WorldWideScience

Sample records for rights policy adoption

  1. Movements, Countermovements and Policy Adoption: The Case of Right-to-Work Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Research on social movements and public policy has expanded tremendously in recent years, yet little of this work considers the role of movement opponents in the political process or how the movement-countermovement dynamic is influential in contests over policy. This historical study begins to fill this void by analyzing the contestation between…

  2. Globalisation, Language Planning and Language Rights: The Recent Script Policy Measures Adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, two significant script policy measures were adopted by Japan and the People's Republic of China (China hereafter), both as a response to national language needs triggered by globalisation. However, the measures chosen by the two countries were very different, Japan choosing to increase and China choosing to standardise the Chinese…

  3. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  4. Wrongful Adoption: Law, Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Madelyn; Peterson, Lisa

    The past decade has seen an increase in cases where adoptive parents fail to receive accurate or complete information about a child's physical, emotional, or developmental problems or about the child's birth family and history. In these cases adoptive parents are confronted with extremely expensive medical care or mental health care. This…

  5. Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad; Mallory, Christy; Hunter, Nan

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a large increase in the number of corporations adopting LGBT-related workplace policies.  This study evaluates the economic impact of non-discrimination and benefits policies by analyzing the extent to which economic reasons motivate corporations to adopt such policies.  This study reviews statements issued when adopting such policies by the top 50 Fortune 500 companies and the top 50 federal government contractors.  Overall, we find that almost all of top 50 Fortune ...

  6. Romanian Policy-Mix to Adopting Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Socol

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the present estate of Euro implementation in Monetary and EconomicUnion (EMU and Romanian position in this context. The Romanian admittance in EU at January 2007increased the interest to study the transmission and coordination mechanisms, related to mix commonmonetary policy – different fiscal policy across the countries in the Euro area. Our study focuses on theconsequences of Romanian admittance in Euro Zone in 2014 and optimal policy-mix to good preparationto accomplish this target. The controversies between economists regarding the construction processof EMU remain large. What are the consequences of implementing the “tye-hands” strategy for Romanianfinancial authorities? Can Romania solve the potential conflict between real and nominal convergencerelating the European integration? What is the best strategy for Romania with the aim to obtain afaster real convergence with the European Union countries? Can Romania maximize the benefits toadopting Euro in 2014?

  7. Policy Incentives for the Adoption of Electric Vehicles across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs have prominent advantages for reducing CO2 emissions and alleviating the dependence on fossil fuel consumption in the transport sector. Therefore, many countries have set targets for EV development in recent years and have employed a number of policies to achieve environmental objectives and alleviate the energy pressure. Despite the fact that the adoption of EVs has increased in the past few years, more policies, such as financial incentives, technology support or charging infrastructure, should be made by governments to promote broader range use of EVs. In this paper, we review the relevant policies that different countries may adopt for stimulating the market of EVs. Based on this, we analyze the relationship between the policies and the adoption of EVs by taking America as an example. In conclusion, some effective policies are summarized to spur the market. Therefore, each country should learn from each other and employ effective policies based on the actual situation.

  8. Arts Curriculum Implementation: "Adopt and Adapt" as Policy Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sian; Wright, Peter; Pascoe, Robin

    2018-01-01

    This article examines macro, meso, and micro understandings of policy enactment within Western Australian primary school arts education where a new national arts curriculum is being revised and implemented through a process colloquially known as "adopt and adapt." This article focuses on how a government-led implementation policy has…

  9. Challenges : adopting GIS for diplomacy and foreign policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol

    Foreign policy and diplomacy are, by definition, location specific. GIS-related tools can be useful to decision makers and problem solvers to merge diverse data that impinges on policy issues. While to a degree, such technologies have been adopted for natural disaster response, security, and environmental studies, widespread adoption of GIS into policy tasks has been slow. Decision makers and nonexperts are reluctant to assimilate new tools into old cultures because of a number of hurdles. Yet clearly, information sharing would be advantageous and allow visualization of information and situations in a more productive environment. This presentation will touch upon some of the challenges and stimulate discussion.

  10. The effect of policy incentives on electric vehicle adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langbroek, Joram H.M.; Franklin, Joel P.; Susilo, Yusak O.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the attractiveness of electric vehicles (EVs), packages of policy incentives are provided in many countries. However, it is still unclear how effective different policy incentives are. Also, it is questionable that they have the same impact on different groups of people. In this study, based on a stated-choice experiment, the effect of several potential policy incentives on EV-adoption, as well as the influence of socio-psychological determinants are investigated, using constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) and the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The probability of stated EV-adoption increases if policy incentives are offered in the choice experiment, which is expected because of the decrease of the generalized cost of EV-use. The high stated valuation of free parking or access to bus lanes makes those incentives an efficient alternative to expensive subsidies. EV-adoption probability increases for people that are further in the process of behavioural change. However, the responsiveness to subsidies decreases for people in more advanced stages-of-change. People that believe EVs to be effective in decreasing the negative externalities of the current transport system and people whose travel patterns can cope with the use of EVs also have a higher probability to choose the EV. - Highlights: •Policy incentives have a positive influence on electric vehicle adoption. •Being in advanced stages-of-change to EV-adoption increases likelihood to adopt EVs. •People in more advanced stages-of-change to EV-adoption are less price-sensitive. •People with a high self-efficacy and response efficacy are more likely to adopt EVs.

  11. Population Policy Adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Interplay of Global and Local Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Rachel Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African countries have the highest population growth rates in the world, and are also the poorest. In response to a variety of global and local forces, during the 1980s and 1990s two thirds of sub- Saharan African countries adopted national population policies to reduce population growth. Drawing from existing research and using the texts of population policies to illustrate key points, this article summarises the factors that drove population policy adoption in the region. Globally, powerful donors with significant leverage promoted population policies as a solution to lagging socioeconomic development while international organizations spread norms about women’s rights and reproductive health. Locally, technocrats working within relevant ministries backed efforts to increase contraceptive prevalence, and population policies furthered political projects unrelated to population. The interplay of global and local forces led to governments adopting population policies. Ultimately, continued high desired fertility and limited implementation capacity have prevented population policies from significantly lowering fertility, but these policies have likely increased the availability of contraception, created important discursive space related to gender and sexuality, and provided countries with an opportunity to test procedures and approaches for policy-making on sensitive issues.

  12. Policy Adoption of Forest Management Unit: A Knowledge Diffusion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the policy adoption process of Forest Management Unit (FMU concept, there has been disagreement of stakeholders on FMUs concept. This disagreement is caused by the exchange of knowledge, information, and perception among stakeholders involved. The results of these interactions could speed up, slow down, and prevent the adoption process of FMU policy. The study objective was analyzing process of knowledge diffusion of FMUs development policy and stakeholders interaction in PFMU Batutegi and PFMU Kotaagung Utara, Indonesia. Adoption process was analyzed by the logical diffusion technique based on knowledge time of FMUs concept received and its interaction space. Social interaction among stakeholders was analyzed using method developed by International Development Studies analysis, i.e. interaction among discourse/narrative, actors/networks and politics/interests. The results showed that knowledge diffusion of FMUs concept in both PFMU tends to cascade diffusion. Factors was affecting of it process were network, role of opinion leaders, willingness to know, and understand on FMUs concept. Indicative strategy is needed as anticipating and overcoming an obstacle in its internalization process, i.e. harmonization of legislative and executive relationship, building an opinion the importance of FMU, and optimalizing network for bureaucratic problems.

  13. A policy framework for accelerating adoption of new vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjeh, Rana; Wecker, John; Cherian, Thomas; O'Brien, Katherine L; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Privor-Dumm, Lois; Kvist, Hans; Nanni, Angeline; Bear, Allyson P; Santosham, Mathuram

    2010-01-01

    Rapid uptake of new vaccines can improve health and wealth and contribute to meeting Millennium Development Goals. In the past, however, the introduction and use of new vaccines has been characterized by delayed uptake in the countries where the need is greatest. Based on experience with accelerating the adoption of Hib, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, we propose here a framework for new vaccine adoption that may be useful for future efforts. The framework organizes the major steps in the process into a continuum from evidence to policy, implementation and finally access. It highlights the important roles of different actors at various times in the process and may allow new vaccine initiatives to save time and improve their efficiency by anticipating key steps and actions. PMID:21150269

  14. A Review of Children's Rights Literature since the Adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Didier; Bouverne-de-Bie, Maria; Vandevelde, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    Children's rights have become a significant field of study during the past decades, largely due to the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989. Today, scholarly work on children's rights is almost inconceivable without considering the Convention as the bearer of the children's rights debate. The goal of…

  15. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself.

  16. U.N. adopts historic declaration on economic, social and cultural rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    On International Human Rights Day, 10 December 2008, the U.N. General Assembly adopted a landmark document, the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

  17. Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a relative, foster parent, or a completely new family. An adoptive family might be a single parent, a couple, or ... doesn't mean they don't love their adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which ...

  18. Adoption of green electricity policies: Investigating the role of environmental attitudes via big data-driven search-queries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Donghyun; Kim, Minki; Lee, Jungyoun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rising influence of public opinion on government energy policy formulation and implementation, the roles of pro and/or anti-environmental attitudes among residents have not been empirically examined. To quantify time-varying environmental attitudes among local residents, we exploit geo-specific Google search-query data derived from Internet-based “big data” and verify through ordinary least squares regression outcomes regarding environmental behavior. For the purpose of drawing policy implications, we revisit decisions by state governments of the United States to adopt three well-known green electricity policies: renewable energy portfolio, net metering rules, and public benefit funds. As some states have not yet adopted some (or any) of these policies, unlike previous studies, we handle the issue by examining right-censored data and applying a duration-based econometric method called the accelerated failure time model. We found state residents’ environmental attitudes to have statistically significant roles, after controlling for other traditional time-varying policy adoption factors. Interestingly, the extent to which anti-environmental attitudes affect a state’s policy adoption differs across green energy policies, and knowing this can help a local government formulate better-tailored environmental policy. In particular, researchers can use our method of incorporating citizens’ environmental attitudes to discuss relevant issues in the field of energy policy.

  19. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Drug policy, harm and human rights: a rationalist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alex

    2011-05-01

    It has recently been argued that drug-related harms cannot be compared, so making it impossible to choose rationally between various drug policy options. Attempts to apply international human rights law to this area are valid, but have found it difficult to overcome the problems in applying codified human rights to issues of drug policy. This article applies the rationalist ethical argument of Gewirth (1978) to this issue. It outlines his argument to the 'principle of generic consistency' and the hierarchy of basic, nonsubtractive and additive rights that it entails. It then applies these ideas to drug policy issues, such as whether there is a right to use drugs, whether the rights of drug 'addicts' can be limited, and how different harms can be compared in choosing between policies. There is an additive right to use drugs, but only insofar as this right does not conflict with the basic and nonsubtractive rights of others. People whose freedom to choose whether to use drugs is compromised by compulsion have a right to receive treatment. They retain enforceable duties not to inflict harms on others. Policies which reduce harms to basic and nonsubtractive rights should be pursued, even if they lead to harms to additive rights. There exists a sound, rational, extra-legal basis for the discussion of drug policy and related harms which enables commensurable discussion of drug policy options. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent health: policy, science, and human rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roche, Jennifer; Davies, Diane; Boyce, William Francis

    2009-01-01

    ... Implications of Early Age of Sexual Debut 126 Roger S. Tonkin, Aileen Murphy, and Colleen S. Poon 9 Substance Use: Harm Reduction and the Rights of the Canadian Adolescent 152 Christiane Poulin 10 R...

  2. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  3. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  4. Adoption of Obesity Prevention Policies and Practices by Australian Primary Schools: 2006 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, N.; Wolfenden, L.; Williams, C. M.; Yoong, S. L.; Lecathelinais, C.; Bell, A. C.; Wyse, R.; Sutherland, R.; Wiggers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investment in many countries, the extent of schools' adoption of obesity prevention policies and practices has not been widely reported. The aims of this article are to describe Australian schools' adoption of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices over an 8-year period and to determine if their adoption…

  5. Adoption and the European Court of Human Rights: from laissez-faire to judicial law-making

    OpenAIRE

    Draghici, C.

    2011-01-01

    1. The absence of a right to adopt under the European Convention on Human Rights. 2. Eligibility to adopt, civil status and sexual orientation. 3. Rights of the natural parents with regards to adoption proceedings. 4. Dispensing with parental consent to further the best interests of the child. 5. The (almost) equal standing of biological and adoptive families under Article 8. 6. Recognition of foreign adoptions. 7. Conclusions: the demise of the margin of appreciation doctrine?

  6. Adopting and Implementing CSR Policies in Travel Agency Business: The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Ioan Moisescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the extent to which Romania’s largest travel agencies adopt and implement corporate social responsibility (CSR policies, correlating these findings with their business performance reflected by their net turnover and net profit. In order to evaluate the level of CSR policies adoption and implementation, an online survey was conducted among top managers from each travel agency. The questionnaire comprised several sets of items reflecting workplace, environmental, marketplace, community, and, respectively, company values policies. Our results point to the fact that the CSR policies adopted and implemented to the highest degree are those concerning the marketplace, while the least embraced CSR policies refer to the environment. Our findings also suggest that there are several CSR policies which are adopted and implemented to a higher degree by larger travel agencies in terms of net turnover, while some other CSR policies are adopted more thoroughly by smaller ones. The results also indicate positive correlations between the profitability of travel agencies and the adoption and implementation of certain CSR policies. Last but not least, our research suggests that marketplace policies adoption and implementation could have a significant positive impact on business performance of travel agencies in terms of both net turnover and net profitability.

  7. The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás J. T. Baliño; Charles Enoch; William E. Alexander

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of implementing indirect instruments of monetary policy. The experiences of country studies illustrate the variety of circumstances under which indirect instruments of monetary policy have been introduced. Case Studies are presented for Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico, New Zealand, and Poland.

  8. Parental Ethnotheories and Family Language Policy in Transnational Adoptive Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Lyn Wright

    2013-01-01

    Family language policy refers to explicit and overt decisions parents make about language use and language learning as well as implicit processes that legitimize certain language and literacy practices over others in the home. Studies in family language policy have emphasized the ways in which family-internal processes are shaped by and shape…

  9. Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies (Updated)

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Over ninety percent of the 100 top companies in the U.S.—the top 50 federal contractors and the top 50 Fortune 500 companies—have policies prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation, and 78% of the companies have policies prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity. In comparison to a 2011 study, based on 2010 data, there has been a 50% increase in the number of top federal contractors with gender identity non-discrimination policies and a 26% increase in the number of top...

  10. (Re)Thinking the Adoption of Inclusive Education Policy in Ontario Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massouti, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to advance a proposal for the analysis of how inclusive education policies in Ontario schools are adopted. In particular, I use the notion of "Policy Enactment" to re-conceptualize the processes of putting inclusive education policies into practice. The argument is that the traditional…

  11. National policy measures. Right approach to foreign direct investment flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2011 was a difficult year for all the countries, developed and emerging ones. For overcoming the negative effects of the financial crisis, many economies have established as purpose to adopt new economic policies regarding the foreign direct investment flows (FDI, even to stimulate the flows or to reduce it (protectionism measures. So, there can be identified two categories of national policies: measures for the FDI flows stimulation and measures whose aim was the weighting of FDI developing, through restriction and regulation. In the first category we could include the liberalization measures and promotional and faciletation policies. In this study we evidenced that the fundament of the second category of policies is the belief that the FDI outward lead to job exports, to a raise of unemployment and a weakness of the industrial base.Many reports on FDI flows, here we talk about those made by UNCTAD, show that the regulation and restriction policies are seen as a possible protectionism, especially in the agricultural and extractive industries, where there have been required nationalization processes and divestments. Even more, the economies which adopted this kind of policies have been less interested in investing abroad, the outward of FDI being affected and globally the total outward decreased.

  12. Toward Reproducible Computational Research: An Empirical Analysis of Data and Code Policy Adoption by Journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Stodden

    Full Text Available Journal policy on research data and code availability is an important part of the ongoing shift toward publishing reproducible computational science. This article extends the literature by studying journal data sharing policies by year (for both 2011 and 2012 for a referent set of 170 journals. We make a further contribution by evaluating code sharing policies, supplemental materials policies, and open access status for these 170 journals for each of 2011 and 2012. We build a predictive model of open data and code policy adoption as a function of impact factor and publisher and find higher impact journals more likely to have open data and code policies and scientific societies more likely to have open data and code policies than commercial publishers. We also find open data policies tend to lead open code policies, and we find no relationship between open data and code policies and either supplemental material policies or open access journal status. Of the journals in this study, 38% had a data policy, 22% had a code policy, and 66% had a supplemental materials policy as of June 2012. This reflects a striking one year increase of 16% in the number of data policies, a 30% increase in code policies, and a 7% increase in the number of supplemental materials policies. We introduce a new dataset to the community that categorizes data and code sharing, supplemental materials, and open access policies in 2011 and 2012 for these 170 journals.

  13. Toward Reproducible Computational Research: An Empirical Analysis of Data and Code Policy Adoption by Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Victoria; Guo, Peixuan; Ma, Zhaokun

    2013-01-01

    Journal policy on research data and code availability is an important part of the ongoing shift toward publishing reproducible computational science. This article extends the literature by studying journal data sharing policies by year (for both 2011 and 2012) for a referent set of 170 journals. We make a further contribution by evaluating code sharing policies, supplemental materials policies, and open access status for these 170 journals for each of 2011 and 2012. We build a predictive model of open data and code policy adoption as a function of impact factor and publisher and find higher impact journals more likely to have open data and code policies and scientific societies more likely to have open data and code policies than commercial publishers. We also find open data policies tend to lead open code policies, and we find no relationship between open data and code policies and either supplemental material policies or open access journal status. Of the journals in this study, 38% had a data policy, 22% had a code policy, and 66% had a supplemental materials policy as of June 2012. This reflects a striking one year increase of 16% in the number of data policies, a 30% increase in code policies, and a 7% increase in the number of supplemental materials policies. We introduce a new dataset to the community that categorizes data and code sharing, supplemental materials, and open access policies in 2011 and 2012 for these 170 journals.

  14. Environment and economy: Property rights and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    For much of its history, environmental economics has sought to modify public policy in order to achieve efficient use and management of environmental resources. The results of this attempt, however, have been dismaying for the most part, and environment public policy continues to differ from the course of action prescribed by economic analysis. Some economists have begun to acknowledge that the reasons for this gap between economic theory and public policy may lie in environmental economics itself rather than in poor policy choices. That is the message sent in this book by Daniel Bromley, who joins S.V. Ciriacy-Wantrup, Allan Schmid, and others in a strong internal critique of the discipline and, in particular, of the 'property rights school' of Coase, Demsetz, and other advocates of the market. Property rights are the common thread of this critique, which blames much of the failure of environmental economics to influence environmental policy on several fundamental misconceptions regarding property

  15. Implementing the Policy of the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne T. Ornelas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On September 13, 2007, the United Nations General Assembly voted to adopt the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP. This was an historic event as work on UNDRIP had been ongoing for 30 years before its passage. Today, UNDRIP provides a framework for addressing human rights protections for Indigenous peoples globally. This article examines the significance of UNDRIP as a public policy tool for developing national policy to support future resource and land management consultations that are based on free, prior, and informed consent.

  16. Rights, Equality, and the Ethics of School Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Where a plurality of opinions exists, the effect of uniform educational policy denies a minority group's desires for equal rights and serves partisan views. Dworkin's theory of rights supports this perspective. Governmental imposition of uniform schooling practices on unwilling persons is an illegitimate devaluation of some citizens' lives. (36…

  17. MONEY: FROM STATISTICAL DEFINITION TO MONETARY POLICY FOR ADOPTING EURO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapodeanu Daniela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The evolution of monetary aggregates is closely related to the economic cycle, especially the evolution of GDP. The study aims to analyse the primary monetary aggregates (M1, the secondary (M2 and the tertiary (M3 in three Central and Eastern European countries: Romania, Bulgaria and Poland. The countries were chosen as follows: Romania and Bulgaria on the basis of the economic and geographical closeness and Poland as a benchmark for the first group. The data used are money supply, monetary aggregates: primary, secondary and tertiary, in Romania, Poland and Bulgaria, for the period January 2004 - March 2011, the monthly series are obtained from central bank websites, Poland's Central Bank and Bulgarian National Statistical Institute. The evolution of monetary aggregates of the three countries was compared with the Euro area and it was noticed a high degree of similarity between countries more developed economically as compared to less developed countries. From the viewpoint of optimum currency areas, it is necessary that the countries that adopt the Euro would respond symmetrically to external shocks and also have similar economic behaviour. Our study aims, in this respect, to analyse the components and the characteristics of the monetary aggregates, as well as the trends existing within them. The analysis of the correlation between monetary aggregates will show how the way in which the monetary mass and aggregates behave and which the sense of connection established between these countries is. We find that Romania and Bulgaria have a similar comportment, the correlation between these being the highest, we observe some differences between Romania and Bulgaria versus Poland.

  18. Adopting and Implementing Globalised Policies of Intercultural Education: The Example of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    Globalisation has heavily influenced the terrain of intercultural education policy development and implementation in multiple countries around the world. To this end, in this article, we seek to introduce a broader focus of analysis encompassing not only the development of globalised policies of intercultural education, but also the adoption,…

  19. Human rights and correctional health policy: a view from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Mary

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk." It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care. Originality/value This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

  20. The right to have a family: 'legal trafficking of children', adoption and birth control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarello, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on one of the 'child-trafficking scandals' that occurred in Brazil in the 1990s. Ethnographic research was carried out between 2000 and 2001 within a movement of poor families formed in São Paulo to put pressure on the authorities to review the legal procedures that had led to their children being placed for national and international adoption. Fieldwork was supplemented by other data, including reports by legislative bodies, articles in the press, and case files involving the termination of parental rights. This paper explores views on international adoption among members of the Brazilian elites such as judges, agents in the field of child protection and journalists, in the context of old but persistent neo-Malthusian ideas. Although the Brazilian birth rate is now below the replacement level, it is still common to blame 'irresponsible' reproduction among the urban poor for violence in large cities. Drawing a parallel with the routine sterilization of women that prevailed for decades and was encouraged by Brazilian physicians, the paper examines how, in a 'struggle against poverty', judicial agents took it upon themselves to enforce 'birth control' through adoption, bypassing family consent and the law in the process. The paper concludes by arguing that discrimination against poor families who are viewed as disorganized, immoral and irresponsible - characteristics frequently associated with criminality by a sector of the elites - has contributed to the view that lower-class families do not have the right to bear children, or to keep them.

  1. The Role of Government Policies in the Adoption of Conservation Tillage in China: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ya

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many areas of China have been facing increasing problems of soil erosion and land degradation. Conservation tillage, with both economic and ecological benefits, provides a good avenue for Chinese farmers to conserve land as well as secure food production. However, the adoption rate of conservation tillage systems is very low in China. In this paper, the author constructs a theoretical model to explain a farmer’s adoption decision of conservation tillage. The goal is to investigate potential reasons behind the low adoption rate and explores alternative policy tools that can help improve a farmer’s incentive to adopt conservation tillage in China.

  2. Adoption of an information systems security policy in small and medium sized enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Systems Security (ISS is a relevant fact for current organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs. This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the Action Research (AR method in information systems, more specifically by assessing the adoption of an ISS policy in six SMEs, and identifying the critical success factors in adopting an ISS policy. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the evaluation of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method that improves the understanding about the reasons why the policy has been abandoned, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers and suggesting measures to be implemented.

  3. What new policies should South Africa's life insurance industry adopt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G

    1996-12-01

    By February 1996, the South African life insurance industry had paid out more than R75 million in AIDS-related claims. This situation requires imposition of controls that will make economic sense while reflecting the social responsibility of the insurance companies. AIDS mortality rates suggest that for each 10% of the infected insured population, the risk premium rates should increase 400%. Thus, without controls, the life insurance sector may collapse. While it has been charged that HIV testing associated with the provision of life insurance discriminates against infected individuals, failure to test compromises the rights of uninfected individuals in the individual assurance market. HIV test protocols can be used that protect applicants from false positive results, prevent fraud, and preserve confidentiality. Proposals to require five-year retesting have also been criticized but would protect the interests of uninfected individuals who want life insurance to remain affordable. In an innovative move, South Africa now includes "full-blown AIDS" among the list of "dreaded diseases" that trigger an immediate pay-out. While purchasing life insurance may fall low on the list of priorities of an infected person, demand continues, and two companies offer expensive products to those with Stage I and II disease. Medical insurance is also threatened by the increased costs associated with HIV/AIDS, and treatment protocols may be the only way to control medical expenses and assure the future of medical insurance. At this stage of the epidemic, no one seems prepared to meet their share of the costs associated with HIV/AIDS.

  4. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-08-01

    Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.

  5. Reproductive Health Policies in Peru: Social Reforms and Citizenship Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Rousseau

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the case of reproductive health policy-making in Peru in the context of recent social policy reforms. Health-sector reforms have only partially redressed Peruvian women’s unequal access to family planning, reproductive rights and maternal care. The main sources of inequalities are related to the segmented character of the health-care system, with the highest burden placed on the public sector. The majority of women from popular classes, who are not protected by an insurance plan, are dependent upon what and how public services are provided. Simultaneously, the continuing role of conservative sectors in public debates about reproductive health policy has a strong impact on public family planning services and other reproductive rights.

  6. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  7. Countering tobacco industry sponsorship of Hispanic/Latino organizations through policy adoption: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Cecilia; Cruz, Tess Boley; Espinoza, Lilia; Romero, Marisol; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2004-07-01

    Restricted by Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provisions, the tobacco industry employs corporate sponsorship of communities of color (e.g., sponsoring community cultural events and/or chambers of commerce) to secure their stronghold. The Hispanic/Latino Tobacco Education Network (H/LaTEN) initiated efforts to counter these marketing forms within the Hispanic community. In 1998, 38 California Hispanic Chambers of Commerce (CHCCs) were contacted to assess the tobacco industry's marketing tactics and penetration. CHCCs reported receiving tobacco funding in the past, making them susceptible to future protobacco industry influence. Subsequently, an intervention was implemented to inoculate the CHCCs against industry influence by encouraging an antitobacco corporate sponsorship policy adoption. Six CHCCs representing approximately 400 businesses in the community adopted this policy. Targeting susceptible organizations including and beyond the Hispanic community and advocating for an antitobacco corporate sponsorship policy adoption are strategies that can be used in tandem with MSA enforcement to effectively build resistance.

  8. Climate Change Policy and the Adoption of Methane Digesters on Livestock Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel D.; Sneeringer, Stacy E.

    2011-01-01

    Methane digesters—biogas recovery systems that use methane from manure to generate electricity—have not been widely adopted in the United States because costs have exceeded benefits to operators. Burning methane in a digester reduces greenhouse gas emissions from manure management. A policy or program that pays producers for these emission reductions—through a carbon offset market or directly with payments—could increase the number of livestock producers who would profit from adopting a metha...

  9. Adopting local alcohol policies: a case study of community efforts to regulate malt liquor sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia A; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L; Shimotsu, Scott T; Hannan, Peter J; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2012-01-01

    To learn how the local context may affect a city's ability to regulate alcohol products such as high-alcohol-content malt liquor, a beverage associated with heavy drinking and a spectrum of nuisance crimes in urban areas. An exploratory, qualitative case study comparing cities that adopted policies to restrict malt liquor sales with cities that considered, but did not adopt policies. Nine large U.S. cities in seven states. City legislators and staff, alcohol enforcement personnel, police, neighborhood groups, business associations, alcohol retailers, and industry representatives. Qualitative data were obtained from key informant interviews (n = 56) and media articles (n = 360). The data were coded and categorized. Similarities and differences in major themes among and across Adopted and Considered cities were identified. Cities faced multiple barriers in addressing malt liquor-related problems, including a lack of enforcement tools, alcohol industry opposition, and a lack of public and political will for alcohol control. Compared to cities that did not adopt malt liquor sales restrictions, cities that adopted restrictions appeared to have a stronger public mandate for a policy and were less influenced by alcohol industry opposition and lack of legislative authority for alcohol control. Strategies common to successful policymaking efforts are discussed. Understanding the local context may be a critical step in winning support for local alcohol control policies.

  10. Timing and Commitment of Environmental Policy, Adoption of New Technology, and Repercussions on R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requate, T.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between environmental policy, incentives to adopt new technology, and repercussions on R and D. We study a model where a monopolistic upstream firm engages in R and D and sells advanced abatement technology to polluting downstream firms. We consider four different timing and commitment regimes of environmental tax and permit policies: ex post taxation (or issuing permits), interim commitment to a tax rate (a quota of permits) after observing R and D success but before adoption, and finally two types of ex antecommitment before R and D activity, one with a unique tax rate (quota of permits), the other one with a menu of tax rates (permit quotas). We study the second best tax and permit policies and rank these with respect to welfare. In particular, we find that commitment to a menu of tax rate dominates all other policy regimes

  11. Extent and types of small-scale wind policies in the U.S. states: Adoption and effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, Joshua G.; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, including wind, are increasingly promoted by U.S. state governments. Using state-level data and survey responses from energy officials in 44 states, this study catalogs the extent and types of small wind policies adopted by states. It examines the factors correlated with policy adoption, and perceptions about which policy tools are most effective. Results indicate that 84% of the states participating in the survey have adopted at least one policy to promote small wind technologies, and most have adopted several policies. The most frequent policy is net metering, and this policy tool was also perceived to be one of the most effective at encouraging businesses and consumers to install small wind technologies. However, several other policy tools perceived to be most effective at promoting small wind installations have been adopted by relatively few states. This identified gap suggests opportunities for improving policy effectiveness. In explaining factors associated with adoption of policy tools, we find support for variables comprising both the policy diffusion and internal determinants models of policy adoption, including state commitment to environmental protection and policy innovations, citizen ideology, per capita wealth, energy policy network communications, and desire to be viewed as an environmental leader.

  12. European Policies to Promote Children's Rights and Combat Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbæk, Mona

    2017-07-26

    The upbringing of children relies heavily on shared responsibilities between parents and society. The Council of Europe Recommendation (2006) 19 on Policy to Support Positive Parenting and the European Commission Recommendation (2013) Investing in Children: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage, both aim at supporting parents to care and provide for their children in accordance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. By means of a document analysis this article examines what kind of parental practices and provision to parents the recommendations suggest to safeguard children's rights in the family. Three findings are highlighted: first, both recommendations reflect a commitment to respecting children's rights while at the same time acknowledging parents as children's primary caregivers. Second, both recognize parents' rights to work, while also recognizing the necessity of adequate income support if work is not available or income too low. Third, adequate resources are defined as a combination of universal policies and services, which guarantee a minimum level for all, and targeted measures reaching out to the most disadvantaged. The recommendations' emphasis on children and parents as partners and on the families' economic situations are valuable for future development of family and child policy and support programs.

  13. Adoption and Design of Emerging Dietary Policies to Improve Cardiometabolic Health in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Pomeranz, Jennifer; Wilde, Parke; Capewell, Simon; Gaziano, Tom; O'Flaherty, Martin; Kersh, Rogan; Whitsel, Laurie; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Micha, Renata

    2018-04-14

    Suboptimal diet is a leading cause of cardiometabolic disease and economic burdens. Evidence-based dietary policies within 5 domains-food prices, reformulation, marketing, labeling, and government food assistance programs-appear promising at improving cardiometabolic health. Yet, the extent of new dietary policy adoption in the US and key elements crucial to define in designing such policies are not well established. We created an inventory of recent US dietary policy cases aiming to improve cardiometabolic health and assessed the extent of their proposal and adoption at federal, state, local, and tribal levels; and categorized and characterized the key elements in their policy design. Recent federal dietary policies adopted to improve cardiometabolic health include reformulation (trans-fat elimination), marketing (mass-media campaigns to increase fruits and vegetables), labeling (Nutrition Facts Panel updates, menu calorie labeling), and food assistance programs (financial incentives for fruits and vegetables in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program). Federal voluntary guidelines have been proposed for sodium reformulation and food marketing to children. Recent state proposals included sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes, marketing restrictions, and SNAP restrictions, but few were enacted. Local efforts varied significantly, with certain localities consistently leading in the proposal or adoption of relevant policies. Across all jurisdictions, most commonly selected dietary targets included fruits and vegetables, SSBs, trans-fat, added sugar, sodium, and calories; other healthy (e.g., nuts) or unhealthy (e.g., processed meats) factors were largely not addressed. Key policy elements to define in designing these policies included those common across domains (e.g., level of government, target population, dietary target, dietary definition, implementation mechanism), and domain-specific (e.g., media channels

  14. ICT policy to foster interorganisational ICT adoption by SMEs: The Netherlands Goes Digital case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.; den Hertog, P.; Devos, J.; van Landeghem, H.; Deschoolmeester, D.

    2014-01-01

    SMEs are of vital importance for our economy and society. However, they lag behind in their adoption of ICT, particularly interorganisational ICT. Many countries have put policy programmes in place to improve SMEs on this aspect. Previous research provides unclear evidence on the effectiveness of

  15. External determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells-Infrastructure and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Bongartz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relevance of external determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells (FCs) by different user groups with respect to the marketability of this innovative technology. FCs allow electricity and heat to be decentrally generated in an energy-efficient and potentially environmentally friendly manner. European energy policy is undertaking efforts to increase the proportion of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A series of studies have spoken of their considerable market potential. A qualitative study was conducted with six focus groups consisting of 49 commercial users and six focus groups with 54 private consumers. The results of the study show that the specific infrastructure required for decentralisation and policy issues are highly relevant for the user adoption of FCs. Security of supply when energy generation is more strongly decentralised, reliable maintenance of the system, and clear political objectives are examples of factors that are considered essential prerequisites for the adoption of this technology

  16. Colombian drugs policy. The dose for personal and health rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Fischer Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of Colombian law on drugs, with special emphasis on the so-called dose for personal and health rights that relate to the use of legal or illegal drugs. A brief contextualization of international treaties on drugs is presented, as well as presenting some cases representing the current debate on trade control measures and use of illegal drugs. The article argues that in the international and Colombian debate there are no homogeneous positions, and the repressive policies towards illegal drug use coexist with approaches from the public health that point to the recognition of the rights of people who use legal or illegal substances.

  17. Public policy versus individual rights and responsibility: an economist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    Interventions to reduce childhood obesity entail ethical considerations. Although a rationale exists for government to intervene in a way that limits individual rights while protecting the public's health, a clear economic rationale also exists. The markets for goods and services that contribute to obesity are characterized by multiple failures that create an economic rationale for government to intervene (eg, consumers' lack of accurate information regarding obesogenic foods and beverages). If effective public policies for reducing obesity and its consequences are to be developed and implemented, individual rights and government interests must be balanced.

  18. Adopting, manipulating, transforming: tactics used by gender practitioners in South African NGOs to translate international gender policies into local practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-11-01

    This paper looks at what is lost and gained through the process of translating international policy from a global to a local space. It does this by sharing results from a multisite ethnographic study of gender practices in foreign-funded South African health organisations. This study identifies a number of tactics used by practitioners to deal with the funding constraints and unique knowledge systems that characterise local spaces, including: using policy to appeal to donors; merging gender with better resourced programmes; and redirecting funding allocations. These tactics point to how practitioners are adopting, manipulating and transforming international policies in order to suit their everyday working realities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accelerating policy decisions to adopt haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a global, multivariable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C; Stack, Meghan L; Richmond, Marcie R; Bear, Allyson P; Hajjeh, Rana A; Bishai, David M

    2010-03-16

    Adoption of new and underutilized vaccines by national immunization programs is an essential step towards reducing child mortality. Policy decisions to adopt new vaccines in high mortality countries often lag behind decisions in high-income countries. Using the case of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, this paper endeavors to explain these delays through the analysis of country-level economic, epidemiological, programmatic and policy-related factors, as well as the role of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance). Data for 147 countries from 1990 to 2007 were analyzed in accelerated failure time models to identify factors that are associated with the time to decision to adopt Hib vaccine. In multivariable models that control for Gross National Income, region, and burden of Hib disease, the receipt of GAVI support speeded the time to decision by a factor of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76), or 63%. The presence of two or more neighboring country adopters accelerated decisions to adopt by a factor of 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.75). For each 1% increase in vaccine price, decisions to adopt are delayed by a factor of 1.02 (95% CI 1.00-1.04). Global recommendations and local studies were not associated with time to decision. This study substantiates previous findings related to vaccine price and presents new evidence to suggest that GAVI eligibility is associated with accelerated decisions to adopt Hib vaccine. The influence of neighboring country decisions was also highly significant, suggesting that approaches to support the adoption of new vaccines should consider supply- and demand-side factors.

  20. Policy integration, coherence and governance in Dutch climate policy : a multi-level analysis of mitigation and adoption policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van S.; Kuindersma, W.

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses the integration of climate policy in Dutch public policy at the national, regional, local and area level. The national analysis focuses on the horizontal integration of climate policy in national government programmes, adaptation and mitigation strategies and specific policy

  1. Barriers to clinical adoption of next generation sequencing: Perspectives of a policy Delphi panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna A. Messner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to inform policymakers by engaging expert stakeholders to identify, prioritize, and deliberate the most important and tractable policy barriers to the clinical adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS. A 4-round Delphi policy study was done with a multi-stakeholder panel of 48 experts. The first 2 rounds of online questionnaires (reported here assessed the importance and tractability of 28 potential barriers to clinical adoption of NGS across 3 major policy domains: intellectual property, coverage and reimbursement, and FDA regulation. We found that: 1 proprietary variant databases are seen as a key challenge, and a potentially intractable one; 2 payer policies were seen as a frequent barrier, especially a perceived inconsistency in standards for coverage; 3 relative to other challenges considered, FDA regulation was not strongly perceived as a barrier to clinical use of NGS. Overall the results indicate a perceived need for policies to promote data-sharing, and a desire for consistent payer coverage policies that maintain reasonably high standards of evidence for clinical utility, limit testing to that needed for clinical care decisions, and yet also flexibly allow for clinician discretion to use genomic testing in uncertain circumstances of high medical need.

  2. Rights questioned. Limitations of poverty-reduction policies in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faur, Eleonor; Campos, Luis; Pautassi, Laura; Zimerman, Silvina

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses, from a human rights' approach, a group of social programmes implemented in Argentina from the year 2002, at the time of the biggest socioeconomic crisis that the country has suffered in the last decades. The main characteristics of the programmes are reviewed, and their anti-poverty strategy, along with design and implementation, are evaluated in relation to human rights. An assessment is also made of the existence of mechanisms for citizens to present claims. Finally, a set of recommendations are made to facilitate the adaptation of the programmes analysed to the duties the State of Argentina has as result of its adherence to international laws on human rights. The analytical methodology proposed by this article could be applied to other policy areas.

  3. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  4. Editorial: Technology, Policy, and the Right to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Spronk

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 26 of that declaration deals with the right to education. Its three clauses are: 1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. 2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. 3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.Almost 60 years have passed since this declaration. In that time, distance education has emerged as a way of extending educational opportunities to those for whom poverty, remote location, gender, disability, or dislocation has made education more of a luxury than a right, especially in the world’s poverty zones. At basic and secondary levels, open schools and classrooms are using distance education approaches to help universalize primary education and make secondary education at least a possibility for those who would otherwise become permanent school leavers (cf. Yates & Bradley, 2000, and Bradley, 2003. Perraton estimated that as many as 20 per cent of university students in developing countries were studying at a distance, compared with 12 per cent in industrialized countries (2000. Those percentages, no doubt, are considerably higher today. Nonetheless, 72 million children remain out of school, one in five adults is without basic literacy skills, and many pupils leave school without

  5. Paramountcy, Family Rights and Contested Adoption: Does Contact with Birth Relatives Balance the Scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Mandi; McLoughlin, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This article combines practitioner insight and research evidence to chart how principles of partnership and paramountcy have led to birth family contact becoming the expected norm following contested adoption from care in Northern Ireland. The article highlights how practice has adapted to the delay in proposed reforms to adoption legislation…

  6. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition 'to the brain,' focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude-action, value-action or knowledge-action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio-ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio-ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio-ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit between local

  7. 77 FR 70181 - Request for Information on Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and Multifamily Housing: Reopening of Public... smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. HUD was seeking information from... implementing smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. In the October 4, 2012 notice...

  8. Review of policies adopted in 34 Countries to improve diet and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ceccarelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Today, obesity can be considered in most OECD and EU countries as an unprecedented public health challenge which has been underestimated, poorly assessed and not fully accepted as a strategic governmental problem with substantial economic implications.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the major policy statements on diet and physical activity adopted in 34 OECD and other EU countries until 2008, and to point out similarities and differences between country approaches and factors that may explain them.


    Methods: Information about policies and interventions was mainly retrieved from official sources such as the WHO Regional Office for Europe nutrition policy database, and websites of Health Ministries and national public health institutions.


    Results: The review pointed out that almost all WHO and OECD Member States have government-approved policies on nutrition and food safety. Although countries have large data and documents on overweight and obesity, they do not seem to rely on them to define clear strategies and plans for action which, as a result, are often vague and unspecific.

    Conclusions: In order to reverse the obesity trend down to decent levels and to reach the lower socio-economic groups, concerted, multisectorial, long-term actions are needed in combination with a much larger political determination.

  9. Diffusion of innovation in mental health policy adoption: what should we ask about the quality of policy and the role of stakeholders in this process? Comment on "Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy

    2015-03-10

    In his recent study, Gordon Shen analyses a pertinent question facing the global mental health research and practice community today; that of how and why mental health policy is or is not adopted by national governments. This study identifies becoming a World Health Organization (WHO) member nation, and being in regional proximity to countries which have adopted a mental health policy as supportive of mental health policy adoption, but no support for its hypothesis that country recipients of higher levels of aid would have adopted a mental health policy due to conditionalities imposed on aid recipients by donors. Asking further questions of each may help to understand more not only about how and why mental health policies may be adopted, but also about the relevance and quality of implementation of these policies and the role of specific actors in achieving adoption and implementation of high quality mental health policies. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope O. Kaaronen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective

  11. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O.

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit

  12. Perceptions of the state policy environment and adoption of medications in the treatment of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the use of evidence-based treatment practices for treating substance use disorders, adoption of medications by treatment programs remains modest. Drawing on resource dependence and institutional theory, this study examined the relationships between adoption of medications by treatment programs and their perceptions about the state policy environment. Data were collected through mailed surveys and telephone interviews with 250 administrators of publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs in the United States between 2009 and 2010. Multiple imputation and multivariate logistic regression were used to estimate the associations between perceptions of the state policy environment and the odds of adopting at least one medication for the treatment of substance use disorders. A total of 91 (37%) programs reported having prescribed any medication for treatment of a substance use disorder. Programs were significantly more likely to have adopted at least one medication if they perceived greater support for medications by the Single State Agency. The odds of adoption were significantly greater if the program was aware that at least one medication was included on their state's Medicaid formulary and that state-contract funding permitted the purchase of medications. States may play significant roles in promoting the adoption of medications, but adequate dissemination of information about state policies and priorities may be vital to further adoption. Future research should continue to study the relationships between the adoption of medications for treating substance use disorders and the evolving policy environment.

  13. Assessing the impact of policy interventions on the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles: An agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia, Chris; Krause, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened concern regarding climate change and energy independence has increased interest in plug-in electric vehicles as one means to address these challenges and governments at all levels have considered policy interventions to encourage their adoption. This paper develops an agent-based model that simulates the introduction of four policy scenarios aimed at promoting electric vehicle adoption in an urban community and compares them against a baseline. These scenarios include reducing vehicle purchase price via subsidies, expanding the local public charging network, increasing the number and visibility of fully battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on the roadway through government fleet purchases, and a hybrid mix of these three approaches. The results point to the effectiveness of policy options that increased awareness of BEV technology. Specifically, the hybrid policy alternative was the most successful in encouraging BEV adoption. This policy increases the visibility and familiarity of BEV technology in the community and may help counter the idea that BEVs are not a viable alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles. - Highlights: •Various policy interventions to encourage electric vehicle adoption are examined. •An agent based model is used to simulate individual adoption decisions. •Policies that increase the familiarity of electric vehicles are most effective.

  14. Striking the Right Balance : Effectiveness of Anti-Doping Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hon, O.M.

    2016-01-01

    Doping, and anti-doping, is in the news on a continuous basis. At the core of these stories and discussions is the question how effective anti-doping policies are to curb the use of doping in sports. Anti-doping policies are based on ethical values, a juridical framework, laboratory analyses,

  15. Chimeric antigen receptor engineering: a right step in the evolution of adoptive cellular immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jose A; Reidy, Adair; Mirandola, Leonardo; Trotter, Kayley; Suvorava, Natallia; Figueroa, Alejandro; Konala, Venu; Aulakh, Amardeep; Littlefield, Lauren; Grizzi, Fabio; Rahman, Rakhshanda Layeequr; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Musgrove, Breeanna; Radhi, Saba; D'Cunha, Nicholas; D'Cunha, Luke N; Hermonat, Paul L; Cobos, Everardo; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    Cancer immunotherapy comprises different therapeutic strategies that exploit the use of distinct components of the immune system, with the common goal of specifically targeting and eradicating neoplastic cells. These varied approaches include the use of specific monoclonal antibodies, checkpoint inhibitors, cytokines, therapeutic cancer vaccines and cellular anticancer strategies such as activated dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and, more recently, genetically engineered T cells. Each one of these approaches has demonstrated promise, but their generalized success has been hindered by the paucity of specific tumor targets resulting in suboptimal tumor responses and unpredictable toxicities. This review will concentrate on recent advances on the use of engineered T cells for adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACI) in cancer.

  16. Interaction of Technology Adoption Constraints and Multi-level Policy Coherence at the Energy-Food Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, M.; Cox, M. E.; Laser, M.; Locke, K. A.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Policy- and decision-making at the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus entails additional complexities due to the multi-objective nature of FEW socio-technical systems: policies and decisions meant to improve one facet of the nexus might be less beneficial, or even detrimental, to achieving goals for other facets. In addition, implementing policies and decisions may be more difficult due to increasing coordination required among stakeholders across each nexus facet. We highlight these issues in an economic, material/energy flow, and institutional assessment of dairy farms that produce power from anaerobic digestion of cow manure. This socio-technical system is an example of an integrated food-energy system (IFES), which co-produces food and energy. In the case of dairy farms, water is also a significant consideration because cow manure, if improperly managed, can negatively impact water bodies. Our assessment asks the questions (i) of whether or not adopting an IFES improves farm resilience under potential economic and environment futures and (ii) how decisions, policies, and information can best be tailored to the FEW nexus. Our study consists of semi-structured interviews of 60 farms split between the US states of New York and Vermont, both of which have enacted policies to encourage digester adoption. Each interview asks farmers about their material and energy flows, costs, and decision-making process for adopting (or not) an anaerobic digester. In addition, farmers are asked questions about challenges and barriers they might have faced and future drivers of change. Preliminary results highlight important interactions between policy and decision-making. Foremost, an analysis of policy cohesion shows that environmental objectives cross sectors and governance levels, as state-level greenhouse gas mitigation policies interact with federal-level nutrient management policies. This form of potential policy incoherence may introduce additional problems that hinder digester

  17. An integrated production-inventory model for food products adopting a general raw material procurement policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauza, G.; Prasetyo, H.; Amanto, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    Studies on an integrated production-inventory model for deteriorating items have been done extensively. Most of the studies define deterioration as physical depletion of some inventories over time. This definition may not represent the deterioration characteristics of food products. The quality of food production decreases over time while the quantity remains the same. Further, in the existing models, the raw material is replenished several times (or at least once) within one production cycle. In food industries, however, a food company, for several reasons (e.g., the seasonal raw materials, discounted price, etc.) sometimes will get more benefit if it orders raw materials in a large quantity. Considering this fact, this research, therefore, is aimed at developing a more representative inventory model by (i) considering the quality losses in food and (ii) adopting a general raw material procurement policy. A mathematical model is established to represent the proposed policy in which the total profit of the system is the objective function. To evaluate the performance of the model, a numerical test was conducted. The numerical test indicates that the developed model has better performance, i.e., the total profit is 2.3% higher compared to the existing model.

  18. People adopt optimal policies in simple decision-making, after practice and guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathan J; Brown, Scott D

    2017-04-01

    Organisms making repeated simple decisions are faced with a tradeoff between urgent and cautious strategies. While animals can adopt a statistically optimal policy for this tradeoff, findings about human decision-makers have been mixed. Some studies have shown that people can optimize this "speed-accuracy tradeoff", while others have identified a systematic bias towards excessive caution. These issues have driven theoretical development and spurred debate about the nature of human decision-making. We investigated a potential resolution to the debate, based on two factors that routinely differ between human and animal studies of decision-making: the effects of practice, and of longer-term feedback. Our study replicated the finding that most people, by default, are overly cautious. When given both practice and detailed feedback, people moved rapidly towards the optimal policy, with many participants reaching optimality with less than 1 h of practice. Our findings have theoretical implications for cognitive and neural models of simple decision-making, as well as methodological implications.

  19. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  20. Imperatives for "Right" Educational Choices in Swedish Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The present article is based on a critical semiotic investigation of the Swedish Long-Term Survey on economic development. It aims to examine how recent Swedish policy trends bring specific economic, political and social processes together to form a system of meaning for both motivation and regulation over individuals' educational choices. What is…

  1. E-cigarette use in pregnancy: a human rights-based approach to policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Petersen, Anne Berit; Bialous, Stella A

    2017-11-01

    The health risks associated with e-cigarette use in pregnancy are mostly unknown. Guidelines by the World Health Organization and national health agencies warn women against using e-cigarettes in pregnancy; however, in the UK, a recent multiagency guideline takes a different approach by not discouraging e-cigarette use in pregnancy. Furthermore, e-Voke ™ , an e-cigarette, has been approved for use in pregnancy in the UK. We analyze United Nations human rights treaties to examine how they might inform best practice recommendations for e-cigarette use in pregnancy. These treaties oblige Parties to adopt policies that protect children's and women's right to health, appropriate pregnancy services, and health education. We argue that clinical practice guidelines related to use of e-cigarettes in pregnancy should consider both evidence and human rights principles, and ensure that healthcare providers and patients are given clear, accurate messages about the known and potential risks associated with e-cigarette use in pregnancy. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica.

  2. A meta-analysis of determinants of RFID adoption around the world: Organization, technology, and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabinne Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This paper aims to explore various factors associated with radio frequency identification (RFID adoption with quantitative meta-analysis. More specifically, this paper attempts to measure key variables of RFID adoption derived from Rogers’ innovation theory and further examines how state intervention influences the process of RFID adoption. First, this paper compares, relying on a meta-analysis, various mean effect sizes among technological, organizational and environmental factors (i.e. government-driven policies that Rogers suggested in his innovation model. Design/methodology/approach - In mean effect size analysis, this paper finds that the technological factor is the most powerful factor that affects the RFID adoption. The technological factor is statistically significant across all regions, including North America, Europe and Asia. The organizational factor is significant only in developing countries like Southeast Asian countries and East Asian countries. Environmental factors like government intervention for facilitating RFID adoption are strong enough only in Southeast Asia and Europe. Findings - This paper finds that government’s supportive policy is more effective in Europe but not in America, while external pressure is still more effective in Southeast Asia. These results implicate that developmentalism or government-driven policy can be effective not only in developing countries but also in the case of developed countries. In addition, this paper conducts a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR analysis based on Fisher’s standardized score. Originality/value - In SUR analysis, this paper finds that the correlations between RFID adoption intention and three innovation factors vary across industrial areas. More specifically, the manufacturing area shows negative moderating effect on all three equations where correlations between Rogers’ innovation factors and RFID adoption intention are meta-dependent variables. Also

  3. Brazilian Human Rights Policy Strategy in the First Lula Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Lourenço de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the political consequences of the general strategy that guided key federal human rights programs from 2003-2006. The first part of the text discusses issues considered to be central for a consideration of the trajectory of human rights in Brazil, beginning with the authoritarian regime (1964-1985. The objective is to locate the victories and defeats that marked attempts to affirm more advanced standards of promotion and protection of human rights in Brazilian society. The second portion analyzes the promotion of this agenda in the first government of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. The sources used were official government documents, texts organized by specific segments of civil society and academic articles. In conclusion, it presents the main impasses of this agenda and the criticisms of the economist visions that weaken the integrated concept of human rights that guide the essay.

  4. distributive justice and human rights in climate policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    considerable ethical challenges when issues of justice and human rights .... change damages for GHG emissions pathways based on 'business-as- usual' as well ... (3) Global environmental change 297-301; William Nordhaus, 'A review of the.

  5. Public policies: right to learn and formative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Chizzotti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the right to learn in school type education and considers the assessment as assurance of teaching and learning quality. It deals with the current evaluation processes and discriminatory misconceptions of merely summative assessments, which tend to qualify students. This text evaluates the punitive bias of meritocratic grading of learning and argues that only formative assessment can ensure the right to learn

  6. The Diffusion of Disability Rights Policy: A Focus on Special Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Joan P.; Palley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the development of South Korean special education policy and suggests that different strategies of policy diffusion influenced the design of the policy at different times. Historically, South Korea relied on external pressures and influences, particularly US law and UN guidelines, to develop much of its human rights law,…

  7. THE RISE OF FAR RIGHT IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES AND CONSIDERATIONS RELEVANT TO THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaggelia KALERANTE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The political situation formed across Europe on a political level with the rise of far right and the adoption of attitudes and behaviours representative of the broader acceptance of far right ideologies on a social level is the focal point of this paper. This issue should also be a consideration in terms of education so that an educational model reinforcing democracy and humanism is formed. Concentration is placed on the Greek educational policy aiming at suggesting interventions in the curriculum and the educational school reality, too. This is a period when an increasing number of individuals educate themselves for long years. Therefore, formal education encompassing Primary and Secondary education as well as lifelong education should be emphasized. As regards schools, democracy and humanism should be aligned to the school environment and the formulated juvenile culture. As regards lifelong education, the topics and content offered through seminars should be enriched with theoretical principles which are reinforcing to the association of learners with the democratic operation of society.

  8. Breast screening policy: Are we heading in the right direction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.; Whelehan, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence supporting 2-yearly screening of women aged 50-69 years. There is good evidence for a mortality reduction from mammographic screening in women aged 40 to 49 years but a 1-year interval is required. The lack of specificity of screening in young women does remain a problem. There is no evidence to suggest that a single screen between the ages of 47 and 50 years within a programme screening at 3-year intervals will reduce mortality; the trials showing a mortality benefit in women in their 40s included multiple screening episodes and shorter screening intervals. There is no randomized, controlled trial evidence to support screening in women aged above 70 years and screening this age group will cause greater harm than in younger women through higher rates of over-diagnosis and consequent over-treatment. The randomized phase of the screening age extension, which at the moment is planned to last only 6 years, should not be immediately followed by general implementation of the policy. Only if and when additional mortality reductions and an acceptable balance between benefit and harms are shown to be achieved by the extra screens should the 2007 Cancer Reform Strategy policy on age extension be implemented. Resources saved by delaying or abandoning the roll-out of the age extension could potentially be redirected towards reducing the current 3 year screening interval to 2 years in women aged 50-69 years. However, reducing the screening interval to 2 years for women aged 50-69 years would require significantly more screening invitations and resources than the proposed age extension.

  9. Breast screening policy: Are we heading in the right direction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A., E-mail: a.z.evans@dundee.ac.uk [Dundee Cancer Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Whelehan, P. [Dundee Cancer Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    There is a large body of evidence supporting 2-yearly screening of women aged 50-69 years. There is good evidence for a mortality reduction from mammographic screening in women aged 40 to 49 years but a 1-year interval is required. The lack of specificity of screening in young women does remain a problem. There is no evidence to suggest that a single screen between the ages of 47 and 50 years within a programme screening at 3-year intervals will reduce mortality; the trials showing a mortality benefit in women in their 40s included multiple screening episodes and shorter screening intervals. There is no randomized, controlled trial evidence to support screening in women aged above 70 years and screening this age group will cause greater harm than in younger women through higher rates of over-diagnosis and consequent over-treatment. The randomized phase of the screening age extension, which at the moment is planned to last only 6 years, should not be immediately followed by general implementation of the policy. Only if and when additional mortality reductions and an acceptable balance between benefit and harms are shown to be achieved by the extra screens should the 2007 Cancer Reform Strategy policy on age extension be implemented. Resources saved by delaying or abandoning the roll-out of the age extension could potentially be redirected towards reducing the current 3 year screening interval to 2 years in women aged 50-69 years. However, reducing the screening interval to 2 years for women aged 50-69 years would require significantly more screening invitations and resources than the proposed age extension.

  10. Beyond Study Abroad: A Human Rights Delegation to Teach Policy Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…

  11. Farmers' adoption of maize (Zea mays L.). Hybrids and persistence of landraces in Southwest China: implications for policy and breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jingsong; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Jiggins, Janice; Leeuwis, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the distribution of maize hybrids and landraces in the mountainous areas of southwest China over 1998–2008, farmers’ reasons for cultivar adoption and the implications for national policies in relation to seed production and breeding, based on baseline data and a

  12. 12 CFR 550.140 - Must I adopt and follow written policies and procedures in exercising fiduciary powers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures in exercising fiduciary powers? 550.140 Section 550.140 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers § 550.140 Must I adopt and follow written policies and procedures in exercising fiduciary powers? You...

  13. PUBLIC POLICIES OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION FOR ELDERLY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton de Oliveira Telles Júnior

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The people are living more. The population is going by great transformations, so much social as technological, that point to the need of specific education processes for senior people. The seniors tend to be separated socially, with damages for his/her health and, consequently, his/her life quality. This study, of qualitative approach, has as objective to describe the public politics for the senior's education interned in hospitals or institutions and to analyze the applicable Public Politics to the education based an express analysis model by Di Giovanni, where there are the actors of this public policy and its related interests. How possible middle for attainment of a program driven to the seniors' education is evidenced in the inclusion possibility in the hospital class and the possibility of the use of education programs for youths and adults, with the initiative of third sector, that in the extent of the education no formal he/she brings great transformations for society and education for the senior.

  14. Limitation of Socio-Economic Rights in the 2010 Kenyan Constitution: A Proposal for the Adoption of a Proportionality Approach in the Judicial Adjudication of Socio-Economic Rights Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Wasonga Orago

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On 27 August 2010 Kenya adopted a transformative Constitution with the objective of fighting poverty and inequality as well as improving the standards of living of all people in Kenya. One of the mechanisms in the 2010 Constitution aimed at achieving this egalitarian transformation is the entrenchment of justiciable socio-economic rights (SERs, an integral part of the Bill of Rights. The entrenched SERs require the State to put in place a legislative, policy and programmatic framework to enhance the realisation of its constitutional obligations to respect, protect and fulfill these rights for all Kenyans. These SER obligations, just like any other fundamental human rights obligations, are, however, not absolute and are subject to legitimate limitation by the State. Two approaches have been used in international and comparative national law jurisprudence to limit SERs: the proportionality approach, using a general limitation clause that has found application in international and regional jurisprudence on the one hand; and the reasonableness approach, using internal limitations contained in the standard of progressive realisation, an approach that has found application in the SER jurisprudence of the South African Courts, on the other hand. This article proposes that if the entrenched SERs are to achieve their transformative objectives, Kenyan courts must adopt a proportionality approach in the judicial adjudication of SER disputes. This proposal is based on the reasoning that for the entrenched SERs to have a substantive positive impact on the lives of the Kenyan people, any measure by the government aimed at their limitation must be subjected to strict scrutiny by the courts, a form of scrutiny that can be achieved only by using the proportionality standard entrenched in the article 24 general limitation clause.

  15. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control: A Tool for Securing Women's Rights in Drug Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Rebecca; Pol, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to 'mainstream' this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women's experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women's rights in drug control policy design and implementation.

  16. Getting the Policies Right: The Prioritization and Sequencing of Policies in Post-Conflict Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Timilsina, Anga R

    2007-01-01

    ... (Cambodia, Mozambique, and Haiti) and expert opinions of 30 academicians and practitioners, this study identifies major reconstruction policies, outlines the preferred way to prioritize and sequence them, and develops a framework...

  17. The policy of the rights of the government of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Enríquez, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    This text deals with the analysis of the policy of the rights of the government of Mexico City which took place during the last three administrations. This government is considered as an institution identified with the political left of the country since it bases its government strategy on two core pillars: the democratization of the government and the design of new redistributive policies, mainly the social policy. With these referents, an analysis is made with the most important political g...

  18. Youth, Privacy and Online Media: Framing the right to privacy in public policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Gry; Jørgensen, Rikke Frank

    2015-01-01

    debate. It presents the results of a qualitative study amongst 68 Danish high school students concerning how they perceive, negotiate and control their private sphere when using social media and builds a case for utilizing the results of studies as this to inform the ongoing policy discourses concerning...... policy making that the right to privacy is challenged in new ways in a structurally transformed online public sphere, the way in which it has been framed does not seem to acknowledge this transformation. This paper therefore argues for a reformulation of “online privacy” in the current global policy......The right to privacy is a fundamental human right defined in international and regional human rights instruments. As such it has been included as a core component of key legislature and policy proceedings throughout the brief history of the World Wide Web. While it is generally recognized in public...

  19. The adoption of energy efficiency enhancing technologies. Market Performance and Policy Strategies in Case of Heterogeneous Firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Free University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    The adoption of energy-efficiency enhancing technologies by heterogeneous firms is analyzed. The fact that energy use does not only cause external environmental costs through pollution, but also directly affects the profitability of the firm and hence its behaviour on input and output markets is taken for granted. It is demonstrated that the consideration of such market processes may have important implications for the efficiency of environmental policies concerned with energy use. The analysis focuses in particular on the efficiency of the market-led adoption and diffusion process under various policy regimes. It is shown that the promotion of energy-efficiency enhancing technologies might have unexpected effects in that it could lead to an increase in energy use, while the use of energy taxes might actually reduce the attractiveness of energy-saving technologies. 22 refs.

  20. BlogForever D3.3: Development of the Digital Rights Management Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Tracie; Kim, Yunhyong; Pinsent, Ed; Kopidaki, Stella; Rynning, Morten; Manolopoulos, Ioanis; Papadopoulou, Olympia; Arampatzis, Stratos; Trochidis, Ilias; Zioga, Despoina

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a set of recommended practices and approaches that a future BlogForever repository can use to develop a digital rights management policy. The report outlines core legal aspects of digital rights that might need consideration in developing policies, and what the challenges are, in particular, in relation to web archives and blog archives. These issues are discussed in the context of the digital information life cycle and steps that might be taken within the workflow of the...

  1. The emperor and the cowboys: The role of government policy and industry in the adoption of domestic solar microgeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Genevieve; Clifton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    While domestic solar microgeneration installations have increased in popularity, there is potential for their adoption to slow as financial incentives are reduced or phased out. This study uses a postal survey of 362 solar adopters in Western Australia to identify areas of policy improvement for the adoption of domestic solar systems. Research included quantitative analysis of Likert-type statements and analysis of qualitative comments by survey respondents, including testing the validity of inferences in comments using publicly-available data. While the vast majority of respondents were satisfied with their systems, satisfaction rates were lower for consumers not receiving the premium feed-in tariff and where information on systems was not self-sourced. Consumers considered governments to be untrustworthy and information provided by industry was perceived as inconsistent and inaccessible. Consumers felt they did not receive a fair price for electricity exported to the network and feared that changes in utility prices could render their investment uneconomical. Concerns regarding members of industry may be allayed by certification schemes, but these remain voluntary and limited in effectiveness. These findings underscore the need for increased government activity in providing independent information to consumers and regulating the solar industry, including commitments to long term policies and certification schemes. -- Highlights: •A postal survey identified issues with solar microgeneration adoption policies. •Consumers not receiving subsidies had lower overall satisfaction with installations. •Government lacked stability in policy application and transparency in tariff pricing. •Evidence indicated solar industry members are seen as potentially untrustworthy. •Governments should improve regulation of industry and provide reliable information

  2. The Norwegian support and subsidy policy of electric cars. Should it be adopted by other countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Skonhoft, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Norwegian policy to promote the introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is unusually powerful. • Numerical examples show that the policy means an approximate tax relief for a EV owner about 8000 USD/year. • The same time an average EV is might imply an emission reduction of less than 1 tonne CO 2 . • The policy might cause small emission reductions at high costs. • The policy might have the unfortunate side-effect that households buy more cars and drive more. - Abstract: As a result of generous policies to increase the use of electric vehicles (EVs), the sales of EVs in Norway are rapidly increasing. This in sharp contrast to most other rich countries without such generous policies. Due to the subsidies, driving an EV implies very low costs to the owner on the margin, probably leading to more driving at the expense of public transport and cycling. Moreover, because most EVs’ driving range is low, the policy gives Norwegian households incentives to purchase a second car, again stimulating the use of private cars instead of public transport and cycling. These effects are analysed in light of possible greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits as well as other possible benefits of utilizing EVs versus conventional cars. We discuss whether the EV policy can be justified, as well as whether this policy should be implemented by other countries

  3. Human rights principles in developing and updating policies and laws on mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, M.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Mental Health Action Plan 2013?2020 stipulates human rights as a cross-cutting principle (WHO, 2013) and foresees global targets to update policies as well as mental health laws in line with international and regional human rights instruments. The international human rights agreements repeatedly refer to health, including mental health. The most pertinent provisions related to mental health are enshrined in the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disa...

  4. Educational Television Broadcasting in Germany: Prevailing Practices, Existing Challenges and Adoptable Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Television is widely used for educational purposes but has still not achieved its fullest potential neither in developed nor in developing countries. This worldwide under performance invite experts and academics to join hands to search causes and provide suggestions to make television a better and popular learning tool. Guided by this philosophy, the present paper analyzes the educational television broadcasting in Germany from different perspectives. The focus of analysis includes measures and practices adopted by German institutions/broadcasters to promote educational television. Besides dealing with these issues, the paper discusses existing challenges and suggests best adoptable educational television broadcasting polices from Germany to promote educational television in global perspectives.

  5. Judicialization of Health Policy in the Definition of Access to Public Goods: Individual Rights versus Collective Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Maria Gonçalves Menicucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses a form of judicialization of public policies in the health field. It has as its object lawsuits initiated against Belo Horizonte Municipality arguing for the provision of services or the acquisition of inputs not obtained in the public system via institutional access routes. The argument is that the individualized quest for the guarantee of the right to healthcare via the judicial path is a form of reproduction of the tensions produced in democratic societies between the social and the individual conceptions of citizenship. By ensuring access to goods by means of individual suits, the Judiciary interferes in the making of public choices taken on by public-sector managers, thus regulating opportunities for consumption according to a concentrating logic. And so the assertion of a constitutional right superposes the political right of the majority, represented by the Executive, to make choices as to the goods that are the object of public policies, with a relatively significant financial and budgetary impact.

  6. Maximising available resources: Equality and human rights proofing Irish fiscal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Mary P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines various rationales for applying equality and human rights proofing mechanisms to fiscal policy. The principle of using available resources to the maximum to progressively realise human rights, and not to erode the revenue capacity of developing nations to do likewise, is at the heart of emerging human rights norms. To date, Irish budgetary processes and major policy statements such as the Commission on Taxation or the draft outline National Plan on Business and Human Rights Strategy have not engaged with the principles of maximising available resources or extraterritoriality. Proofing fiscal policy is also relevant from the perspective of fiscal welfare where taxation instruments, traditionally used as a revenue-gathering mechanism, are increasingly used as distributional mechanisms to achieve policy outcomes in pensions, health, housing and employment, with important equality and distributive dimensions, particularly from gender, age and socioeconomic perspectives. A number of practical institutional mechanisms and evaluative questions can guide equality and human rights proofing of fiscal policy, but commitments to maximise resources to realise rights also need to be promoted through a public discourse which sees taxation as potential investment in society rather than a burden or cost on the economy.

  7. Language Learning as Culture Keeping: Family Language Policies of Transnational Adoptive Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how parents of international adoptees explain their decision to pursue birth-language education for their children and how they go about achieving their goals. It focuses on the perspectives of 16 White U.S. parents who have at least one adopted school-aged child (ages 5 to 18) either currently or previously enrolled in a…

  8. Right Here Right Now: Developing an understanding of responses to smoking policy developments using online data collection in near to real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Fergie

    2015-10-01

    78 participants. In relation to e-cigarettes most participants described seeing e-cigarettes as a matter of course, a mundane and quickly adopted feature of social life, particularly outdoors and especially in the street. The responses offered a range of drivers for e-cigarette use, and the varied references to health reflect the complex and often competing public narratives of health risk and benefit surrounding e-cigarettes. By contrast responses to legislation prohibiting smoking in cars carrying children and the legacy of the ‘smoking ban’ in enclosed public spaces showed almost universal support. Almost all participants responded by reproducing well-rehearsed and coherent statements around the harms of second-hand smoke. Conclusions: The Right Here Right Now system was able to provide rapid insights into people’s perceptions of ongoing debates around tobacco and nicotine use, and associated policy developments/legislative proposals. The system can provide a barometer for public support for proposed legislation, and its acceptability as a means of changing health behaviours. It can also offer insights for policy development which require further nuanced understanding.

  9. Social Entrepreneurship: A Reflection for Adopting Public Policies that Support the Third Sector in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielli Martins Borges Ladeira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in social entrepreneurship is growing widely not only in Brazil but in the world. Several developed countries have stepped forward to develop policies to support this area not only as a tool to fulfill the government failures such as poverty, health, education, unemployment among others, but also because of all the benefits that social enterprises have in relation to society. However, it is possible to identify a lack of political support for social entrepreneurship in Brazil. Given the needs in the Brazilian context of improvements in several areas where the state can not cover actions in their entirety as social exclusion, income distribution and especially professionalization of youth and creating jobs, we need a deep analysis of how social entrepreneurship can act as a modifying element of this scenario. Thus, with Brazil a country developing rapidly, it is important to verify public policies that support social entrepreneurship in already developed countries and carry out studies on the suitability and applicability of these policies in the Brazilian reality. Thus, this paper aims to study the trends of social entrepreneurship in some developed countries as well as analyzing public policies implemented by these countries, and considering the Brazilian context, present some policy proposals to support social entrepreneurship in Brazil.

  10. Continuing medical education and pharmaceutical industry involvement: An evaluation of policies adopted by Canadian professional medical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Professional medical associations (PMAs) play a crucial role in providing accredited continuing medical education (CME) to physicians. Funding from the pharmaceutical industry may lead to biases in CME. This study examines publicly available policies on CME, adopted by Canadian PMAs as of December 2015. Policies were evaluated using an original scoring tool comprising 21 items, two questions about PMAs' general and CME funding from industry, and three enforcement measures. We assessed 236 policies adopted by Canadian PMAs (range, 0 to 32). Medical associations received summative scores that ranged from 0% to 49.2% of the total possible points (maximum score = 63). Twenty-seven associations received an overall score of 0%. The highest mean scores were achieved in the areas of industry involvement in planning CME activities (mean: 1.1/3), presence of a review process for topics of CME activities (mean: 1.1/3), content review for balanced information (mean: 1.1/3), and responsibility of distribution of funds (mean: 1.0/3). The lowest mean scores were achieved in the areas of awards (mean: 0.0/3), industry personnel, representatives, and employees (mean: 0.1/3), distribution of industry-funded educational materials at CME activities (mean: 0.1/3), and distinction between marketing and educational materials (mean: 0.1/3). These results suggest that Canadian PMAs' publicly available policies on industry involvement in CME are generally weak or non-existent; therefore, the accredited CME that is provided to Canadian physicians may be viewed as open to bias. We encourage all Canadian medical associations to strengthen their policies to avoid the potential for industry influence in CME.

  11. Conflict and compromise in public health policy: analysis of changes made to five competitive food legislative proposals prior to adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Lauren M

    2015-04-01

    Competitive foods in schools have historically been scrutinized for their ubiquity and poor nutritional quality, leading many states to enact legislation limiting the availability and accessibility of these items. Evaluations of these policy approaches show their promise in improving the healthfulness of school food environments, considered an important strategy for reducing childhood obesity. Yet little is known about the decision-making processes by which such legislation is formed and adopted. Using a comparative case study design, this study describes and analyzes the policy formation processes surrounding five state-level competitive food bills introduced in 2009-2010. Data for each case were drawn from multiple key informant interviews and document reviews. Case studies were conducted, analyzed, and written independently using a standard protocol and were subsequently compared for recurring and unique themes. Abbreviated case studies and summary tables are provided. Results indicate that bill cost is a major barrier to achieving strong, health-promoting policy change. Additionally, findings reveal that supporters of stronger competitive food policies often concede to changes that weaken a bill in order to neutralize opposition and achieve stakeholder buy-in. These challenges suggest that continued research on the development, implementation, and evaluation of public health policies can contribute to the advancement of new strategies for effective health promotion. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Recommendations for Adopting the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes Into U.S. Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldavini, Jessica; Taillie, Lindsey Smith

    2017-08-01

    In 1981, the World Health Organization adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ( International Code), with subsequent resolutions adopted since then. The International Code contributes to the safe and adequate provision of nutrition for infants by protecting and promoting breastfeeding and ensuring that human milk substitutes, when necessary, are used properly through adequate information and appropriate marketing and distribution. Despite the World Health Organization recommendations for all member nations to implement the International Code in its entirety, the United States has yet to take action to translate it into any national measures. In 2012, only 22.3% of infants in the United States met the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation of at least 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Countries adopting legislation reflecting the provisions of the International Code have seen increases in breastfeeding rates. This article discusses recommendations for translating the International Code into U.S. policy. Adopting legislation that implements, monitors, and enforces the International Code in its entirety has the potential to contribute to increased rates of breastfeeding in the United States, which can lead to improved health outcomes in both infants and breastfeeding mothers.

  13. How social movements influence policies : Advocacy, framing, emotions and outcomes among reproductive rights coalitions in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Anna-Britt

    2010-01-01

    With its origins in the early 1990s, feminist advocacy directed at influencing public policies is a relatively new phenomenon in Latin America that is commonly studied at the national level. The aim of this thesis was to study feminist advocacy on reproductive rights at the sub-national level in Peru. Specifically, it explored two research questions: how do feminist movements carry out advocacy to intervene with government agencies and what effects does their advocacy have on policies. This a...

  14. Adoption of irrigation water policies to guarantee water supply: A choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcon, F.; Tapsuwan, S.; Brouwer, R.; de Miguel, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    More efficient and sustainable use of water is increasingly becoming an urgency in drought prone parts of the world. In particular, in water scarce regions such as the Mediterranean, water supply is expected to become more uncertain because of climate change. Consequently, pro-active policy

  15. Security, development and human rights: normative, legal and policy challenges for the international drug control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damon

    2010-03-01

    This commentary addresses some of the challenges posed by the broader normative, legal and policy framework of the United Nations for the international drug control system. The 'purposes and principles' of the United Nations are presented and set against the threat based rhetoric of the drug control system and the negative consequences of that system. Some of the challenges posed by human rights law and norms to the international drug control system are also described, and the need for an impact assessment of the current system alongside alternative policy options is highlighted as a necessary consequence of these analyses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Social Entrepreneurship: a Reflection for Adopting Public Policies that Support the Third Sector in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Borges Ladeira, Francielli Martins; Vier Machado, Hilka

    2013-01-01

    Interest in social entrepreneurship is growing widely not only in Brazil but in the world. Several developed countries have stepped forward to develop policies to support this area not only as a tool to fulfill the government failures such as poverty, health, education, unemployment among others, but also because of all the benefits that social enterprises have in relation to society. However, it is possible to identify a lack of political support for social entrepreneurship in Brazil. Given ...

  17. Human Rights, Privacy and Medical Research; Analysing UK Policy on Tissue and Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gillott, John

    2006-01-01

    This report is one outcome of a study into privacy and human genetics initiated by John Gillott and staff and trustees of the Genetic Interest Group. \\ud \\ud The initial focus was on genetics and human rights, with an emphasis on legal aspects and policy decisions informed by law and rights ideology. Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, the right to respect for private and family life,1 is of most relevance to this study, though other Articles are considered.\\ud \\ud The study as a whole co...

  18. Sexual and reproductive health and rights of older men and women: addressing a policy blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    Global debate on required policy responses to issues of older persons has intensified over the past 15 years, fuelled by a growing awareness of the rapid ageing of populations. Health has been a central focus, but scrutiny of global policies, human rights instruments and reports reveals that just as older people are excluded from sexual and reproductive health and rights agendas, so are issues of sexual and reproductive health and rights wholly marginal to current agendas focused on older people. A critical question is whether the policy lacuna reflects a dearth of research evidence or a faulty translation of existing knowledge. A reading of the current research landscape and literature, summarised in this paper, strongly suggests it is the former. To be sure, sexuality in old age is a burgeoning field of scientific inquiry. What the existing knowledge and discourse fail to provide is an engagement with, and elucidation of, the broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda as it relates to older persons. A concerted research effort is needed to provide a basis for developing policy guidance and for pinpointing essential indicators and establishing necessary data systems to enable a routine tracking of progress. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of climate policy uncertainty on the adoption of electricity generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael; Johansson, Daniel J.A.; Szolgayova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a real options model where multiple options are evaluated simultaneously so that the effect of the individual options on each other is accounted for. We apply this model to the electricity sector, where we analyze three typical technologies based on fossil fuel, fossil fuel with carbon capture and renewable energy, respectively. In this way, we can analyze the transition from CO 2 -intensive to CO 2 -neutral electricity production in the face of rising and uncertain CO 2 prices. In addition, such a modelling approach enables us to estimate precisely the expected value of (perfect) information, i.e. the willingness of investors and producers to pay for information about the correct CO 2 price path. As can be expected, the expected value of information rises with increasing CO 2 price uncertainty. In addition, the larger the price uncertainty, the larger are the cumulative CO 2 emissions over the coming century. The reason for this is that the transition to less CO 2 -intensive technologies is increasingly postponed with rising CO 2 price uncertainty. By testing different price processes (geometric Brownian motion versus jump processes with different jump frequencies), we can also make useful recommendations concerning the importance of policy predictability. We find that it is better to have climate change policies that are stable over a certain length of time and change abruptly than less abrupt but more frequently changing policies. Less frequent fluctuations reduce the expected value of information and result in smaller cumulative CO 2 emissions. (author)

  20. A right to health care? Participatory politics, progressive policy, and the price of loose language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, David A

    2016-08-01

    This article begins by clarifying and noting various limitations on the universal reach of the human right to health care under positive international law. It then argues that irrespective of the human right to health care established by positive international law, any system of positive international law capable of generating legal duties with prima facie moral force necessarily presupposes a universal moral human right to health care. But the language used in contemporary human rights documents or human rights advocacy is not a good guide to the content of this rather more modest universal moral human right to health care. The conclusion reached is that when addressing issues of justice as they inevitably arise with respect to health policy and health care, both within and between states, there is typically little to gain and much to risk by framing deliberation in terms of the human right to health care.

  1. Implementation of School Uniform Policy and the Violation of Students’ Human Rights in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the violations of students’ human rights in schools. The problem is the incident that took place at a school in Pretoria in 2016 where Black girls protested against the School’s Code of Conduct relating to hairstyle. Qualitative approach was used to collect information through a literature review and desk-top research methods. Black girls claimed they were discriminated against and the protest serves as an example to demonstrate students’ human rights violations when schools implement school uniform policies. Inequality in schools is rife in South Africa. School uniform policies with regard to dress codes are expected to reduce school violence, prevent discipline issues, and improve in school safety. Students have rights and their rights can include issues regarding cultural, economic, and political freedoms. Students, especially adolescents, respond very negatively to school uniforms.

  2. Heads of household programme in Argentina: a human rights-based policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, Jorge; Giordano, Osvaldo; Torres, Alejandra; Cárdenas, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the consultative councils (CC) of the Argentinian conditional cash transfer heads of household programme as an institutional innovation directed to put into practice some of the principles of the human rights' approach for eradicating poverty. Since the main responsibilities assigned to the CCs coincided with some of the main principles of the human rights' approach, the research is focused on how CCs responded in practice. Using a case study methodology we show that even when, in theory, the CCs incorporate some of the principles of the human rights' approach to the programme, they deviated from this purpose due to a persistent phenomenon in the social policy arena in developing countries: political clientelism. Policy recommendations are formulated in order to deal with clientelism in the framework of the human rights' approach.

  3. Legal Policy Of Peoples Rights In Around Mining Corporate Post-Mining Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Berlianty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to gain an understanding of the essence of the rights of communities around post-mining corporate responsibility towards the fulfillment of the rights of communities around post-mining as well as government policies to protect the sustainability of the post-mining communities around the mining business. This type of research is a normative legal research methods using primary legal materials secondary and tertiary. With the approach of sociolegal through down the field in Gebe to get data concrete. Data were analyzed with qualitative analysis. The results showed that the essence of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of the right to a decent life welfare the right to social security in the form of employment the guarantee of free education and healthcare for the local population as well as the right to a good environment and healthy as a guarantee of the continuity of human existence and future generations. These rights have not been fully realized post-mining. Corporate responsibility in accordance with Article 74 of Law No. 40 of 2007 on the fulfillment of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of welfare responsibilities clothing food and shelter especially electricity and water have not been met then the social responsibility to empower communities around the mine as stakeholders as well as environmental responsibility. Legal policy such as the empowerment of communities around the mine in order to be self-sufficient after the post-mining public service policies in education and health as a form of existence of government using existing programs nationally and subordinate to the PT. Antam. as well as environmental protection policies in the form of post-mining reclamation formulated in the companys liabilities.

  4. Policy Brief - Precarious versus protected care work in the European Union: finding the right balance

    OpenAIRE

    Knijn Trudie; Oomkens Rosanne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on research conducted during the project, this policy brief addresses care work for elderly people in European Union countries in the context ofthe right to free movement of labour. Despite a range of guidelines and directives in the past decades, the European Union still faces the intersectional problem of an ageing population, gender inequality, and lack of rights for caregivers, the latter being mainly women and – in some countries – increasingly migrant women. The risks of olde...

  5. Shifting Directions in ECEC Policy in New Zealand: From a Child Rights to an Interventionist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy reflects ideas about childhood, labour force participation, education, the economy and the role of the state. This article spans a period of political change in New Zealand from a left of centre government during the first decade of the twenty-first century to a right of centre government from 2009.…

  6. Problems of Realization Women’s Right to Policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanalinova A. U.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of realization women’s right to policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The author reviews the different methods of political quota, which are used in some countries of the world. Besides that the author reveals the reasons of the women’s low political activity in Kazakhstan

  7. Education Policy and Family Values: A Critical Analysis of Initiatives from the Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, Kevin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes current education policy initiatives from the political Right in the United States, focusing on initiatives at the federal level (standards and testing), the state level (funding), the local level (alternative certification), and the campus level (censorship). Each initiative has received wide bipartisan and public support,…

  8. Technology and Policy Challenges in the Adoption and Operation of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyerim; Yoo, Sooyoung; Heo, Eun-Young; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify problems and issues that arise with the implementation of online health information exchange (HIE) systems in a medical environment and to identify solutions to facilitate the successful operation of future HIE systems in primary care clinics and hospitals. In this study, the issues that arose during the establishment and operation of an HIE system in a hospital were identified so that they could be addressed to enable the successful establishment and operation of a standard-based HIE system. After the issues were identified, they were reviewed and categorized by a group of experts that included medical information system experts, doctors, medical information standard experts, and HIE researchers. Then, solutions for the identified problems were derived based on the system development, operation, and improvement carried out during this work. Twenty-one issues were identified during the implementation and operation of an online HIE system. These issues were then divided into four categories: system architecture and standards, documents and data items, consent of HIE, and usability. We offer technical and policy recommendations for various stakeholders based on the experiences of operating and improving the online HIE system in the medical field. The issues and solutions identified in this study regarding the implementation and operate of an online HIE system can provide valuable insight for planners to enable them to successfully design and operate such systems at a national level in the future. In addition, policy support from governments is needed.

  9. Psychedelics and cognitive liberty: Reimagining drug policy through the prism of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This paper reimagines drug policy--specifically psychedelic drug policy--through the prism of human rights. Challenges to the incumbent prohibitionist paradigm that have been brought from this perspective to date--namely by calling for exemptions from criminalisation on therapeutic or religious grounds--are considered, before the assertion is made that there is a need to go beyond such reified constructs, calling for an end to psychedelic drug prohibitions on the basis of the more fundamental right to cognitive liberty. This central concept is explicated, asserted as being a crucial component of freedom of thought, as enshrined within Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It is argued that the right to cognitive liberty is routinely breached by the existence of the system of drug prohibition in the United Kingdom (UK), as encoded within the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (MDA). On this basis, it is proposed that Article 9 could be wielded to challenge the prohibitive system in the courts. This legal argument is supported by a parallel and entwined argument grounded in the political philosophy of classical liberalism: namely, that the state should only deploy the criminal law where an individual's actions demonstrably run a high risk of causing harm to others. Beyond the courts, it is recommended that this liberal, rights-based approach also inform psychedelic drug policy activism, moving past the current predominant focus on harm reduction, towards a prioritization of benefit maximization. How this might translate in to a different regulatory model for psychedelic drugs, a third way, distinct from the traditional criminal and medical systems of control, is tentatively considered. However, given the dominant political climate in the UK--with its move away from rights and towards a more authoritarian drug policy--the possibility that it is only through underground movements that cognitive liberty will be assured in the foreseeable future is

  10. Another issue comes out: gay rights policy voting in recent U.S. presidential elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodebeck, Laurie A

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the theory of policy voting, this study examines the impact of opinions about gay rights on voting for presidential candidates. Qualitative analysis of the major party platforms and candidate campaign rhetoric from the six presidential elections held between 1988 and 2008 indicates that Democratic and Republican presidential candidates began openly expressing opposing positions on gay rights issues in 1992. Quantitative analysis of public opinion shows that, starting in 1992 and continuing through 2008, gay rights issues became more salient to the public, and opinions about gay rights began to exert a significant effect on vote choice. The study concludes with a discussion of the partisan forces that shaped the electoral significance of gay rights issues during the period from 1988 to 2008 and speculation about the role of gay rights issues in shaping future partisan electoral strategy.

  11. Australian asylum policies: have they violated the right to health of asylum seekers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa

    2009-02-01

    Notwithstanding recent migration policy amendments, there is concern that Australian asylum policies have disproportionately burdened the health and wellbeing of onshore asylum seekers. There may be a case to be made that Australian governments have been in violation of the right to health of this population. The objective of this paper is to critically examine these issues and assess the implications for public health practice. The author undertook a review of the recent empirical literature on the health effects of post-migration stressors arising from Australian policies of immigration detention, temporary protection and the restriction of Medicare to some asylum seekers. This evidence was examined within the context of Australia's international law obligations. Findings reveal that Australian asylum policies of detention, temporary protection and the exclusion of some asylum seekers from Medicare rights have been associated with adverse mental health outcomes for this population. This is attributable to the impact of these policies on accessing health care and the underlying determinants of health for asylum seekers. It is arguable that Australian Governments have been discriminating against asylum seekers by withholding access on the grounds of their migration status, to health care and to the core determinants of health in this context. In so doing, Australia may have been in violation of its obligation to respect the right to health of this population. While the 'right to health' framework has much to offer public health, it is an undervalued and poorly understood discipline. The author argues for more education, research and advocacy around the intersection between heath and human rights.

  12. Early childhood development in Rwanda: a policy analysis of the human rights legal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Scott, Kirstin W; Harward, Sardis H

    2016-01-12

    Early childhood development (ECD) is a critical period that continues to impact human health and productivity throughout the lifetime. Failing to provide policies and programs that support optimal developmental attainment when such services are financially and logistically feasible can result in negative population health, education and economic consequences that might otherwise be avoided. Rwanda, with its commitment to rights-based policy and program planning, serves as a case study for examination of the national, regional, and global human rights legal frameworks that inform ECD service delivery. In this essay, we summarize key causes and consequences of the loss of early developmental potential and how this relates to the human rights legal framework in Rwanda. We contend that sub-optimal early developmental attainment constitutes a violation of individuals' rights to health, education, and economic prosperity. These rights are widely recognized in global, regional and national human rights instruments, and are guaranteed by Rwanda's constitution. Recent policy implementation by several Rwandan ministries has increased access to health and social services that promote achievement of full developmental potential. These ECD-centric activities are characterized by an integrated approach to strengthening the services provided by several public sectors. Combining population level activities with those at the local level, led by local community health workers and women's councils, can bolster community education and ensure uptake of ECD services. Realization of the human rights to health, education, and economic prosperity requires and benefits from attention to the period of ECD, as early childhood has the potential to be an opportunity for expedient intervention or the first case of human rights neglect in a lifetime of rights violations. Efforts to improve ECD services and outcomes at the population level require multisector collaboration at the highest echelons

  13. Corporate Staff Social Rights and Protection as Key Points of Business Entities Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Titova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes key notions and principles of corporate staff social rights and protection. These notions were considered in terms of business entities social policy. The author thoroughly studied such personnel rights as the right to organize and bargain collectively, freedom of association, payment for personnel labor, child labor, forced labor, duty hours, discrimination, worker safety and health. The author attaches special attention to the types of privileges and guarantees, which business entities should provide to their employees, such as compensation for moral damages caused by labor injury, material assistance to employees and their families in different cases, concerned with labor functions

  14. Some Numbers behind Canada's Decision to Adopt an Orphan Drug Policy: US Orphan Drug Approvals in Canada, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Krahn, Timothy Mark

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada has changed between 1997 (when Canada chose not to adopt an orphan drug policy) and 2012 (when Canada reversed its policy decision). Specifically, we looked at two dimensions of access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada: (1) regulatory access; and (2) temporal access. Whereas only 63% of US-approved orphan drugs were granted regulatory approval in 1997, we found that regulatory access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada increased to 74% between 1997 and 2012. However, temporal access to orphan drugs is slower in Canada: in a head-on comparison of 40 matched drugs, only two were submitted and four were approved first in Canada; moreover, the mean review time in Canada (423 days) was longer than that in the US (mean = 341 days), a statistically significant difference (t[39] = 2.04, p = 0.048). These results raise questions about what motivated Canada's apparent shift in orphan drug policy. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.

  15. Enforcing the Right to Family Life in Hong Kong Courts: The Case of Dependant Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chuen Ngai Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the Hong Kong courts’ seemingly robust protection of fundamental rights and civil liberties, enforcing family rights remains extremely difficult. While the right to family life is safeguarded by both domestic and international human right instruments, applicants in judicial review cases are usually not able to rely on it to challenge the decisions made by the immigration authority. This paper examines the challenges in enforcing the right to family life in Hong Kong’s Dependant Policy with a particular focus on the Hong Kong Court of Appeal’s recent decision in BI v Director of Immigration. The immigration reservation, entered into by the United Kingdom when ratifying the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, has become a justification for a restrictive immigration regime even after the transfer of sovereignty. The Hong Kong courts also repeatedly accord wide discretion to immigration authority. The courts’ reluctance to scrutinize socio-economic policies reveals one of the key weaknesses in enforcing fundamental rights in Hong Kong by the way of judicial review.

  16. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

  17. Language policy and language learning in Macedonia Which lessons may be adopted from the Swiss model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhaferri, Gëzim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The following paper will investigate the acquisition of Macedonian languages in public schools and universities, focusing on the Albanian and Macedonian languages. As the saying goes: "The more languages you speak, the more human you are". Abiding by this proverb, the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia should be encouraged to become multilingual by learning the national languages. The acquisition of the national languages in a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country like Macedonia is, in my opinion, a necessary step toward the establishment of smooth and peaceful communication between the country's two largest cultural groups (Macedonians and Albanians, and is therefore also a prerequisite for the successful integration of every citizen into their home country's society. This paper also investigates Switzerland's multilingual and multicultural society, which serves as a successful and positive example of how a nation can deal with a multilingual population and the integration of its population. With this in mind, the question is raised here whether the model of Switzerland's language policy and national language instruction can perhaps also serve as an example for the Republic of Macedonia.

  18. The place of human rights and the common good in global health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioulas, John; Vayena, Effy

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an integrated account of two strands of global health justice: health-related human rights and health-related common goods. After sketching a general understanding of the nature of human rights, it proceeds to explain both how individual human rights are to be individuated and the content of their associated obligations specified. With respect to both issues, the human right to health is taken as the primary illustration. It is argued that (1) the individuation of the right to health is fixed by reference to the subject matter of its corresponding obligations, and not by the interests it serves, and (2) the specification of the content of that right must be properly responsive to thresholds of possibility and burden. The article concludes by insisting that human rights cannot constitute the whole of global health justice and that, in addition, other considerations-including the promotion of health-related global public goods-should also shape such policy. Moreover, the relationship between human rights and common goods should not be conceived as mutually exclusive. On the contrary, there sometimes exists an individual right to some aspect of a common good, including a right to benefit from health-related common goods such as programmes for securing herd immunity from diphtheria.

  19. What do human rights bring to discussions of power and politics in health policy and systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-12-13

    Scholarly interrogations of power and politics are not endemic to the disciplines primarily tasked with exploring health policy and planning in the domestic or global domains. Scholars in these domains have come late to investigating power, prompted in part by the growing focus in domestic and global health research on the intersections between governance, globalization and health inequities. Recent prominent reports in this area increasingly point to human rights as important norms capable of responding in part to power differentials that sustain and exacerbate health inequities. Yet human rights law is not traditionally incorporated into health policy scholarship or education, despite offering important normative and strategic frameworks for public and global health, with distinctive contributions in relation to identifying and challenging certain forms of power disparity. This paper overviews two of these reports and how they see power functioning to sustain health inequities. It then turns to investigate what human rights and the right to health in particular may offer in addressing and challenging power in the health policy context.

  20. A Right to Disclose: LGBTQ Youth Representation in Data, Science, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Shannon D; Russell, Stephen T; Arredondo, Mariella; Skiba, Russell

    2016-01-01

    There has been growing attention to sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) in child and adolescent development, public discourse, and research. A strong tension is clear: The right for participation, and thus representation in data, science, and policy, is often understood as conflicting with the right for protection, that is, safety from disclosure of a marginalized orientation or identity. Both participation and protection rights are also closely tied to young people's rights to privacy (or lack thereof). We review recent scholarship on SOGI in developmental sciences in light of this tension. We focus on schooling as a salient developmental context for all youth, a place that is historically unsafe for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and a context where researchers have identified gaps of knowledge as well as strategies for improvement. Our review focuses on the politics and processes of SOGI inclusion in education data collection efforts in the United States, an area where SOGI data collection is scarce in comparison to other systems of care, such as health. We suggest that one solution to the dilemma would be that youth have the right to disclose their SOGI information to whom and when they choose. We offer strategies on how to hold these tensions in balance and move toward SOGI-inclusive research and data collection so that LGBTQ youth can be represented in data, science, and policy. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  2. Access to health care as a human right in international policy: critical reflections and contemporary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Camilo Hernán Manchola; Garrafa, Volnei; Cunha, Thiago; Hellmann, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Using the United Nations (UN) and its subordinate body, the World Health Organization (WHO), as a frame of reference, this article explores access to healthcare as a human right in international intergovernmental policies. First, we look at how the theme of health is treated within the UN, focusing on the concept of global health. We then discuss the concept of global health from a human rights perspective and go on to outline the debate surrounding universal coverage versus universal access as a human right, addressing some important ethical questions. Thereafter, we discuss universal coverage versus universal access using the critical and constructivist theories of international relations as a frame of reference. Finally, it is concluded that, faced with the persistence of huge global health inequalities, the WHO began to reshape itself, leaving behind the notion of health as a human right and imposing the challenge of reducing the wide gap that separates international intergovernmental laws from reality.

  3. Free Markets, Property Rights and Climate Change: How to Privatize Climate Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Dawson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal has been to devise a strategy that protects as much as possible the rights and liberties of all agents, both users of fossil fuels and people whose livelihoods and territories are at risk if the anthropogenic global warming (AGW hypothesis is true. To achieve this goal the standard climate policy instruments, taxes and emissions trading, should be discontinued. There are weaknesses in the theoretical perspectives used to justify these policy instruments and climate science cannot provide the knowledge that would be needed to justify their implementation. In their place I propose a privatised policy, based on Austrian and libertarian frameworks of thought, which share an interpretation of climate change as a putative interpersonal conflict rather than market failure. The use of fossil fuels, like any other economic activity, should be subject to side-constraints designed to avoid the infringement of other people’s property rights. Tort litigation on the basis of strict liability would protect these rights, insofar as they need protecting. By providing a public arena for the competitive testing of scientific hypotheses concerning climate change, such litigation would also promote the public understanding and even the advancement of climate science.

  4. Women's reproductive rights in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: challenges for transforming policy into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; San Sebastián, Miguel; Wulff, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Despite advances made by Ecuador in developing policies on reproductive and sexual rights, implementation, and oversight remain a challenge, affecting in particular those living in the Amazon basin. This paper reports on an evaluation of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in Orellana, Ecuador, the basis of which was the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument, which was altered to focus on government obligations, the reality of access and utilization of services, and the inequities and implementation challenges between the two. A community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006 served to document the current status of SRHR Local female field workers interviewed 2025 women on three areas of womens reproductive health: delivery care, family planning, and pregnancy among adolescent girls age 10-19. The results suggest a reality more dismal than that of the official information for the area. Skilled delivery care, modern contraceptive use, and wanted pregnancies were conspicuously lower among indigenous women living in rural areas. Access to reproductive health services varied between rural and urban women. These significant differences in care--amongst others documented--raise concerns over the utility of national-level data for addressing inequities. The gaps evident in the validity of available information for monitoring policies and programs, and between national policy and action reveal that much still needs to be done to realize SRHR for women in the Amazon basin, and that current accountability mechanisms are inadequate.

  5. An analysis of policy scenario effects on the adoption of energy production on the farm: A case study in Emilia–Romagna (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, Fabio; Viaggi, Davide

    2012-01-01

    The agriculture sector’s contribution to energy production is a central issue in ongoing policy debates, and one of the central elements of the development of Bioeconomy sector. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the main determinants of the different farm strategies of European farmers. The CAP is now undergoing a thorough revision process which necessarily includes a debate of the role of the policy in rural areas and the effectiveness of the various CAP policy mechanisms. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of alternative CAP scenarios in the light of the possible changes in 2013 and the willingness to adopt energy plants for energy crops in the Province of Bologna (Italy). This is pursued using both survey information and farm-household mathematical programming models, hence using stated intentions and simulated profitability to analyse the adopt of new technologies for energy production. The results underscore the relevance of the CAP scenarios in altering intentions with regard to the adoption of energy production and the relevant effect of uncertainty in delaying the diffusion of energy production systems. - Highlights: ► We analyse policy effects on adoption of energy production by the farms. ► CAP scenario strongly affects the intention to adopt energy productions. ► Uncertainty in decision variables have the effect to postpone the decision on energy productions.

  6. Projected impacts to the production of outdoor recreation opportunities across US state park systems due to the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Seekamp, Erin; Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Miller, Anna B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A technical efficiency model identifies where state park systems can be improved. • The technical efficiency model is joined with output of CC policy simulations. • Shifts in operating expenditure under the CC mitigation policy are estimated. • Results reveal substantial variability across states. • Increasing technical efficiency is the best solution to adapt to CC policy impacts. - Abstract: Numerous empirical and simulation-based studies have documented or estimated variable impacts to the economic growth of nation states due to the adoption of domestic climate change mitigation policies. However, few studies have been able to empirically link projected changes in economic growth to the provision of public goods and services. In this research, we couple projected changes in economic growth to US states brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy with a longitudinal panel dataset detailing the production of outdoor recreation opportunities on lands managed in the public interest. Joining empirical data and simulation-based estimates allow us to better understand how the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy would affect the provision of public goods in the future. We first employ a technical efficiency model and metrics to provide decision makers with evidence of specific areas where operational efficiencies within the nation's state park systems can be improved. We then augment the empirical analysis with simulation-based changes in gross state product (GSP) to estimate changes to the states’ ability to provide outdoor recreation opportunities from 2014 to 2020; the results reveal substantial variability across states. Finally, we explore two potential solutions (increasing GSP or increasing technical efficiency) for addressing the negative impacts on the states’ park systems operating budgets brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy; the

  7. The right to health, health systems development and public health policy challenges in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azétsop, Jacquineau; Ochieng, Michael

    2015-02-15

    There is increasing consensus that the right to health can provide ethical, policy and practical groundings for health systems development. The goals of the right to health are congruent with those of health systems development, which are about strengthening health promotion organizations and actions so as to improve public health. The poor shape and performance of health systems in Chad question the extent of realization of the right to health. Due to its comprehensiveness and inclusiveness, the right to health has the potential of being an organizational and a normative backbone for public health policy and practice. It can then be understood and studied as an integral component of health systems development. This paper uses a secondary data analysis of existing documents by the Ministry of Public Health, Institut National de la Statistique, des Etudes Economiques et Démographiques (INSEED), the Ministry of Economy and Agence Française de Cooperation to analyze critically the shape and performance of health systems in Chad based on key concepts and components of the right to health contained in article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and on General Comment 14. The non-realization of the right to health, even in a consistently progressive manner, raises concerns about the political commitment of state officials to public health, about the justice of social institutions in ensuring social well-being and about individual and public values that shape decision-making processes. Social justice, democratic rule, transparency, accountability and subsidiarity are important groundings for ensuring community participation in public affairs and for monitoring the performance of public institutions. The normative ideals of health systems development are essentially democratic in nature and are rooted in human rights and in ethical principles of human dignity, equality, non-discrimination and social justice. These ideals are grounded

  8. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2015-12-10

    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results. Copyright © 2015 Frenk and Gómez-Dantés. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  9. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Neves-Silva, Priscila; Heller, Léo

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS) by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  10. Human rights principles in developing and updating policies and laws on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 stipulates human rights as a cross-cutting principle (WHO, 2013) and foresees global targets to update policies as well as mental health laws in line with international and regional human rights instruments. The international human rights agreements repeatedly refer to health, including mental health. The most pertinent provisions related to mental health are enshrined in the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which sets out human rights in an accessible and inclusive fashion to ensure the equal participation of persons with disabilities. The inconclusive description of disability in the treaty overtly refers to 'mental impairment' as part of an explicitly evolving understanding of disability. This text sketches some of the underlying concepts as they apply to the realm of mental health: non-discrimination of persons with disabilities and measures that should be taken to ensure accessibility in a holistic understanding; removal of social and attitudinal barriers as much as communication and intellectual barriers but also institutional hurdles. The CRPD's paradigm shift away from framing disability mainly through deficits towards a social understanding of disability as the result of interaction and focusing on capacity is the core on which the provision of mental health services at community level to enable participation in society shall be ensured. Questions of capacity, also to make decisions and the possible need for support in so doing, are sketched out.

  11. Fed up with the right to food? : The Netherlands' policies and practices regarding the human right to adequate food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no one in this world who would deny the importance of access to adequate food for every human being. In fact, access to food has been declared a human right in 1948 with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In spite of the right to food to be more than half a century old, many are not

  12. Viewpoint – The Right Irrigation? Policy Directions for Agricultural Water Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Lankford

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In July 2009, in the closing moments of the G8 meeting in Italy, President Obama responded to a question from the floor regarding investments in Africa to tackle food security and poverty. His answer (quoted below included the phrase "the right irrigation". This opinion piece reflects on the phrase, places it within a policy debate and suggests that the development community can respond to Obama’s call for the 'right irrigation' in sub‐ Saharan Africa by taking a comprehensive approach that utilises a mixture of technologies, builds on local capabilities, brings sound engineering know‐how, is supported by a range of other services, and acknowledges other water needs within catchments. Cost‐effectiveness and community ownership will be important.

  13. What's Left of the Left-Right Dimension? Why the Economic Policy Positions of Europeans Do Not Fit the Left-Right Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjes, Simon

    2018-01-01

    In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension. There is also a role for the legacy of communist dictatorship: citizens who were socialised in democratic countries have views that fit the left-right dimension better than those socialised during communism.

  14. UNICEF's contribution to the adoption and implementation of option B+ for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersich, M F; Newbatt, E; Ng'oma, K; de Zoysa, I

    2018-06-01

    Between 2011 and 2013, global and national guidelines for preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV shifted to recommend Option B+, the provision of lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all HIV-infected pregnant women. We aimed to analyse how Option B+ reached the policy agenda, and unpack the processes, actors and politics that explain its adoption, with a focus on examining UNICEF's contribution to these events. Analysis drew on published articles and other documentation, 30 key informants interviews with staff at UNICEF, partner organisations and government officials, and country case studies. Cameroon, India, South Africa and Zimbabwe were each visited for 5-8 days. Interview transcripts were analysed using Dedoose software, reviewed several times and then coded thematically. A national policy initiative in Malawi in 2011, in which the country adopted Option B+, rather than existing WHO recommended regimens, irrevocably placed the policy on the global agenda. UNICEF and other organisations recognised the policy's potential impact and strategically crafted arguments to support it, framing these around operational considerations, cost-effectiveness and values. As 'policy entrepreneurs', these organisations vigorously promoted the policy through a variety of channels and means, overcoming concerted opposition. WHO, on the basis of scanty evidence, released a series of documents towards the policy's endorsement, paving the way for its widespread adoption. National-level policy transformation was rapid and definitive, distinct from previous incremental policy processes. Many organisations, including UNICEF, facilitated these changes in country, acting individually, or in concert. The adoption of the Option B+ policy marked a departure from established processes for PMTCT policy formulation which had been led by WHO with the support of technical experts, and in which recommendations were developed following shifts in evidence. Rather, changes were

  15. Food system policy, public health, and human rights in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kerry L; Kim, Brent F; McKenzie, Shawn E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2015-03-18

    The US food system functions within a complex nexus of social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological factors. Among them are many dynamic pressures such as population growth, urbanization, socioeconomic inequities, climate disruption, and the increasing demand for resource-intensive foods that place immense strains on public health and the environment. This review focuses on the role that policy plays in defining the food system, particularly with regard to agriculture. It further examines the challenges of making the food supply safe, nutritious, and sustainable, while respecting the rights of all people to have access to adequate food and to attain the highest standard of health. We conclude that the present US food system is largely unhealthy, inequitable, environmentally damaging, and insufficiently resilient to endure the impacts of climate change, resource depletion, and population increases, and is therefore unsustainable. Thus, it is imperative that the US embraces policy reforms to transform the food system into one that supports public health and reflects the principles of human rights and agroecology for the benefit of current and future generations.

  16. Add-on conservation benefits of marine territorial user rights fishery policies in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Godoy, Natalio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To combine the rational use of marine benthic resources and economic development of small-scale fishers, Chile passed legislation in 1991 establishing a comanagement policy that grants exclusive territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs) to artisanal fisher organizations in well-defined inshore coastal areas, known as Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs). In general the policy has been proclaimed a management and economic success because benthic resource abundances have increased inside MEABRs in comparison with open-access areas. However, there is a lack of studies assessing the impact of this management policy on nontargeted subtidal species and community assemblages and the policy's implications for biodiversity and conservation. This study starts to fill this gap and links the allocation of TURFs for benthic resources with add-on conservation benefits for species that are not directly linked with the fishery policy. Comparative subtidal surveys inside vs. outside MEABRs were used to assess the effects of three MEABRs on managed targeted benthic species, biodiversity (species richness), and community assemblages in central Chile. Surveys focused exclusively on subtidal kelp forest habitats dominated by Lessonia trabeculata, spanning 4-12 m in depth and with similar levels of habitat complexity. The study comprised: (1) quantification of kelp forest complexity, (2) understory survey of sessile species, (3) quantification of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, including those under management, and (4) quantification of reef-fish species inside the kelp habitat. Results showed population enhancement of target-managed invertebrates inside MEABRs. Moreover, reef-fish species were significantly more diverse and abundant inside MEABRs, and community assemblages of nontarget benthic invertebrates and reef fish were significantly different inside vs. outside MEABRs. The comanagement of inshore benthic resources in Chile, through MEABRs

  17. Changing patterns of basic household consumption in the Inner Mongolian grasslands: a case study of policy-oriented adoptive changes in the use of grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, B.; Zhen, L.; Groot, de R.S.; Goulden, C.E.; Long, X.; Cao, X.; Wu, R.; Sun, C.

    2014-01-01

    Grassland ecosystems, as the basic natural resources in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, are becoming increasingly sensitive to human intervention, leading to deterioration in fragile ecosystems. The goal of this study was to describe the restoration policy-oriented adoptive changes to basic

  18. Inclusion and Human Rights in Health Policies: Comparative and Benchmarking Analysis of 51 Policies from Malawi, Sudan, South Africa and Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Amin, Mutamad; Mannan, Hasheem; El Tayeb, Shahla; Bedri, Nafisa; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Van Rooy, Gert; McVeigh, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    While many health services strive to be equitable, accessible and inclusive, peoples’ right to health often goes unrealized, particularly among vulnerable groups. The extent to which health policies explicitly seek to achieve such goals sets the policy context in which services are delivered and evaluated. An analytical framework was developed – EquiFrame – to evaluate 1) the extent to which 21 Core Concepts of human rights were addressed in policy documents, and 2) coverage of 12 Vulnerable Groups who might benefit from such policies. Using this framework, analysis of 51 policies across Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Sudan, confirmed the relevance of all Core Concepts and Vulnerable Groups. Further, our analysis highlighted some very strong policies, serious shortcomings in others as well as country-specific patterns. If social inclusion and human rights do not underpin policy formation, it is unlikely they will be inculcated in service delivery. EquiFrame facilitates policy analysis and benchmarking, and provides a means for evaluating policy revision and development. PMID:22649488

  19. Inclusion and human rights in health policies: comparative and benchmarking analysis of 51 policies from Malawi, Sudan, South Africa and Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm MacLachlan

    Full Text Available While many health services strive to be equitable, accessible and inclusive, peoples' right to health often goes unrealized, particularly among vulnerable groups. The extent to which health policies explicitly seek to achieve such goals sets the policy context in which services are delivered and evaluated. An analytical framework was developed--EquiFrame--to evaluate 1 the extent to which 21 Core Concepts of human rights were addressed in policy documents, and 2 coverage of 12 Vulnerable Groups who might benefit from such policies. Using this framework, analysis of 51 policies across Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Sudan, confirmed the relevance of all Core Concepts and Vulnerable Groups. Further, our analysis highlighted some very strong policies, serious shortcomings in others as well as country-specific patterns. If social inclusion and human rights do not underpin policy formation, it is unlikely they will be inculcated in service delivery. EquiFrame facilitates policy analysis and benchmarking, and provides a means for evaluating policy revision and development.

  20. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Designers' enactment of the policy intentions. An ethnographic study of the adoption of energy regulations in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-Lancaster, Gabriela; Tweed, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The United Kingdom is aspiring to reduce the carbon emissions in the building sector, aiming to achieve nearly zero carbon buildings by 2020. The policy models in England and Wales rely on three strands: regulations; financial incentives and educational schemes. A growing body of literature suggests that the building industry is facing several barriers that hinder the delivery of the expected carbon targets outlined at policy level. This research explores the enactment of the policy aspirations by building designers using a bottom-up approach. An ethnographic study was conducted to analyse the design process of six non-domestic buildings. The work identified the designers' responses to adopt the policy agenda in routine design and overcome the challenges that emerged during the design process. The understanding of the designers' responses could inform the policy model and suggest areas that need attention for the timely delivery of the expected carbon reductions. - Highlights: • Designers' compliance of regulations may not conform to performance-driven processes. • Stakeholders' expectations and poor awareness of performance hinder compliance. • Designers implement flexible responses to adopt the low carbon policy agenda. • The engagement of the stakeholders enables the continuity of energy aspirations. • Policies may benefit from understanding the bottom-up responses in routine design

  2. Getting patent policy right: a conclusion to a special issue on the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    will hamper innovation regardless of whether the system stays as it is or morphs to Community-level. What precisely the policy rearguard should be right now is problematic and the source of continuing debate. To shed light on a perennial question, the final part of this Special Issue reflects...... in the contributions made and continues the perennial quest for getting patent policy right in Europe; and in so doing, proposes specific sets of solutions....

  3. The Kenyan national response to internationally agreed sexual and reproductive health and rights goals: a case study of three policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronje, Rose N

    2013-11-01

    While priorities for, and decision-making processes on, sexual and reproductive health and rights have been determined and led mainly at the international level, conflicting power dynamics and responses at the national level in some countries have continued to pose challenges for operationalising international agreements. This paper demonstrates how these conflicts have played out in Kenya through an analysis of three policy-making processes, which led to the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy (2003), the Sexual Offences Act (2006), and the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). The paper is based on data from a broader study on the drivers and inhibitors of sexual and reproductive health policy reform in Kenya, using a qualitative, case study design. Information was gathered through 54 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with governmental and civil society policy actors and an extensive review of policy documents and media reports. The paper shows that the transformative human rights framing of access to sexual and reproductive health, supported by both a strong global women's rights movement and progressive governmental and inter-governmental actors to defeat opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights at the international level, has not been as influential or successful at the national level in Kenya, and has made comprehensive national reforms difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Job Satisfaction: A Study of the Relationship between Right-to-Work Policy and Public School Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, David G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between state unionization policy and teacher job satisfaction in the K-12 public school environment in the states of Florida and New York (i.e., a right-to-work state and a non-right-to-work state). Data were collected via electronic survey to analyze personal demographics, human capital,…

  5. The evolution of HIV policy in Vietnam: from punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Ha, Pham; Pharris, Anastasia; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Brugha, Ruairi; Thorson, Anna

    2010-08-28

    Policymaking in Vietnam has traditionally been the preserve of the political elite, not open to the scrutiny of those outside the Communist Party. This paper aims to analyse Vietnam's HIV policy development in order to describe and understand the policy content, policy-making processes, actors and obstacles to policy implementation. Nine policy documents on HIV were analysed and 17 key informant interviews were conducted in Hanoi and Quang Ninh Province, based on a predesigned interview guide. Framework analysis, a type of qualitative content analysis, was applied for data analysis. Our main finding was that during the last two decades, developments in HIV policy in Vietnam were driven in a top-down way by the state organs, with support and resources coming from international agencies. Four major themes were identified: HIV policy content, the policy-making processes, the actors involved and human resources for policy implementation. Vietnam's HIV policy has evolved from one focused on punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach, encompassing harm reduction and payment of health insurance for medical costs of patients with HIV-related illness. Low salaries and staff reluctance to work with patients, many of whom are drug users and female sex workers, were described as the main barriers to low health staff motivation. Health policy analysis approaches can be applied in a traditional one party state and can demonstrate how similar policy changes take place, as those found in pluralistic societies, but through more top-down and somewhat hidden processes. Enhanced participation of other actors, like civil society in the policy process, is likely to contribute to policy formulation and implementation that meets the diverse needs and concerns of its population.

  6. The evolution of HIV policy in Vietnam: from punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Nguyen Ha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Policymaking in Vietnam has traditionally been the preserve of the political elite, not open to the scrutiny of those outside the Communist Party. This paper aims to analyse Vietnam's HIV policy development in order to describe and understand the policy content, policy-making processes, actors and obstacles to policy implementation. Methods: Nine policy documents on HIV were analysed and 17 key informant interviews were conducted in Hanoi and Quang Ninh Province, based on a predesigned interview guide. Framework analysis, a type of qualitative content analysis, was applied for data analysis. Results: Our main finding was that during the last two decades, developments in HIV policy in Vietnam were driven in a top-down way by the state organs, with support and resources coming from international agencies. Four major themes were identified: HIV policy content, the policy-making processes, the actors involved and human resources for policy implementation. Vietnam's HIV policy has evolved from one focused on punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach, encompassing harm reduction and payment of health insurance for medical costs of patients with HIV-related illness. Low salaries and staff reluctance to work with patients, many of whom are drug users and female sex workers, were described as the main barriers to low health staff motivation. Conclusion: Health policy analysis approaches can be applied in a traditional one party state and can demonstrate how similar policy changes take place, as those found in pluralistic societies, but through more top-down and somewhat hidden processes. Enhanced participation of other actors, like civil society in the policy process, is likely to contribute to policy formulation and implementation that meets the diverse needs and concerns of its population.

  7. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  8. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Zekraoui, Wahiba; Hikmat, Halima; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els

    2013-10-16

    In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO's and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand

  9. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  10. Impact of Environmental Policies on the Adoption of Animal Waste Management Practices in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jeff; Ribaudo, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the ERS-NASS ARMS surveys to compare the use of best management practices on poultry and livestock farms inside the watershed and outside the watershed. Animal operations within the Chesapeake Bay States were found to be adopting some important manure management practices at a greater rate than operations outside the watershed. Adoption was taking place before the implementation of the TMDL, indicating that farmers may have been acting in response to building public pressure ...

  11. Identifying structural barriers to an effective HIV response: using the National Composite Policy Index data to evaluate the human rights, legal and policy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Alfven, Tobias; Rugg, Deborah; Peersman, Greet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Attention to the negative effects of structural barriers on HIV efforts is increasing. Reviewing national legal and policy environments with attention to the international human rights commitments of states is a means of assessing and providing focus for addressing these barriers to effective HIV responses. Methods Law and policy data from the 171 countries reporting under the Declaration of Commitment from the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS were analyzed to assess attention to human rights in national legal and policy environments as relevant to the health and rights of key populations such as people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men and sex workers. Results Seventy-eight governments and civil society in 106 countries report the existence of laws and policies which present obstacles to accessing HIV services for key populations. Laws and policies which positively affect access to HIV-related services, in and of themselves constituting structural interventions, were also reported. The dissonance between laws and how this impacts the availability and use of HIV-related services deserve greater attention. Conclusions Recognition of the harms inherent in laws that constitute structural barriers to effective HIV responses and the potential positive role that a supportive legal environment can play suggests the need for legal reform to ensure an enabling regulatory framework within which HIV services can be effectively delivered and used by the populations who need them. Moving beyond laws and policies, further efforts are required to determine how to capture information on the range of structural barriers. Teasing apart the impact of different barriers, as well as the structural interventions put in place to address them, remains complicated. Capturing the impact of policy and legal interventions can ultimately support governments and civil society to ensure the human rights of key populations are protected in

  12. Evidence-informed primary health care workforce policy: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Buchan, Jim; Brooks, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Australia is facing a primary health care workforce shortage. To inform primary health care (PHC) workforce policy reforms, reflection is required on ways to strengthen the evidence base and its uptake into policy making. In 2008 the Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute funded the Australian Health Workforce Institute to host Professor James Buchan, Queen Margaret University, UK, an expert in health services policy research and health workforce planning. Professor Buchan's visit enabled over forty Australian PHC workforce mid-career and senior researchers and policy stakeholders to be involved in roundtable policy dialogue on issues influencing PHC workforce policy making. Six key thematic questions emerged. (1) What makes PHC workforce planning different? (2) Why does the PHC workforce need to be viewed in a global context? (3) What is the capacity of PHC workforce research? (4) What policy levers exist for PHC workforce planning? (5) What principles can guide PHC workforce planning? (6) What incentives exist to optimise the use of evidence in policy making? The emerging themes need to be discussed within the context of current PHC workforce policy reforms, which are focussed on increasing workforce supply (via education/training programs), changing the skill mix and extending the roles of health workers to meet patient needs. With the Australian government seeking to reform and strengthen the PHC workforce, key questions remain about ways to strengthen the PHC workforce evidence base and its uptake into PHC workforce policy making.

  13. Policies and practices related to information system adoption in hospitals owned by Ministries of Health in the Arab Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabali, H M

    1992-07-01

    This is a discussion paper based on the findings from a study of the factors affecting the adoption of computer-based hospital information systems (CBHIS) in the Arabian Gulf. The study involved on-site visits to hospitals in Bahrain, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates as well as visits to ministries of health in these countries. The focus of this paper is on the adoption of CBHIS by ministry of health (MOH) hospitals, in specific, because of the main role that ministries of health play as providers of health care in the Region. Prior to describing CBHIS adoption practices, an overview of the Region in terms of its economic development and its health care delivery systems is presented. Next, the research setting along with the major findings are briefly described followed by a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of centralized CBHIS adoptions. Finally, management guidelines related to the adoption of CBHIS by multi-hospital institutions are proposed.

  14. The Impact of Renewable Energy Policies on the Adoption of Anaerobic Digesters with Farm-Fed Wastes in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baboo Lesh Gowreesunker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of the feed-in tariff (FiT and renewable heat incentive (RHI schemes on the adoption of anaerobic digesters (AD, and the potential energy generation from farm-fed wastes in Great Britain. This paper adopts a linear programming model, developed in the International Energy Agency (IEA TIMES platform, aiming to quantify the degree of adoption of AD and the type of energy generation technologies that can be driven by digester biogas to reduce farm energy costs. The results show that the adoption of AD is cost-beneficial for all farms, but different rates of the FiT and RHI schemes will influence the competitiveness between the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP systems and the utilisation of biogas to only generate heat. The choice of technology is further dependent on the electricity/heat use ratio of the farms and the energy content of the feedstock. The results show that pig farms will more readily adopt CHP, because of its relatively higher electricity-to-heat use ratio, compared to other types of farms, which will favour biogas boilers.

  15. When Love Meets Hate: The Relationship Between State Policies on Gay and Lesbian Rights and Hate Crime Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Brian L.; Levy, Denise L.

    2016-01-01

    Do public policies on gay and lesbian rights affect the incidence of hate crimes based on sexual orientation? We propose that legal inequalities increase hate crimes because they provide discursive opportunities for bias, discrimination, and violence. Legal equality, however, will reduce violence. Using annual panel data from 2000 to 2012, a period of substantial policy change, we analyze how three state policies affect reported hate crimes: same-sex partnerships, employment non-discrimination, and hate crime laws. Hate crime and employment non-discrimination laws that include sexual orientation reduce hate crime incidence. Partnership recognition increases reported hate crimes, though it may not increase actual crime incidence. Because incidence is spatially correlated, policy changes in one state yield spillover benefits in other states. These results provide some of the first quantitative evidence that public policies affect hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Findings confirm the roles of institutional heterosexism and discursive opportunities in producing hate crimes. PMID:27886725

  16. Forty Years of State Alcohol and Pregnancy Policies in the USA: Best Practices for Public Health or Efforts to Restrict Women's Reproductive Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Thomas, Sue; Treffers, Ryan; Drabble, Laurie

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains a public health problem despite >40 years of attention. Little is known about how state policies have evolved and whether policies represent public health goals or efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights. Our data set includes US state policies from 1970 through 2013 obtained through original legal research and from the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's (NIAAA)'s Alcohol Policy Information System. Policies were classified as punitive to women or supportive of them. The association between numbers of punitive policies and supportive policies in 2013 with a measure of state restrictions on reproductive rights and Alcohol Policy Effectiveness Scores (APS) was estimated using a Pearson's correlation. The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased from 1 in 1974 to 43 in 2013. Through the 1980s, state policy environments were either punitive or supportive. In the 1990s, mixed punitive and supportive policy environments began to be the norm, with punitive policies added to supportive ones. No association was found between the number of supportive policies in 2013 and a measure of reproductive rights policies or the APS, nor was there an association between the number of punitive policies and the APS. The number of punitive policies was positively associated, however, with restrictions on reproductive rights. Punitive alcohol and pregnancy policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than effective efforts to curb public health harms due to alcohol use in the general population. Future research should explore the effects of alcohol and pregnancy policies. The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased since 1970 (1 in 1974 and 43 in 2013). Alcohol and pregnancy policies are becoming increasingly punitive. These punitive policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than

  17. Agent-based simulations of the influence of social policy and neighboring communication on the adoption of grid-connected photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-agent systems coupled with an electric power flow analysis. • Influence of social policy and communication on the adoption of photovoltaics. • Strong intervention near a transformer drives the greatest PV adoption. • Strong intervention far from a transformer increases social costs. - Abstract: Agent-based simulations coupled with an analysis of the flow of electric power are carried out to examine the influence of the social policy of the government and the neighboring communication between customers on the adoption of distributed rooftop photovoltaic electrical power generators (PVs). How the relationships between the social policy and the possibility of a reverse current restriction give rise to the collective behavior of autonomous individuals, and how the end customers interact and form relationships with its environment are described. Strong intervention by the government in the areas near a main high-voltage power distribution transformer, where the possibility of a reverse current restriction is relatively low, drives the greatest adoption of the PV system. The near areas are primarily occupied by customers with only a PV to improve the diffusion rate of PVs via the self-organization by the communication between customers. It also lead in a decrease in the need for compensation devices, which in turn minimizes the social cost. Growth in the number of PVs in areas far from the transformer is assisted by the installation of batteries as compensation for the lost opportunity due to restrictions in those areas on reverse power currents. Therefore, excessive intervention by the government in the far areas results in an increase in the social cost of managing reverse currents

  18. Classifying Adoption of Sustainability Policies and Programs: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Development of a Community Sustainability Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how and why different communities engage with sustainability policies and actions is of critical importance for furthering implementation of innovative and conventional sustainability strategies. Despite this importance, an understanding of how and why communities a...

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ADOPTION AND APPLICATION OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES TRANSITION COUNTRIES WITH REGARD TO COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    ŽELJKO GRUBLJEŠIĆ; DALIBOR PAVLOVIĆ; RATKO GARIĆ; RAJKO MACURA; VESNA PETROVIĆ

    2016-01-01

    Accounting policy should be seen as a framework within which policy is formed to keep business events with the primary objective of increasing safety, especially financial reporting of management. Some management companies is who is responsible for the end result of the economic activity of enterprises run by. To be able to reliably managed by the company shall have a built in system management and logging of all activity in the company, it is necessary to respect the recommendati...

  20. Neither Right nor Wrong: How a Teacher Integrates Her Personal and Professional Life with Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the importance of recognizing and appreciating the ways that a teacher integrates her personal and professional life with an English-only policy. Much can be learned from the ways in which she negotiates social forces and integrates them into her individual reality while making sense of the restrictive language policy.…

  1. Unaccompanied Children at the United States Border, a Human Rights Crisis that can be Addressed with Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataiants, Janna; Cohen, Chari; Riley, Amy Henderson; Tellez Lieberman, Jamile; Reidy, Mary Clare; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-08

    In recent years, unaccompanied minors have been journeying to the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border in great numbers in order to escape violence, poverty and exploitation in their home countries. Yet, unaccompanied children attempting to cross the United States border face treatment at the hands of government representatives which violates their inherent rights as children. The result is a human rights crisis that has severe health consequences for the children. Their rights as children are clearly delineated in various, international human rights documents which merit increased understanding of and recognition by the U.S. government. This paper calls for the improvement of policies and procedures for addressing the rights of unaccompanied immigrant children; it provides specific, rights-based recommendations which work together to safeguard the rights of the child at the U.S. southwestern border.

  2. Policy needs and options for a common transatlantic approach towards measuring adoption, usage and benefits of eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroetmann, Karl A; Middleton, Blackford

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) sponsored ARGOS project analysed current eHealth policy thinking in both the EU and the USA, compared strategic challenges and outcomes in selected fields, and drafted roadmaps towards developing advanced global approaches for these issues. This policy brief focuses on better understanding the benefits and costs of eHealth investments, assessing their overall socio-economic impact, identifying challenges and success factors, as well as measuring and globally benchmarking the concrete usage of eHealth solutions. These are by now key policy priorities not only of national governments and the European Commission, but also of international institutions like WHO or OECD. There is a strong felt transatlantic need for stocktaking, identifying lessons learned, sharing of experience, and working together to advance these issues for the benefit of health systems. A growing number of national and international activities can be taken advantage of. Recommendations on how to proceed with such transatlantic activities are proposed.

  3. Getting it right: Filling the gaps in FERC's stranded cost policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, K.; Olson, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    FERC is currently at a cross-road: It must implement its stranded cost policies properly or the comprehensive approach that Order 888 represents will not be credible. In this context, it is important to remember that public policies aimed at introducing competition into electricity markets will proceed more quickly and effectively if the regulatory bargain is kept. Thus, any plan to introduce competition in electricity must honor existing commitments and provide utilities with a reasonable opportunity to recover prudently incurred investments. By closing the gaps in its stranded cost recovery policies in economically appropriate ways, FERC can reaccelerate the movement to efficient competition in generation markets

  4. The Policies Concerning the Strength of Intellectual Property Rights Protection: The Choices for Estonia in Wider Context of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign direct investment (FDI can be substitute for the contractual transfer of intellectual property rights in a situation where these rights are weakly protected. Hence, stronger intellectual property rights protection may reduce incentives for FDI. This is, however, only one line of reasoning. Stronger intellectual property protection can also increase motivation to invest into completely new products and processes. Thus, from the slightly different perspective FDI and strength of intellectual property protection can be seen as complementary. This duality of impact makes the search for efficient protection very difficult and complex. The aim of this paper is to outline the policy choices open for Estonia in influencing the relative strength of intellectual property rights protection and its impact on FDI. The vital secondary research agenda by this concerns the influence of EU-membership on the autonomy of such policy choices. Given the fact that there exist European patents and patent registry, certain intellectual property rights protection measures and legislative practices are undoubtedly pre-determined by this embeddedness into EU-wide protection systems. The national level policies and enforcement issues may still vary.

  5. A Rights-Based Approach to Internet Policy and Governance for the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and Governance for the Advancement of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights ... to housing, the right to an adequate standard of living, and the right to health. ... -assess perceptions and experiences with current and past ESCR advocacy; ... of Sahara, West Indies, North and Central America, South America, South Asia ...

  6. Curricular Choices of Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Communities: Translating International Human Rights Law into Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs the provisions of international human rights law in order to analyse whether and how liberal states should regulate Haredi educational practices, which sanctify the exclusive focus on religious studies in schools for boys. It conceptualises the conflict between the right to acceptable education and the right to adaptable…

  7. When love meets hate: The relationship between state policies on gay and lesbian rights and hate crime incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Brian L; Levy, Denise L

    2017-01-01

    Do public policies on gay and lesbian rights affect the incidence of hate crimes based on sexual orientation? We propose that legal inequalities increase hate crimes because they provide discursive opportunities for bias, discrimination, and violence. Legal equality, however, will reduce violence. Using annual panel data from 2000 to 2012, a period of substantial policy change, we analyze how three state policies affect reported hate crimes: same-sex partnerships, employment non-discrimination, and hate crime laws. Hate crime and employment non-discrimination laws that include sexual orientation reduce hate crime incidence. Partnership recognition increases reported hate crimes, though it may not increase actual crime incidence. Because incidence is spatially correlated, policy changes in one state yield spillover benefits in other states. These results provide some of the first quantitative evidence that public policies affect hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Findings confirm the roles of institutional heterosexism and discursive opportunities in producing hate crimes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficiency of environmental policies aiming at fostering the adoption of new technologies: the case of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, M.L.

    2004-10-01

    This thesis aims to study the efficiency of promotion policies of renewable energies in electric power production taking into account the environment economy problems. The techniques at a commercial scale are particularly discussed. The first part deals with the incitement to technical progress in favor of the environmental protection. The second part proposes an empirical analysis based on the efficiency economical parameters and the last part analyses theoretically the efficiency of promotion tools of renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ADOPTION AND APPLICATION OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES TRANSITION COUNTRIES WITH REGARD TO COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŽELJKO GRUBLJEŠIĆ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Accounting policy should be seen as a framework within which policy is formed to keep business events with the primary objective of increasing safety, especially financial reporting of management. Some management companies is who is responsible for the end result of the economic activity of enterprises run by. To be able to reliably managed by the company shall have a built in system management and logging of all activity in the company, it is necessary to respect the recommendations of the internal control and audit and external audit recommendations. The accounting policy is closely related to the implementation of IAS/IFRS, which are more practical use in the Republic of Serbia starting from 2002. Greater application of these standards, companies must make changes to the accounting policies as it begins to implement the increasing number of requirements of the standard in the field of increase of caution, especially in the context of recognition and accreditation. Practically the back door is introduced replacing "the concept of historical cost" (caution, "the concept of fair value" (neutrality. The emergence of large financial and global crisis of 2008, a growing number of actors want to be informed through the financial statements of the real and the real situation in the companies, which are trying to raise the level of protection above all creditors and investors. Also in the first half of 2013, and the state wants to ensure protection management in the public sector and imposes solutions obligatory presence of Internal Auditors of the public sector in public enterprises.

  10. The Impacts of Changes to Nevada’s Net Metering Policy on the Financial Performance and Adoption of Distributed Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Net energy metering (NEM) is a billing mechanism that has historically compensated owners of distributed generation systems at retail rates for any electricity that they export back to the grid rather than consume on-site. NEM can significantly enhance the financial performance of distributed generation systems from the owner’s perspective. The following analysis was designed to illustrate the potential impact of NEM policy and tariff changes implemented in early 2016 in Nevada.

  11. Clean energy proposals are chance for nuclear to have rightful place at policy table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Foratom, the Brussels based trade association for the nuclear industry in Europe, published a position paper on the European Commission's 'Clean Energy for All Europeans' package of EU legislative proposals. The proposals seek to improve the functioning of the energy market and ensure all energy technologies can compete on a level-playing field without jeopardising climate and energy targets. If Europe seeks to have a coherent and inclusive energy policy, which encompasses all lowcarbon contributors, nuclear must be allowed a place at the policy table.

  12. Rethinking Bilingual Education in Peru: Intercultural Politics, State Policy and Indigenous Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Elena

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores recent changes in Peruvian national education policy and the effects these have had on indigenous populations. Situating Peruvian education reforms within a context of international multicultural development, the paper traces the history of reforms as implemented by national and international actors in varying degrees and…

  13. Language Policy, Ethnic Tensions and Linguistic Rights in Post War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Sreemali

    2015-01-01

    As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…

  14. Implications of the Private Property Right to the Community Forest Businesses Formalization through the Certification Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramasto Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the implication of formalization of community forest business efforts through mandatory timber legality certification policy. Field survey was conducted in March–April 2012 in 3 districts in Central of Java namely Blora, Wonogiri, and Wonosobo District. The results showed that community forest is mainly planting in their private owned land. It brings 2 consequences. Firstly, their willingness to manage their forest sustainably was emerged without any enforcement from external parties. Secondly, there were autonomous in decision making in their way to manage their forest such as they only planted tree species that easy to sell and valuable, they only cut their trees when they need huge money for children schooling, marriage, illness, and housing. The autonomous decision making gives also the owners (farmers other alternatives to utilize their land otherwise planting the trees. It is mean, if the policy is decreasing the potential benefits from growing the trees, they can also convert their community forest into other business in which profitable and easy to sell their products. From those facts, it seems the formalization of community forest business through mandatory certification is not a proper policy to enhance the community forest.Keywords: community forest, formalization, policy, private property, timber legality DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.178

  15. Urban Policy, Social Movements and the Right to the City in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friendly, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian urban social movements have played a key role in bringing about change in urban policy since the 1980s and in light of the widespread protests across the country in June 2013. This insurgency and the urban reform movement of the 1980s and 1990s exemplify waves of mobilization and

  16. A Rights-Based Approach to Internet Policy and Governance for the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The debate on Internet freedom has intensified over the last few years as governments and civil society organizations explore policies to safeguard online civil liberties and online security. Civil society organizations and academics have noted the growth of online censorship and surveillance. Many have argued for a more ...

  17. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa; Allotey, Pascale; Mulholland, Kim; Markovic, Milica

    2009-02-03

    Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV) refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV) refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003). After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Government asylum policies and practices violating human rights norms are associated with demonstrable psychological health impacts. This link between policy, rights violations and health outcomes offers a framework for addressing the impact of socio-political structures on health.

  18. Forty Years of State Alcohol and Pregnancy Policies in the USA: Best Practices for Public Health or Efforts to Restrict Women's Reproductive Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, SCM; Thomas, S; Treffers, R; Drabble, L

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains a public health problem despite >40 years of attention. Little is known about how state policies have evolved and whether policies represent public health goals or efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights.Our data set includes US state policies from 1970 through 2013 obtained through original legal research and from the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's (NIAAA)'s Alcohol Policy Information System. Policies were classified...

  19. Civil Rights Enforcement Gone Haywire: The Federal Government's New School-Discipline Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    In January, 2014, the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Office for Civil Rights in the Department of Education (ED) issued a joint "Dear Colleague Letter" to K-12 schools. The topic discussed in their joint letter is whether administrators are punishing minority children more harshly than white children for…

  20. Revisioning Assessment through a Children's Rights Approach: Implications for Policy, Process and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Jannette; Lundy, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The linkage between the impact of assessment and compliance with children's rights is a connection, which although seemingly obvious, is nonetheless rarely made, particularly by governments, which, as signatories to the relevant human rights treaties, have the primary responsibility for ensuring that educational practice is compatible with…

  1. 76 FR 28397 - Acceleration of Broadband Deployment by Improving Policies Regarding Public Rights of Way and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... franchising or rights of way laws; and total time to process applications. To the extent that certain... comprehensive state franchising or rights of way laws; whether the charges are published in advance or... interested parties to submit examples of model, typical, and problematic franchising or access agreements. 16...

  2. A change in behaviour: getting the balance right for research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maureen; Ryan, Cristín; Downey, Damian G; Hughes, Carmel M

    2016-10-01

    Behaviour change interventions offer clinical pharmacists many opportunities to optimise the use of medicines. 'MINDSPACE' is a framework used by a Government-affiliated organisation in the United Kingdom to communicate an approach to changing behaviour through policy. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) organises constructs of psychological theories that are most relevant to behaviour change into 14 domains. Both frameworks offer a way of identifying what drives a change in behaviour, providing a target for an intervention. This article aims to compare and contrast MINDSPACE and the TDF, and serves to inform pharmacy practitioners about the potential strengths and weaknesses of using either framework in a clinical pharmacy context. It appears that neither framework can deliver evidence-based interventions that can be developed and implemented with the pace demanded by policy and practice-based settings. A collaborative approach would ensure timely development of acceptable behaviour change interventions that are grounded in evidence.

  3. A HALF-WAY RIGHT: FREE EDUCATION, INDIRECT COSTS, AND EDUCATIONAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fernández Enguita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines those indirect costs of education associated to state funded schooling that come to be privately financed by families, specially those linked to mandatory or mandated provision schooling. Discussion is more detailed about textbooks, school meals and academic support activities. Then we study the consequences of this private spending for gratuity and its effects related to educational and social equality or inequality. Finally, we analyze the implications related to sectional interests at stake and educational policies.

  4. A half-way right: free education, indirect costs, and educational policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fernández Enguita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines those indirect costs of education associated to state funded schooling that come to be privately financed by families, specially those linked to mandatory or mandated provision schooling. Discussion is more detailed about textbooks, school meals and academic support activities. Then we study the consequences of this private spending for gratuity and its effects related to educational and social equality or inequality. Finally, we analyze the implications related to sectional interests at stake and educational policies.

  5. Factors Influencing And Alternative Policies Offered Of Social Conflicts Indigenous Peoples Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Deni

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a review of the social conflicts of indigenous peoples especially in North Maluku. The purpose of this review is to find out some factors causing indigenous peoples social conflicts in North Maluku and to produce alternative solutions as a policy to develop indigenous peoples livelihoods. The review resulted in several factors causing social conflicts of indigenous peoples such as the unclear boundary between the two parties the customary violations by the forest businessmen the...

  6. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 2: title VII of the civil rights act and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, gender, national origin, religion, disability, age, or other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issue of gender under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  7. Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy in North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollenbaugh, Shaun

    1999-01-01

    ... the DPRK spends exorbitant amounts of money on its military. To maintain both its legitimacy and security, the Pyongyang regime purposely and willfully commits many human right violations against its own citizens. Current U.S...

  8. Implication Of Protection And Fulfillment Of Women's Political Rights Through Affirmative Action Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Asikin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One group of citizens who because of the conditions require special treatment is women. Without special treatment or affirmative action, women will not be able to access the protection and fulfillment of their constitutional rights because of the differences and distinctions generated and perpetuated by the structure of patriarchal society. The protection and fulfillment of constitutional rights without special treatment will tend to maintain discrimination against women and unable to achieve justice

  9. Getting It Right for Every Child: A National Policy Framework to Promote Children's Well-being in Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Emma; Cheyne, Helen; Rankin, Jean; Daniel, Brigid

    2016-06-01

    Getting It Right for Every Child (GIRFEC), a landmark policy framework for improving children's well-being in Scotland, United Kingdom, is a practice initiative signifying a distinct way of thinking, an agenda for change, and the future direction of child welfare policy. GIRFEC represents a unique case study of national transformative change within the contexts of children's well-being and universal services and is of relevance to other jurisdictions. Implementation is under way, with an understanding of well-being and the requirement for information sharing enshrined in law. Yet there is scope for interpretation within the legislation and associated guidance. Inherent tensions around intrusion, data gathering, professional roles, and balancing well-being against child protection threaten the effectiveness of the policy if not resolved. Despite persistent health inequalities and intergenerational deprivation, the Scottish government aspires for Scotland to be the best country for children to grow up in. Getting It Right for Every Child (GIRFEC) is a landmark children's policy framework to improve children's well-being via early intervention, universal service provision, and multiagency coordination across organizational boundaries. Placing the child and family "at the center," this approach marks a shift from welfare to well-being, yet there is still a general lack of consensus over how well-being is defined and measured. As an umbrella policy framework with broad reach, GIRFEC represents the current and future direction of children's/family policy in Scotland, yet large-scale practice change is required for successful implementation. This article explores the origins and emergence of GIRFEC and presents a critical analysis of its incremental design, development, and implementation. There is considerable scope for interpretation within the GIRFEC legislation and guidance, most notably around assessment of well-being and the role and remit of those charged with

  10. Demilitarization of the Police, Criminal Policy and Human Rights in the Democratic Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Frederico Fontes de Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection on the incompatibility between the militarization of the police and the democratic rule of law. Seeing the violent mechanisms such as routine, relates to public safety model with Agamben's teachings on the state of exception as the rule. The culture of fear is seen as legitimizing the social longing for more militarized apparatus. Reconnecting Bauman, Zaffaroni and Foucault , the work points out that criminal policy is based on the annihilation of the other and that the penal system is extremely selective, using the PM's for vertical integration and standardization of acceptable profiles.

  11. Open adoption of infants: adoptive parents' feelings seven years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2003-07-01

    Adoptions today increasingly include contact between adoptive and birth families. What do these "open adoptions" look like? How do the participants feel about them? This article, based on part of a longitudinal study that first examined adoptive parents' perceptions of their infants' open adoptions seven years ago, explores the parents' reactions now that their children are school age. This qualitative descriptive research revealed changes in the openness in the adoptions over time and identified four dimensions along which open adoptions vary. Findings showed parents' enthusiasm for the openness in their adoptions, regardless of the type and extent of openness. Implications for social work practice, education, and policy are explored.

  12. Open Adoption and the Right to Identity in the Context of the Best Interest of the Child: an Analysis of Article 22 of the Act on “Protection of Children and Adolescents without Guardian and with Inappropriate Guardian” (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد روشن

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adoption as a ground for the best interests of the child, focuses on finding a proper family for a child rather than a child for the family. Open adoption as a sort of adoption for protecting children claims that child’s access to the information of original parents and other identity features will provide child’s right to identity and include child’s best interest. On the other hand, despite rejecting adoption, Islam postulates child access to biological parents’ information due to protecting child’s identity and ancestry. The trace of this point of view is observable in the “Protection of children and Teenagers without Guardian or with Improper Guardian” Act (2013. This article is planning to find similarities and differences between the two supportive approaches. According to the findings, it is to say that both of the approaches, despite the fundamental differences, are convergent in presenting information about the child’s identity. In other sorts of adoption, the main plot is the child’s right to have access to the biological inform-ation as well, but in the open adoption approach, child can also contact to the primary parents beyond the mere information access.

  13. Doing the Right Thing: Measuring Well-Being for Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J. C. Forgeard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Many experts now recognize that income is not a measure that alone captures the wellbeing of individuals, and governments around the world are starting to rethink the ways in which they measure the welfare of their citizens. Wellbeing is best understood as a multifaceted phenomenon that can be assessed by measuring a wide array of subjective and objective constructs. This review summarizes the state of research on the various domains of wellbeing measured by psychologists and social scientists, and provides an overview of the main theoretical perspectives that integrate these domains. Among these theoretical perspectives, we highlight Well-being Theory, which decomposes the wellbeing construct into five domains: Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment (PERMA. We conclude by formulating recommendations for future research on the measurement of wellbeing. These recommendations include the need to combine both objective and subjective indicators, and the use of a dashboard approach to measurement. This approach conveys the multifaceted nature of wellbeing and will help policy-makers and citizens understand which domains of wellbeing should constitute priorities for public policy.

  14. Factors Influencing And Alternative Policies Offered Of Social Conflicts Indigenous Peoples Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Deni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the social conflicts of indigenous peoples especially in North Maluku. The purpose of this review is to find out some factors causing indigenous peoples social conflicts in North Maluku and to produce alternative solutions as a policy to develop indigenous peoples livelihoods. The review resulted in several factors causing social conflicts of indigenous peoples such as the unclear boundary between the two parties the customary violations by the forest businessmen the injustice of the law enforcement officers in solving the problems the destruction of the indigenous people and the forest community narrow forest the lack positive contribution of forest management so far to indigenous peoples and forest communities companies do not involve indigenous peoples andor forest communities in forest exploitation destruction of customary buildings as places of worship deforestation timber exploitation while timber by indigenous peoples is sacred wood or abstinence to be felled. Alternative solutions are required by local government such as policy on legal recognition of indigenous peoples indigenous peoples empowerment implementation of indigenous peoples aspirations indigenous peoples economic development based on local wisdom and dispute resolution of indigenous peoples through special courts of a holistic nature.

  15. Criminal policy of the Colombian State and the rights of persons deprived of liberty: Legislative Analysis and Constitutional Court jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the entry into force of the 1991 Constitution, Colombia entered the era of fundamental rights as they catalog the Superior text is large and that the Constitutional Court has given scope beyond the simple meaning of the sentences that make each of these fundamental rights. In turn, it started the legislation has couple that were in effect prior to the new Charter and new rules are enacted. In this legislative development, the Colombian State has issued numerous rules that allow the restriction of personal freedom of the people living in the Colombian territory, whether of a temporary (security measures or has permanent level (custodial sentences. In that future legislation, the crisis within jails and prisons in the country worsened, today introduced massive violations of fundamental rights of persons deprived of liberty by court order. Overcrowding, lack of information necessary to meet the basic needs of prisoners, the absence of a criminal policy consonant with the reality of these detention centers are just some of the issues that shape the aforementioned rights violations. With the research carried seeks to make recommendations to the criminal policies in jail and prison, to enable the State to overcome this crisis.

  16. Implementation of School Uniform Policy and the Violation of Students' Human Rights in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus

    2017-01-01

    The paper highlights the violations of students' human rights in schools. The problem is the incident that took place at a school in Pretoria in 2016 where Black girls protested against the School's Code of Conduct relating to hairstyle. Qualitative approach was used to collect information through a literature review and desk-top research methods.…

  17. Sexuality Education Policy and the Educative Potentials of Risk and Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Cris

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that institutions need to take more risks to improve sexuality education. Understanding how risk structures sexuality may help make sexuality education more attuned to the needs of diverse students. Situating sexuality in the context of human rights can help to demonstrate the kinds of social and institutional risks that are…

  18. Education Service Contracting in the Philippines: Human Rights as Trumps, Goals, or Policy Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…

  19. Censorship Now: Revisiting "The Students' Right to Read." A Policy Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "The Students' Right to Read," published in 1961, revised in 1981, and reaffirmed by the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Executive Committee in 2012, responds to censorship or attempts to restrict or deny students access to materials deemed objectionable by some individual or group. Despite this position statement and the…

  20. EU and US External Policies on Human Rights and Democracy Promotion: Assessing Political Conditionality in Transatlantic Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez de las Heras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at advancing existing research about the role that the Transatlantic Partnership may play within the specific field of human rights and democracy promotion in the current changing global order. It examines recent changes to the foreign policies of the European Union and the United States on this area and assesses the impact of these changes on the transatlantic partnership over the last five years. The paper argues that these modifications entail a greater convergence between the policies of the two regions, though some ideological divergences, lack of coordination and differences in implementation are still observable. However, the increasing mutual realignment could foster a truly transatlantic partnership in the field if both partners attain to define a joint strategy and establish common institutions to ensure permanent dialogue and policy coherence. At the same time, this enhanced co-operation could enable them to remain the principal supporters of human rights and democracy in the current multi-polar order.

  1. Establishing a compulsory drug treatment prison: Therapeutic policy, principles, and practices in addressing offender rights and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgden, Astrid; Grant, Luke

    2010-01-01

    A Compulsory Drug Treatment Correctional Center (CDTCC) was established in Australia in 2006 for repeat drug-related male offenders. Compulsory treatment law is inconsistent with a therapeutic jurisprudence approach. Despite the compulsory law, a normative offender rehabilitation framework has been established based on offender moral rights. Within moral rights, the offender rehabilitation framework addresses the core values of freedom (supporting autonomous decision-making) and well-being (supporting support physical, social, and psychological needs). Moral rights are underpinned by a theory or principle which, in this instance, is a humane approach to offender rehabilitation. While a law that permits offenders to choose drug treatment and rehabilitation is preferable, the article discusses the establishment of a prison based on therapeutic policy, principles, and practices that respond to participants as both rights-violators and rights-holders. The opportunity for accelerated community access and a therapeutic alliance with staff has resulted in offenders actively seeking to be ordered into compulsory drug treatment and rehabilitation. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulholland Kim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. Methods We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Results Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003. After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p ≤ 0.001 amongst Iraqi refugees. Qualitative data revealed that TPV refugees generally felt socially isolated and lacking in control over their life circumstances, because of their experiences in detention and on a temporary visa. This sense of powerlessness and, for some, an implicit awareness they were being denied basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Conclusion Government asylum policies

  3. Urban inequities; urban rights: a conceptual analysis and review of impacts on children, and policies to address them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores current conceptual understanding of urban social, environmental, and health inequality and inequity, and looks at the impact of these processes on urban children and young people in the 21st century. This conceptual analysis was commissioned for a discussion paper for UNICEF's flagship publication: State of the World's Children 2012: Children in an Urban World. The aim of the paper is to examine evidence on the meaning of urban inequality and inequity for urban children and young people. It further looks at the controversial policies of targeting "vulnerable" young people, and policies to achieve the urban MDGs. Finally, the paper looks briefly at the potential of concepts such as environment justice and rights to change our understanding of urban inequality and inequity.

  4. Política de medicamentos: da universalidade de direitos aos limites da operacionalidade Drugs policy: from the universality of rights to the limits of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Baumgratz de Paula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute os motivos que levaram à adoção de uma política de medicamentos no Brasil. Para tanto busca, através de uma revisão bibliográfica, fazer um resgate histórico dos múltiplos fatores que interferiram na construção dessa política. Além de traçar a trajetória deste processo, o artigo procura assinalar algumas de suas características no Brasil contemporâneo. Enfatiza-se, aqui, a política de saúde como uma política universalista e igualitária, reclamando a responsabilidade do Estado na efetivação do direito à saúde preconizado na Constituição de 1988. Nesse contexto, apontam-se as razões para que a política de medicamentos seja parte integrante da política de saúde, com o objetivo de se obter um acesso mais próximo do integral, entendendo que o campo da saúde é também um espaço onde a cidadania deva ser buscada de modo pleno.This article discusses the reasons that led to the adoption of a drug policy in Brazil. For this, through a literature review, it aims to make a historic rescue of multiple factors that interfered in the construction of this policy. Besides showing the trajectory of this process, it aims to identify its characteristics in the contemporary Brazil. The article also emphasizes the health policy as universal and egalitarian, claiming the responsibility of the State in order to accomplish the right to health advocated in the 1988 Constitution. In this context, this paper outlines the reasons why the policy of medicines is an integral part of health policy, aiming to get a more full access for the whole population. Therefore, it is intended to assist the understanding that health care is also an area where citizenship should be sought fully.

  5. Market-based instruments for water policy: the market for water rights in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Market instruments have been often proposed with the aim of improving the efficient allocation of use rights over natural resources. This article analyzes the potential of market mechanisms in the field of water resources and focuses attention on the experience of Chile, one of the few cases in which water markets have been implemented on a wide scale. Evidence from the Chilean case is discussed in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and to outline the potential benefits but also the many drawbacks of these instruments. [it

  6. Policy and Practice: Claiming Space for Labour Rights within the United Kingdom Modern Slavery Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Robinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on advocacy opportunities provided by the anti-trafficking framework in a new political climate. Through the case study of the United Kingdom (UK Modern Slavery Act 2015 deliberations the article explores opportunities to use political interest in human trafficking to advocate labour rights and protections for vulnerable workers. The article explores how, largely cynical, political motivations for the debate on ‘modern slavery’ in the UK, provided an opportunity to reframe the anti-trafficking discourse in this context. Whilst migration control and labour market deregulation are key priorities for the UK government, the Modern Slavery Act process enabled advocates to highlight the impact of such measures on vulnerable, predominantly migrant, workers. It also ultimately served to persuade decision makers to make a connection between widespread labour abuses and severe labour exploitation. Through this case study the article argues for engagement with anti-trafficking frameworks to both highlight and harness the political rhetoric, and maximise the space provided for promoting the rights of vulnerable workers.

  7. Double Standards in Global Health: Medicine, Human Rights Law and Multidrug-Resistant TB Treatment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Thomas; Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-06-01

    The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level.

  8. Practical guide for defending the rights of refugee children and refugee unaccompanied minors in South Africa: policy review, processes, procedures & practical experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shabangu, T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available CHAPTER?8:?ACCESS?TO?SOCIAL?SERVICE?AND?LOCAL?INTEGRATION? 52 Introduction? 52 International?Policy?Frameworks? 52 Relevant?National?Legislation? 53 CHAPTER?9:?ACCESS?TO?HOUSING?AND?SHELTER? 56 Introduction? 56 International?Policy?Frameworks? 56....? Section? 28? of? the? Bill? of? Rights? outlines? children?s?rights?and?states?that:??Every?child?has?the?right??to?basic?nutrition,?shelter,?basic?health?care? services?and?social...

  9. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  10. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant sex workers are

  11. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers.Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops.Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers.Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant

  12. Issue Definition in Rights-Based Policy Focused on the Experiences of Individuals with Disabilities: An Examination of Canadian Parliamentary Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dana Lee

    2008-01-01

    In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…

  13. Legal rights of client councils and their role in policy of long-term care organisations in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westert Gert P

    2011-09-01

    rather passive role in determining the policy on quality of long-term care. Therefore, specific attention and actions are needed to create a more proactive attitude in councils towards exercising their rights, which are already supported by legislation.

  14. Decentralization, Local Rights and the Construction of Women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Decentralization, Local Rights and the Construction of Women's Citizenship : a Comparative Study in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda - Phase II. Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda have adopted new land laws, policies and institutional arrangements to accommodate decentralization of land administration and management.

  15. 'If you happen to be the right age, have the right colour, no disability...you're sorted':Social Audit and Equality Policies for staff in Scottish Further Education Colleges

    OpenAIRE

    Weedon, Elisabet; Riddell, Sheila; Ahlgren, Linda; Litjens, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the implications of adopting social audit approaches in order to implement equality policies in Scottish FE colleges, exploring the tension between surface compliance and deep institutional engagement. It provides a brief overview of the Scottish further education context, before turning to a consideration of social audit and equalities within the sector. The data reported comes from a research study funded by the Scottish Further Education Unit which examined college po...

  16. Act No. 23.592 adopting measures against those who arbitrarily impede the full exercise of fundamental rights and guarantees recognized in the National Constitution, 23 August 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Act provides that whoever arbitrarily impedes, obstructs, restricts, or in any other way limits the full exercise on an equal basis of fundamental rights and guarantees recognized by the National Constitution of Argentina will be obligated, at the request of the injured person, to render the discriminatory act without effect or cease in its realization and repair the moral and material damage that has resulted. To be particularly scrutinized are discriminatory acts or omissions undertaken for sexual reasons, among others. full text

  17. Legal content of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, adopted by the united nations general assembly by resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a detailed analysis of the legal contents of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant workers and their Families, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the Resolution 45/158 of December 1990. The objectives of the Convention, the personal spehere of application, the Human Rights of all migrant workers and their families wether they be regular of iregular are presented throughout the article. Finally, the practical effectiveness of the Convention is analyzed concluding with the importance of its ratification by the largest number of States possible.

  18. Culture, mobility and human rights: considerations on social occupational therapy in the context of immigrants municipal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takao Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the need to revise education and professional action, in the context of social occupational therapy, facing the growing phenomenon of international migration, especially in the current construction of the municipal policy for immigrant populations in São Paulo, SP. The discussion is methodologically structured into three complementary lines of analysis results from documentary research accompanied by field study, visits, participations in meetings, inter-institutional forums, public hearings, thematic debates, in addition to literature review. In the first analysis axis, we discuss the current legislation in Brazil, the construction of migration policy at the municipal level and civil society articulations about human mobility, understood as a fundamental right. In the second, we discuss people care services, families and groups in migratory situation in São Paulo, SP. Finally, on the third axis, we discuss the cultural developments in social occupational therapy for professional action and training in the field of human mobility. As a result it was observed that the current panorama poses new professional challenges, forcing the occupational therapist to review its technical-political position face to the new realities of the contemporary world.

  19. Participation rights and equal status of persons with disabilities in the knowledge society: a review of the Venezuelan public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de los Ángeles Ferrer Mavarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a realistic approach in order to determine if the current knowledge society provide participation on equal terms for people with disabilities, taking special regard to the regulations of this matter in Venezuela. A documentary research method is used and reference is made to the legal framework related to disability issues in that country. We found that the legal framework, and in particular, the public policies implemented to date in Venezuela for the fulfillment of this right are still inadequate. Despite significant steps taken in this regard there are no solid legal structures that enhance this initiative aiming at the human development of this social group, useful as well for the rest of the nation. Participation could serve as a tool to promote equal opportunities and inclusion of vulnerable groups in the knowledge society but it’s potential is not fully exploited.

  20. Adoption research, practice, and societal trends: Ten years of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Mary O'Leary

    2017-12-01

    Adoption involves the legal transfer of parental rights and responsibilities from a child's birth parents to adults who will raise the child (Reitz & Watson, 1992). Research related to adoption has expanded over the past 10 years and has incorporated more focus on implications for practice and public policy. This expansion has reflected increased awareness of the lived experience of adopted individuals, in addition to that of adoptive families and birth or first parents and families, collectively known as the adoption kinship network (Grotevant & McRoy, 1998). Trends discussed included research and social trends or movements (2007-2017) since the publication of the final article in a series of articles in the psychological literature related to adoption in The Counseling Psychologist (Baden & Wiley, 2007; Lee, 2003; O'Brien & Zamostny, 2003; Wiley & Baden, 2005; Zamostny, O'Brien, Baden, & Wiley, 2003; Zamostny, Wiley, O'Brien, Lee, & Baden, 2003). This article summarizes the social trends and research related to adoption over the last 10 years, including longitudinal and meta-analytic studies, increased research and conceptualization of ethnic and racial identity development, research on microaggressions, and research on diverse adoptive families, including those with gay and lesbian parents. Social trends included increased knowledge related to Internet accessibility, genetic information, continued focus on openness, and viewing adoption through a more critical lens. Implications are discussed for the development of programs that enhance competence of mental health professionals and adoption professionals in adoption-competent practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Implications of adopting a biodiversity-based vulnerability index versus a shoreline environmental sensitivity index on management and policy planning along coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harik, G; Alameddine, I; Maroun, R; Rachid, G; Bruschi, D; Astiaso Garcia, D; El-Fadel, M

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a multi-criteria index was developed to assess anthropogenic stressors along the Mediterranean coastline. The index aimed at geo-locating pollution hotspots for informed decision making related to coastal zone management. The index was integrated in a Geographical Information System based geodatabase implemented at several pilot areas along the Northern (Italy and France), Eastern (Lebanon), and Southern (Tunisia) Mediterranean coastlines. The generated stressor maps were coupled with a biodiversity richness index and an environmental sensitivity index to produce vulnerability maps that can form the basis for prioritizing management and mitigation interventions towards the identification of pollution hotspots and the promotion of sustainable coastal zone management. The results identified significant differences between the two assessment methods, which can bias prioritization in decision making and policy planning depending on stakeholders' interests. The discrepancies emphasize the need for transparency and understanding of the underlying foundations behind vulnerability indices and mapping development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Direitos reprodutivos, políticas de saúde e gênero Reproduction rights, health policies and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Scavone

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do debate dos direitos reprodutivos na sociedade brasileira, suas peculiaridades, avanços e contradições, diante de três problemas atuais das mulheres brasileiras: a esterilização feminina; a prática ilegal do aborto e o incremento das novas tecnologias conceptivas. Evidencia que a prática generalizada da esterilização feminina, a alta ocorrência de abortos clandestinos no Brasil e o incremento das Novas Tecnologias Conceptivas colocam em risco a saúde das mulheres e são reveladores da ausência de uma política de saúde reprodutiva e da presença de uma política de controle demográfico no país. Aponta para os diversos rumos que esse debate tomou na última década, ressaltando a necessidade de recuperar seu compromisso histórico contra políticas demográficas e de saúde intervencionistas. Palavras-chave: Saúde. Concepção. Gênero. Reprodução. This article deals with the debate about the reproduction rights in the Brazilian society, its peculiarities, advances and contradictions when facing three present problems of the Brazilian women: feminine sterilization, illegal practice of abortion and the development of new conceptive technologies. It also highlights that the generalized practice of feminine sterilization, the high incidence of illegal abortions in Brazil and the recent development of the New Contraceptive Technology, that put their lives at risk, show that there are no policies for reproductive health and demographic control in the country. The many paths that this debate created in the last decade are discussed when there is the necessity of redeeming the historic compromise of demographic and interventionist health policies. Keywords: Health. Conception. Gender. Reproduction.

  3. Policy and Regulation in the Media Landscape: the Greek Paradigm Concentration of Media Ownership Versus the Right to Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Veneti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By outlining the long-lasting peculiarities of the Greek media landscape, this paper aims to make us reflect on how the political system affects their development and role. Particularly, through analyzing the policy and regulating frames applied to Greek communication field, we try to shed light on the degree and shapes of media concentration and control as well as on the effects of this widespread phenomenon. Special emphasis is placed on the illicit interweaving of political and media interests, giving rise to a media system which has great difficulties in following constructively the technological developments in the field and challenges the active participation of citizens in the public affairs. In the contemporary society of digital revolution market values continue to be dominant. Those who control the private media outweigh the political figures and as a result any attempts to regulate the communication field are always implemented for the benefit of the private capital. Under these circumstances the question of whether the media can act as amplifiers of the democratic practices is more crucial than ever. This is the central question posed by the paper, arguing that the evolution of the Greek media system is inundated with evidence supporting the view that the particular voice of citizen as well as his right to information is under threat.

  4. Adopting a Water-Food-Energy nexus approach to explore the synergies and trade-offs of food-water policies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Lechon, Yolanda; de la Rúa, Cristina; Garrido, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Spain is a semi-arid country and faces a strong competition over scarce water resources by the different sectors. Agriculture is the largest water consumer and because of this it is often at the core of much of the disputes over water. Several policy measures have been implemented in the course of the last decades to ameliorate water scarcity problems. The irrigation modernization plan is probably one of the most ambitious plans implemented so far (with a total investment of nearly 3,800 mill € involving the modernization of over 1 million irrigated ha), and was developed with the double aim of increasing the efficiency of agricultural water use and strength the resilience and competitiveness of the Spanish irrigation sector. In this research we examine the implications of the irrigation modernization plan by adopting a nexus approach. In particular we assess the trends in water, land and energy footprints associated to agriculture during the period 2000-2011 to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan. Likewise, we used a life cycle analysis approach to assess the implications in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Our results show that the land footprint of irrigated agriculture has increased 2% (from 3.4 mill ha in 2000 to 3,6 mill ha in 2011). Meanwhile, the water footprint of irrigated agriculture has decreased by 8% (from 17,078 hm3 in 2000 to 15,573 hm3 in 2011). Beyond the net water savings, there has been a major shift in the composition of the water footprint. In the year 2000, 77% of the blue agricultural water footprint was linked to surface water, while in the year 2011 over 55% of the water consumed by agriculture is groundwater. The modernization of irrigation technologies alongside with the shift from a predominantly surface water footprint to groundwater has boosted the energy footprint of irrigation by 56% (2442 GWh in 2000 to 3803 GWh in 2011). This rise in the energy bill has meant an increase of 9% in the GHG emissions. Yet, this GHG

  5. The migrant in Argentina and the access to their rights. A brief overview of the rules, the policies and their stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Argentina receives immigrants from neighboring countries with serious deficiencies as regards their rights. The Argentinean government had to implement different policies to protect them, incorporating international treaties on human rights in their internal legal system and making public policies. Simultaneously, obstacles can be observed, when having access to these rights on an equal condition with Argentinean citizens. It is pertinent to analyze this situation using a methodological tool like an ethnographic study. The analysis will be divided into two parts, on the one hand, the migrant’s tools to have access to these basic human rights will be described, and on the other hand, it will be analyzed through court decisions, interviews and NGOs documents, if those rights are indeed satisfied. As a result, it is evident that while immigrants in Argentina have free access to benefits which in their countries are difficult to achieve, there are, still quantitative and qualitative inefficiencies, especially in health and education.

  6. Patient's rights charter in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Parsapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of patient's rights in healthcare, special attention has been given to the concept of patient's rights by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran. Iranian patient's rights charter has been compiled with a novel and comprehensive approach. This charter aims to elucidate rights of recipients of health services as well as observing ethical standards in medicine. This paper presents the Iranian patient's rights charter. Based on a study done from 2007 to 2009, the charter has been finalized through an extensive consultation involving all stakeholders, patients, physicians, nurses, lawyers, patient associations and health policy makers. The developed charter was adopted by the Ministry of Health in December 2009. Iranian patient's rights charter has been formulated in the framework of 5 chapters and 37 articles including vision and an explanatory note. The five chapters concern right to receiving appropriate services, right to access desired and enough information, right to choose and decide freely about receiving healthcare, right to privacy and confidentiality, and finally right to access an efficient system of dealing with complaints which have been explained in 14, 9, 7, 4 and 3 articles, respectively.  The paper concludes that, adopting the patient's rights charter is a valuable measure to meet patient's rights; however, a serious challenge is how to implement and acculturate observing patient's rights in practice in our healthcare system in Iran.

  7. Human rights and the challenges of science and technology: Commentary on Meier et al. "Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform" and Hall et al. "The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of the corpus of international human rights to include the right to water and sanitation has implications both for the process of recognizing human rights and for future developments in the relationships between technology, engineering and human rights. Concerns with threats to human rights resulting from developments in science and technology were expressed in the early days of the United Nations (UN), along with the recognition of the ambitious human right of everyone "to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications." This comment explores the hypothesis that the emerging concepts most likely to follow recognition of the human right to water primarily involve issues of science and technology, such as access to medicines or clean and healthy environment. Many threats to human rights from advances in science, which were identified in the past as potential, have become real today, such as invasion of privacy from electronic recording, deprivation of health and livelihood as a result of climate change, or control over individual autonomy through advances in genetics and neuroscience. This comment concludes by urging greater engagement of scientists and engineers, in partnership with human rights specialists, in translating normative pronouncements into defining policy and planning interventions.

  8. The Left- and Right-Wing Political Power Design: The Dilemma of Welfare Policy with Low-Income Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Mullat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Findings from this experiment contributed novel insights into the theoretical field of welfare policy, addressing fundamental questions about wealth redistribution rules and norms. The expenses of the redistribution pertaining to basic goods, as well as those associated with public (non-basic but vital goods, are separately estimated by transforming the expenses into functions of the poverty line. The findings reveal that, along the poverty line that treats all citizens equally, the politicians representing opposing ideologies decide how the redistribution of basic and vital goods should be financed. Politicians should come to an agreement, subject to an approval of their decisions by voters-citizens. However, in the absence of such approval, politicians have no alternative but to continue the negotiations. Based on this premise, we concluded that political decisions with an elevated poverty line as a parameter would give rise to inverse working incentives of benefits claimants. This may result in unbalanced books, due to the expenditure on the delivery of basic and non-basic goods to their respective destinations. By keeping the books in balance, we postulate that one half of median income μ, in accord with Fuchs point, may be used in the form of poverty line ½μ for just and fair wealth redistribution in resolving the ideological controversies between left- and right-wing politicians. Through the income exception rule equal to ½μ, as a result of a relief payments simulation, the wealth redistribution system, known since 1962 from as Friedman’s Negative Income Tax (NIT, diminished the Gini coefficient.

  9. News Coverage and Access to Contextual Policy Information in the Case of Recreational Water Rights in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Deserai Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Local news media help shape the agendas from which new policies emerge. Furthermore, local media help determine public understanding of complex issues. Media should inform citizens and policymakers on important policy issues. This study uses a content analysis of 11 newspapers to understand the manner in which reporters covered a specific…

  10. The right to be informed and fear of disclosure: sustainability of a full error disclosure policy at an Italian cancer centre/clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Stefano; Pennelli, Sara; Colasurdo, Antonio Prospero; Frati, Paola; Sicuro, Lorella; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of physicians in cases of medical error as well as the nature of the information that should be given to the patient and to ascertain whether it is possible to institute a full error disclosure policy. Data was collected through the completion of anonymous questionnaires by medical directors of the IRCCS CROB (the Oncology Centre of Basilicata, Italy). An anonymous questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was prepared and administered to all the physicians working at the IRCCS CROB - the Oncology Centre of Basilicata. The main aim of the research was to evaluate the feasibility of adopting a full disclosure policy and the extent to which such a policy could help reduce administration and legal costs. The physicians interviewed unanimously recognize the importance of error disclosure, given that they themselves would want to be informed if they were the patients. However, 50% have never disclosed a medical error to their patients. Fear of losing the patient's trust (33%) and fear of lawsuits (31%) are the main obstacles to error disclosure. The authors found that physicians were in favour of a full policy disclosure at the IRCCS CROB - the Oncology Centre of Basilicata. Many more studies need to be carried out in order to comprehend the economic impact of a full error disclosure policy.

  11. Adoption of Broadband Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Broadband is seen as a key infrastructure for developing the information society. For this reason many Governments are actively engaged in stimulating investments in broadband infrastructures and use of broadband services. This chapter compares a wide range of broadband strategies in the most suc....... Many countries have provided active support for stimulating diffusion of broadband and national variants of this type of policies in different countries are important for an explanation of national differences in adoption of broadband....

  12. Smartphone adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovcikova, Katarina; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are used by majority of Western population, and they are mobile phones of choice also in the rest of the world. The Theory of Consumption Values (TCV) is a marketing theory that explains purchase behavior of consumer goods and services. The framework consists of functional, social......, epistemic, hedonic, and conditional values; the latter being functional and/or social values present only in a specific situation. TCV is used in mobile device adoption literature disproportionably more often than in other fields. But virtually all TCV studies focused on smartphones are qualitative. The aim...

  13. Improving patient safety and efficiency of medication reconciliation through the development and adoption of a computer-assisted tool with automated electronic integration of population-based community drug data: the RightRx project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamblyn, Robyn; Winslade, Nancy; Lee, Todd C; Motulsky, Aude; Meguerditchian, Ari; Bustillo, Melissa; Elsayed, Sarah; Buckeridge, David L; Couture, Isabelle; Qian, Christina J; Moraga, Teresa; Huang, Allen

    2018-05-01

    Many countries require hospitals to implement medication reconciliation for accreditation, but the process is resource-intensive, thus adherence is poor. We report on the impact of prepopulating and aligning community and hospital drug lists with data from population-based and hospital-based drug information systems to reduce workload and enhance adoption and use of an e-medication reconciliation application, RightRx. The prototype e-medical reconciliation web-based software was developed for a cluster-randomized trial at the McGill University Health Centre. User-centered design and agile development processes were used to develop features intended to enhance adoption, safety, and efficiency. RightRx was implemented in medical and surgical wards, with support and training provided by unit champions and field staff. The time spent per professional using RightRx was measured, as well as the medication reconciliation completion rates in the intervention and control units during the first 20 months of the trial. Users identified required modifications to the application, including the need for dose-based prescribing, the role of the discharge physician in prescribing community-based medication, and access to the rationale for medication decisions made during hospitalization. In the intervention units, both physicians and pharmacists were involved in discharge reconciliation, for 96.1% and 71.9% of patients, respectively. Medication reconciliation was completed for 80.7% (surgery) to 96.0% (medicine) of patients in the intervention units, and 0.7% (surgery) to 82.7% of patients in the control units. The odds of completing medication reconciliation were 9 times greater in the intervention compared to control units (odds ratio: 9.0, 95% confidence interval, 7.4-10.9, P < .0001) after adjusting for differences in patient characteristics. High rates of medication reconciliation completion were achieved with automated prepopulation and alignment of community and hospital

  14. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  15. Is the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Impacting Mental Health Laws and Policies in High-Income Countries? A Case Study of Implementation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Sritharan, Lathika; Tejpar, Ali

    2016-11-11

    Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated. This study assesses the CRPD's potential impact on mental health systems and presents a legal and public policy analysis of its implementation in one high-income country: Canada. As part of this analysis, a critical review was undertaken of the CRPD's implementation in Canadian legislation, public policy, and jurisprudence related to mental health. While the Convention is clearly an important step forward, there remains a divide, even in Canada, between the Convention's goals and the experiences of Canadians with disabilities. Its implementation is perhaps hindered most by Canada's reservations to Article 12 of the CRPD on legal capacity for persons with psychosocial disabilities. The overseeing CRPD Committee has stated that Article 12 only permits "supported decision-making" regimes, yet most Canadian jurisdictions maintain their "substitute decision-making" regimes. This means that many Canadians with mental health challenges continue to be denied legal capacity to make decisions related to their healthcare, housing, and finances. But changes are afoot: new legislation has been introduced in different jurisdictions across the country, and recent court decisions have started to push policymakers in this direction. Despite the lack of explicit implementation, the CRPD has helped to facilitate a larger shift in social and cultural paradigms of mental health and disability in Canada. But ratification and passive implementation are not enough. Further

  16. Supporting Employers in the Reserve Operational Forces Era: Are Changes Needed to Reservists’ Employment Rights Legislation, Policies, or Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Universal Numbering System EN Employer Notification EP Employer Partnership of the Armed Services EPF Employment Policy Foundation ESGR Employer Support of...on Employers 33 lished in 2005 by the Employment Policy Foundation ( EPF ). According to that report, about half of FMLA leave-takers do not give...Magazine (Bates, 2005), summarizes the findings of a report published in 2005 by EPF ; the original report could not be located because EPF has closed. 4

  17. Why Right is Might: How the Social Science on Radicalisation suggests that International Human Rights Norms actually help frame Effective Counterterrorism Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Parker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many states appear to turn instinctively to hard power resources when confronted with a terrorist threat. Yet existing research on violent extremism and radicalisation leading to terrorism suggests that such responses might well exacerbate the problem. Terrorist groups actively seek to exploit the push-pull dynamic that drives radicalisation and violent extremism, while one case study after the other indicates that states thereby appear to play actively into their hands. Social science research suggests that international human rights norms assist compliant states to moderate responses, build legitimacy, and ultimately craft effective counterterrorism strategies. A close reading of the literature on radicalisation and terrorist group formation offers qualitative evidence to support this conclusion. 

  18. In the name of human rights: the problematics of EU ethical foreign policy in Africa and elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This doctoral research project explores avenues to research ethically defined foreign policy differently, i.e. in ways that more systematically account for its counterproductive elements. Building on the specific case of the European Union’s foreign policy in sub-Saharan Africa, embodied by the 2000 Cotonou Agreement and the 2007 Joint Africa-EU Strategy, through four papers and one books review, the study firstly develops the Ethical Intervener Europe analytical framework to account for the embedded problematics in the EU’s ethical foreign policy. Secondly, through an eclectic theoretical approach, the study seeks to theoretically pin-point some alternatives to think about ethical foreign policy and finally, looks to concretize it through its application on the case of relative autonomous peace- and state-building in Somaliland. This research report briefly introduces the different findings and addresses the need for further research in view of a decolonial approach to the study of ethical foreign policy in a context of structural inequality. Key words: ethical foreign policy, (humanitarian interventions, EU, sub-Saharan Africa, Somaliland, decoloniality, democratization, state-building

  19. Migrant workers in Sabah, East Malaysia: The importance of legislation and policy to uphold equity on sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasimbang, Helen Benedict; Tong, Wen Ting; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-04-01

    Sabah, located in Southeast Asia, hosts the highest number of non-Malaysian citizens (27.7%), predominantly the Indonesian and Filipino migrants in comparison to other states in Malaysia. Sabah has inadequate data on migrants' sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHRs). Various migrant-related policies and laws are present, but they do not offer full protection and rights to legal migrants in terms of their SRHRs. The aim of the laws and policies appears to be controlling the migrants from having any negative impact on the locals, rather than protecting migrants' health and rights. This affected their rights to marriage, having children, increase their vulnerabilities to labour trafficking and sexual abuse and access to health-care services. Female migrant workers and undocumented migrants form the most vulnerable subgroups of migrants. This narrative review highlights the status of SRHRs of migrants in Sabah and the migrant-related Malaysian laws and policies affecting their SRHRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of cost recovery and sharing system on water policy implementation and human right to water: a case of Ileje, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibassa, Deusdedit

    2011-01-01

    In Tanzania, the National Water Policy (NAWAPO) of 2002 clearly stipulates that access to water supply and sanitation is a right for every Tanzanian and that cost recovery is the foundation of sustainable service delivery. To meet these demands, water authorities have introduced cost recovery and a water sharing system. The overall objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on water policy implementation and human rights to water in four villages in the Ileje district. The specific objectives were: (1) to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on the availability of water to the poor, (2) to assess user willingness to pay for the services provided, (3) to assess community understanding on the issue of water as a human right, (4) to analyse the implications of the results in relation to policies on human rights to water and the effectiveness of the implementation of the national water policy at the grassroots, and (5) to establish the guidelines for water pricing in rural areas. Questionnaires at water demand, water supply, ability and willingness to pay and revenue collection were the basis for data collection. While 36.7% of the population in the district had water supply coverage, more than 73,077 people of the total population of 115,996 still lacked access to clean and safe water and sanitation services in the Ileje district. The country's rural water supply coverage is 49%. Seventy-nine percent of the interviewees in all four villages said that water availability in litres per household per day had decreased mainly due to high water pricing which did not consider the income of villagers. On the other hand, more than 85% of the villagers were not satisfied with the amount they were paying because the services were still poor. On the issue of human rights to water, more than 92% of the villagers know about their right to water and want it exercised by the government. In all four villages, more than

  1. Incorporating Indigenous Rights and Environmental Justice into Fishery Management: Comparing Policy Challenges and Potentials from Alaska and Hawaíi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Colonial processes including the dispossession of indigenous lands and resources and the development of Western management institutions to govern the use of culturally important fish resources have served in many ways to marginalize indigenous interests within the United States fisheries. In recent years, several US fishery institutions have begun to develop policies that can confront this colonial legacy by better accommodating indigenous perspectives and rights in fishery management practices. This paper analyzes two such policies: the 2005 community quota entity program in Alaska which permits rural communities (predominantly Alaska Native villages) to purchase and lease commercial halibut fishing privileges and the 1994 State of Hawaíi community-based subsistence fishing area (CBSFA) legislation through which Native Hawaiian communities can designate marine space near their community as CBSFAs and collaborate with the state of Hawaíi to manage those areas according to traditional Hawaiian practices. The analysis reveals a striking similarity between the trajectories of these two policies. While they both offered significant potential for incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into state or federal fishery management, they have so far largely failed to do so. Environmental managers can gain insights from the challenges and potentials of these two policies. In order to introduce meaningful change, environmental policies that incorporate indigenous rights and environmental justice require a commitment of financial and institutional support from natural resource agencies, a commitment from indigenous groups and communities to organize and develop capacity, and careful consideration of contextual and cultural factors in the design of the policy framework.

  2. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 1: title VII of the civil rights act and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Moore, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    As more and more individuals choose to express themselves and their religious beliefs with headwear, jewelry, dress, tattoos, and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article addresses the issue of religious discrimination focusing on dress and appearance and some of the court cases that provide guidance for employers.

  3. Let the Right “One†Win: Policy Lessons from the New Economics of Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander White; Glen Weyl

    2014-01-01

    Many of the leading controversies in competition policy in the last two decades, especially those surrounding the Microsoft case, reflect the challenges posed by platform industries. Unfortunately, too often economists and policymakers have drawn the wrong lessons when thinking about such industries.

  4. 2015 E-Truck Task Force: Key Barriers Affecting E-Truck Adoption, Industry and Policy Implications, and Recommendations to Move the Market Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherton, Tom; Gilde, Alycia; Tomic, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    CALSTART’s E-Truck Task Force (ETTF) produced a report outlining the markets for electric drive trucks (E-Trucks), the prime barriers facing their success and provided key findings and recommendations to support expanding E-Truck adoption. Four key findings have been identified by the E-Truck Task Force as barriers currently affecting the growth and viability of E-Truck sales

  5. Public policy-making and risk profiles: Scandinavian centre-right governments after the turn of the millennium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    , the textbook risk profile of centre-right parties’ electorates allows them to cut back on labour market-related schemes since these parties get negligible support from workers and low income voters. Conducting a comparative case study of recent Danish and Swedish centre-right governments, this article analyses......Recent theoretical advances in the welfare state literature have outlined the differences between labour market- and life course-related schemes as centre-right parties have difficulties in enacting retrenchment on life course-related schemes because they concern every voter. In contrast...... the stylised assumptions on the party level by comparing two similar centre-right governments which differed in their voter coalitions’ risk profile. I first argue that centre-right governments are generally constrained by the popular entrenchment of the universal welfare state when it comes to life course-related...

  6. Solar Photovoltaic Energy Policy in Europe: Losing Sight of What is Right. Current Developments and Lessons Learned for Policy-makers and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrelle, Eid

    2012-01-01

    interesting to examine China and the United States in regard to PV manufacturing and installation capacity. China may be characterized by its high and early PV production, exporting almost 90% of its output. What will this and other developments mean for European PV industry and job creation? At present, the deployment of PV is under much discussion in many countries, within and outside of Europe. Changes in Feed-in-Tariffs (FIT) are following each other closely and motivations behind deployment are presently frequently discussed in the political sphere. Still, there are important points to consider. What are the costs of PV? How are the costs expected to decrease and how effective are current policies concerning PV penetration? Are these policies also effective in eventually reaching the CO 2 reduction targets? PV technologies are still developing and it is important to not be moved by assumptions on efficiencies or effectiveness of the technology. The aim of this report is to provide recommendations for the debate concerning PV deployment in Europe and to provide suggestions for both policy-makers and industry in- and outside of Europe. This is done by analyzing the main developments related to PV worldwide. The report will furthermore present technical developments of PV and will present a comparison in the international context with US and Asia. In Section 2, the position of PV policy is given within the EU renewable projections for 2020. Before continuing with the support policies for PV in Section 4, the main developments in PV technologies with definitions are provided in Section 3. Afterwards, case studies of the five major European countries with the largest European installed capacities in PV are presented with their efforts and policies associated to PV in Section 5. In Section 6, an evaluation of the European Policy is presented, after which a brief review of the US and China and their PV industries is given with their policy incentives to increase PV installation

  7. Thinking About Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asked questions. Q: I think I want to adopt. Where do I begin?​ A: Thinking about adoption ... through adoption. Learn more about their How-to-Adopt and Adoption Parenting Network . Q: What are the ...

  8. The role of civil society in health policy making in South Africa: a review of the strategies adopted by the Treatment Action Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabi, Stella C; Rieker, Mark

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of AIDS in 1982 in South Africa was followed by a rapid rise in the number of people living with the virus and dying from AIDS-related illnesses. The 2016 report by the Statistics South Africa indicated that about 7.03 million South Africans were infected with HIV/AIDS - the highest rate in the world. Despite the emergence of effective drugs in the mid-1990s, medical treatment remained unavailable in South Africa, particularly in public hospitals. This prompted civil society groups to establish platforms to discuss health policy change in South Africa. Prominent among these was the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), formed in 1998, which aimed to advocate for improved HIV/AIDS health service delivery. The efforts succeeded in shaping the current HIV/AIDS policy through various initiatives such as the use of constitutional law in legal action against profiteering drug companies. This paper examines the role of civil society, and particularly the TAC engagement with the state in health policy making, and the subsequent implementation of health policy on HIV/AIDS in post-apartheid South Africa.

  9. Property rights and hierarchies of power: a critical evaluation of land-reform policy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André van der Walt

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The programme of land reform laws introduced in South Africa since 1991 is often seen and discussed as nothing more than a highly technical, black-letter aspect of South African law. In this article, the author directs attention to the policies that underly the land reform laws, and discusses the transformative potential and effect of land reform laws in view of these policies. The main question is whether the land reform programme has succeeded in breaking away from or undermining the hierarchies of power that were inherent in traditional common-law property relationships and, particularly, in the politically sanctioned and statutorily entrenched system of apartheid land law. Through the analysis of the most important land reform laws the author concludes that the land reform programme is only partially successful in this regard, since many of the new laws still uphold or entrench the underlying hierarchies o f power that characterised apartheid land law.

  10. The Far Right Challenge Comment on "The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikiopoulou, Daphne

    2017-07-11

    Speed and Mannion make a good case that the rise of populism poses significant challenges for health policy. This commentary suggests that the link between populism and health policy should be further nuanced in four ways. First, a deconstruction of the term populism itself and a focus on the far right dimension of populist politics; second, a focus on the supply side and more specifically the question of nationalism and the 'national preference'; third, the dynamics of party competition during economic crisis; and fourth the question of policy, and more specifically the extent to which certain labour market policies are able to mediate demand for the far right. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. A Review and Critique of Advances in Nursing Science Articles That Focus on Sexual Health and Sexual Rights: A Call to Leadership and Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Thurman, Whitney; McDonald, Kari

    Sexual health and sexual rights are integral to nursing science but ignored in nursing publications. We searched Advances in Nursing Science for prevalence of these topics. Fifteen articles (1.3%) met our criteria. No nursing theories were used as frameworks, and few concrete suggestions were made for further theory development. Discussion of sociopolitical influences on sexual health and/or sexual rights was limited, mostly unrelated to health care. Information to influence nursing practice, theory development, further research, or policy across the life span, for both males and females, and for variant-gender individuals, was limited. We urge authors to contribute further to this field of discourse in nursing.

  12. Surface rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Corrêa Landim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cities of Brazil, social inequality is illustrated by violence, poverty, and unemployment located next to luxurious residential towers and armored passenger cars. In the face of this situation, the National Movement of Urban Reform encouraged the inclusion of the social function of property in Brazil's new constitution of 1988. Surface rights represent an urbanistic instrument in the city statute that is best aligned to the constitutional principles and urban policies. The current article compares two laws that govern the principle of surface rights and provides a brief history of the evolution of the state based on illuminism and the consequent change in paradigm affecting individual rights, including property and civil rights, and their interpretation under the Constitution. The article concludes by suggesting the use of land surface rights in a joint operation, matching the ownership of the property with urban planning policies and social interest.

  13. The Impacts of Changes to Nevada's Net Metering Policy on the Financial Performance and Adoption of Distributed Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    As the adoption of distributed photovoltaics (DPV) has continued to rapidly increase, a national conversation has begun about the efficacy of full-retail net metering as a means of achieving the diverse objectives of electricity pricing. This conversation has prompted studies that have primarily focused on the total costs and benefits of DPV. To compliment those studies, we here characterize the potential impacts of tariff design on the customer-economics and adoption of DPV, where recent changes in Nevada are taken as a case study. We show that an increase in fixed charges more strongly impacts the payback period of small systems, and a decrease in credit for exported electricity more strongly impacts the payback period of large systems. We project that these combined changes will reduce DPV adoption in Nevada; total capacity in 2030 was projected to reach up to 363 MW, with 226 MW having already been installed at the end of the second quarter of 2016. In contrast, if full retail net metering had continued, DPV capacity was projected to reach up to 1,280 MW at the end of 2030, which would account for an estimated 6.5% of the total sales of electricity by NV Energy at that time. We project that the DPV systems will decrease the gross revenue from bill collection by $48 million per year under the new tariffs, whereas the decrease in gross revenue could have reached $255 million per year if full retail net metering had been continued. Although these results are given in the context of Nevada, the trends shown are intended to help information similar upcoming decisions in other states.

  14. To Adopt Or Not To Adopt? The Transnational Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zori, S.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that policy diffusion can occur via two different mechanisms has gained attention in the realm of international accounting since the European Union’s adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) in 2005. Proponents of classical economic approaches to policy adoption argue that countries adopting IFRS are motivated solely by the economic consequences of the standards from which they anticipate an improvement in information quality. Neo-institutional scholars argue, ...

  15. "You Want Your Guests to Be Happy in This Business": Hoteliers' Decisions to Adopt Voluntary Smoke-Free Guest-Room Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-01-01

    To explore why some hotels have implemented 100% smoke-free policies voluntarily, the perceived consequences of doing so, and media responses. Qualitative study of hotel management and quantitative content analysis of media coverage of smoke-free hotels. Hotels and media based in the United States. Eleven representatives of 5 independent and 4 chain hotels. Other data included 265 news items about smoke-free hotels. We conducted 30-minute semi-structured interviews with hotel representatives and analyzed the data using qualitative content analysis. We also searched 3 online news databases for news items about hotels in our study, and collaboratively coded retrieved items; we analyzed the content and slant of news items. Business considerations, including guest requests, competitor action, and cost savings, were the primary motivations for implementing 100% smoke-free guest-room policies. Health concerns played a minimal role. Hotels received positive feedback from customers and employees. Media coverage was favorable, emphasizing positive aspects of going smoke-free; the overall slant of news items was positive or neutral. However, few hotels marketed the change. Since hotel customers and employees are likely to experience long periods of smoke exposure and smoke-free hotels appear to be so well received, it may be timely to pursue policies making all hotels smoke-free.

  16. The impact of conservative discourses in family policies, population politics, and gender rights in Poland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Umut; Eslen-Ziya, Hande

    2011-01-01

    This article uses childcare as a case study to test the impact of ideas that embody a traditional understanding of gender relations in relation to childcare. Conservative ideas regard increasing female labor market participation as a cause of decreasing fertility on the functioning of a set of general policies to increase fertility rates. It looks into the Polish and Turkish contexts for empirical evidence. The Polish context shows a highly institutionalized system of family policies in contrast to almost unessential institutions in Turkey. Formally, the labor market participation of women is much lower in Turkey than in Poland. Yet, given the size of the informal market in Turkey, women's labor participation is obviously higher than what appears in the statistics. Bearing in mind this divergence, the article suggests Poland and Turkey as two typologies for studying population politics in contexts where socially conservative ideas regarding gender remain paramount. We qualify ideas as conservative if they enforce a traditional understanding of gender relations in care-giving and underline women's role in the labor market as an element of declining fertility. In order to delineate ideational impact, this article looks into how ideas (a) supplant and (b) substitute formal institutions. Therefore, we argue that there are two mechanisms pertaining to the dominance of conservative conventions: conservative ideas may either supplant the institutional impact on family policies, or substitute them thanks to a superior reasoning which societies assign to them. Furthermore, conservative conventions prevail alongside women's customary unpaid work as care-givers regardless of the level of their formal workforce participation. We propose as our major findings for the literature of population politics that ideas, as ubiquitous belief systems, are more powerful than institutions since they provide what is perceived as legitimate, acceptable, and good for the societies under study

  17. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  18. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartmann

    Full Text Available The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader

  19. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  20. Wanted, A National Teacher Supply Policy for Education:The Right Way to Meet The "Highly Qualified Teacher" Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Darling-Hammond

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Teacher quality is now the focus of unprecedented policy analysis. To achieve its goals, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB requires a “highly qualified teacher” in all classrooms. The concern with teacher quality has been driven by a growing recognition, fueled by accumulating research evidence, of how critical teachers are to student learning. To acquire and retain high-quality teachers in our Nation’s classrooms will require substantial policy change at many levels. There exists longstanding precedent and strong justification for Washington to create a major education manpower program. Qualified teachers are a critical national resource that requires federal investment and cross-state coordination as well as other state and local action. NCLB provides a standard for equitable access to teacher quality that is both reasonable and feasible. Achieving this goal will require a new vision of the teacher labor market and the framing of a national teacher supply policy. States and local districts have vital roles to play in ensuring a supply of highly qualified teachers; however, they must be supported by appropriate national programs. These programs should be modeled on U.S. medical manpower efforts, which have long supplied doctors to high- need communities and eased shortages in specific health fields. We argue that teacher supply policy should attract well-prepared teachers to districts that sorely need them while relieving shortages in fields like special education, math and the physical sciences. We study the mal-distribution of teachers and examine its causes. We describe examples of both states and local school districts that have fashioned successful strategies for strengthening their teaching forces. Unfortunately, highly successful state and local program to meet the demand for qualified teachers are the exception rather than the rule. They stand out amid widespread use of under-prepared teachers and untrained aides, mainly for

  1. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  2. Combining feed-in tariffs and net-metering schemes to balance development in adoption of photovoltaic energy: Comparative economic assessment and policy implications for European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, F. Javier; Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gómez-Lázaro, E.; Pham, Duc T.

    2017-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, Europe has been involved in the major development of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy. The Kyoto Protocol requirements and the European Union (EU) directives to promote the use of renewable energy sources (RES) together with environmental policies introduced for the development and use of alternative energies have generated a large number of market opportunities for this sector. Differences in the application of energy policies have caused significant imbalances in electricity systems and distortion of electricity prices. The main concern of governments is to define the support schemes to be used and how to combine them in the most profitable manner. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative cost-effectiveness assessment using feed-in tariffs (FiT) and net-metering (NM) schemes in some representative EU countries. The authors have developed an economic model to evaluate the profitability of PV projects combining these support schemes. Results show not only the circumstances under which solar energy is economically profitable, but also the kind of PV systems, locations, minimum levels of tariff prices and specific combination of support schemes that should be promoted. - Highlights: • Comparative cost-effectiveness assessment combining FiT and NM support schemes. • A minimum FiT is proposed in addition to traditional financial performance indicators. • Results show the specific combinations of support schemes that should be promoted. • This work can aid efficient energy policy making. • Model could be applied to other types of RES projects and other geographical areas.

  3. "Compulsory Schooling" Despite the Law: How Education Policy Underpins the Widespread Ignorance of the Right to Home Educate in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Everyone in France takes for granted the existence of compulsory school attendance ("école obligatoire") while home education remains very exceptional. Yet school attendance is not, and has never been, legally compulsory in France. How can one explain the fact that the right to home educate is little known and practiced? This article…

  4. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international agreements. An earlier analysis for understanding the CRC is reviewed and replaced with one that uses a policy analysis model. This new model provides a basis for uniform child welfare policy and strategy throughout the nation. Although NASW has been supportive, it has not actively studied the consequences of implementation of the CRC, nor has it incorporated the CRC into its policy statements as a fundamental tenet. This article recommends that the NASW use the CRC as a basis for all child welfare policy statements and reference the CRS in future articles on child welfare issues. It also urges social workers to become politically active on behalf of the CRC to achieve ratification. Finally, it recommends a national committee to not only coordinate efforts toward ratification, but also oversee implementation of the CRC once it is ratified.

  5. Challenging and Preventing Policies That Prohibit Local Civil Rights Protections for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Discrimination causes health inequities for stigmatized groups. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, in particular, are at significantly increased risk for disparate health outcomes when they reside in states that fail to extend equal protections to them or that actively deprive equal rights to them. Several states and the federal government have proposed or enacted laws that permit residents to discriminate against LGBTQ individuals. One such law, Arkansas's Intrastate Commerce Improvement Act of 2015, preempts or prohibits local governments from enacting civil rights protections for LGBTQ individuals that are also lacking at the state level. State laws such as Arkansas's undermine local control, damage the economy, and create injustices that harm LGBTQ people. I set forth 2 constitutional arguments to challenge such laws, and I provide information to help advocates support evidence-based policymaking and prevent the passage of similar laws in their states.

  6. BUSINESSMEN AND EDUCATIONAL POLICY: HOW THE PROCLAIMED RIGHT TO QUALITY EDUCATION IS DENIED IN PRACTICE BY BUSINESS REFORMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite that businessmen were always trying to interfere with the educational process from the times of theory of human capital, what can be happening of new that is motivating an increased interest of the business community through education? Is it possible that changes in the socio-economic development process of countries or their own crises of capital, are mobilizing the businessmen? We think so. The current interest of businessmen has specific aspects that deserve to be examined. It is not recommended that we believe that “history is repeating itself”. This linearity of analysis disarm us for the local confrontations of contradictions placed by this new escalation of capital on education. The educational policy of the reformers is produced to articulate the need to qualify for the new forms of organization of productive work, at the same time that it preserves and amplifies the classical social functions of the school: exclusion and subordination. At stake is the political and ideological control of the school, at a time when some greater degree of access to knowledge is required by new forms of organization of productive work, new consumption demands of the capitalist system and new political pressures for social mobility through the education.

  7. Securing Communal Land Rights to Achieve Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Critical Analysis and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Andrew Clarke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of sustainable development gains increasing traction under international law, effective and scalable policies to translate these principles into practice remain largely beyond reach. This article analyses one possible strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa - increasing security of communal tenure to improve resource management and achieve rural sustainable development. Although this approach has attracted some attention, particularly with management responsibility of communal property increasingly devolved to the community-level, the expected results in terms of more sustainable resource exploitation and sounder environmental management have yet to be realised. Through critical analysis, with particular emphasis on the Gestion Terroir approach in Burkina Faso , the article explores the reasons behind the limited success. The article suggests that greater emphasis must be placed on bridging statutory command-and-control regimes with community-based models. Focusing on the links between communal land tenure and environmental management, and effectively embedding community land management institutions within existing environmental governance structures offers a practical model to promote sustainable development.

  8. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive

  9. Beyond the decade of policy and community euphoria: The state of livelihoods under new local rights to forest in rural Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil René Oyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the state of livelihoods under the exercise of new community rights to forest in rural Cameroon. The assessment makes use of a set of livelihoods indicators. The granting and exercise of new community rights, namely, management rights and market rights, are not synonymous with improved livelihoods, despite initial predictions and expectations. The resource base has not changed; it is more and more threatened by poor local level institutional arrangements and social and bio-physical management strategies, in addition to the weak central level regulation and monitoring actions. Similarly, the rights-based reform and community forestry are not improving basic assets and means at the household level. Nevertheless, this paper suggests that this experiment should not be judged hastily, since fifteen years are not enough to judge social and institutional processes like those in progress in Cameroon. The authors draw policy options likely to improve the livelihoods dimension of the reform and launch a debate on the real contribution of community income derived from community forests towards poverty alleviation at the household level.

  10. The costs of emission reduction policies, markets for emission rights: what can we learn from the models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, O.

    2001-01-01

    Several models have been developed to assess the economic impacts of the commitments undertaken at Kyoto by the various parties to the Framework Agreement on Climatic Change. Following a seminar organised by the European Commission, the task here is to take stock of the various points of agreement or the differences made apparent by the models concerning the economic challenges relating to the Kyoto protocol. Qualitatively, the results are similar on several points: the implementation of the Kyoto protocol within the countries of appendix B represents a cost for these economies, except for those countries possessing hot air compared to an autarkic situation, the exchange of emission rights leads to a gain for each of the participants in the market but the setting of a ceiling for these exchanges brings about a reduction in global gains from exchange and strongly affects the division of these gains between countries. Finally, the recognition of families of greenhouse gas other than CO 2 reduces the costs of observing the Kyoto commitments. However, the quantitative results frequently diverge, both due to the type of model used (general or sector based balance) and the hypotheses chosen for the exogenous variables. It is therefore important to carry out awareness analyses, to propose sets of common hypotheses for certain exogenous variables and even to define a reference scenario common to all of the models in order to be able to re-examine the results, but this time on a common basis. The tasks of modelling should also be continued and enhanced in the following areas: What are the impacts of an emission rights market at a sector-based level (beginning with industry)? What is the exact effect of the inclusion of the six families of greenhouse gas and the absorption of carbon by the wells? Finally, what are the possibilities of differing objectives concerning a second round of commitments (post Kyoto)? (author)

  11. Las políticas de salud reproductiva en el Perú: reformas sociales y derechos ciudadanos Reproductive health policies in Peru: social reforms and citizenship rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Rousseau

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el caso del proceso de elaboración de políticas de salud reproductiva en el Perú, en el contexto de las reformas de las políticas sociales implementadas durante los últimos 15 años. Las reformas en el sector de la salud sólo han reparado en forma parcial el acceso desigual de las mujeres a la planificación familiar, a los derechos reproductivos y a la atención materna. Las fuentes principales de desigualdad están relacionadas con la naturaleza segmentada del sistema de la atención de la salud que ocasiona, entre otros temas, que la mayoría de las mujeres sin seguro provenientes de las clases populares dependan de qué y cómo sean provistos los servicios públicos de la atención médica. Por otra parte, el continuo papel de sectores conservadores en los debates sobre políticas de salud reproductiva sigue teniendo un impacto sobre los servicios públicamente disponibles de planificación familiar.The article analyzes the case of reproductive health policy-making in Peru in the context of recent social policy reforms. Health-sector reforms have only partially redressed Peruvian women's unequal access to family planning, reproductive rights and maternal care. The main sources of inequalities are related to the segmented character of the health-care system, with the highest burden placed on the public sector. The majority of women from popular classes, who are not protected by an insurance plan, are dependent upon what and how public services are provided. Simultaneously, the continuing role of conservative sectors in public debates about reproductive health policy has a strong impact on public family planning services and other reproductive rights.

  12. Banking on the equator. Are banks that adopted the equator principles different from non-adopters?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Dam, L.

    We analyze the performance of banks that adopted the Equator Principles. The Equator Principles are designed to assure sustainable development in project finance. The social, ethical, and environmental policies of the adopters differ significantly from those of banks that did not adopt the Equator

  13. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  14. eHealth adoption factors in medical hospitals: A focus on the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Sander; van Geenhuizen, Marina; de Reuver, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Despite strong policy interest in eHealth, actual adoption in many European hospitals is low. This study develops and tests in a preliminary way an organisational eHealth adoption model rooted in several adoption frameworks to improve understanding of this phenomenon. The model is explored through a survey among hospitals in the Netherlands using a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach. Specific attention is paid to measurement of organisational readiness and to adoption as a process including different stages. Our results suggest a sharp decrease in the adoption process by hospitals after the stage of interest/commitment. Adoption tends to be significantly affected by size of the hospital, organisational readiness including technical aspects, and top management support. eHealth adoption tends to be not a linear process nor a linear function of contextual antecedents. Organisational readiness is an important antecedent for eHealth adoption. The paper concludes with organisational strategies and policies to foster eHealth adoption in hospitals and suggestions for future study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adopted Children and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life ... are the reasons for these patterns of parental inaction? Some adoptive parents are afraid their youngster might stop loving ...

  16. Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood transfusion policy. ... Objective. To determine whether adopting a restrictive BTF policy results in fewer transfusions. Methods. Data were retrospectively collected on all infants who received BTFs in the GSH nursery over a 6-month period following adoption of a ...

  17. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  18. Alexandra Masaitis, UNR NV, USA. PhD Grad St. Principles of Adoption of the Successful Environmental Policies and Practices Used in Developed Countries into the Russian Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental Management principle based on the local conditions; 2. Devised were criteria for the risk assessment for mining operations in Russia. Where the fundamental principals were public health, environmental and biodiversity impact, long- and short- term rehabilitation plans, compliance with international standards and norms. Every criterion has grade level of probability that directly affects quarterly fees. 3. Developed was the mechanism of the economic motivation to make mining operations "environmentally friendly" that includes defrayal of expenses from both direct and indirect damages. 4. Identified were spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and the NGOs. These include development of standards for Good Neighbor Agreement, exchange of environmental information, international exchange of successful environmental, health, and safety practices. The study showed the necessity for the Russian Federation mining industry to adopt the more successful environmental policies and practices used in developed countries. To achieve this goal the Regional Environmental Management principle, the risk assessment criteria, the mechanism of the economic motivation, and the principles for international cooperation can play an extremely important role.

  19. Coding and encoding rights in internet infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores bottom-up grassroots ordering in internet governance, investigating the efforts by a group of civil society actors to inscribe human rights in internet infrastructure, lobbying the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Adopting a Science and Technology Studies (STS perspective, we approach this struggle as a site of contestation, and expose the sociotechnical imaginaries animating policy advocacy. Combining quantitative mailing-list analysis, participant observation and qualitative discourse analysis, the article observes civil society in action as it contributes to shape policy in the realm of institutional and infrastructure design.

  20. Geo policy of Commonwealth of Independent States and ecological destiny of territories and population of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Author points out, that in Kazakhstan environmental problems does not are priorities of state programs right up to 2030. Number of urgent measures on state national ecological policy which it necessary adopt are presented

  1. Understanding producers' motives for adopting sustainable practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-Barrera, Andres; Pennings, Joost M.E.; Hofenk, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the motives and risk attitudes of producers to engage in sustainable practices is important for policy-makers who wish to increase the likelihood of adoption and improve the design of incentives. This article examines the underlying motives of producers to adopt sustainable

  2. Essays on Policy Evaluation with Endogenous Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, experimental and quasi-experimental methods have been favored by researchers in empirical economics, as they provide unbiased causal estimates. However, when implementing a program, it is often not possible to randomly assign subjects to treatment, leading to a possible endogeneity bias. This dissertation consists of two…

  3. Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women, -- adopted at the Fifth Session of the Seventh National People's Congress on April 3, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The new law acts in accordance with the Constitution and the actual conditions of the country to protect women's lawful rights and interests, promote equality between men and women, and allow full play to women's role in socialist modernization in all aspects of political, economic, cultural, social, and family life. The state shall protect the special rights and interests enjoyed by women according to law and gradually perfect its social security system with respect to women. Women possess political rights equal with men, enjoy the right to vote and to stand for election, conduct state affairs, manage economic and cultural undertakings, and administer social affairs. Women are guaranteed the same rights with men with respect to culture and education for starting school, entering a higher school, job assignment upon graduation, conferring of academic degrees, and dispatch for study abroad. Guardians must ensure that female school age children receive compulsory education. The state shall guarantee that women enjoy the equal right with men to work, except where special types of work are unsuitable to women, and that women shall receive equal pay for equal work. Women shall be under special protection during their menstrual period, pregnancy, obstetrical period, and nursing period. Women shall enjoy equal rights with men to property and to their person. Drowning, abandoning, or infanticide in any manner of female babies shall be prohibited; discrimination against or maltreatment of women who give birth to female babies or women who are sterile shall be prohibited. Maltreatment or abandonment of aged women shall be prohibited. Women shall enjoy equal rights in marriage and family, and divorce. Women have the right to childbearing in accordance with relevant regulations and the freedom not to bear any child. When a woman's lawful rights are infringed, she has the right to request disposition or bring a lawsuit in a people's court.

  4. International adoption among families in the United States: considerations of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2003-04-01

    The practice of international adoption of children is critiqued, using Rawls' egalitarian concept of a distributive method of social justice. From this perspective, international adoption may be perceived as contradictory to principles of social justice by ignoring the social context within which it occurs. Social contexts that frequently surround international adoption are severe poverty and the disenfranchisement of the adopted child's biological family; the disenfranchisement of certain children because of their lower social status; gender oppression and discrimination against female children; risk to children's rights to the knowledge of their birth history and parentage; risk to children's rights to identification with their ethnic, cultural, and national group; and practices that may involve abduction, deceit, and trafficking in children. The article presents alternate views, including libertarian and utilitarian perspectives. Solutions from two international conventions are critiqued and implications are discussed for social work policy advocacy, practice, and research.

  5. Machine Replacement, Technology Adoption and Convergence.

    OpenAIRE

    Boucekkine, Raouf; Martinez, Blanca

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce adoption costs in a canonical vintage capital model. Adoption costs take the form of a direct loss in production during a fixed period of time. We explicitly characterize the optimal machine replacement policy as a function of the adoption period. Using an explicit numerical method, we study the dynamics of the model. In particular, we find that while an increase in the adoption costs lowers the long run level of output, it also rises the magnitude of short run flu...

  6. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  7. Adopted children in their adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, M D; Holter, F R

    1975-08-01

    The adoptive process can produce unusual stresses on the child, and biologic and adoptive parents, from prenatal to postnatal life, and through the various phases of physical and pscyhological development. Because of the possibility of these children and their families falling into the "at risk" category with greater potential for psychological and social problems, the pediatrician is of primary importance in diagnosis and counseling. The pediatrician can be of major help in properly diagnosing emotional, behavioral and/or learning problems occurring in adopted children. There must be a thorough evaluation of the child and his family to understand and properly treat symptomatic behavior. The pediatrician can give advice regarding developmental milestones, and especially help the adoptive parents in appreciating their conscious and unconscious attitudes so as to enhance attachment behaviors. Pediatricians are the consultants to whom parents turn for advice regarding the timing of telling about adoption. This advice needs to be individualized according to the specific child's needs. Using a developmental conceptual framework, the pediatrician is in the best position to help the parents and their adopted children with their feelings about societal attitudes and how these can most appropriately be handled. Along this line, the pediatrician can give help and advice when and if the adoptee decides to search for his biologic parents. There is a need to clarify laws which seal the original birth certificate permitting those adoptees who wish to attain a knowledge of potentially related disease processes and an identity with his own genealogical past to do so. This would also allow the adoptee to offer his own children information about their own genetic pool and an awareness of adoption as one of the most valuable and historically significant child rearing practices.

  8. The Danish Adoption Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.

  9. Neglected Population, Neglected Right: Children Living with HIV and the Right to Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Michael L; MacNaughton, Gillian; Sprague, Courtenay

    2017-12-01

    The laws, language, and tools of human rights have been instrumental in expanding access to lifesaving treatment for people living with HIV. Children, however, remain a neglected population, as evidenced by inadequate child-specific and child-friendly HIV treatment options. In this article, we explore the right to science, a potentially powerful but underdeveloped right in international law, and its application to research and development for pediatric HIV treatment. Drawing on reports of human rights bodies and scholars and applying the human rights typology of state obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill, we argue that states have five core obligations related to research and development for child-specific and child-friendly treatment: (1) adopting a public goods approach to science and science policy; (2) including and protecting children in research activities; (3) adopting legal and policy frameworks to support research and development through public funding and private sector incentives; (4) promoting international cooperation and assistance; and (5) ensuring the participation of marginalized communities in decision-making processes. In concluding, we make a number of recommendations for states, human rights bodies, international organizations, civil society, and private industry to further develop and implement the right to science.

  10. Textbook and Instructional Materials Adoption Policy and Procedures. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In the U.S.-affiliated Pacific, the U.S. Department of Education (U.S. ED) and the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) are responsible for assisting State educational agencies (SEAs) in the development of planning and accountability systems to meet the requirements of the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (NCLB) requirements and…

  11. The Danish Adoption Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia.......The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia....

  12. Becoming an Adoptive Parent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    Our research approaches transnational adoption as a nexus of local and global practices which are mediated in talk, text and other modalities of discourse. We use mediated discourse analysis combined with virtual ethnography to understand the cross-cultural similarities and differences in transna......Our research approaches transnational adoption as a nexus of local and global practices which are mediated in talk, text and other modalities of discourse. We use mediated discourse analysis combined with virtual ethnography to understand the cross-cultural similarities and differences...... in transnational adoption practice and representation. We present the results of our analysis of how the experiences of adoptive parents are (re)mediated in a Danish television documentary series following five prospective adoptive couples, not all of whom succeed in their 'quest' to adopt from abroad. Furthermore......, we trace how adopters publicly narrate their own experiences and problems with fertility and with adoption, as well as how they construct their personal websites, network with others locally and internationally, orient to other ‘sites’ or sources of information, share advice and create 'public goods...

  13. Understanding the Role of an International Convention on the Human Rights of People with Disabilities: An Analysis of the Legal, Social, and Practical Implications for Policy Makers and Disability and Human Rights Advocates in the United States. White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet E.

    This White Paper by the National Council on Disability urges the support and participation of American policymakers and organizations representing people with disabilities in the drafting of an international human rights treaty specifically addressing the rights of people with disabilities. Following an executive summary and an introductory…

  14. Integral accessibility: a matter of social inclusion : recommendations on measures for Dutch policy on accessibility in the public built environment to comply with the UN "Convention of Rights of Persons with Disability"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderveen, A.; de Laat, P.; Dominicus, M.M.T.; Mohammadi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history social aspects of sustainability have received less attention than the ecological and economic dimensions. The underlying reason is that it is a fragmented notion and not clearly defined in policy and practice. The United Nations 'Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities'

  15. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  16. The social rights and the public policies: a social psychology between the social self-organization and the exercise of the citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Edith Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our presentation is twofold: to expose the complex articulation between public policies in Buenos Aires City and the main trends in housing and food; and analyze their relationships with practices and representations of different levels of responsibility officers and agents, about de recipients of those policies. The qualitative research is based on document analysis, interviews and observational strategies. The analysis showed us a paradoxical relationship between the dismantling of the welfare state from the ‘90s economic recession and changes in public policies related to housing, according to international agreements. In the implementation of these policies we detected a marked tension between three types of staff concepts and relative positions about beneficiaries, ranging from a strong interactional commitment to a beneficiary communities conceptualization as a source of risk and a non community nature.

  17. Contact in adoption and adoptive identity formation: the mediating role of family conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Korff, Lynn; Grotevant, Harold D

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined adoption-related family conversation as a mediator of the association between adoptive parents' facilitation of contact with birth relatives and adolescent adoptive identity formation. The sample consisted of 184 adoptive families. Data were collected in two waves from adoptive mothers and fathers, and adoptees (M = 15.68 years at adolescence; M = 24.95 years at emerging adulthood) using semistructured interviews and questionnaires. Structural equation models showed a good fit to sample data, and analyses supported the hypothesized mediation model. Contact with birth relatives is associated with more frequent adoption-related family conversation, which in turn is associated with the development of adoptive identity. These results highlight the importance of supporting activities such as contact that lead to adoption-related family conversation. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of 'health'. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary's failure to engage with an individual's human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health.

  19. Medicare program; update of ratesetting methodology, payment rates, payment policies, and the list of covered procedures for ambulatory surgical centers effective October 1, 1998; reopening of comment period and delay in adoption of the proposed rule as final--HCFA. Notice of reopening of comment period for proposed rule and delay in adoption of provisions of the proposed rule as final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This notice reopens the comment period for a proposed rule affecting Medicare payments to ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs) that was originally published in the Federal Register on June 12, 1998 (63 FR 32290). This document gives notice of a delay in the adoption of the provisions of the June 12, 1998 ASC proposed rule as a final rule to be concurrent with the adoption as final of the hospital outpatient prospective payment system (PPS) that is the subject of a proposed rule published in the Federal Register on September 8, 1998 (63 FR 47551). In addition this document confirms that the current ASC payment rates that are effective for services furnished on or after October 1, 1998, will remain in effect until rebased ASC rates and the provisions of the June 12, 1998 ASC proposed rule are adopted as final to be concurrent with the adoption as final of the Medicare hospital PPS.

  20. The Adoption Process: Knowing the Experience of Adopting Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Gravena Vanalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoption includes changes to both the child and the adoptive home. Seeking to know the experiences regarding adoption, the couple and the family's experiences, two adoptive mothers were interviewed. The results indicate that the integration of the adopted child was carried out in a positive way, filling an apparent empty spot, and the adopted child was considered responsible for family harmony.

  1. Adopt Your Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  2. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting ... as deep, loving, and long-lasting as any parent-child relationship. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Caring ...

  3. You have no right to make me think about this--the de-legitimation of current nuclear policies among key American elites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.G.

    1982-11-16

    Until fairly recently, most segments of the American public, particularly our various elites, supported American nuclear policy, namely the maintenance of large and expanding nuclear stockpiles, the official foreswearing of the use of these weapons in a strategic first-strike, and the policy of threatening retaliation for Soviet nuclear attacks in war, by nuclear attacks on enemy cities and military centers. There is increasing evidence that this support is rapidly eroding; especially among key American elites. This is shown through increasingly vocal dissatisfaction with the continued growth and modernization of the nuclear stockpile; and second, in the dawning awareness of a discrepancy between our official policy of no first-strike and contingency plans to employ first-strike tactical nuclear weapons in the event of a Warsaw Pact attack upon Western Europe. Concerns have surfaced here due both to distaste at the growing size of our nuclear arsenal and the perception that we have not been altogether honest in our official stance of a no first-strike with nuclear weapons. Increasing numbers of Americans are coming to see our nuclear policy as inconsistent, senseless, and, most significantly, immoral, and therefore support a nuclear freeze.

  4. Adoption of medication alert systems in hospital outpatient departments in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Chun; Cheng, Shou-Hsia

    2017-06-01

    The adoption of medication alert systems in the health care sector varies among regions. In Taiwan, the health authority introduced policies in 2005 to encourage the adoption of medication alert systems in hospitals. This study aimed to understand the adoption of medication alert systems in the outpatient departments of hospitals in Taiwan using a nationwide survey. A questionnaire was developed and mailed to 380 accredited general hospitals in Taiwan in 2013. The information collected from the questionnaire concerning the outpatient department included (1) the time of adoption of a medication alert system; (2) the operation of individual alert functions: availability, management, and stability; and (3) hospital characteristics: accreditation level, teaching status, ownership, and number of beds. A total of 216 hospitals completed and returned the questionnaire, corresponding to a response rate of 56.8%. The adoption rate of medication alert systems in hospital outpatient departments increased from less than 10% in 1997-95.83% in 2012. Approximately two-thirds of the hospitals developed and maintained the alert systems independently or collaboratively with vendors. Teaching and large hospitals tended to develop more advanced alert functions such as drug-drug interaction functions. Improving the safety and quality of pharmaceutical services and meeting the policy requirements are reasons for hospitals to establish medication alert systems. The adoption rate of medication alert systems reached 95% in accredited general hospitals in Taiwan. Government policy and available health information professionals and vendors may somewhat contribute to the high adoption rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Motives to adopt renewable electricity technologies: Evidence from Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergek, Anna; Mignon, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion of renewable electricity technologies (RETs) has to speed up for countries to reach their, often ambitious, targets for renewable energy generation. This requires a large number of actors – including individuals, companies and other organizations – to adopt RETs. Policies will most likely be needed to induce adoption, but there is limited knowledge about what motivates RET adoption. The purpose of this paper is to complement and expand the available empirical evidence regarding motives to adopt RETs through a survey to over 600 RET adopters in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that there are many different motives to adopt RETs and that RET adopters are a heterogeneous group with regard to motives. Although environmental concerns, interest in the technology, access to an RE resource and prospects to generate economic revenues are important motives in general, adopters differ with regard to how large importance they attach to the same motive and each adopter can also have several different motives to adopt. There are also differences in motives between adopter categories (especially independent power producers vs. individuals and diversified companies) and between RETs (especially wind power vs. solar power). This implies that a variety of policy instruments might be needed to induce further adoption of a variety of RETs by a variety of adopter categories. - Highlights: • There are many different motives to adopt renewable electricity technologies (RETs). • Adopters attach different levels of importance to the same motive. • Adopters can have several different motives to adopt a particular RET. • Motives to adopt RETs differ between wind power, solar PV and small-scale hydro. • Motives to adopt RETs differ between IPPs, individuals and diversified companies.

  6. Los derechos de los niños en las políticas españolas para la infancia // Children’s rights in the Spanish policies of childhoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ramiro

    2016-03-01

    From the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child in 1989, children’s rights, mainly participation rights, and citizenship have been used as a frame of reference for policy makers at national level. However, citizenship and rights, from a substantive perspective, might be considered in national, historical and social contexts. Due to both are cultural processes. This article analyzes the Spanish policies of childhood, taking into account the historical, political and social process through which they have been providing a legal and substantive status of citizenship for children. It is distinguished three discursive stages about the child position as subject of rights in Spain. The first stage begins with the constitution of democratic and welfare state in 1978. The Spanish government opened-up to international assumptions of children’s rights, under democratic principles of universality and equality. This period was characterized by the centrality of welfare for children, where rights of provision and protection were emphasized over the idea of the children as social and participatory right-holders. The second discursive stage begins with the Spanish ratification of the 1989 United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child in 1990, when the Spanish government develops a set of political and legislative changes towards the consideration of childhood as a social phenomenon and children as independent subject of rights. In the third and final stage, Spanish politics of childhood started to involve the idea of the competent child and citizen, according to the increased government regulation and international assumptions (Legal reform 2011. Nevertheless, these universal legalities were (reelaborated by Spanish cultural determinants such a paternalistic perspective on family and citizenship and the emphasis on the authority and family to socialize and integrate children in society. The article concludes with some critical reflections about the

  7. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  8. The experience of adoptive parents in adoption reunion relationships: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Gabrielle A; Steed, Lyndall G

    2005-04-01

    The issues experienced by adoptive parents when faced with an adult child's searching or reunion relationship with his or her birth family, how adoptive parents place themselves within this process, and the factors that influence their experience at this time were explored in a qualitative study of 21 adoptive parents. Themes derived from semistructured interviews are discussed, and implications for clinical practice and future research are suggested. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Human rights advances in women's reproductive health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty

    2015-05-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Communication rights: Fundamental human rights for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2018-02-01

    The right to communicate includes the right to "freedom of opinion and expression" and rights and freedoms "without distinction of … language". The 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a time to celebrate and reflect on communication as a human right, particularly with respect to Article 19 and its relationship to national and international conventions, declarations, policies and practices. This review profiles articles from the special issue of International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (volume 20, issue 1) addressing communication rights from four perspectives: (1) communication rights of all people; (2) communication rights of people with communication disabilities; (3) communication rights of children and (4) communication rights relating to language. Divergent perspectives from across the globe are considered. First-hand accounts of people whose right to communicate is compromised/upheld are included and perspectives are provided from people with expertise and advocacy roles in speech-language pathology, audiology, linguistics, education, media, literature and law, including members of the International Communication Project. Three steps are outlined to support communication rights: acknowledge people - adjust the communication style - take time to listen. Future advocacy for communication rights could be informed by replicating processes used to generate the Yogyakarta Principles.

  11. Organizational Green IT Adoption: Concept and Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Deng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Green IT has emerged as an important research topic in information systems and in other areas, such as business sustainability management. Some progress has been made in our understandings of green IT in a wide area of research topics, ranging from the green IT definition to the motivation for adopting green IT by organizations. This paper provides a holistic review and explanation of why organizations adopt green IT. Based on an extensive review of extant studies and a broad theoretical foundation, the paper presents a theoretical framework on organizational green IT adoption (OGITA. For researchers, the study provides a comprehensive review of previous green IT adoption studies and a roadmap for future research. For practitioners, the study provides managers and policy makers a systematic analytical framework in guiding their business decisions.

  12. Using Human Rights to Hold the US Accountable for its Anti-Sex Trafficking Agenda: The Universal Periodic Review and new directions for US policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kari Lerum; Kiesha McCurtis; Penelope Saunders; Stéphanie Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Since the passing of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, anti-trafficking efforts have grown in funding, political strength, and popular-culture appeal in the United States and globally. Particularly influential in shaping anti-trafficking policy in the United States are anti-prostitution advocates who are primarily concerned with rehabilitating sex workers and eradicating sexual commerce. Simultaneous to the development of prohibitionist anti-trafficking and anti-prostitution eff...

  13. Adoption, nation, migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2013-01-01

    Som transnationalt adopteret vokser man ofte op med en fortælling om, at man er født i et fattigt land. Og at ens første forældre var fattige eller oplevede så store problemer, at de ikke så andre muligheder end at afgive en til adoption. Det er en historie, man bliver fortalt igen og igen. Og som...... man ender med at fortælle sig selv. Fattigdom er problemet. Adoption er løsningen. Eller er det?...

  14. Beyond the adoption/ non-adoption dichotomy: the impact of innovation characteristics on potential adopters' transition through adoption process stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, M.K.; Frambach, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    Research on innovation adoption has suffered from a bias towards understanding the factors that affect the dichotomous adoption/non-adoption decision.Much less attention is devoted to the question why potential adopters fail to progress to the adoption stage from earlier stages in the decision

  15. CERTS customer adoption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  16. Åben Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeldtoft, Nadia

    2007-01-01

    Denne rapport er en systematisk forskningsoversigt over udenlandske erfaringer med adoption i forhold til anbringelse uden for hjemmet, fx familiepleje, institutionsanbringelse og hjemgivelse til de biologiske forældre. Konklusionerne i rapporten er overraskende entydige: Adopterede børn klarer sig...

  17. Adoption som indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Hammen, Ida; Raft Andersen, Karen

    Denne rapport er en systematisk forskningsoversigt over udenlandske erfaringer med adoption i forhold til anbringelse uden for hjemmet, fx familiepleje, institutionsanbringelse og hjemgivelse til de biologiske forældre. Konklusionerne i rapporten er overraskende entydige: Adopterede børn klarer sig...

  18. adoption and utilization of programme communication variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    citizens in the dire need to participate in solving problems affecting their welfare ... hence, vital issues and concepts may be misunderstood or misinterpreted by the .... policies and programming that ensure that child rights to health, nutrition ...

  19. Managerial capacity and adoption of culturally competent practices in outpatient substance abuse treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G

    2010-12-01

    The field of cultural competence is shifting its primary emphasis from enhancement of counselors' skills to management, organizational policy, and processes of care. This study examined managers' characteristics associated with adoption of culturally competent practices in the nation's outpatient substance abuse treatment field. Findings indicate that in 1995, supervisors' cultural sensitivity played the most significant role in adopting practices, such as matching counselors and clients based on race and offering bilingual services. Staff's exposure to cross-cultural training increased from 1995 to 2005. In this period, positive associations were found between managers' cultural sensitivity and connection with the community and staff receiving cross-cultural training and the number of training hours completed. However, exposure to and investment in this training were negatively correlated with managers' formal education. Health administration policy should consider the extent to which the decision makers' education, community involvement, and cultural sensitivity contribute to building culturally responsive systems of care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  1. Adopted Adolescents' Preoccupation with Adoption: The Impact on Adoptive Family Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Julie K.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines relationship between intensity of adopted adolescents' thinking about their adoptions and their adoptive family relationships in 135 adopted adolescents. Adolescents with extremely high levels of preoccupation reported significantly higher levels of alienation and significantly lower levels of trust for their adoptive mothers and fathers.…

  2. Indigenous Rights in the Making: The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Jérémie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines to what extent the recently adopted United Nations Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples participate to the development of indigenous peoples' international human rights.

  3. Issues and challenges in the adoption of International Financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues and challenges in the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Nigeria. ... to have some weaknesses, as such, implementation of policy results in a lot of challenges. ... Accounting infrastructure should be strengthened.

  4. Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the basis for product or service development, pricing, marketing and policy formulation. In this study we ... Key words: Mobile financial services, Adoption, Tanzania ...... Financial Inclusion Strategies Referenca Framework. Washington DC: ...

  5. Advancement of human rights standards for LGBT people through the perspective of international human rights law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cviklová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue how various religious and legal systems cope with current developments that undermine binary opposition of man and woman including definition of their sexual and cultural identities. More concretely, it tries to explain, how concrete societies and legislations deal with claims of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals (LGBT that claim broader recognition. It elucidates differences among Western provisions and policies of the relevant legal bodies such as the General Assembly of the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and the Supreme Court concerning these issues. It also points to the nature and real impact of international civil society forces such as Yogyakarta principles that formulate extension of rights concerning lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals. On the basis of comparison of various legal and religious discourses it explains current practices of direct and indirect discrimination and in some non-European national systems even extra-judicial killings, torture and ill-treatment, sexual assault, rape and other violations of human rights. When emphasizing substantial differences among current European states and non-European ones concerning policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT, it shows current tendencies of advancement in the field by common policies of Council of Europe, recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights as well as civil society efforts such as Yogyakarta principles. Swedish standards have been introduced in order to emphasize existing progressive attitudes to LGBT people concerning gay marriages and adoption procedures.

  6. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  7. Adoption, nation, migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2013-01-01

    Som transnationalt adopteret vokser man ofte op med en fortælling om, at man er født i et fattigt land. Og at ens første forældre var fattige eller oplevede så store problemer, at de ikke så andre muligheder end at afgive en til adoption. Det er en historie, man bliver fortalt igen og igen. Og so...

  8. Using public policy to improve outcomes for asthmatic children in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jewlya; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Zimmer, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    School-based services to improve asthma management need to be accompanied by public policies that can help sustain services, scale effective interventions, create greater equity across schools, and improve outcomes for children. Several national organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have recommended specific public policies the adoption of which in school settings can improve asthma outcomes for children. Although many states and school districts have adopted some of these policies, adoption is not universal, and implementation is not always successful, leaving inequities in children's access to asthma services and supports. These issues can be addressed by changing public policy. Policy change is a complex process, but it is one that will benefit from greater involvement by asthma experts, including the researchers who generate the knowledge base on what services, supports, and policies have the best outcomes for children. Asthma experts can participate in the policy process by helping to build awareness of the need for school-based asthma policy, estimating the costs associated with policy options and with inaction, advocating for the selection of specific policies, assisting in implementation (including providing feedback), conducting the research that can evaluate the effectiveness of implementation, and ultimately providing information back into the policy process to allow for improvements to the policies. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  10. Awareness of BIM adoption in Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Motiar

    2017-09-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is getting increased attention day-by-day due to its many benefits, including clash detection, collaboration between contract parties, visualization future structure, optimized schedule and project control, waste control, design documentation, and harmonized facilities management. As such, many countries have already adopted BIM, and many other countries are exploring the potential of adopting it. However, it is still relatively new and unknown to some other countries like Brunei. This study was therefore undertaken to generate and/or gauge the awareness of Brunei construction industry participants, targeting adoption of BIM, through a structured questionnaire survey. Responses from 90 industry participants reveal that Brunei Construction industry is not well aware of BIM, lack the required technical knowledge and application in construction, and cost involvement. They are unsure about the potential benefits and barriers to implementing BIM. However, respondents are hopeful that BIM can bring the required changes in construction, willing to adopt BIM, expects cliental support with initial investment for its adoption, and believe that BIM is the future of construction project information management. On the whole, private sector was seen to be more aware on BIM than public sector. The study outcomes are expected to provide the policy makers a first-hand information on the industry awareness on BIM, which in turn help them for further exploration / examination and to design any action plan and guidelines for BIM adoption.

  11. Moving Towards Inclusive Education as a Human Right, An analysis of international legal obligations to implement inclusive education in law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Waddington, L.B.; Toepke, C

    2014-01-01

    Children with disabilities experience ongoing segregation in special education classes or are otherwise excluded from education. This is in spite of the fact that States have a legal obligation to offer an accessible and inclusive education to all learners. Exclusion of any child from education is a violation of international law and a breach of human rights. The provision of inclusive education is an obligation under international law, as well as the means by which to fulfil the additional l...

  12. Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavis, Timothy M.

    This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

  13. Adoption Barriers of Open-Source Software: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Dmitrij; Obwegeser, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    of external support. At the organizational level, companies lack financial and human resources, while adequate managerial support is also identified as a crucial aspect. On the environmental side, cultural elements, policies, and legal frameworks can hinder FLOSS adoption. Individual factors......, such as employees’ resistance to change and non-competitive technology leadership behaviour may also negatively influence the adoption process....

  14. Intercountry Adoption: A Comparison between France and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Joanna

    1995-01-01

    Examined the intercountry adoption experiences of 100 French and 100 English families, comparing policy in each country. Found a lack of effective and sensitive management of the introductory meetings between prospective parents and adoptive children, and of adequate birth records information. (HTH)

  15. THE ROLE OF MICROFINANCE IN RIGHT-BASED APPROACH TO FOOD IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mago Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of microfinance to food security using the lens of the Right-Based Approach to food. The paper adopts a qualitative research methodology, following an exploratory research design. The research findings show that microfinance has a positive contribution towards rights to food and food security. However, in other African contexts, microfinance worsening the status of the poor. It was thus established that proper management of microfinance programs is likely to bring more benefits than problems. Making the ‘right to food’ and the ‘right to credit’ aspects of human rights will strengthen the productive systems of food to ensure sustainable supplies for effective food security mechanisms. The paper recommends that the linkage between microfinance and food rights be escalated to policy level discussions. Policies that promote a combination of the two rights need to be developed.

  16. Are the kids really all right? Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in children: are company policies clashing with professional norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Heidi Carmen; Avard, Denise; Borry, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The genetic testing of minors within the direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing (GT) context has been given relatively little attention. The issue of testing healthy children for diseases that would only develop in adulthood raises many important ethical, legal and social issues. As genetic testing is now available outside of the traditional health care system, often without even the intermediate of a health care professional, we surveyed 37 DTC GT companies regarding their policies for testing in children. Although the response rate is relatively low (35%, 13/37), our findings reveal that a clear majority of companies do perform genetic testing in minors. As such, companies testing for adult onset diseases are acting in contradiction of established professional guidelines, which state, among others, that, for predictive genetic testing, the availability of therapeutic or preventive measures is necessary for testing to be performed in asymptomatic minors. The community of stakeholders in children's health care and genetic testing should, therefore, decide which standards need to be upheld by DTC GT companies and ensure that these are met. PMID:21629297

  17. Are the kids really all right? Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in children: are company policies clashing with professional norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Heidi Carmen; Avard, Denise; Borry, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    The genetic testing of minors within the direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing (GT) context has been given relatively little attention. The issue of testing healthy children for diseases that would only develop in adulthood raises many important ethical, legal and social issues. As genetic testing is now available outside of the traditional health care system, often without even the intermediate of a health care professional, we surveyed 37 DTC GT companies regarding their policies for testing in children. Although the response rate is relatively low (35%, 13/37), our findings reveal that a clear majority of companies do perform genetic testing in minors. As such, companies testing for adult onset diseases are acting in contradiction of established professional guidelines, which state, among others, that, for predictive genetic testing, the availability of therapeutic or preventive measures is necessary for testing to be performed in asymptomatic minors. The community of stakeholders in children's health care and genetic testing should, therefore, decide which standards need to be upheld by DTC GT companies and ensure that these are met.

  18. Barriers to ambulatory EHR: who are 'imminent adopters' and how do they differ from other physicians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Menachemi

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion Policy and decision makers interested in promoting the adoption of EHR among physicians should focus on the needs and barriers of those most likely to adopt EHR. Given that imminent adopters differ considerably from their peers, current EHR incentive programmes that focus on financial barriers only might prove sub-optimal in achieving immediate widespread EHR adoption.

  19. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil Discriminação, políticas e direitos sexuais no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.Este artigo privilegia uma das arenas políticas que vêm sendo articuladas a partir da incidência do ideário dos direitos sexuais sobre a política sexual brasileira, qual seja, o processo de afirmação dos chamados "direitos LGBT". A construção desses direitos se faz, seja por meio de tentativas de estender à população LGBT direitos civis e sociais antes restritos a heterossexuais, seja por intermédio da promulgação de dispositivos que coíbam diretamente a discriminação e a violência homofóbica. Estarão em foco alguns dos principais atores sociais envolvidos nesse processo, especialmente aqueles situados nos três poderes constituídos do Estado, uma vez que é nesse plano que atualmente têm se dado os embates mais decisivos. Sem se propor a oferecer um painel exaustivo do que tem acontecido na justiça, no congresso e no governo, apontamos para a complexidade de um quadro que, revelando em suas diferentes dimensões inúmeras inovações e rupturas, não deixa de apresentar igualmente

  20. Green Technology Adoption and the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeon , Jean-Marc; Hovsepian , Margot

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the adoption of green technology in a dynamic economy affected by random shocks where demand spillovers are the main driver of technological improvements. Firms’ beliefs and consumers’ anticipations drive the path of the economy. We derive the optimal policy of investment subsidy and the expected time and likelihood of reaching a targeted level of environmental quality under economic uncertainty. This allows us to estimate the value that should be given to the environment in order ...

  1. POPULATION POLICY OR SOCIAL POLICY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI STANOIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After 1989, the demographic situation of Romania population experienced a dramatic, very concerning and dangerous evolution trend. One of the first measures of the new political power was to abolish the very restrictive, anti-human and abusive legal regulation adopted in 1966 by the communist regime concerning abortion and the whole old demographic policy. As a result of this measure and of the worsening economic and social situation of the great majority of Romanian population, the birth rate declined sharply and, from 1992, the natural demographic growth rate became a negative one. The absolute number of Romanian population decreased more and more and, if nothing changes, in the next few decades it will be no bigger than 15 million people. At the same time, the process of demographic ageing of population will accentuate, generating serious problems from demographic and social-economic point of view, Taking into account the present demographic situation and, especially, the foreseen trend of evolution, it is more than clear that there should be taken some urgent, coherent and consistent measures in order to stop this dangerous demographic evolution, until it is not too late, and to avoid, as much as possible, a potential demographic disaster. The problem is: what kind of measures should be taken and what kind of policy should be adopted? Some social scientists believe that a new population policy should be adopted; some others believe that rather a social policy should be adopted. The purpose of my paper is to analyze this different opinions and to show that, behind the dispute on the terminology, should be taken consistent measures, at governmental level, in order to assure a substantial improvement of demographic situation, not only from a quantitative, but from a qualitative point of view as well, and to identify some of these kind of measures.

  2. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Process of adoption communication openness in adoptive families: adopters’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Acciaiuoli Barbosa-Ducharne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Communication about adoption is a family interaction process which is more than the simple exchange of information. Adoption communication can be characterized in terms of the level of openness of family conversations regarding the child’s past and the degree of the family’s adoption social disclosure. The objective of this study is to explore the process of adoption communication openness in Portuguese adoptive families by identifying the impact of variables related to the adoption process, the adoptive parenting and the adoptee. One hundred twenty five parents of children aged 3 to 15, who were adopted on average 4 years ago, participated in this study. Data was collected during home visits using the Parents Adoption Process Interview. A cluster analysis identified three different groups of families according to the level of adoption communication openness within the family and outside. The findings also showed that the process of the adoption communication openness started when parents decided to adopt, developed in parent-child interaction and was susceptible to change under professional intervention. The relevance of training given to prospective adopters and of professional practice based on scientific evidence is highlighted.

  4. Adopting preoperative fasting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Megan; Comrie, Rhonda

    2009-07-01

    In 1999, the American Society of Anesthesiologists adopted preoperative fasting guidelines to enhance the quality and efficiency of patient care. Guidelines suggest that healthy, non-pregnant patients should fast six hours from solids and two hours from liquids. Although these guidelines are in place, studies suggest that providers are still using the blanket statement "NPO after midnight" without regard to patient characteristics, the procedure, or the time of the procedure. Using theory to help change provider's beliefs may help make change more successful. Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations can assist in changing long-time practice by laying the groundwork for an analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of proposed changes, such as changes to fasting orders, while helping initiate local protocols instead of additional national guidelines.

  5. Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

  6. Políticas públicas, estructuras del Estado y defensa del derecho a la protección de la salud Public policy, structures of the state and the advocacy of the right to health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruelas-Barajas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Si bien existen estructuras del Estado, que no sólo de gobierno, cuya misión es impulsar y proteger los derechos ciudadanos, es claro que ésta no siempre se cumple cabalmente. Desde la formulación de leyes, políticas públicas, y regulaciones que deben hacer efectivas ambas, y entre todas éstas y su ejecución para asegurar el impacto deseado, existen con frecuencia brechas que terminan por hacerlas inoperantes. El caso de las medidas que a lo largo de muchos años se han establecido para el control del tabaco en México es un claro ejemplo de ello. En efecto, en múltiples ocasiones en el pasado se tomaron medidas de diversa índole que por una u otra razón han sido inefectivas. El postulado central de este ensayo es que desde el diseño de una ley, una política pública, y el logro de su propósito, intervienen necesariamente los fundamentos sobre los cuales se construyó esa política, su pertinencia a las necesidades que le dieron origen y las estructuras que la crean y/o las que deben hacerse responsables no sólo de acatar la ley y de convertirla en una política operativa sino de asegurar que esa operatividad se concrete en logros demostrables en los plazos esperados y con los recursos necesarios. El Consejo de Salubridad General se fortalece y rescata su vocación primigenia para responder como una de las estructuras del Estado que debe contribuir, con otras más, a la articulación de la génesis, formulación y ejecución de políticas públicas para que éstas transiten de un desideratum hacia una realidad de efectos positivos demostrables.Not always public policies for the advocacy of citizen rights meet their goal, among other things, because between their formulation and their implementation there is a lack of appropriate structures to generate, articulate and execute these policies. This has been the case of Mexico regarding the advocacy of the rights of non smokers. Very few has been achieved in this matter in the past

  7. International Adoption: Issues of Acknowledgement of Adoption and Birth Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolley, Barbara C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Families who adopt children internationally are faced with not only the acknowledgement of the adoption but also the recognition of the child's birth culture. Thirty-four families were surveyed to assess issues regarding the relevance, frequency, and means of acknowledgement of the adoption and of the birth culture. Findings suggest ways adoption…

  8. Whose Rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The debate over ritual infant male circumcision has increasingly been thematized as a Human Rights issue. But the claims on such rights seem highly conflicting. In particular, the rights of the child seems to conflict with the freedom of religion of parents, the rights of religious and ethnic...... minorities, and the rights of family and privacy. This disagreement is also present among scholars of religion. A reading of public statements by scholars of religion in the ongoing Danish (and Norwegian) debate reveals the lack of consensus of the study of religion when it comes to matters that are of great...... concern both for religious minorities and for individual citizens. This chapter examines the Law and Human Rights documents behind these conflicting claims and discusses the role of the scholar of religion in the debate....

  9. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  10. Running continuous academic adoption programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tobias Alsted

    Running successful academic adoption programmes requires executive support, clear strategies, tactical resources and organisational agility. These two presentations will discuss the implementation of strategic academic adoption programs down to very concrete tool customisations to meet specific...

  11. Healthy Travel for International Adoptions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The number of international adoptions, many from developing countries, has doubled in the last 10 years. This podcast discusses ways adoptive families can protect their own health and the health of their new children.

  12. Recourse right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The recourse right concerning nuclear power plants is analysed. It is emphasized that in the Brazilian civil liability legislation, the operator has this right against who admitted it through a written contract or against the individual who has acted or omitted to act whith the intent to provoke nuclear incidents. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  13. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  14. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  15. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...

  16. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitorac Ruxandra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to study the Romania’s monetary policy, in the period 1996-2013. The research starts with a theoretical review of the monetary policy, whose main purpose is influencing the broad money supply and the lending requirements and the institution in charge of achieving this objective is the Central Bank, highlighting its impact upon the economic activity, through the Keynesian analysis model IS-LM and a correlation between the monetary policy measures and the phases of the economic cycle whose results indicate that during the recession periods it is recommended to reduce interest rates in order to stimulate investments, by raising the money supply, and during the expansion period it is recommended to increase the interest rate in order to cut back the money supply. Starting from this premises, the research takes into account the study of the monetary policy measures adopted by the governmental authority of Romania, making a quantitative analysis of the main macroeconomic indicators: the real interest rate, the lending interest rate, the deposit interest rate and the broad money supply and through a multifactorial regression, highlighting the impact of the interest rates upon the monetary aggregate M2. Moreover, a comparison between the monetary policy measures adopted in Romania and the monetary policies recommended by specialized literature has been done, and the results have indicated that during recession periods the attention of the governmental authorities is focused upon adopting the right measures, but during the expansion periods this doesn’t happen. The results of this research highlight the economic situation in Romania and the way in which the governmental authority intervened, through the monetary policy measures, in order to mitigate the negative effects of the cyclical fluctuations.

  17. Evolution of adoption from Roman law to modern law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitanović Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the evolution of adoption practice from ancient Roman law to modern law. Adoption represents ancient social and legal practice which has during time changed manifestations and the causes it served. Adoption in ancient Rome served the interests of pater familias without biological posterity. Adoption practice benefited the continuance of families and the family cult of adopters, whose family lines, with no natural posterity, were threatened to become extinct. After the stagnation in the feudal epoch, adoption was reaffirmed in the bourgeois law. Civil codes in European countries, whose legal systems were built on the foundations of the ancient Roman legal tradition, originally favoured the interests of individuals with no biological children, who were granted to extend their families by adopting, and hence transfer their assets on the obtained heirs. After the wars in the 20th century, which led to a rapid increase in the number of parentless children, the concept of adoption was radically changed, so that since that time the adoption has primarily served the interests of the adopted children and the care for them in the adoptive families. Adoption becomes a form of a social, legal family protection of children without adequate parental care, and that is the most desirable form to provide for children, for the adoptee completely integrates with the adoptive family and takes the right of the born child, where the family environment provides and encourages the optimal mental and physical development of the child.

  18. Family interactions in adoptive compared to nonadoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueter, Martha A; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2009-02-01

    Despite the large and growing numbers of adoptive families, little research describes interactions in families with adopted adolescents. Yet, adopted adolescents' increased risk for adjustment problems, combined with the association between family interactions and adolescent adjustment in nonadoptive families, raises questions about differences in adoptive and nonadoptive family interactions. We compared observed and self-reported family interactions between 284 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families and within 123 families with 1 adopted and 1 nonadopted adolescent. Adolescents averaged 14.9 years of age. Comparisons were made using analysis of variance incorporating hierarchical linear methods in SAS PROC MIXED to control family-related correlations in the data. Parents and children reported more conflict in adoptive families when compared with nonadoptive families. Families with 1 adopted and 1 nonadopted adolescent reported more conflict between parents and adopted adolescents. Observed parental behavior was similar across adoptive and nonadoptive children although adopted adolescents were less warm and, in families with 2 adopted children, more conflictual than nonadopted adolescents. These findings suggest a need for further investigation of the association between family interactions and adopted adolescent problem behavior. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. State school nutrition and physical activity policy environments and youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben; Wall, Melanie; Haddad, Tarek; Kubik, Martha; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    With the epidemic of childhood obesity, there is national interest in state-level school policies related to nutrition and physical activity, policies adopted by states, and relationships to youth obesity. This study develops a comprehensive state-level approach to characterize the overall obesity prevention policy environment for schools and links the policy environments to youth obesity for each state. Using 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) state data, qualitative and quantitative methods were used (2008-2009) to construct domains of state-level school obesity prevention policies and practices, establish the validity and reliability of the domain scales, and examine their associations with state-level obesity prevalence among youth aged 10-17 years from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Nearly 250 state-level obesity prevention-policy questions were identified from the SHPPS. Three broad policy topic areas containing 100 food service and nutrition (FSN) questionnaire items; 146 physical activity and education (PAE) items; and two weight assessment (WA) items were selected. Principal components analysis and content validity assessment were used to further categorize the items into six FSN, ten PAE, and one WA domain. Using a proportional scaled score to summarize the number of policies adopted by states, it was found that on average states adopted about half of the FSN (49%), 38% of the PAE, and 17% of the WA policies examined. After adjusting for state-level measures of ethnicity and income, the average proportion of FSN policies adopted by states was correlated with the prevalence of youth obesity at r =0.35 (p=0.01). However, no correlation was found between either PAE or WA policies and youth obesity (PAE policies at r =0.02 [p=0.53] and WA policies at r =0.16 [p=0.40]). States appear to be doing a better job adopting FSN policies than PA or WA policies, and adoption of policies is correlated with youth obesity. Continued

  20. Adoption of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, P.

    1980-01-01

    This article develops a model of the innovation-adoption decision. The model allows the economic situation of a utility and its perception of uncertainty associated with an innovation to affect the probability of adopting it. This model is useful when uncertainties affecting decisions about adoption persist throughout the diffusion process, thereby making the usual adoption model implicit in rate-of-diffusion studies inappropriate. An empirical test of the model finds that firm size, power pool size, and selected aspects of uncertainty about the innovation are significant predictors of US utility companies' decisions on whether or not to adopt nuclear power generation. 17 references, 2 tables

  1. Authorship policies of scientific journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Tyler, Ana M; Black, Jennifer R; Kissling, Grace

    2016-03-01

    We analysed the authorship policies of a random sample of 600 journals from the Journal Citation Reports database. 62.5% of the journals we sampled had an authorship policy. Having an authorship policy was positively associated with impact factor. Journals from the biomedical sciences and social sciences/humanities were more likely to have an authorship policy than journals from the physical sciences, engineering or mathematical sciences. Among journals with a policy, the most frequent type of policy was guidance on criteria for authorship (99.7%); followed by guidance on acknowledgments (97.3%); requiring that authors make substantial contributions to the research (94.7%); requiring that authors be accountable for the research as a whole (84.8%); guidance on changes in authorship (77.9%); requiring that authors give final approval to the manuscript (77.6%); requiring that authors draft or critically revise the manuscript (71.7%); providing guidance on corporate authorship (58.9%); prohibiting gift, guest or ghost authorship (31.7%); requiring authors to describe their contributions (5.3%); limiting the number of authors for some types of articles (4.0%) and requiring authors to be accountable for their part in the research (1.1%). None of the policies addressed equal contribution statements. Journals that do not have authorship policies should consider adopting or developing ones. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Predicting Virtual Learning Environment Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penjor, Sonam; Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the significance of Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory with regard to the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) at the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB). The focus is on different adoption types and characteristics of users. Rogers’ DOI theory is applied...... to investigate the influence of five predictors (relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, trialability and observability) and their significance in the perception of academic staff at the RUB in relation to the probability of VLE adoption. These predictors are attributes of the VLE that determine the rate...... of adoption by various adopter group memberships (Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, Laggards). Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were deployed to analyse adopter group memberships and predictor significance in VLE adoption and use. The results revealed varying attitudes...

  3. Rights Language in the Sustainable Development Agenda: Has Right to Health Discourse and Norms Shaped Health Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa; Ooms, Gorik; Brolan, Claire E

    2015-09-29

    While the right to health is increasingly referenced in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) discussions, its contribution to global health and development remains subject to considerable debate. This hypothesis explores the potential influence of the right to health on the formulation of health goals in 4 major SDG reports. We analyse these reports through a social constructivist lens which views the use of rights rhetoric as an important indicator of the extent to which a norm is being adopted and/or internalized. Our analysis seeks to assess the influence of this language on goals chosen, and to consider accordingly the potential for rights discourse to promote more equitable global health policy in the future. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  4. Rights Language in the Sustainable Development Agenda: Has Right to Health Discourse and Norms Shaped Health Goals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Forman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the right to health is increasingly referenced in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG discussions, its contribution to global health and development remains subject to considerable debate. This hypothesis explores the potential influence of the right to health on the formulation of health goals in 4 major SDG reports. We analyse these reports through a social constructivist lens which views the use of rights rhetoric as an important indicator of the extent to which a norm is being adopted and/or internalized. Our analysis seeks to assess the influence of this language on goals chosen, and to consider accordingly the potential for rights discourse to promote more equitable global health policy in the future.

  5. Ética, direitos dos usuários e políticas de humanização da atenção à saúde Ethics, users' rights and policies of humanization of healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Carvalho Fortes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da evolução das políticas públicas de humanização dos serviços de saúde no Brasil. No campo da atenção em saúde, o termo humanização tem sido utilizado com diferentes significados e entendimentos, relacionando-o com os direitos dos pacientes e a ética voltada ao respeito ao outro. A partir dos anos 90, a humanização da atenção à saúde vem sendo tratada como política pública, iniciando-se no ambiente hospitalar, e , atualmente, sendo dirigida para todos os níveis de atenção de saúde.The article shows the evolution of public policies of humanization of healthcare in Brazil. Humanization was first related to patients' rights and ethics regarding respect for the others. In the nineties humanization is vieved as a public policies. Nowadays it is oriented to all services of health care.

  6. European energy policy and Italian national rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    In light of energy market upheavals expected as a result of the up-coming European free trade market, impacts on existing Italian energy legislation, currently hinging on the monopolistic activities of ENEL, (Italian National Electricity Board) are examined. The various aspects dealt with include: legal implications of the integration, under monopolistic and deregulated national energy market scenarios, of new legislation, on the production and distribution of renewable energy sources, with existing energy legislation; the combined effects of strong competition in a new international energy market and energy supply vulnerability due strong dependence on OPEC supplied petroleum; Italian regional economic unbalance due to the possible introduction, in a deregulated European electric power market, of a common carrier system of electric power distribution, that due to Italy's particular geography is expected to be controlled by a firm locatednear the northern border; power pooling legislation and rate structure transparency in a deregulated energy market

  7. Local community perceptions of conservation policy: rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions have provoked a wide range of mostly negative reactions amongst local villagers ... conservation, afin notamment que ces actions soient efficaces. Cette étude se focalise .... since the 1980s, there has been a gradual move towards more in- .... getting as equal a representation of male and female informants as well as ...

  8. The Lesotho curriculum and assessment policy: Opportunities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    The Curriculum and Assessment Policy 2009 represents the latest education reform, which marks a ... statements create for educational development in Lesotho. We adopt a ...... approach is adopted in the higher grades, where there is policy ...

  9. Some Considerations on the Adoption Registration in the Civil Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filiation is, in a broad sense, an identity element, dependent or not on the biological relationships, that represents, in some situations, either a condition for the existence of a right (e.g. the right to inheritance or for example to conclude a legal act (e.g. marriage. The proof of filiation is the birth certificate drawn up in civil registry or on the material basis of birth, or on the basis of the adoption judgment. In this paper, we aimed at analyzing the final part of the adoption procedure, the subsequent stage for becoming final the adoption judgment, which sets face to face the adopting person or family and the administrative authority, obliged to execute the judge's decision, i.e. to create a filiation relation between the adopted on the one hand and the adoptive parent or parents.

  10. INTERNET USE ADOPTION AMONG ACADEMICIANS: Comparing Innovative Adopters and Other Adopter Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbayah BTE MOHD SUKI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping represents an innovation to be adopted or rejected by online consumersglobally. Previous experiences and knowledge of innovation are the main factors affectingpeople’s willingness to adopt a new innovation. We explore how Internet use differsbetween academicians who are innovative adopters and other types of adopters.Academicians who are innovative adopters are hypothesized to: have more years of experience on online shopping, have greater frequency of purchase, and pay a higher price for items purchased online.Data were collected from 301 respondents. Results provide new perspective on innovativeadopters among Malaysian academicians; they have less experience than other adopters inshopping for products online, make fewer purchases online and pay small amount ofmoney in shopping for products online than other adopters. Directions for future research are also discussed.

  11. Competing explanations for adopting energy innovations for new office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, Walter J.V.; Hovens, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    An integrative model to explain potential adopters' decisions to adopt energy innovations was adapted and applied in the field of new office building construction. We tested the relative effects of competing theoretical explanations (derived from economics, innovation science and policy science) on the decision to adopt. The research covered 35 projects representing 9% of the total volume of new office construction in the Netherlands between 2000 and mid-2002. Two levels of explanations for adopting innovations were derived: (a) the potential adopter's weighed assessments of the innovations and his or her nature of decision making and (b) explanation of those first-level variables. Using multiple regression techniques, we determined the relative influence on innovation-adoption of variables covering economy and technology, government intervention, company characteristics, and influences from market and society. The decision to adopt 'mature' innovations, in contrast to 'young' innovations, is based more on routine procedures than project-specific considerations. Policies need to take this difference into consideration. We also show evidence that in promoting adoption of E-innovations for new office buildings the Dutch system of applying Energy Performance Standards and subsidies proofs to be effective

  12. The Optimal Timing of Adoption of a Green Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha-e-Sa, M.A.; Reis, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the optimal timing of adoption of a cleaner technology and its effects on the rate of growth of an economy in the context of an AK endogenous growth model. We show that the results depend upon the behavior of the marginal utility of environmental quality with respect to consumption. When it is increasing, we derive the capital level at the optimal timing of adoption. We show that this capital threshold is independent of the initial conditions on the stock of capital, implying that capital-poor countries tend to take longer to adopt. Also, country-specific characteristics, as the existence of high barriers to adoption, may lead to different capital thresholds for different countries. If the marginal utility of environmental quality decreases with consumption, a country should never delay adoption; the optimal policy is either to adopt immediately or, if adoption costs are t oo high , to never adopt. The policy implications of these results are discussed in the context of the international debate surrounding the environmental political agenda

  13. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  14. Deconstructing Rights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    Kerala, India. Parallel Sessions II ... limits of a coming political community ... economies on women's rights & decentralization. Deconstructing ... resorts around all water sources inland and coastal, high-rise buildings ... None work in fishing industry (they have family links) ... ACCESS TO POWER gained by individual women ...

  15. Child labour in Bhutan : the challenges of implementing child rights in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Kishore Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to contextualize the practice of child labour in Bhutan by examining various socio-economic and cultural aspects. By reviewing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, this dissertation looks into the policies, Acts and strategies adopted by the Royal Government of Bhutan in reducing child labour. It describes various characteristics of child labour in Bhutan. It also provides an analysis of domestic child labour in the country. The study is mo...

  16. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  17. A Study of the Adjustment of Adopted Children in Air Force Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    exist among the members. According to Hoggett (1984), "the effects of an adoption order reproduce the birth relationship almost in its entirety. The...Publications. Hoggett , B. (1984). Adoption law: An overview. In P. Bean (Ed.), Adoption---Essays in social policy, law, and sociology. London: Tavistock

  18. Towards E-Society Policy Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Renato

    The move towards the Policy-Oriented Web is destined to provide support for policy expression and management in the core web layers. One of the most promising areas that can drive this new technology adoption is e-Society communities. With so much user-generated content being shared by these social networks, there is the real danger that the implicit sharing rules that communities have developed over time will be lost in translation in the new digital communities. This will lead to a corresponding loss in confidence in e-Society sites. The Policy-Oriented Web attempts to turn the implicit into the explicit with a common framework for policy language interoperability and awareness. This paper reports on the policy driving factors from the Social Networks experiences using real-world use cases and scenarios. In particular, the key functions of policy-awareness - for privacy, rights, and identity - will be the driving force that enables the e-Society to appreciate new interoperable policy regimes.

  19. The right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Stavri Sinjari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to life constitutes one of the main human rights and freedoms, foreseen by article 21 of the Albanian Constitution and article 2 of European Human Rights Convention. No democratic or totalitarian society can function without guarantees and protection of the human right to life We intend to address these issues on our article: What is life. What we legally understand with life. When the life starts and finish. How this right has evolved. Which is the state interest on protecting the life. Should we consider that the life is the same for all. Should the state interfere at any cost to protect the life. Is there any criminal charge for responsible persons to the violation of this right. Is this issue treated by European Human Rights Court. What are the Albanian legal provisions on protection of this right. This research is performed mainly according to a comparative and analytical methodology. Comperative analysis will be present almost throughout the paper. Treatment of issues of this research will be achieved through a system comparable with international standards in particular and the most advanced legislation in this area. At the same time, this research is conducted by analytical and statistical data processing. We believe that our research will make a modest contribution, not only to the legal literature, but also to criminal policy makers, law makers, lawyers and attorneys.

  20. (SAGE): Adopt, adapt, or contextualise?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and time-consuming and requires CPG knowledge ... Step 4. Consider whether to adopt, adapt or contextualise. Step 4.1 Adopt. Decide to .... review. PLoS One 2013;8:e82915. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082915. 14. AGREE ...

  1. Healthy Travel for International Adoptions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    The number of international adoptions, many from developing countries, has doubled in the last 10 years. This podcast discusses ways adoptive families can protect their own health and the health of their new children.  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for the Prevention, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 10/24/2007.

  2. The right to healthy indoor air: Status by 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Krzyzanowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    . The discussions and statements are available as a WHO report. It informs the individuals and groups responsible for healthy indoor air about their rights and obligations, and empowers the general public by making people familiar with those rights. One year after their publication the statements have been adopted......One of the reasons for the inadequate quality of indoor air arises from the poor articulation, appreciation and understanding of basic principles underlying the policies and actions related to indoor air quality. A WHO Working Group derived nine statements on rights to healthy indoor air...... as the base for future regulation and guidance. The Board of Directors of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality (ISIAQ) and the participants of two international conferences endorse the use of the statements. No opposition to the statements have been registered. The statements have entered curricula...

  3. Negar la política, negar sus sujetos y derechos (Las políticas migratorias y de asilo como emblemas de la necropolitica | Deny the Politics, their Subjects and Rights (Migration and Asylum Policies as Emblems of Necropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier De Lucas Martín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las políticas europeas de inmigración y refugio han sido criticadas por quienes las consideran emblemas de una concepción que pone en grave riesgo elementos básicos del Estado de Derecho y aun de la democracia. El epítome es la aparición de mercados de esclavos en Libia, a las puertas de la UE, un Estado fallido que la UE y sus Estados miembros se empeñan en elevar a la condición de partner privilegiado de sus políticas de externalización. Tomando como base los análisis de Lochak, Agambem y Bauman y la concepción de la propuesta por el filósofo camerunés Mbembé, desarrollando tesis de Foucault (biopolítica, se proponen algunas alternativas que vienen presididas por la exigencia de reconocimiento y garantía de derechos básicos de inmigrantes y refugiados. Abstract: European immigration and refuge policies have been criticized by those who see them as emblems of a conception that puts in serious risk basic elements of the Rule of Law and even of democracy. The epitome is the emergence of slave markets in Libya (at the gates of the EU, a failed state that, nevertheless, the EU and its Member States are determined to raise to the status of privileged partner of their outsourcing policies. Based on the analysis of Lochak, Agambem and Bauman and the conception of the proposed by the Cameroonian philosopher Mbembé who develops Foucault's thesis about biopolitics, this text will propose some alternatives that are leaded by the requirement of recognition and guarantee of rights of immigrants and refugees.

  4. Knowledge and adoption of solar home systems in rural Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebane, Kaja L.; Barham, Bradford L.

    2011-01-01

    Solar home systems (SHSs) are a promising electrification option for many households in the developing world. In most countries SHSs are at an early stage of dissemination, and thus face a hurdle common to many emerging alternative energy technologies: many people do not know enough about them to decide whether to adopt one or not. This study uses survey data collected in Nicaragua to investigate characteristics that predict the knowledge and adoption of SHSs among the rural population. First, a series of probit models is used to model the determinants of four measures of SHS knowledge. Next, a biprobit model with sample selection is employed to investigate the factors that predict SHS adoption, conditional on having sufficient knowledge to make an adoption decision. Comparison of the biprobit formulation to a standard probit model of adoption affirms its value. This study identifies multiple determinants of SHS knowledge and adoption, offers several practical recommendations to project planners, and provides an analytical framework for future work in this policy-relevant area. - Research highlights: → Solar home systems (SHSs) are a promising rural electrification option in the developing world. → As with many emerging renewable energy technologies, lack of knowledge may limit SHS adoption. → We use probit models to investigate the determinants of SHS knowledge in rural Nicaragua. → We also employ a biprobit model linking the determinants of knowledge and adoption. → We find that in analyzing SHS adoption, accounting for sample selection based on knowledge is key.

  5. Regional and inter-regional economic rules and the enforcement of the right to health: The case of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Liliana Lizarazo; De Lombaerde, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    The regional policy level is often seen as a (potential) source of progressive policy-making in health (and in social policy more widely), complementing or substituting national policy levels, which are perceived as underperforming. While it can certainly be argued that there are important opportunities to adopt regional approaches to tackle border-crossing health issues, this article draws the attention to the fact that the linkage between (inter-)regional and national policy levels is not uni-directional. While in some instances the regional level may indeed take the lead in the promotion of (the right to) health, in other instances it may well be the other way round. This article focuses on the case of Colombia, where international economic rules have deeply permeated public policies in the health sector. On one hand, Colombia has been opening markets through the conclusion of regional integration arrangements (e.g. Andean Community and the Pacific Alliance) and the new generation of Free Trade Agreements. On the other hand, Colombia has been one of the most active emerging countries in promoting the right to health as a justiciable fundamental right, in line with the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights of the United Nations mainly due to the judicial activism of the Colombian Constitutional Court with interesting implications for regional social governance. The article shows that national courts can play an important role in the protection of the right to health in a context of economic integration and the absence of regional balancing policies.

  6. In Defense of Language Rights: Rethinking the Rights Orientation from a Political Economy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses language rights as a legitimate political tool for language policy scholarship and activism. The article begins by engaging several critiques of language rights. It analyzes Ruiz's language-as-right orientation to language policy, and then reviews recent scholarship challenging language rights from poststructural and…

  7. THE FORESIGHTS OF THE ADOPTION OF EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loredana Juncu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even if the Euro critics showed the warning that the change of the national currency brings a loose of the control and the decision power about the monetary problems and the flexibility of the decisions, many consider that the adoption of the single currency would allow us to protect the economies from the external shocks. We have to eliminate the uncertainty, the high costs and we have to be able to avoid and / or manage the monetary fluctuations especially in situations like today’s economic crisis. One of the effects the crisis has created throughout the European Union and especially in Romania is connected with the return back in the country of the population that works in Western Europe and the reflux of money it implies. The structural problems of the Romanian economy that creates this workforce dynamic is to continue to affect the Euro adoption plan until significant solutions will be addressed in order to maintain the workforce in the country.Europe is facing a dilemma. For now there is a significant distrust in Euro. Romania needs to acknowledge the fact that a single European currency allows first of all the overpass of the actual internal fragmentation of the market and so to strengthen the national position in relation with the international. Romania can still be optimistic about the objective of adopting Euro if an efficient financial policy will be implemented.

  8. Food Prints on Human Rights Law Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Ratescu, I.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction between the development of the doctrine on human rights, in general, and on the right to food, in particular. In 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which listed the rights that were considered to

  9. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program.

  10. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  11. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation.

  12. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...... language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...

  13. Multimodal Resources in Transnational Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    The paper discusses an empirical analysis which highlights the multimodal nature of identity construction. A documentary on transnational adoption provides real life incidents as research material. The incidents involve (or from them emerge) various kinds of multimodal resources and participants...

  14. Adopting the EURO in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie ŞIMON

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the adoption of the Euro currency in 2014, as estimated in the National Programme. Based on the convergence criteria analysis on the current national background, we can foresee an earlier monetary integration.

  15. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  16. Adopt, Adapt, Enact or Use?

    OpenAIRE

    Lauterbach , Jens; Mueller , Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: IS/IT Implementation and Appropriation; International audience; Information Systems (IS) are omnipresent in today’s organizations. While much research has been performed on adoption, implementation, and use of IS, still many practitioners are faced with IS change endeavors in organizations that equal “death march” projects and fail before or directly after go-live. Research with a positivist stance has thoroughly studied factors that describe individuals’ intentions to adopt or use te...

  17. Factors in Agile Methods Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Abdalhamid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can affect the process of adopting Agile methods during software developing. This paper illustrates the critical factors in Agile methods adoption in software organizations. To present the success and failure factors, an exploratory study is carried out among the critical factors of success and failure from existing studies. Dimensions and Factors are introduced utilizing success and failure dimensions. The mind map was used to clarify these factors.

  18. The emergence of a global right to health norm--the unresolved case of universal access to quality emergency obstetric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Rachel; Ooms, Gorik

    2014-02-27

    The global response to HIV suggests the potential of an emergent global right to health norm, embracing shared global responsibility for health, to assist policy communities in framing the obligations of the domestic state and the international community. Our research explores the extent to which this global right to health norm has influenced the global policy process around maternal health rights, with a focus on universal access to emergency obstetric care. In examining the extent to which arguments stemming from a global right to health norm have been successful in advancing international policy on universal access to emergency obstetric care, we looked at the period from 1985 to 2013 period. We adopted a qualitative case study approach applying a process-tracing methodology using multiple data sources, including an extensive literature review and limited key informant interviews to analyse the international policy agenda setting process surrounding maternal health rights, focusing on emergency obstetric care. We applied John Kingdon's public policy agenda setting streams model to analyse our data. Kingdon's model suggests that to succeed as a mobilising norm, the right to health could work if it can help bring the problem, policy and political streams together, as it did with access to AIDS treatment. Our analysis suggests that despite a normative grounding in the right to health, prioritisation of the specific maternal health entitlements remains fragmented. Despite United Nations recognition of maternal mortality as a human rights issue, the relevant policy communities have not yet managed to shift the policy agenda to prioritise the global right to health norm of shared responsibility for realising access to emergency obstetric care. The experience of HIV advocates in pushing for global solutions based on right to health principles, including participation, solidarity and accountability; suggest potential avenues for utilising right to health based

  19. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  20. Expedited Permanency Planning: Evaluation of the Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mavin H.; Barbee, Anita P.; Antle, Becky F.; Sar, Bibhuti

    2002-01-01

    Presents evaluation findings of a 3-year Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project. Notes that a majority of children had one or both parents coping with multiple risk factors including mental illness, substance abuse, mental retardation, or family violence. Discusses major barriers to permanency, as well as policy and practice implications in the…

  1. Supporting networks for realizing rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    The chapter explores how DFID, the British bi-lateral aid donor, adopted an innovative rights' based approach that rested on supporting in existing networks in Peru. Focus is put on the history and challenges of DFID's engagement with three networks in particular: in the fields of health, local...

  2. Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users

  3. Affective Policy Performance Evaluation Model: A Case of an International Trade Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwon Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Firms often superficially adopt policies because of governmental rules and regulations, so as to avoid penalties or to gain benefits. However, the evaluation and characterization of those kinds of adoptions as policy performance distorts the true level of policy performance: social sustainability. This study proposes an affective policy performance evaluation model. The attitudes of employees toward adopting a policy are characterized into genuine and superficial compliance. Their behaviors are explained through voluntary and opportunistic adoptions. In order to validate the proposed model, a survey was conducted on an international trade policy target group (n = 216 for the Strategic Trade Control System (STCS, in order to understand their attitudes toward adopting the policy. The survey data was analyzed by a structural equation modeling method. The measures of the factors in the proposed model are adopted and modified from existing studies. The most effective resources of policy implementation on the firms’ genuine and superficial compliance and ultimately on the firms’ voluntary policy adoption are revealed through the analysis. Based on the results, this study presents a strategy for allocating and managing policy implementation resources to exclusively encourage firms’ trade policy adoptions.

  4. The ethics of intellectual property rights in an era of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aakash Kaushik; Warsh, Jonathan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, developed countries, led by the United States and the countries of the European Union, have sought to incorporate intellectual property rights provisions into global trade agreements. These countries successfully negotiated the World Trade Organization's 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which required developing countries to adopt intellectual property provisions comparable to developed countries. In this manuscript, we review the policy controversy surrounding TRIPS and examine the two main ethical arguments articulated in its support--a theory of natural rights and a utilitarian argument. We contend that these theories provide insufficient bases for an intellectual property rights regime that compromises access to essential medicines in the developing world. While the policy community has engaged in active debate around the policy effects of TRIPS, scholars have not thoroughly considered the full ethical underpinnings of those policy arguments. We believe that a more robust understanding of the ethical implications of the agreement should inform policy discussions in the future. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. State political ideology, policies and health behaviors: The case of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ashley M; Feng, Wenhui; Yumkham, Rakesh

    2017-05-01

    Anti-smoking campaigns are widely viewed as a success case in public health policy. However, smoking rates continue to vary widely across U.S. states and the success of anti-smoking campaigns is contingent upon states' adoption of anti-smoking policies. Though state anti-smoking policy is a product of a political process, studies of the effect of policies on smoking prevalence have largely ignored how politics shapes policy adoption, which, in turn, impact state health outcomes. Policies may also have different effects in different political contexts. This study tests how state politics affects smoking prevalence both through the policies that states adopt (with policies playing a mediating role on health outcomes) or as an effect modifier of behavior (tobacco control policies may work differently in states in which the public is more or less receptive to them). The study uses publicly available data to construct a time-series cross-section dataset of state smoking prevalence, state political context, cigarette excise taxes, indoor smoking policies, and demographic characteristics from 1995 to 2013. Political ideology is measured using a validated indicator of the ideology of state legislatures and of the citizens of a state. We assess the relationship between state political context and state smoking prevalence rates adjusting for demographic characteristics and accounting for the mediating/moderating role of state policies with time and state fixed effects. We find that more liberal state ideology predicts lower adult smoking rates, but that the relationship between state ideology and adult smoking prevalence is only partly explained by state anti-smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  7. Social assistance and disability in Brazil: the reflection of the international debate of the rights of people with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wederson Rufino dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the debate on the social model of disability has influenced conceptions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health adopted by the World Health Organization in 2001 and adopted in Brazil in 2007, through the law of the Continuous Cash Benefit. The BPC is a major social policy of income transfer to poor disabled people, affecting over one million and half disabled people in the country. Since 2009, the evaluation of persons with disabilities for the BPC will make by medical and social skills targeted by ICF. Will be demonstrated that, although the adoption of the ICF maybe to represent regard to how to understand disability as social inequality, the adoption of the ICF by the law of the BPC will face challenges in ensuring the right to dignity of disabled people.

  8. An unexpected reversal: the "demise" of international adoption in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 90s, there was a dramatic fall in intercountry adoptions of Brazilian children - from over 2000 per annum at the beginning of the decade, to under 400 at decade's close. In this paper, on the basis of archival material, we will attempt to outline possible reasons for this drop, considering hypotheses linked to the international market of adoptable children, legal restrictions on intercountry adoption imposed by the Brazilian government, and, finally, scandals in the mass media which stigmatize local intermediaries and officials involved in this activity. We conclude that inflamed public opinion and scandals in the media, although highly influential, are not necessarily the most adequate ingredients for a sensible policy on adoption.

  9. Essentialism in Spanish parents’ descriptions of their transnationally adopted teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasa Báñez Tello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary qualitative study of 24 adoptive families in Catalonia, Spain asks how adoptive parents of teens describe the things they dislike about their children. This question matters because prior research shows that parents’ views of their children can affect their parenting style and their relationships with their children. I show that in describing their dislikes, parents draw on essentialist beliefs about their children’s culture of origin and about their personality traits. My analysis inspires questions about the possible relationship between essentialist parental beliefs and parenting practice, in both adoptive families and families more broadly. This is of particular relevance in the current moment, in which childrearing is influenced by neoliberal values that emphasize the social success of children and teens as future citizens and hold parents responsible for this outcome (Geinger et al., 2014. The research can also inform family and professional practices and public policies related to adoption.

  10. Occupational care giving conditions and human rights: A study of elderly caregivers in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to explore and discuss the occupational care giving conditions pitting them against human rights. The article′s objective is to initiate discussions and generate literature pertaining to occupational care giving load and assessing the human rights challenge it poses. The article uses analysis of the literature review from an array of eclectic data sources. The following factors were found besetting the caregivers′ human rights: (1 Aging; (2 Cultural and community attitudes towards care giving; (3 Risk of contagion; (4 Health hazards and lack of compensation. Recommendations: (1 Adoption of grandparents/grandchildren care symbiosis system; (2 Government remuneration policy for caregivers; (3 Mainstreaming of gender education to encourage men and youth develop an interest in care giving; (4 Institution of laws and policies by countries to provide for the compensation of caregivers′ occupational hazards and risks.

  11. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Adopting Sustainability in the Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sanne; Morsing, Mette; Vallentin, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between sustainability adoption and internal legitimacy construction. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is designed as a critical inquiry into existing research and practice on sustainability adoption, illustrated by two...... corporate vignettes. Findings – Prior studies tend to assume that awareness raising is a sufficient means to create employee commitment and support for corporate sustainability programs, while empirical observations indicate that managerial disregard of conflicting interpretations of sustainability may...... result in the illegitimacy of such programs. Originality/value – The authors suggest that a loosely coupled approach to sustainability adoption is a productive way to understand internal legitimacy construction, as it appreciates complexity and polyphony....

  13. Re an Adoption Application (Surrogacy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-02

    In England, it is illegal under the Adoption Act 1958 to pay or reward anyone in an effort to adopt a child. A family court was asked in this case whether a surrogacy arrangement involving the payment of 5,000 pounds violated the Act. The applicants, a husband and wife, were unable to have children and had entered into an informal arrangement with a woman who agreed to engage in sexual intercourse with the husband and bear a child for the couple in exchange for 10,000 pounds. Because the surrogate wrote a book about her experience from which she made money, and sincerely wanted to help out the childless couple, she accepted only half of her fee. Convinced that the surrogate arrangement was not commercial in nature, the court found no violation of English law, authorized the payment to the mother, and authorized adoption of the child by the father and his wife.

  14. Adopting to Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkevics Gusts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agile software development can be made successful, but there is no well-defined way how to achieve this. The problem is that the successful adoption of agile methods and practices is a complex process and this process should be customizable for a particular organization or a team. This research focuses on identification of agile methods and practices. Result of the research is the ranking of agile methods, practices and their usage trends. As some terms of agile software development are interpreted differently in different organizations and teams, terminology used is analyzed. Results of the research can be used as a reference material for those who are planning to adopt agile methods or are looking for the next agile practice to implement. Results will be used for the development of an expert system to support agile adoption.

  15. Determinants of wind and solar energy system adoption by U.S. farms: A multilevel modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Xiarchos, Irene; Beckman, Jayson

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the first national examination of the determinants of adoption of wind and solar energy generation on U.S. farming operations. The inclusion of state policies and characteristics in a multilevel modeling approach distinguishes this study from past research utilizing logit models of technology adoption which focus only on the characteristics of the farm operation. Results suggest the propensity to adopt is higher for livestock operations, larger farms, operators with internet access, organic operations, and newer farmers. The results find state characteristics such as solar resources, per capita income levels, and predominantly democratic voting increasing the odds of farm adoption. This research suggests the relevance of state policy variables in explaining farm level outcomes is limited, although in combination best practice net metering and interconnection policies—policies designed to encourage the development of small scale distributed applications—are shown to increase the likelihood of farm solar and wind adoption. The prevalence of electric cooperatives—which are often not subject to state renewable energy policies and often service farms—is negatively related with the propensity to adopt and suggests that policy design may be a factor. - Highlights: • This is the first national examination of wind and solar energy adoption on U.S. farms. • Controlling for state policies distinguishes this study from past research of technology adoption. • We find net metering and interconnection policies increase the likelihood of farm adoption. • Results suggest that the design of renewable energy policies may limit their impact on farms

  16. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality.

  17. Social media for public health: an exploratory policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2015-02-01

    To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of existing policies. This research used a mixed methods approach. A content analysis of social media policies from European institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs) and social media platforms was conducted. Next, individuals responsible for social media in their organization or projects completed a survey about their social media policy. Seventy-five per cent of institutions, NGOs and platforms had a social media policy available. The primary aspects covered within existing policies included data and privacy protection, intellectual property and copyright protection and regulations for the engagement in social media. Policies were intended to regulate staff use, to secure the liability of the institution and social responsibility. Respondents also stressed the importance of self-responsibility when using social media. This study of social media policies for public health in Europe provides a first snapshot of the existence and characteristics of social media policies among European health organizations. Policies tended to focus on legal aspects, rather than the health of the social media user. The effect of such policies on social media adoption and usage behaviour remains to be examined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Competitive Advantages Through it Innovation Adoption by Smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moghavvemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—This paper seeks to explain the impact of IT innovation on competitive advantage; the barriers and the benefits companies gain from adopting and using these innovations and propose a model with which it is possible to measure determinants of IT innovation adoption among SMEs. Design/methodology/approach—This paper presents conceptual consideration on the role of SMEs in the Malaysian economy and the effect of government policy in encouraging companies to adopt IT innovation. The proposed research framework will be empirically validated using survey data. This study is an ongoing research, in the existing stage a theoretical argument is developed and methodology is in the process of being tested through regression analysis. Findings—Conclusions are drawn on the status of Malaysian SMEs to adopt IT innovation. We added attitude and self-efficacy to the Innovation Diffusion Theory to suit it to the individual situation. Therefore a novel approach is needed in order to study and understand it. Research limitations/implications—The paper represents work in progress. Practical implications – This paper present the theoretical framework for further study of IT innovation adoption among Malaysia SMEs. Originality/Value—The Information Technology concept is considered a powerful competitive weapon in the modern economy. This study used Innovation Diffusion Theory as the base theory, and added attitude and self efficacy as determinants to measure the individual’s perception toward innovation adoption. Individual self-efficacy and attitude toward innovation adoption shape beliefs and perceptions toward innovation, leading them to adopt or reject an innovation. Adding these factors to Innovation Diffusion Theory will narrow the breadth of the theory and possibilities to frame a single study which allows examination of the individual and technological dimension toward technology adoption. Keywords: IT innovation adoption, competitive

  19. Competitive Advantages Through it Innovation Adoption by Smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moghavvemi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—This paper seeks to explain the impact of IT innovation on competitive advantage; the barriers and the benefits companies gain from adopting and using these innovations and propose a model with which it is possible to measure determinants of IT innovation adoption among SMEs.Design/methodology/approach—This paper presents conceptual consideration on the role of SMEs in the Malaysian economy and the effect of government policy in encouraging companies to adopt IT innovation. The proposed research framework will be empirically validated using survey data. This study is an ongoing research, in the existing stage a theoretical argument is developed and methodology is in the process of being tested through regression analysis.Findings—Conclusions are drawn on the status of Malaysian SMEs to adopt IT innovation. We added attitude and self-efficacy to the Innovation Diffusion Theory to suit it to the individual situation. Therefore a novel approach is needed in order to study and understand it.Research limitations/implications—The paper represents work in progress.Practical implications – This paper present the theoretical framework for further study of IT innovation adoption among Malaysia SMEs.Originality/Value—The Information Technology concept is considered a powerful competitive weapon in the modern economy. This study used Innovation Diffusion Theory as the base theory, and added attitude and self efficacy as determinants to measure the individual’s perception toward innovation adoption. Individual self-efficacy and attitude toward innovation adoption shape beliefs and perceptions toward innovation, leading them to adopt or reject an innovation. Adding these factors to Innovation Diffusion Theory will narrow the breadth of the theory and possibilities to frame a single study which allows examination of the individual and technological dimension toward technology adoption.Keywords: IT innovation adoption, competitive

  20. Examining Human Rights in a Global Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie

    The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…

  1. Openness in Adoption: Exploring Family Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    Noting social and demographic changes provoking a trend toward openness in adoption practice, this book presents the findings from a nationwide study examining the impact of variations in openness in adoption on participants in the adoptive kinship network: adopted children, adoptive parents, and the children's birth parents. The first chapter of…

  2. Adoption of Farm Management Systems for Cross Compliance - An empirical case in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Ulrike; Amjath-Babu, T S; Knierim, Andrea

    2018-08-15

    In Germany, Farm Management Systems (FMS) have been introduced as a support to farmers' compliance with environmental and other regulations, aiming at the increase of farm level performance and sustainable farming practices. Different kinds of FMS were developed and promulgated with various approaches, determined by each federal state's agricultural advisory system. Knowledge on the FMS' uptake and effectiveness has been lacking so far. The overall aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the implementation process and selected outcomes of the policy-driven instrumental innovation of FMS. In particular, the objectives are i) to reveal how and with what success the introduction of FMS has been realised in Germany and ii) to analyse and discuss the FMS' adoption in the federal state of Brandenburg. For the first part of the study, we elaborate a situational analysis of the policy implementation through a desk study and expert interviews. In the second part, selected results from a farmers' survey in Brandenburg are presented and a switching regression model is developed to assess the factors responsible for the uptake of FMS and to understand the role of FMS in improving the confidence in complying with Cross Compliance regulations. We found a high degree of diversity among FMS developed in the different federal states. FMS adoption rates varied, but were generally low. Institutional environment seems to have a significant influence as the same FMS had very different adoption rates among federal states. For Brandenburg, our findings show that farmers' confidence to face CC check was increased by the adoption of FMS. However, counterfactual scenario analysis proved that especially farmers who did not adopt FMS would have benefitted most if they had adopted the tool. Our study shows that there is a need for systems supporting farmers in dealing with bureaucratic requirements. Future FMS should be easy to understand, adaptable to individual farmers' needs and be

  3. Social Networks and Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Hogset, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes social network effects on Kenyan smallholders' decision to adopt improved natural resource management techniques. These effects are decomposed into effects from social influence and learning through networks (strong ties), group effects, weak ties effects, informal finance, and conflicts arising from technological externalities, controlling for non-network effects.

  4. Understanding the adoption of TELEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen; Nyvang, Tom

    2006-01-01

    a systemic, Bateson-inspired, understanding of learning and based on data from observation, qualitative interviews, and surveys, a number of barriers to adoption at the organisational level are identified, all requiring management initiatives if the application is to fully unfold its potential....

  5. Intergenerational bargaining in technology adoption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    -, č. 414 (2010), s. 1-61 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : technology adoption * stagnation * economic integration * political fragmentation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp414.pdf

  6. Grower networks support adoption of innovations in pollination management: The roles of social learning, technical learning, and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbach, Kelly; Morgan, Geoffrey P

    2017-12-15

    , highlighting the potentially critical roles of peer-to-peer networks and social learning in supporting early stages of adoption of innovations. Engaging with grower networks and understanding grower experience with benefits and concerns associated with innovative practices is needed to inform outreach, extension, and policy efforts designed to stimulate management innovations in agroecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adoption and diffusion of zoning bylaws banning fast food drive-through services across Canadian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Campbell, Elizabeth J; Macridis, Soultana; McKennitt, Daniel; Atkey, Kayla; Raine, Kim D

    2018-01-15

    Healthy public policy is an important tool for creating environments that support human health and wellbeing. At the local level, municipal policies, such as zoning bylaws, provide an opportunity for governments to regulate building location and the type of services offered. Across North America, there has been a recent proliferation of municipal bylaws banning fast food drive-through services. Research on the utilization of this policy strategy, including bylaw adopters and adopter characteristics, is limited within the Canadian context. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Canadian municipalities based on level of policy innovation and nature of their adopted bylaw banning fast food drive-through services. A multiple case history methodology was utilized to identify and analyse eligible municipal bylaws, and included development of a chronological timeline and map of adopter municipalities within Canada. Grey literature and policy databases were searched for potential adopters of municipal fast food drive-through service bylaws. Adopters were confirmed through evidence of current municipal bylaws. Geographic diffusion and diffusion of innovations theories provided a contextual framework for analysis of bylaw documents. Analysis included assignment of adopter-types, extent and purpose of bans, and policy learning activities of each adopter municipality. From 2002 to 2016, 27 municipalities were identified as adopters: six innovators and twenty-one early adopters. Mapping revealed parallel geographic diffusion patterns in western and eastern Canada. Twenty-two municipalities adopted a partial ban and five adopted a full ban. Rationales for the drive-through bans included health promotion, environmental concerns from idling, community character and aesthetics, traffic concerns, and walkability. Policy learning, including research and consultation with other municipalities, was performed by nine early adopters. This study detailed the adoption of

  8. Evaluating business models for microgrids: Interactions of technology and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Ryan; Ghonima, Mohamed; Kleissl, Jan; Tynan, George; Victor, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers are increasingly focused on strategies to decentralize the electricity grid. We analyze the business model for one mode of decentralization—microgrids—and quantify the economics for self-supply of electricity and thermal energy and explicitly resolve technological as well as policy variables. We offer a tool, based on the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) modeling framework, that determines the cost-minimal capacity and operation of distributed energy resources in a microgrid, and apply it in southern California to three “iconic” microgrid types which represent typical commercial adopters: a large commercial building, critical infrastructure, and campus. We find that optimal investment leads to some deployment of renewables but that natural gas technologies underpin the most robust business cases—due in part to relatively cheap gas and high electricity rates. This finding contrasts sharply with most policy advocacy, which has focused on the potentials for decentralization of the grid to encourage deployment of renewables. Decentralization could radically reduce customer energy costs, but without the right policy framework it could create large numbers of small decentralized sources of gas-based carbon emissions that will be difficult to control if policy makers want to achieve deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • We offer a modeling tool to study technology and policy variables for microgrids. • We construct comprehensive load profiles for three likely adopters of microgrids. • Investment in natural gas generators is key to enabling business models. • Solar PV and storage are optimal but as supplements to gas generation. • Business models are highly robust to sensitivity in technology and policy variables.

  9. Alternatives for the enforcement of the right to health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla Aa; Junior, Rubens C; Gutier, Murillo S; Mendes, Isabel Ac

    2016-05-01

    In this article, the right to health is discussed as a social right and an essential requisite in the construction and guarantee of human rights, more precisely human dignity, considering this right as a complex but effective process in the transformation of the social reality. In the first place, the activities of the public power and its difficulties to guarantee universal access to health are highlighted. This scenario ends up inhibiting the practice of the right to health and prevents users from enjoying and using it. In that sense, this article challenges and explores some alternatives to solidify and put in practice the right to health in Brazil. Departing from the analysis of the Unified Health System (SUS) and social participation in Brazil, this article discusses the judicialization of health in the country, highlighting the difficulties the State faces to equitably offer universal healthcare to society. This context offers an opportunity for reflection and a paradigm change, from the "judicialization of health" to the "judicialization of health policies." Finally, the public health policies adopted by other countries are emphasized, in the attempt to construct the empowerment of human beings in the practice of their rights, particularly social participation and the discussion about the States' responsibility to put their citizens' right to health in practice. In conclusion, the political and collective construction of the right to health needs to be encouraged, distinguishing the legitimate interests of the different interlocutors involved. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A growing number ...

  11. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  12. Investment inefficiency and the adoption of eco-innovations: The case of household energy efficiency technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Rainey, Ivan; Ashton, John K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors determining household adoption of energy efficiency eco-innovations. We do so by testing hypotheses grounded in diffusion and finance theory and the literature on the barriers to energy efficiency. Using two large surveys of UK households, we explore the adoption of nine technologies. Our results indicate ‘investment inefficiency’ amongst household adopters occurs for two reasons. First, contrary to notions of rational choice, we find a negative relationship between the investment return of technologies and their level of diffusion. Second, we show adopters of these technologies display characteristics broadly consistent with diffusion theory, contradicting the prediction of finance theory that investment return, not individual characteristics, should drive adoption. We also find that policy has played a role in inducing the diffusion of these technologies and that tenure and spill-over effects are important in adoption. Finally, adoption is motivated more by a desire to save money than by environmental concern. We conclude by giving examples of how our research can lead to better policy timing and targeting. -- Highlights: •We explore the factors driving household adoption of energy efficiency technologies. •We employ two high quality nationally representative cross sectional surveys. •There is a negative relationship between investment return and level of diffusion. •Adopters display characteristics broadly consistent with diffusion theory. •Policy interventions, tenure effects and spill-over effects also influence adoption

  13. The pediatrician's role in supporting adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Veronnie F; Schulte, Elaine E

    2012-10-01

    Each year, more children join families through adoption. Pediatricians have an important role in assisting adoptive families in the various challenges they may face with respect to adoption. The acceptance of the differences between families formed through birth and those formed through adoption is essential in promoting positive emotional growth within the family. It is important for pediatricians to be aware of the adoptive parents' need to be supported in their communication with their adopted children.

  14. Current Approach to Child Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Dag

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rights of children, legally or morally all over the world that children are born with; education, health, life, shelter; physical, psychological or sexual exploitation protection of such rights is universal concept used to describethemall. Rights of children is an issue that should be addressed in the concept of human rights. Today, there are many parts of the world that human rights violations, child-size and grew broader, more difficult to intervene in a way that is situated. The idea that children than in adults of different physical, physiological, behavioral and psychological characteristics that continuous growth and improve dawareness that the establishment of thecare of children a society where the problem is and scientific approach everyone with this responsibility should be installed is shaped in Geneva Declaration of Childrens Rights. Today, the international document related to childrens rights is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child adoptedand approved by 193 countries. Child policy in Turkey where 25 million children live is an issue that should be seriously considered. Thus, childrens rights, children working in coordination with the contract on the basis of a policy should be implemented fully. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 1-5

  15. Critical Factors for Personal Cloud Storage Adoption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianya Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to explain and predict the adoption of personal cloud storage, this study explores the critical factors involved in the adoption of personal cloud storage and empirically validates their relationships to a user's intentions. Design/methodology/approach: Based on technology acceptance model (TAM, network externality, trust, and an interview survey, this study proposes a personal cloud storage adoption model. We conducted an empirical analysis by structural equation modeling based on survey data obtained with a questionnaire. Findings: Among the adoption factors we identified, network externality has the salient influence on a user's adoption intention, followed by perceived usefulness, individual innovation, perceived trust, perceived ease of use, and subjective norms. Cloud storage characteristics are the most important indirect factors, followed by awareness to personal cloud storage and perceived risk. However, although perceived risk is regarded as an important factor by other cloud computing researchers, we found that it has no significant influence. Also, subjective norms have no significant influence on perceived usefulness. This indicates that users are rational when they choose whether to adopt personal cloud storage. Research limitations: This study ignores time and cost factors that might affect a user's intention to adopt personal cloud storage. Practical implications: Our findings might be helpful in designing and developing personal cloud storage products, and helpful to regulators crafting policies. Originality/value: This study is one of the first research efforts that discuss Chinese users' personal cloud storage adoption, which should help to further the understanding of personal cloud adoption behavior among Chinese users.

  16. Market effects on electronic health record adoption by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Menachemi, Nir; Shewchuk, Richard M; Ginter, Peter M; Duncan, W Jack; Brooks, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Despite the advantages of electronic health record (EHR) systems, the adoption of these systems has been slow among community-based physicians. Current studies have examined organizational and personal barriers to adoption; however, the influence of market characteristics has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of market characteristics on EHR adoption by physicians. Generalized hierarchal linear modeling was used to analyze EHR survey data from Florida which were combined with data from the Area Resource File and the Florida Office of Insurance Regulation. The main outcome variable was self-reported use of EHR by physicians. A total of 2,926 physicians from practice sizes of 20 or less were included in the sample. Twenty-one percent (n = 613) indicated that they personally and routinely use an EHR system in their practice. Physicians located in counties with higher physician concentration were found to be more likely to adopt EHRs. For every one-unit increase in nonfederal physicians per 10,000 in the county, there was a 2.0% increase in likelihood of EHR adoption by physicians (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval = 1.00-1.03). Health maintenance organization penetration rate and poverty level were not found to be significantly related to EHR adoption. However, practice size, years in practice, Medicare payer mix, and measures of technology readiness were found to independently influence physician adoption. Market factors play an important role in the diffusion of EHRs in small medical practices. Policy makers interested in furthering the adoption of EHRs must consider strategies that would enhance the confidence of users as well as provide financial support in areas with the highest concentration of small medical practices and Medicare beneficiaries. Health care leaders should be cognizant of the market forces that enable or constrain the adoption of EHR among their practices and those of their competitors.

  17. Research misconduct definitions adopted by U.S. research institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Neal, Talicia; Raymond, Austin; Kissling, Grace E

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. federal government adopted a uniform definition of research misconduct as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism (FFP), which became effective in 2001. Institutions must apply this definition of misconduct to federally-funded research to receive funding. While institutions are free to adopt definitions of misconduct that go beyond the federal standard, it is not known how many do. We analyzed misconduct policies from 183 U.S. research institutions and coded them according to thirteen different types of behavior mentioned in the misconduct definition. We also obtained data on the institution's total research funding and public vs. private status, and the year it adopted the definition. We found that more than half (59%) of the institutions in our sample had misconduct policies that went beyond the federal standard. Other than FFP, the most common behaviors included in definitions were "other serious deviations" (45.4%), "significant or material violations of regulations" (23.0%), "misuse of confidential information" (15.8%), "misconduct related to misconduct" (14.8%), "unethical authorship other than plagiarism" (14.2%), "other deception involving data manipulation" (13.1%), and "misappropriation of property/theft" (10.4%). Significantly more definitions adopted in 2001 or later went beyond the federal standard than those adopted before 2001 (73.2% vs. 26.8%), and significantly more definitions adopted by institutions in the lower quartile of total research funding went beyond the federal standard than those adopted by institutions in the upper quartiles. Public vs. private status was not significantly associated with going beyond the federal standard.

  18. Factors affecting the adoption of quality assurance technologies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, John

    2013-01-01

    In the light of public concern and of strong policy emphasis on quality and safety in the nursing care of patients in hospital settings, this paper aims to focus on the factors affecting the adoption of innovative quality assurance technologies. Two sets of complementary literature were mined for key themes. Next, new empirical insights were sought. Data gathering was conducted in three phases. The first involved contact with NHS Technology Hubs and other institutions which had insights into leading centres in quality assurance technologies. The second phase was a series of telephone interviews with lead nurses in those hospitals which were identified in the first phase as comprising the leading centres. The third phase comprised a series of face to face interviews with innovators and adopters of healthcare quality assurance technologies in five hospital trusts. There were three main sets of findings. First, despite the strong policy push and the templates established at national level, there were significant variations in the nature and robustness of the quality assurance toolkits that were developed, adapted and adopted. Second, in most of the adopting cases there were important obstacles to the full adoption of the toolkits that were designed. Third, the extent and nature of the ambition of the developers varied dramatically - some wished to see their work impacting widely across the health service; others had a number of different reasons for wanting to restrict the impact of their work. The general concerns about front-line care and the various inquiries into care quality failures emphasise the need for improved and consistent care quality assurance methodologies and practice. The technology adoption literature gives only partial insight into the nature of the challenges; this paper offers specific insights into the factors inhibiting the full adoption of quality assurance technologies in ward-based care.

  19. Democratic cultural policy : democratic forms and policy consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Clive

    2012-01-01

    The forms that are adopted to give practical meaning to democracy are assessed to identify what their implications are for the production of public policies in general and cultural policies in particular. A comparison of direct, representative, democratic elitist and deliberative versions of democracy identifies clear differences between them in terms of policy form and democratic practice. Further elaboration of these differences and their consequences are identified as areas for further res...

  20. Knowledge translation in tri-sectoral collaborations: An exploration of perceptions of academia, industry and healthcare collaborations in innovation adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Suzanne Sayuri; Fitzgerald, Louise; Morys-Carter, Megan M; Davie, Natasha L; Barker, Richard

    2018-02-01

    With the aging population and increase in chronic disease conditions, innovation to transform treatment pathways and service delivery will be necessary. The innovation adoption process however, can take 15 years before widespread adoption occurs in most healthcare systems. Current UK government policies to increase the facilitation of innovation adoption are under way. The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of tri-sectoral collaborations in the healthcare sector. The data in the study are drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 of professionals in academia, industry and the healthcare sectors in England, focusing on Diabetes care. Academia and healthcare respondents had the least work experience outside of their sectors compared to the industry respondents. Healthcare and academia respondents rated the industry sector less trustworthy, unethical, having different goals and less understanding of the other sectors. Industry respondents had a more positive perspective towards potential collaborators. The results from the study demonstrate greater potential challenges to tri-sectoral collaborations and the government's knowledge translation policy, due to pre-conceived notions and lack of understanding of other sectors. The purely structural approach of establishing government mandated translational networks may be insufficient without active attempts to improve collaborative relationships. Mechanisms to facilitate trust building and collaboration are proposed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SMEs' E-commerce Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Proposes providing an insight about factors affecting business-to-business e-commerce adoption and implementation in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), highlighting similarities and differences between Danish and Australian SMEs.    Design/methodology/approach - The research...... conducted in Danish and Australian companies. Findings - The findings both corroborate previous results about significant factors affecting SMEs' b-to-b e-commerce adoption and implementation and provide new, interesting insights. The study also finds many similarities and differences between Denmark...... and Australia.  Research limitations/implications - The main limitation relates to the difficulty of generalization of the findings to a larger population of SMEs.  To overcome this, a statistical survey is planned to be conducted in the future. Practical implications - The results of the empirical research...

  2. Sharing Experiences of Intercountry Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko; McIlvenny, Paul

    In recent years, fields such as discursive psychology have paid attention to the social, instead of solely individual, character of emotions, bringing to the fore the interactional organisation of affect displays. In the same vein, other ‘inner’ processes, such as memory, are studied from...... are interactionally occasioned. Our special concern is with how the past is built into the present through memory work that is actualised and performed not just through language but also through embodied attention such as body posture, gaze and gestures. In other words, we study how the past is folded into the now...... of this research is to better understand the relationships between multimodality, embodiment, interaction and affect. We present the results of our analysis of how the experiences of adoptive parents are (re)mediated in a Danish television documentary series following five prospective adoptive couples, not all...

  3. Supporting rights and nurturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona; Eyben, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    The article explores how a bilateral aid donor (British DFID) managed their organizational and relational work when the local office (in Peru) put rights at the centre of their policy. Taking the example of DFID support to alternative thinking in the health sector, critical questions are raised...

  4. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  5. Barriers to Electronic Health Record Adoption: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Kristof, Caitlin; Jones, Beau; Mitchell, Erica; Martinez, Angelica

    2016-12-01

    Federal efforts and local initiatives to increase adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs) continue, particularly since the enactment of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Roughly one in four hospitals not adopted even a basic EHR system. A review of the barriers may help in understanding the factors deterring certain healthcare organizations from implementation. We wanted to assemble an updated and comprehensive list of adoption barriers of EHR systems in the United States. Authors searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, and accepted only articles relevant to our primary objective. Reviewers independently assessed the works highlighted by our search and selected several for review. Through multiple consensus meetings, authors tapered articles to a final selection most germane to the topic (n = 27). Each article was thoroughly examined by multiple authors in order to achieve greater validity. Authors identified 39 barriers to EHR adoption within the literature selected for the review. These barriers appeared 125 times in the literature; the most frequently mentioned barriers were regarding cost, technical concerns, technical support, and resistance to change. Despite federal and local incentives, the initial cost of adopting an EHR is a common existing barrier. The other most commonly mentioned barriers include technical support, technical concerns, and maintenance/ongoing costs. Policy makers should consider incentives that continue to reduce implementation cost, possibly aimed more directly at organizations that are known to have lower adoption rates, such as small hospitals in rural areas.

  6. The importance of instrumental, symbolic, and environmental attributes for the adoption of smart energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noppers, Ernst H.; Keizer, Kees; Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual model on motivations to adopt sustainable innovations (Noppers et al., 2014) proved to be successful in explaining proxies of the adoption of sustainable innovations: positive evaluations of the utility (instrumental attributes), environmental impact (environmental attributes), and specifically the extent to which the innovation says something about a person (symbolic attributes) increased interest in and intention to adopt sustainable innovations. In this paper, we examined to what extent the evaluations of these three attributes can also explain the actual adoption of smart energy systems that facilitate sustainable energy use. Results showed that adopters of smart energy systems (who agreed to participate in a project in which these systems were tested) evaluated the symbolic attributes of these systems more positively than non-adopters (who did not participate in this project), while both groups did not differ in their evaluation of the instrumental and environmental attributes of smart energy systems. A logistic regression analysis indicated that only evaluations of the symbolic attributes explained actual adoption of smart energy systems. Policy could stress and enhance the symbolic attributes of sustainable innovations to encourage adoption. - Highlights: • What drives consumer adoption of a sustainable innovation? • Evaluation of its symbolic attributes explained adoption of smart energy systems. • Evaluations of its instrumental and environmental attributes did not explain adoption. • Policy could stress and enhance symbolic attributes of smart energy systems.

  7. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mititelu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.

  8. Modelling the adoption of automatic milking systems in Noord-Holland

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Floridi; Fabio Bartolini; Jack Peerlings; Nico Polman; Davide Viaggi

    2013-01-01

    Innovation and new technology adoption represent two central elements for the business and industry development process in agriculture. One of the most relevant innovations in dairy farms is the robotisation of the milking process through the adoption of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS). The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of selected Common Agricultural Policy measures on the adoption of AMS in dairy farms. The model developed is a dynamic farm-household model that is able to si...

  9. “Hak Temelli” Sosyal Politikadan “Hayırseverlik Temelli” Sosyal Politikaya Geçişte Sivil Toplum Örgütlerinin Rolü / Roles of NGOs in the Transition from “Rights-Based” Social Policy to “Charity-Based” Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğa Başar SARIİPEK

    2017-02-01

    and the way of the labour division among them. The way of the relationship among these institutions, which are namely state, family, market and NGOs, sets the social protection regime of each society. The primal actor in this regime, which is also irreplaceable, is the state. Put differently, even imagining a social policy order where the role of the state is minor is almost impossible. Role of the other institutions under this irreplaceable characteristic of the state is just the completion of it. Along with a series of recent changes led by neoliberalism, however, a shift from state-based welfare to pluralism-based welfare is increasingly induced and roles and responsibilities of the NGOs are redefined. Traditional “relationship of completion” among social policy institutions is aimed to be turned into the “relationship of substitution” and ways of a handing-over in the responsibility of the state towards other institutions is also searched for. This point of view, which sees the measures of social protection only from the perspective of cost and strives for the decline of the level of social expenditures, means a moving away from the approach of rights-based social policy and conducting the approach of “charity-based social policy” instead, rather than the redefinition of the social policy according to the changing social order. This process, which is conducted in parallel with the empowerment of the NGOs directly by the state, clearly means a decline in the social policy rights of citizens and devaluation of the traditional social protection roles and responsibilities of the NGOs.

  10. Educational Elements of a Comprehensive State Policy on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Center for Educational and Cultural Opportunities for the Aging.

    This document, a policy statement adopted by the New York State Board of Regents in 1986, describes program options to implement each of six policy directions adopted by the Regents and to be coordinated by the Center for Educational and Cultural Opportunities for the Aging. The six policy directions are (1) involve the elderly as active…

  11. Adoption of the EU SEA Directive in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unalan, Dilek; Cowell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the adoption of the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2001/42/EC) in Turkey as part of a programme of environmental policy harmonisation for EU accession, to explore the extent to which this is driving wider shifts in modes of environmental governance. To do this, rather than simply assess compliance with Directive in narrow, formal, statutory terms, we use Jaenicke and Weidner's concept of capacity building, which focuses on the constraints facing societal action to promote sustainable development. Despite the resources invested in pre-accession training and pilot SEA projects, Turkey's adoption of the Directive is still likely to be affected by the centralised nature of the bureaucracy (affecting the scope for sectoral integration), its politicised nature (interrupting the accumulation of policy learning), the limited capacity of civil society and environmental organisations to engage with the process, and the political dominance of economic development objectives.

  12. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally adopt... recirculated as provided in 40 CFR 1506.3 (b) or (c), the adopted EIS with the supplement, if any, will be processed in accordance with this regulation. A district commander may also adopt another agency's EA/FONSI. ...

  13. 75 FR 68166 - National Adoption Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... potential, and spread their wings when given the loving and firm foundation of family. Adoptive families... to ensure that all qualified caregivers have the ability to serve as adoptive families. This year, on... care adoptions as part of my Administration's support for this important day. Adoptive families are...

  14. National-level differences in the adoption of environmental health technologies: a cross-border comparison from Benin and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Kelly J; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Sills, Erin O

    2015-03-01

    Environmental health problems such as malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhoea and malnutrition pose very high burdens on the poor rural people in much of the tropics. Recent research on key interventions-the adoption and use of relatively cheap and effective environmental health technologies-has focused primarily on the influence of demand-side household-level drivers. Relatively few studies of the promotion and use of these technologies have considered the role of contextual factors such as governance, the enabling environment and national policies because of the challenges of cross-country comparisons. We exploit a natural experimental setting by comparing household adoption across the Benin-Togo national border that splits the Tamberma Valley in West Africa. Households across the border share the same culture, ethnicity, weather, physiographic features, livelihoods and infrastructure; however, they are located in countries at virtually opposite ends of the institutional spectrum of democratic elections, voice and accountability, effective governance and corruption. Binary choice models and rigorous non-parametric matching estimators confirm that households in Benin are more likely than households in Togo to plant soybeans, build improved cookstoves and purchase mosquito nets, ceteris paribus. Although we cannot identify the exact mechanism for the large and significant national-level differences in technology adoption, our findings suggest that contextual institutional factors can be more important than household characteristics for technology adoption. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  15. Cultural Diversities and Human Rights: History, Minorities, Pluralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO J. RUIZ VIEYTEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity plays today a prominent role in the updating and developing of human rights. Past developments in the protection of rights have essentially forgotten the democratic management of cultural and identity-based diversity. States have stifled the main developments of the rights and constrained them to partial views in favour of the majority or dominant groups in each country. The current context of regional progressive integration and social diversification within each state agrees on the need to address the adequacy of systems for the protection of rights from different strategies to the context of multiculturalism. Against the process of "nationalization of rights" it is necessary to adopt a strategy for pluralization. On the one hand, the concept of minority has to be given its corresponding importance in both international and domestic law. On the other hand, different kind of policies and legal instruments for the accommodation of diversity can be identified and used to foster this necessary process of pluralization.

  16. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  17. Stimulating a Sustainable Construction through Holistic BIM Adoption: The Root Causes of Recurring Low BIM Adoption in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamter, S.; Abdul-Aziz, AR; Mamat, ME

    2017-06-01

    Fostering the Building Information Modelling (BIM) implementation is one of Malaysia sustainable strategies towards greener construction. Hence, the Eleventh Malaysia plan focuses on transforming construction industry through the increase of technology adoption in order to enhance construction productivity. Therefore, there is a growing and urgent demand to provide BIM competent. However, a significant number of parties are reluctant to develop and invest in BIM due to unsolved root causes. Scholars have identified barriers relating to the infancy stage of BIM adoption in Malaysia. Unfortunately, there is a lack of study to explore deeper the root causes of recurring for the barriers anticipate the low BIM adoption. This paper attempts to delve into the initiatives of BIM stake players in fostering BIM adoption and to determine the root causes of recurring barriers due to low BIM adoption. The study adopted the semi-structured interviews which involved BIM stake players as a sample population. From the findings, authors revealed four root causes of recurring barriers; absence of BIM policy and BIM compulsion, poor holistic readiness, software integration competition strategy, and reluctant in sharing knowledge. The findings espoused here are preliminary and more results are expected to emerge as the research progresses.

  18. Lost opportunities: Modeling commercial building energy code adoption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Hal T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper models the adoption of commercial building energy codes in the US between 1977 and 2006. Energy code adoption typically results in an increase in aggregate social welfare by cost effectively reducing energy expenditures. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, I test if relative state funding, a new, objective, multivariate regression-derived measure of government capacity, as well as a vector of control variables commonly used in comparative state research, predict commercial building energy code adoption. The research shows little political influence over historical commercial building energy code adoption in the sample. Colder climates and higher electricity prices also do not predict more frequent code adoptions. I do find evidence of high government capacity states being 60 percent more likely than low capacity states to adopt commercial building energy codes in the following year. Wealthier states are also more likely to adopt commercial codes. Policy recommendations to increase building code adoption include increasing access to low cost capital for the private sector and providing noncompetitive block grants to the states from the federal government. - Highlights: ► Model the adoption of commercial building energy codes from 1977–2006 in the US. ► Little political influence over historical building energy code adoption. ► High capacity states are over 60 percent more likely than low capacity states to adopt codes. ► Wealthier states are more likely to adopt commercial codes. ► Access to capital and technical assistance is critical to increase code adoption.

  19. Juridical aspects of post mortem adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The legislature, with the enactment of the Statute of Children and Adolescents, now provides the named posthumous adoption, allowing the death of the adopter, in the course of the procedure does not generate the extinction pleaded adoption. Has the purpose to show that, notwithstanding the absence of such law, the construction of new adopters and adopted by families are recognized, since permeated the socially demonstrated affection, even in passing the death of the person occurs before you have to start legal formalization of the adoption petition, thus characterizing the figure of posthumous adoption without prior judicial manifestation.

  20. Factors Affecting Customers Adoption of Internet Banking in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Abbasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many developed countries, internet banking is a new phenomenon for Pakistani consumers as majority of banking customers seems to be fairly unfamiliar with different aspects of this service. This can be due to the diverse educational backgrounds, level of internet access, personal experiences and different socio-cultural backgrounds of customers. The present study looked at various factors influencing adoption of internet banking in Pakistan. The study used survey methodology with a sample of 250 individuals. Results of the research revealed reluctance to change has no significant impact on adoption of internet banking. On other hand access to internet, ease of use and security and privacy are found to be critical factors influencing adoption of internet banking. The results of the present study may facilitate policy makers and bank management to advance electronic banking services in Pakistan in a befitting manner. Lastly, managerial implications, study limitations and future research directions are provided.

  1. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Adopted preschool child with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    STAŇKOVÁ, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor´s work was written based on personal experience and practice with a family in which a pre-school child with ADHD syndrom lives. The intended objective is to provide pieces of advice to many parents. This work could serve as a guide in searching effective strategies for a child with attention and hyperactivity deficit disorder. The second objective is to share experience and educational methods when dealing with an adopted child diagnosed with the ADHD syndrom at the age of three...

  3. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Nettheim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

  4. Knowledge to Policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In development research, getting a new discovery into policy and practice is just as ... As a matter of principle, moreover, people have a right to participate in the ...... environmental practices, tax law, competition policy, and much else besides), ...... with 80 researchers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines.

  5. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  6. Bridging the Divide: Openness in Adoption and Post-adoption Psychosocial Adjustment among Birth and Adoptive Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Martin, David; Leve, Leslie; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Shaw, Daniel S.; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John; Reiss, David

    2008-01-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents’ post-adoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N=112), an understudied sample, also were explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers’ post-placement adjustment as indexed by birth mothers’ self reports and the interviewers’ impression of birth mothers’ adjustment. Birth fathers’ report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better post-adoption adjustment. PMID:18729667

  7. Human rights approach to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Fiona

    2002-04-01

    Adopting human rights approach to health carries many benefits, because it emphasizes the equality of all persons and their inherent right to health as the foundation of the health care system. It also argues that promotion and protection of health are fundamentally important social goals, focuses particularly on the needs of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable communities, balances individual needs with the common good, and so forth. However, it also raises some practical issues, such as organization of interdisciplinary education and work, and different use of the language, which often goes unacknowledged. The relationship between human rights and health is a reciprocal one, and can be beneficial or harmful. For the relationship to be beneficial and successful, the differences between human rights and public health approach to health, centered around the perspective taking, attitudes, and abilities of health professionals, need to be acknowledged and reconciled, and the need for interdisciplinarity adequately fulfilled.

  8. From Delivery to Adoption of Physical Activity Guidelines: Realist Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Leone

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based guidelines published by health authorities for the promotion of health-enhancing physical activity (PA, continue to be implemented unsuccessfully and demonstrate a gap between evidence and policies. This review synthesizes evidence on factors influencing delivery, adoption and implementation of PA promotion guidelines within different policy sectors (e.g., health, transport, urban planning, sport, education. Methods: Published literature was initially searched using PubMed, EBSCO, Google Scholar and continued through an iterative snowball technique. The literature review spanned the period 2002–2017. The realist synthesis approach was adopted to review the content of 39 included studies. An initial programme theory with a four-step chain from evidence emersion to implementation of guidelines was tested. Results: The synthesis furthers our understanding of the link between PA guidelines delivery and the actions of professionals responsible for implementation within health services, school departments and municipalities. The main mechanisms identified for guidance implementation were scientific legitimation, enforcement, feasibility, familiarity with concepts and PA habits. Threats emerged to the successful implementation of PA guidelines at national/local jurisdictional levels. Conclusions: The way PA guidelines are developed may influence their adoption by policy-makers and professionals. Useful lessons emerged that may inform synergies between policymaking and professional practices, promoting win-win multisectoral strategies.

  9. Respecting the Rights of Others in a Violent Society: A Public Policy Perspective. The Need for a Concerted Effort To Teach Children Respect for People and Property. Boys Town National Family Home Program Informational Series, Volume No. 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Val J.

    This Boys' Town publication for parents presents guidelines for a parental and societal response to purse-snatching, shoplifting, and other kinds of stealing that are a part of violence. The guide maintains that a comprehensive public policy approach is needed, one that is based on an appreciation of the development of learning respect for the…

  10. Modelling Options for Policy Impact Analysis on African Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghaiki Asaah NDAMBI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the priorities for agricultural research in Eastern and CentralAfrica concluded that milk is the most important commodity for research anddevelopment in the region, based on its potential contribution to the agriculturalGDP. It has been presumed that, the right policies, marketing systems and technicalsupport must be sought for dairy development in Africa. In order to determine theright development pattern, appropriate analytical tools must be applied. The TIPICAL(Technology Impact Policy Impact model was used to analyse the impact ofdifferent policies on two typical dairy farming systems in Uganda, which accountfor more than 70% of milk produced in the country. Seven influential policy areaswere also identified: provision of veterinary services, consumption promotion,marketing promotion, input provision, credit access improvement, milk qualityimprovement and genetic improvement. In general, the policy impacts are very littleon farms with local cows but can be magnified up to threefold, if the farms havegraded cows. Policies which improve farmers’ accessibility to markets have thegreatest impacts. The results obtained from this model were compared to thoseusing the EXTRAPOLATE model. This comparison shows that both models couldcomplement each other in analysing policy impacts on African dairy farms.However, differences in results from the models indicate that more focus should bemade on farmers’ willingness to adopt new technology.

  11. A summary of the recommendations adopted unanimously at the Fourth World Conference on Women (4-15 September 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the platform of action recommendations adopted unanimously at the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995. The Platform called for the empowerment of women; the protection of human rights and freedoms throughout the life cycle; and equity at home, at work, and abroad, items that reinforced the Beijing Declaration. This article identifies recommended actions on poverty, education and training, health, domestic violence, armed conflict, economy, decision-making, institutional mechanisms, human rights, mass media, environment, the girl-child, and institutional and financial arrangements. The Platform recommends, for example, action to create macroeconomic policies and development strategies that address the needs of women in poverty. It recommends changes in laws and administrative practices to ensure women's equal rights and access to economic resources. It recommends action to ensure equal access to education throughout the life cycle, to eradicate illiteracy among women, to develop nondiscriminatory education and training, and to allocate sufficient resources for educational reform. It recommends action to increase women's access throughout the life cycle to appropriate, affordable, and quality health care, information, and related services. Action should reduce maternal mortality by at least 50% of 1990 levels by the year 2000, and a further 50% by 2015. Legislation must be adopted to end violence against women in peace and wartime. Action must promote women's economic and human rights and women's equal access to and full participation in power structures and government decision-making.

  12. New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective—An Example of a Successful Policy Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Radačić

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective (NZPC is a unique example of a sex workers’ rights organisation which is an important actor in prostitution policy. The NZPC has had a significant impact on prostitution laws, managing to achieve the decriminalisation of sex work in New Zealand, which distinguishes it from many other studied organisations. Indeed, the literature on sex workers’ rights organisations notes their relative failure in terms of their impact on prostitution law and policy, identifying the following hurdles: the lack of a common identity and solidarity among sex workers, their stigmatisation, problems with organisational leadership and membership, lack of resources and challenging relationships with allies. This article analyses the role of the NZPC in prostitution policy in New Zealand, particularly in the adoption of the decriminalisation model, and examines the key factors for its success in light of the literature on sex workers’ rights organisations.

  13. 34 CFR 300.625 - Children's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Children's rights. 300.625 Section 300.625 Education... § 300.625 Children's rights. (a) The SEA must have in effect policies and procedures regarding the extent to which children are afforded rights of privacy similar to those afforded to parents, taking into...

  14. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  15. Beyond adoption status: Post-adoptive parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing; Kim, Eun Sook; Baggerly, Jennifer; Mahoney, E Emily; Rice, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children's reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children's math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted). Descriptive data showed no group difference in reading scores at all 3 Waves but adopted children scored lower than nonadopted children in math at Wave 2 (Spring of kindergarten) and Wave 3 (Spring of first grade). However, controlling for 6 covariates, latent growth modeling showed that adoption status was unrelated to Wave 1 reading and math scores or subsequent growth rate. Rather, parents' beliefs on skills needed to succeed in kindergarten were a significant predictor of reading and math performance at Wave 1 and subsequent growth rates, and parents' educational expectation was a significant predictor of growth rate in reading and math. Our findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in adopted children's learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The Adoption and Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Areas: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit; Lichter, Michael I.; Danzo, Andrew; Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Context: Health information technology (HIT) is a national policy priority. Knowledge about the special needs, if any, of rural health care providers should be taken into account as policy is put into action. Little is known, however, about rural-urban differences in HIT adoption at the national level. Purpose: To conduct the first national…

  17. SOME REMARKS ON THE NEW AMENDMENTS IN THE ADOPTION PROCEDURE REGARDING THE ADOPTION DEFINING TERMS AND SUBSTANTIVE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cetean-Voiculescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoption is one of the most important measures to protect children in need, namely that category of children who are deprived of parental care, loss due to various reasons. If a child in need can not be maintained or reinstated in his natural family, state authorities must have an alternative measure of protection: guardianship, special protective measures provided by Law no. 272/2004 on the protection and promotion of children's rights (placement, emergency placement or specialized supervision or adoption, regulated by Law no. 273/2004. This paper aims to critically analyze the Adoption of the new rules, with special regard to the definition, principles and conditions for the adoption procedure.

  18. The Right to be Forgotten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Meg Leta; Jones, Elisabeth; Zeide, Elena

    The right to be forgotten gained international attention in May 2014, when the European Court of Justice ruled that Google was obligated to recognize European citizens’ data protection rights to address inadequate, irrelevant, or excessive personal information. As of April 14, 2015, Google received...... 239,337 requests to eliminate 867,930 URLs from search results and has removed 305,095 URLs, a rate of 41.5 percent. The right to be forgotten is intended to legally address digital information that lingers and threatens to shackle individuals to their past by exposing the information to opaque data...... processing and online judgment. There are a number of challenges to developing these rights – digital information means and touches so many aspects of life across cultures as they grapple with new policies. The controversial ruling and establishment of such a right, potential for a similar movement in the U...

  19. Study on government's optimal incentive intensity of intellectual property rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengbin; Sun, Shengxiang; Wei, Hua

    2018-05-01

    The integration of military and civilian technology in the development stage of weapon equipment is an inherent requirement for the development of the deep integration of the military and the civilian. In order to avoid repeated development of existing technology and improve the efficiency of weaponry development, the government should take effective measures to encourage development institutions to actively adopt existing intellectual property technology in the process of equipment development. According to the theory of utility function and the characteristics of practical problems, the utility function of government and weapon equipment development units is constructed, and the optimization model of incentive strength for national defense intellectual property is established. According to the numerical simulation, the conclusion is, to improve the development efficiency, and at the same time, to encourage innovation, thre government need to make a trade-off in incentive policy making, to achieve a high level in intellectual property rights' innovation and application.

  20. Adoption of Mobile Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mobile payment solutions, which rely on new disruptive technologies, have been launched on the payment market in recent years. But despite the growing number of mobile payment apps, very few solutions have turned to be successful as the majority of them fail to gain a critical mass...... of users. In this paper, we investigate successful platform adoption strategies by using the Reach and Range Framework for Multi-Sided Platforms as a strategic tool to which mobile payment providers can adhere in order to tackle some of the main challenges they face throughout the evolution...... of their platforms. The analysis indicates that successful mobile payment solutions tend to be launched as one-sided platforms and then gradually be expanded into being two-sided. Our study showcases that the success of mobile payment platforms lies with the ability of the platform to balance the reach (number...