WorldWideScience

Sample records for rights reserved instrument

  1. Development of retrieval, reservation and management system for measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Kenzo; Ito, Emi.

    1985-08-01

    In order to computerize the lending and management of measuring instruments, at first, the specification of the software was examined, but thereafter, the development was begun. The largest aim of the computerization was the automation and labor saving of the lending works of diverse measuring instruments and the automatic management. From user side, it is desirable to know the specification and the state of use and reservation of measuring instruments and to be able to easily make reservation based on the information. Besides, from management side, it is desirable to know the location and the state of use and reservation of measuring instruments, to immediately prepare for lending and returning, and to automate the recording of lending and returning. So as to satisfy those conditions, the automatic reservation and management system for measuring instruments was developed. At the same time, the means to simply input required data such as specification, names of manufacturers and equipment number was developed. The input of data was carried out for three months from October, 1984, and the system was almost completed in December, 1984. The full scale operation was started in Junuary, 1985. (Kako, I.)

  2. 31 CFR 208.10 - Reservation of rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservation of rights. 208.10 Section 208.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY...

  3. Human dignity according to international instruments on human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Alzina de Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to international instruments on human rights, the dignity of the human person is the foundation of human rights, and both human dignity and human rights are inherent to the human being, universal and inviolable. This understanding of human dignity is not a fruitless truism, but the solid foundation on which to build a world community under the rule of the new ius gentium: the International Law for Humankind. Moreover, it is the clue to answer many questions raised by the new world of globalization and of the exponential growth of international rules.Consequently, there is a need to a common doctrine on a notion of human dignity which will allow the implementation and adjudication of the aforementioned instruments, at the service of the human person and in conformity with the juridical conscience which they reflect. Philosophy of Law concepts which can be traced back to Aristotle provide that notion. According to these concepts, the demanding nature of “human dignity” sustains the notion of “legal personhood”, and both notions pertain to the realm of Law and Right, not of Morale and Values. Thus, human dignity and human rights are and must be, respectively, a basic principle and a necessary part of any Law system, including international law

  4. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to § 354.4(c)(1), is governed by the law (not... recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to § 354.14(c)(1), is governed by the law... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law governing rights and obligations...

  5. 25 CFR 213.17 - Government reserves right to purchase minerals produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government reserves right to purchase minerals produced... Leases § 213.17 Government reserves right to purchase minerals produced. In time of war or other public... prevailing market price on the date of sale all or any part of the minerals produced under any lease. Rents...

  6. 25 CFR 226.12 - Government reserves right to purchase oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government reserves right to purchase oil. 226.12 Section... reserves right to purchase oil. Any of the executive departments of the U.S. Government shall have the... price as defined in § 226.11. ...

  7. 31 CFR 309.10 - Tenders; reservation of right to reject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; reservation of right to... BILLS § 309.10 Tenders; reservation of right to reject. In considering the acceptance of tenders, the highest prices offered will be accepted in full down to the amount required, and if the same price appears...

  8. 25 CFR 227.14 - Government reserves right to purchase oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government reserves right to purchase oil and gas. 227.14... § 227.14 Government reserves right to purchase oil and gas. In time of war or other public emergency any... posted market price on the date of sale all or any part of the minerals produced under any lease. Rents...

  9. Conscientious objection to military service in international human rights instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaliauskaitė, Ernesta

    2010-01-01

    Current debates on conscientious objection to military service reveal a conflict between conscription and individual freedom of conscience; they question the scope of human rights and liberties as well as raise an issue of their extension. The majority of member states of UN and CoE officially recognize a right to conscientious objection. However, the flow of complaints to international human rights monitoring bodies demonstrates absence of a general consensus on the concept, origin and legal...

  10. The Netherlands and the Development of International Human Rights Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiding, H.

    2007-01-01

    When discussing the Netherlands' international human rights policies, the first aspects to come to mind are usually those related to how it addresses and reacts to concrete human rights violations by other countries. In fact, there sometimes appears to be a tendency for public opinion to identify a

  11. 18 CFR 1314.4 - Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of any Person against TVA and... FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.4 Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of any Person against TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing other interests. (a) Except...

  12. Bentham’s Panopticon and Instrumentalization of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Beytía Reyes, Pablo; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the foundations of Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism and the main criticisms to this doctrine, especially those which deem it incompatible with unconditional respect of human rights. Bentham’s Panopticon, his proposal on prison reform published in the late eighteenth century, is discussed. Based on the analysis of the Panopticon –which is a consistent application of Bentham utilitarianism–, the author concludes that a) this doctrine promotes a humanitarian approach, although ...

  13. Coronary reserve of the right ventricle evaluated by double dose Tl-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Adachi, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Thallium-201 double dose scintigraphy was applied to exercise to estimate the coronary blood flow reserve of the left and right ventricles and this was compared with the degree of coronary artery stenosis. As an index of coronary reserve we measured the rate of change of blood flow distribution (ΔF) calculated from the change in myocardial radioactivity following thallium-201 injections, once at rest and once during exercise. With submaximal exercise the increases in ΔF of the left ventricle were less in patients with ischemic heart disease than in the control subjects, and were less as the number of diseased coronary vessels increased. The increases of ΔF of the right ventricle were less in patients with stenosis of the proximal portion of the right coronary artery than in patients without stenosis and in the control subjects. The more severe the stenosis of the proximal portion of the right coronary artery, the smaller the ΔF of the right ventricle. These results indicate that evaluation of the ΔF in the left and right ventricles is useful in estimating coronary artery stenosis. (author)

  14. Rights reserved to parliament in connection with the atomic energy laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, K.

    1985-01-01

    The peaceful use of nuclear energy is a key problem in the field of force created by the counter vailing interests of the economy and ecology, a problem that is a first-rate challenge to the institutions of our constitutional state. This book is intended to explain the constitutional key problem in the field of nuclear energy utilization: Does the institution ''parliament'' - primarily the Federal Parliament which by our Basic Law is assigned the function of an ''institutional centre of political affairs'' - accept the challenge or does it evade the responsibility for problems relating to the principles of our society. The author primarily reveals and discusses the task and rights to be reserved to parliament within the vast field of governmental activities, so that the large framework of legislative means of impact is left out of consideration, although some individual aspects now and then are considered as additional items which contribute to explain the point discussed. The constitutional standard is the rights reserved to parliament which, according to the theory of material and essential matters developed by the Federal Constitutional Court, include vital decisions with impact on the future development of our society, and not only problems relating to the Basic Law, as was hitherto accepted. This extended approach applies to problems solvable by legislative means. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular contractile reserve in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana Rita; Loureiro, Maria José; Lopes, Liliana; Cotrim, Carlos; Lopes, Luís; Repolho, Débora; Pereira, Hélder

    2014-03-01

    Right ventricular function is a major determinant of prognosis in pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess and compare right ventricular contractile reserve in healthy subjects (controls) and in subjects with pulmonary hypertension (cases). In this prospective study of seven cases and seven controls undergoing treadmill stress echocardiography, right ventricular S-wave velocity, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) and stroke volume index were assessed at rest and with exercise. The increase in each parameter between rest and exercise for cases and controls was analyzed and the magnitude of change in each parameter with exercise between cases and controls was compared. A significant increase in S-wave velocity was observed in cases (rest: 9.4 ± 3.1; exercise: 13.7 ± 4.8 cm/s [p < 0.05]). In controls there was a statistically significant increase in S-wave velocity (12.9 ± 2.3 to 23.0 ± 7.2 cm/s [p < 0.005]), TAPSE (25.7 ± 2.4 to 31.0 ± 3.5 mm [p < 0.05]) and RVFAC (53.8 ± 14.7% to 64.4 ± 9.9% [p < 0.005]). The magnitude of change in S-wave velocity (cases: 4.3 ± 3.3; controls: 10.1 ± 5.5 cm/s [p < 0.05]), TAPSE (cases: 0.6 ± 2.5; controls: 5.3 ± 3.8 mm [p < 0.05]) and RVFAC (cases: -0.4 ± 11.8; controls: 10.6 ± 5.9% [p < 0.05]) was significantly different between cases and controls. S-wave velocity, TAPSE and RVFAC increased significantly with exercise in controls. S-wave velocity was the only parameter that showed a significant increase in cases, although the magnitude of this increase was significantly less than in controls. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Market-based instruments for water policy: the market for water rights in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Market instruments have been often proposed with the aim of improving the efficient allocation of use rights over natural resources. This article analyzes the potential of market mechanisms in the field of water resources and focuses attention on the experience of Chile, one of the few cases in which water markets have been implemented on a wide scale. Evidence from the Chilean case is discussed in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and to outline the potential benefits but also the many drawbacks of these instruments. [it

  17. A global survey of “TURF-reserves”, Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries coupled with marine reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Afflerbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing and degradation of the marine environment continue to plague coastal communities worldwide, with multiple diverse solutions being proposed. Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries (TURFs is a fishery management approach that aligns fishers’ incentives with sustainability, while marine reserves have proven effective for ecosystem protection, and in some cases for fishery enhancement. These two management approaches are often used in isolation, leaving the potential utility of integrating them poorly understood. We examine cases where TURFs and marine reserves have been implemented together to create “TURF-reserves”. We compiled a database of 27 TURF-reserves and collected information on the governance, management, enforcement, fishing practices, fishing rights, regulations, and design attributes for each site. We address several research questions including: what species are managed with TURF-reserves, how are TURF-reserves created and who is involved in the process? Our findings show that the majority of surveyed TURF-reserves arose from previously established TURF systems that target a range of fisheries, and multiple entities play a role in TURF-reserve development and management. We also examine the differences between two TURF-reserve archetypes and find that those developed with a strong history of customary tenure share distinct qualities from those created in a more recently established, government-mandated system. Keywords: TURF, Marine reserve, TURF-reserve, Fisheries, Rights-based management

  18. THE RIGHT TO FORM AND TO JOIN TRADE UNIONS AS DEFINED IN INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhoshev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The right of workers to form and to join trade unions is one of the most important international labour standards. This means that employees, no matter where they are employed (public or private sector, have the right to form their own organizations (unions. Apart from the employees, employers also have the right to form and join in employers’ associations. The right of employees and employers to organize is based on the following principles: voluntariness, autonomy and democracy. The general objective of the formation of unions and employers’ associations is to protect the rights and interests of members of the union and the employers’ association, as well as their promotion in an organized manner. The provision and guarantee of union and workers' rights are guaranteed by a number of international and regional legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, regulations, such as ILO, UN, Council of Europe and the European Union, which will be analysed further in this paper. The main objective arising from these documents is to improve the position of workers and their protection. Within the paper, we will also analyse the most important legal acts of the Republic of Macedonia concerning the right to join unions. By analysing the content of the national labour legislation, we will determine the extent to which the international labour law is being implemented. Moreover, the paper will analyse the basic principles underlying union organization and association.

  19. Reducing chronic visuo-spatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke through instrument playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka eBodak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere strokes at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space and has previously been shown to be improved by a number of motivational influences, including listening to preferred music and numerical sequence completion. Here we examined whether playing musical sequences on chime bars – an instrument with a horizontal alignment – would bring about clinically significant improvement in chronic neglect.Two left neglect patients completed an intervention comprising four weekly 30-minute music sessions involving playing scales and familiar melodies on chime bars from right to left. Two cancellation tests (Mesulam shape, BIT star, the line bisection test, and the neglect subtest from the computerised TAP (Test for Attentional Performance battery were administered three times during a preliminary baseline phase, before and after each music session during the rehabilitation phase to investigate short-term effects, as well as one week after the last intervention session to investigate whether any effects would persist.Both patients demonstrated significant short-term and longer-lasting improvements on the Mesulam shape cancellation test. One patient also showed longer-lasting effects on the BIT star cancellation test and scored in the normal range one week after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that active music-making may help neglect patients attend more to their affected side.

  20. All rights reserved

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The influence of weather in all aspects of human endeavours is evident in the recorded loss of lives and properties .... forecasting the rain, frost and fog formation as well as ... 2017). The trend graphs of relative humidity and the ... equation was obtained using the curve estimation .... empirical regression models.

  1. The Right to strike: International and regional legal instruments with accent of legislation in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Majhosev, Andon; Denkova, Jadranka

    2013-01-01

    The right to strike is a universal democratic right of all employees, regardless of where they are employed: Real or public sector. Depending on the degree of realization of this right in a state, it is accordingly evaluated on the scale of democracy. Therefore, we can say that the right to strike is a fundamental measure of democratic values of a society. There is no real democracy without the right to strike. The right to strike is governed by international legal instruments (acts) of the U...

  2. 31 CFR 363.28 - Does Public Debt reserve the right to require that any TreasuryDirect ® transaction be conducted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does Public Debt reserve the right to... Provisions Governing Securities Held in TreasuryDirect § 363.28 Does Public Debt reserve the right to require that any TreasuryDirect ® transaction be conducted in paper form? We reserve the right to require any...

  3. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  4. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic determinants of right coronary artery flow reserve and phasic flow pattern in advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady Charles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NIC, right-sided cardiac disturbances has prognostic implications. Right coronary artery (RCA flow pattern and flow reserve (CFR are not well known in this setting. The purpose of this study was to assess, in human advanced NIC, the RCA phasic flow pattern and CFR, also under right-sided cardiac disturbances, and compare with left coronary circulation. As well as to investigate any correlation between the cardiac structural, mechanical and hemodynamic parameters with RCA phasic flow pattern or CFR. Methods Twenty four patients with dilated severe NIC were evaluated non-invasively, even by echocardiography, and also by cardiac catheterization, inclusive with Swan-Ganz catheter. Intracoronary Doppler (Flowire data was obtained in RCA and left anterior descendent coronary artery (LAD before and after adenosine. Resting RCA phasic pattern (diastolic/systolic was compared between subgroups with and without pulmonary hypertension, and with and without right ventricular (RV dysfunction; and also with LAD. RCA-CFR was compared with LAD, as well as in those subgroups. Pearson's correlation analysis was accomplished among echocardiographic (including LV fractional shortening, mass index, end systolic wall stress more hemodynamic parameters with RCA phasic flow pattern or RCA-CFR. Results LV fractional shortening and end diastolic diameter were 15.3 ± 3.5 % and 69.4 ± 12.2 mm. Resting RCA phasic pattern had no difference comparing subgroups with vs. without pulmonary hypertension (1.45 vs. 1.29, p = NS either with vs. without RV dysfunction (1.47 vs. 1.23, p = NS; RCA vs. LAD was 1.35 vs. 2.85 (p Conclusion In patients with chronic advanced NIC, RCA phasic flow pattern has a mild diastolic predominance, less marked than in LAD, with no effects from pulmonary artery hypertension or RV dysfunction. There is no significant correlation between any cardiac mechanical-structural or

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  6. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  7. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  8. Comparison of fractional flow reserve of composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glineur, David; Boodhwani, Munir; Poncelet, Alain; De Kerchove, Laurent; Etienne, Pierre Yves; Noirhomme, Philippe; Deceuninck, Paul; Michel, Xavier; El Khoury, Gebrine; Hanet, Claude

    2010-09-01

    Composite Y-grafts, using the left internal thoracic artery as the inflow, allow a more efficient use of conduits without the need to touch a diseased ascending aorta. Among other conduits, the saphenous vein graft may be an alternative to the radial artery in elderly patients. We evaluated the hemodynamic characteristics of 17 composite Y-grafts made with the left internal thoracic artery anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery in all cases and with either the free right internal thoracic artery (RITA group, n = 10) or a saphenous vein graft (SVG group, n = 7) implanted proximally to the left internal thoracic artery and distally to the circumflex territory 6 months after the operation. At baseline, the pressure gradient measured with a 0.014-inch pressure wire was minimal between the aorta and the internal thoracic artery stem (2 +/- 1 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending (4 +/- 2 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex (3 +/- 1 mm Hg), and the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex (2 +/- 2 mm Hg). During hyperemia induced by adenosine, the pressure gradient increased significantly to 6 +/- 2 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery stem, 9 +/- 4 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending artery, 9 +/- 3 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 7 +/- 4 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. Fractional flow reserve was 0.94 +/- 0.02 in internal thoracic artery stem, 0.90 +/- 0.04 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending, 0.91 +/- 0.03 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 0.92 +/- 0.06 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. No difference between the two types of composite Y-grafts was observed for pressure gradients or fractional flow reserve measured in internal thoracic artery stem or in distal branches. Composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic

  9. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  10. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  11. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  12. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  13. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  14. Perspective Intercultural Bioethics and Human Rights: the search for instruments for resolving ethical conflicts culturally based.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline ALBUQUERQUE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  16. Strengthening the human right to sanitation as an instrument for inclusive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Over a third of the current 7.3 billion people worldwide are burdened with poor sanitation services. The resulting social, relational and ecological exclusion make the realisation of the human right to sanitation a critical concern development concern. However, the literature has evolved in a

  17. 36 CFR 251.15 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of mineral rights reserved in conveyances to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prospect for, mine and remove minerals, oil, gas, or other inorganic substances, said reservations shall be... repair, replacement or restoration. (iv) Failure to comply with the terms and conditions of the aforesaid...

  18. “Reasonable Accommodation” and “Accessibility”: Human Rights Instruments Relating to Inclusion and Exclusion in the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Hirschberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ableism is a powerful social force that causes persons with disabilities to suffer exclusion. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD is based on the human rights principles of equality and freedom for all people. This Convention contains two human rights instruments: the principle of accessibility and the means of reasonable accommodation, which can be used to protect the human rights of disabled persons. The extent to which they are used depends on whether the state implements the Convention adequately and whether companies accept their responsibility with respect to employing disabled persons and making workplaces available and designing them appropriately. Civil society can demand the adequate implementation of the human rights asserted in the CRPD and, thus, in national legislation, as well. A crucial point here is that only a state that has ratified the Convention is obliged to implement the Convention. Civil society has no obligation to do this, but has the right to participate in the implementation process (Art. 4 and Art. 33 CRPD. The Convention can play its part for disabled persons participating in the labor market without discrimination. If it is not implemented or not heeded sufficiently, the state must push this and put more effort into its implementation. If the state does not do this, this violates human rights and has direct consequences for the living conditions of disabled persons. The powerful ideological force of ableism then remains dominant and hampers or prevents the participation of persons with disabilities in the labor market and, thus, in society as a whole.

  19. 36 CFR 251.14 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... timber products and in locating, constructing and using mills, logging roads, railroads, chutes, landings..., and to young growth or to trees left standing. All survey monuments and witness trees shall be preserved. (3) All trees, timber or timber products of species or sizes not specifically reserved which are...

  20. Right to Social Security in Human Rights Instruments and in International Labor Organization (with a glance at some Islamic Countries Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini Almoosavi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The right to Social Security is one of the rights which appears in two important instruments of human rights—that is, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The devotion of a separate article to right of Social Security in these two universal instruments indicates that this right is essential in the views the framers of the Declaration as well as international convention. Despite the emphasis put by the Declaration on international cooperation for implementing this right, unfortunately the appropriate action has not been taken yet in international scale. The low tendency to Social Security must be related to the economic problems surrounding this right. The low tendency to Social Security can also be seen in the regional instruments of human rights. These instruments have not mentioned the term “social security” independently; just there are general indications in some famous conventions of International Labor Origination (ILO. Of course in some special protocols prepared on specific issues by regional originations, Social Security has been discussed which is not convincing at all. If regional originations had been serious about implementation of Social Security as a human right, they should have referred to it in the original and mother text. form of governance that administers public affairs and resources with utmost transparency and attention to different dimensions of human rights, as civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. حق تأمین اجتماعی از جمله حقوقی است که در دو سند مهم و مادر حقوق بشر یعنی اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر و میثاق‌نامه حقوق اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی گنجانده شده است. اختصاص ماده جداگانه به حق تأمین اجتماعی در‌این دو سند جهانی، حاوی اهمیت‌این حق از

  1. THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS: A NEW INSTRUMENT TO ADDRESS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Courtis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the adoption of the new Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as a means to obtain redress for violations against economic, social and cultural rights in the international sphere – including its potential use for the consideration of the violation of extraterritorial obligations. Keywords: Human rights. Social rights. Violations. Optinal protocol.

  2. A Mathematical Model and Programme Support for Determination of the Values of the Marginal Reserve Requirement as Instrument of Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Šorić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of interdependence between central bank and commercial bank goals. The basic central bank task is to achieve and to maintain price stability. Croatian external debt has been increasing for years and so the activities of the Croatian National Bank are designed to correct this situation. In order to stop the further increase of the external debt, the Croatian National Bank uses several monetary policy instruments, among which is the marginal reserve requirement. On the other hand, the goal of commercial banks is to maximise profits. Banks take loans from abroad at a lower interest rate and invest this money in Croatia at a higher interest rate, thus fulfilling their goal. In order to obtain the desired effects of the marginal reserve requirement, its optimal percentage value should be determined. This problem is modelled as a bi-level mixed 0-1 programming problem. The objective of the leader (Croatian National Bank is to minimize the increase in household loans by setting different percentages of the reserve requirements for loans extended to households and for those granted to enterprises. The objective of the followers (banks is to maximize profits. In order to solve this NP-hard problem a heuristic is proposed. In order to verify the model, the paper ends with simulations and the presentation of computational results.

  3. Construction and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Attitudes towards Human Rights of Liberal Studies Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yan Lam; Leung, Yan Wing; Chow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, Liberal Studies, which can be used as a platform for human rights education, was newly introduced as a compulsory subject for the senior secondary students in Hong Kong. As teacher's attitudes impact students' learning largely, a survey was conducted in 2010 to measure Liberal Studies teachers' attitudes towards human rights. This article…

  4. The dilemma of contact: voluntary isolation and the impacts of gas exploitation on health and rights in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve, Peruvian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, Dora A; Ryan, Aliya S S

    2007-01-01

    Many small groups of indigenous peoples in the Amazon basin avoid and resist direct encounters with outsiders. As far as we know, they do so because of appalling experiences in earlier encounters with national society. When contacted today, they are extremely vulnerable to introduced diseases and exploitation. In this paper we draw on our experience in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve for isolated peoples in SE Peru to discuss some of the current debates about whether isolated peoples should be contacted and how best to respect their right to life, health, autonomy and territory. The remote headwater regions where isolated peoples sought refuge during the last century are increasingly sought after for resource extraction. In particular, the extraction of oil and gas is increasing throughout the Peruvian Amazon. In the second part of the paper we give some examples of how oil/gas companies and the energy sector in Peru have affected the well-being of the peoples in this reserve in the 21st century. If this trend is not reversed the impacts for isolated peoples will be irreparable

  5. The dilemma of contact: voluntary isolation and the impacts of gas exploitation on health and rights in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve, Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Dora A.; Ryan, Aliya S. S.

    2007-10-01

    Many small groups of indigenous peoples in the Amazon basin avoid and resist direct encounters with outsiders. As far as we know, they do so because of appalling experiences in earlier encounters with national society. When contacted today, they are extremely vulnerable to introduced diseases and exploitation. In this paper we draw on our experience in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve for isolated peoples in SE Peru to discuss some of the current debates about whether isolated peoples should be contacted and how best to respect their right to life, health, autonomy and territory. The remote headwater regions where isolated peoples sought refuge during the last century are increasingly sought after for resource extraction. In particular, the extraction of oil and gas is increasing throughout the Peruvian Amazon. In the second part of the paper we give some examples of how oil/gas companies and the energy sector in Peru have affected the well-being of the peoples in this reserve in the 21st century. If this trend is not reversed the impacts for isolated peoples will be irreparable.

  6. Principle Of Non-Regression And Social Security: Security And Trust Protection, Reservation Of The Possible And Non-Regression In The Fundamental Social Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Garcia Schwarz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain and analyze, from the perspective of the material and effective dimensions of fundamental social rights, questions that concern the relevance of security and trust for the social pact and, as a consequence, to the non-regression in the fundamental social rights in general and in the social security in particular. It reveals that, while the retrogression is not absolute, retrogression must be fully justified. The research is descriptive and explanatory, documentary-bibliographical.

  7. Human Rights Treaties Are an Important Part of the "International Health Instrumentariam" Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-10-02

    In their commentary, Haik Nikogosian and Ilona Kickbusch argue for the necessity of new binding international legal instruments for health to address complex health determinants and offer a cogent analysis of the implications of such treaties for future global health governance. Yet in doing so they pay no attention to the existing instrumentarium of international legally binding treaties relevant to health, in the form of human rights treaties. International human rights law has entrenched individual entitlements and state obligations in relation to individual and public health through iterative human rights treaties since 1946. These treaties offer normative specificity, institutional monitoring and the possibility of enforcement and accountability. If we are to build a new 'international health instrumentariam' we should not ignore existing and important tools that can assist in this endeavor. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  8. [Organising an instrumental elective abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. How to investigate the goal orientations of students in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education: choosing the right instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. M. Koopman; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; Dr P.J. Teune

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric properties of three instruments: a semi-structured interview, a questionnaire and a sorting task. The central question is which instrument is most suitable to investigate the goal orientations of students in competence-based Pre-Vocational Secondary Education.

  10. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    the pole to the magnetic data aided in mapping of various hydrothermally altered structures that may favour gold mineralisation. The interpretation of the aero data set has enhanced a lot of ... water serves as a concentrating, transporting and depositing agent through faults (structures) to the earth's surface. Hydrothermal ...

  11. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered Structures That Favour .... aircraft. Total line kilometers of 36,500 were covered in the survey. Magnetic ... tie lines occur at about 2000 metres interval in the ... visual inspection of the map.

  12. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  13. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  14. Surface rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Corrêa Landim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cities of Brazil, social inequality is illustrated by violence, poverty, and unemployment located next to luxurious residential towers and armored passenger cars. In the face of this situation, the National Movement of Urban Reform encouraged the inclusion of the social function of property in Brazil's new constitution of 1988. Surface rights represent an urbanistic instrument in the city statute that is best aligned to the constitutional principles and urban policies. The current article compares two laws that govern the principle of surface rights and provides a brief history of the evolution of the state based on illuminism and the consequent change in paradigm affecting individual rights, including property and civil rights, and their interpretation under the Constitution. The article concludes by suggesting the use of land surface rights in a joint operation, matching the ownership of the property with urban planning policies and social interest.

  15. The WTP for property rights for the Giant Panda: can a charismatic species be an instrument for conservation of natural habitat?

    OpenAIRE

    Kontoleon, A.; Swanson, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a stated preference study to address issues concerning the potential for using flag-ship species, such as the Giant Panda, to purchase the property rights for the conservation of natural habitat. The study finds, first, that there is clear WTP for acquiring the property rights for panda habitat. The nature of this demand is found both convincing and logically coherent in that it is an increasing function of land (at a diminishing rate). Secondly, the stu...

  16. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  17. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  18. Building a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Guohui; Tan, Juan; Sun, Xulong; Lin, Hao; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery carries the advantage of minimal invasiveness, but ergonomic design of the instruments used has progressed slowly. Previous studies have demonstrated that the handle of laparoscopic instruments is vital for both surgical performance and surgeon's health. This review provides an overview of the sub-discipline of handle ergonomics, including an evaluation framework, objective and subjective assessment systems, data collection and statistical analyses. Furthermore, a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles is proposed to standardize work on instrument design. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pursuing the Right to an Effective Remedy for Human Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undoubtedly, global and regional human rights instruments clearly entrench the right to an effective remedy for a human rights violation. The substantive nature of the right to an effective remedy makes it relevant to the realisation of the right to equality as well as the right to equal protection under the law. Cameroon, as a ...

  20. Reserves Represented by Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M

    2012-01-01

    The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.

  1. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  2. [New nutrient medium for the cultivation and isolation of the plague microbe ChDS-37 as an element of the mobilization reserve of specialized antiepidemic teams of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrukho, A B; Kaminskiĭ, D I; Lomov, Yu M; Telesmanich, N P; Rozhkov, K K; Alutin, I M; Pukhov, Yu M; Prometnoĭ, V I; Fetsaĭlova, O P; Bulakhova, O G; Firsova, I A; Smolikova, L M; Bozhko, N V; Ivanova, V S; Burlakova, O S; Verkina, L M; Trukhachev, A L; Akulova, M V

    2011-04-01

    A new nutrient medium has been designed to culture and isolate the plague microbe ChDS-37 on the basis of the pancreatic digest of baker's yeast. The results of laboratory tests of the designed medium, by using 10 plague microbe strains and those of approval during the tactical and special training of a specialized antiepidemic team (SAET), suggest that the medium has some advantage over reference media and creates prerequisites for being incorporated into the mobilization reserve of a SAET.

  3. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  4. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  5. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  6. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  7. All rights reserved Optimization of bioethanol production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    and has the potential to suitably replace gasoline as a transportation ... fruit in the world after Banana and Citrus and. Nigeria, ranks 7th on the list of world producers of pineapple ... pulp was supplemented with mineral media without glucose ...

  8. rights reserved Numerical Solution of the Differential Equation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-10

    Dec 10, 2017 ... permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited ... The mathematical model has been used to describe ..... Prachin Buri Rice Research Center for historical.

  9. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters ... Seven (7) diets were formulated using corn starch, ... cooked kudzu and diet eight (8) was the reference diet (nutrend). The diets were formulated to provide. 16% protein. A total of forty(40) weaning albino rats of the ...

  10. rights reserved Assessment of Indigenous Bacteria from Biodiesel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Commons Attribution License (CCL), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ... search for alternative sources of energy and ... plates. The purity of cultures was cross checked by gram staining procedure.

  11. All rights reserved Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-12

    Dec 12, 2017 ... Pollution vulnerability assessment of groundwater resources provides information on how to protect areas ... the application of DRASTIC model, the relationship ..... mathematical structure of consistent matrices and the.

  12. All rights reserved Competitive Adsorption of Xylene and Toluene on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... However, when the assay was performed under agitation, it yielded higher ... petrochemical industries for removal of hydrocarbons (m- xylene and toluene) from their waste ... a result of chemical alteration of the volcanic ash.

  13. All rights reserved Investigation of the physical and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    structural use obtained at different areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. Physical properties of ... quantities of local raw materials which must be processed and used for .... F is less than the critical and P is greater than α, thus, there is no significant ...

  14. Shaping, adapting and reserving the right to play

    OpenAIRE

    Lamboll, Richard; Martin, Adrienne; Sanni, Lateef; Adebayo, Kolawole; Graffham, Andrew; Kleih, Ulrich; Abayomi, Louise; Westby, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Purpose:\\ud The purpose of this paper is to explain why the high quality cassava flour (HQCF) value chain in Nigeria has not performed as well as expected. The specific objectives are to: analyse important sources of uncertainty influencing HQCF value chains; explore stakeholders’ strategies to respond to uncertainty; and highlight the implications of different adaptation strategies for equity and the environment in the development of the value chain.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach:\\ud Th...

  15. All rights reserved Performance Evaluation of a Locally Fabricated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria .... The heat exchanger comprises tubing made of mild steel with the dimension of 70mm ... contact with the burning compartment to allow for heat exchange and ...

  16. All rights reserved Intermolecular Model Potentials and Virial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Intermolecular Model Potentials and Virial Coefficients from Acoustic Data. 1* ... method of cluster expansion. Its merit is that, ... their determination is by the analyses of isothermal p- ρ-y data ... Carlo simulation method to calculate volumetric.

  17. rights reserved Assessment of Home-Based Nigerian Engineers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The study thus establishes risk management practices as key to successful project management and its neglect as major causal factor for project failures in Nigeria. ... Commons Attribution License (CCL), which permits unrestricted use, ...

  18. rights reserved Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    oxidative stress by polyunsaturated fatty acids in the composition of renal ... laboratory animals (National Institute of Health. Guide for the Care .... encouragement throughout the period of this work. ... Journal of America College of. Nutrition ...

  19. rights reserved Identification of some human pathogenic fungi using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    floccosum, Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum nanum, Trichophyton concentricum Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. quinckeanun, and Trichophyton violaceum. On the basis of their primary habitat associations, the above isolates are of three groups. These are the anthropophilic, zoophilic, and geophilic as depicted in ...

  20. rights reserved Generalization and Modification of Hardy-Littlewood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... everywhere of limits is the Lebesgue differentiation theorem: = lim. → ... norm of the centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator for all 0< ..... As in the one dimensional case this definition ... Weighted inequalities for the one-.

  1. All rights reserved Development of Headspace Solid-Phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Pantai ... mixture of organic solvents was optimized using design of experiment (DOE) with simplex ... food pose a potential health risk to animal and human ... The GC oven temperature program was .... sample pH also helps to transform the analytes into.

  2. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... ABSTRACT: Food insecurity is a major problem of the developing nations. ... Except for the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume that were ...

  3. rights reserved Modelling Growth Kinetics of Klebsiella sp. FIRD 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ... most toxic anthropogenic compounds deliberately introduced ... Due of its toxicity to marine organisms, the. International ... There are a lot of published papers describing ... The rate of bacterial growth and degradation can be represented as ...

  4. All rights reserved Determination of the Viability of Chicken Feather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    United States; 48 kg in the Saudi Arabia, 67 kg in. Hong Kong ... produce as much or more toxic air emissions than coal plants, for ... combustion plant emitted levels of carbon monoxide, .... hence, can sorb and store small molecules, limiting.

  5. rights reserved Relationship between ABO Blood Groups and Lipid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Key Words: Lipoproteins, Blood groups, cardiovascular diseases, triglycerides. After the discovery of ABO blood groups. (Lansteiner, 1900), several studies have reported that the occurence of some diseases can be correlated with blood group types e.g. carcinoma of stomach (Aird et al., 1953), cardiometabolic diseases ...

  6. [French residents' training in instrumental deliveries: A national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, C; Raimond, E; Dupont, A; Pelissier, A; Bonneau, S; Gabriel, R; Graesslin, O

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate French residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology's training in instrumental deliveries in 2015. We conducted a national descriptive survey among 758 residents between December 2014 and January 2015. Respondents were invited by email to specify their University Hospital, their current university term, the number of instrumental deliveries performed by vacuum extractor, forceps or spatulas, and whether they made systematic ultrasound exams before performing the extraction. Response rate was 34.7 % (n=263). There were important differences between regions in terms of type of instruments used. Vacuum extractor was the most commonly used instrument for instrumental deliveries by French residents (56.9 %), more than forceps (25.2 %) and spatulas (17.9 %). At the end of the residency, all the residents had been trained in instrumental deliveries with at least two instruments. The training of difficult techniques as well as their perfect control is required for instrumental deliveries. Yet, we are forced to note that there are substantial differences in the French residents' training in instrumental deliveries depending on their region. So, teaching at least two techniques seems essential as well as improving the training capacities and standardizing practices. A greater systematization of the teaching of the mechanics and obstetric techniques might be a solution to be considered too. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  8. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  9. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  10. Whose Rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The debate over ritual infant male circumcision has increasingly been thematized as a Human Rights issue. But the claims on such rights seem highly conflicting. In particular, the rights of the child seems to conflict with the freedom of religion of parents, the rights of religious and ethnic...... minorities, and the rights of family and privacy. This disagreement is also present among scholars of religion. A reading of public statements by scholars of religion in the ongoing Danish (and Norwegian) debate reveals the lack of consensus of the study of religion when it comes to matters that are of great...... concern both for religious minorities and for individual citizens. This chapter examines the Law and Human Rights documents behind these conflicting claims and discusses the role of the scholar of religion in the debate....

  11. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  12. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  13. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recourse right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The recourse right concerning nuclear power plants is analysed. It is emphasized that in the Brazilian civil liability legislation, the operator has this right against who admitted it through a written contract or against the individual who has acted or omitted to act whith the intent to provoke nuclear incidents. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  15. The Right to Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Coman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we set ourselves to analyze a subject, which, due to its importance andextreme complexity, generated many discussions and controversies both at national and international level:the right to life. The great evolution of the contemporary society and the progress registered in various fieldsbrought into the attention of the states, international organizations, specialists in the field and public opinionthe pressing problem of interpreting the content and limits of the human fundamental rights and liberties. Weset ourselves to analyze the main international instruments regulating the right to life and to identify thesituations where determining the content of this fundamental right in necessary. Without the intent of acomplete work, we understand, throughout this study, to highline the great importance of the right to liferespecting for the entire humanity.

  16. The right and development: the nuclear right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, Guilhermina Lavos.

    1986-02-01

    The author analyses some juridical instruments signed among Brazil and his commercial partners in the nuclear field: the way as it has been reflected and it has modeled the Brazilian Nuclear Program - BNP. It is very much important a Nuclear Law/Bill of the Nuclear Rights directed to the uranium and the BNP defense. It is compared the Brazilian petroleum situation, before 1952, with the present uranium situation. It is purposed a Constitutional disposal, protecting the uranium and all the other nuclear strategic minerals state monopoly, to be inserted in the next Brazilian Constitution and the URANIOBRAS creation, similar to PETROBRAS. (author). 163 refs

  17. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  18. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  19. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  20. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  1. Effects of electropolishing surface treatment on the cyclic fatigue resistance of BioRace nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Vieira, Victor T L; Moreira, Edson J L; Marques, Raquel V L; de Oliveira, Julio C Machado; Debelian, Gilberto; Siqueira, José F

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of electropolishing surface treatment on the number of cycles to fracture of BioRace rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. BioRace size BR5C instruments with or without electropolishing surface treatment were used in an artificial curved canal under rotational speed of 300 rpm until fracture. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of fractured instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Polished instruments displayed a significantly higher number of cycles to fracture when compared with nonpolished instruments (P ductile morphologic characteristics. Evaluation of the separated fragments after cyclic fatigue testing showed the presence of microcracks near the fracture surface. Polished instruments exhibited fine cracks that assumed an irregular path (zigzag crack pattern), whereas nonpolished instruments showed cracks running along the machining grooves. Electropolishing surface treatment of BioRace endodontic instruments significantly increased the cyclic fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  3. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  4. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  5. Deconstructing Rights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    Kerala, India. Parallel Sessions II ... limits of a coming political community ... economies on women's rights & decentralization. Deconstructing ... resorts around all water sources inland and coastal, high-rise buildings ... None work in fishing industry (they have family links) ... ACCESS TO POWER gained by individual women ...

  6. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...... sustainable transport. Long-term elasticities tend to be larger than short term elasticities. The long-term elasticities of reward systems are unknown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  8. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  9. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  10. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  11. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  12. REGULATION OF A RIGHT TO A SALARY IN THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS OF ILO AND UN AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LEGISLATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhošev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the salary as the most important legal institute, element and principle of the labour relations. Before we approach the analysis of the legal regime of the salary, we will define the term labour relations. This paper puts special emphasis on the terminology of the notion salary, as well as the legal nature of the legal regime of the salary. Additionally, in this paper the most important international legal instruments of ILO, UN and The European Council are analyzed for salary regulation and ban on compensation discrimination. In this context, the most important legal acts in the Republic of Macedonia are analyzed which regulate the legal institute salary, i.e. the minimum wage (The Constitution, Labour Law, and Law on Minimum Wage.

  13. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., restoration, and enhancement objectives through agreements with States (including a political subdivision or... project. (b) Reserved Rights Pilot. (1) The Chief shall carry out a reserved rights pilot subject to the requirements established in this part. (2) Under the reserved rights pilot, a landowner may reserve grazing...

  14. Understanding the Potential Content and Structure of an International Convention on the Human Rights of People with Disabilities: Sample Treaty Provisions Drawn from Existing International Instruments. A Reference Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet E.

    This document is designed to prepare advocates in the international disability community for productive participation in the development of international conventions on the human rights of people with disabilities. Knowledge of the standard categories of international law provisions will help participants address issues related to the structure of…

  15. Adaptation of a nursing home culture change research instrument for frontline staff quality improvement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christine W; Palmer, Jennifer A; Mills, Whitney L; Pimentel, Camilla B; Allen, Rebecca S; Wewiorski, Nancy J; Dillon, Kristen R; Snow, A Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced interpersonal relationships and meaningful resident engagement in daily life are central to nursing home cultural transformation, yet these critical components of person-centered care may be difficult for frontline staff to measure using traditional research instruments. To address the need for easy-to-use instruments to help nursing home staff members evaluate and improve person-centered care, the psychometric method of cognitive-based interviewing was used to adapt a structured observation instrument originally developed for researchers and nursing home surveyors. Twenty-eight staff members from 2 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes participated in 1 of 3 rounds of cognitive-based interviews, using the instrument in real-life situations. Modifications to the original instrument were guided by a cognitive processing model of instrument refinement. Following 2 rounds of cognitive interviews, pretesting of the revised instrument, and another round of cognitive interviews, the resulting set of 3 short instruments mirrored the concepts of the original longer instrument but were significantly easier for frontline staff to understand and use. Final results indicated frontline staff found the revised instruments feasible to use and clinically relevant in measuring and improving the lived experience of a changing culture. This article provides a framework for developing or adapting other measurement tools for frontline culture change efforts in nursing homes, in addition to reporting on a practical set of instruments to measure aspects of person-centered care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  17. Neural correlates of recognition and naming of musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Bruss, Joel; Karlan, Brett; Abel, Taylor J; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Retrieval of lexical (names) and conceptual (semantic) information is frequently impaired in individuals with neurological damage. One category of items that is often affected is musical instruments. However, distinct neuroanatomical correlates underlying lexical and conceptual knowledge for musical instruments have not been identified. We used a neuropsychological approach to explore the neural correlates of knowledge retrieval for musical instruments. A large sample of individuals with focal brain damage (N = 298), viewed pictures of 16 musical instruments and were asked to name and identify each instrument. Neuroanatomical data were analyzed with a proportional MAP-3 method to create voxelwise lesion proportion difference maps. Impaired naming (lexical retrieval) of musical instruments was associated with damage to the left temporal pole and inferior pre- and postcentral gyri. Impaired recognition (conceptual knowledge retrieval) of musical instruments was associated with a more broadly and bilaterally distributed network of regions, including ventromedial prefrontal cortices, occipital cortices, and superior temporal gyrus. The findings extend our understanding of how musical instruments are processed at neural system level, and elucidate factors that may explain why brain damage may or may not produce anomia or agnosia for musical instruments. Our findings also help inform broader understanding of category-related knowledge mapping in the brain, as musical instruments possess several characteristics that are similar to various other categories of items: They are inanimate and highly manipulable (similar to tools), produce characteristic sounds (similar to animals), and require fine-grained visual differentiation between each other (similar to people). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  19. Development of an inter-professional screening instrument for cancer patients' education process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaartio-Rajalin, Heli; Huumonen, Tuula; Iire, Liisa; Jekunen, Antti; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Minn, Heikki; Paloniemi, Jenni; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of an inter-professional screening instrument for cancer patients' cognitive resources, knowledge expectations and inter-professional collaboration within patient education. Four empirical datasets during 2012-2014 were analyzed in order to identify main categories, subcategories and items for inter-professional screening instrument. Our inter-professional screening instrument integrates the critical moments of cancer patient education and the knowledge expectation types obtained from patient datasets to assessment of patients' cognitive resources, knowledge expectations and comprehension; and intra; and inter-professional. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rights of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kofman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A person’s identity is their sense of who and what they are, of who stands in significant relations to them, and of what is valuable to them. This is inevitably very broad, an immediate implication of which is that the concept of identity taken alone cannot do significant normative work. In some cases a person’s identity is bound up with the evil that they do or wish to do, and cannot thereby give them any right to do it. In other cases very powerful elements of a person’s identity – such as their attachment to loved ones – is certainly related to important rights, but it is not entirely clear that one needs the concept of identity to explicate or justify these rights; the deep involvement of their identity is arguably a byproduct of other important values in these cases (such as love, and those values can do the grounding work of the rights by themselves and more simply and clearly. Nevertheless, when suitably qualified, a person’s identity is central to accounting for important political rights. These ranges from rights to participate in cultural practices of one’s group, which sometimes implies duties on governments to support minorities threatened with extinction, to – at the outer limit – rights to arrange political administration. These rights are connected to both autonomy and fairness. Cultural rights are often taken either to be opposed to autonomy, or at best instrumental to personal autonomy (by providing ‘options’, but in fact, the ideal of autonomy, expressed by Mill as being the author of one’s life, requires that one be in control of significant aspects of one’s identity. Significant aspects of one’s identity are collectively determined within a culture. Cultures are not static, and their development is particularly affected by political boundaries. A fundamental right of autonomy implies, therefore, that groups be allowed, within reasonable constraints of general feasibility and stability, to arrange

  1. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  2. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  3. Diabetes-related emotional distress instruments: a systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Moon, Seung Hei

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify all available diabetes-related emotional distress instruments and evaluate the evidence regarding their measurement properties to help in the selection of the most appropriate instrument for use in practice and research. A systematic literature search was performed. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched systematically for articles on diabetes-related emotional distress instruments. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the identified studies. The quality of results with respect to the measurement properties of each study was evaluated using Terwee's quality criteria. An ancillary meta-analysis was performed. Of the 2345 articles yielded by the search, 19 full-text articles evaluating 6 diabetes-related emotional distress instruments were included in this study. No instrument demonstrated evidence for all measurement properties. The Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID) was the most frequently studied and the best validated of the instruments. Pooled summary estimates of the correlation coefficient between the PAID and serum glycated hemoglobin revealed a positive but weak correlation. No diabetes-related emotional distress instrument demonstrated evidence for all measurement properties. No instrument was better than another, although the PAID was the best validated and is thus recommended for use. Further psychometric studies of the diabetes-related emotional distress instruments with rigorous methodologies are required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Taking spiritual history in clinical practice: a systematic review of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Bassi, Rodrigo M; Lucchetti, Alessandra L Granero

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate the addressing of spirituality in clinical practice, several authors have created instruments for obtaining a spiritual history. However, in only a few studies have authors compared these instruments. The aim of this study was to compare the most commonly used instruments for taking a spiritual history in a clinical setting. A systematic review of spiritual history assessment was conducted in five stages: identification of instruments used in the literature (databases searching); relevant articles from title and initial abstract review; exclusion and Inclusion criteria; full text retrieval and final analysis of each instrument. A total of 2,641 articles were retrieved and after the analysis, 25 instruments were included. The authors independently evaluated each instrument on 16 different aspects. The instruments with the greatest scores in the final analysis were FICA, SPIRITual History, FAITH, HOPE, and the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Concerning all 25 instruments, 20 of 25 inquire about the influence of spirituality on a person's life and 17 address religious coping. Nevertheless, only four inquire about medical practices not allowed, six deal with terminal events, nine have mnemonics to facilitate their use, and five were validated. FICA, SPIRITual History, FAITH, HOPE, and Royal College of Psychiatrists scored higher in our analysis. The use of each instrument must be individualized, according to the professional reality, time available, patient profile, and settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  6. Brazilian uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Due to a growing demand of electric power to support Brasil's development, the use of nuclear energy will be indispensable. The nuclear fuel cycle for the production of energy, starts with the uranium exploration. The work performed in this field led to the discovery of several deposits in the country, which to-date totalize a reserve of 236,300t of U 308 , ranking Brazil in the 6th place among the nations of the western world holding uranium reserves. (Author) [pt

  7. WaveOne Rotary Instruments after Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Coil, Jeffrey M; Mo, Anthony John; Wang, Zhejun; Hieawy, Ahmed; Yang, Yan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mode of WaveOne (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) instrument defects after single use at different endodontic clinics. A total of 438 WaveOne instruments were collected after clinical use from the 4 specialist clinics over a 12-month period and from 1 graduate program over a 20-month period. The incidence and type of instrument defects were analyzed. The lateral surfaces of part of the defective instruments and fracture surfaces of fractured files were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Unused and clinically used files were examined by a nanoindentation test. Of the 438 WaveOne instruments collected, 42 (9.6%) had defects: 40 (9.1%) were distorted and 2 (0.5%) files had fractured, 1 Small and 1 Primary file. Clear differences in the frequency of defects were found among the 3 file sizes; the occurrence of distortion and fracture were highest with the Small file (21.2% and 0.7%, respectively) followed by the Primary file (4.4% and 0.4%, respectively) (P Instruments from various clinics showed no significantly different occurrence of instrument deformation. Unwinding occurred at 1.2-3.1 mm from the tip. No significant difference in nanohardness was detected among unused and used instruments. The risk of WaveOne fracture is very low when files are singly used by endodontists and residents. Unwinding of the files occurred most frequently in the Small file. The frequency of defects of WaveOne instruments were not influenced by the operator. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the interplay of cancer patients' instrumental concerns and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Kim; van der Goot, Margot J; Smit, Edith G; van Weert, Julia C M; Linn, Annemiek J

    2017-05-01

    1) to assess patients' descriptions of concerns, and 2) to inform a conceptual framework in which the impact of the nature of concerns on doctor-patient communication is specified. Six focus groups were conducted with 39 cancer patients and survivors. In these focus groups participants were asked to describe their concerns during and after their illness. Concerns were described as instrumental concerns (e.g., receiving insufficient information) and emotions (e.g., sadness). Patients frequently explained their concerns as an interplay of instrumental concerns and emotions. Examples of the interplay were "receiving incorrect information" and "frustration", and "difficulties with searching, finding and judging of information" and "fear". Instrumental concerns need to be taken into account in the operationalization of concerns in research. Based on the interplay, the conceptual framework suggests that patients can express instrumental concerns as emotions and emotions as instrumental concerns. Consequently, providers can respond with instrumental and emotional communication when patients express an interplay of concerns. The results of this study can be used to support providers in recognizing concerns that are expressed by patients in consultations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  10. 24 CFR 206.115 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 206.115 [Reserved] ...

  11. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  12. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  13. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  14. Uranium reserves fall: AAEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Figures released by the AAEC show that Australia's reasonably assured resources of uranium recoverable at US$80 a kg fell by 5,000 tonnes during 1980-81. Reserves at 30 June 1981 totalled 294,000 tonnes. This represented 17 per cent of the Western World's low cost reasonably assured resources

  15. A GC Instrument Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, D. Bruce

    1999-02-01

    the difference between the boiling point of the component and the temperature of the column. The polarity difference between the column packing and the component is also used to modify the retention time. The retention time decreases as the difference between the boiling point of the component and the temperature of the column increases, and retention time increases as the polarity of the component approaches the polarity of the column. If the temperature of the column is too low, a warning message is given and the chromatogram does not show that component. There is no "carry-over" to the next chromatogram, as might be the case for an actual instrument. Carrier-gas flow rate is fixed and is not part of the retention-time calculation. Because of this latter condition and the method used to determine retention time, this simulator is not useful for gas chromatography method development and is not intended for such use. The purpose of the simulator is to give a beginning student experience in what happens as column temperature is varied, why one might need temperature programming, why an autosampler might be useful, and the pitfalls of "smart" integrators. When students make mistakes in instrument setup with the simulator the consequences are not damaging to the simulator but might cause serious problems with a real instrument. Hardware and Software Requirements Hardware and software requirements for A GC Instrument Simulator are shown in Table 1. right> right> Shown (right to left) are the main instrument control window and the manual injection window from A GC Instrument Simulator.

  16. Influence of curvature location along an artificial canal on cyclic fatigue of a rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio Pereira; Chiesa, Wanderson Miguel Maia; Correia, Norbi Rodrigues; de Souza Navegante, Núbia Carvalho; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Moreira, Edson Jorge Lima; Chiesa, Bianca Esther Cabral

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of curvature location along an artificial canal on cyclic fatigue (CF) of an Mtwo rotary instrument, verifying the number of cycles to fatigue fracture (NCF) and morphologic characteristics of the fractured instruments. CF testing of instruments was performed in artificial canals with curvature radii of 10 mm and arc lengths of 11 mm. Mtwo rotary instruments size 40, 0.04 taper were used in 2 groups (n = 10): group A, curvature positioned on middle part; group B, apical curvature. All instruments were rotated until fracture. The number of cycles to failure was registered. Data were analyzed by independent sample t test. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of the instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. NCF for groups A and B had significant statistic differences (P ductile type. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ross

    2012-06-15

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation. Copyright © 2012 Pink.

  18. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  19. Teen drivers' awareness of vehicle instrumentation in naturalistic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, J P; Haynie, D; Ouimet, M C; Zhu, C; Guillaume, C; Klauer, S G; Dingus, T; Simons-Morton, B G

    2017-12-01

    valid measurements of driving behavior. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life: Frequency, consistency, and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Tamir, Maya; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-06-01

    People regulate their emotions not only for hedonic reasons but also for instrumental reasons, to attain the potential benefits of emotions beyond pleasure and pain. However, such instrumental motives have rarely been examined outside the laboratory as they naturally unfold in daily life. To assess whether and how instrumental motives operate outside the laboratory, it is necessary to examine them in response to real and personally relevant stimuli in ecologically valid contexts. In this research, we assessed the frequency, consistency, and predictors of instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life. Participants (N = 114) recalled the most negative event of their day each evening for 7 days and reported their instrumental motives and negative emotion goals in that event. Participants endorsed performance motives in approximately 1 in 3 events and social, eudaimonic, and epistemic motives in approximately 1 in 10 events. Instrumental motives had substantially higher within- than between-person variance, indicating that they were context-dependent. Indeed, although we found few associations between instrumental motives and personality traits, relationships between instrumental motives and contextual variables were more extensive. Performance, social, and epistemic motives were each predicted by a unique pattern of contextual appraisals. Our data demonstrate that instrumental motives play a role in daily negative emotion regulation as people encounter situations that pose unique regulatory demands. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Apically extruded debris with reciprocating single-file and full-sequence rotary instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürklein, Sebastian; Schäfer, Edgar

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Eighty human mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions using the 2 reciprocating single-file systems Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the 2 full-sequence rotary Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant. The apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials using the Myers and Montgomery method. After drying, the mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The time required to prepare the canals with the different instruments was also recorded. The reciprocating files produced significantly more debris compared with both rotary systems (P rotary instruments (P > .05), the reciprocating single-file system Reciproc produced significantly more debris compared with all other instruments (P Instrumentation was significantly faster using Reciproc than with all other instrument (P rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro assessment of cutting efficiency and durability of zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Soo; Bae, Ji-Hyeon; Yun, Mi-Jung; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-06-01

    for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Federal reservation of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

  4. Applying IFRS 9 to Central Banks Foreign Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    Effective January 1, 2018, IFRS 9 Financial Instruments will replace IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement (IAS 39). Unlike most publications on IFRS 9, this paper focuses primarily on the application of the new standard on central banks’ foreign reserve assets, which increasingly constitute a substantial part of central banks’ balance sheet. Based on IFRS 9 implementa...

  5. Reframing the Universal Right to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan

    2010-01-01

    The universal right to education has been enshrined in a range of international rights instruments. Yet despite the considerable secondary literature on the subject, there has been little discussion of the notion of education underpinning the right. This article presents a theoretical exploration of the question, leading to a normative…

  6. MITIGATING INNOVATION RISKS CONCERNING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As protection of innovation is possible using a variety of intellectual property instruments, the current paper aims at emphasizing the vulnerabilities of these instruments in order to facilitate the right choice in terms of protection, exploitation and dissemination of innovation. Based on a review of the intellectual property instruments and their related risk factors, the study identifies and formulates specific proactive strategies which arise from the fact that an instrument alone does not allow for effective protection, exploitation and dissemination and oftentimes the owners of innovation should combine traditional and alternative instruments. Therefore, the results of this analysis represent a helpful tool for managers in the decisional process.

  7. Cutting efficiency of Reciproc and waveOne reciprocating instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Giansiracusa Rubini, Alessio; Grande, Nicola M; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cutting efficiency of 2 new reciprocating instruments, Reciproc and WaveOne. Twenty-four new Reciproc R25 and 24 new WaveOne Primary files were activated by using a torque-controlled motor (Silver Reciproc) and divided into 4 groups (n = 12): group 1, Reciproc activated by Reciproc ALL program; group 2, Reciproc activated by WaveOne ALL program; group 3, WaveOne activated by Reciproc ALL program; and group 4, WaveOne activated by WaveOne ALL program. The device used for the cutting test consisted of a main frame to which a mobile plastic support for the handpiece is connected and a stainless steel block containing a Plexiglas block (inPlexiglass, Rome, Italy) against which the cutting efficiency of the instruments was tested. The length of the block cut in 1 minute was measured in a computerized program with a precision of 0.1 mm. Means and standard deviations of each group were calculated, and data were statistically analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne Primary for both the movements used (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments used with their proper reciprocating motion (P .05). Reciproc instruments demonstrated statistically higher cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  9. Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-01-15

    How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  11. ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments after Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Huimin; Coil, Jeffrey M; Aljazaeri, Bassim; Buttar, Rene; Wang, Zhejun; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and mode of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument defects after clinical use in a graduate endodontic program and to examine the impact of clinical use on the instruments' metallurgical properties. A total of 330 ProFile Vortex and 1136 Vortex Blue instruments from the graduate program were collected after each had been used in 3 teeth. The incidence and type of instrument defects were analyzed. The lateral surfaces and fracture surfaces of the fractured files were examined by using scanning electron microscopy. Unused and used instruments were examined by full and partial differential scanning calorimetry. No fractures were observed in the 330 ProFile Vortex instruments, whereas 20 (6.1%) revealed bent or blunt defects. Only 2 of the 1136 Vortex Blue files fractured during clinical use. The cause of fracture was shear stress. The fractures occurred at the tip end of the spirals. Only 1.8% (21 of 1136) of the Vortex Blue files had blunt tips. Austenite-finish temperatures were very similar for unused and used ProFile Vortex files and were all greater than 50°C. The austenite-finish temperatures of used and unused Vortex Blue files (38.5°C) were lower than those in ProFile Vortex instruments (P Vortex Blue files had an obvious 2-stage transformation, martensite-to-R phase and R-to-austenite phase. The trends of differential scanning calorimetry plots of unused Vortex Blue instruments and clinically used instruments were very similar. The risk of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument fracture is very low when instruments are discarded after clinical use in the graduate endodontic program. The Vortex Blue files have metallurgical behavior different from ProFile Vortex instruments. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of different manufacturing methods on the cyclic fatigue of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Renata C V; Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Amaral, Georgiana; Vieira, Victor T L; De Martin, Alexandre S

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by static and dynamic cyclic fatigue tests, the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) 2 types of rotary NiTi instruments: Twisted File (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), which is manufactured by a proprietary twisting process, and RaCe files (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), which are manufactured by grinding. Twenty Twisted Files (TFs) and 20 RaCe files #25/.006 taper instruments were allowed to rotate freely in an artificial curved canal at 310 rpm in a static or a dynamic model until fracture occurred. Measurements of the fractured fragments showed that fracture occurred at the point of maximum flexure in the midpoint of the curved segment. The NCF was significantly lower for RaCe instruments compared with TFs. The NCF was also lower for instruments subjected to the static test compared with the dynamic model in both groups. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed ductile morphologic characteristics on the fractured surfaces of all instruments and no plastic deformation in their helical shafts. Rotary NiTi endodontic instruments manufactured by twisting present greater resistance to cyclic fatigue compared with instruments manufactured by grinding. The fracture mode observed in all instruments was of the ductile type. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting child maltreatment: A meta-analysis of the predictive validity of risk assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; Assink, Mark; Boekhout van Solinge, Noëlle F

    2017-11-01

    Risk assessment is crucial in preventing child maltreatment since it can identify high-risk cases in need of child protection intervention. Despite widespread use of risk assessment instruments in child welfare, it is unknown how well these instruments predict maltreatment and what instrument characteristics are associated with higher levels of predictive validity. Therefore, a multilevel meta-analysis was conducted to examine the predictive accuracy of (characteristics of) risk assessment instruments. A literature search yielded 30 independent studies (N=87,329) examining the predictive validity of 27 different risk assessment instruments. From these studies, 67 effect sizes could be extracted. Overall, a medium significant effect was found (AUC=0.681), indicating a moderate predictive accuracy. Moderator analyses revealed that onset of maltreatment can be better predicted than recurrence of maltreatment, which is a promising finding for early detection and prevention of child maltreatment. In addition, actuarial instruments were found to outperform clinical instruments. To bring risk and needs assessment in child welfare to a higher level, actuarial instruments should be further developed and strengthened by distinguishing risk assessment from needs assessment and by integrating risk assessment with case management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-Emption, Back-In And Redemption Rights As Well As The Right Of Priority In Acquisition Of Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadańska Katarzyna A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Among factors that might significantly diversify common and economic trading, in particular trading in real estate, pre-emption, back-in and redemption rights, as well as the right of priority in acquisition play an important role. These legal instruments, despite certain differences in their legal structures, serve a similar function. Namely, they may be utilized for the purpose of affecting the preferred ownership structure. The legislator in pursuit of the assumed ownership structure may – through the instruments of the pre-emption right, back–in right, redemption right and the right of priority in acquisition – particularly with their statutory character - restrict freedom to trade in ownership with regard to the selection of the real estate purchaser. Simultaneously, in the contracting process, the parties face a certain manner of proceeding imposed, the purpose of which is to conclude the contract on transferring real estate ownership with the partner preferred by the legislator. In certain cases, the legislator goes even further, granting the eligible party a claim under which the eligible party may demand that the party obliged shall submit an appropriate declaration of will, and in the event that the party obliged refuses – the eligible party may seek the judgment of the court replacing that declaration. Proper navigation in the field of real estate trading, in particular with regard to transactions in which the pre-emption right, back-in right, and redemption right, or the right of priority in acquisition is reserved for defined entities, requires defining the legal character of the given instrument, the manner of executing the due right by the eligible party, results of the failure of the parties to the contracting process to fulfill the obligations imposed by the act, and finally, defining whether there are means for the compulsory execution of the power guaranteed by the act and, if yes, what these means are.

  15. Training With Curved Laparoscopic Instruments in Single-Port Setting Improves Performance Using Straight Instruments: A Prospective Randomized Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovich, Peter; Sionov, Valery Ben; Kakucs, Timea

    2016-01-01

    reason, there is a need for proficiency-based conventional, but also for a single-port, laparoscopic training curriculum in general surgery residency education. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Micro-computed tomographic comparison of nickel-titanium rotary versus traditional instruments in C-shaped root canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xingzhe; Cheung, Gary Shun-Pan; Zhang, Chengfei; Masuda, Yoshiko Murakami; Kimura, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Koukichi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of instrumentation of C-shaped canals with ProTaper rotary system and traditional instruments by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Twenty-four mandibular molars with C-shaped canals were selected in pairs and sorted equally into 2 groups, which were assigned for instrumentation by ProTaper rotary system (ProTaper group) or by K-files and Gates-Glidden burs (Hand Instrument group). Three-dimensional images were constructed by micro-CT. The volume of dentin removed, uninstrumented canal area, time taken for instrumentation, and iatrogenic error of instrumentation were investigated. Hand Instrument group showed greater amount of volumetric dentin removal and left less uninstrumented canal area than ProTaper group (P ProTaper group than for Hand Instrument group (P Hand Instrument group than for ProTaper group. It was concluded that ProTaper rotary system maintained the canal curvature with speediness and few procedural errors, whereas traditional instrumentation can clean more canal surface. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  18. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to simplify the administration of reserve requirements. The final rule creates a...

  19. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  20. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  1. Appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental Transfer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartoni, Emilio; Balleine, Bernard; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2016-12-01

    Reward-related cues are an important part of our daily life as they often influence and guide our actions. This paper reviews one of the experimental paradigms used to study the effects of cues, the Pavlovian to Instrumental Transfer paradigm. In this paradigm, cues associated with rewards through Pavlovian conditioning alter motivation and choice of instrumental actions. The first transfer experiments date back to the 1940s, but only in the last decade has it been fully recognised that there are two types of transfer, specific and general. This paper presents a systematic review of both the neural substrates and the behavioral factors affecting both types of transfer. It also examines the recent application of the paradigm to study the effect of cues on human participants, both in normal and pathological conditions, and the interactions of transfer with drugs of abuse. Finally, the paper analyses the theoretical aspects of transfer to build an overall picture of the phenomenon, from early theories to recent hierarchical accounts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  3. [What's new in instrumental dermatology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, J-M

    2014-12-01

    This "What's new in instrumental dermatology" focuses on cutaneous oncologic surgery, base on a review of the 2012-2014 literature. First, the ability of dermatologists to make a good "oncologic reading of tumors" is the key of radical surgical treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of the biopsy are discussed. Then, the second message is the management of anticoagulants, that should not be interrupted for skin surgery. Despite recommendations, this practice is not followed in 40% of cases; this point is critical because bleeding complications are minor compared to potential morbidity of thrombotic events when stopping these medications. Regarding infection, nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is identified as a risk factor for wound infection. A preoperative shower with chlorhexidine and mupirocin topical decolonization of nostril reduces this risk. Surgical techniques are trying to reach minimalism, by reducing undermining and scarring. On the trunk, using deep slow resorbable sutures improve scarring. In addition using adhesive sutures (strip) reduce the wideness of scar. On the face, the lower third of the nose is the most challenging because of the free edges, which are deformable. In this location bilobed or trilobed transposition flap offer the advantage of remaining in the nasal aesthetic unit and not disturbing the free edges of the nasal orifices. Regarding scarring, early hypertrophic scar is now well defined and linked with transposition flaps of the nasal region. An early treatment with intralesional corticosteroid injection appears to be effective. Finally, the biological mechanism of the effectiveness of compression in the prevention and treatment of dystrophic scar is now clear. The mechanotransduction explain how a mechanical stress of the skin activates biological cell pathways, which regulate the quality of collagen synthesis and the arrangement of skin fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. X-ray powder crystallography with vertex instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzisotiriou, V.; Christofis, I.; Dimitriou, N.; Karvelas, S.; Karydas, A.G.; Loukas, D.; Pavlidis, A.; Spirou, S.; Dre, C.; Haralabidis, N.; Misiakos, K.; Tsoi, E.; Perdikatsis, V.; Psycharis, V.; Terzis, A.; Turchetta, R.

    1998-01-01

    An X-ray Diffractometer for Powder Crystallography is described along with experimental results and future plans. This is an intermediate instrument toward a long linear array system. Three channels of a silicon microstrip detector, are the detecting elements in the present instrument. Each detector channel is followed by a VLSI readout chain, which consists of a charge preamplifier with pulse shaping circuitry, a discriminator, and a 16-bit counter. Control and data acquisition is performed with a custom made PC readout card. A motorized goniometer scans the angle range of interest. Calibration of the system is done with reference samples and data which are captured with a one-channel conventional NaI detector. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Monte Carlo simulations as a part of the configuration for neutron instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Lefmann, K.; Kuhn, L.T.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of simulations in the process of determiningthe optimal instrument setup by virtual experiments usingthe simulation package McStas. The focus of the analysis is the optimization of the multi-blade analyzer present at the RITA-II spectrometer at PSI for a test experiment...... that in general instrument simulations are approaching a state where they can assist users in selectingthe optimal configuration and possibly demonstrate the feasibility of their experiments prior to allocated beamtime. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Consumer preferences for reduced packaging under economic instruments and recycling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted using a web-based survey and bidding game in contingent valuation method to evaluate consumer preferences for packaging with less material. Results revealed that people who live in a municipality implementing unit-based pricing of waste have a higher willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a product. Economic instruments can affect the purchase of products with reduced packaging because a higher disposal cost increases the attractiveness of source reduction. However, unit-based pricing combined with plastic separation for recycling reduces WTP. This result suggests that recycling policy weakens the effect of economic instruments on source reduction of waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antidepressants: Selecting One That's Right for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antidepressants: Selecting one that's right for you Confused by the choice in antidepressants? With persistence, you and your doctor should find one that works so ... Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  8. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  9. Metallurgical characterization of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Hui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Feng; Campbell, Les; Peng, Bin; Haapasalo, Markus

    2011-11-01

    To improve the fracture resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files, manufacturers have introduced new alloys and developed new manufacturing processes for the fabrication of NiTi files. This study aimed to examine the phase transformation behavior and microstructure of NiTi instruments from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM wire). Instruments of EndoSequence (ES), ProFile (PF), ProFile Vortex (Vortex), Twisted Files (TF), Typhoon (TYP), and Typhoon™ CM (TYP CM), all size 25/.04, were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructures of etched instruments were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDS) analyses. The DSC analyses showed that each segment of the TYP CM and Vortex instruments had an austenite transformation completion or austenite-finish (A(f)) temperature exceeding 37°C, whereas the NiTi instruments made from conventional superelastic NiTi wire (ES, PF, and TYP) and TF had A(f) temperatures substantially below mouth temperature. The higher A(f) temperature of TYP CM instruments was consistent with a mixture of austenite and martensite structure, which was observed at room temperature with XRD. All NiTi instruments had room temperature martensite microstructures consisting of colonies of lenticular features with substantial twinning. EDS analysis indicated that the precipitates in all NiTi instruments were titanium-rich, with an approximate composition of Ti(2)Ni. The TYP CM and Vortex instruments with heat treatment contribute to increase austenite transformation temperature. The CM instrument has significant changes in the phase transformation behavior, compared with conventional superelastic NiTi instruments. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Informal caregiving in COPD: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Joana; Marques, Alda; Machado, Ana; O'Hoski, Sachi; Goldstein, Roger; Brooks, Dina

    2017-07-01

    Increasing symptoms and activity restriction associated with COPD progression greatly impact on the lives of their informal caregivers, who play a vital role in maintaining their health. An understanding of this impact is important for clinicians to support caregivers and maintain a viable patient environment at home. This systematic review aimed to identify the instruments commonly used to assess informal caregiving in COPD and describe their measurement properties in this population. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsycINFO and in references of key articles, until November 2016 (PROSPERO: CRD42016041401). Instruments used to assess the impact of COPD on caregivers were identified and their properties described. Quality of studies was rated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Quality of the measurement properties of instruments was rated as 'positive', 'negative' or 'indeterminate'. Patients cared for, had moderate to very severe COPD and the sample of caregivers ranged from 24 to 406. Thirty-five instruments were used in fifty studies to assess caregivers' psychological status and mood (9 instruments), burden/distress (12 instruments), quality of life (5 instruments) or other (9 instruments). Eighteen studies assessed the measurement properties of 21 instruments, most commonly hypothesis testing (known validity) and internal consistency. Study quality varied from 'poor' to 'fair' and with many properties rated as 'indeterminate'. Although several instruments have been used to assess the impact of COPD on caregivers, an increased understanding of their properties is needed before their widespread implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  12. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...

  13. Communication rights: Fundamental human rights for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2018-02-01

    The right to communicate includes the right to "freedom of opinion and expression" and rights and freedoms "without distinction of … language". The 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a time to celebrate and reflect on communication as a human right, particularly with respect to Article 19 and its relationship to national and international conventions, declarations, policies and practices. This review profiles articles from the special issue of International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (volume 20, issue 1) addressing communication rights from four perspectives: (1) communication rights of all people; (2) communication rights of people with communication disabilities; (3) communication rights of children and (4) communication rights relating to language. Divergent perspectives from across the globe are considered. First-hand accounts of people whose right to communicate is compromised/upheld are included and perspectives are provided from people with expertise and advocacy roles in speech-language pathology, audiology, linguistics, education, media, literature and law, including members of the International Communication Project. Three steps are outlined to support communication rights: acknowledge people - adjust the communication style - take time to listen. Future advocacy for communication rights could be informed by replicating processes used to generate the Yogyakarta Principles.

  14. Regression of an atlantoaxial rheumatoid pannus following posterior instrumented fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydon, Mohamad; Macki, Mohamed; Qadi, Mohamud; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid patients may develop a retrodental lesion (atlantoaxial rheumatoid pannus) that may cause cervical instability and/or neurological compromise. The objective is to characterize clinical and radiographic outcomes after posterior instrumented fusion for atlantoaxial rheumatoid pannus. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent posterior fusions for an atlantoaxial rheumatoid pannus at a single institution. Both preoperative and postoperative imaging was available for all patients. Anterior or circumferential operations, non-atlantoaxial panni, or prior C1-C2 operations were excluded. Primary outcome measures included Nurick score, Ranawat score (neurologic status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis), pannus regression, and reoperation. Pannus volume was determined with axial and sagittal views on both preoperative and postoperative radiological images. Thirty patients surgically managed for an atlantoaxial rheumatoid pannus were followed for a mean of 24.43 months. Nine patients underwent posterior instrumented fusion alone, while 21 patients underwent posterior decompression and instrumented fusion. Following a posterior instrumented fusion in all 30 patients, the pannus statistically significantly regressed by 44.44%, from a mean volume of 1.26cm(3) to 0.70cm(3) (ppannus radiographically regressed by 44.44% over a mean of 8.02 months, and patients clinically improved per the Nurick score. The Ranawat score did not improve, and 20% of patients required reoperation over a mean of 13.18 months. The annualized reoperation rate was approximately 13.62%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A fundamental role for context in instrumental learning and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Todd, Travis P

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent research that has investigated the effects of context change on instrumental (operant) learning. The first part of the article discusses instrumental extinction, in which the strength of a reinforced instrumental behavior declines when reinforcers are withdrawn. The results suggest that extinction of either simple or discriminated operant behavior is relatively specific to the context in which it is learned: As in prior studies of Pavlovian extinction, ABA, ABC, and AAB renewal effects can all be observed. Further analysis supports the idea that the organism learns to refrain from making a specific response in a specific context, or in more formal terms, an inhibitory context-response association. The second part of the article then discusses research suggesting that the context also controls instrumental behavior before it is extinguished. Several experiments demonstrate that a context switch after either simple or discriminated operant training causes a decrement in the strength of the response. Over a range of conditions, the animal appears to learn a direct association between the context and the response. Under some conditions, it can also learn a hierarchical representation of context and the response-reinforcer relation. Extinction is still more context-specific than conditioning, as indicated by ABC and AAB renewal. Overall, the results establish that the context can play a significant role in both the acquisition and extinction of operant behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  17. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12, 2012. The... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week maintenance...

  18. Multi-Institutional Development of a Mastoidectomy Performance Evaluation Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Thomas; Hittle, Brad; Stredney, Don; De Boeck, Paul; Wiet, Gregory

    A method for rating surgical performance of a mastoidectomy procedure that is shown to apply universally across teaching institutions has not yet been devised. This work describes the development of a rating instrument created from a multi-institutional consortium. Using a participatory design and a modified Delphi approach, a multi-institutional group of expert otologists constructed a 15-element task-based checklist for evaluating mastoidectomy performance. This instrument was further refined into a 14-element checklist focusing on the concept of safety after using it to rate a large and varied population of performances. Twelve otolaryngological surgical training programs in the United States. A total of 14 surgeons from 12 different institutions took part in the construction of the instrument. By using 14 experts from 12 different institutions and a literature review, individual metrics were identified, rated as to the level of importance and operationally defined to create a rating scale for mastoidectomy performance. Initial use of the rating scale showed modest rater agreement. The operational definitions of individual metrics were modified to emphasize "safe" as opposed to "proper" technique. A second rating instrument was developed based on this feedback. Using a consensus-building approach with multiple rounds of communication between experts is a feasible way to construct a rating instrument for mastoidectomy. Expert opinion alone using a Delphi method provides face and content validity evidence, however, this is not sufficient to develop a universally acceptable rating instrument. A continued process of development and experimentation to demonstrate evidence for reliability and validity making use of a large population of raters and performances is necessary to achieve universal acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental evaluation on the influence of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue of new nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Costanzo, Alberto; Grande, Nicola M; Petrovic, Renata; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on cyclic fatigue resistance of rotary endodontic instruments made of traditional and new nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys. Four NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.40 mm and constant .04 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo, Vortex, and K3 XF prototypes. Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups, unsterilized instruments and sterilized instruments. The sterilized instruments were subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization. Twelve files from each different subgroup were tested for cyclic fatigue resistance. Means and standard deviations of number of cycles to failure (NCF) and fragment length of the fractured tip were calculated for each group, and data were statistically analyzed (P instruments for each type of file, differences were statistically significant (P instruments did not show significant differences (P > .05) in the mean NCF as a result of sterilization cycles (K3, 424 versus 439 NCF; Mtwo, 409 versus 419 NCF; Vortex, 454 versus 480 NCF). Comparing the results among the different groups, K3 XF (either sterilized or not) showed a mean NCF significantly higher than all other files (P endodontic instruments except for the K3 XF prototypes of rotary instruments that demonstrated a significant increase of cyclic fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating pushrim temporal and kinetic measures using an instrumented treadmill during wheelchair propulsion: A concurrent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dany H; Jouval, Camille; Chénier, Félix

    2016-06-14

    Using ground reaction forces recorded while propelling a manual wheelchair on an instrumented treadmill may represent a valuable alternative to using an instrumented pushrim to calculate temporal and kinetic parameters during propulsion. Sixteen manual wheelchair users propelled their wheelchair equipped with instrumented pushrims (i.e., SMARTWheel) on an instrumented dual-belt treadmill set a 1m/s during a 1-minute period. Spatio-temporal (i.e., duration of the push and recovery phase) and kinetic measures (i.e. propulsive moments) were calculated for 20 consecutive strokes for each participant. Strong associations were confirmed between the treadmill and the instrumented pushrim for the mean duration of the push phase (r=0.98) and of the recovery phase (r=0.99). Good agreement between these two measurement instruments was also confirmed with mean differences of only 0.028s for the push phase and 0.012s for the recovery phase. Strong associations were confirmed between the instrumented wheelchair pushrim and treadmill for mean (r=0.97) and peak (r=0.96) propulsive moments. Good agreement between these two measurement instruments was also confirmed with mean differences of 0.50Nm (mean moment) and 0.71Nm (peak moment). The use of a dual-belt instrumented treadmill represents an alternative to characterizing temporal parameters and propulsive moments during manual wheelchair propulsion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Vieira, Márcia V B; Vieira, Victor T L; de Souza, Letícia Chaves; Dos Santos, Alexander Lopes

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of surface grooves (peaks and valleys) resulting from machining during the manufacturing process of polished and unpolished nickel-titanium BR4C endodontic files on the fatigue life of the instruments. Ten electropolished and 10 unpolished endodontic files were provided by the manufacturer. Specimens were from the same batch, but the unpolished instruments were removed from the production line before surface treatment. The instruments were evaluated with a profilometer to quantify the surface roughness on the working part of the instruments. Then the files were subjected to rotating bending fatigue tests. Analysis with the profilometer showed that surface grooves were deeper on the unpolished instruments compared with their electropolished counterparts. In the rotating bending fatigue test, the mean and standard deviation for the number of cycles until fracture (NCF) were greater for instruments with less pronounced grooves. Student t test revealed significant differences in all tests (P instruments tested; the smaller the groove depth, the greater the NCF. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Universal instruments when subjected to static and dynamic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Britto, Izabelle M O; Elias, Carlos N; Machado de Oliveira, Julio C; Neves, Mônica A S; Moreira, Edson J L; Siqueira, José F

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the number of cycles to fracture of ProTaper Universal S2 instruments when subjected to static and dynamic cyclic fatigue tests. ProTaper Universal S2 instruments were used until fracture in an artificial curved canal under rotational speed of 300 rpm in either a static or a dynamic test model. Afterward, the length of the fractured segments was measured and fractured surfaces and helical shafts analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of cycles to fracture was significantly increased when instruments were tested in the dynamic model (Pductile mode. Plastic deformation was not observed in the helical shaft of fractured instruments. The number of cycles to fracture ProTaper Universal S2 instruments significantly increased with the use of instruments in a dynamic cyclic fatigue test compared with a static model. These findings reinforce the need for performing continuous pecking motions during rotary instrumentation of curved root canals. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  4. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  5. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  6. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  7. Cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different nickel-titanium reciprocating instruments in artificial canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, Oscar; Plotino, Gianluca; Tocci, Luigi; Carrillo, Gabriela; Gambarini, Gianluca; Jaramillo, David E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different nickel-titanium reciprocating instruments. A total of 45 nickel-titanium instruments were tested and divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 15): group 1, WaveOne Primary instruments; group 2, Reciproc R25 instruments; and group 3, Twisted File (TF) Adaptive M-L1 instruments. The instruments were then subjected to cyclic fatigue test on a static model consisting of a metal block with a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. WaveOne Primary, Reciproc R25, and TF Adaptive instruments were activated by using their proprietary movements, WaveOne ALL, Reciproc ALL, and TF Adaptive, respectively. All instruments were activated until fracture occurred, and the time to fracture was recorded visually for each file with a 1/100-second chronometer. Mean number of cycles to failure and standard deviations were calculated for each group, and data were statistically analyzed (P fatigue resistance of Reciproc R25 and TF Adaptive M-L1 was significantly higher than that of WaveOne Primary (P = .009 and P = .002, respectively). The results showed no statistically significant difference between TF Adaptive M-L1 and Reciproc R25 (P = .686). Analysis of the fractured portion under scanning electron microscopy indicated that all instruments showed morphologic characteristics of ductile fracture that were due to accumulation of metal fatigue. No statistically significant differences were found between the instruments tested except for WaveOne Primary, which showed the lowest resistance to cyclic fatigue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  9. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  10. Large Right Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rowe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: An 83-year-old male with a distant history of tuberculosis status post treatment and resection approximately fifty years prior presented with two days of worsening shortness of breath. He denied any chest pain, and reported his shortness of breath was worse with exertion and lying flat. Significant findings: Chest x-ray and bedside ultrasound revealed a large right pleural effusion, estimated to be greater than two and a half liters in size. Discussion: The incidence of pleural effusion is estimated to be at least 1.5 million cases annually in the United States.1 Erect posteroanterior and lateral chest radiography remains the mainstay for diagnosis of a pleural effusion; on upright chest radiography small effusions (>400cc will blunt the costophrenic angles, and as the size of an effusion grows it will begin to obscure the hemidiphragm.1 Large effusions will cause mediastinal shift away from the affected side (seen in effusions >1000cc.1 Lateral decubitus chest radiography can detect effusions greater than 50cc.1 Ultrasonography can help differentiate large pulmonary masses from effusions and can be instrumental in guiding thoracentesis.1 The patient above was comfortable at rest and was admitted for a non-emergent thoracentesis. The pulmonology team removed 2500cc of fluid, and unfortunately the patient subsequently developed re-expansion pulmonary edema and pneumothorax ex-vacuo. It is generally recommended that no more than 1500cc be removed to minimize the risk of re-expansion pulmonary edema.2

  11. The human rights approach to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2013-01-01

    are instrumentally applied as a solution to what could be called the “justice problem” in climate negotiations. In order to assess the degree to which human rights could be a useful approach to the justice problem with regard to to climate change, four major issues need to be examined. First...... presently and in the future, needs to be elucidated, as well as (b) the human rights principles that are at stake, and (c) the duties and duty holders involved. Third, the human right to emit greenhouse gases needs to be clarified in the context of subsistence rights and equal per capita emission rights...

  12. Leveraging non-binding instruments for global health governance: reflections from the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism for WHO reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A L; Alfven, T; Hougendobler, D; Tanaka, S; Buse, K

    2014-02-01

    As countries contend with an increasingly complex global environment with direct implications for population health, the international community is seeking novel mechanisms to incentivize coordinated national and international action towards shared health goals. Binding legal instruments have garnered increasing attention since the World Health Organization adopted its first convention in 2003. This paper seeks to expand the discourse on future global health lawmaking by exploring the potential value of non-binding instruments in global health governance, drawing on the case of the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. In other realms of international concern ranging from the environment to human rights to arms control, non-binding instruments are increasingly used as effective instruments of international cooperation. The experience of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism, established pursuant to the Declaration, evidences that, at times, non-binding legal instruments can offer benefits over slower, more rigid binding legal approaches to governance. The global AIDS response has demonstrated that the use of a non-binding instrument can be remarkably effective in galvanizing increasingly deep commitments, action, reporting compliance and ultimately accountability for results. Based on this case, the authors argued that non-binding instruments deserve serious consideration by the international community for the future of global health governance, including in the context of WHO reform. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Right ventricular oxygen supply/demand balance in exercising dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B J; Bian, X; Gwirtz, P A; Setty, S; Downey, H F

    2001-08-01

    This is the first investigation of right ventricular (RV) myocardial oxygen supply/demand balance in a conscious animal. A novel technique developed in our laboratory was used to collect right coronary (RC) venous blood samples from seven instrumented, conscious dogs at rest and during graded treadmill exercise. Contributions of the RV oxygen extraction reserve and the RC flow reserve to exercise-induced increases in RV oxygen demand were measured. Strenuous exercise caused a 269% increase in RV oxygen consumption. Expanded arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-V(Delta)O2) provided 58% of this increase in oxygen demand, and increased RC blood flow (RCBF) provided 42%. At less strenuous exercise, expanded A-V(Delta)O2 provided 60-80% of the required oxygen, and increases in RCBF were small and driven by increased aortic pressure. RC resistance fell only at strenuous exercise after the extraction reserve had been mobilized. Thus RC resistance was unaffected by large decreases in RC venous PO2 until an apparent threshold at 20 mmHg was reached. Comparisons of RV findings with published left ventricular data from exercising dogs demonstrated that increased O2 demand of the left ventricle is met primarily by increasing coronary flow, whereas increased O2 extraction makes a greater contribution to RV O2 supply.

  14. Transfer of Rights and Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beale, Hugh; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This chapter compares the law on transfer of rights (i.e., assignment) in the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), English law, and German law. It first considers cases in which the three systems produce similar results before concentrating on situations in which the results and the interactions...... on assignment be included in a later version of an optional instrument, there will be a number of interactions with both English and German law in the sense that it will matter which system governs the agreements, particularly the agreement for assignment. Key differences include, inter alia, the proprietary...

  15. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  16. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  17. Same law-same rights? Analyzing why Sweden's disability legislation failed to create equal rights in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycraft Kall, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzed the apparent paradox of disability rights in Sweden. Despite strong welfare state traditions and stated Government ambitions to create generous statutory entitlements for all disabled people using a single, comprehensive Disability Act, psychiatric disabilities were principally excluded from the Disability Act's rights and provisions. The study focused on Sweden's Mental Health Reform and Disability Reform using governance perspectives that traced and analyzed the policy-processes of both reforms. Theoretically guided analytical frameworks were developed to help understand the divergent reform outcomes. The first focused on legislative arguments of regulatory specificity and legal enforcement mechanisms to consider whether the Disability Act was formulated in a manner that was easier to apply to certain disabilities. The second analyzed ideological arguments and the influence of Government political beliefs that signaled specific reform 'visions' to implementers and thereby influenced policy implementation. The main findings are that both perspectives matter as the dual influences of legislative and ideological differences tended to exclude mental health service users from the Act's generous disability rights. The overall conclusion was that while legislation was an important regulatory mechanism, the Government's underlying ideological reform vision was also an essential governance instrument that signaled Government intentions to implementing agencies and thus influenced the creation of enduring disability rights. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  19. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  20. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  1. Using Google Earth to conduct a neighborhood audit: reliability of a virtual audit instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Ailshire, Jennifer; Melendez, Robert; Bader, Michael; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    Over the last two decades, the impact of community characteristics on the physical and mental health of residents has emerged as an important frontier of research in population health and health disparities. However, the development and evaluation of measures to capture community characteristics is still at a relatively early stage. The purpose of this work was to assess the reliability of a neighborhood audit instrument administered in the city of Chicago using Google Street View by comparing these "virtual" data to those obtained from an identical instrument administered "in-person". We find that a virtual audit instrument can provide reliable indicators of recreational facilities, the local food environment, and general land use. However, caution should be exercised when trying to gather more finely detailed observations. Using the internet to conduct a neighborhood audit has the potential to significantly reduce the costs of collecting data objectively and unobtrusively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  3. Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres--development of instruments and their usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, I-L; Eklund, J; Krook, J; Björkman, M; Sundin, E; Svensson, R; Eklund, M

    2010-05-01

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Sweden - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recycling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reservation wages and starting wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between

  5. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  6. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  7. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  8. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  9. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  10. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  11. Cyclic fatigue of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in a double (S-shaped) simulated curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sudani, Dina; Grande, Nicola M; Plotino, Gianluca; Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2012-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to test the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary files in a double curvature (S-shaped) artificial root canal and to compare those results with single curvature artificial root canals. Two nickel-titanium endodontic instruments consisting of identical instrument sizes (constant .06 taper and 0.25 tip diameter) were tested, ProFile instruments and Vortex instruments. Both instruments were tested for fatigue inside an artificial canal with a double curvature and inside a curved artificial canal with a single curvature. Ten instruments for each group were tested to fracture in continuous rotary motion at 300 rpm. Number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated to the nearest whole number, and the length of the fractured fragment was measured in millimeters. Data were statistically analyzed with a level of significance set at 95% confidence level. The NCF value was always statistically lower in the double curved artificial canal when compared with the single curve (P instruments of the same size of different brand only in the single curve; ProFile registered a mean of 633.5 ± 75.1 NCF, whereas Vortex registered a mean of 548 ± 48.9 NCF. Regardless of the differences between the instruments used in the present study, the results suggest that the more complex is the root canal, the more adverse are the effects on the cyclic fatigue resistance of the instruments. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Glide path preparation in S-shaped canals with rotary pathfinding nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuz, Natasha C C; Armada, Luciana; Gonçalves, Lucio S; Debelian, Gilberto; Siqueira, José F

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the incidence of deviation along S-shaped (double-curved) canals after glide path preparation with 2 nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary pathfinding instruments and hand K-files. S-shaped canals from 60 training blocks were filled with ink, and preinstrumentation images were obtained by using a stereomicroscope. Glide path preparation was performed by an endodontist who used hand stainless steel K-files (up to size 20), rotary NiTi PathFile instruments (up to size 19), or rotary NiTi Scout RaCe instruments (up to size 20). Postinstrumentation images were taken by using exactly the same conditions as for the preinstrumentation images, and both pictures were superimposed. Differences along the S-shaped canal for the mesial and distal aspects were measured to evaluate the occurrence of deviation. Intragroup analysis showed that all instruments promoted some deviation in virtually all levels. Overall, regardless of the group, deviations were observed in the mesial wall at the canal terminus and at levels 4, 5, 6 and 7 mm and in the distal wall at levels 1, 2, and 3 mm. These levels corresponded to the inner walls of each curvature. Both rotary NiTi instruments performed significantly better than hand K-files at all levels (P instruments showed significantly better results than PathFiles at levels 0, 2, 3, 5, and 6 mm (P rotary NiTi instruments are suitable for adequate glide path preparation because they promoted less deviation from the original canal anatomy when compared with hand-operated instruments. Of the 2 rotary pathfinding instruments, Scout RaCe showed an overall significantly better performance. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of three different rotary nickel-titanium instruments designed for retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Ugur; Aydin, Cumhur

    2012-01-01

    A number of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems have been developed to provide better, faster, and easier cleaning and shaping of the root canal system, and recently, rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment have been introduced. Because the main problem with the rotary NiTi files is fracture, the aim of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment. Total of 60 instruments of 3 different rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment were used in this study. Twenty R-Endo R3, 20 ProTaper D3, and 20 Mtwo R (Retreatment) 25.05 instruments were tested. Cyclic fatigue testing of instruments was performed by using a device that allowed the instruments to rotate freely inside an artificial canal. Each instrument was rotated until fracture occurred, and the number of cycles to fracture for each instrument was calculated. Representative samples were also evaluated under a scanning electron microscope to confirm the fracture was flexural. Data were analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance test. R-Endo R3 instruments showed better cyclic fatigue resistance than ProTaper D3 and Mtwo R 25.05 instruments, and the difference was statistically significant (P instruments were more resistant to fatigue failure than ProTaper D3 and Mtwo R 25.05. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. WOMEN'S RIGHTS VIOLATION: HONOUR KILLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA OTOVESCU FRASIE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study I have presented the domestic violence concept and the situation regarding the observing of woman’s rights in Syria. We have also evidenced the juridical aspects regarding the honor killing directed against women after the modification of the article 548 from the Penal Code changed by the President al-Asad on July the 1st 2009. The data offered by NGOs have been of great help for the elaboration of the study as also the statistic data presented in Thara E-Magazine regarding the cities where had been done the honor killings and their number, the instrument of the murder, the age of the victim, and the motives for the murders. It must be noticed that, lately, the Government fought for the observing of the woman’s rights and promoted he gender equality by appointing women in leading positions, including the vice-president one.

  15. Right of access to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Triana, Yanelys; Fariñas Wong, Ernesto Yoel

    2015-01-01

    Energy is essential for the development of our life and for the development of production capacity. However, a number of people worldwide without this living, specifically power. To the extent that increase energy needs for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, each day more indispensable need access to this recognition as a human right or fundamental respect is made, so some questions in this paper are required both denominations, being essential to consider the emergence and evolution of these. An analysis of the international protection they receive the right of access to energy services, although currently there are no international treaties that specifically recognize it also performs a number of initiatives that promote its preservation manifested and recognized in several abstractly legal instruments, such as declarations, covenants and conventions. (full text)

  16. Incidence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation: reciprocating versus rotary instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürklein, Sebastian; Tsotsis, Polymnia; Schäfer, Edgar

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation with reciprocating instruments (Reciproc and WaveOne) and rotary instruments. One hundred human central mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented by using the reciprocating single-file systems Reciproc and WaveOne and the full-sequence rotary Mtwo and ProTaper instruments. One group was left unprepared as control. Roots were sectioned horizontally at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex and evaluated under a microscope by using 25-fold magnification. The presence of dentinal defects (complete/incomplete cracks and craze lines) was noted and analyzed by using the chi-square test. No defects were observed in the controls. All canal preparation created dentinal defects. Overall, instrumentation with Reciproc was associated with more complete cracks than the full-sequence files (P = .021). Although both reciprocating files produced more incomplete cracks apically (3 mm) compared with the rotary files (P = .001), no statistically significant differences were obtained concerning the summarized values of all cross sections (P > .05). Under the conditions of this study, root canal preparation with both rotary and reciprocating instruments resulted in dentinal defects. At the apical level of the canals, reciprocating files produced significantly more incomplete dentinal cracks than full-sequence rotary systems (P < .05). Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavior of nickel-titanium instruments manufactured with different thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Érika Sales Joviano; Viana, Ana Cecília Diniz; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; Peters, Ove A; Bahia, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if nickel-titanium instruments with similar designs manufactured by different thermal treatments would exhibit significantly different in vitro behavior. Thirty-six instruments each of ProTaper Universal (PTU F1; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProFile Vortex (PV; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), Vortex Blue (VB, Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), and TYPHOON Infinite Flex NiTi (TYP; Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT) (all size 25/.06) were evaluated. Bending resistance, torsion at failure, and dynamic torsional tests were performed with the instruments (n = 12). Analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were applied. Flexibility was significantly higher for TYP compared with the other 3 groups (P .05). The highest mean forces were recorded with PTU (7.02 ± 2.36 N) and the lowest with TYP (1.22 ± 0.40 N). TYP instruments were significantly more flexible than the other instruments tested. The PV group had the highest torsional strength and TYP, despite being the most flexible, showed similar torsional moments to the other instruments, whereas its angular deflection was the highest among the groups. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  18. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the pressure ulcer prevention knowledge assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Zeliha; Polat, Cansu; Ozkan, Ilknur; Theofanidis, Dimitris; Togrol, Rifat Erdem

    2016-11-01

    Sound knowledge of pressure ulcers is important to enable good prevention. There are limited instruments assessing pressure ulcer knowledge. The Pressure Ulcer Prevention Knowledge Assessment Instrument is among the scales of which psychometric properties have been studied rigorously and reflects the latest evidence. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Knowledge Assessment Instrument (PUPKAI-T), an instrument that assesses knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention by using multiple-choice questions. Linguistic validity was verified through front-to-back translation. Psychometric properties of the instrument were studied on a sample of 150 nurses working in a tertiary hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. The content validity index of the translated instrument was 0.94, intra-class correlation coefficients were between 0.37 and 0.80, item difficulty indices were between 0.21 and 0.88, discrimination indices were 0.20-0.78, and the Kuder Richardson for the internal consistency was 0.803. The PUPKAI-T was found to be a valid and reliable tool to evaluate nurses' knowledge on pressure ulcer prevention. The PUPKAI-T may be a useful tool for determining educational needs of nurses on pressure ulcer prevention. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Only a Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Explains provisions contained within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, tracing historical beginnings of human rights to 1945, detailing events after 1945 up to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations, and explaining essential terminology used in describing human rights instruments that have been…

  20. Exploring the cultural dimensions of the right to the highest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to enjoying the highest attainable standard of health is incorporated in many international and regional human rights instruments. This right contains both freedoms and entitlements, including the freedom to control one's own health and body and the right to an accessible system of health care, goods and services.

  1. Human rights of persons with mental disabilities. The European Convention of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, L O

    2000-01-01

    It is not necessary to recount the numerous charters and declarations ... to understand human rights.... All persons are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Everyone ... is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the international human rights instruments without discrimination, such as the rights to life, liberty, security of the person, privacy, health, education, work, social security, and to marry and found a family. Yet, violations of human rights are a reality to be found in every corner of the globe.

  2. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  4. Rights, goals, and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a

  5. Content validity--establishing and reporting the evidence in newly developed patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instruments for medical product evaluation: ISPOR PRO good research practices task force report: part 1--eliciting concepts for a new PRO instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donald L; Burke, Laurie B; Gwaltney, Chad J; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Martin, Mona L; Molsen, Elizabeth; Ring, Lena

    2011-12-01

    ). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Securities issues in reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves

  7. Overview of LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed

  8. The Justiciability and Enforcement of the Right to Health under the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to health is a fundamental human right which is recognized in international and regional human rights systems. The African Human Rights System is also duly recognized the right to health. Although recognizing the right in the human rights instrument is important, the meaningful protection of the right needs ...

  9. [Elective abortions, a right to defend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccabri, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Every year in France, almost 210 000 women request a termination of an unwanted pregnancy. Two thirds of them were however using a form of contraception, hence the importance, for caregivers, of encouraging women to find the method which works best for them. The right to abortion is the fruit of a long fight for a woman's right to control her own body. It is a right which must be protected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  11. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  12. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  13. Professionalizing the Estonian Reserve Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, William

    1998-01-01

    .... In particular, citizen-soldier reserves can allow nations that do not face immediate external threats, such as Estonia, to meet their security requirements for less money than required by standing forces...

  14. Quality of life instruments for economic evaluations in health and social care for older people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Peter; Brouwer, Werner B F; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Stolk, Elly A; Nieboer, Anna P

    2014-02-01

    aimed at older people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  16. Homemade thermometry instruments in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Mathieu; Rousson, Valentin; Zen Ruffinen, Grégoire; Hugli, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    Esophageal temperature is the gold standard for in-the-field temperature monitoring in hypothermic victims with cardiac arrest. For practical reasons, some mountain rescue teams use homemade esophageal thermometers to measure esophageal temperature; these consist of nonmedical inside/outside temperature monitoring instruments that have been modified to allow for esophageal insertion. We planned a study to determine the accuracy of such thermometers. Two of the same model of digital cabled indoor/outdoor thermometer were modified and tested in comparison with a reference thermometer. The thermometers were tested in a water bath at different temperatures between 10°C and 35.2°C. Three hundred measurements were taken with each thermometer. Our experimental study showed that both homemade thermometers provided a good correlation and a clinically acceptable agreement in comparison with the reference thermometer. Measurements were within 0.5°C in comparison with the reference thermometer 97.5% of the time. The homemade thermometers performed well in vitro, in comparison with a reference thermometer. However, because these devices in their original form are not designed for clinical use, their use should be restricted to situations when the use of a conventional esophageal thermometer is impossible. Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  18. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  19. CONSOLIDATION OF ARGUMENTS IN FAVOR OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO PUBLIC INFORMATION AS A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    MANUEL PALOMARES HERRERA

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of the doctrinal position regarding the nature of the right of access to public information and the development of new arguments that reinforce and consolidate its fundamental nature. This right is recognized as a human right in many international declarations; in Spain the legislation of transparency and enforcement is deployed as an instrumental right although it is recognized by many states as an autonomous fundamental right without need to be linked to other fundamental rights.

  20. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  1. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  2. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  3. The latest radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Se Sik; Gwon, Dal Gwan; Kim, Gyeong Geum

    2008-08-01

    This book deals with the latest radiation instrument, which is comprised of eight chapters. It explains X rays instrument for medial treatment, X-ray tube instrument and permissible burden with its history, structure and characteristic high voltage apparatus with high voltage rectifier circuit, X-ray control apparatus for medical treatment, X-ray image equipment X-ray television apparatus and CCD 205, X-ray apparatus of install and types, Digital X-ray apparatus with CR 261 and DR 269, performance management on X-ray for medical treatment with its history, necessity and management in the radiation field.

  4. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  5. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  6. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  7. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  8. Right Brain Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Adryce C.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes activities of a weekly enrichment class providing right-brain tasks to gifted elementary students. Activities, which centered on artistic creativity, were taken from "Drawing On the Right Side of the Brain" by B. Edwards. (CL)

  9. A Review of the LHC Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Cl

    1998-01-01

    This is a review of the diagnostics presently considered for LHC running in and operation. The purpose of each instrument is given and, except for the pick-ups of the Beam Position Monitoring system w hich have their position already reserved, the optimal location and an estimate of the required length along the vacuum chamber are given.

  10. Instruments of the Money Market. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Timothy Q., Ed.

    This booklet is a compilation of articles on money market instruments which were published in the "Monthly Review" of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond from 1964-1967. They have been revised to include recent changes in the various markets, as well as to reflect currently applicable laws and regulations. The articles are titled: The Money…

  11. Constitutional Rights in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Judhariksawan

    2018-01-01

    The constitution is fundamental to the life of the modern state as a major foothold in state governance. Includes the guarantee of constitutional rights of citizens. The The constitution is the basis of state organizers to be implemented so that the state is obliged to guarantee the fulfillment of citizens' constitutional rights. Human rights have become an important part of the modern constitution. This study will describe how human rights guarantees become part of consti...

  12. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  13. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  15. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  16. Inalienable Rights of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbes, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Rights are statements of claim. The very conception of human rights cannot be understood without reference to the aggressive disposition to invade, violate, or override them. When socially sensitive leaders rise to the acceptance of these rights,... gradually such expressions of social conviction are either set aside due to some less idealistic…

  17. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  18. Consumer rights and protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care consumer rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS Here are ways that the health care law protects consumers. You must be covered, even if you have a pre-existing condition. No insurance plan can reject you, ...

  19. The right data for the right decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.D.; Olson, J.L.; Thurber, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper identifies and discusses a number of issues associated with the development and use of performance indicators for commercial nuclear power plants. The paper reviews the objectives of various users of performance indicators and addresses the problem of applying the right performance indicators to the needs of these users. The analysis concludes with a brief discussion of how the different user objectives of performance indicators can lead to conflicts over the definition and implementation of performance indicator systems

  20. Instruments for meteorological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This present rule has for objective to determine the means for meteorological measurement near a site of nuclear facility in which there is not a PWR power plant [fr

  1. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  2. Phonation Quotient in Women: A Measure of Vocal Efficiency Using Three Aerodynamic Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashwini; Watts, Christopher R

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine measures of vital capacity and phonation quotient across three age groups in women using three different aerodynamic instruments representing low-tech and high-tech options. This study has a prospective, repeated measures design. Fifteen women in each age group of 25-39 years, 40-59 years, and 60-79 years were assessed using maximum phonation time and vital capacity obtained from three aerodynamic instruments: a handheld analog windmill type spirometer, a handheld digital spirometer, and the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS), Model 6600. Phonation quotient was calculated using vital capacity from each instrument. Analyses of variance were performed to test for main effects of the instruments and age on vital capacity and derived phonation quotient. Pearson product moment correlation was performed to assess measurement reliability (parallel forms) between the instruments. Regression equations, scatterplots, and coefficients of determination were also calculated. Statistically significant differences were found in vital capacity measures for the digital spirometer compared with the windmill-type spirometer and PAS across age groups. Strong positive correlations were present between all three instruments for both vital capacity and derived phonation quotient measurements. Measurement precision for the digital spirometer was lower than the windmill spirometer compared with the PAS. However, all three instruments had strong measurement reliability. Additionally, age did not have an effect on the measurement across instruments. These results are consistent with previous literature reporting data from male speakers and support the use of low-tech options for measurement of basic aerodynamic variables associated with voice production. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of environment on fatigue failure of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Qian, Wei; Abtin, Houman; Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the fatigue behavior of 2 types of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments made from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM wire) under various environment conditions. Three conventional superelastic NiTi instruments of ProFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Typhoon (Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT), and DS-SS0250425NEYY (Clinician's Choice Dental Products) and 2 new CM wire instruments of Typhoon CM and DS-SS0250425NEYY CM were subjected to rotational bending at the curvature of 35° in air, deionized water, 17% EDTA, or deionized water after immersion in 6% sodium hypochlorite for 25 minutes, and the number of revolutions of fracture (N(f)) was recorded. The fracture surface of all fragments was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The crack-initiation sites and the percentage of dimple area to the whole fracture cross-section were noted. Two new CM Wire instruments yielded an improvement of >4 to 9 times in N(f) than conventional NiTi files with the same design under various environments (P Wire instruments was significantly longer in liquid media than in air (P wire had one crack origin. The values of the area fraction occupied by the dimple region were significantly smaller on CM NiTi instruments than in conventional NiTi instruments under various environments (P < .05). Within the limitations of this study, the type of NiTi metal alloy (CM files vs conventional superelastic NiTi files) influences the cyclic fatigue resistance under various environments. The fatigue life of CM instruments is longer in liquid media than in air. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SEQUenCE: a service user-centred quality of care instrument for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Lorraine; O'Doherty, Lorna Jane; Schnittger, Rebecca; Skelly, Niamh; O'Donnell, Muireann; Butterly, Lisa; Browne, Robert; Frorath, Charlotte; Morgan, Craig; McLoughlin, Declan M; Fearon, Paul

    2015-08-01

    To develop a quality of care instrument that is grounded in the service user perspective and validate it in a mental health service. The instrument (SEQUenCE (SErvice user QUality of CarE)) was developed through analysis of focus group data and clinical practice guidelines, and refined through field-testing and psychometric analyses. All participants were attending an independent mental health service in Ireland. Participants had a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) or a psychotic disorder. Twenty-nine service users participated in six focus group interviews. Seventy-one service users participated in field-testing: 10 judged the face validity of an initial 61-item instrument; 28 completed a revised 52-item instrument from which 12 items were removed following test-retest and convergent validity analyses; 33 completed the resulting 40-item instrument. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency and convergent validity of the instrument. The final instrument showed acceptable test-retest reliability at 5-7 days (r = 0.65; P Service Satisfaction Scale (r = 0.84, P internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). SEQUenCE is a valid, reliable scale that is grounded in the service user perspective and suitable for routine use. It may serve as a useful tool in individual care planning, service evaluation and research. The instrument was developed and validated with service users with a diagnosis of either BPAD or a psychotic disorder; it does not yet have established external validity for other diagnostic groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  5. Children's rights and school psychology: children's right to participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Gerison; Jimerson, Shane R; Shahroozi, Reza

    2014-02-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child detailed an international imperative to fulfilling, protecting, and respecting the rights of every child. In particular, the Convention set out a clear mandate for guaranteeing opportunities for children to be heard on all matters of concern to them. The attainment of these goals involves respecting and valuing children as active participants in the educational process. If fully implemented, the right of children to express views and have them taken seriously, throughout the school environment, would represent one of the most profound transformations in moving towards a culture of respect for children's rights, for their dignity and citizenship, and for their capacities to contribute significantly towards their own well-being. These values and principles are consistent with those of the school psychology profession, thus, school psychologists are encouraged to be at the Center of the process advocating and actualizing the Convention in schools throughout the world. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Victims’ rights are human rights: The importance of recognizing victims as persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wemmers Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that victims’ rights are human rights. Criminal law typically views victims as witnesses to a crime against the state, thus shutting them out of the criminal justice process and only allowing them in when they are needed to testify. This is a major source of dissatisfaction for victims who seek validation in the criminal justice system. Victims are persons with rights and privileges. Crimes constitute violations of their rights as well as acts against society or the state. While human rights instruments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, do not mention crime victims specifically, a number of rights are identified, which can be viewed from the victim’s perspective. As individuals with dignity, victims have the right to recognition as persons before the law. However, such rights are only meaningful if they can be enforced.

  7. Environment for the instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  8. CCAT Heterodyne Instrument Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will extend and proof-out the design concept for a high pixel count (128 pixels in 2 bands) submillimeter-wave heterodyne receiver array instrument for the...

  9. Environment for the instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambro, P

    1993-12-31

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  10. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  11. Nuclear instrument technician training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollesen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Nuclear Instrument Technician (NIT) training that has developed at an accelerated rate over the past three decades. During the 1960's commercial nuclear power plants were in their infancy. For that reason, there is little wonder that NIT training had little structure and little creditability. NIT training, in many early plants, was little more than On-The Job Training (OJT). The seventies brought changes in Instrumentation and Controls as well as emphasis on the requirements for more in depth training and documentation. As in the seventies, the eighties saw not only changes in technologies but tighter requirements, standardized training and the development of accredited Nuclear Instrument Training; thus the conclusion: Nuclear Instrument Training Isn't What It Used To Be

  12. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  13. Instrument care: everyone's responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée du Toit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone working in an ophthalmic operating theatre must be competent in the care, handling, storage, and maintenance of instruments. This will help to improve surgical outcomes, maintain an economic and affordable service for patients, and provide a safe environment for the wellbeing of patients and staff.Including instrument care in theatre courses and in-service training is one way of ensuring staff competence.

  14. Instrument uncertainty predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The accuracy of measurements and correlations should normally be provided for most experimental activities. The uncertainty is a measure of the accuracy of a stated value or equation. The uncertainty term reflects a combination of instrument errors, modeling limitations, and phenomena understanding deficiencies. This report provides several methodologies to estimate an instrument's uncertainty when used in experimental work. Methods are shown to predict both the pretest and post-test uncertainty

  15. Experimenting with woodwind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects of holes in the tubing and other factors that make simple tubes useful as musical instruments.

  16. Maintenance of scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, E.

    1986-01-01

    During the last years Colombia has increased the use of nuclear techniques, instruments and equipment in ambitious health programs, as well as in research centers, industry and education; this has resulted in numerous maintenance problems. As an alternative solution IAN has established a Central Maintenance Laboratory for nuclear instruments within an International Atomic Energy Agency program for eight Latin American and nine Asian Countries. Established strategies and some results are detailed in this writing

  17. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  18. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  19. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  20. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  1. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  2. THE RESALE RIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses one of the most important rights of the authors of original works of art namely: the resale right. It will be analyzed the subject matter of the resale right, the works of art to which the resale right relates, the rates applicable to the resale right, the persons entitled to receive royalties, the term of protection of the resale right, third-country nationals entitled to receive royalties and the right to obtain information. Also, the article will refer to the EU Directive in the field: Directive 2001/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the resale right for the benefit of the author of an original work of art. It will be the subject of the article, also, the European Court of Justice jurisprudence related to the resale right, for example the judgment in the case C-518/08 (VEGAP vs. ADAGP, underlying that, in the light of the objectives pursued by Directive 2001/84, Member States may make their own legislative choice in determining the categories of persons capable of benefiting from the resale right after the death of the author of a work of art. One of parts of the article, will analyses the collective management for the resale right, especially: the terms of the collective management, forms of the collective management and examples. For all the above mentioned reasons, the article will refer to the main aspects of the resale right in a comprehensive manner and will analyses in a scientifically manner this very important right of the authors of original works of art.

  3. Comparison of cough reflex test against instrumental assessment of aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anna; Moore, Sara; McFarlane, Mary; Lee, Fiona; Allen, Jacqueline; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2013-06-13

    Silent aspiration is associated with pneumonia and mortality, and is poorly identified by traditional clinical swallowing evaluation (CSE). The aim of this study was to validate cough reflex testing (CRT) for identification of silent aspiration against aspiration confirmed by instrumental assessment. Cough reflex threshold testing was completed on all patients using inhaled, nebulised citric acid. Within an hour, 80 patients underwent videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) and 101 patients underwent fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). All tests were recorded and analysed by two researchers blinded to the result of the alternate test. Significant associations between CRT result and cough response to aspiration on VFSS (X(2) (2)=11.046, p=.003) and FEES (X(2) (2)=34.079, pacid provide a better predictive measure of silent aspiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  5. Awake right hemisphere brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulou, M Maher; Cote, David J; Olubiyi, Olutayo I; Smith, Timothy R; Chiocca, E Antonio; Johnson, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    We report the indications and outcomes of awake right hemispheric brain surgery, as well as a rare patient with crossed aphasia. Awake craniotomies are often performed to protect eloquent cortex. We reviewed the medical records for 35 of 96 patients, in detail, who had awake right hemisphere brain operations. Intraoperative cortical mapping of motor and/or language function was performed in 29 of the 35 patients. A preoperative speech impairment and left hand dominance were the main indicators for awake right-sided craniotomies in patients with right hemisphere lesions. Four patients with lesion proximity to eloquent areas underwent awake craniotomies without cortical mapping. In addition, one patient had a broncho-pulmonary fistula, and another had a recent major cardiac procedure that precluded awake surgery. An eloquent cortex representation was identified in 14 patients (48.3%). Postoperatively, seven of 17 patients (41.1%) who presented with weakness, experienced improvements in their motor functions, 11 of 16 (68.7%) with seizures became seizure-free, and seven of nine (77.7%) with moderate to severe headaches and one of two with a visual field deficit improved significantly. There were also improvements in speech and language functions in all patients who presented with speech difficulties. A right sided awake craniotomy is an excellent option for left handed patients, or those with right sided cortical lesions that result in preoperative speech impairments. When combined with intraoperative cortical mapping, both speech and motor function can be well preserved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and evaluation of a new ergonomic handle for instruments in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancibrian, Ramon; Gutierrez-Diez, María C; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Benito-Gonzalez, Maria A; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Manuel-Palazuelos, Jose C

    2014-05-01

    Laparoscopic surgery techniques have been demonstrated to provide massive benefits to patients. However, surgeons are subjected to hardworking conditions because of the poor ergonomic design of the instruments. In this article, a new ergonomic handle design is presented. This handle is designed using ergonomic principles, trying to provide both more intuitive manipulation of the instrument and a shape that reduces the high-pressure zones in the contact with the surgeon's hand. The ergonomic characteristics of the new handle were evaluated using objective and subjective studies. The experimental evaluation was performed using 28 volunteers by means of the comparison of the new handle with the ring-handle (RH) concept in an instrument available on the market. The volunteers' muscle activation and motions of the hand, wrist, and arm were studied while they performed different tasks. The data measured in the experiment include electromyography and goniometry values. The results obtained from the subjective analysis reveal that most volunteers (64%) preferred the new prototype to the RH, reporting less pain and less difficulty to complete the tasks. The results from the objective study reveal that the hyperflexion of the wrist required for the manipulation of the instrument is strongly reduced. The new ergonomic handle not only provides important ergonomic advantages but also improves the efficiency when completing the tasks. Compared with RH instruments, the new prototype reduced the high-pressure areas and the extreme motions of the wrist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Property Rights and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Johnson; John McMillan; Christopher Woodruff

    2002-01-01

    Which is the tighter constraint on private sector investment: weak property rights or limited access to external finance? From a survey of new firms in post-communist countries, we find that weak property rights discourage firms from reinvesting their profits, even when bank loans are available. Where property rights are relatively strong, firms reinvest their profits; where they are relatively weak, entrepreneurs do not want to invest from retained earnings.

  8. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  9. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  10. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  11. International criminal tribunals and human rights law: Adherence and contextualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Given their mandate to prosecute persons responsible for the most atrocious of human rights violations, International Criminal Tribunals (ICTs) are generally hailed as welcome enforcers of international human rights law: a new instrument in the toolkit of human rights protectors. However, ICTs

  12. 32 CFR 643.11 - Rights of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights of entry. 643.11 Section 643.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE General § 643.11 Rights of entry. Pending the signing of the formal instrument, no right of entry will be...

  13. Evaluation of Human Rights Violations in Student Personnel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five point Likert scale instrument, Students Legal Rights Protection Questionnaire (SLRPQ) was used for data collection and analyzed using the population (one sample t-test), at .05 level of significance. The finding was that there is significant violation of secondary school students' rights (right to dignity of human person, ...

  14. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  15. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both household and plot levels, we show that crop choice...... restrictions are widespread and prevent crop diversification. Restrictions do not decrease household income, but restricted households work harder, and there are indications that they are supplied with higher quality inputs. Our findings are consistent with the view that it is possible to intervene effectively...

  16. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, in transition economies such as Vietnam and China, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both...... household and plot level, we show that crop choice restrictions are widespread and prevent crop diversification. Restrictions do not decrease household income, but restricted households work harder, and there are indications that they are supplied with higher quality inputs. Our findings are consistent...

  17. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  18. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  19. Instrumental analysis, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.D.; O'Reilly, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The second edition of Instrumental Analysis is a survey of the major instrument-based methods of chemical analysis. It appears to be aimed at undergraduates but would be equally useful in a graduate course. The volume explores all of the classical quantitative methods and contains sections on techniques that usually are not included in a semester course in instrumentation (such as electron spectroscopy and the kinetic methods). Adequate coverage of all of the methods contained in this book would require several semesters of focused study. The 25 chapters were written by different authors, yet the style throughout the book is more uniform than in the earlier edition. With the exception of a two-chapter course in analog and digital circuits, the book purports to de-emphasize instrumentation, focusing more on the theory behind the methods and the application of the methods to analytical problems. However, a detailed analysis of the instruments used in each method is by no means absent. The book has the favor of a user's guide to analysis

  20. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  1. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  2. CIVIL RIGHTS AND MINORITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARTMAN, PAUL

    A MAJOR INTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION AND ITS AMENDMENTS, TO GUARANTEE EQUAL RIGHTS TO ALL CITIZENS REGARDLESS OF RACE, CREED, OR COLOR, HAS BEEN REINFORCED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES OF MANY STATES. IN SOME STATES SUCH LAWS HAVE BEEN ON RECORD FOR THREE-QUARTERS OF A CENTURY. IN OTHER STATES THE SAME CONSTITUTIONAL INTENT HAS BEEN DENIED BY…

  3. Race, Rights and Rebels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Krabbe, Julia

    An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies......An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies...

  4. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  5. The right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Stavri Sinjari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to life constitutes one of the main human rights and freedoms, foreseen by article 21 of the Albanian Constitution and article 2 of European Human Rights Convention. No democratic or totalitarian society can function without guarantees and protection of the human right to life We intend to address these issues on our article: What is life. What we legally understand with life. When the life starts and finish. How this right has evolved. Which is the state interest on protecting the life. Should we consider that the life is the same for all. Should the state interfere at any cost to protect the life. Is there any criminal charge for responsible persons to the violation of this right. Is this issue treated by European Human Rights Court. What are the Albanian legal provisions on protection of this right. This research is performed mainly according to a comparative and analytical methodology. Comperative analysis will be present almost throughout the paper. Treatment of issues of this research will be achieved through a system comparable with international standards in particular and the most advanced legislation in this area. At the same time, this research is conducted by analytical and statistical data processing. We believe that our research will make a modest contribution, not only to the legal literature, but also to criminal policy makers, law makers, lawyers and attorneys.

  6. Getting To Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus

    This study takes its point of departure in human rights, equality and personal freedom, including support for the rights of LGBTI persons. Its intention is to combine these principles with respect for African communities, cultures, and the fortitude with which Africans face many challenges. Human...

  7. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  8. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The heart has 4 sections called chambers. The right ventricle is one of the lower chambers. If you have ARVC, ... Kids and Teens, Men, WomenTags: arrhythmia, Arrhythmias, Arrhythmogenic Right ... April 1, 2006 Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians This ...

  9. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  10. Characteristics of protective instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichart, G.

    1982-01-01

    Protective Instrumentation (PI) for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is a general term for an highly reliable instrumentation, which provides information for keeping the system within safe limits, for initation of countermeasures in the case of an incident or for mitigation of consequences of an accident. In German NPPs one can find a hierarchical structure of protective instrumentation, wherein the Reactor Protection System (RPS) has the highest priority. To meet the reliability requirements different design principles are used, like - redundancy - diversity - fail safe - decoupling. The presentation gives an overview about the different design principles and characterizes their reliability aspects. As an example for the technical realization the RPS of a German NPP is discussed in some detail. Furthermore some information about other type of PI is given and reliability aspects of the interaction of operating personell with these systems are mentioned. (orig.)

  11. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  12. The IKARUS instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, H.J.; Stein, G.

    1994-01-01

    When the Federal Government decided on a 25% reduction of CO 2 emissions till 2005 in 1990 the necessity resulted that an instrument has to be developed for the analysis and assessment of the ecological, economic and energetic impact of different reduction strategies. The development task was awarded by the BMFT to the Research Centre Juelich in cooperation with well-known institutions of energy system research. The total instrument is scheduled to be finished by the end of 1994. For the decentral use of the instrument by a wide specialist public the developed models and data banks which are equipped with a user-friendly surface are suited for larger PCs (486, 16 MB RAM/500-1000 MB ROM). (orig.) [de

  13. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  14. Examining item content and structure in health status and health outcomes instruments: toward the development of a grammar for better understanding of the concepts being measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Pennifer; Willke, Richard J

    2013-06-01

    Health outcomes instruments assess diverse health concepts. Although item-level concepts are considered fundamental elements, the field lacks structures for evaluating and organizing them for decision making. This article proposes a grammar using item stems, response options, and recall periods to systematically identify item-level concepts. The grammar uses "core concept," "evaluative component," and "recall period" as intuitive terms for communicating with stakeholders. Better characterization of concepts is necessary for classifying instrument content and linking it to treatment benefit. Items in 2 generic and 21 disease-specific instruments were evaluated to develop and illustrate the use of the grammar. Concepts were assigned International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health codes for exploring the value that the grammar and a classification system add to the understanding of content across instruments. The 23 instruments include many core concepts; emotional function is the only concept assessed in all instruments. Concepts in disease-specific instruments show obvious patterns; for example, arthritis instruments focus on physical function. The majority of instruments used the same response options across all items, with five-point scales being the most common. Most instruments used one recall period for all items. Shorter recall periods were used for conditions associated with "flares," such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and "skin disease." Every diagnosis, however, showed variation across instruments in the recall period used. This analysis indicates the proposed grammar's potential for discerning the conceptual content within and between health outcomes instruments and illustrates its value for improving communication between stakeholders and for making decisions related to treatment benefit. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. UN human rights council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Mlrjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structure, mechanisms, practices and perspectives of the Human Rights Council, the UN body that, at universal level is the most important body in this area. Introductory section provides for a brief overview of the origins of human rights and the work of the Commission on Human Rights, in whose jurisdiction were questions of human rights before the establishment of the Council. After the introductory section the author gives an analysis of the structure, objectives, mandate and main procedures for the protection of human rights within the united Nations. In the final section the authorpoints out the advantages of this authority and criticism addressed to it, with emphasis on the possibility and the need for its reform.

  16. Bioethics and "Rightness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2017-03-01

    If bioethics seeks to affect what people do and don't do as they respond to the practical issues that confront them, then it is useful to take seriously people's sense of rightness. Rightness emerges from the fabric of a life-including the economy of its geography, the events of its times, its popular culture-to be what the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu calls a predisposition. It is the product of a way of life and presupposes continuing to live that way. Rightness is local and communal, holding in relationship those who share the same predisposing sense of how to experience. Rightness is an embodied way of evaluating what is known to matter and choosing among possible responses. Bioethics spends considerable time on what people should do and on the arguments that support recommended actions. It might spend more time on what shapes people's sense of the rightness of what they feel called to do. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  17. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  18. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  19. Naval Reserve Annual Operating Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-29

    C. c ) CPi i 0 0 00 0 le C C.C~r In 1]1 In 00 It .- I to C-38 ’U2 WIX ’W~ - m u. -C-LC m4 C v , v ul FA ?w % -D 1 o r cl jc j, II t %c oK W)i Ir of... platform programs, while Program 11 contains 26 sub-programs each having a separate Reserve program sponsor. The distribution of Program 11 resources is...a mix of specific skills required to bring an active Navy oper-Iating platform to organizational manning. Each SRU is tailored to a specific ship

  20. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-10-15

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode.

  1. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  2. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  3. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  4. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  5. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  6. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode

  7. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  8. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  9. Monetary Policy Instruments and Bank Risks in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongyuan Geng; Xue Zhai

    2013-01-01

    The authors use a panel data regression model to examine the effects of main monetary policy instruments on commercial bank risks in China from 1998 to 2011. The interest rate has a positive effect on bank risk while the interest rate margin, the reserve requirement ratio and open market operation have a negative effect. Among the three monetary policy instruments, the reserve requirement ratio has the greatest effect on bank risk, the interest rate (the interest rate margin) the second large...

  10. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. An inspector-instrument interface design that allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user is presented. This capability has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer

  11. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. This report describes an inspector-instrument interface design which allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user. The interface has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer

  12. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  13. Evidence for Reduced Fatigue Resistance of Contemporary Rotary Instruments Exposed to Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Rafaela Andrade; Murphy, Sarah; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Govindjee, Rajiv G; Govindjee, Sanjay; Peters, Ove A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 different temperatures (20°C and 37°C) on the cyclic fatigue life of rotary instruments and correlate the results with martensitic transformation temperatures. Contemporary nickel-titanium rotary instruments (n = 20 each and tip size #25, including Hyflex CM [Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH], TRUShape [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK], Vortex Blue [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties], and ProTaper Universal [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties]) were tested for cyclic fatigue at room temperature (20°C ± 1°C) and at body temperature (37°C ± 1°C). Instruments were rotated until fracture occurred in a simulated canal with an angle curvature of about 60° and a radius curvature of 3 mm; the center of the curvature was 4.5 mm from the instrument tip. The number of cycles to fracture was measured. Phase transformation temperatures for 2 instruments of each brand were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Data were analyzed using the t test and 1-way analysis of variance with the significance level set at 0.05. For the tested size and at 20°C, Hyflex CM showed the highest resistance to fracture; no significant difference was found between TRUShape and Vortex Blue, whereas ProTaper Universal showed the lowest resistance to fracture. At 37°C, resistance to fatigue fracture was significantly reduced, up to 85%, for the tested instruments (P rotary instruments tested. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health literacy screening instruments for eHealth applications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Currie, Leanne M; Bakken, Suzanne; Vawdrey, David K; Stone, Patricia W

    2012-06-01

    To systematically review current health literacy (HL) instruments for use in consumer-facing and mobile health information technology screening and evaluation tools. The databases, PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index, were searched for health literacy assessment instruments using the terms "health", "literacy", "computer-based," and "psychometrics". All instruments identified by this method were critically appraised according to their reported psychometric properties and clinical feasibility. Eleven different health literacy instruments were found. Screening questions, such as asking a patient about his/her need for assistance in navigating health information, were evaluated in seven different studies and are promising for use as a valid, reliable, and feasible computer-based approach to identify patients that struggle with low health literacy. However, there was a lack of consistency in the types of screening questions proposed. There is also a lack of information regarding the psychometric properties of computer-based health literacy instruments. Only English language health literacy assessment instruments were reviewed and analyzed. Current health literacy screening tools demonstrate varying benefits depending on the context of their use. In many cases, it seems that a single screening question may be a reliable, valid, and feasible means for establishing health literacy. A combination of screening questions that assess health literacy and technological literacy may enable tailoring eHealth applications to user needs. Further research should determine the best screening question(s) and the best synthesis of various instruments' content and methodologies for computer-based health literacy screening and assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. All rights reserved www.ajol.infoand www.bioline.org.br/ja Impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    electricity has become a common practice all over the world (Langfort, 1990; Kaushal et al. .... electric power in the generator. The steam generated ..... little solar energy, it is assumed that its influence ..... Biometry: the principles and practice of ...

  16. All rights reserved and www.bioline.org.br/ja Assessment of Tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    recent times, thereby posing appreciable risk of local extinction to some ... Fig 1: Map showing study area; fresh and mangrove swamp of. University of Lagos .... African oil palm. 43. 10. 29. ... Brazilian rose tree, blue trumpet tree. 52. 13. 41.

  17. All rights reserved and www.bioline.org.br/ja Estimation of exit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Estimation of exit temperatures in the isentropic compression of real gases. 1 ..... other thermodynamic properties can be calculated within the framework of ... of negative compressibility) has no physical significance.

  18. All rights reserved Evaluation of the Layering of Rock Strata and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    correlates with the observed dry and consolidated lateritic clay ... of consolidated laterite, gravel, sand, silt and clay having a high ... from the original hydrogeologic assessment report of ... the AGRL, provision of financial and material support.

  19. All rights reserved Assessment of Heavy Metal Contents of End-Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-18

    Mar 18, 2018 ... that regulate the use of hazardous substances in EEE, such as the European ..... result in human exposure to high levels of these metals and toxins. .... waste: Synthesize zeolites from waste cathode- ray-tube funnel glass.

  20. All rights reserved www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja Drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    vegetation growth and time lag in their response to dry or wet condition. © JASEM ... enhancing losses of life, human suffering and causing damage to the ... The southern part receives .... weather condition over most of the Sahelian stations.

  1. All rights reserved www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja Drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    century as the result show a rapid decline in its occurrence which indicates improvement in rainfall. On the other ... caused a sudden break of early rainfall, poor spatio- temporal ..... Characteristics of 20th ... and Applied Genetics, 125, 625-645.

  2. Comparison among manual instruments and PathFile and Mtwo rotary instruments to create a glide path in the root canal preparation of curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa de Oliveira; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-titanium rotary instruments reduce procedural errors and the time required to finish root canal preparation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the occurrences of apical transportation and canal aberrations produced with different instruments used to create a glide path in the preparation of curved root canals, namely manual K-files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer) and Mtwo (Sweden and Martina, Padua, Italy) nickel-titanium rotary files. The mesial canals of 45 mandibular first and second molars (with curvature angles between 25° and 35°) were selected for this study. The specimens were divided randomly into 3 groups with 15 canals each, and canal preparation was performed by an endodontist using #10-15-20 K-type stainless steel manual files (group M), #13-16-19 PathFile rotary instruments (group PF), and #10-15-20 Mtwo rotary instruments (group MT). The double digital radiograph technique was used, pre- and postinstrumentation, to assess whether apical transportation and/or aberration in root canal morphology occurred. The initial and final images of the central axis of the canals were compared by superimposition through computerized analysis and with the aid of magnification. The specimens were analyzed by 3 evaluators, whose calibration was checked using the Kendall agreement test. No apical transportation or aberration in root canal morphology occurred in any of the teeth; therefore, no statistical analysis was conducted. Neither the manual instruments nor the PathFile or Mtwo rotary instruments used to create a glide path had any influence on the occurrence of apical transportation or produced any canal aberration. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Standards for Instrument Migration When Implementing Paper Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments Electronically: Recommendations from a Qualitative Synthesis of Cognitive Interview and Usability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlhausen, Willie; Byrom, Bill; Skerritt, Barbara; McCarthy, Marie; McDowell, Bryan; Sohn, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    To synthesize the findings of cognitive interview and usability studies performed to assess the measurement equivalence of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments migrated from paper to electronic formats (ePRO), and make recommendations regarding future migration validation requirements and ePRO design best practice. We synthesized findings from all cognitive interview and usability studies performed by a contract research organization between 2012 and 2015: 53 studies comprising 68 unique instruments and 101 instrument evaluations. We summarized study findings to make recommendations for best practice and future validation requirements. Five studies (9%) identified minor findings during cognitive interview that may possibly affect instrument measurement properties. All findings could be addressed by application of ePRO best practice, such as eliminating scrolling, ensuring appropriate font size, ensuring suitable thickness of visual analogue scale lines, and providing suitable instructions. Similarly, regarding solution usability, 49 of the 53 studies (92%) recommended no changes in display clarity, navigation, operation, and completion without help. Reported usability findings could be eliminated by following good product design such as the size, location, and responsiveness of navigation buttons. With the benefit of accumulating evidence, it is possible to relax the need to routinely conduct cognitive interview and usability studies when implementing minor changes during instrument migration. Application of design best practice and selecting vendor solutions with good user interface and user experience properties that have been assessed in a representative group may enable many instrument migrations to be accepted without formal validation studies by instead conducting a structured expert screen review. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Gregor Fabio

    2018-01-01

    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification...

  5. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification’s...... impact, however, does not entail halting processes of gentrification once and for all....

  6. Docking screens: right for the right reasons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Peter; Irwin, John J

    2009-01-01

    Whereas docking screens have emerged as the most practical way to use protein structure for ligand discovery, an inconsistent track record raises questions about how well docking actually works. In its favor, a growing number of publications report the successful discovery of new ligands, often supported by experimental affinity data and controls for artifacts. Few reports, however, actually test the underlying structural hypotheses that docking makes. To be successful and not just lucky, prospective docking must not only rank a true ligand among the top scoring compounds, it must also correctly orient the ligand so the score it receives is biophysically sound. If the correct binding pose is not predicted, a skeptic might well infer that the discovery was serendipitous. Surveying over 15 years of the docking literature, we were surprised to discover how rarely sufficient evidence is presented to establish whether docking actually worked for the right reasons. The paucity of experimental tests of theoretically predicted poses undermines confidence in a technique that has otherwise become widely accepted. Of course, solving a crystal structure is not always possible, and even when it is, it can be a lot of work, and is not readily accessible to all groups. Even when a structure can be determined, investigators may prefer to gloss over an erroneous structural prediction to better focus on their discovery. Still, the absence of a direct test of theory by experiment is a loss for method developers seeking to understand and improve docking methods. We hope this review will motivate investigators to solve structures and compare them with their predictions whenever possible, to advance the field.

  7. Freeman's transorbital lobotomy as an anomaly: A material culture examination of surgical instruments and operative spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brianne M; Stam, Henderikus J

    2015-05-01

    In 1946, Walter Freeman introduced the transorbital ice pick lobotomy. Touted as a procedure that could be learned and subsequently performed by psychiatrists outside of the operating room, the technique was quickly criticized by neurosurgeons. In this article, we take a material culture approach to consider 2 grounds upon which neurosurgeons based their objections-surgical instruments and operative spaces. On both counts, Freeman was in contravention of established normative neurosurgical practices and, ultimately, his technique was exposed as an anomaly by neurosurgeons. Despite its rejection, the transorbital lobotomy became entrenched in contemporary memory and remains the emblematic procedure of the psychosurgery era. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  9. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented

  10. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  11. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  12. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  13. Radiometric well logging instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The technical properties of well instruments for radioactive logging used in the radiometric logging complexes PKS-1000-1 (''Sond-1'') and PRKS-2 (''Vitok-2'') are described. The main features of the electric circuit of the measuring channels are given

  14. Advanced instrumentation and teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's advanced instrumentation and teleoperation project aims at evaluating the potential of a telerobotic approach in a nuclear environment and, in particular, the use of remote-perception systems. Main achievements in 1997 in the areas of R and D on radiation tolerance for remote sensing, optical fibres and optical-fibre sensors, and computer-aided teleoperation are reported

  15. Health physics instrumentation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1984-10-01

    Deficiencies and desirable improvements can be identified in every technical area in which health physics instruments are employed. The needed improvements cover the full spectrum including long-term reliability, human factors, accuracy, ruggedness, ease of calibration, improved radiation response, and improved mixed field response. Some specific areas of deficiency noted along with needed improvements. 17 references

  16. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  17. Creating a Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpää, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the development of new technology, musical instruments are no more tied to their existing acoustic or technical limitations as almost all parameters can be augmented or modified in real time. An increasing number of composers, performers, and computer programmers have thus become intere...

  18. CMO Site: Ocean Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Precipitation , Lightning, Visibility 0150 A InterOcea Hawser Strain 1.. systems, inc. and more... n 1946 3540 aero court san diego ca 92123-1799 usa phone: (619...AGU’s Microgal culture Association, P.O. Box 1004, April 8-10, 1997-Underwater Gravimetry : Instruments, Observa- Niland, CA 92257; (619) 359-3474

  19. Instrumentation in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the performance of a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system the equipment plays an important role. Crucial parameters of instrumentation in TLD are discussed in some detail. A review is given of equipment available on the market today - with some emphasis on automation - which is partly based on information from industry and others involved in research and development. (author)

  20. Ion chamber instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical ionization chamber is described having a self-supporting wall of cellular material which is of uniform areal density and formed of material, such as foamed polystyrene, having an average effective atomic number between about 4 and about 9, and easily replaceable when on the instrument. (auth)

  1. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  2. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  3. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  4. CRISP instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknall, D.G.; Langridge, Sean

    1997-05-01

    This document is a user manual for CRISP, one of the two neutron reflectomers at ISIS. CRISP is highly automated allowing precision reproducible measurements. The manual provides detailed instructions for the setting-up and running of the instrument and advice on data analysis. (UK)

  5. Finding the Right Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certified hospital Communicating with Healthcare Professionals for Caregivers Consumer Health Care • Home • Health Insurance Information • Your Healthcare Team Introduction Finding the Right Doctor Talking to Your Doctor Getting a Second ...

  6. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  7. A Century in Reserve and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monagle, James P

    2008-01-01

    ... Reserve, this Strategy Research Project (SRP) describes the role of the Army Reserve from its beginning as a reserve corps of medical doctors to that of a strategic reserve force, and then to its current operational role...

  8. Dementia-specific quality of life instruments and their appropriateness in shared-housing arrangements--a literature study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräske, Johannes; Fischer, Thomas; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Wolf-Ostermann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Shared-housing arrangements (SHA) in Germany are a specific type of housing arrangement that belongs to the global concept of small-scale living arrangements. This caring approach comprises characteristics of both home and institutional care for persons with dementia. To evaluate the impact of SHA on the quality of life (QoL) of residents, an appropriate setting- and dementia-specific QoL instrument is needed. This article aims to identify QoL instruments that relate to the core domains of SHA. After a comprehensive literature review, existing dementia-specific QoL instruments were evaluated to determine whether any have been specifically designed for or applied in SHA. Additionally, each domain of the instruments was matched with the core domains of SHA. None of the existing instruments was identified as having been developed for SHA. Matching of the instrument domains with the SHA core domains leads to the conclusion that Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease, Dementia Quality of Life, Alzheimer Disease-Related Quality of Life, and QUALIDEM are adequate instruments for measuring the dementia-specific QoL of persons living in SHA. For the first time, a basis has been created for valid QoL evaluations of residents with dementia living in SHA. The 4 identified instruments are considered applicable in SHA. Conducting a performance test and evaluating further attributes according to the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust (e.g., reliability and validity) will further elucidation of the appropriateness of the instruments for SHA. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Systematic Review of Measurement Property Evidence for 8 Financial Management Instruments in Populations With Acquired Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Lisa; Chui, Adora; Beaton, Dorcas E; Green, Robin E; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2018-03-07

    To critically appraise the measurement property evidence (ie, psychometric) for 8 observation-based financial management assessment instruments. Seven databases were searched in May 2015. Two reviewers used an independent decision-agreement process to select studies of measurement property evidence relevant to populations with adulthood acquired cognitive impairment, appraise the quality of the evidence, and extract data. Twenty-one articles were selected. This review used the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments review guidelines and 4-point tool to appraise evidence. After appraising the methodologic quality, the adequacy of results and volume of evidence per instrument were synthesized. Measurement property evidence with high risk of bias was excluded from the synthesis. The volume of measurement property evidence per instrument is low; most instruments had 1 to 3 included studies. Many included studies had poor methodologic quality per measurement property evidence area examined. Six of the 8 instruments reviewed had supporting construct validity/hypothesis-testing evidence of fair methodologic quality. There is a dearth of acceptable quality content validity, reliability, and responsiveness evidence for all 8 instruments. Rehabilitation practitioners assess financial management functions in adults with acquired cognitive impairments. However, there is limited published evidence to support using any of the reviewed instruments. Practitioners should exercise caution when interpreting the results of these instruments. This review highlights the importance of appraising the quality of measurement property evidence before examining the adequacy of the results and synthesizing the evidence. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  11. Introduction: Righting Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Farris, Sara R.

    2017-01-01

    This is the introduction to a special issue on Righting Feminism. In recent years, we have witnessed the multifarious ways in which feminism as an emancipatory project dedicated to women's liberation has increasingly “converged” with non-emancipatory/racist, conservative, and neo-liberal economic and political agendas. Today, feminist themes are not only being "mainstreamed" but are also increasingly being mobilized to bolster existing power hierarchies as well as neo-liberal and right-wing x...

  12. Olympic Broadcast Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Žižka, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Title: Olympic Broadcast Rights Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to analyse the revenue derived from the sale of the broadcasting rights to the Olympics by Olympic Movement. In the thesis are analysed the total sum of revenue, selected territory and compared the proportion that belongs to the International Olympic Committee and the Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games. The secondary objective is to adapt and calculation of the conversion mechanism for the transfer of amou...

  13. The Use of the Yen as a Reserve Currency

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. Garber

    1996-01-01

    The depreciation of the U.S. dollar in 1995 rekindled discussion about the organization of the international monetary system, including calls to expand the roles of the yen and the deutsche mark as reserve currencies. The yen has not assumed a greater role because sufficient yen instruments are unavailable. The measures that make the yen relatively illiquid result partly from public debt management policy and control over the competitive advantage of the government in securities issuance. Fro...

  14. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  15. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  16. Transition to IFRS 9 : Practical Guidance for the Foreign Reserves of Central Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yunjung S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides practical guidance to central banks on accounting practices for their foreign reserves, in connection with the transition from International Accounting Standard 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement (IAS 39) to International Financial Reporting Standard 9 Financial Instruments (IFRS 9). The IFRS 9 preparation process can be summarized in three steps: (1)...

  17. Influence of Heat Treatment of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Apical Preparation: A Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Bernardo Corrêa; Ormiga, Fabíola; de Araújo, Marcos César Pimenta; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inayá Corrêa Barbosa; dos Santos, Bernardo Camargo; Gusman, Heloisa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to make a 3-dimensional comparison of the canal transportation and changes in apical geometry using micro-computed tomographic imaging after canal preparation with K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and K3XF (SybronEndo) file systems. Twenty-eight mandibular molars were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the rotary system used in instrumentation: K3 or K3XF. The specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after instrumentation. Images before and after instrumentation from each group were compared with regard to canal volume, surface area, and structure model index (SMI) (paired t test, P instrumentation, the canals from each group were compared regarding the changes in volume, surface area, SMI, and canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (t test, P Instrumentation with the 2 rotary systems significantly changed the canal volume, surface area, and SMI (P instrument types concerning these parameters (P > .05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (P > .05). Both rotary systems showed adequate canal preparations with reduced values of canal transportation. Heat treatment did not influence changes in root canal geometry in the apical region. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Invited Commentary: Using Financial Credits as Instrumental Variables for Estimating the Causal Relationship Between Income and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Social epidemiologists are interested in determining the causal relationship between income and health. Natural experiments in which individuals or groups receive income randomly or quasi-randomly from financial credits (e.g., tax credits or cash transfers) are increasingly being analyzed using instrumental variable analysis. For example, in this issue of the Journal, Hamad and Rehkopf (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(9):775-784) used an in-work tax credit called the Earned Income Tax Credit as an instrument to estimate the association between income and child development. However, under certain conditions, the use of financial credits as instruments could violate 2 key instrumental variable analytic assumptions. First, some financial credits may directly influence health, for example, through increasing a psychological sense of welfare security. Second, financial credits and health may have several unmeasured common causes, such as politics, other social policies, and the motivation to maximize the credit. If epidemiologists pursue such instrumental variable analyses, using the amount of an unconditional, universal credit that an individual or group has received as the instrument may produce the most conceptually convincing and generalizable evidence. However, other natural income experiments (e.g., lottery winnings) and other methods that allow better adjustment for confounding might be more promising approaches for estimating the causal relationship between income and health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Older drivers' attitudes about instrument cluster designs in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Seder, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Little is known about older drivers' preferences and attitudes about instrumentation design in vehicles. Yet visual processing impairments are common among older adults and could impact their ability to interface with a vehicle's dashboard. The purpose of this study is to obtain information from them about this topic, using focus groups and content analysis methodology. A trained facilitator led 8 focus groups of older adults. Discussion was stimulated by an outline relevant to dashboard interfaces, audiotaped, and transcribed. Using multi-step content analysis, a trained coder placed comments into thematic categories and coded comments as positive, negative, or neutral in meaning. Comments were coded into these categories: gauges, knobs/switches, interior lighting, color, lettering, symbols, location, entertainment, GPS, cost, uniformity, and getting information. Comments on gauges and knobs/switches represented half the comments. Women made more comments about getting information; men made more comments about uniformity. Positive and negative comments were made in each category; individual differences in preferences were broad. The results of this study will be used to guide the design of a population-based survey of older drivers about instrument cluster format, which will also examine how their responses are related to their visual processing capabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis instruments for the performance of Advanced Practice Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Guerra, Sonia; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2017-11-29

    Advanced Practice Nursing has been a reality in the international context for several decades and recently new nursing profiles have been developed in Spain as well that follow this model. The consolidation of these advanced practice roles has also led to of the creation of tools that attempt to define and evaluate their functions. This study aims to identify and explore the existing instruments that enable the domains of Advanced Practice Nursing to be defined. A review of existing international questionnaires and instruments was undertaken, including an analysis of the design process, the domains/dimensions defined, the main results and an exploration of clinimetric properties. Seven studies were analysed but not all proved to be valid, stable or reliable tools. One included tool was able to differentiate between the functions of the general nurse and the advanced practice nurse by the level of activities undertaken within the five domains described. These tools are necessary to evaluate the scope of advanced practice in new nursing roles that correspond to other international models of competencies and practice domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. How is the instrumental color of meat measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W N; Yancey, J W S; Apple, J K

    2011-09-01

    Peer-reviewed journal articles (n=1068) were used to gather instrumental color measurement information in meat science research. The majority of articles, published in 10 peer-reviewed journals, originated from European countries (44.8%) and North America (38.5%). The predominant species was pork (44.2%), and most researchers used Minolta (60.0%) over Hunter (31.6%) colorimeters. Much of the research was done using illuminant D65 (32.3%); nevertheless, almost half (48.9%) of the articles did not report the illuminant. Moreover, a majority of the articles did not report aperture size (73.6%) or the number of readings per sample (52.4%). Many factors influence meat color, and a considerable proportion of the peer-reviewed, published research articles failed to include information necessary to replicate and/or interpret instrumental color results; therefore, a standardized set of minimum reportable parameters for meat color evaluation should be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  3. Relationship between colorimetric (instrumental) evaluation and consumer-defined beef colour acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between instrumental colorimetric values (L*, a*, b*, the ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm) and consumer perception of acceptable beef colour was evaluated using a web-based survey and standardised photographs of beef m. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics. Only L* and b* were found to relate to average consumer opinions of beef colour acceptability. Respondent nationality was also identified as a source of variation in beef colour acceptability score. Although this is a preliminary study with the findings necessitating additional investigation, these results suggest L* and b* as candidates for developing instrumental thresholds for consumer beef colour expectations. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of four instruments on coronal pre-enlargement by using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfelice, Cintia Mussoline; da Costa, Fernanda Botega; Reis Só, Marcus Vinícius; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana; Souza Bier, Carlos Alexandre; Grecca, Fabiana Soares

    2010-05-01

    This ex vivo study used cone beam computed tomography to evaluate the amount of dentin removal from the distal wall of the mesial canal of human mandibular first molars caused by 4 instruments used to flare the cervical third. Thirty-two mesial roots were divided into 4 groups prepared by using ProTaper, K3, Gates-Glidden, or LA Axxess. The dentin thickness of the distal cervical wall of mesial canals was measured before and after the preparation by using computed tomography and Adobe Photoshop software. There was no statistically significant difference between the study groups (P > 05). All the instruments used for cervical preparation seemed to be safe and did not damage the dentin structure of the distal wall of mesial root canals of mandibular molars. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  6. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  7. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  8. Enforcing the Right to Family Life in Hong Kong Courts: The Case of Dependant Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chuen Ngai Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the Hong Kong courts’ seemingly robust protection of fundamental rights and civil liberties, enforcing family rights remains extremely difficult. While the right to family life is safeguarded by both domestic and international human right instruments, applicants in judicial review cases are usually not able to rely on it to challenge the decisions made by the immigration authority. This paper examines the challenges in enforcing the right to family life in Hong Kong’s Dependant Policy with a particular focus on the Hong Kong Court of Appeal’s recent decision in BI v Director of Immigration. The immigration reservation, entered into by the United Kingdom when ratifying the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, has become a justification for a restrictive immigration regime even after the transfer of sovereignty. The Hong Kong courts also repeatedly accord wide discretion to immigration authority. The courts’ reluctance to scrutinize socio-economic policies reveals one of the key weaknesses in enforcing fundamental rights in Hong Kong by the way of judicial review.

  9. The Right Ventricle in ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochios, Vasileios; Parhar, Ken; Tunnicliffe, William; Roscoe, Andrew; Gao, Fang

    2017-07-01

    ARDS is associated with poor clinical outcomes, with a pooled mortality rate of approximately 40% despite best standards of care. Current therapeutic strategies are based on improving oxygenation and pulmonary compliance while minimizing ventilator-induced lung injury. It has been demonstrated that relative hypoxemia can be well tolerated, and improvements in oxygenation do not necessarily translate into survival benefit. Cardiac failure, in particular right ventricular dysfunction (RVD), is commonly encountered in moderate to severe ARDS and is reported to be one of the major determinants of mortality. The prevalence rate of echocardiographically evident RVD in ARDS varies across studies, ranging from 22% to 50%. Although there is no definitive causal relationship between RVD and mortality, severe RVD is associated with increased mortality. Factors that can adversely affect RV function include hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypercapnia, and invasive ventilation with high driving pressure. It might be expected that early diagnosis of RVD would be of benefit; however, echocardiographic markers (qualitative and quantitative) used to prospectively evaluate the right ventricle in ARDS have not been tested in adequately powered studies. In this review, we examine the prognostic implications and pathophysiology of RVD in ARDS and discuss available diagnostic modalities and treatment options. We aim to identify gaps in knowledge and directions for future research that could potentially improve clinical outcomes in this patient population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  10. A Right’s Story: The Historical Roots of the Right to Work as a Human Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Al- Sadat Taheri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The right to work has been recognized in many international instruments. According to this right, everybody deserves to enjoy decent and appropriate job opportunities.On the other hand this right includes states’ obligations to provide enough opportunities. This article seeks to explain historical roots of the right to work. The study shows that industrial revolution, workers’ movements, recession in some periods of time and deep changes after the Second World War were the most important factors in emerging the right, which later was accepted as a welfare right in the context of human rights.

  11. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  12. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  13. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...... language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...

  14. Biotechnology and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Le Mintier, B

    2001-12-01

    Biotechnology permits our world to progress. It's a tool to better apprehend the human being, but as well to let him go ahead. Applied to the living, biotechnologies present the same finality. But since their matter concerns effectively the living, they are the sources of specific dangers and particularly of that one to use the improvements obtained on the human to modify the human species. The right of the persons has to find its place to avoid that the fundamental rights of the human personality shall undergo harm. This mission assigned to the right of the persons is as so much invaluable that the economical stakes are particularly important in the domain of the biotechnologies.

  15. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  16. Social Responsibility Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mizera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Responsible business notion is more and more present in Polish economy, however the results of the research carried out in Polish business still shows a low level of CRS idea knowledge, especially in small and medium companies. Although responsible business notion is generally known, its details, ways of preparing strategy, instruments and what is more its benefits are still narrowly spread. Many business people face the lack of knowledge and information, which on one hand make it easier to spread and deepen wrong stereotypes connected with this notion and on the other hand make business people unwilling to implement CRS in their companies. The subjects of this article are examples of instruments which are responsible for realization of social responsibility strategy.

  17. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  18. Application of non-destructive impedance-based monitoring technique for cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Liu, Mou-Chuan; Pai, Che-An; Lin, Chun-Li; Yen, Kuang-I

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the application of non-destructive testing based on the impedance theory in the cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Fifty Ni-Ti ProTaper instruments were divided into five groups (n=10 in Groups A to E). Groups A to D were subjected to cyclic fatigue within an artificial canal (Group E was the control group). The mean value of the total life limit (TLL), defined as the instrument being rotated until fracture occurred was found to be 104 s in Group A. Each rotary instrument in Groups B, C and D were rotated until the tested instruments reached 80% (84 s), 60% (62 s) and 40% (42 s) of the TLL. After fatigue testing, each rotary instrument was mounted onto a custom-developed non-destructive testing device to give the tip of the instrument a progressive sideways bend in four mutually perpendicular directions to measure the corresponding impedance value (including the resistance and the reactance). The results indicated that the impedance value showed the same trend as the resistance, implying that the impedance was primarily affected by the resistance. The impedance value for the instruments in the 80% and 60% TLL groups increased by about 6 mΩ (about 7.5%) more than that of the instruments in the intact and 40% TLL groups. The SEM analysis result showed that crack striations were only found at the tip of the thread on the cracked surface of the instrument, consistent with the impedance measurements that found the impedance value of the cracked surface to be significantly different from those in other surfaces. These findings indicate that the impedance value may represent an effective parameter for evaluating the micro-structural status of Ni-Ti rotary instruments subjected to fatigue loading. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radon-Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  20. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-11

    1. Have test data been collected, recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment...instrumentation, and support accommodations adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for...correctness and completeness? Yes No Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No Comment : 5. Were the

  1. Transgressive or Instrumental?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary practices that connect the arts with learning are widespread at all level of educational systems and in organisations, but they include very diverse approaches, multiple methods and background values. Regardless of explicit learning benefits, the arts/learning partnerships bring about...... creativity and the other on practices of arts-integration. My final point rests on the belief that the opposition of transgression and instrumentality is a deceiving perspective on the arts, against the background of the aesthetic plurality and hybridity....

  2. Sexual rights and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2011-03-01

    This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled.

  3. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  4. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...

  5. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  6. EPRTM Reactor neutron instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Maxime; SALA, Stephanie

    2013-06-01

    The core safety during operation is linked, in particular, to the respect of criteria related to the heat generated in fuel rods and to the heat exchange between the rods and the coolant. This local power information is linked to the power distribution in the core. In order to evaluate the core power distribution, the EPR TM reactor relies on several types of neutron detectors: - ionization chambers located outside the vessel and used for protection and monitoring - a fixed in-core instrumentation based on Cobalt Self Powered Neutron Detectors used for protection and monitoring - a mobile reference in-core instrumentation based on Vanadium aero-balls This document provides a description of this instrumentation and its use in core protection, limitation, monitoring and control functions. In particular, a description of the detectors and the principles of their signal generation is supplied as well as the description of the treatments related to these detectors in the EPR TM reactor I and C systems (including periodical calibration). (authors)

  7. Mandolin Family Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  8. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the instrumentation of liquid metal cooled fast reactors. In order to ensure the safe operation of such reactors it is necessary to constantly monitor the coolant flowing through the fuel assemblies for temperature and rate of flow, requiring a large number of sensors. An improved and simplified arrangement is claimed in which the fuel assemblies feed a fraction of coolant to three instrument units arranged to sense the temperature and rate of flow of samples of coolant. Each instrument unit comprises a sleeve housing a sensing unit and has a number of inlet ducts arranged for receiving coolant from a fuel assembly together with a single outlet. The sensing unit has three thermocouple hot junctions connected in series, the hot junctions and inlet ducts being arranged in pairs. Electromagnetic windings around an inductive core are arranged to sense variation in flow of liquid metal by flux distortion. Fission product sensing means may also be provided. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  9. A Right’s Story: The Historical Roots of the Right to Work as a Human Right

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Al- Sadat Taheri

    2017-01-01

    The right to work has been recognized in many international instruments. According to this right, everybody deserves to enjoy decent and appropriate job opportunities.On the other hand this right includes states’ obligations to provide enough opportunities. This article seeks to explain historical roots of the right to work. The study shows that industrial revolution, workers’ movements, recession in some periods of time and deep changes after the Second World War were the most important fact...

  10. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  11. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    on the content of the syllabus. When autonomy is understood in the literal sense, of giving oneself one's own laws, then there is a clear connection. Autonomy is usually connected to politics and a geographically limited territory. Special political rights of minorities - e.g. is the Danish minority party SSW...

  12. The Right Administrative Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Dan; McDonald, Cary; Harper, Jack; Lamke, Gene; Murphy, James

    2014-01-01

    This article is intended to provoke thought and discussion about what it takes to be a department chair and what it feels like to be a department chair. To accomplish our purpose, we draw an analogy between test pilots and department chairs based on Tom Wolfe's "The Right Stuff" (1979). We reason that test pilots and department…

  13. Endogenous property rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Guerriero, C.

    2014-01-01

    Albeit the relevance of property rights is well known, their determinants are still poorly understood. When property is fully protected, some buyers with valuation higher than that of original owners are inefficiently excluded from trade due to transaction costs. When protection of property is weak,

  14. Adjudicating socioeconomic rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christo Heunis

    It is trite to say that the adjudication of socio-economic rights is a new enterprise in South African jurisprudence, as it is to the jurisprudence of many other jurisdictions. Professor van Rensburg's paper seeks to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the interpretation and application ...

  15. Rights or Repentance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnigerode, Fred A.

    1977-01-01

    Early data suggest that homosexuals are becoming more aware of their civil rights and more willing to fight for them. Men and women no longer have to repent for their homosexual feelings and behavior. Presented at the 1976 American Psychological Association Convention, Washington, D.C. (Author)

  16. Access Rights Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Pestunova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of the development of the information system, which grants users the rights for access to automated information system resources on the basis of the organization business-processes, are considered. The conceptual, informational, functional models of the system, as well as a model, which allows to realize control while using various formal models (RBAC, DAC, MAC, are described.

  17. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  18. Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.; Jonker, Willem; Blanken, Henk; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    Digital Rights Management, or DRM for short, is a much-discussed topic nowadays. The main reason for this is that DRM technology is often mentioned in the context of protection of digital audio and video content, for example to avoid large scale copying of CDs and DVDs via peer-to-peer networks in

  19. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.

  20. Student Rights and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today's Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Article summarizes National Education Association pamphlet. As citizens, students should have full protection of Bill of Rights, due process, protection from illegal search or seizure. As clients of institution, should have substantial influence on how institutions affect their lives. Proper disciplinary procedures for minor and major infractions…

  1. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...

  2. CARMENES instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  3. Bridging international law and rights-based litigation: mapping health-related rights through the development of the Global Health and Human Rights Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Cabrera, Oscar A; Ayala, Ana; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2012-06-15

    The O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University, the World Health Organization, and the Lawyers Collective have come together to develop a searchable Global Health and Human Rights Database that maps the intersection of health and human rights in judgments, international and regional instruments, and national constitutions. Where states long remained unaccountable for violations of health-related human rights, litigation has arisen as a central mechanism in an expanding movement to create rights-based accountability. Facilitated by the incorporation of international human rights standards in national law, this judicial enforcement has supported the implementation of rights-based claims, giving meaning to states' longstanding obligations to realize the highest attainable standard of health. Yet despite these advancements, there has been insufficient awareness of the international and domestic legal instruments enshrining health-related rights and little understanding of the scope and content of litigation upholding these rights. As this accountability movement evolves, the Global Health and Human Rights Database seeks to chart this burgeoning landscape of international instruments, national constitutions, and judgments for health-related rights. Employing international legal research to document and catalogue these three interconnected aspects of human rights for the public's health, the Database's categorization by human rights, health topics, and regional scope provides a comprehensive means of understanding health and human rights law. Through these categorizations, the Global Health and Human Rights Database serves as a basis for analogous legal reasoning across states to serve as precedents for future cases, for comparative legal analysis of similar health claims in different country contexts, and for empirical research to clarify the impact of human rights judgments on public health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Meier, Nygren

  4. Human Rights Act, 12 February 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints major provisions of the Yukon's (Canada) 1987 Human Rights Act. The Act furthers the public policy that every individual is free and equal in dignity and rights, seeks to discourage and eliminate discrimination, and promotes the underlying principles of Canadian and international human rights instruments. Part 1 contains a Bill of Rights that protects the right to freedom of: 1) religion and conscience, 2) expression, 3) assembly and association, and 4) to enjoyment and disposition of property. Part 2 prohibits discrimination based on ancestry (including color and race), national origin, ethnic or linguistic background or origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), and marital or family status. Discrimination is also prohibited when offering services, goods, or facilities to the public; in connection with employment; in connection with membership in trade unions or trade, occupational, or professional associations; and in negotiation or performance of public contracts. The Bill of Rights lists reasonable causes for discrimination as well as exemptions, including preferential treatment for organization or family members or employment in a private home. Special programs and affirmative action programs are specifically not considered discrimination under this Act. The Act sets forth rules for providing equal pay for work of equal value and creates a Yukon Human Rights Commission to promote human rights and assist adjudication of complaints.

  5. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring: biomedical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An update is presented to Volume four of the six-volume series devoted to a survey of instruments useful for measurements in biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Methods of detection and analysis of gaseous organic pollutants and metals, including Ni and As are presented. Instrument techniques and notes are included on atomic spectrometry and uv and visible absorption instrumentation

  6. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. An evaluation of Brix refractometry instruments for measurement of colostrum quality in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmann, V; Gillan, J; Perkins, N R; Skidmore, A L; Godden, S; Leslie, K E

    2010-08-01

    Acquisition of high quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health. Many methods have been used to assess the Ig concentration of colostrum; however, improved, validated evaluation tools are needed. The aims of this study were to evaluate both optical and digital Brix refractometer instruments for the measurement of Ig concentration of colostrum as compared with the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay laboratory assessment and to determine the correlation between Ig measurements taken from fresh and frozen colostrum samples for both Brix refractometer instruments. This research was completed using 288 colostrum samples from 3 different farms. It was concluded that the optical and digital Brix refractometers were highly correlated for both fresh and frozen samples (r=0.98 and r=0.97, respectively). Correlation between both refractometer instruments for fresh and frozen samples and the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay were determined to be very similar, with a correlation coefficient between 0.71 and 0.74. Both instruments exhibited excellent test characteristics, indicating an appropriate cut-off point of 22% Brix score for the identification of good quality colostrum. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Travis P; Vurbic, Drina; Bouton, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    This article reviews research on the behavioral and neural mechanisms of extinction as it is represented in both Pavlovian and instrumental learning. In Pavlovian extinction, repeated presentation of a signal without its reinforcer weakens behavior evoked by the signal; in instrumental extinction, repeated occurrence of a voluntary action without its reinforcer weakens the strength of the action. In either case, contemporary research at both the behavioral and neural levels of analysis has been guided by a set of extinction principles that were first generated by research conducted at the behavioral level. The review discusses these principles and illustrates how they have informed the study of both Pavlovian and instrumental extinction. It shows that behavioral and neurobiological research efforts have been tightly linked and that their results are readily integrated. Pavlovian and instrumental extinction are also controlled by compatible behavioral and neural processes. Since many behavioral effects observed in extinction can be multiply determined, we suggest that the current close connection between behavioral-level and neural-level analyses will need to continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution in miniaturized column liquid chromatography instrumentation and applications: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, Carlos E D; Silva, Meire R; Franco, Maraíssa S; Lanças, Fernando M

    2015-11-20

    The purpose of this article is to underline the miniaturized LC instrumental system and describe the evolution of commercially available systems by discussing their advantages and drawbacks. Nowadays, there are already many miniaturized LC systems available with a great variety of pump design, interface and detectors as well as efficient columns technologies and reduced connections devices. The solvent delivery systems are able to drive the mobile phase without flow splitters and promote gradient elution using either dual piston reciprocating or syringe-type pumps. The mass spectrometry as detection system is the most widely used detection system; among many alternative ionization sources direct-EI LC-MS is a promising alternative to APCI. In addition, capillary columns are now available showing many possibilities of stationary phases, inner diameters and hardware materials. This review provides a discussion about miniaturized LC demonstrating fundamentals and instrumentals' aspects of the commercially available miniaturized LC instrumental system mainly nano and micro LC formats. This review also covers the recent developments and trends in instrumentation, capillary and nano columns, and several applications of this very important and promising field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Reciproc Blue, Reciproc, and WaveOne Gold Reciprocating Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangül; Inan, Uğur; Demiral, Murat; Keleş, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc Blue R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) with Reciproc R25 (VDW) and WaveOne Gold Primary (Denstply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Fifteen Reciproc Blue R25, 15 Reciproc R25, and 15 WaveOne Gold Primary instruments were collected and tested in a dynamic cyclic fatigue test device, which has an artificial canal with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. All instruments were operated until fracture occurred, and time to fracture (TF) and the lengths of the fractured fragments were recorded. The mean and standard deviations of TF and fragment length were calculated for each reciprocating system. TF data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance and the Dunn test, whereas fractured fragment length data were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance (P  .05). Reciproc Blue R25 instruments had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than WaveOne Gold and Reciproc R25 instruments. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived instrumental support and children's health across the early life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2013-10-01

    A large, venerable literature demonstrates the importance of social relationships and social support for health, though much less research examines whether the benefits of social support to mothers extend to children. This paper examines the relationship between mothers' perceptions of instrumental support and children's health using longitudinal data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4342), a cohort of American children born in urban areas to mostly unmarried parents. Results suggest mothers' perceptions of instrumental support is positively associated with children's overall health, and this finding persists despite controlling for a host of individual-level characteristics of mothers and children (including a lagged indicator of children's health) and in fixed-effect models. Mothers' economic security and mothers' wellbeing attenuate some, but not all, of the association between perceived instrumental support and children's overall health. In addition, the link between perceived instrumental support and three specific indicators of health - asthma, overweight/obese, and number of emergency room visits - falls to statistical insignificance after accounting for individual-level characteristics, suggesting these associations result from social selection processes. Taken together, these findings suggest the beneficial health consequences of social support may extend to children across the early life course and demonstrate the need to better understand mothers' reports of children's overall health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of an instrumented spinal cord surrogate using optical fibers: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinello, Yann; Wagnac, Éric; Ung, Bora; Petit, Yvan; Pradhan, Prabin; Peyrache, Louis-Marie; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    In vitro replication of traumatic spinal cord injury is necessary to understand its biomechanics and to improve animal models. During a traumatic spinal cord injury, the spinal cord withstands an impaction at high velocity. In order to fully assess the impaction, the use of spinal canal occlusion sensor is necessary. A physical spinal cord surrogate is also often used to simulate the presence of the spinal cord and its surrounding structures. In this study, an instrumented physical spinal cord surrogate is presented and validated. The sensing is based on light transmission loss observed in embedded bare optical fibers subjected to bending. The instrumented surrogate exhibits similar mechanical properties under static compression compared to fresh porcine spinal cords. The instrumented surrogate has a compression sensing threshold of 40% that matches the smallest compression values leading to neurological injuries. The signal obtained from the sensor allows calculating the compression of the spinal cord surrogate with a maximum of 5% deviation. Excellent repeatability was also observed under repetitive loading. The proposed instrumented spinal cord surrogate is promising with satisfying mechanical properties and good sensing capability. It is the first attempt at proposing a method to assess the internal loads sustained by the spinal cord during a traumatic injury. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does 'right to work' imperil the right to health? The effect of labour unions on workplace fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, Michael

    2018-06-13

    Economic policies can have unintended consequences on population health. In recent years, many states in the USA have passed 'right to work' (RTW) laws which weaken labour unions. The effect of these laws on occupational health remains unexplored. This study fills this gap by analysing the effect of RTW on occupational fatalities through its effect on unionisation. Two-way fixed effects regression models are used to estimate the effect of unionisation on occupational mortality per 100 000 workers, controlling for state policy liberalism and workforce composition over the period 1992-2016. In the final specification, RTW laws are used as an instrument for unionisation to recover causal effects. The Local Average Treatment Effect of a 1% decline in unionisation attributable to RTW is about a 5% increase in the rate of occupational fatalities. In total, RTW laws have led to a 14.2% increase in occupational mortality through decreased unionisation. These findings illustrate and quantify the protective effect of unions on workers' safety. Policymakers should consider the potentially deleterious effects of anti-union legislation on occupational health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Diabetes and quality of life: Comparing results from utility instruments and Diabetes-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Iezzi, Angelo; McKie, John; Khan, Munir A; Richardson, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    To compare the Diabetes-39 (D-39) with six multi-attribute utility (MAU) instruments (15D, AQoL-8D, EQ-5D, HUI3, QWB, and SF-6D), and to develop mapping algorithms which could be used to transform the D-39 scores into the MAU scores. Self-reported diabetes sufferers (N=924) and members of the healthy public (N=1760), aged 18 years and over, were recruited from 6 countries (Australia 18%, USA 18%, UK 17%, Canada 16%, Norway 16%, and Germany 15%). Apart from the QWB which was distributed normally, non-parametric rank tests were used to compare subgroup utilities and D-39 scores. Mapping algorithms were estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and generalised linear models (GLM). MAU instruments discriminated between diabetes patients and the healthy public; however, utilities varied between instruments. The 15D, SF-6D, AQoL-8D had the strongest correlations with the D-39. Except for the HUI3, there were significant differences by gender. Mapping algorithms based on the OLS estimator consistently gave better goodness-of-fit results. The mean absolute error (MAE) values ranged from 0.061 to 0.147, the root mean square error (RMSE) values 0.083 to 0.198, and the R-square statistics 0.428 and 0.610. Based on MAE and RMSE values the preferred mapping is D-39 into 15D. R-square statistics and the range of predicted utilities indicate the preferred mapping is D-39 into AQoL-8D. Utilities estimated from different MAU instruments differ significantly and the outcome of a study could depend upon the instrument used. The algorithms reported in this paper enable D-39 data to be mapped into utilities predicted from any of six instruments. This provides choice for those conducting cost-utility analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Social Assistance on Effectiveness of Social Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Sampaio dos Anjos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The social assistance has intrinsic historical, legal and political relationship to social rights. Fundamental rights have assumed a legal-constitutional role since the mid-twentieth century. Through historical and doctrinal review of fundamental rights and social welfare, the identification of legal frameworks and institutional instruments of social assistance that demonstrate their ability to contribute to the realization of social rights and the problem of realization of social rights, social assistance seems to be able to play a prominent role as a public policy that helps to point out a solution to the problem of lack of effectiveness of social rights.

  16. The Vocal Tract Organ: A New Musical Instrument Using 3-D Printed Vocal Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2017-10-27

    The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard. The larynx input is subject to vibrato with extent and frequency adjustable as desired within the ranges usually found for human singing. Polyphonic inputs for choral singing textures can be applied via a single loudspeaker and vocal tract, invoking the approximation of linearity in the voice production system, thereby making multiple vowel stops a possibility while keeping the complexity of the instrument in reasonable check. The Vocal Tract Organ offers a much more human and natural sounding result than the traditional Vox Humana stops found in larger pipe organs, offering the possibility of enhancing pipe organs of the future as well as becoming the basis for a "multi-vowel" chamber organ in its own right. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (RES) has continuously increased throughout the last decade. In the residential building sector the trend goes towards energy supply systems based on multiple RES. This is mainly due to political requirements, governmental subsidies and fuel price development....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  18. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignolo Puglia, W.; Freire Colla, D.; Rivara Urrutia, D.; Lujambio Grene, M.; Arbiza Bruno, T.; Oliveira, G.; Cobas Rodriguez, J.

    1997-01-01

    The arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a condition predominantly well defined with arrhythmic events. We analyze three cases diagnosed by the group. These cases were presented as ventricular tachycardia with a morphology of left bundle branch block, presenting one of them aborted sudden death in evolution. The baseline electrocardiogram and signal averaging were abnormal in two of the three cases, like the echocardiogram. The electrophysiological study was able to induce in the three patients with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia morphology of left bundle branch block. The definitive diagnosis was made by right ventriculography in two cases and magnetic resonance imaging in the other. Treatment included antiarrhythmic drugs in the three cases and the placement of an automatic defibrillator which survived a sudden death (Author)

  19. Homoaffectivity and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Mott

    2006-01-01

    The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same s...

  20. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  1. Right atrial lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pêgo-Fernandes Paulo M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign cardiac tumors are rare, and lipomas are among those less frequently found. We report the case of a 48-year-old male complaining of high blood pressure and epistaxis in the last 2 months, with a diagnosis of right atrial lipoma established on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and anatomicopathological examination. The tumor was successfully removed, and up to 42 months after surgical excision, no evidence of tumor relapse was observed.

  2. Human Rights Education in Israel: Four Types of Good Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Katz-Pade, Revital

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the involvement of civil society organizations in human rights education (HRE) in Israel. Focussing on the educational programs of the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI), as a qualitative instrumental case study, this article examines the conceptions of good citizenship embedded in these programs. Specifically, the…

  3. Right to Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the current inclusive education system in Kenya, and how those practices relate to Article 24 of the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Local laws and international instruments are presented to shed light on the extent to which students with disabilities have a right to inclusive…

  4. The concept of gender justice and women's rights in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid ascendancy of human rights in Nigeria, coupled with Nigeria's prominent role as a signatory to virtually all the core international human right treaties and instruments raised expectations that women in Nigeria may begin to enjoy some measure of protection from archaic and anachronistic practices that subject ...

  5. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  6. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  7. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  8. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  9. Development and evaluation of the OHCITIES instrument: assessing alcohol urban environments in the Heart Healthy Hoods project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Espelt, Albert; Villalbí, Joan R; Cebrecos, Alba; Baranda, Lucía; Pearce, Jamie; Franco, Manuel

    2017-10-05

    text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Instrument separation analysis of multi-used ProTaper Universal rotary system during root canal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jintao; Lei, Gang; Yan, Ming; Yu, Yan; Yu, Jinhua; Zhang, Guangdong

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influential factors responsible for clinical instrument separation of reused ProTaper Universal rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Six thousand one hundred fifty-four root canals in 2,654 teeth were prepared using ProTaper Universal files in endodontic clinics. Separation incidence was determined based on the number of treated teeth or canals. Data were collected including the size of fractured instrument, the length and location of a broken segment within the root canal, and the curvature of canal. The chi-square test and independent samples t test were used to determine the statistical significance. The overall instrument separation incidences were 2.6% according to the number of teeth and 1.1% according to the canal number, respectively. Separation incidences according to the number of teeth or canals were significantly higher (P molars than those in premolars or anterior teeth. Because of its largest diameter, F3 file presented the highest separation incidence according to the number of teeth (1.0%) or canals (0.4%); 47.5% instrument separation of mandibular molars and 61.5% instrument separation of maxillary molars happened in the mesiobuccal canals. Moreover, 91.4% fragments were located in the apical third of root canals, and 54.2% instrument separation occurred in severely curved canals. There was a significant difference (P < .05) in the mean fracture length between shaping (2.42 ± 0.73 mm) and finishing files (3.32 ± 0.73 mm). Separation incidence according to the canal number is more reliable than that according to the number of teeth because of the variable canal number in different teeth. The tooth type, rotary file size, canal location, and anatomy were correlated with the instrument separation of reused ProTaper Universal files. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An integrative review of literature examining psychometric properties of instruments measuring anxiety or fear in hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Roxie L; Park, Jeong-hwan

    2012-06-01

    Anxiety and fear are among the most frequently reported emotional responses to hospitalization and are known to be contributing factors to pain and other negative patient outcomes. The first step in confronting unnecessary anxiety and fear is to identify valid and clinically feasible assessment instruments. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate instruments that measure children's fear or anxiety associated with hospitalization or painful procedures. A search was conducted of published English-language literature from 1980 through 2010 with the use of Ovid Health and Psychosocial Instruments, Medline, Nursing/Academic Edition, Cinahl, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria specified that the self-report instrument: 1) was developed in English; 2) was developed for and/or widely used with hospitalized children or children undergoing medical procedures or treatment; and 3) had research evidence of psychometric properties from at least five different studies. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed only five fear or anxiety instruments with adequate testing for evaluation of reliability and validity. Although all instruments have beginning psychometric adequacy, no one tool stands out as superior to the others. Therefore, we recommend that researchers and clinicians exercise caution in choosing assessment instruments, balancing potential strengths with reported limitations. Using more than one tool (triangulating) may be one way to achieve more credible results. Knowledge of credible existing instruments alerts us to what is possible today and to the imperative for research that will improve communication with children tomorrow. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pressure ulcers: development and psychometric evaluation of the attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention instrument (APuP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeckman, D; Defloor, T; Demarré, L; Van Hecke, A; Vanderwee, K

    2010-11-01

    Pressure ulcers continue to be a significant problem in hospitals, nursing homes and community care settings. Pressure ulcer incidence is widely accepted as an indicator for the quality of care. Negative attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention may result in suboptimal preventive care. A reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention is lacking. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP). Prospective psychometric instrument validation study. A literature review was performed to design the instrument. Content validity was evaluated by nine European pressure ulcer experts and five experts in psychometric instrument validation in a double Delphi procedure. A convenience sample of 258 nurses and 291 nursing students from Belgium and The Netherlands participated in order to evaluate construct validity and stability reliability of the instrument. The data were collected between February and May 2008. A factor analysis indicated the construct of a 13 item instrument in a five factor solution: (1) attitude towards personal competency to prevent pressure ulcers (three items); (2) attitude towards the priority of pressure ulcer prevention (three items); (3) attitude towards the impact of pressure ulcers (three items); (4) attitude towards personal responsibility in pressure ulcer prevention (two items); and (5) attitude towards confidence in the effectiveness of prevention (two items). This five factor solution accounted for 61.4% of the variance in responses related to attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention. All items demonstrated factor loadings over 0.60. The instrument produced similar results during stability testing [ICC=0.88 (95% CI=0.84-0.91, Ppressure ulcer prevention in patient care, education, and research. In further research, the association between attitude, knowledge and clinical performance should be explored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  14. Operational Test Instrumentation Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    System. A topographic, transit-level measuring system, instrumented with altimeter, clinometers, compasses , and an alidade, plane table, and stadia rod...dual hangar 250 x 135 feet with two door openings, 80 feet each. There is no compass swing base, no electronic landing aids, ro aircraft wash or...month) of SDG &E) Haybarn Canyon 15,000 6,183,870 Lan Pulgas 1,500 433,890 Las Pulgas Well #41621 100 4,258 Las Pulgas Well #41611 150 7,548 Las Flores

  15. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  16. Instrumentation for tomograph positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.D.B.; Castello Branco, L.M.; Reznik, D.S.; Santos, C.A.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The COPPE's Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. has been developing researches directed towards the implementation of a Computer-Based Tomography System. Basically, the system reported in this paper can be divided into three major parts: the mechanical part, responsible for the physical movement (Stepper-Motors, table, etc.); the electronic part, which controls the mechanical part and handles the data-acquisition process (microcomputer, interfaces, etc.); and finally, the support of a software-oriented system, including control programs and information processing routines. (Author) [pt

  17. Easy instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Myeong Su; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Gyu Hyeon; Yang, Jong Beom; Oh, Chang Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Hye

    2010-04-01

    This textbook describes instrument analysis in easy way with twelve chapters. The contents of the book are pH measurement on principle, pH meter, pH measurement, examples of the experiments, centrifugation, Absorptiometry, Fluorescent method, Atomic absorption analysis, Gas-chromatography, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry, Electrophoresis on practical case and analysis of the result and examples, PCR on principle, device, application and examples and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA and ELISA reader.

  18. Maintenance of nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Rebelo, A.M. de; Santos, C.J.F. dos; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Silva, L.E.M.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    A program to design and repairing of nuclear instruments for teaching and research was founded in the UFRJ to find solutions for technical support problem - The GEMD-RADIACOES. This group has assisted to several groups of the University in recuperation and conservation of devices like: Linear scanner, Cromatograph and system of radiation detection in general. Recuperation of these devices had required a study of theirs operations modes, to make it possible the setting up of a similar system. Recuperation also involves operation tests, calibration and technical for users, orienting them to get the best performance. (Author) [pt

  19. Easy instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Myeong Su; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Gyu Hyeon; Yang, Jong Beom; Oh, Chang Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Hye

    2010-04-15

    This textbook describes instrument analysis in easy way with twelve chapters. The contents of the book are pH measurement on principle, pH meter, pH measurement, examples of the experiments, centrifugation, Absorptiometry, Fluorescent method, Atomic absorption analysis, Gas-chromatography, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry, Electrophoresis on practical case and analysis of the result and examples, PCR on principle, device, application and examples and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA and ELISA reader.

  20. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context....... They exhibit three novelties: they address strategic long-term problems in a holistic manner, set substantive output-oriented goals, and are implemented through new organizational structures. After characterizing the different types of current PDPs and the context in which they emerged, the paper examines...

  1. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  2. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    -mentioned models and tools. All three scenarios are constructed such that they result in the same welfare implication (measured by national consumption in the CGE model). The scenarios are: 1) pesticide taxes resulting in a 25 percent overall reduction; 2) use of unsprayed field margins, resulting in the same...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  3. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  4. Calibration of "Babyline" RP instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

      If you have old RP instrumentation of the “Babyline” type, as shown in the photo, please contact the Radiation Protection Group (Joffrey Germa, 73171) to have the instrument checked and calibrated. Thank you. Radiation Protection Group

  5. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-12-31

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  6. Instruments for Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Dwight G.

    1972-01-01

    Presents information regarding available instruments for industries and agencies who must monitor numerous aquatic parameters. Charts denote examples of parameters sampled, testing methods, range and accuracy of test methods, cost analysis, and reliability of instruments. (BL)

  7. Nuclear instrumentation for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Carlos G.; Pita, Antonio; Verrastro, Claudio A.; Maino, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation for research reactors in Argentina was developed in 70'. A gradual modernization of all the nuclear instrumentation is planned. It includes start-up and power range instrumentation, as well as field monitors, clamp, scram and rod movement control logic. The new instrumentation is linked to a computer network, based on real time operating system for data acquisition, display and logging. This paper describes the modules and whole system aspects. (author). 2 refs

  8. [The reasonable use of right ventricular protection strategy in right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Yuan, H Y; Liu, X B; Wen, S S; Xu, G; Cui, H J; Zhuang, J; Chen, J M

    2018-06-01

    As a result of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, which is the important and basic step of complex cardiac surgery, the blood flow of right ventricular outflow tract is unobstructed, while pulmonary valve regurgitation and right heart dysfunction could be happened. These problems are often ignored in early days, more and more cases of right heart dysfunction need clinical intervention, which is quite difficult and less effective. How to protect effectively the right ventricular function is the focus. At present main methods to protect the right ventricular function include trying to avoid or reduce length of right ventricular incision, reserving or rebuilding the function of the pulmonary valve, using growth potential material for surgery. The protection of the right ventricular function is a systemic project, it involves many aspects, single measures is difficult to provide complete protection, only the comprehensive use of various protection strategy, can help to improve the long-term prognosis.

  9. Children's judgments about ownership rights and body rights: Evidence for a common basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Meinz, Paul; Friedman, Ori

    2017-03-01

    We report two experiments supporting the theory that children's understanding of ownership rights is related to their notions of body rights. Experiment 1 investigated 4- to 7-year-olds' (N=123) developing sensitivity to physical contact in their judgments about the acceptability of behaving in relation to owned objects and body parts. Experiment 2 used a simpler design to investigate this in 3- and 4-year-olds (N=112). Findings confirmed two predictions of the theory. First, in both experiments, children's judgments about ownership and body rights were similarly affected by physical contact. Second, judgments about both kinds of rights were yoked in development; age-related changes in judgments about ownership rights were paralleled by changes in judgments about body rights. Our findings have additional import for theories of ownership rights because they suggest that physical contact may be a crucial factor in whether behaviors targeting property are judged to be permissible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  11. Nuclear electronic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    The activities carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of the nuclear electronic instrumentation included those activities corresponding to the design and production of nuclear instruments in a first stage, as well as the internal activities of design, repair and maintenance that have supported to other projects of the institution during many years. It is mentioned of the presence and constant collaboration of the ININ with the IAEA in different projects and programs. Also, it is mentioned on the establishment of the Radiation Detectors Laboratory, which for their characteristics and repair capacities of radiation detectors of cooled semiconductor, it is only in their specialty. It is emphasized the investigation and the development in the field of new radiation detectors and applications, as well as the important contribution in this field, in institutions like: Mexican Petroleum, National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards and Federal Commission of Electricity. Finally a position of the future of these activities is made, considering the speed of the advances of the electronic and nuclear technology. (Author)

  12. Neutron instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Yuchi, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    The neutron instrumentation system of this invention can greatly reduce the possibility that the shutdown flux is increased greater than a predetermiend value to cause scram due to vibrations caused by earthquakes or shocks in the neutron instrumentation system without injuring the reactor safety. That is, a sensor having a zero sensitivity to a neutron flux which is an object to be detected by the sensor (dummy sensor) is used together with a conventional sensor (a sensor having predetermined sensitivity to a neutron flux as an object to be measured ----- true sensor). Further, identical signal transmission cables, connector and the signal processing circuits are used for both of true sensor and the dummy sensor. The signal from the dummy sensor is subtracted from the signal from the true sensor at the output of the signal processing circuit. Since the output of the dummy sensor is zero during normal operation, the subtracted value is the same as the value from the true sensor. If the true sensor causes an output with the reason other than the neutron flux, this is outputted also from the dummy sensor but does not appear in the subtracted value. (I.S.)

  13. Incore instrument device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakima, Naoki

    1996-01-01

    An incore instrument device has an integrally disposed touch panel having a function of displaying an operation indication method such as for setting of conditions for incore measurement and information processing and results of the incore measurement and a function capable of conducting operation indication such as for setting conditions and information processing for incore measurement relative to a control section upon touching an information position on a displayed information. In addition, an information processing section comprising a man-machine function program formed so as to recognize the content of the operation indication for the incore measurement by touching and let the control section to conduct it is disposed to the outside by way of a communication interface. In addition, a programming device is disposed for forming and rewriting the program of the man-machine function relative to the information processing section. Then, when various indication operations are conducted upon performing incore measurement, a view point can be concentrated to one predetermined point thereby enabling to improve the operationability without danger. In addition, the programming of the man-machine function does not apply unnecessary load to the control section in the incore instrumentation device. (N.H.)

  14. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  15. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...

  16. Rio de Janeiro: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Students from Latin America were able to get hands-on experience in state-of-the-art physics instrumentation in this year's School on Instrumentation for High Energy Physics organized by the active Instrumentation Panel of ICFA (the International Committee for Future Accelerators) at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquicas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, in July

  17. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  18. Inflation Targeting and Quantitative Tightening: Effects of Reserve Requirements in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Armas; Paul Castillo; Marco Vega

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the reserve requirement measures undertaken by the Central Bank of Peru. It provides a rationale for the use of these instruments as well as empirical evidence of their effectiveness. In general, the results show that tightening reserve requirements has the desired effects on interest rates and credit levels at both banks and smaller financial institutions (cajas municipales).

  19. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patients as Rights Holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännmark, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Autonomy and consent have been central values in Western moral and political thought for centuries. One way of understanding the bioethical models that started to develop, especially in the 1970s, is that they were about the fusion of a long-standing professional ethics with the core values underpinning modern political institutions. That there was a need for this kind of fusion is difficult to dispute, especially since the provision of health care has in most developed countries become an ever more important concern of our political institutions, with governments playing a significant role in regulating and facilitating the provision of health care and in many countries even largely organizing it. There is, nevertheless, still room for dispute about how best to achieve this fusion and how to best think about autonomy and consent in a biomedical context. The simplest model we can have is probably about how being a person is largely about having the capacity of autonomous choice and that the main mode through which we exercise autonomy is by providing informed consent. Yet, liberal democracy's core idea that human beings have a high and equal value is also found in other accounts of the person. The human-rights framework provides an alternative model for thinking about personhood and about patient care. The human-rights approach is grounded, not in an account of autonomy (although it has something to say about autonomy), but in an account of the moral and political personhood that people possess merely by being human beings. In this approach, values like dignity and integrity, both highly relevant in a bioethical context, are identified as distinct values rather than being derived from and therefore reduced to respect for autonomous choice. The human-rights approach can supplement the problematic notion of autonomy that has been central to bioethics by placing this notion in a broader, strongly pluralistic framework. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  1. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Single coronary artery and right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or echocardiography. However, they must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of angina, dyspnea, syncope, acute myocardial infarction or sudden death in young patients. The case is presented of two rare anomalies, single coronary artery originating from right sinus of Valsalva and right aortic arch, in a 65 year-old patient with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease treated percutaneously. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Homoaffectivity and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mott

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same sex, including the legal recognition of the civil union.

  4. Targeting the right journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterman, L; McCall, L

    1999-07-01

    While research is scientific, publication is a mixture of science and political pragmatism. Targeting the right journal is influenced by the following factors: the discipline that best represents the subject; the purpose of the message; the audience who are to be recipients of the message; the realities of geographic parochialism; the desire of authors to maximise personal and professional opportunities. If the originally targeted journal rejects the article, authors should have alternative publication strategies that give them professional recognition without requiring them to compromise the message or their ethics.

  5. The Community of Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    2012-01-01

    be used in a particularistic and excluding way which was the case in the legislation of Maximilien de Robespierre’s Terror Regime. Situated somewhere between inclusion in and exclusion from the community of rights, the playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges sought to propagate an understanding...... of the natural that could better accommodate women and nonmarital children. Her attempts were futile, however, and in 1793 she was sentenced to death according to a newly written law meant to prosecute enemies of the Republic’s natural community....

  6. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  7. Territory, Rights and Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of this dissertation is to conceptualise the spatiality of citizenship through an exposure to its various others – especially to mobile subjectivity. In particular, it examines the changing patterns of territorialising space, distributing rights and regulating mobility...... to the universal, the other legitimating the particular. The politics of mobility is also seen as an endeavour of producing alternative spaces against the territorialised state-centric space to which the imagination of citizenship is usually limited. In discussing a possible global ethics, however, I argue...

  8. Finding the right balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2011-01-01

    Like in other countries, the number of people living in one-person households is growing in Denmark. From 1981 to 2006 solo-living increased from 16% to 23%. Studies on family life and intimate relations in (late) modernity suggest different explanations for this increase, including the historica...... of individual independence while at the same time sharing the daily life with their partner. In order to secure the “right balance”, they consider different “strategies” such as having “one’s own room” in the shared dwelling or living-apart-together as a permanent solution....

  9. Einstein was right!

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Karl

    2014-01-01

    All modern books on Einstein emphasize the genius of his relativity theory and the corresponding corrections and extensions of the ancient space-time concept. However, Einstein's opposition to the use of probability in the laws of nature and particularly in the laws of quantum mechanics is criticized and often portrayed as outdated. The author of Einstein Was Right! takes a unique view and shows that Einstein created a ""Trojan horse"" ready to unleash forces against the use of probability as a basis for the laws of nature. Einstein warned that the use of probability would, in the final analys

  10. Real charge according to the current Serbian Draft Law on property rights and other real rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within reforms of loan security instruments law, Serbian Draft Law on Property Rights and Other Real Rights demonstrates interest for introducing new forms of non-accessory security rights. Real charge is a new institute in our legislation. It is a kind of real right on immovable thing that is regulated after the model of the German and Swiss laws, and which is in practice mostly used to secure a receivable, so that it is, to an extent, a personal hypothec. The most important reason for introduction of this institute into the Law was to allow for a security right on immovables that is more flexible than the accessorial hypothec, thus creating the environment conducive for the development of the secondary market of real loans, facilitating refinancing, and allowing for the extension of the offer of bank products with the reduction of transaction costs.

  11. Reflections on the Right to Information Based on Citizenship Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Gentilli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern societies, structured as representative democracies, all rights to some extent are related to the right to information: the enlargement of participation in citizenship presupposes an enlargement of the right to information as a premise. It is a right which encourages the exercising of citizenship and aff ords the citizens access to and criticism of the instruments necessary for the full exercising of the group of citizenship rights. The right to information can have characteristics of emancipation or of tutelage. An emancipating right is a right to freedom, a right whose basic presupposition is freedom of choice. Accordingly, the maxim which could sum up the ethical issue of the right to information would be: give maximum publicity to everything which refers to the public sphere and keep secret that which refers to the private sphere.

  12. The potential of a human rights approach for accelerating the implementation of comprehensive restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granheim, Sabrina Ionata; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2018-01-05

    Overweight and obesity in children is rising at the global level, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Among the causes for this increase is the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products, which affects children's food preferences, purchasing requests and consumption patterns. The need to address harmful marketing to children has been recognized at the World Health Organization, with Member States having agreed in 2010 to implement a set of recommendations to restrict such practices. Concurrently, there is an increasing understanding of unhealthy food and malnutrition as human rights concerns. This paper explores the potential of existing legally and non-legally binding human rights instruments for accelerating the implementation of comprehensive restrictions to reduce harmful marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children. Four relevant themes were identified in existing human rights instruments: (i) the best interest of the child should be considered above all other interests; (ii) the rights to health and adequate food cannot be realized without supportive healthy environments; (iii) children should be protected from economic exploitation; and (iv) the persuasive marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products is explicitly recognized as a threat to the rights to food and health. In conclusion, existing human rights instruments could be harnessed to advance public health measures to restrict the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products to children. Policy-makers and advocates should draw from these instruments and refer to State's obligations within international and domestic human rights law to strengthen their efforts to restrict harmful marketing practices to children. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON DYNAMICS OF CREDIT GROWTH AND FOREIGN RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrugan Sinah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for looking into the nature of change in foreign reserve from movements in domestic credit. This model is relevant to foreign reserve targeting, small and open economies. The model denotes that measures undertaken by central banks to constraint domestic credit growth with the view of controlling capital outflows will also be detrimental to foreign reserves level. The empirical studies with application of Fourier Transformation technique have been used to build a model, which shows that growth in domestic credit is more biased towards positive swings in foreign reserves, rather than being unfavorable. The small and open economies, particularly, the Pacific Island nations, have the right set up for application of this model to safeguard foreign reserves level.

  14. Octopus movement: push right, go left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Scott L

    2015-05-04

    Octopus arms have essentially infinite degrees of freedom. New research shows that, despite this potentially great complexity, to locomote octopuses simply elongate one or more arms, thus pushing the body in the opposite direction, and do so without activating the arms in an ordered pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA Polymerase Fidelity: Beyond Right and Wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, M Todd

    2016-11-01

    Accurate DNA replication depends on the ability of DNA polymerases to discriminate between correctly and incorrectly paired nucleotides. In this issue of Structure, Batra et al. (2016) show the structural basis for why DNA polymerases do not efficiently add correctly paired nucleotides immediately after incorporating incorrectly paired ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Getting the right training and job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Claude

    2011-08-01

    The authors discuss the factors to be considered in selecting locations in which to train and to practice, and in conducting successful interviews and site visits. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of surgical practice (ie, solo vs group) are also reviewed, as are issues surrounding negotiations related to contracts, benefits, and covenants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Disappearance of endangered turtles within China's nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shi-Ping; Shi, Hai-Tao; Jiang, Ai-Wu; Fong, Jonathan J; Gaillard, Daniel; Wang, Ji-Chao

    2017-03-06

    China ranks first among Northern hemisphere countries for species richness, but approximately 43% of its species are threatened [1], with harvesting being the major threat to vertebrates [2]. To protect its biodiversity, China has established about 2,700 nature reserves covering 1.46 million km 2 ( about 15% of China's territory, a percentage higher than the world average [3]). With increasing habitat destruction and harvesting, nature reserves are the final refugia for threatened species. However, many Chinese nature reserves are poorly managed, leaving them vulnerable to poaching and other human encroachment [4]. In this study, we conducted a 12-year (2002-2013) case study on turtles to illustrate the damaging impacts China's nature reserves have on wildlife conservation. We discovered that poaching occurred in all of the 56 reserves surveyed, resulting in dramatically reduced turtle populations. In a majority of the reserves, the reserve staff themselves were involved in poaching. Although nature reserves were created to protect plants and animals, they have become part of the problem due to weak enforcement of rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  19. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  20. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…