrieus is represented as a pair of actuator disks in tandem at each level of the rotor, with upstream and downstream half-cycles. An equilibrium velocity exists in the center plane, and the upwind velocity is higher than the downwind velocity; lift and drag coefficients are calculated from the Reynolds number and the local angle of attack. Half-rotor torque and power are found by averaging the contributions from each streamtube at each position of the rotor in the upwind cycle. An example is provided for a 17 m Darrieus employing NACA blades. While the method is found to be suitable for predicting blade and rotor performance, the need to incorporate the effects of dynamic stall in the model is stressed as a means to improve accuracy.
DESIGN EVALUATIONS OF DOUBLE ROTOR SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MACHINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.V. ARAVIND
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The absence of magnets makes the reluctance machine typical for low cogging operations with the torque depending on the stator rotor interaction area. The air gap between stator pole and rotor pole gives a huge effect on the reluctance variation. The primitive double rotor switched reluctance machine lags to improvise the effect of the ripple value though the torque density is higher compared to conventional machines. An optimised circular hole position and dimensioned in the stator pole of lowers the torque ripple and reduce the acoustic noise as presented in this paper. A comparative evaluation of the conventional double rotor machine with this improved structure is done through numerical design and evaluations for the same sizing. It is found that the motor constant square density. It is found that the double rotor switched reluctance machine is improved by 140% to conventional machine.
Disc rotors with permanent magnets for brushless DC motor
Hawsey, Robert A.; Bailey, J. Milton
1992-01-01
A brushless dc permanent magnet motor drives an autonomous underwater vehe. In one embodiment, the motor comprises four substantially flat stators in stacked relationship, with pairs of the stators axially spaced, each of the stators comprising a tape-wound stator coil, and first and second substantially flat rotors disposed between the spaced pairs of stators. Each of the rotors includes an annular array of permanent magnets embedded therein. A first shaft is connected to the first rotor and a second, concentric shaft is connected to the second rotor, and a drive unit causes rotation of the two shafts in opposite directions. The second shaft comprises a hollow tube having a central bore in which the first shaft is disposed. Two different sets of bearings support the first and second shafts. In another embodiment, the motor comprises two ironless stators and pairs of rotors mounted on opposite sides of the stators and driven by counterrotating shafts.
The application of advanced rotor (performance) methods for design calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bussel, G.J.W. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Wind Energy, Delft (Netherlands)
1997-08-01
The calculation of loads and performance of wind turbine rotors has been a topic for research over the last century. The principles for the calculation of loads on rotor blades with a given specific geometry, as well as the development of optimal shaped rotor blades have been published in the decades that significant aircraft development took place. Nowadays advanced computer codes are used for specific problems regarding modern aircraft, and application to wind turbine rotors has also been performed occasionally. The engineers designing rotor blades for wind turbines still use methods based upon global principles developed in the beginning of the century. The question what to expect in terms of the type of methods to be applied in a design environment for the near future is addressed here. (EG) 14 refs.
SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall
2014-01-01
The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.
Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie
2012-01-01
This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.
Flocking of quad-rotor UAVs with fuzzy control.
Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Yanhui
2018-03-01
This paper investigates the flocking problem of quad-rotor UAVs. Considering the actual situations, we derived a new simplified quad-rotor UAV model which is more reasonable. Based on the model, the T-S fuzzy model of attitude dynamic equation and the corresponding T-S fuzzy feedback controller are discussed. By introducing a double-loop control construction, we adjust its attitude to realize the position control. Then a flocking algorithm is proposed to achieve the flocking of the quad-rotor UAVs. Compared with the flocking algorithm of the mass point model, we dealt with the collision problem of the quad-rotor UAVs. In order to improve the airspace utilization, a more compact configuration called quasi e-lattice is constructed to guarantee the compact flight of the quad-rotor UAVs. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SMART wind turbine rotor. Data analysis and conclusions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berg, Jonathan Charles; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Yoder, Nathanael C.
2014-01-01
The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.
The fracture mechanics of steam turbine electron beam welded rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coulon, P.A.
1987-01-01
Increased steam turbine unit ratings presupposes that steelmakers are capable of manufacturing larger and larger rotor components. However, there are few steelmakers in the world capable of manufacturing monobloc rotors for high rated turbines, which limits the choice of supplier. Most nuclear turbine rotors have a composite arrangement and are made either by shrinking discs on a shaft or using elements welded together. Those in favour of welding have applied a classical socalled ''submerged'' method using a filler metal. However welding can also be performed by using an Electron Beam in a vacuum room without a filler metal. This technique has many advantages: mechanical characteristics of the joint are identical to those of the base material after tempering without heat affected zones. Moreover, parts are only very slightly deformed during welding. Two steam turbine rotors have been produced in this way. This paper described the destructive tests carried out in the four Electron Beam (EB) welds (two on each rotor)
Interlaminar stress analysis for carbon/epoxy composite space rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C Lian
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper extends the previous works that appears in the International Journal of Multiphysics, Varatharajoo, Salit and Goh (2010. An approach incorporating cohesive zone modelling technique is incorporated into an optimized flywheel to properly simulate the stresses at the layer interfaces. Investigation on several fiber stacking sequences are also conducted to demonstrate the effect of fiber orientations on the overall rotor stress as well as the interface stress behaviour. The results demonstrated that the rotor interlaminar stresses are within the rotor materials' ultimate strength and that the fiber direction with a combination of 45°/-45°/0° offers the best triple layer rotor among the few combinations selected for this analysis. It was shown that the present approach can facilitate also further investigation on the interface stress behaviour of rotating rotors.
An Integrated NDE and FEM Characterization of Composite Rotors
Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.
2000-01-01
A structural assessment by integrating finite-element methods (FEM) and a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of two flywheel rotor assemblies is presented. Composite rotor A is pancake like with a solid hub design, and composite rotor B is cylindrical with a hollow hub design. Detailed analyses under combined centrifugal and interference-fit loading are performed. Two- and three-dimensional stress analyses and two-dimensional fracture mechanics analyses are conducted. A comparison of the structural analysis results obtained with those extracted via NDE findings is reported. Contact effects due to press-fit conditions are evaluated. Stress results generated from the finite-element analyses were corroborated with the analytical solution. Cracks due to rotational loading up to 49 000 rpm for rotor A and 34 000 rpm for rotor B were successfully imaged with NDE and predicted with FEM and fracture mechanics analyses. A procedure that extends current structural analysis to a life prediction tool is also defined.
Applications of Fluorogens with Rotor Structures in Solar Cells.
Ong, Kok-Haw; Liu, Bin
2017-05-29
Solar cells are devices that convert light energy into electricity. To drive greater adoption of solar cell technologies, higher cell efficiencies and reductions in manufacturing cost are necessary. Fluorogens containing rotor structures may be helpful in addressing some of these challenges due to their unique twisted structures and photophysics. In this review, we discuss the applications of rotor-containing molecules as dyes for luminescent down-shifting layers and luminescent solar concentrators, where their aggregation-induced emission properties and large Stokes shifts are highly desirable. We also discuss the applications of molecules containing rotors in third-generation solar cell technologies, namely dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics, where the twisted 3-dimensional rotor structures are used primarily for aggregation control. Finally, we discuss perspectives on the future role of molecules containing rotor structures in solar cell technologies.
Effect of Bearing Housings on Centrifugal Pump Rotor Dynamics
Yashchenko, A. S.; Rudenko, A. A.; Simonovskiy, V. I.; Kozlov, O. M.
2017-08-01
The article deals with the effect of a bearing housing on rotor dynamics of a barrel casing centrifugal boiler feed pump rotor. The calculation of the rotor model including the bearing housing has been performed by the method of initial parameters. The calculation of a rotor solid model including the bearing housing has been performed by the finite element method. Results of both calculations highlight the need to add bearing housings into dynamic analyses of the pump rotor. The calculation performed by modern software packages is more a time-taking process, at the same time it is a preferred one due to a graphic editor that is employed for creating a numerical model. When it is necessary to view many variants of design parameters, programs for beam modeling should be used.
Condition assessment of over 250 turbine and generator rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCann, D.R.; Jhansale, H.R.
1990-01-01
Results of condition assessment studies on 259 turbine and generator rotors following bore inspections are presented. The rotors were manufactured by Allis-Chalmers, General Electric and Westinghouse. Methodologies and criteria used for nondestructive inspections, condition assessment and life extension procedures are described. Several trends are observed and some interesting conclusions offered. Essentially about 9.3% of the rotors evaluated required life extensions via overbore/bottlebore to remove harmful flaws, and/or revised cold start procedures to reduce thermal stresses. None of the rotors was condemned. Based on these studies, it is concluded that all rotors from units larger than 10 MW should be periodically inspected and their condition assessed on a case by case basis for continued reliable service
Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization
Kemper, Edward
Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kobr, L.; Zhao, K.; Shen, X.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef
2013-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 3 (2013), s. 443-448 ISSN 0935-9648 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE 0848663 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : inclusion compounds * molecular rotors * ferroelectricity * two-dimensional arrays Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 15.409, year: 2013
Algebraic Methods for Counting Euclidean Embeddings of Rigid Graphs
I.Z. Emiris; E.P. Tsigaridas; A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios); E.R. Gasner
2009-01-01
textabstract The study of (minimally) rigid graphs is motivated by numerous applications, mostly in robotics and bioinformatics. A major open problem concerns the number of embeddings of such graphs, up to rigid motions, in Euclidean space. We capture embeddability by polynomial systems
THE RIGIDITY OF THE EARTH'S INNER CORE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. E. BULLEN
1953-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine and assess, in the
light of recent evidence, the theory lliat the Earth's inner core has
a significant rigidity.
The presenee of an inner core in the Earth is revealed from
observations of the seismie pliase PKP in the « sliadow zone » for
which the epicentral distance A lies in the range 105" < A < 143".
Miss I. Lehmann (r in 1936, followed by Gutenberg and Richter (2
in 1938, atlrihuted these observations to tlie presence of an inner
core; and Jeffreys (3 in 1939 applied Airy's theory of diffraetion
near a caustic to sliow that the alternative theory of diffraetion
round the outer boundary of the centrai core was not capable of
explaining tlie observations in the shadow zone. The existence of the
inner core has been fairly generallv accepted sinee tliis ealculation
of Jeffreys.
The theory of pseudo-rigid bodies
Cohen, Harley
1988-01-01
This monograph concerns the development, analysis, and application of the theory of pseudo-rigid bodies. It collects together our work on that subject over the last five years. While some results have appeared else where, much of the work is new. Our objective in writing this mono graph has been to present a new theory of the deformation of bodies, one that has not only a firm theoretical basis, but also the simplicity to serve as an effective tool in practical problems. Consequently, the main body of the treatise is a multifaceted development of the theory, from foundations to explicit solutions to linearizations to methods of approximation. The fact that this variety of aspects, each examined in considerable detail, can be collected together in a single, unified treat ment gives this theory an elegance that we feel sets it apart from many others. While our goal has always been to give a complete treatment of the theory as it now stands, the work here is not meant to be definitive. Theories are not ent...
Almost Poisson integration of rigid body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Austin, M.A.; Krishnaprasad, P.S.; Li-Sheng Wang
1993-01-01
In this paper we discuss the numerical integration of Lie-Poisson systems using the mid-point rule. Since such systems result from the reduction of hamiltonian systems with symmetry by lie group actions, we also present examples of reconstruction rules for the full dynamics. A primary motivation is to preserve in the integration process, various conserved quantities of the original dynamics. A main result of this paper is an O(h 3 ) error estimate for the Lie-Poisson structure, where h is the integration step-size. We note that Lie-Poisson systems appear naturally in many areas of physical science and engineering, including theoretical mechanics of fluids and plasmas, satellite dynamics, and polarization dynamics. In the present paper we consider a series of progressively complicated examples related to rigid body systems. We also consider a dissipative example associated to a Lie-Poisson system. The behavior of the mid-point rule and an associated reconstruction rule is numerically explored. 24 refs., 9 figs
Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams
Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.
2010-01-01
Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.
Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces
Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos
2015-11-01
Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.
L1 Adaptive Control for a Vertical Rotor Orientation System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sijia Liu
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Bottom-fixed vertical rotating devices are widely used in industrial and civilian fields. The free upside of the rotor will cause vibration and lead to noise and damage during operation. Meanwhile, parameter uncertainties, nonlinearities and external disturbances will further deteriorate the performance of the rotor. Therefore, in this paper, we present a rotor orientation control system based on an active magnetic bearing with L 1 adaptive control to restrain the influence of the nonlinearity and uncertainty and reduce the vibration amplitude of the vertical rotor. The boundedness and stability of the adaptive system are analyzed via a theoretical derivation. The impact of the adaptive gain is discussed through simulation. An experimental rig based on dSPACE is designed to test the validity of the rotor orientation system. The experimental results show that the relative vibration amplitude of the rotor using the L 1 adaptive controller will be reduced to ∼50% of that in the initial state, which is a 10% greater reduction than can be achieved with the nonadaptive controller. The control approach in this paper is of some significance to solve the orientation control problem in a low-speed vertical rotor with uncertainties and nonlinearities.
Analysis of a Stretched Derivative Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion
Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.
2015-01-01
Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.
Aeroelastic characteristics of the AH-64 bearingless tail rotor
Banerjee, D.
1988-01-01
The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine the performance loads and dynamic characteristics of the Composite Flexbeam Tail Rotor (CFTR) for the AH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter are reported. The CFTR uses an elastomeric shear attachment of the flexbeam to the hub to provide soft-inplane S-mode and stiff-inplane C-mode configuration. The properties of the elastomer were selected for proper frequency placement and scale damping of the inplane S-mode. Kinematic pitch-lag coupling was introduced to provide the first cyclic inplane C-mode damping at high collective pitch. The CFTR was tested in a wind tunnel over the full slideslip envelop of the AH-64. It is found that the rotor was aeroelastically stable throughout the complete collective pitch range and up to rotor speeds of 1403 rpm. The dynamic characteristics of the rotor were found to be satisfactory at all pitch angles and rotor speeds of the tunnel tests. The design characteristics of the rotor which permit the high performance characteristics are discussed. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the rotor are provided.
Numerical Simulation of Tower Rotor Interaction for Downwind Wind Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isam Janajreh
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Downwind wind turbines have lower upwind rotor misalignment, and thus lower turning moment and self-steered advantage over the upwind configuration. In this paper, numerical simulation to the downwind turbine is conducted to investigate the interaction between the tower and the blade during the intrinsic passage of the rotor in the wake of the tower. The moving rotor has been accounted for via ALE formulation of the incompressible, unsteady, turbulent Navier-Stokes equations. The localized CP, CL, and CD are computed and compared to undisturbed flow evaluated by Panel method. The time history of the CP, aerodynamic forces (CL and CD, as well as moments were evaluated for three cross-sectional tower; asymmetrical airfoil (NACA0012 having four times the rotor's chord length, and two circular cross-sections having four and two chords lengths of the rotor's chord. 5%, 17%, and 57% reductions of the aerodynamic lift forces during the blade passage in the wake of the symmetrical airfoil tower, small circular cross-section tower and large circular cross-section tower were observed, respectively. The pronounced reduction, however, is confined to a short time/distance of three rotor chords. A net forward impulsive force is also observed on the tower due to the high speed rotor motion.
Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic Design of a Rotor Blade for an Optimum Rotor Speed Helicopter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiayi Xie
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The aerodynamic design of rotor blades is challenging, and is crucial for the development of helicopter technology. Previous aerodynamic optimizations that focused only on limited design points find it difficult to balance flight performance across the entire flight envelope. This study develops a global optimum envelope (GOE method for determining blade parameters—blade twist, taper ratio, tip sweep—for optimum rotor speed helicopters (ORS-helicopters, balancing performance improvements in hover and various freestream velocities. The GOE method implements aerodynamic blade design by a bi-level optimization, composed of a global optimization step and a secondary optimization step. Power loss as a measure of rotor performance is chosen as the objective function, referred to as direct power loss (DPL in this study. A rotorcraft comprehensive code for trim simulation with a prescribed wake method is developed. With the application of the GOE method, a DPL reduction of as high as 16.7% can be achieved in hover, and 24% at high freestream velocity.
BUTCHER, PR; KALVERBOER, A; MINDERAA, RB; VANDOORMAAL, EF; TENWOLDE, Y
1993-01-01
The associations between a mother's rigidity, her sensitivity in early (3 month) interaction and the quality of her premature infant's attachment at 13 months were investigated. Rigidity as a personality characteristic was not found to be significantly associated with sensitivity or quality of
Structural modeling for multicell composite rotor blades
Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Atilgan, Ali R.
1987-01-01
Composite material systems are currently good candidates for aerospace structures, primarily for the design flexibility they offer, i.e., it is possible to tailor the material and manufacturing approach to the application. A working definition of elastic or structural tailoring is the use of structural concept, fiber orientation, ply stacking sequence, and a blend of materials to achieve specific performance goals. In the design process, choices of materials and dimensions are made which produce specific response characteristics, and which permit the selected goals to be achieved. Common choices for tailoring goals are preventing instabilities or vibration resonances or enhancing damage tolerance. An essential, enabling factor in the design of tailored composite structures is structural modeling that accurately, but simply, characterizes response. The objective of this paper is to present a new multicell beam model for composite rotor blades and to validate predictions based on the new model by comparison with a finite element simulation in three benchmark static load cases.
Complex harmonic modal analysis of rotor systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Dong Ju
2015-01-01
Complex harmonic analysis for rotor systems has been proposed from the strict complex modal analysis based upon Floquet theory. In this process the harmonic balance method is adopted, effectively associated with conventional eigenvalue analysis. Also, the harmonic coefficients equivalent to dFRFs in harmonic mode has been derived in practice. The modes are classified from identifying the modal characteristics, and the adaptation of harmonic balance method has been proven by comparing the results of the stability analyses from Floque theory and the eigen analysis. The modal features of each critical speed are depicted in quantitatively and qualitatively by showing that the strengths of each component of the harmonic coefficients are estimated from the order of magnitude analysis according to their harmonic patterns. This effectiveness has been verified by comparing with the numerical solutions
Prospects for development of wind turbines with orthogonal rotor
Gorelov, D. N.; Krivospitsky, V. P.
2008-03-01
The experimental data obtained previously on the investigation of power characteristics and the possibility of the self-start of the Darrieus rotor are anlysed. These results are used at the design of new two-tier wind turbines with straight blades. The full-scale tests of two design variants showed the prospects for the development of wind turbines with the Darrieus rotor. At a reasonable design, they do not need any devices for the rotor orientation and start-up, are little sensitive to wind gusts and can have a high level of power characteristics, which is not inferior to the best samples of the units of propeller type.
CAA modeling of helicopter main rotor in hover
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kusyumov Alexander N.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers. Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW–H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.
Aerodynamic Support of a Big Industrial Turboblower Rotor
Šimek, Jiří; Kozánek, Jan; Šafr, Milan
2007-01-01
Aerodynamic bearing support for the rotor of a 100 kW input industrial turboblower with operational speed of 18 000 rpm was designed and manufactured. Rotor with mass of about 50 kg is supported in two tilting-pad journal bearings 120 mm in diameter, axial forces are taken up by aerodynamic spiral groove thrust bearing 250 mm in diameter. Some specific features of the bearing design are described in the paper and the results of rotor support tests are presented. The paper is an extended versi...
Computations of Torque-Balanced Coaxial Rotor Flows
Yoon, Seokkwan; Chan, William M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2017-01-01
Interactional aerodynamics has been studied for counter-rotating coaxial rotors in hover. The effects of torque balancing on the performance of coaxial-rotor systems have been investigated. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on overset grids using high-order accurate schemes, dual-time stepping, and a hybrid turbulence model. Computational results for an experimental model are compared to available data. The results for a coaxial quadcopter vehicle with and without torque balancing are discussed. Understanding interactions in coaxial-rotor flows would help improve the design of next-generation autonomous drones.
Dynamic Analysis of Rotor Systems Considering Ball Bearing Contact Mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Jongmahn; Oh, Dongho
2013-01-01
We propose a finite element modeling method considering the ball bearing contact mechanism, and the developed method was verified through experimental and analytical results of inner and outer race-type rotor systems. A comparison of the proposed method with conventional method reveals that there is little difference in the results of the inner race-type rotor system, but there are considerable differences in the results of the outer race-type rotor system such that predictions of greater accuracy can be made. Therefore, the proposed method can be used for accurately predicting the dynamic characteristics of an outer race-type rotary machine
Corrosion cracking of rotor steels of steam turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melekhov, R.K.; Litvintseva, E.N.
1994-01-01
Results of investigation of stress corrosion cracking of steam turbine materials in nuclear, fossil and geothermal power plants have been analysed. The role of factors that cause damage to rotor discs, mono block and welding rotors of steam turbines has been shown. These are yield stress and steel composition, stress intensity coefficient and crack growth rate, composition and temperature of the condensed steam and water, electrochemical conditions. The conclusion has been made about the state of stress corrosion cracking of the rotors materials, and main investigation trends which are necessary to solve this problem have been listed
CAA modeling of helicopter main rotor in hover
Kusyumov, Alexander N.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Batrakov, Andrey S.; Kusyumov, Sergey A.; Barakos, George
In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers). Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW-H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.
Users guide to the inelastic rotor spectrometer (IRS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunce, L.J.
1987-11-01
The paper is a users guide to the inelastic rotor spectrometer installed on the Harwell 136 Mev electron linear accelerator HELIOS. The spectrometer is designed to measure neutron inelastic scattering for energy transfers from 50 meV to 400 meV and covering a range of Q values from 1 to 15 A 0-1 . The guide contains a description of:- time-of-flight scales, run and sample changer control units, sample environment, detectors, rotor system, 600 Hz operation of rotor, a run, and data processing. (U.K.)
Design of a wind turbine rotor for maximum aerodynamic efficiency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gaunaa, Mac
2009-01-01
The design of a three-bladed wind turbine rotor is described, where the main focus has been highest possible mechanical power coefficient, CP, at a single operational condition. Structural, as well as off-design, issues are not considered, leading to a purely theoretical design for investigating...... maximum aerodynamic efficiency. The rotor is designed assuming constant induction for most of the blade span, but near the tip region, a constant load is assumed instead. The rotor design is obtained using an actuator disc model, and is subsequently verified using both a free-wake lifting line method...
System and method for smoothing a salient rotor in electrical machines
Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Torrey, David A.
2016-12-13
An electrical machine exhibiting reduced friction and windage losses is disclosed. The electrical machine includes a stator and a rotor assembly configured to rotate relative to the stator, wherein the rotor assembly comprises a rotor core including a plurality of salient rotor poles that are spaced apart from one another around an inner hub such that an interpolar gap is formed between each adjacent pair of salient rotor poles, with an opening being defined by the rotor core in each interpolar gap. Electrically non-conductive and non-magnetic inserts are positioned in the gaps formed between the salient rotor poles, with each of the inserts including a mating feature formed an axially inner edge thereof that is configured to mate with a respective opening being defined by the rotor core, so as to secure the insert to the rotor core against centrifugal force experienced during rotation of the rotor assembly.
Hamiltonian Dynamics of Spider-Type Multirotor Rigid Bodies Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doroshin, Anton V.
2010-01-01
This paper sets out to develop a spider-type multiple-rotor system which can be used for attitude control of spacecraft. The multirotor system contains a large number of rotor-equipped rays, so it was called a 'Spider-type System', also it can be called 'Rotary Hedgehog'. These systems allow using spinups and captures of conjugate rotors to perform compound attitude motion of spacecraft. The paper describes a new method of spacecraft attitude reorientation and new mathematical model of motion in Hamilton form. Hamiltonian dynamics of the system is investigated with the help of Andoyer-Deprit canonical variables. These variables allow obtaining exact solution for hetero- and homoclinic orbits in phase space of the system motion, which are very important for qualitative analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edgar Estupiñán P
2006-08-01
Full Text Available El presente trabajo resalta la importancia del balanceamiento de rotores como principal herramienta dentro de las tareas correctivas del mantenimiento predictivo, con el fin de que se reduzcan las vibraciones y sus efectos secundarios en las máquinas rotatorias. Se ha desarrollado un instrumento virtual para el balanceamiento dinámico de rotores, basado en un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD. El instrumento tiene incluidos todos los cálculos necesarios para balancear rotores en un plano y en dos planos, a partir de la medición de los datos de vibración, utilizando el procedimiento de los coeficientes de influencia o utilizando un procedimiento de medición sin fase. También se ha incluido un módulo para determinar la severidad vibratoria del rotor y un módulo de análisis de vibraciones, que incluye análisis espectral y de la forma de onda. Este instrumento virtual es una herramienta útil para el balanceamiento de rotores en laboratorio así como también en la industria.This article highlights the importance of rotor balancing like the most important corrective action included in a predictive maintenance program, whose main objective is reducing the vibrations level and its secondary effect in rotary machines. A virtual instrument, based in a data acquisition system has been developed for rotor balancing. With this instrument it is possible to balance rotors in a single or two-plane, using the influence coefficient method or a no phase method. Also the instrument includes a function to determine the vibration severity and a function of vibration analysis with spectral and waveform analysis included. This virtual instrument is useful for rotor balancing in the laboratory as well as in the industry.
Material Optimization of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Rotor for Spacecraft Energy Storage
R Varatharajoo; M Salit; G Hong
2016-01-01
An investigation to optimize the carbon/epoxy composite rotor is performed for the spacecraft energy storage application. A highspeed multi-layer rotor design is proposed and different composite materials are tested to achieve the most suitable recipe. First, the analytical rotor evaluation is performed to establish a reliable numerical rotor model. Then, finite element analysis (FEA) is employed in order to optimise the multi-layer composite rotor design. Subsequently, the modal analysis is ...
Edgar Estupiñán P; César San Martin; Luis Canales M
2006-01-01
El presente trabajo resalta la importancia del balanceamiento de rotores como principal herramienta dentro de las tareas correctivas del mantenimiento predictivo, con el fin de que se reduzcan las vibraciones y sus efectos secundarios en las máquinas rotatorias. Se ha desarrollado un instrumento virtual para el balanceamiento dinámico de rotores, basado en un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD). El instrumento tiene incluidos todos los cálculos necesarios para balancear rotores en un plano ...
Analysis of the Strength on the Rotor Punching Sheet of Nuclear Reactor Cooling Medium Driving Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GE Bao-jun
2017-02-01
Full Text Available A strong stress is withstood by the rotor punching sheet during the running of nuclear reactor cooling medium driving motor. In order to study the strength on the rotor punching sheet and the influential factor of its stress，the rotor of driving motor was the research object, the three-dimensional rotor model of driving motor is established by the finite element method to obtain the Mires equivalent stress nephogram and check the rotor’s strength with setting parameters and constraints. According to different rotor speeds，the different average temperatures of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the different static magnitude of interference between rotor punching sheet and shaft，the research about how the contact pressure of matching surface between rotor punching sheet and shaft and the Mires equivalent stress are impacted is carried on. The results show that the maximum Miser equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet emerges on the axial vents，the stress value is beyond the tensile limit of the materialand. The greater the static magnitude of interference and the smaller temperature difference of rotor punching sheet and shaft lead to the greater interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater maximum Mires equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet. The higher the rotor speed lead to the smaller interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet.
Reversible Rigidity Control Using Low Melting Temperature Alloys
Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel
2013-03-01
Inspired by nature, materials able to achieve rapid rigidity changes have important applications for human body protection in military and many other areas. This talk presents the fabrication and design of soft-matter technologies that exhibit rapid reversible rigidity control. Fabricated with a masked deposition technique, the soft-matter composite contains liquid-phase and phase-changing metal alloys embedded in a soft and highly stretchable elastomer. The composite material can reversibly change its rigidity by three orders of magnitude and sustain large deformation.
The Almost Periodic Rigidity of Crystallographic Bar-Joint Frameworks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghada Badri
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A crystallographic bar-joint framework, C in Rd, is shown to be almost periodically infinitesimally rigid if and only if it is strictly periodically infinitesimally rigid and the rigid unit mode (RUM spectrum, Ω (C, is a singleton. Moreover, the almost periodic infinitesimal flexes of C are characterised in terms of a matrix-valued function, ΦC(z, on the d-torus, Td, determined by a full rank translation symmetry group and an associated motif of joints and bars.
APPLICATION OF RIGID LINKS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN MODELS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey Yu. Fialko
2017-09-01
Full Text Available A special finite element modelling rigid links is proposed for the linear static and buckling analysis. Unlike the classical approach based on the theorems of rigid body kinematics, the proposed approach preserves the similarity between the adjacency graph for a sparse matrix and the adjacency graph for nodes of the finite element model, which allows applying sparse direct solvers more effectively. Besides, the proposed approach allows significantly reducing the number of nonzero entries in the factored stiffness matrix in comparison with the classical one, which greatly reduces the duration of the solution. For buckling problems of structures containing rigid bodies, this approach gives correct results. Several examples demonstrate its efficiency.
TORNADO concept and realisation of a rotor for small VAWTs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horia DUMITRESCU
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The concept of a three-tier configuration for a vertical axis rotor was successfully developed into a experimental model. The rotor assembly is divided into three tiers with three straight blades in each tier. The three-tiers are shifted by an angle of 400 generating a full helical flow field inside the rotor. Thereby the new configuration has some different mechanism of torque generation as other Darrieus rotors. The three-tier configuration facilitates the operation by enabling the turbine to self-start at wind velocity as low as 2 m/s with good performance and a smoother driving torque. At the same time the design couples an esthetic appearance with low noise level.
Towards More Efficient Comprehensive Rotor Noise Simulation, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotorcraft design and optimization currently still rely largely on simplified (low-fidelity) models, such as rotor disk or wake models to reduce the turn-around time...
Rotor position sensor switches currents in brushless dc motors
1965-01-01
Reluctance switch incorporated in an induction motor is used for sensing rotor position and switching armature circuits in a brushless dc motor. This device drives the solar array system of an unmanned space satellite.
Wave-Rotor-Enhanced Gas Turbine Engine Demonstrator
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Welch, Gerard
1999-01-01
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory, NASA Glenn Research Center, and Rolls-Royce Allison are working collaboratively to demonstrate the benefits and viability of a wave-rotor-topped gas turbine engine...
Light Rotor: The 10-MW reference wind turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Christian; Bitsche, Robert; Yde, Anders
2012-01-01
design show a rather well performing wind turbine both in terms of power and loads, but in the further work towards the final design the challenges in the control needs to be solved and the balance between power performance and loads and between structural performance and mass will be investigated......This paper describes the design of a rotor and a wind turbine for an artificial 10-MW wind turbine carried out in the Light Rotor project. The turbine called the Light Rotor 10-MW Reference Wind Turbine (LR10-MW RWT), is designed with existing methods and techniques and serves as a reference...... like the determination of the specific power and upscaling of the turbine. The design of Iteration #2 of the LR10-MW RWT is carried out in a sequence between aerodynamic rotor design, structural design and aero-servo-elastic design. Each of these topics is described. The results from the Iteration #2...
Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations is proposing to further develop the Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection (RIPCoRDD) System for determining and tracking the structural...
Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations is proposing to develop the Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection (RIPCoRDD) for determining and tracking the structural health of...
SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berg, Jonathan C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paquette, Joshua A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, Jonathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-01-29
This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.
9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics
2015-01-01
This book presents the proceedings of the 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics. This conference is a premier global event that brings together specialists from the university and industry sectors worldwide in order to promote the exchange of knowledge, ideas, and information on the latest developments and applied technologies in the dynamics of rotating machinery. The coverage is wide ranging, including, for example, new ideas and trends in various aspects of bearing technologies, issues in the analysis of blade dynamic behavior, condition monitoring of different rotating machines, vibration control, electromechanical and fluid-structure interactions in rotating machinery, rotor dynamics of micro, nano, and cryogenic machines, and applications of rotor dynamics in transportation engineering. Since its inception 32 years ago, the IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics has become an irreplaceable point of reference for those working in the field, and this book reflects the high qua...
Computational Analysis of Flow Through a Transonic Compressor Rotor
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bochette, Nikolaus J
2005-01-01
.... In examining this problem two Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes have been used by the Naval Postgraduate School to predict the performance of a transonic compressor rotor that is being tested with steam ingestion...
Stiffness Characteristics of Composite Rotor Blades With Elastic Couplings
Piatak, David J.; Nixon, Mark W.; Kosmatka, John B.
1997-01-01
Recent studies on rotor aeroelastic response and stability have shown the beneficial effects of incorporating elastic couplings in composite rotor blades. However, none of these studies have clearly identified elastic coupling limits and the effects of elastic couplings on classical beam stiffnesses of representative rotor blades. Knowledge of these limits and effects would greatly enhance future aeroelastic studies involving composite rotor blades. The present study addresses these voids and provides a preliminary design database for investigators who may wish to study the effects of elastic couplings on representative blade designs. The results of the present study should provide a basis for estimating the potential benefits associated with incorporating elastic couplings without the need for first designing a blade cross section and then performing a cross-section analysis to obtain the required beam section properties as is customary in the usual one-dimensional beam-type approach.
Aero dynamical and mechanical behaviour of the Savonius rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aouachria, Z. [Batna Univ., (Algeria). Applied Energetic Physics Laboratory
2009-07-01
Although the Savonius wind turbine is not as efficient as the traditional Darrieus wind turbine, its rotor design has many advantages such as simple construction; acceptance of wind from all directions; high starting torque; operation at relatively low speed; and easy adaptation to urban sites. These advantages may outweigh its low efficiency and make it suitable for small-scale power requirements such as pumping and rural electrification. This paper presented a study of the aerodynamic behaviour of a Savonius rotor, based on blade pressure measurements. A two-dimensional analysis method was used to determine the aerodynamic strengths, which leads to the Magnus effect and the generation of the vibrations on the rotor. The study explained the vibratory behaviour of the rotor and proposed an antivibration system to protect the machine. 14 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.
A Surface-Mounted Rotor State Sensing System, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...
Optical evidence of quantum rotor orbital excitations in orthorhombic manganites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kovaleva, Natalia; Kugel, K.I.; Potůček, Z.; Kusmartseva, O.E.; Goryachev, N.S.; Bryknar, Z.; Demikhov, E.I.; Trepakov, Vladimír; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kusmartsev, F.V.; Stoneham, A.M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 122, č. 5 (2016), s. 890-901 ISSN 1063-7761 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optical evidence * rotor orbital excitations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2016
Evaluation of an advanced rotor bore examination system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, J.W.
1990-01-01
Evaluations of in-service turbine-generator rotor forgings are often based on an ultrasonic examination of the near-bore region. A portable rotor bore examination system has been developed that provides discontinuity characterization required for a thorough rotor evaluation. This automated system, its procedures and operations personnel have now been qualified for full-scale field application. System development has benefited from merging several technologies with new methods for precise alignment of the drive unit, calibration block and rotor. The system runs a custom interactive software package that allows for flexible calibration and motion control as well as data acquisition and manipulation. A comprehensive evaluation procedure was developed for system qualification using test specimens with natural and artificial reflectors, including a unique fatigue-crack block. Following a discussion of the system features, this paper discusses the system evaluation based on this procedure
76 FR 42020 - Airworthiness Standards; Rotor Overspeed Requirements
2011-07-18
... Capability. The r.p.m. (revolutions per minute) at which the part fails or bursts. Rotor Growth. The total... appropriate, that they be the basis of U.S. standards. Fourth, the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub...
On the performance analysis of Savonius rotor with twisted blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha, U.K.; Rajkumar, M. Jaya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039 (India)
2006-09-15
The present investigation is aimed at exploring the feasibility of twisted bladed Savonius rotor for power generation. The twisted blade in a three-bladed rotor system has been tested in a low speed wind tunnel, and its performance has been compared with conventional semicircular blades (with twist angle of 0{sup o}). Performance analysis has been made on the basis of starting characteristics, static torque and rotational speed. Experimental evidence shows the potential of the twisted bladed rotor in terms of smooth running, higher efficiency and self-starting capability as compared to that of the conventional bladed rotor. Further experiments have been conducted in the same setup to optimize the twist angle. (author)
Modal Characteristics of Novel Wind Turbine Rotors with Hinged Structures
Lu, Hongya; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping
2018-03-01
The vibration problems of the wind turbine rotors have drawn public attention as the size of wind turbine has increased incredibly. Although various factors may cause the vibration problems, the flexibility is a big threat among them. Therefore, ensuring the high stiffness of the rotors by adopting novel techniques becomes a necessity. The study was a further investigation of several novel designs regarding the dynamic behaviour and the influencing mechanism. The modal testing experiments were conducted on a traditional blade and an isolated blade with the hinged rods mounted close to the root. The results showed that the rod increased both the modal frequency and the damping of the blade. More studies were done on the rods’ impact on the wind turbine rotor with a numerical model, where dimensionless parameters were defined to describe the configuration of the interveined and the bisymmetrical rods. Their influences on the modal frequencies of the rotor were analyzed and discussed.
Whole blood analysis rotor assembly having removable cellular sedimentation bowl
Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.
1975-08-26
A rotor assembly for performing photometric analyses using whole blood samples is described. Following static loading of a gross blood sample within a centrally located, removable, cell sedimentation bowl, the red blood cells in the gross sample are centrifugally separated from the plasma, the plasm displaced from the sedimentation bowl, and measured subvolumes of plasma distributed to respective sample analysis cuvettes positioned in an annular array about the rotor periphery. Means for adding reagents to the respective cuvettes are also described. (auth)
Radial Flow Effects On A Retreating Rotor Blade
2014-05-01
birds , marine life and even insect wings. In some cases such as helicopters, wind turbines and compres- sors, dynamic stall becomes the primary...on dynamic stall and reverse flow as applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight and a wind turbine operating at a yaw angle. While great...occurring on a retreating blade with a focus on dynamic stall and reverse flow as applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight and a wind turbine
Dynamic measurement of matter creation using a feedback rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winkler, L.I.
1989-01-01
A room-temperature version of an experiment to search for cosmological matter creation using a precision rotor has been underway at University of Virginia since the late 1970's. The ultimate goal of this experiment is to be able to detect a change in the rotor moment of inertia I at a rate I/I≤10 -18 per second. In the original measurement strategy, and I/I was to be detected as an anomalous drag torque causing the rotor angular momentum to decay, with time constant Γ* = 10 -18 seconds. Here an alternate method of detecting an I/I using a precision rotor is proposed. In this alternate strategy, the rotor is driven by negative derivative feedback to follow a time-dependent reference of either exponential or sinusoidal form. An I/I is detected as an anomalous response of the rotor to the drive torque. Since this alternate strategy is not based on the detection of a drag torque, it can be used to verify that an observed rotor spin-down is caused by an I/I, rather than some other loss mechanism. Signal-to-noise ratios are developed for this strategy, and a way of differentiating positive from null results is described. Matter-creation tests performed using the alternate strategy indicate that the EST device produces noise which currently limits the sensitivity of the experiment. Null results were at least one order of magnitude above the theoretical values of the minimum detectable I/I. Also, anomalous drift in the rotor response caused the detection of positive results. These limitations are shown to be due to nonlinearity and asymmetry in the EST device, which can be corrected in future efforts
The aerodynamic design of an advanced rotor airfoil
Blackwell, J. A., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.
1978-01-01
An advanced rotor airfoil, designed utilizing supercritical airfoil technology and advanced design and analysis methodology is described. The airfoil was designed subject to stringent aerodynamic design criteria for improving the performance over the entire rotor operating regime. The design criteria are discussed. The design was accomplished using a physical plane, viscous, transonic inverse design procedure, and a constrained function minimization technique for optimizing the airfoil leading edge shape. The aerodynamic performance objectives of the airfoil are discussed.
Dipolar rotors orderly aligned in mesoporous fluorinated organosilica architectures
Bracco, Silvia; Beretta, Mario; Cattaneo, Alice Silvia; Comotti, Angiolina; Falqui, Andrea; Zhao, Ke; Rogers, Charles T.; Sozzani, Piero
2015-01-01
New mesoporous covalent frameworks, based on hybrid fluorinated organosilicas, were prepared to realize a periodic architecture of fast molecular rotors containing dynamic dipoles in their structure. The mobile elements, designed on the basis of fluorinated p-divinylbenzene moieties, were integrated into the robust covalent structure through siloxane bonds, and showed not only the rapid dynamics of the aromatic rings (ca. 108 Hz at 325 K), as detected by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, but also a dielectric response typical of a fast dipole reorientation under the stimuli of an applied electric field. Furthermore, the mesochannels are open and accessible to diffusing in gas molecules, and rotor mobility could be individually regulated by I2 vapors. The iodine enters the channels of the periodic structure and reacts with the pivotal double bonds of the divinyl-fluoro-phenylene rotors, affecting their motion and the dielectric properties. Oriented molecular rotors: Fluorinated molecular rotors (see picture) were engineered in mesoporous hybrid organosilica architectures with crystalline order in their walls. The rotor dynamics was established by magic angle spinning NMR and dielectric measurements, indicating a rotational correlation time as short as 10-9 s at 325 K. The dynamics was modulated by I2 vapors entering the pores.
Modelling of Rotor-gas bearings for Feedback Controller Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Niemann, Hans Henrik
2014-01-01
Controllable rotor-gas bearings are popular oering adaptability, high speed operation, low friction and clean operation. Rotor-gas bearings are however highly sensitive to disturbances due to the low friction of the injected gas. These undesirable damping properties call for controllers, which ca...... and are shown to accurately describe the dynamical behaviour of the rotor-gas bearing. Design of a controller using the identied models is treated and experiments verify the improvement of the damping properties of the rotor-gas bearing.......Controllable rotor-gas bearings are popular oering adaptability, high speed operation, low friction and clean operation. Rotor-gas bearings are however highly sensitive to disturbances due to the low friction of the injected gas. These undesirable damping properties call for controllers, which can...... be designed from suitable models describing the relation from actuator input to measured shaft position. Current state of the art models of controllable gas bearings however do not provide such relation, which calls for alternative strategies. The present contribution discusses the challenges for feedback...
Theoretical analysis of the flow around a Savonius rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aouachria, Z.; Djoumati, D. [Batna Univ., Batna (Algeria). Laboratoire de Physique Energetique Appliquee; Djamel, H. [Batna Univ., Batna (Algeria). Dept. de Mecanique Energetique
2009-07-01
While Savonius rotors do not perform as well as Darrieus wind turbine rotors, Savonius rotors work in all wind directions, do not require a rudder, and are capable of operating at relatively low speeds. A discrete vortex method was used to analyze the complex flow around a Savonius rotor. Velocity and pressure fields obtained in the analysis were used to determine both mechanical and energetic rotor performance. Savonius rotor bi-blades were considered in relation to 4 free eddies, the leakage points of each blade, and the distribution of basic eddies along the blades. Each blade was divided into equal elementary arcs. Linear equations and Kelvin theorem were reduced to a single equation. Results showed good agreement with data obtained in previous experimental studies. The study demonstrated that vortice emissions were unbalanced. The resistant blade had 2 vortice emissions, while the driving blade had only a single vortex. The results of the study will be used to clarify the mechanical and aerodynamic functions as well as to determine the different values between the blades and the speed of the turbine's engine. 9 refs., 4 figs.
Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors
Powers, Craig Stephen
ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.
Hybrid algorithm for rotor angle security assessment in power systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Prasad Wadduwage
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Transient rotor angle stability assessment and oscillatory rotor angle stability assessment subsequent to a contingency are integral components of dynamic security assessment (DSA in power systems. This study proposes a hybrid algorithm to determine whether the post-fault power system is secure due to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability subsequent to a set of known contingencies. The hybrid algorithm first uses a new security measure developed based on the concept of Lyapunov exponents (LEs to determine the transient security of the post-fault power system. Later, the transient secure power swing curves are analysed using an improved Prony algorithm which extracts the dominant oscillatory modes and estimates their damping ratios. The damping ratio is a security measure about the oscillatory security of the post-fault power system subsequent to the contingency. The suitability of the proposed hybrid algorithm for DSA in power systems is illustrated using different contingencies of a 16-generator 68-bus test system and a 50-generator 470-bus test system. The accuracy of the stability conclusions and the acceptable computational burden indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm is suitable for real-time security assessment with respect to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability under multiple contingencies of the power system.
Acoustic Characterization of a Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aircraft
Feight, Jordan; Gaeta, Richard; Jacob, Jamey
2017-11-01
In this study, the noise produced by a small multi-rotor rotary wing aircraft, or drone, is measured and characterized. The aircraft is tested in different configurations and environments to investigate specific parameters and how they affect the acoustic signature of the system. The parameters include rotor RPM, the number of rotors, distance and angle of microphone array from the noise source, and the ambient environment. The testing environments include an anechoic chamber for an idealized setting and both indoor and outdoor settings to represent real world conditions. PIV measurements are conducted to link the downwash and vortical flow structures from the rotors with the noise generation. The significant factors that arise from this study are the operational state of the aircraft and the microphone location (or the directivity of the noise source). The directivity in the rotor plane was shown to be omni-directional, regardless of the varying parameters. The tonal noise dominates the low to mid frequencies while the broadband noise dominates the higher frequencies. The fundamental characteristics of the acoustic signature appear to be invariant to the number of rotors. Flight maneuvers of the aircraft also significantly impact the tonal content in the acoustic signature.
Stability of rotor systems: A complex modelling approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian; Stoustrup, Jakob
1998-01-01
The dynamics of a large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a linearized complex matrix differential equation of second order, Mz + (D + iG)(z) over dot + (K + iN)z = 0, where the system matrices M, D, G, K and N are real symmetric. Moreover M and K are assumed to be positive definite and D...... approach applying bounds of appropriate Rayleigh quotients. The rotor systems tested are: a simple Laval rotor, a Laval rotor with additional elasticity and damping in the bearings, and a number of rotor systems with complex symmetric 4 x 4 randomly generated matrices.......The dynamics of a large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a linearized complex matrix differential equation of second order, Mz + (D + iG)(z) over dot + (K + iN)z = 0, where the system matrices M, D, G, K and N are real symmetric. Moreover M and K are assumed to be positive definite and D...
Dipolar rotors orderly aligned in mesoporous fluorinated organosilica architectures
Bracco, Silvia
2015-02-16
New mesoporous covalent frameworks, based on hybrid fluorinated organosilicas, were prepared to realize a periodic architecture of fast molecular rotors containing dynamic dipoles in their structure. The mobile elements, designed on the basis of fluorinated p-divinylbenzene moieties, were integrated into the robust covalent structure through siloxane bonds, and showed not only the rapid dynamics of the aromatic rings (ca. 108 Hz at 325 K), as detected by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, but also a dielectric response typical of a fast dipole reorientation under the stimuli of an applied electric field. Furthermore, the mesochannels are open and accessible to diffusing in gas molecules, and rotor mobility could be individually regulated by I2 vapors. The iodine enters the channels of the periodic structure and reacts with the pivotal double bonds of the divinyl-fluoro-phenylene rotors, affecting their motion and the dielectric properties. Oriented molecular rotors: Fluorinated molecular rotors (see picture) were engineered in mesoporous hybrid organosilica architectures with crystalline order in their walls. The rotor dynamics was established by magic angle spinning NMR and dielectric measurements, indicating a rotational correlation time as short as 10-9 s at 325 K. The dynamics was modulated by I2 vapors entering the pores.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carnero Parra, Antonio; Garcia Illescas, Rafael; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)
1999-07-01
This article presents the methodology applied by the Management of Turbomachinery of the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the evaluation of the remaining useful life of steam turbine rotors in the phase of initiation of fissures. The evaluation of the remaining useful life of turbines, will reveal the real state of health of the rotor and will serve as a base for the future decision making that guarantees their structural integrity. [Spanish] El presentes articulo presenta la metodologia aplicada por la Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para la evaluacion de la vida util remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor en la fase de iniciacion de fisuras. La evaluacion de la vida util de turbinas, revelar el estado real de salud del rotor y servira de base para la toma de decisiones futuras que garanticen su integridad estructural.
Verification of the Rigidity of the Coulomb Field in Motion
Blinov, S. V.; Bulyzhenkov, I. É.
2018-06-01
Laplace, analyzing the stability of the Solar System, was the first to calculate that the velocity of the motion of force fields can significantly exceed the velocity of light waves. In electrodynamics, the Coulomb field should rigidly accompany its source for instantaneous force action in distant regions. Such rigid motion was recently inferred from experiments at the Frascati Beam Test Facility with short beams of relativistic electrons. The comments of the authors on their observations are at odds with the comments of theoreticians on retarded potentials, which motivates a detailed study of the positions of both sides. Predictions of measurements, based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials, are used to propose an unambiguous scheme for testing the rigidity of the Coulomb field. Realization of the proposed experimental scheme could independently refute or support the assertions of the Italian physicists regarding the rigid motion of Coulomb fields and likewise the nondual field approach to macroscopic reality.
Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.
2011-12-01
In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions
Rigid body motion in stereo 3D simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zabunov, Svetoslav
2010-01-01
This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between torque and angular momentum. Consequently, the understanding of physical laws and conservation principles in free rigid body motion is hampered. This paper presents the capabilities of a 3D simulation, which aims to clarify these questions to the students, who are taught mechanics in the general physics course. The rigid body motion simulations may be observed at http://ialms.net/sim/, and are intended to complement traditional learning practices, not replace them, as the author shares the opinion that no simulation may fully resemble reality.
Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel concept utilizing resin infusion to rigidize inflatable structures was developed at JSC ES. This ICA project intends to complete manufacturing of a prototype...
Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.
Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin
2015-01-01
A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.
Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. Rigidity ... Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China; College of Mathematics and Information Science, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, People's Republic of China ...
Role of Rigid Endoscopic Detorsion in the Management of Sigmoid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
had emergency surgery, with gangrenous bowel noted in 43 (72%) ... of any stable patient with clinical and radiological features ... peritonitis, underwent repeat rigid sigmoidoscopy. ... endoscopic detorsion was successful in all six cases.
Magnetism and magnetostriction in a degenerate rigid band
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulakowski, K.; Barbara, B.
1990-09-01
We investigate the influence of the spin-orbit coupling on the magnetic and magnetoelastic phenomena in ferromagnetic band systems. The description is within the Stoner model of a degenerate rigid band, for temperature T = O. (author). 14 refs
Anti-synchronization of the rigid body exhibiting chaotic dynamics ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Based on a method derived from nonlinear control theory, we present a ... In this framework, the active control technique is modified and employed to design control ... state space of the two rigid bodies was verified by numerical simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia Arelle, Carlos [Turbomaquinas S. A. de C.V., La Piedad, Michoacan (Mexico)
2007-11-15
The continuous use of steam turbines, the chemistry of the steam itself and the variations of operation velocities, cause the gradual deterioration by erosion, oxidation and/or corrosion of the rotors and blades. When this happens most of the original manufacturers recommend to rectify the areas, diminishing the surfaces, or to compare with a new rotor. TURBOMAQUINARIAS S.A. de C.V. has developed the most reliable and safe methods to return the rotor to its original dimensions and in case of recurrent problems such as erosion, oxidation and/or wear, it offers the alternative of attaching coatings metallurgically compatible with which these problems are eliminated or diminished that might show up on the rotor surface as well as in the body of the discs or of the blades. These restoring methods are recommended by the international standards such as API 687. [Spanish] El uso continuo de las turbinas de vapor, la quimica del mismo vapor y la variacion de las velocidades de operacion, ocasionan el deterioro gradual por erosion, oxidacion y/o corrosion de los rotores y de los alabes. Al ocurrir esto la mayoria de los fabricantes originales recomiendan rectificar las areas, disminuyendo las superficies, o bien comparar un rotor nuevo. TURBOMAQUINARIAS S.A. de C.V. ha desarrollado los metodos mas confiables y seguros para devolver a su rotor las dimensiones originales y en caso de problemas recurrentes tales como erosion, oxidacion y/o desgaste, ofrece la alternativa de agregar recubrimientos metalurgicamente compatibles con los cuales se eliminan o se disminuyen estos problemas que pueden presentarse tanto en la superficie del rotor como del cuerpo de los discos o bien de los alabes. Estos metodos de restauracion son recomendados por las normas internacionales tales como la API 687.
Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) concept definition
Howes, H. E.; Tomashofski, C. A.
1983-01-01
A program was performed to identify and evaluate a variety of candidate rotor hub configurations for the ITR/FRR. Design criteria were established for the development of the hub concepts. Five initial hub configurations were examined and two were selected for further refinement and evaluation. The selected configurations were bearingless designs. The Classic Elastic Pitch Beam (CEPB) and the Plain Elastic Pitch Beam (PEPB), both exhibit superior qualities for the criteria in the final evalution. The CEPB is favored over the PEPB primarily because it offers better capability for built in damping for stability and is judged to have a lower risk in development.
Experimental studies of the rotor flow downwash on the Stability of multi-rotor crafts in descent
Veismann, Marcel; Dougherty, Christopher; Gharib, Morteza
2017-11-01
All rotorcrafts, including helicopters and multicopters, have the inherent problem of entering rotor downwash during vertical descent. As a result, the craft is subject to highly unsteady flow, called vortex ring state (VRS), which leads to a loss of lift and reduced stability. To date, experimental efforts to investigate this phenomenon have been largely limited to analysis of a single, fixed rotor mounted in a horizontal wind tunnel. Our current work aims to understand the interaction of multiple rotors in vertical descent by mounting a multi-rotor craft in a low speed, vertical wind tunnel. Experiments were performed with a fixed and rotationally free mounting; the latter allowing us to better capture the dynamics of a free flying drone. The effect of rotor separation on stability, generated thrust, and rotor wake interaction was characterized using force gauge data and PIV analysis for various descent velocities. The results obtained help us better understand fluid-craft interactions of drones in vertical descent and identify possible sources of instability. The presented material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).
Work production of quantum rotor engines
Seah, Stella; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Scarani, Valerio
2018-04-01
We study the mechanical performance of quantum rotor heat engines in terms of common notions of work using two prototypical models: a mill driven by the heat flow from a hot to a cold mode, and a piston driven by the alternate heating and cooling of a single working mode. We evaluate the extractable work in terms of ergotropy, the kinetic energy associated to net directed rotation, as well as the intrinsic work based on the exerted torque under autonomous operation, and we compare them to the energy output for the case of an external dissipative load and for externally driven engine cycles. Our results connect work definitions from both physical and information-theoretical perspectives. In particular, we find that apart from signatures of angular momentum quantization, the ergotropy is consistent with the intuitive notion of work in the form of net directed motion. It also agrees with the energy output to an external load or agent under optimal conditions. This sets forth a consistent thermodynamical description of rotating quantum motors, flywheels, and clocks.
Aperiodicity Correction for Rotor Tip Vortex Measurements
Ramasamy, Manikandan; Paetzel, Ryan; Bhagwat, Mahendra J.
2011-01-01
The initial roll-up of a tip vortex trailing from a model-scale, hovering rotor was measured using particle image velocimetry. The unique feature of the measurements was that a microscope was attached to the camera to allow much higher spatial resolution than hitherto possible. This also posed some unique challenges. In particular, the existing methodologies to correct for aperiodicity in the tip vortex locations could not be easily extended to the present measurements. The difficulty stemmed from the inability to accurately determine the vortex center, which is a prerequisite for the correction procedure. A new method is proposed for determining the vortex center, as well as the vortex core properties, using a least-squares fit approach. This approach has the obvious advantage that the properties are derived from not just a few points near the vortex core, but from a much larger area of flow measurements. Results clearly demonstrate the advantage in the form of reduced variation in the estimated core properties, and also the self-consistent results obtained using three different aperiodicity correction methods.
Aerodynamic Simulation of the MEXICO Rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herraez, I; Medjroubi, W; Peinke, J; Stoevesandt, B
2014-01-01
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations are a very promising method for predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines in an inexpensive and accurate way. One of the major drawbacks of this method is the lack of validated models. As a consequence, the reliability of numerical results is often difficult to assess. The MEXICO project aimed at solving this problem by providing the project partners with high quality measurements of a 4.5 meters rotor diameter wind turbine operating under controlled conditions. The large measurement data-set allows the validation of all kind of aerodynamic models. This work summarizes our efforts for validating a CFD model based on the open source software OpenFoam. Both steady- state and time-accurate simulations have been performed with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for several operating conditions. In this paper we will concentrate on axisymmetric inflow for 3 different wind speeds. The numerical results are compared with pressure distributions from several blade sections and PIV-flow data from the near wake region. In general, a reasonable agreement between measurements the and our simulations exists. Some discrepancies, which require further research, are also discussed
Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The superconducting tapes are used in the industrial synchronous motor winding due to their electrical characteristics. • The high magnetic field with no electric loss is obtainable by using the superconducting rotor coils. • The rotor core can be replaced by light non-magnetic materials which drops the rotor total weight up to 50%. • Decreasing the rotor weight was verified by FEM analyses for a sample motor. -- Abstract: Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model
Experimental Investigation of a Helicopter Rotor Hub Flow
Reich, David
The rotor hub system is by far the largest contributor to helicopter parasite drag and a barrier to increasing helicopter forward-flight speed and range. Additionally, the hub sheds undesirable vibration- and instability-inducing unsteady flow over the empennage. The challenges associated with rotor hub flows are discussed, including bluff body drag, interactional aerodynamics, and the effect of the turbulent hub wake on the helicopter empennage. This study was conducted in three phases to quantify model-scale rotor hub flows in water tunnels at The Pennsylvania State University Applied research lab. The first phase investigated scaling and component interaction effects on a 1:17 scale rotor hub model in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Effects of Reynolds number, advance ratio, and hub geometry configuration on the drag and wake shed from the rotor hub were quantified using load cell measurements and particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The second phase focused on flow visualization and measurement on a rotor hub and rotor hub/pylon geometry in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Stereo PIV was conducted in a cross plane downstream of the hub and flow visualization was conducted using oil paint and fluorescent dye. The third phase concentrated on high accuracy load measurement and prediction up to full-scale Reynolds number on a 1:4.25 scale model in the 48-inch diameter water tunnel. Measurements include 6 degree of freedom loads on the hub and two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry in the wake. Finally, results and conclusions are discussed, followed by recommendations for future investigations.
Material Optimization of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Rotor for Spacecraft Energy Storage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R Varatharajoo
2016-09-01
Full Text Available An investigation to optimize the carbon/epoxy composite rotor is performed for the spacecraft energy storage application. A highspeed multi-layer rotor design is proposed and different composite materials are tested to achieve the most suitable recipe. First, the analytical rotor evaluation is performed to establish a reliable numerical rotor model. Then, finite element analysis (FEA is employed in order to optimise the multi-layer composite rotor design. Subsequently, the modal analysis is carried out to determine the rotor natural frequencies and mode shapes for a safe operational regime below 50, 000 rpm.
Using a collision model to design safer wind turbine rotors for birds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tucker, V.A.
1996-01-01
A mathematical model for collisions between birds and propeller-type turbine rotors identifies the variables that can be manipulated to reduce the probability that birds will collide with the rotor. This study defines a safety index--the clearance power density--that allows rotors of different sizes and designs to be compared in terms of the amount of wind energy converted to electrical energy per bird collision. The collision model accounts for variations in wind speed during the year and shows that for model rotors with simple, one-dimensional blades, the safety index increases in proportion to rotor diameter, and variable speed rotors have higher safety indexes than constant speed rotors. The safety index can also be increased by enlarging the region near the center of the rotor hub where the blades move slowly enough for birds to avoid them. Painting the blades to make them more visible might have this effect. Model rotors with practical designs can have safety indexes an order of magnitude higher than those for model rotors typical of the constant speeds rotors in common use today. This finding suggests that redesigned rotors could have collision rates with birds perhaps an order of magnitude lower than today's rotors, with no reduction in the production of wind power. The empirical data that exist for collisions between raptors, such as hawks and eagles, and rotors are consistent with the model: the numbers of raptor carcasses found beneath large variable speed rotors, relative to the numbers found under small constant speed rotors, are in the proportions predicted by the collision model rather than in proportion to the areas swept by the rotor blades. However, uncontrolled variables associated with these data prevent a stronger claim of support for the model
Trajectory optimization of multiple quad-rotor UAVs in collaborative assembling task
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Yongbo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A hierarchic optimization strategy based on the offline path planning process and online trajectory planning process is presented to solve the trajectory optimization problem of multiple quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles in the collaborative assembling task. Firstly, the path planning process is solved by a novel parallel intelligent optimization algorithm, the central force optimization-genetic algorithm (CFO-GA, which combines the central force optimization (CFO algorithm with the genetic algorithm (GA. Because of the immaturity of the CFO, the convergence analysis of the CFO is completed by the stability theory of the linear time-variant discrete-time systems. The results show that the parallel CFO-GA algorithm converges faster than the parallel CFO and the central force optimization-sequential quadratic programming (CFO-SQP algorithm. Then, the trajectory planning problem is established based on the path planning results. In order to limit the range of the attitude angle and guarantee the flight stability, the optimized object is changed from the ordinary six-degree-of-freedom rigid-body dynamic model to the dynamic model with an inner-loop attitude controller. The results show that the trajectory planning process can be solved by the mature SQP algorithm easily. Finally, the discussion and analysis of the real-time performance of the hierarchic optimization strategy are presented around the group number of the waypoints and the equal interval time.
A bio-hybrid DNA rotor-stator nanoengine that moves along predefined tracks.
Valero, Julián; Pal, Nibedita; Dhakal, Soma; Walter, Nils G; Famulok, Michael
2018-06-01
Biological motors are highly complex protein assemblies that generate linear or rotary motion, powered by chemical energy. Synthetic motors based on DNA nanostructures, bio-hybrid designs or synthetic organic chemistry have been assembled. However, unidirectionally rotating biomimetic wheel motors with rotor-stator units that consume chemical energy are elusive. Here, we report a bio-hybrid nanoengine consisting of a catalytic stator that unidirectionally rotates an interlocked DNA wheel, powered by NTP hydrolysis. The engine consists of an engineered T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP-ZIF) attached to a dsDNA nanoring that is catenated to a rigid rotating dsDNA wheel. The wheel motor produces long, repetitive RNA transcripts that remain attached to the engine and are used to guide its movement along predefined ssDNA tracks arranged on a DNA nanotube. The simplicity of the design renders this walking nanoengine adaptable to other biological nanoarchitectures, facilitating the construction of complex bio-hybrid structures that achieve NTP-driven locomotion.
Magnetically induced rotor vibration in dual-stator permanent magnet motors
Xie, Bang; Wang, Shiyu; Wang, Yaoyao; Zhao, Zhifu; Xiu, Jie
2015-07-01
Magnetically induced vibration is a major concern in permanent magnet (PM) motors, which is especially true for dual-stator motors. This work develops a two-dimensional model of the rotor by using energy method, and employs this model to examine the rigid- and elastic-body vibrations induced by the inner stator tooth passage force and that by the outer. The analytical results imply that there exist three typical vibration modes. Their presence or absence depends on the combination of magnet/slot, force's frequency and amplitude, the relative position between two stators, and other structural parameters. The combination and relative position affect these modes via altering the force phase. The predicted results are verified by magnetic force wave analysis by finite element method (FEM) and comparison with the existing results. Potential directions are also given with the anticipation of bringing forth more interesting and useful findings. As an engineering application, the magnetically induced vibration can be first reduced via the combination and then a suitable relative position.
Investigation of a less rare-earth permanent-magnet machine with the consequent pole rotor
Bai, Jingang; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Mingqiao; Zheng, Ping; Liu, Yong; Gao, Haibo; Xiao, Lijun
2018-05-01
Due to the rising price of rare-earth materials, permanent-magnet (PM) machines in different applications have a trend of reducing the use of rare-earth materials. Since iron-core poles replace half of PM poles in the consequent pole (CP) rotor, the PM machine with CP rotor can be a promising candidate for less rare-earth PM machine. Additionally, the investigation of CP rotor in special electrical machines, like hybrid excitation permanent-magnet PM machine, bearingless motor, etc., has verified the application feasibility of CP rotor. Therefore, this paper focuses on design and performance of PM machines when traditional PM machine uses the CP rotor. In the CP rotor, all the PMs are of the same polarity and they are inserted into the rotor core. Since the fundamental PM flux density depends on the ratio of PM pole to iron-core pole, the combination rule between them is investigated by analytical and finite-element methods. On this basis, to comprehensively analyze and evaluate PM machine with CP rotor, four typical schemes, i.e., integer-slot machines with CP rotor and surface-mounted PM (SPM) rotor, fractional-slot machines with CP rotor and SPM rotor, are designed to investigate the performance of PM machine with CP rotor, including electromagnetic performance, anti-demagnetization capacity and cost.
Liquid Self-Balancing Device Effects on Flexible Rotor Stability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Urbiola-Soto
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nearly a century ago, the liquid self-balancing device was first introduced by M. LeBlanc for passive balancing of turbine rotors. Although of common use in many types or rotating machines nowadays, little information is available on the unbalance response and stability characteristics of this device. Experimental fluid flow visualization evidences that radial and traverse circulatory waves arise due to the interaction of the fluid backward rotation and the baffle boards within the self-balancer annular cavity. The otherwise destabilizing force induced by trapped fluids in hollow rotors, becomes a stabilizing mechanism when the cavity is equipped with adequate baffle boards. Further experiments using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV enable to assess the active fluid mass fraction to be one-third of the total fluid mass. An analytical model is introduced to study the effects of the active fluid mass fraction on a flexible rotor supported by flexible supports excited by bwo different destabilizing mechanisms; rotor internal friction damping and aerodynamic cross-coupling. It is found that the fluid radial and traverse forces contribute to the balancing action and to improve the rotor stability, respectively.
APR1400 Locked Rotor Transient Analysis using KNAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Yo-Han; Ha, Sang Jun
2007-01-01
KEPRI (Korea Electric Power Research Institute) has developed safety analysis methodology for non-LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident) analysis of OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000, formerly KSNP). The new methodology, named KNAP (Korea Non-LOCA Analysis Package), uses RETRAN as the main system analysis code for most transients. For locked rotor transient DNBR analysis, UNICORN-TM code is used. UNICORN-TM is the unified code of RETRAN, MASTER and TORC. The UNICORN-TM has 1-D and 3-D neutron kinetics calculation capability. For locked rotor DNBR analysis, 1-D neutron kinetics is used. In this paper, we apply KNAP methodology to APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) locked rotor analysis and compare the results with those in the APR1400 SSAR(Standard Safety Analysis Report). The locked rotor transient is one of the 'decrease in reactor coolant system flow rate' events and the results are typically described in the chapter 15.3.3 of SAR (Safety Analysis Report). In this study, to confirm the applicability of the KNAP methodology and code system to APR1400, locked rotor transient is analyzed using UNICORN-TM code and the results are compared with those from APR1400 SSAR
Environment-sensitive behavior of fluorescent molecular rotors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theodorakis Emmanuel A
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Molecular rotors are a group of fluorescent molecules that form twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT states upon photoexcitation. When intramolecular twisting occurs, the molecular rotor returns to the ground state either by emission of a red-shifted emission band or by nonradiative relaxation. The emission properties are strongly solvent-dependent, and the solvent viscosity is the primary determinant of the fluorescent quantum yield from the planar (non-twisted conformation. This viscosity-sensitive behavior gives rise to applications in, for example, fluid mechanics, polymer chemistry, cell physiology, and the food sciences. However, the relationship between bulk viscosity and the molecular-scale interaction of a molecular rotor with its environment are not fully understood. This review presents the pertinent theories of the rotor-solvent interaction on the molecular level and how this interaction leads to the viscosity-sensitive behavior. Furthermore, current applications of molecular rotors as microviscosity sensors are reviewed, and engineering aspects are presented on how measurement accuracy and precision can be improved.
Philosophy of weld repair of steam turbine rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertilsson, J.E.; Scarlin, R.B.; Faber, G.
1987-01-01
Weld repair of a cracked rotor should never be limited to simply grinding out cracks and filling up with weld metal. It is essential to know where and why a crack appeared. In several instances in the past weld repairs have been made of fatigue cracked rotors which have been placed successfully into service. Prolonged further operation can be assured only if the cause of cracking is known and if the design weakness demonstrated in this way is eliminated. However, in cases where creep cracking is encountered or where the creep life is approaching exhaustion, a local repair even if achieved crack-free, cannot ensure successful long-term further operation. The decision must be made to replace a major section of the rotor. The paper describes weld repair trials performed on an HP rotor after 100,000 hours of operation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of making weld repairs of low-toughness CrMoV rotors according to this philosophy
Development of the monoblock rotor for large scale LP turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ninomiya, Satoshi; Kashiwahara, Katsuto
1981-01-01
One of the important points in large steam turbines is the long last stage blades. So far, rotor disks were shrink-fitted to a shaft, but recently, the operation of steam turbines requires frequent start and stop, and is subjected to frequent load variation. In order to improve the reliability of steam turbines drastically under such situation, the large rotors of one-body forging type have been demanded. Hitachi Ltd. Manufactured a large rotor of one-body forging type for trial, and in order to confirm its reliability, the rotation test simulating the temperature distribution in the operation of steam turbines was carried out. The large material must be thoroughly forged to the inner part, and the effect of heat treatment reaches to the whole body, thus the prescribed chemical composition and mechanical properties must be obtained. The material must be homogeneous and stable to the thermal effect in operation. The largest outside diameter of the rotor is about 2.5 m, the shaft length is 12 m, and the finished weight is 220 t. A 500 t ingot of Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel was used. As the results of various tests, it was confirmed that the material was clean and homogeneous, and had good mechanical properties. Also the material was sufficiently thermally stable in the heating deflection measurement. In the high speed rotation test at the actual temperature, the vibration of the rotor was very small, and the good result was obtained. (Kako, I.)
Model-based monitoring of rotors with multiple coexisting faults
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossner, Markus
2015-01-01
Monitoring systems are applied to many rotors, but only few monitoring systems can separate coexisting errors and identify their quantity. This research project solves this problem using a combination of signal-based and model-based monitoring. The signal-based part performs a pre-selection of possible errors; these errors are further separated with model-based methods. This approach is demonstrated for the errors unbalance, bow, stator-fixed misalignment, rotor-fixed misalignment and roundness errors. For the model-based part, unambiguous error definitions and models are set up. The Ritz approach reduces the model order and therefore speeds up the diagnosis. Identification algorithms are developed for the different rotor faults. Hereto, reliable damage indicators and proper sub steps of the diagnosis have to be defined. For several monitoring problems, measuring both deflection and bearing force is very useful. The monitoring system is verified by experiments on an academic rotor test rig. The interpretation of the measurements requires much knowledge concerning the dynamics of the rotor. Due to the model-based approach, the system can separate errors with similar signal patterns and identify bow and roundness error online at operation speed. [de
Rotor apparatus for high strength undiffused brushless electric machine
Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN
2006-01-24
A radial gap brushless electric machine (30) having a stator (31) and a rotor (32) and a main air gap (34) also has at least one stationary excitation coil (35a, 36a) separated from the rotor (32) by a secondary air gap (35e, 35f, 36e, 36f) so as to induce a secondary flux in the rotor (32) which controls a resultant flux in the main air gap (34). Permanent magnetic (PM) material (38) is disposed in spaces between the rotor pole portions (39) to inhibit the second flux from leaking from the pole portions (39) prior to reaching the main air gap (34). By selecting the direction of current in the stationary excitation coil (35a, 36a) both flux enhancement and flux weakening are provided for the main air gap (34). Improvements of a laminated rotor, an end pole structure, and an arrangement of the PM elements for providing an arrangement of the flux paths from the auxiliary field coil assemblies are also disclosed.
APR1400 Locked Rotor Transient Analysis using KNAP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Yo-Han; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-01
KEPRI (Korea Electric Power Research Institute) has developed safety analysis methodology for non-LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident) analysis of OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000, formerly KSNP). The new methodology, named KNAP (Korea Non-LOCA Analysis Package), uses RETRAN as the main system analysis code for most transients. For locked rotor transient DNBR analysis, UNICORN-TM code is used. UNICORN-TM is the unified code of RETRAN, MASTER and TORC. The UNICORN-TM has 1-D and 3-D neutron kinetics calculation capability. For locked rotor DNBR analysis, 1-D neutron kinetics is used. In this paper, we apply KNAP methodology to APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) locked rotor analysis and compare the results with those in the APR1400 SSAR(Standard Safety Analysis Report). The locked rotor transient is one of the 'decrease in reactor coolant system flow rate' events and the results are typically described in the chapter 15.3.3 of SAR (Safety Analysis Report). In this study, to confirm the applicability of the KNAP methodology and code system to APR1400, locked rotor transient is analyzed using UNICORN-TM code and the results are compared with those from APR1400 SSAR.
Broken-Rotor-Bar Diagnosis for Induction Motors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jinjiang; Gao, Robert X; Yan Ruqiang
2011-01-01
Broken rotor bar is one of the commonly encountered induction motor faults that may cause serious motor damage to the motor if not detected timely. Past efforts on broken rotor bar diagnosis have been focused on current signature analysis using spectral analysis and wavelet transform. These methods require accurate slip estimation to localize fault-related frequency. This paper presents a new approach to broken rotor bar diagnosis without slip estimation, based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Hilbert transform. Specifically, the Hilbert transform first extracts the envelope of the motor current signal, which contains broken rotor fault-related frequency information. Subsequently, the envelope signal is adaptively decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by the EEMD algorithm. Two criteria based on the energy and correlation analyses have been investigated to automate the IMF selection. Numerical and experimental studies have confirmed that the proposed approach is effective in diagnosing broken rotor bar faults for improved induction motor condition monitoring and damage assessment.
Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel
2013-01-01
We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium–indium–tin (Galinstan ® ) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy. (paper)
Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity
Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel
2013-08-01
We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium-indium-tin (Galinstan®) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy.
Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-06-01
Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.
Evaluation for rigidity of box construction of nuclear reactor building
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamakawa, Tetsuo
1979-01-01
A huge box-shaped structure (hereafter, called box construction) of reinforced concrete is presently utilized as the reactor building structure in nuclear power plants. Evaluation of the rigidity of the huge box construction is required for making a vibration analysis model of nuclear reactor buildings. It is necessary to handle the box construction as the plates to which the force in plane is applied. This paper describes that the bending theory in elementary beam theory is equivalent to a peculiar, orthogonally anisotropic plate, the shearing rigidity and film rigidity in y direction of which are put to infinity and the Poisson's ratio is put to zero, viewed from the two-dimensional theory of elasticity. The form factor of 1.2 for shearing deformation in rectangular cross section was calculated from the parabolic distribution of shearing stress intensity, and it is the maximum value. The factor is equal to 1.2 for slender beams, but smaller than 1.2 for short and thick beams, having tendency to converge to 1.0. The non-conformity of boundary conditions regarding the shearing force at the both ends of cantilevers does not affect very seriously the evaluation of shearing rigidity. From the above results, it was found that the application of the theory to the box construction was able to give the rigidity evaluation with sufficient engineering accuracy. The theory can also be applied to the evaluation of tube type ultrahigh buildings. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Vance, W.
1973-01-01
The design and application of a vertical axis wind rotor is reported that operates as a two stage turbine wherein the wind impinging on the concave side is circulated through the center of the rotor to the back of the convex side, thus decreasing what might otherwise be a high negative pressure region. Successful applications of this wind rotor to water pumps, ship propulsion, and building ventilators are reported. Also shown is the feasibility of using the energy in ocean waves to drive the rotor. An analysis of the impact of rotor aspect ratio on rotor acceleration shows that the amount of venting between rotor vanes has a very significant effect on rotor speed for a given wind speed.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sullivan, Michael J
2005-01-01
This thesis develops a state estimation algorithm for the Centrifuge Rotor (CR) system where only relative measurements are available with limited knowledge of both rotor imbalance disturbances and International Space Station (ISS...
Finite Element Analysis Design of a Split Rotor Bracket for a Bulb Turbine Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongyao Luo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The rotor bracket is a key component of the generator rotor with cracks in the rotor bracket leading to rubbing between the rotor and stator, which threatens safe operation of the unit. The rotor rim is so complicated that the equivalent radial stiffness of rim was determined by numerical simulation other than engineering experience. A comprehensive numerical method including finite element analyses and the contact method for multibody dynamics has been used to design the split rotor bracket. The com-putational results showed that cracks would occur in the initial design of the bracket when the turbine operated at the runaway speed, and the bracket design should be improved. The improved design of the bracket was strong enough to avoid cracks and rub between the rotor and stator. This design experience will help improve the design of split rotor brackets for bulb turbine generators.
Bozak, Richard F.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Buckley, James
2013-01-01
While liners have been utilized throughout turbofan ducts to attenuate fan noise, additional attenuation is obtainable by placing an acoustic liner over-the-rotor. Previous experiments have shown significant fan performance losses when acoustic liners are installed over-the-rotor. The fan blades induce an oscillating flow in the acoustic liners which results in a performance loss near the blade tip. An over-the-rotor liner was designed with circumferential grooves between the fan blade tips and the acoustic liner to reduce the oscillating flow in the acoustic liner. An experiment was conducted in the W-8 Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center on a 1.5 pressure ratio fan to evaluate the impact of this over-the-rotor treatment design on fan aerodynamic performance. The addition of a circumferentially grooved over-the-rotor design between the fan blades and the acoustic liner reduced the performance loss, in terms of fan adiabatic efficiency, to less than 1 percent which is within the repeatability of this experiment.
A novel rotor design for a hybrid excited synchronous machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paplicki Piotr
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents three novel rotor design concepts for a three-phase electric controlled permanent magnet synchronous machine (ECPMS-machine with hybrid excitation. The influence of magnets and flux-barriers arrangement on the magnetic field distribution and field-weakening characteristics of the machine is examined, based on a three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA. Moreover, a prototype rotor design based on a new rotor concept with a good field-weakening capability is presented in detail. Finally, the experimental results of no-load back electromotive force (back-EMF waveforms and field-weakening characteristics versus a control coil current of the machine are reported.
Thermoelastic steam turbine rotor control based on neural network
Rzadkowski, Romuald; Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Radulski, Wojciech; Szczepanik, R.
2015-12-01
Considered here are Nonlinear Auto-Regressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) as a mathematical model of a steam turbine rotor for controlling steam turbine stress on-line. In order to obtain neural networks that locate critical stress and temperature points in the steam turbine during transient states, an FE rotor model was built. This model was used to train the neural networks on the basis of steam turbine transient operating data. The training included nonlinearity related to steam turbine expansion, heat exchange and rotor material properties during transients. Simultaneous neural networks are algorithms which can be implemented on PLC controllers. This allows for the application neural networks to control steam turbine stress in industrial power plants.
Synchronous motor with hybrid permanent magnets on the rotor.
Slusarek, Barbara; Kapelski, Dariusz; Antal, Ludwik; Zalas, Pawel; Gwoździewicz, Maciej
2014-07-10
Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.
Synchronous Motor with Hybrid Permanent Magnets on the Rotor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara Slusarek
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.
Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors
Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.
1999-06-22
A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.
Resonant vibration control of three-bladed wind turbine rotors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2012-01-01
Rotors with blades, as in wind turbines, are prone to vibrations due to the flexibility of the blades and the support. In the present paper a theory is developed for active control of a combined set of vibration modes in three-bladed rotors. The control system consists of identical collocated...... to influence of other nonresonant modes. The efficiency of the method isdemonstrated byapplication to a rotor with 42 m blades, where the sensor/actuator system is implemented in the form of an axial extensible strut near the root of each blade. The load is provided by a simple but fully threedimensional...... correlated wind velocity field. It is shown by numerical simulations that the active damping system can provide a significant reduction in the response amplitude of the targeted modes, while applying control moments to the blades that are about 1 order of magnitude smaller than the moments from the external...
Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors
Nalim, M. Razi
1995-01-01
Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.
Smart helicopter rotors optimization and piezoelectric vibration control
Ganguli, Ranjan; Viswamurthy, Sathyamangalam Ramanarayanan
2016-01-01
Exploiting the properties of piezoelectric materials to minimize vibration in rotor-blade actuators, this book demonstrates the potential of smart helicopter rotors to achieve the smoothness of ride associated with jet-engined, fixed-wing aircraft. Vibration control is effected using the concepts of trailing-edge flaps and active-twist. The authors’ optimization-based approach shows the advantage of multiple trailing-edge flaps and algorithms for full-authority control of dual trailing-edge-flap actuators are presented. Hysteresis nonlinearity in piezoelectric stack actuators is highlighted and compensated by use of another algorithm. The idea of response surfaces provides for optimal placement of trailing-edge flaps. The concept of active twist involves the employment of piezoelectrically induced shear actuation in rotating beams. Shear is then demonstrated for a thin-walled aerofoil-section rotor blade under feedback-control vibration minimization. Active twist is shown to be significant in reducing vibra...
Rigid external maxillary distraction and rhinoplasty for pyknodysostosis.
Varol, Altan; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus; Sencimen, Metin; Akcam, Timur; Olmez, Hüseyin; Basa, Selçuk
2011-05-01
This article reports the treatment of an 33-year-old female patient with pyknodysostosis by rigid external distraction II midface distraction system. The patient with pyknodysostosis described in this report had severe midfacial hypoplasia. Correction of this by use of routine orthognathic surgery would require osteosynthesis and bone grafting. Risk of infection and/or nonunion after such a surgical procedure was considered too great, and therefore the possibility of treatment by distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla was evaluated. The rigid external distraction II midface distraction system was used to relocate the hypoplastic maxilla at anterior-inferior projection. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as the primary reconstructive method for maxillofacial deformities in patients with sclerosing bone dysplasias, since this is the second reported case treated successfully with rigid external distraction.
Rigidity of outermost MOTS: the initial data version
Galloway, Gregory J.
2018-03-01
In the paper Commun Anal Geom 16(1):217-229, 2008, a rigidity result was obtained for outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTSs) that do not admit metrics of positive scalar curvature. This allowed one to treat the "borderline case" in the author's work with R. Schoen concerning the topology of higher dimensional black holes (Commun Math Phys 266(2):571-576, 2006). The proof of this rigidity result involved bending the initial data manifold in the vicinity of the MOTS within the ambient spacetime. In this note we show how to circumvent this step, and thereby obtain a pure initial data version of this rigidity result and its consequence concerning the topology of black holes.
Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.
Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E
2014-01-01
Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.
Mitral stenosis due to pannus overgrowth after rigid ring annuloplasty.
Oda, Takeshi; Kato, Seiya; Tayama, Eiki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Aoyagi, Shigeaki
2010-03-01
Although mitral stenosis (MS) due to pannus overgrowth after mitral valve repair for rheumatic mitral regurgitation (MR) is not uncommon, it is extremely rare in relation to non-rheumatic mitral regurgitation. Whilst it has been suggested that the rigid annuloplasty ring induces pannus overgrowth in the same manner as the flexible ring, to date only in cases using the flexible ring has pannus formation been confirmed by a pathological examination after redo surgery. The case is described of a woman who had undergone mitral valve repair using a 28 mm rigid ring three years previously because of non-rheumatic MR, and subsequently suffered from MS due to pannus formation over the annuloplasty ring. To the present authors' knowledge, this is the first report of MS due to pannus formation after mitral valve repair using a rigid annuloplasty ring to treat non-rheumatic MR documented at reoperation.
Rigid-plastic seismic design of reinforced concrete structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Costa, Joao Domingues; Bento, R.; Levtchitch, V.
2007-01-01
structural strength with respect to a pre-defined performance parameter using a rigid-plastic response spectrum, which is characteristic of the ground motion alone. The maximum strength demand at any point is solely dependent on the intensity of the ground motion, which facilitates the task of distributing......In this paper a new seismic design procedure for Reinforced Concrete (R/C) structures is proposed-the Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design (RPSD) method. This is a design procedure based on Non-Linear Time-History Analysis (NLTHA) for systems expected to perform in the non-linear range during a lifetime...... earthquake event. The theoretical background is the Theory of Plasticity (Rigid-Plastic Structures). Firstly, a collapse mechanism is chosen and the corresponding stress field is made safe outside the regions where plastic behaviour takes place. It is shown that this allows the determination of the required...
A concise introduction to mechanics of rigid bodies multidisciplinary engineering
Huang, L
2017-01-01
This updated second edition broadens the explanation of rotational kinematics and dynamics — the most important aspect of rigid body motion in three-dimensional space and a topic of much greater complexity than linear motion. It expands treatment of vector and matrix, and includes quaternion operations to describe and analyze rigid body motion which are found in robot control, trajectory planning, 3D vision system calibration, and hand-eye coordination of robots in assembly work, etc. It features updated treatments of concepts in all chapters and case studies. The textbook retains its comprehensiveness in coverage and compactness in size, which make it easily accessible to the readers from multidisciplinary areas who want to grasp the key concepts of rigid body mechanics which are usually scattered in multiple volumes of traditional textbooks. Theoretical concepts are explained through examples taken from across engineering disciplines and links to applications and more advanced courses (e.g. industrial rob...
Torque-Matched Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of HAWT Rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Abadi, Ali; Ertunç, Özgür; Beyer, Florian; Delgado, Antonio
2014-01-01
Schmitz and Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theories are integrated to a gradient based optimization algorithm to optimize the blade shape of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). The Schmitz theory is used to generate an initial blade design. BEM theory is used to calculate the forces, torque and power extracted by the turbine. The airfoil shape (NREL S809) is kept the same, so that the shape optimization comprises only the chord and the pitch angle distribution. The gradient based optimization of the blade shape is constrained to the torque-rotational speed characteristic of the generator, which is going to be a part of the experimental set-up used to validate the results of the optimization study. Hence, the objective of the optimization is the maximization of the turbines power coefficient C p while keeping the torque matched to that of the generator. The wind velocities and the rotational speeds are limited to those achievable in the wind tunnel and by the generator, respectively. After finding the optimum blade shape with the maximum C p within the given range of parameters, the C p of the turbine is evaluated at wind-speeds deviating from the optimum operating condition. For this purpose, a second optimization algorithm is used to find out the correct rotational speed for a given wind-speed, which is again constrained to the generator's torque rotational speed characteristic. The design and optimization procedures are later validated by high-fidelity numerical simulations. The agreement between the design and the numerical simulations is very satisfactory
EFFECT OF THE ROTOR CRANK SYSTEM ON CYCLING PERFORMANCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon A. Jobson
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel crank system on laboratory time-trial cycling performance. The Rotor system makes each pedal independent from the other so that the cranks are no longer fixed at 180°. Twelve male competitive but non-elite cyclists (mean ± s: 35 ± 7 yr, Wmax = 363 ± 38 W, VO2peak = 4.5 ± 0.3 L·min-1 completed 6-weeks of their normal training using either a conventional (CON or the novel Rotor (ROT pedal system. All participants then completed two 40.23-km time-trials on an air-braked ergometer, one using CON and one using ROT. Mean performance speeds were not different between trials (CON = 41.7 km·h-1 vs. ROT = 41.6 km·h-1, P > 0.05. Indeed, the pedal system used during the time-trials had no impact on any of the measured variables (power output, cadence, heart rate, VO2, RER, gross efficiency. Furthermore, the ANOVA identified no significant interaction effect between main effects (Time-trial crank system*Training crank system, P > 0.05. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effects of the Rotor system on endurance performance rather than endurance capacity. These results suggest that the Rotor system has no measurable impact on time-trial performance. However, further studies should examine the importance of the Rotor 'regulation point' and the suggestion that the Rotor system has acute ergogenic effects if used infrequently
Structural Design of SynRM Rotor, and the Effect on Power Factor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad
2015-01-01
In this paper, structural designs for multiple synchoronous reluctance machine (SynRM) rotor configurations are presented. The rotor flux bridges are increased in thickness until mechanical integrity is achieved, and then the performance of the resulting SynRM is observed. After performing this a...... this analysis for SynRM rotors with different barrier numbers and different flux bridge configurations, this paper concludes with recommendations regarding the mechanical design of SynRM rotors....
Development and tests of large nuclear turbo-generator welded rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colombie, H.; Thiery, M.; Rotzinger, R.; Pelissou, C.; Tabacco, C.; Fernagut, V.
2015-01-01
Turbo-generators require large forgings for the rotor and it is a worldwide practice to manufacture turbo-generator rotor bodies as single piece forgings. Rotors for nuclear applications (4-pole rotors design, 1500/1800 rpm) require forgings of up to 2.0 m diameter and ultra large ingots with weight more than 500 tons. Nowadays only few forge masters can deliver such forgings in the world. Based on the large welding experience Alstom has gained over decades on steam and gas turbines and Alstom's multi piece shrunk turbo-generator rotors, it was suggested to manufacture 4-pole turbo-generator rotors by welding the shaft from aligned cylindrical forgings. Compared to turbine welded rotors, the shaft of a turbo-generator rotor presents differences linked to dimensions/weight, weld depth and electrical application. The manufacture of a 2 disc model allowed to prove through electrical and mechanical analysis the reliability of the concept as well as the reliability of the manufacturing processes through material tests, micro sections, electrical component tests, weld geometry, welding processes (TIG,SAW,...), weld inspection (Ultrasonic testing, radiographic inspection,...) weld heat treatments and machining. Then a full rotor able to replace a single forging rotor was manufactured in order to validate and prove to potential customers the validity of the welded rotor technology. During the first order from EDF of a welded 900 MW spare rotor, the procedure for the Non Destructive Test on a slotted rotor was developed upon EDF request in order to compare future Non Destructive Testing with the finger print of the new rotor. This complete rotor was delivered to EDF in January 2013. This rotor is in operation in a nuclear unit since November 2013. (authors)
Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.
Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues
2014-02-01
We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.
Non-rigid image registration using bone growth model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Gramkow, Claus; Kreiborg, Sven
1997-01-01
Non-rigid registration has traditionally used physical models like elasticity and fluids. These models are very seldom valid models of the difference between the registered images. This paper presents a non-rigid registration algorithm, which uses a model of bone growth as a model of the change...... between time sequence images of the human mandible. By being able to register the images, this paper at the same time contributes to the validation of the growth model, which is based on the currently available medical theories and knowledge...
Rigid particle revisited: Extrinsic curvature yields the Dirac equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deriglazov, Alexei, E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Depto. de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen, E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation)
2014-03-01
We reexamine the model of relativistic particle with higher-derivative linear term on the first extrinsic curvature (rigidity). The passage from classical to quantum theory requires a number of rather unexpected steps which we report here. We found that, contrary to common opinion, quantization of the model in terms of so(3.2)-algebra yields massive Dirac equation. -- Highlights: •New way of canonical quantization of relativistic rigid particle is proposed. •Quantization made in terms of so(3.2) angular momentum algebra. •Quantization yields massive Dirac equation.
Elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites
Chen, J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Davis, L. C.
1995-05-01
We study the elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites with perfect bonding between fibers and matrix, and also with sliding boundary conditions. In the dilute region, there exists an exact analytical solution. Around the rigidity threshold we find the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio by decomposing the deformation into a compression mode and a rotation mode. For perfect bonding, both modes are important, whereas only the compression mode is operative for sliding boundary conditions. We employ the digital-image-based method and a finite element analysis to perform computer simulations which confirm our analytical predictions.
Extremal surfaces and the rigidity of null geodesic incompleteness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, I P Costa e; Flores, J L
2015-01-01
An important, if relatively less well known aspect of the singularity theorems in Lorentzian geometry, is to understand how their conclusions fare upon weakening or suppression of one or more of their hypotheses. Then, theorems with modified conclusion may arise, showing that those conclusions will fail only in special cases, at least some of which may be described. These are the so-called rigidity theorems, and have many important examples in the specialized literature. In this paper, we prove rigidity results for generalized plane waves and certain globally hyperbolic spacetimes in the presence of extremal compact surfaces. (paper)
Analysis of small-scale rotor hover performance data
Kitaplioglu, Cahit
1990-01-01
Rotor hover-performance data from a 1/6-scale helicopter rotor are analyzed and the data sets compared for the effects of ambient wind, test stand configuration, differing test facilities, and scaling. The data are also compared to full scale hover data. The data exhibited high scatter, not entirely due to ambient wind conditions. Effects of download on the test stand proved to be the most significant influence on the measured data. Small-scale data correlated resonably well with full scale data; the correlation did not improve with Reynolds number corrections.
Parametric Blade Study Test Report Rotor Configuration. Number 4
1988-11-01
Figure 2. The rotor shaft is mounted on an oil-damped roller bearing at the forward location and a ball bearing at the aft location; radial runout does...thermodynamic properties. 22 d. Corrections were made to measured compressor temperatures and pressures, facility flowrate, and rotor wheel speed to...1152 .Z660 .1024 STRM- BLADE BLADE WHEEL LINE SECT. LEAN SPEED NUMBER ANGLE ANGLE 1 -55.15 7.32 1497.9 2 -53.85 8.09 1434.7 3 -52.96 7.11 1372.1 4
Design of a Bearingless Outer Rotor Induction Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuxin Sun
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A bearingless induction (BI motor with an outer rotor for flywheel energy storage systems is proposed due to the perceived advantages of simple rotor structure, non-contact support and high speed operation. Firstly, the configuration and operation principle of the proposed motor are described. Then several leading dimensional parameters are optimally calculated for achieving the maximum average values and the minimum ripples of torque output and suspension force. Finally, by using the finite element method, the characteristics and performance of the proposed machine are analyzed and verified.
Measurements of blade aerodynamics on a rotor in the field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, J.M.R. [Imperical College, Dept. of Aeronautics, London (United Kingdom)
1997-12-31
This contribution describes the field test measurements undertaken on an instrumented rotor at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, UK, during the period 1994 - 97. The programme was directed at improving the prediction of the steady and unsteady rotor blade loading, particularly the loads arising from the stalling of the blade. The measured data consisted of blade surface pressure distributions sampled at 50Hz at 6 sections along the span of one blade of the 17m diameter, 3 bladed, fixed pitch, upwind H.A.W.T., together with measurements of the incident velocity. (au)
Fuzzy logic estimator of rotor time constant in induction motors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alminoja, J. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Control Engineering Laboratory; Koivo, H. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Control Engineering Laboratory
1997-12-31
Vector control of AC machines is a well-known and widely used technique in induction machine control. It offers an exact method for speed control of induction motors, but it is also sensitive to the changes in machine parameters. E.g. rotor time constant has a strong dependence on temperature. In this paper a fuzzy logic estimator is developed, with which the rotor time constant can be estimated when the machine has a load. It is more simple than the estimators proposed in the literature. The fuzzy estimator is tested by simulation when step-wise abrupt changes and slow drifting occurs. (orig.) 7 refs.
Influence of rotor circumference speed on flotation cell aeration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dedek, F; Bortlik, V
1978-01-01
Laboratory test results of flotation experiments conducted in Czechoslovakia with the use of coal flotation particles <0.5 mm are presented. Three different cells and rotors were used, type MS, Denver, VRF 2 with various rotor diameters ranging from 40 mm to 95 mm. Nine tables show the results with varying flotation time, circumferenial velocity, flotation reagents and aeration. Test procedures are discussed; main results are that circumferenial velocity cannot be used as a decisive parameter for cell aeration and flotation efficiency, and that a direct transfer of parameters cannot be made to flotation cells with a different design and to larger industrial equipment. (4 refs.) (In German)
Fatigue qualification of high thickness composite rotor components
Raggi, M.; Mariani, U.; Zaffaroni, G.
Fatigue qualification aspects of composite rotor components are presented according with the safe life procedure usually applied by helicopter manufacturers. Test activities are identified at three levels of specimen complexity: coupon, structural element and full scale component. Particular attention is given to high thickness laminates qualification as far as environmental exposure is concerned. A practical approach for an accelerated conditioning procedure is described. The application to a main rotor tension link is presented showing the negligible effect of the moisture absorption on its fatigue strength.
Flow diagnostics downstream of a tribladed rotor model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naumov, I. V.; Rahmanov, V. V.; Okulov, Valery
2012-01-01
This paper presents results of a study of vortex wake structures and measurements of instantaneous 3D velocity fields downstream of a triblade turbine model. Two operation modes of flow around the rotor with different tip speed ratios were tested. Initially the wake structures were visualized...... and subsequently quantitative data were recorded through velocity field restoration from particle tracks using a stereo PIV system.The study supplied flow diagnostics and recovered the instantaneous 3D velocity fields in the longitudinal cross section behind a tribladed rotor at different values of tip speed ratio...
Failure analysis of a helicopter's main rotor bearing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahzad, M.; Qureshi, A.H.; Waqas, H.; Hussain, N.; Ali, N.
2011-01-01
Presented results report some of the findings of a detailed failure analysis carried out on a main rotor hub assembly, which had symptoms of burning and mechanical damage. The analysis suggests environmental degradation of the grease which causes pitting on bearing-balls. The consequent inefficient lubrication raises the temperature which leads to the smearing of cage material (brass) on the bearing-balls and ultimately causes the failure. The analysis has been supported by the microstructural studies, thermal analysis and micro-hardness testing performed on the affected main rotor bearing parts. (author)
Power Properties of Two Interacting Wind Turbine Rotors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2016-01-01
In the current experiments, two identical wind turbine models were placed in uniform flow conditions in a water flume. The initial flow in the flume was subject to a very low turbulence level, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent wake instability. Both....... The resulting power capacity has been studied and analyzed at different rotor positions and a range of tip speed ratios from 2 to 8 and a simple algebraic relationship between the velocity deficit in the wake of the front turbine and the power of the second turbine was found, when both rotors have the coaxial...
Power Properties of Two Interacting Wind Turbine Rotors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2017-01-01
In the current experiments, two identical wind turbine models were placed in uniform flow conditions in a water flume. The initial flow in the flume was subject to a very low turbulence level, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent wake instability. Both....... The resulting power capacity has been studied and analyzed at different rotor positions and a range of tip-speed ratios from 2 to 8, and a simple algebraic relationship between the velocity deficit in the wake of the front turbine and the power of the second turbine was found, when both rotors have the coaxial...
Design of a Slowed-Rotor Compound Helicopter for Future Joint Service Missions
Silva, Christopher; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne R.
2010-01-01
A slowed-rotor compound helicopter has been synthesized using the NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) conceptual design software. An overview of the design process and the capabilities of NDARC are presented. The benefits of trading rotor speed, wing-rotor lift share, and trim strategies are presented for an example set of sizing conditions and missions.
Soule, V. A.; Badri-Nath, Y.
1973-01-01
The results of a study of the use of composite materials in the wing of a tilt rotor aircraft are presented. An all-metal tilt rotor aircraft was first defined to provide a basis for comparing composite with metal structure. A configuration study was then done in which the wing of the metal aircraft was replaced with composite wings of varying chord and thickness ratio. The results of this study defined the design and performance benefits obtainable with composite materials. Based on these results the aircraft was resized with a composite wing to extend the weight savings to other parts of the aircraft. A wing design was then selected for detailed structural analysis. A development plan including costs and schedules to develop this wing and incorporate it into a proposed flight research tilt rotor vehicle has been devised.
Viscoelastic materials with anisotropic rigid particles: stress-deformation behavior
Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.
2001-01-01
In this paper we have derived constitutive equations for the stress tensor of a viscoelastic material with anisotropic rigid particles. We have assumed that the material has fading memory. The expressions are valid for slow and small deformations from equilibrium, and for systems that are nearly
Rigidity and bradykinesia reduce interlimb coordination in Parkinsonian gait
Winogrodzka, Ania; Wagenaar, Robert C.; Booij, Jan; Wolters, Eric C.
2005-01-01
Objective: To assess the influence of rigidity and bradykinesia and the extent of dopaminergic degeneration on interlimb coordination during walking in early, drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Design: The interlimb coordination was examined during a systematic manipulation of
Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis C González
Full Text Available Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.
Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.
González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J
2012-01-01
Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars) that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.
Patient satisfaction related to rigid external distraction osteogenesis
van Eggermont, Bas; Jansma, J.; Bierman, M. W. J.; Stegenga, B.
2007-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction with treatment among cleft lip and palate patients who underwent maxillary advancement using a rigid external distraction (RED) device. Nine patients (four boys, five girls), mean age 17.7 years (SD 4.0), were included in the study. Outcome measures
Short Communication: Statistical determination of the rigidity in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
From the graph of load against displacement, the rigidity in flexion at different moisture levels was determined from which the Young modulus was calculated. Linear regression models were fitted to the data and the results showed significant correlation coefficients between the Young modulus and moisture content for each ...
Connect-disconnect coupling for preadjusted rigid shafts
Bajkowski, F. W.; Holmberg, A.
1969-01-01
Coupling device enables a rigid shaft to be connected to or disconnected from a fixed base without disturbing the point of adjustment of the shaft in a socket or causing the shaft to rotate. The coupling consists of an externally threaded, internally slotted boss extending from the fixed base.
Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured viscoelastic matrix
Wilbrink, M.W.L.; Michels, M.A.J.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.
2005-01-01
This paper deals with rigidity percolation in composite materials consisting of a dispersion of mineral particles in a microstructured viscoelastic matrix. The viscoelastic matrix in this specific case is a hydrocarbon refinery residue. In a set of model random composites the mean interparticle
Centrifuge modelling of rigid piles in soft clay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klinkvort, R.T.; Poder, M.; Truong, P.
2016-01-01
of this study is to employ centrifuge modelling in order to derive experimental p-y curves for rigid piles embedded in over-consolidated soft clay. A kaolin clay sample was prepared and pre-consolidated by applying a constant pressure at the soil surface, while different over-consolidation ratios were achieved...
Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.
Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U
2016-01-01
The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.
Study of rigidity of semiconducting vanadate glasses and its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
These parameters along with the coordination number of the glasses affect the glass transition temperature. The correlation between the elastic moduli and thermal properties of these samples showed that 0.25MoO3–0.25PbO–0.5V2O5 glass is the most rigid and has an applicable glass transition temperature for coating.
Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(Math. Sci.) Vol. 126, No. 2, May 2016, pp. 253–260. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere. HONGWEI XU1 and DENGYUN YANG2,∗. 1Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027,. People's Republic of China. 2College of Mathematics and ...
Accuracy limit of rigid 3-point water models
Izadi, Saeed; Onufriev, Alexey V.
2016-08-01
Classical 3-point rigid water models are most widely used due to their computational efficiency. Recently, we introduced a new approach to constructing classical rigid water models [S. Izadi et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 3863 (2014)], which permits a virtually exhaustive search for globally optimal model parameters in the sub-space that is most relevant to the electrostatic properties of the water molecule in liquid phase. Here we apply the approach to develop a 3-point Optimal Point Charge (OPC3) water model. OPC3 is significantly more accurate than the commonly used water models of same class (TIP3P and SPCE) in reproducing a comprehensive set of liquid bulk properties, over a wide range of temperatures. Beyond bulk properties, we show that OPC3 predicts the intrinsic charge hydration asymmetry (CHA) of water — a characteristic dependence of hydration free energy on the sign of the solute charge — in very close agreement with experiment. Two other recent 3-point rigid water models, TIP3PFB and H2ODC, each developed by its own, completely different optimization method, approach the global accuracy optimum represented by OPC3 in both the parameter space and accuracy of bulk properties. Thus, we argue that an accuracy limit of practical 3-point rigid non-polarizable models has effectively been reached; remaining accuracy issues are discussed.
Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
By using phenylacetylene based rigid-rod linkers (PhA), we have successfully synthesized two fullerene derivatives, C60-PhA and C60-PhA-C60. The absorption spectral features of C60, as well as that of the phenylacetylene moiety are retained in the monomeric forms of these fullerene derivatives, ruling out the possibility ...