WorldWideScience

Sample records for rights cultural environmental

  1. Human Rights and the Environmental Protection: The Naïveté in Environmental Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Adhitya Anggriawan Wisadha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are growing trends in the human rights to substantially extend the values to protect the environment or moreover to welcome the ideas of the rights to environment, not to mention the rights of environment. The purpose is to inclusively embrace the environmental problems wherein the humanity challenges posited on, but this agenda may leave a room of doubt how far the human rights body can address the environmental destruction as it needs the interplay of culture and environmental ethics to promoting such concepts. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the justification of how human rights in the environmental protection in the contemporary discourse are bringing to light, as many current cases attempt to linkage the environmental approach to the human rights instrument, such as the rights to life, healthy environment, and intergenerational equity. To analyse further, the theoretical framework in this paper will be explicated by environmental culture paradigm which illustrates the egalitarian concept between human and environment to elicit the clear thoughts of how human rights is naïve to protect the environment. This article will firstly depict the human rights and the environmental protection discourse and then, explore the naïveté narratives of environmental culture about the ecological crisis roots that are fundamentally anthropogenic, as to reflect the ground realities how this nexus will play out. Finally, this paper found the moral justification per se relies on the effort of elaborating the human prudence in their relationship with nature, albeit bringing the naïveté.

  2. Human Rights and Cultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Stewart Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Universal human rights and particular cultural identities, which are relativistic by nature, seem to stand in conflict with each other. It is commonly suggested that the relativistic natures of cultural identities undermine universal human rights and that human rights might compromise particular cultural identities in a globalised world. This article examines this supposed clash and suggests that it is possible to frame a human rights approach in such a way that it becomes the starting point and constraining framework for all non-deficient cultural identities. In other words, it is possible to depict human rights in a culturally sensitive way so that universal human rights can meet the demands of a moderate version of meta-ethical relativism which acknowledges a small universal core of objectively true or false moral statements and avers that, beyond that small core, all other moral statements are neither objectively true nor false.

  3. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

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    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  4. A right to cultural identity in UNESCO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Francioni, F.; Scheinin, M.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter touches first on the idea of developing a right to cultural identity in international human rights law, in order to clarify the issues and difficulties surrounding this right. Afterwards, it will address the work of UNESCO in relation to a right to cultural identity, including the

  5. Cultural Capital. On the Right to Cultural Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, C.

    2012-01-01

    According to article 1 of the UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966, All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. This

  6. Culture and Human Rights: The Wroclaw Commentaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesand, A.J.; Chainoglou, K.; Śledzińska-Simon, A.; Donders, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The City of Wroclaw, in cooperation with the National Cultural Centre (Warsaw), has asked Andreas Joh. Wiesand to prepare, together with experts from many different countries, a basic handbook which cover all relevant legal questions as well as main political consequences related to human rights and

  7. Human rights: eye for cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship and interaction between international human rights law and cultural diversity is a current topic, as is shown by the recent debates in The Netherlands on, for instance, the proposed ban on wearing facial coverage, or burqas, and the proposed ban on ritual slaughter without

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY AND ECOLOGICAL CULTURE

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    Kalimat M. Alilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the research is to study environmental problems related to the decline of culture, the importance of philosophy in overcoming private and personal interests as well as the unilateral approach of man in his relationship to nature. The study shows how philosophy can participate in the formation of ecological culture, a new ecological consciousness in man, while ecological culture is called upon to resist technocratic stereotypes and the course of history was aimed at preventing the biosphere from becoming deserted. Discussion. On the basis of the analysis of literary sources, we used the method of socio-cultural and socio-natural approaches based on the possibility of philosophy to introduce a new life into culture, new ecological values and new ecological principles. To solve these problems, environmental philosophy develops new theories. Representatives of different cultures, ethnic groups, nations, religions must learn to coexist with each other. We consider philosophy as a means of teaching rapprochement between peoples and creating new opportunities for understanding and improving the environmental situation. Cultural development makes it possible to assess the level of a man’s knowledge of nature, himself and the world around him. Ecological culture is a way of connecting man with nature on the basis of deeper knowledge and understanding. Philosophy says that you cannot move away from nature and be lauded over it since this will destroy culture. Rational doctrines tend to put a person above other living beings so the synthesis of philosophy with culture can have a positive ecological meaning. Conclusion. The findings obtained can be recommended for practical use in schools, starting from primary school, as well as in secondary special educational institutions and universities. It is necessary to work on the motivation and values of people, develop a common and ecological culture. Only a cultured person can move from

  9. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. The Property Right and the Requirements of Environmental Protection

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    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental protection has lately become an essential component of the concept of sustainable development, along with the economic, social and cultural components. Being an objective of public interest, the environmental protection and conservation are essential to ensure the habitat necessary for continuing the human existence. Considering this aspect, the limitation of ownership required by certain laws has both a social and moral justification, the environmental protection having a direct link with the level of public health, which is a value of national interest. The legal limits of the ownership are restrictions brought by the law, considering aspects regarding the general interest of society. In this article we intend to emphasize, on the analysis and comparison of legislation and case law, the nature of the relationship between ownership of property and environmental rights, as well as the limitations of property rights in favor of environmental protection. As a conclusion, the environmental easements meet a wide national and international recognition and guarantee, the holder of the property having to exercise it in the interest of the whole community, including the protection and conservation of the environment. At the same time, we must consider that the right to property and environment are fundamental rights guaranteed by the Romanian Constitution itself, which makes us conclude that they converge and mutually enrich across the fundamental duties as well.

  11. "Introduction: Outlining the field of cultural rights and its importance"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsdam, Helle

    2017-01-01

    between culture and science, gender and human rights, rights to artistic freedom, the importance of historical narratives and the impact of advertising and marketing on the enjoyment of cultural rights. This worthwhile contribution to the current cultural rights debate will be of interest to academics...

  12. Culture, intangibles and metrics in environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Terre; Gregory, Robin; Klain, Sarah; Roberts, Mere; Chan, Kai M

    2013-03-15

    The demand for better representation of cultural considerations in environmental management is increasingly evident. As two cases in point, ecosystem service approaches increasingly include cultural services, and resource planners recognize indigenous constituents and the cultural knowledge they hold as key to good environmental management. Accordingly, collaborations between anthropologists, planners, decision makers and biodiversity experts about the subject of culture are increasingly common-but also commonly fraught. Those whose expertise is culture often engage in such collaborations because they worry a practitioner from 'elsewhere' will employ a 'measure of culture' that is poorly or naively conceived. Those from an economic or biophysical training must grapple with the intangible properties of culture as they intersect with economic, biological or other material measures. This paper seeks to assist those who engage in collaborations to characterize cultural benefits or impacts relevant to decision-making in three ways; by: (i) considering the likely mindset of would-be collaborators; (ii) providing examples of tested approaches that might enable innovation; and (iii) characterizing the kinds of obstacles that are in principle solvable through methodological alternatives. We accomplish these tasks in part by examining three cases wherein culture was a critical variable in environmental decision making: risk management in New Zealand associated with Māori concerns about genetically modified organisms; cultural services to assist marine planning in coastal British Columbia; and a decision-making process involving a local First Nation about water flows in a regulated river in western Canada. We examine how 'culture' came to be manifest in each case, drawing from ethnographic and cultural-models interviews and using subjective metrics (recommended by theories of judgment and decision making) to express cultural concerns. We conclude that the characterization of

  13. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity.

  14. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life

  15. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

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    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-07-01

    In every society there is violation which implies its citizen not get proper social right, economical right and cultural right. Proper implementation and adoption of judicial enforcement can reduce this violation rate and established social peace. Step mentioned in the above might not perfect but it might be small starting and ensure social, culture & economical right for the people living in the society.

  16. Oriental Culture and Human Rights Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leon Wessels

    Universality is much more than the determination by a majority at a particular moment ..... accepted human rights and not only the favourite rights of any particular .... sole breadwinners, caring for children and taking important decisions on.

  17. Gender, human rights and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Marianne C

    2011-01-01

    and the elucidation of their symptom manifestations, as well as effective therapeutic interventions, which clearly show how human rights issues are linked to research and clinical psychiatry. The analyses of how different ethnic groups use psychiatric services, epitomize how important it is to pay attention to gender...

  18. The Politics of European Human Rights Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agha, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 200-215 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30299S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Court of Justice of the European Union * European Court of Human Rights * religious symbols Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  19. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it " implies

  20. Weighing environmental externalities: Let's do it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Should we as a society adopt policies to internalize external environmental costs? Of course we should. But we should do it correctly. State public utility commissions (PUCs) that are using numerical 'externality adders' reflecting global and regional environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental quality. Alternative approaches for dealing with environmental damages or externalities exist that can lead utilities to take account of the environmental costs associated with the generation of electricity more effectively and at lower cost. This article discusses what an externality is and why the use of environmental adders by PUCs in the resource selection process, while well intentioned, is a bad idea. The author discusses how the most egregious errors associated with the use of adders can be corrected if PUCs insist on using them. Finally, he outlines an alternative approach that state PUCs can pursue which will better serve the electricity customers they are supposed to protect and promote a cleaner environment at the lowest reasonable cost. The author emphasizes that this is not a debate about whether or not environmental costs should be factored into the investment and operating decisions of firms that produce pollution. Rather, it is about how it should be done and whether state PUCs are in a particularly good position to do it well, given their expertise, legal authorities, other responsibilities and scarce resources

  1. The understanding of co-owners' rights in the context of the genesis of environmental rights

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    Kudeikina I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental rights obtain a special importance in the context of real distribution of joint property. The common practice, where the building regulations are applied to legal relationships when carrying out the real distribution of a joint property, is associated with the genesis of environmental rights, but cannot be supported by the doctrine of absolutism of the property rights. In this Article, the author analyzes the legal reasoning and legal consequences of applicability of environmental rights. The essence of real distribution of joint property is the termination of the joint property as a legal act without a target of environmental transformation. The real distribution of joint property is not an action leaving any environmental impacts. The author concludes that the application of the environmental rights to the real distribution of the joint property unreasonably limits the property rights of co-owners.

  2. Environmental and production rights futures: a new booming market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1996-01-01

    Governments or supranational organizations have begun to introduce environmental rights (such as sulfur dioxide or chlorofluorocarbon rights) and production rights (such as milk and fishery rights) to better link production process costs and results. The authors show that the characteristics of

  3. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

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    Nicolae Dura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The text of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - a high-class international document on the assurance and legal protection of the human rights - outlined a sum of principles regarding these rights, which fall within the broad range of legal doctrine on fundamental human rights. These principles are not contrary to the principles set out in the Charter of the United Nations and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, on the contrary, it were given an evident expression in its text content. That the authors of this Covenant wanted the assertion of these principle provisions, it is actually confirmed by the text of Article 24.

  4. Environmental protection - can it be regarded as a basic right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soell, H.

    1986-01-01

    The question of the necessity of an 'environmental basic right' is to be seen in connection with the doctrine of the duty of the State to protect the basic rights. Under the present law this obligation of the State applies only to third party intervention, it does not take effect if it is a matter of protecting the environment as such. Therefore the introduction of an 'environmental basic right' is necessary. (WG) [de

  5. Women and culture. The case for universal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, R R

    1996-01-01

    As the movement for women's human rights has become globalized, the charge that feminism is a form of Western cultural imperialism has emerged. An African Anglican priest used this as a response to the author's lecture on Christian feminism and added that "you can't challenge culture." The author responded that since racism could be considered a part of traditional White culture, does this mean that racism can't be challenged. The priest's argument is a common one used by Third World men, Third World women, and First World men to denounce the concept of human rights as women's rights. The Vatican used this argument during recent international conferences to oppose such things as the international approval of family planning and safe abortion, the diversity of notions of family, and an acknowledgement of homosexuality. In UN forums, Islamic nations also argue against women's rights and against the universalization of human rights, which they feel are properly superseded by local cultures. These concepts translated into debates at the Fourth World Conference on Women on topics such as conflicts between religious laws and women's inheritance rights. The culture-human rights argument is also used to defend the practice of female genital mutilation, which is used to control female sexuality in some traditional societies. Western feminist theory must guard against postmodernist critiques of modernity in the name of cultural diversity, since such critiques can make women vulnerable to right-wing male exploitation under premodern patriarchal norms. Classical philosophies of natural law, on the other hand, assume that the cosmos is a whole and that its nature implies ethical norms which govern human well-being. In this tradition, culture is a particular version of the common whole and must constantly be tested against discernment of the universals of human nature in order to be corrected. Feminists must temper their zeal for cultural diversity with an underlying acceptance

  6. Environmental benefits of poplar culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. G. Isebrands; D.F. Karnosky.

    2001-01-01

    Poplars have important values above and beyond wood or fiber production. Poplars have been planted for environmental purposes for centuries. There are reports of poplar plantings dating back to early Chinese history and biblical times in the Middle East, When immigrants came to North America in the 18th and 19th century, they often brought cuttings of their favorite...

  7. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  8. Human Rights in the Context of Cultural Diversity

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    Emilian Ciongaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The human rights understood in the sense of fundamental inalienable rights are therefore considered as universal – they apply to everything and egalitarian exist in two ways: as natural or legal rights, both in the rights doctrine in the international practice within the international law, the global and regional institutions, in the state policies and the activities of non from all over the world regardless of peoples’ cultures. manage the ethnic-cultural communities living on the territory of a state often contributes, in fact, to the separation and not to the reunion of peoples, the ideological and political factors acting rather as division factors whereas the affective spiritual connection exists only between the states having deep similarities. For this purpose, serving justice having as a goal the pres on the social feelings of humanity.

  9. Cultural rights in the Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: included or ignored?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.; Kono, T.; Van Uytsel, S.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity was adopted by the Member States of UNESCO. In this Declaration, cultural human rights were commended as an enabling environment for cultural diversity. After the Declaration, the Member States wished to adopt a legally binding instrument on

  10. Cornelia Roux on Religion, Culture and Human Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She identified human rights values as common denominators within cultural and religious spaces of fear and resistance. She also focused on interreligious and intercultural dialogue in education as a means to enhance empathetic and caring interactions with others. In recent years, Roux has initiated three projects: The first ...

  11. Cultural Difference and Human Rights : A Philosophical-Anthropological Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kloeg (Julien)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn ‘Cultural Difference and Human Rights’, Julien Kloeg claims, with Pablo Gilabert, that theoretical attempts to justify human rights should move beyond the dichotomy of providing either a humanist or a political justification. Kloeg demonstrates how philosophical anthropology could

  12. The imperatives of economic, social and cultural rights in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic, social and cultural rights remain the bedrock of good governance, which is a prerequisite for sustainable democracy. The obligations of any democratic government are founded on this principle. The desideratum for the recognition of any government as civilized and responsive is its respect for the ...

  13. A right to health: medicine as Western cultural imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Western medicine is intrinsically tied with modern Western culture, and as such is foreign to many African cultures. Relying on personal observations from working in Angola as a physiotherapist as well as secondary research, the author explores the divide between Angolan culture and medical practices which are deeply rooted in scientific research. Most strikingly, the author finds that concepts of evidence-based medicine as well as individual human or patients' rights contain aspects foreign to Angolan culture. Illustrative examples are given of differences in attitudes towards finances and religion in relation to medicine. Finally, the author proposes that factors such as poverty and illiteracy can play an important role in differences in practices and customs commonly seen as being strictly tied to culture. Although medicine does carry with it components of Western culture, there may be positive components of medicine that non-Westerners would like to adopt. This article suggests that Westerners and Angolans can combine beneficial aspects of Angolan culture with medicine to improve health care for the people of Angola.

  14. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

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    Roger Zetter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."

  15. Socio-cultural animation in hospitals and the right to access culture

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    Dušana Findeisen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural animation has a long tradition in French hospitals. It started in most probability with a theatre performance staged by Marquis de Sade between 1800-1810, while he was patient of a Parisian hospital. The theatrical performance was attended by ”le Tout Paris” – all notables of the city. In 1999, a convention of ”Culture and Health” was signed and culture has been moving to hospitals ever since, transforming them into open institutions, with patients and staff having acquired a different perspective on body and culture. Moreover, Slovenian Third Age University has been educating and training cultural mediators (its students for transmitting culture and knowledge gained at the U3A to patients, patients’ relatives and staff within the University Clinical Centre Ljubljana. In this article, author sets a frame of mind for examining the importance and implications of a fundamental universal right – the right to culture.

  16. Recognition rights, mental health consumers and reconstructive cultural semantics

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    Radden Jennifer H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Those in mental health-related consumer movements have made clear their demands for humane treatment and basic civil rights, an end to stigma and discrimination, and a chance to participate in their own recovery. But theorizing about the politics of recognition, 'recognition rights' and epistemic justice, suggests that they also have a stake in the broad cultural meanings associated with conceptions of mental health and illness. Results First person accounts of psychiatric diagnosis and mental health care (shown here to represent 'counter stories' to the powerful 'master narrative' of biomedical psychiatry, offer indications about how experiences of mental disorder might be reframed and redefined as part of efforts to acknowledge and honor recognition rights and epistemic justice. However, the task of cultural semantics is one for the entire culture, not merely consumers. These new meanings must be negotiated. When they are not the result of negotiation, group-wrought definitions risk imposing a revision no less constraining than the mis-recognizing one it aims to replace. Contested realities make this a challenging task when it comes to cultural meanings about mental disorder. Examples from mental illness memoirs about two contested realities related to psychosis are examined here: the meaninglessness of symptoms, and the role of insight into illness. They show the magnitude of the challenge involved - for consumers, practitioners, and the general public - in the reconstruction of these new meanings and realities. Conclusion To honor recognition rights and epistemic justice acknowledgement must be made of the heterogeneity of the effects of, and of responses to, psychiatric diagnosis and care, and the extent of the challenge of the reconstructive cultural semantics involved.

  17. Right to access to justice in environmental matters

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    Daniela Gračan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals of the Republic of Croatia for the following period is its access to the European Union. In order to fulfill it, the Republic of Croatia has in October 2001 signed the Stabilization and Association Agreement and thus overtaken the obligation to strengthen co-operation with European Union member states in struggle against environmental devastation and in promotion of environmental sustainability (Article 103 of Agreement. With the acceptance of the Agreement the process began of the Croatian legislation adjustment to the European Union legal acquirements, and thus of the implementation of numerous European Union Acts into its own legislation. In the area of environmental protection, a large number of regulations, directives, and decisions resolving the objectives regarding further protection were carried out by the competent bodies of the European Union, which the Republic of Croatia must implement in its own legislation during its process of accessing EU. Sure enough, one of the most important questions of environmental protection is the right to approach the legislation on environmental issues by all stakeholders. This paper brings the authors' elaboration on the right to access to justice in matters of environmental protection, its standardizing characteristics, similarities, and differences from the aspect of the Convention on Environmental Information and Public Participation in Environmental Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, European Union Acts, and Croatian legislation.

  18. Cultural Diversities and Human Rights: History, Minorities, Pluralization

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    EDUARDO J. RUIZ VIEYTEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity plays today a prominent role in the updating and developing of human rights. Past developments in the protection of rights have essentially forgotten the democratic management of cultural and identity-based diversity. States have stifled the main developments of the rights and constrained them to partial views in favour of the majority or dominant groups in each country. The current context of regional progressive integration and social diversification within each state agrees on the need to address the adequacy of systems for the protection of rights from different strategies to the context of multiculturalism. Against the process of "nationalization of rights" it is necessary to adopt a strategy for pluralization. On the one hand, the concept of minority has to be given its corresponding importance in both international and domestic law. On the other hand, different kind of policies and legal instruments for the accommodation of diversity can be identified and used to foster this necessary process of pluralization.

  19. THE NEW RIGHT WING IN DENMARK AND THE CULTURE CLASH

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    Tomasz Archutowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Just within sixteen years since its emergence the Danish People’s Party (Dansk Folkeparti has reached the status of the third biggest political party in Denmark. Gaining such considerable voter’s support by a new far-right, populist party in Denmark, a country having a reputation of a stable, well-established democracy provokes a broader analysis of this phenomenon. The main goal of the paper is therefore to fi nd an answer to the question about possible factors that have contributed to the popularity of the new far-right in Denmark. In the paper I make an effort to prove that an essential influence on the popularity of the new far-right has the culture clash. I analyse the term culture clash on two planes – as a clash of the ideas of postmaterialism with the traditional sociocultural values and as a clash between Western culture and the values represented by immigrants coming to Denmark from mostly muslim countries.

  20. Human rights for women: battles of culture and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, K

    1995-06-01

    In Africa, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) focussing on human rights have mushroomed during the past 10-15 years, and, with several of these organizations run by and for women, it is possible to find free legal aid for women in almost every capital city. The collapse of the extended family and, thus, the framework for customary law has meant that women are faced with problems of maintenance and widows with problems of inheritance. Customary law and the protection it afforded women and children has also been weakened by a poverty-driven shift in urban areas from a focus on community support to a focus on individual survival. The vacuum left by this change in legal and social structure is being filled by the human rights NGOs. Paradoxically, in the face of such change, a static, communal, and neutral concept of "culture" was held out by African state representatives at the 1993 UN Conference on Human Rights to justify their opposition to the acceptance of the crosscultural legitimacy of human rights, especially for women. While these arguments were being aired at the Conference, African NGOs were vigorously using examples of the marginalization of women to promote the opposite view. The most important aspect of these conflicting views is which group has the most power and resources to voice its interpretation of the situation. With most African countries governed by a dual system of laws, customary law and common or civil law (left over from colonialism), human rights groups are working to instill human rights principles into common law through the ratification of international conventions. Thus, persons in need could be viewed not as victims but as individuals entitled to enforceable and universal rights. Misuse of the term "culture" can marginalize women even as it is being promoted as a protective device for women. A more useful view of culture is as something which transcends traditional boundaries and locates people and institutions in the global community

  1. Right to Place: A Political Theory of Animal Rights in Harmony with Environmental and Ecological Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Panagiotarakou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the “right to place” as a political theory of wild animal rights. Out of the debate between terrestrial cosmopolitans inspired by Kant and Arendt and rooted cosmopolitan animal right theorists, the right to place emerges from the fold of rooted cosmopolitanism in tandem with environmental and ecological principles. Contrary to terrestrial cosmopolitans—who favour extending citizenship rights to wild animals and advocate at the same time large-scale humanitarian interventions and unrestricted geographical mobility—I argue that the well-being of wild animals is best served by the right to place theory on account of its sovereignty model. The right to place theory advocates human non-interference in wildlife communities, opposing even humanitarian interventions, which carry the risk of unintended consequences. The right to place theory, with its emphasis on territorial sovereignty, bases its opposition to unrestricted geographical mobility on two considerations: (a the non-generalist nature of many species and (b the potential for abuse via human encroachment. In a broader context, the advantage of the right to place theory lies in its implicit environmental demands: human population control and sustainable lifestyles.

  2. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  3. Tale of the Harmattan: environmental rights discourse in Ojaide's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, much of the oil politics and environmental rights-based poetry is anchored on the traumatic experiences of the people of the Niger Delta area. Since the discovery and exploration of oil in this area in 1956, the people have been subjected to acts of bioterrorism through the destruction of their aquatic and terrestrial ...

  4. The cultural dimension of economic activities in international human right jurisprudence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Vadi, V.; de Witte, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural diversity and human rights are mutually linked: human rights protect and promote cultural diversity while cultural diversity also forms an important aspect of the enjoyment of human rights. Cultural diversity and the economy are also increasingly connected, for example through cultural

  5. A Customary Right to Fish when Fish are Sparse: Managing Conflicting Claims between Customary Rights and Environmental Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution considers the potential conflicts that may arise between customary rights and environmental rights in the face of dwindling marine resources. It sets the scene by reflecting on some of the common themes present in indigenous claims to marine resource by communities who were subjected to colonisation. In doing so it analyses the South African judgment, S v Gongqose Case No. E382/10 (unreported, which alluded to the existence of a customary right to fishing, a concept that has until now remained unexplored in South African law. This discussion is followed by a brief overview of the rapidly declining state of marine resources, worldwide and in South Africa. The note then considers the relationship between customary law and marine resources and some of the challenges in meeting rights-based customary claims to marine resources against the need to conserve a dwindling resource. It concludes by offering possibilities for reconciliation.

  6. Human Rights Practice: A Means to Environmental Ends?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Donald

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Can human rights practice in its current dominant forms tackle the challenge of climate change and global environmental degradation? This article argues that although there is now increased recognition of the links between human rights and the environment, and while human rights tools and principles can contribute in some concrete ways in moving forward the environmental agenda, their potential for doing is so far largely unrealised. The article analyses three different approaches used by advocates and activists in this field, before discussing potential alternatives and examples of radical or hybrid approaches, with a view to articulating a strategy for activism and praxis that can capture the real and lived inter-connectedness of human rights enjoyment and environmental factors more meaningfully. ¿Puede la práctica de los derechos humanos en sus formas dominantes actuales hacer frente al desafío del cambio climático y la degradación global del medio ambiente? Este artículo sostiene que, aunque ahora hay un mayor reconocimiento de los vínculos entre los derechos humanos y el medio ambiente, y mientras que las herramientas y principios de los derechos humanos pueden contribuir en avanzar de manera concreta la agenda ambiental, su potencial se encuentra frustrado en gran parte hasta el momento. El artículo analiza tres enfoques diferentes utilizados por los defensores y activistas en este campo, antes de discutir alternativas y ejemplos de enfoques radicales o híbridos, con el fin de articular una estrategia para el activismo y la praxis que pueda capturar de manera más significativa la interconexión real y vivida del disfrute de los derechos humanos y de los factores medioambientales.

  7. Rethinking Some Cultural Practices that Affect the Rights of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Rights have been identified as encompassing and embracing the rights of all humans which are entitled to. These rights, amongst others, include civil and political rights such as the right to life and liberty, dignity, equality before the law and freedom of expression. Others are those of the right to work, the right to ...

  8. International environmental governance: Lessons learned from Human Rights Institutional Reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchald, Ole Kristian

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses on the possibility of establishing a High Commissioner for the Environment and transforming the UNEP Governing Council into a Council for the Environment. For this purpose, it considers the parallels between human rights regimes and environmental regimes. It provides a short-list of functions to be covered by a reformed environmental governance regime, and discusses how the reform can be coordinated with UNEP, as well as with the current and future institutional framework for sustainable development. The report also discusses how the reform can be related to fifteen core multilateral environmental agreements. Finally, the report considers how the reform can be carried out through a discussion of five separate options: a decision by the UN General Assembly, by the ECOSOC, or by the UNEP Governing Council, as well as through agreements between conferences of parties of environmental agreements, or directly between states. A main purpose of the report, which has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment, is to provide input to the preparations for the Rio+20 Conference in 2012.(auth)

  9. Psychology's Replication Crisis and the Grant Culture: Righting the Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2017-07-01

    The past several years have been a time for soul searching in psychology, as we have gradually come to grips with the reality that some of our cherished findings are less robust than we had assumed. Nevertheless, the replication crisis highlights the operation of psychological science at its best, as it reflects our growing humility. At the same time, institutional variables, especially the growing emphasis on external funding as an expectation or de facto requirement for faculty tenure and promotion, pose largely unappreciated hazards for psychological science, including (a) incentives for engaging in questionable research practices, (b) a single-minded focus on programmatic research, (c) intellectual hyperspecialization, (d) disincentives for conducting direct replications, (e) stifling of creativity and intellectual risk taking, (f) researchers promising more than they can deliver, and (g) diminished time for thinking deeply. Preregistration should assist with (a), but will do little about (b) through (g). Psychology is beginning to right the ship, but it will need to confront the increasingly deleterious impact of the grant culture on scientific inquiry.

  10. Schopenhauer’s Mitleid, Environmental Outrage and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kerns

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Suffering which results from environmental exposures often evokes a sense of moral outrage. In this paper, two complementary sources of grounding for that outrage are explored: Arthur Schopenhauer's close analysis of compassion, grounded in the metaphysical identity of all being, provides explanatory grounding for moral outrage as well as for the long-recognized importance of personal narratives in human rights work. Secondly, the broadly endorsed human rights tradition provides an additional confirmatory, more public, level of validation for moral outrage. Human rights norms confirm what the experience of compassion first intuited. Three practical implications for environmental activism follow: 1 the importance of personal narratives detailing the direct impacts that environmental assaults have caused; 2 the practical value of formal, detailed human rights impact assessments specified to a given situation; and 3 the value of community-led public inquiries, such as the 2006 People's Inquiry in New Zealand (Goven et al. 2007 and the 2011 Permanent People's Tribunal (2011 in India. El sufrimiento que resulta de la exposición ambiental a menudo evoca un sentimiento de indignación moral. En este trabajo se analizan dos fuentes complementarias de nociones para la indignación: un análisis detallado de Arthur Schopenhauer sobre la compasión, basada en la identidad metafísica de todo ser, que ofrece nociones explicativas para la indignación moral, así como para la reconocida importancia de las narrativas personales en el trabajo de los derechos humanos. En segundo lugar, la ampliamente respaldada tradición de los derechos humanos proporciona una confirmación adicional y más pública del nivel de validación de indignación moral. Las normas de derechos humanos confirman lo que la experiencia de la compasión intuyó primero. A continuación, se incluyen tres implicaciones prácticas para el activismo medioambiental: 1 la importancia de las

  11. The environmental protection in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio de Oliveira Mazzuoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the interconnections between environmental issues and the protection of human rights, in a process that began in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and has been developed by the greening of the regional human rights systems. In the Inter-American system the article 11 of the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1988 — the Protocol of San Salvador — guarantees the right to a healthy environment. However the American Convention (on its arts. 3-25, 44-51 and 61-69 and its Additional Protocol (on its arts. 8, 13 and 19.6 only allow the submission of individual petitions to the Inter-American Commission and the possible acting of the Inter-American Court, in complaints containing alleged violations of civil and political rights, trade union rights and the right to education. Despite the lack of devices that are capable to ensure an effective protection to the right to a healthy environment, by itself, the Inter-American Court has demonstrated the greening of the human rights, which means, in other words, that it is quite possible to protect environmental issues by the demonstration of its interconnections with civil and political rights that are directly protected by the inter-American system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the contributions of the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court in the strengthening of the civil and political rights in cases related to environmental issues.

  12. Storytelling to Teach Cultural Awareness: The Right Story at the Right Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasaro, Mary McCullum; Maldonado, Nancy; Baltes, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Stories contain the wisdom of the world, teaching cultural values. Story builds community, celebrates cultural diversity, and preserves cultural identity. Where truth has been suppressed, story is an instrument of epiphany; story builds literacy skills and develops metaphorical understanding. A storytelling center in Ontario, Canada, had been a…

  13. Exploring the cultural dimensions of the right to the highest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to enjoying the highest attainable standard of health is incorporated in many international and regional human rights instruments. This right contains both freedoms and entitlements, including the freedom to control one's own health and body and the right to an accessible system of health care, goods and services.

  14. Transaction Costs, Property Rights, and Organizational Culture: An Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth R.

    1983-01-01

    Applying the language of exchange theory, this paper analyses how organizational culture emerges out of the institutional arrangements developed to regulate the transactions between members. Transaction costs of social exchange, the characteristics and etiology of those institutional arrangements, and three ideal-typical cultural forms are…

  15. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: accessibility and the right to information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; McGonagle, T.; Donders, Y.

    2015-01-01

    According to Article 19 ICCPR, the right to freedom of opinion and expression includes the freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. The Human Rights Committee included the right of access to information as specific item in its General

  16. Towards a Human Rights Culture in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa; Garran, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    A human rights perspective must be embedded in the institutions, organisations or agencies where social work students find themselves. This paper will focus on one particular strategy that could be helpful to the process of solidifying a commitment to human rights for our students. Using a pedagogical tool from a school of social work in the USA originally developed to combat the social injustice of racism, the example transcends the academic institution and offers a solid link in connecting human rights, social justice and social work. Using the construct of critical realism, we argue that, for social work programmes to take steps towards an explicit commitment to human rights, not only must human rights be infused throughout the curriculum, but educators must provide opportunities for making more overt the links between human rights principles, social justice and social work. By addressing behaviours, tendencies and attitudes, students then acquire not only the skills and deeper understanding, but they internalise the motivation and commitment to broaden their human rights frame. In the process of developing a more firm commitment to human rights, we must not be limited to the walls of the academy, but rather extend beyond to our field agencies, organisations and communities. PMID:27559204

  17. Towards a Human Rights Culture in Social Work Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa; Garran, Ann Marie

    2016-06-01

    A human rights perspective must be embedded in the institutions, organisations or agencies where social work students find themselves. This paper will focus on one particular strategy that could be helpful to the process of solidifying a commitment to human rights for our students. Using a pedagogical tool from a school of social work in the USA originally developed to combat the social injustice of racism, the example transcends the academic institution and offers a solid link in connecting human rights, social justice and social work. Using the construct of critical realism, we argue that, for social work programmes to take steps towards an explicit commitment to human rights, not only must human rights be infused throughout the curriculum, but educators must provide opportunities for making more overt the links between human rights principles, social justice and social work. By addressing behaviours, tendencies and attitudes, students then acquire not only the skills and deeper understanding, but they internalise the motivation and commitment to broaden their human rights frame. In the process of developing a more firm commitment to human rights, we must not be limited to the walls of the academy, but rather extend beyond to our field agencies, organisations and communities.

  18. A Review of the Conflict between Environmental Rights and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Man often laid claim to different kinds of rights. These rights vary from his rights to life, bodily integrity, freedom of speech, freedom of association and right to own properties. The right to own properties is extended to own land, animals and dominate one's environment. In fact, man is always quick to use the biblical injunction ...

  19. Intellectual Property Rights: Governing Cultural and Educational Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitzke, Cushla

    2006-01-01

    This article uses Nikolas Rose's theory of governmentality to examine ways in which intellectual property is imbricated in a broad spectrum of globalised and globalising discourses. Using the 2004 Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement as a case in point, it shows how discourses of culture, trade, foreign policy, and security intersect and…

  20. Factors in the Development of a Global Substantive Environmental Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen James Turner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that there is currently no international treaty that provides a globally accepted substantive human right for the protection of the environment (Anton and Shelton, 2011; Turner, 2009 there is a case for considering how such a right could or should be developed. This paper considers certain aspects of the potential development of such a right by focussing on key non-state actors that make decisions, which can affect the environment. Consideration is given to three different types of non-state actors: companies (corporations, the World Trade Organisation (WTO and multilateral development banks (MDBs. It specifically examines their ‘constitutional’ purposes and the overall legal constraints that their decision-makers are bound to comply with, and where applicable, the legal obligations that they impose upon their members.Therefore, this approach to the issue focuses on the legal foundations that determine how such actors make decisions and how that can affect the environment. This paper provides a broad perspective to illustrate the commonalities between the actors that are discussed in relation to their decision-making processes. Ultimately it provides an argument in support of the formal development of an international treaty that would create a global substantive environmental right. However it posits that such a treaty should inter alia be designed and framed in a manner, that would develop reformed legal obligations for the types of non-state actors discussed. Debido al hecho de que actualmente no existe ningún tratado internacional que proporcione un derecho humano globalmente aceptado para la protección del medio ambiente (Anton y Shelton 2011, Turner 2009 hay un argumento para considerar cómo podría o debería desarrollarse tal derecho. Este documento considera algunos aspectos del desarrollo potencial de tal derecho, centrándose en los principales actores no estatales que toman decisiones que pueden afectar el

  1. Identity and Culture: Theorizing Emergent Environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Justin; Kelsey, Elin; Duque-Aristizabal, Ana Maria

    1999-01-01

    Examines the methodology and findings of the emergent environmentalism research project as reported in Environmental Education Research v4 n4. Challenges the ontological stance implicit in the research as well as explicit epistemology. (Author/CCM)

  2. Immigrants, Multiculturalism, and Expensive Cultural Tastes: Quong on Luck Egalitarianism and Cultural Minority Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kymlicka has offered an influential luck egalitarian justification for a catalogue of polyethnic rights addressing cultural disadvantages of immigrant minorities. In response, Quong argues that while the items on the list are justified, in the light of the fact that the relevant disadvantages of immigrants result from their choice to immigrate, (i these rights cannot be derived from luck egalitarianism and (ii that this casts doubt on luck egalitarianism as a theory of cultural justice. As an alternative to Kymlicka’s argument, Quong offers his own justification of polyethnic rights based on a Rawlsian ideal of fair equality of opportunity. I defend luck egalitarianism against Quong’s objection arguing that if choice ever matters, it matters in relation to cultural disadvantages too. Also, the Rawlsian ideal of fair equality of opportunity cannot justify the sort of polyethnic rights that Quong wants it to justify, once we set aside an unwarranted statist focus in Quong’s conception of fair equality of opportunity. Whatever the weaknesses of luck egalitarianism are, the inadequacy of the position in relation to accommodating cultural disadvantages of immigrants is not among them.Kymlicka a offert une justification égalitarienne de la chance influente en faveur d’un catalogue de droits polyethniques visant les désavantages culturels dont souffrent les minorités migrantes. En réponse, Quong argue du fait que, si les éléments d’un tel catalogue sont justifiés, parce que les désavantages pertinents dont souffrent les migrants résultent de leur choix d’immigrer, (i ces droits ne peuvent être dérivés de l’égalitarisme de la chance (ii ce qui nourrit des doutes quant à l’égalitarisme de la chance en tant que théorie de la justice culturelle. En tant qu’alternative à l’argument de Kymlicka, Quong offre sa propre justification des droits polyethniques basée sur l’idéal rawlsien de juste égalité d

  3. Human rights values or cultural values? Pursuing values to maintain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argue that positive discipline in multicultural school environments needs to be based in part on human rights values that are neither solely universally interpreted nor particularistically interpreted. We report on the data generated at a research workshop held as the final dissemination process of a four-year international ...

  4. U.N. adopts historic declaration on economic, social and cultural rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    On International Human Rights Day, 10 December 2008, the U.N. General Assembly adopted a landmark document, the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

  5. environmental education and culture history museums

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zulu Cultural Museum has been built and where a large collection of indigenous regional cultural material is housed. Ondini today is a declared monument within the museum estate of 200 ha of thornvel d savannah, and is located 8 km outside the KwaZulu capital of. Ulundi on the through route to the Umfolozi Game.

  6. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter…

  7. Environmental issues and creditor's rights in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, P.T.; Lee, S.; Milani, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A clarification of the ranking of environmentally related claims in bankruptcy and receivership proceedings, was presented. Also, the liability that a creditor assumes when taking control of a debtor's business or assets, particularly where environmental contaminants are concerned, was explained. The way that environmental law operates and the sorts of liability it imposes and upon whom, was also explained. Generally, environmental legislation imposes liability upon the owner of a contaminated property, whether or not the owner caused or created the problem. However, legislation also exists which imposes liability on the party in control and on the party which caused the contamination. A review of cases which deal with environmental legislation and their impact upon receivers in Saskatchewan and Alberta, was presented. Ways in which secured creditors can assess liability and minimize risks, were also described. The proposed amendments to the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (BIA) expand the current limited protection from personal liability for trustees in bankruptcy and extend it to receivers, trustees, monitors and agents

  8. Sensitive and selective culture medium for detection of environmental Clostridium difficile isolates without requirement for anaerobic culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadnum, Jennifer L; Hurless, Kelly N; Deshpande, Abhishek; Nerandzic, Michelle M; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2014-09-01

    Effective and easy-to-use methods for detecting Clostridium difficile spore contamination would be useful for identifying environmental reservoirs and monitoring the effectiveness of room disinfection. Culture-based detection methods are sensitive for detecting C. difficile, but their utility is limited due to the requirement of anaerobic culture conditions and microbiological expertise. We developed a low-cost selective broth medium containing thioglycolic acid and l-cystine, termed C. difficile brucella broth with thioglycolic acid and l-cystine (CDBB-TC), for the detection of C. difficile from environmental specimens under aerobic culture conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of CDBB-TC (under aerobic culture conditions) were compared to those of CDBB (under anaerobic culture conditions) for the recovery of C. difficile from swabs collected from hospital room surfaces. CDBB-TC was significantly more sensitive than CDBB for recovering environmental C. difficile (36/41 [88%] versus 21/41 [51%], respectively; P = 0.006). C. difficile latex agglutination, an enzyme immunoassay for toxins A and B or glutamate dehydrogenase, and a PCR for toxin B genes were all effective as confirmatory tests. For 477 total environmental cultures, the specificity of CDBB-TC versus that of CDBB based upon false-positive yellow-color development of the medium without recovery of C. difficile was 100% (0 false-positive results) versus 96% (18 false-positive results), respectively. False-positive cultures for CDBB were attributable to the growth of anaerobic non-C. difficile organisms that did not grow in CDBB-TC. Our results suggest that CDBB-TC provides a sensitive and selective medium for the recovery of C. difficile organisms from environmental samples, without the need for anaerobic culture conditions. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Women's rights are human rights : The practice of the United Nations Human Rights Committee and the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/265778646

    2009-01-01

    ‘Women’s rights are human rights!’ This notion may seem self evident, as the international system for the promotion and the protection of human rights that was installed under the auspice of the United Nations (UN) builds on the idea of equality in dignity and rights of men and women. Yet, as was

  10. UTILIZING THE RIGHT MIX OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergren, C; Wade Whitaker, W; Mary Flora, M

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Figure 1 is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  11. The Cultural Basis for Our Environmental Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrief, Lewis W.

    1970-01-01

    Pollution is seen as prevalent throughout man's history and currently accentuated by democracy, industrialization, and capitalism. Faith in technology, lack of decisive response by social institutions, and absence of personal moral direction mediate against rapid solution of the environmental crisis. (JM)

  12. THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS: A NEW INSTRUMENT TO ADDRESS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Courtis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the adoption of the new Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as a means to obtain redress for violations against economic, social and cultural rights in the international sphere – including its potential use for the consideration of the violation of extraterritorial obligations. Keywords: Human rights. Social rights. Violations. Optinal protocol.

  13. Learning World Culture or Changing It? Human Rights Education and the Police in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how local law enforcers in India respond to NGO efforts to disseminate world culture through human rights education. Law enforcement officers do not merely decouple from human rights discourse by superficially endorsing it. They also go further than infusing rights with local meaning. Officers use the language and logic of…

  14. FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AWARENESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CULTURE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Snisar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the important problem of searching and introducing innovative forms and methods of ecological upbringing and environmental education in the educational process of the medical educational establishment. Medical workers first face the negative impact of environmental problems on human health, therefore formation of high level of their environmental awareness and culture, ability to apply knowledge of medical ecology while performing their professional duties is an important condition for their qualitative vocational training. The aim of the article is to analyze the benefits of creating an environmental squad in the medical educational establishment with a purpose to create a high level of the studets’ environmental awareness, environmental culture and expositive behavior. The experience of the environmental squad Cherkasy medical academy to attract students to the ecological and elucidative and environmental protection, scientific research ecologically oriented. Effective methods and forms of environmental squad’s work in spreading ecological knowledge are characterized, the main topics of scientific research work are presented. Stages of forming ecological awareness and ecological culture of future doctors have been analyzed, while working in the environmental squad, from expanding and systematization of ecological knowledge to the development of ecological style of thinking and environmentally safe behavior. The results of the study led to the conclusion that activity of such structure as an ecological squad in the medical educational establishment provides improved ecological upbringing and environmental education and allows training of medical specialists, who understand the danger of a complicated ecological situation for human health, will promote healthy lifestyle, help reduce the negative impact of harmful factors on the health of patients, as well as a conscious citizen, which is a patriot of his country, take

  15. Cultural Variability in the Link Between Environmental Concern and Support for Environmental Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kimin; Kim, Heejung S; Sherman, David K; Ishii, Keiko

    2016-10-01

    Research on sustainability behaviors has been based on the assumption that increasing personal concerns about the environment will increase proenvironmental action. We tested whether this assumption is more applicable to individualistic cultures than to collectivistic cultures. In Study 1, we compared 47 countries ( N = 57,268) and found that they varied considerably in the degree to which environmental concern predicted support for proenvironmental action. National-level individualism explained the between-nation variability above and beyond the effects of other cultural values and independently of person-level individualism. In Study 2, we compared individualistic and collectivistic nations (United States vs. Japan; N = 251) and found culture-specific predictors of proenvironmental behavior. Environmental concern predicted environmentally friendly consumer choice among European Americans but not Japanese. For Japanese participants, perceived norms about environmental behavior predicted proenvironmental decision making. Facilitating sustainability across nations requires an understanding of how culture determines which psychological factors drive human action.

  16. Utilizing the right mix of environmental cleanup technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, Wade; Bergren, Chris; Flora, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990's), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical / pH-adjusting injection, phyto-remediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baro-balls, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and micro-blowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works pro-actively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  17. Teacher Perception of Cultural Difference in L2 Materials: Is Filtering Culture the Right Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermessi, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of the intercultural approach to L2 teaching, several studies investigated teachers' attitudes and beliefs concerning the cultural dimension of L2 teaching in different foreign language settings. This study explored teachers' perceptions of the relationship between teaching English and culture in Tunisia, an EFL setting where…

  18. Right: Left:: East: West. Evidence that individuals from East Asian and South Asian cultures emphasize right hemisphere functions in comparison to Euro-American cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application for review, Section 61, Environmental Bill of Rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinspun, D.; Forman, G.; Hutton, A.; Muter, M.; Stewart, K.; Wilkins, H.

    2006-01-01

    Health and environmental groups have filed a request with the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Energy to review its government policies on transboundary smog, mercury emissions and climate change in light of the abandonment of plans to close all of the province's highly polluting coal-fired power plants by 2009. The groups have requested that the Ministries identify the measures that will be taken to eliminate the health, social and environmental impacts caused by this decision. The representatives of Ontario's registered nurses, physicians, community groups and environment groups want to know how the decision will affect Ontario's compliance with the terms of the Ozone Annex to the 1991 United States-Canada Air Quality Agreement, Ontario's compliance with the proposed Canada Wide Standard on Mercury, and efforts to combat climate change. Concerns that the government has weakened its position in dealing with the United States over transboundary smog were expressed. Smog, climate change and mercury pollution pose significant risks to the health of Ontarians. The original plan to replace coal-fired generation was the single largest greenhouse gas reduction initiative in Canada. It was argued that the abandonment of that plan represents a major challenge in meeting Kyoto targets. refs

  20. Weighing environmental externalities: How to do it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.M. III; Burtraw, D.; Harrington, W.; Krupnick, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors focus on the procedure of incorporating monetary measures of external damages as address to private bids and ranking alternatives on the basis of their social costs. They assume that it will be possible to develop methods and models to calculate environmental damages for specific electricity supply options. They reject the use of marginal control cost as a proxy for marginal damages. The question they address here is whether the marginal damage from an increase in electricity supply is the correct adjustment or adder to private cost for least-cost utility planning. They show that arriving at the correct adder depends on both the form that the existing environmental regulations take - that is, whether pollution is controlled by taxation, tradable emissions permits, or direct regulation - and, in the case of an emissions tax, whether the degree of control of pollution is optimal, too strict, or not strict enough according to the criterion of economic efficiency. They make explicit the circumstances under which the correct adder will be equal to marginal damages, will be some other positive number, or zero, or even negative. If emissions reductions are achieved by direct regulation or command and control policies (CAC), then the correct adder is always just equal to marginal damages

  1. When culture clashes with individual human rights: A practical theological reflection on the dignity of widows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift T. Baloyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the nature of human beings (men and women as an egalitarian one even beyond cultural expectations. It argues against some cultural practices on women, especially widows, which claim supremacy and bind the widows to its ritual processes among the Tsonga people. It stresses the importance of human individual that overtakes everything from God�s creation, including cultural rituals which are created by human beings. It claims that the existence of culture depends solely on the existence or presence of human beings and their communities. Therefore, culture cannot use humans to shape itself and to transform the community. It is humans themselves who use culture to identify themselves and ultimately change their communities. Although the paper is theological in its approach, it argues for individual human rights to be respected and weighed above all cultural practices. It further concludes that such cultural practices are not static and that they can be removed from the rest of culture.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article, from a practical theological view, challenges the African cultural rituals that claim authority over women�s rights and dignity. The interdisciplinary nature of this article indicates the sanctity of human individuals especially widows and thereby calls for paradigm shift to deconstruct certain oppressive teachings and practices against widows among African women. This article concludes thus, cultural deconstruction is possible.

  2. Cultural Rights and Modern Society. Historic Essay about «Cultural State»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Henares Cuéllar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation, which was written as the inaugural lecture of the Academic course 2014-2015 at the University of Granada, proposes an «essay on the role of Culture in modern societies from the art-historical perspective». It analyzes the relations between the State and artistic culture since the Enlightenment, highlighting the contributions of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the current concept of cultural property. It concludes «drawing attention to the scientific community to study the basis of a public model, the service of a new Humanism, to face the growing inequality and to become the main core of a project about the substantiation of the Cultural values».

  3. Editors' introduction: Expressive Culture and Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    De Cleen, Benjamin; Nærland, Torgeir Uberg

    2016-01-01

    This brief text is the editorial to the JOMEC Journal special issue on Expressive Culture and Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. It situates the special issue within the existing body of literature on the intersections between the radical right and expressive culture. The editorial further outlines the main contribution of the special issue: the focus on hitherto largely ignored countries, and the more consistent focus on parties and organised politics. This includes taking into accoun...

  4. Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: the case of female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen A

    1994-01-01

    How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal human rights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that human rights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of human rights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a human rights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards.

  5. The environmental prospects of cultured meat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-chang; YU Qun-li; HAN Lin

    2015-01-01

    To deal with concerns in China about environmental degradation and a growth in population accompanied by increased consumption of livestock products, a meat alternative is required. This study compared the environmental impacts of producing different protein sources for nutrition, including crops, livestock products, and cultured meat. The results showed that cultured meat has the lowest land use per unit of protein and unit of human digestible energy. China’s crops have the lowest energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of energy and protein. The energy use in cultured meat production is slightly higher than that of current pork production in China, whereas GHG emissions are lower. It is concluded that the overal impact of replacing livestock products with cultured meat would be beneifcial for China’s environment and would potential y improve food security because less land is needed to produce the same amount of protein and energy.

  6. Getting the science right for the right reasons: the environmental sensing revolution that just happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selker, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Noting that cool phone in your pocket, and your car have more sensors and wireless capabilities than your new Campbell weather station, does it ever feel like there is a mismatch between the world of science and that of consumer products? How can we understand our place in the "sensing ecosystem," and sort between the transformative opportunities of sensing technology and technological land mines that will expend your budget and be unreliable? Here I review the impact of three technological frameworks on biogeochemical observation: distributed fiber optic sensing; low-power radio and GSM communication; and 3-D printing. From the fiber optic sensing applications in air, soil, rivers, oceans and wells, we see that this truly does qualify as a revolutionary observational platform. Specifically, it densely spans the critical 0.1 m to 10,000 m spatial scales and 1 to 1,000,000 s temporal scales, providing opportunity to address long-standing fundamental open questions. This is placed in contrast to the unfulfilled promises touted by the self-organizing mesh network radio technology. We argue that this outcome reflects a lack of candor of technology insiders in the selling of this technology with respect to the potential given the 1/r^3 energy of radio communication combined with the challenges of environmental settings for wave propagation (e.g., intense rain, snow laden branches, and long periods of low solar radiation). This is contrasted with the excellent outcomes of GSM-based monitoring approaches that leveraged the massive infrastructure of cellular telephones. Finally, I will venture to explain why open-source 3-D printing technology will provide the next transformative opportunity for Biogeosicences by re-inventing point-sensing instrumentation.

  7. Greening Social Work Education: Teaching Environmental Rights and Sustainability in Community Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androff, David; Fike, Chris; Rorke, John

    2017-01-01

    Green issues such as protecting environmental rights and promoting sustainability are growing in importance to social work practice but are largely ignored in social work curricula. This article uses comparative case studies of three student-led community practice projects to demonstrate how environmental rights can be incorporated into social…

  8. Immigrant Children Promoting Environmental Care: Enhancing Learning, Agency and Integration through Culturally-Responsive Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Reilly, Rosemary C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of culturally-responsive environmental education to engage immigrant early adolescents. Our study suggests that environmental involvement can become a means and an end for children to bridge their school and home in agential ways. Drawing from a multi-phase study involving focus groups with children, parents, and…

  9. Perspective Intercultural Bioethics and Human Rights: the search for instruments for resolving ethical conflicts culturally based.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline ALBUQUERQUE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.

  10. Environmental factors and teenagers' personalities: The role of personal and familial Socio-Cultural Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-05-15

    Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Education, Culture and Indigenous Rights: The Case of Educational Reform in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comboni Salinas, Sonia; Juarez Nunez, Jose Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Examines the implementation of intercultural bilingual education throughout Bolivia and its relationship to the linguistic and cultural rights of the majority indigenous population. Discusses institutional and curriculum reforms, particularly in rural schools; a new emphasis on students' learning needs; relationship to indigenous…

  12. Culture and the right of the rural woman in Nigeria: an overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In traditional societies, it is a determinant factor in role assignment, career choice and social relationship; though its impact on gender rights varies among societies. ... Initiation of legislative actions, media advocacy and social engineering in order to liberate the rural woman from cultural ostracism are also recommended.

  13. The Cultural Mind: Environmental Decision Making and Cultural Modeling within and across Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atran, Scott; Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes cross-cultural research on the relation between how people conceptualize nature and how they act in it. Mental models of nature differ dramatically among populations living in the same area and engaged in similar activities. This has novel implications for environmental decision making and management, including commons…

  14. Are Some Animals More Equal than Others? Animal Rights and Deep Ecology in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of ethical perspectives such as deep ecology and animal rights in relation to environmental education, arguing that such perspectives are well-placed to reposition students as responsible planetary citizens. We focus on the linkage between non-consequentialism, animal rights, and deep ecology in an educational…

  15. Contemporary debates on social-environmental conflicts, extractivism and human rights in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raftopoulos, Malayna

    2017-01-01

    This opening contribution to ‘Social-Environmental Conflicts, Extractivism and Human Rights’ analyses how human rights have emerged as a weapon in the political battleground over the environment as natural resource extraction has become an increasingly contested and politicised form of development....... It examines the link between human rights abuses and extractivism, arguing that this new cycle of protests has opened up new political spaces for human rights based resistance. Furthermore, the explosion of socio-environmental conflicts that have accompanied the expansion and politicisation of natural...... resources has highlighted the different conceptualisations of nature, development and human rights that exist within Latin America. While new human rights perspectives are emerging in the region, mainstream human rights discourses are providing social movements and activists with the legal power...

  16. The Environmental Trilogy project: Balancing technical, institutional, and cultural perspectives to environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurstedt, Pamela S.; Jim, Russell; Wadsworth, Bonnie C.W.; Burke, William H.; Kurstedt, Harold A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    'The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.' Albert Einstein. I've identified an initial set of three perspectives important to building an integrated, comprehensive approach to managing the environment - technical, institutional, and cultural. I've constructed an holistic model (called the Environmental Trilogy) for environmental management, encompassing at least these three perspectives and their interrelationships. In this paper, I outline the model and report the results of a working session facilitated at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia, in October 1991, involving three representatives from each of the technical, institutional, and cultural perspectives. The institutional members of this group were people who understand institutional effects, rather than those who represent institutions. The working group discussed and analyzed the technical-institutional, technical-cultural, and institutional-cultural inter- relationships of the environmental trilogy. The goals of the working group were to put structure on the environmental trilogy model, to facilitate the definition of variables, and explore relationships between and among variables. The working group members are to continue studying issues and components, perspectives, connections, and cause-and-effect in the models and report back to interested parties. The outcome is projected to be a more holistic, integrated view of the environment. (author)

  17. History, Culture and Memory: Nisia Floresta Literature as Women's Rights Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Lima de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that the translation practice is a dynamic process of constant movement that mobilizes knowledge, and is, therefore, incompatible with the fixed, stable, and universal idea of the literal translation(which was defended by the traditional theory for many years, we’ve reached the conclusion that the cultural translation accomplished by Nísia Floresta in the text that founded feminism in Brazil, despite being a literary and non-legal one, contributed decisively to the historical statement of women’s human rights, and represents what we can call law’s cultural voyage.

  18. Getting it right: Culturally safe approaches to health partnership work in low to middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alison

    2017-05-01

    Many health professionals become engaged in international health and education work in low to middle income countries, often as part of health partnerships. This type of work, increasingly popular in an age of global health, can present a number of challenges. Many of these involve cultural factors which are often acknowledged in the literature on overseas health work but rarely explored in depth. This paper aims to illustrate the key cultural considerations to be made by those currently engaged in or considering overseas health and education work in a low to middle income country. A comprehensive literature review methodology was used to examine data through the lens of Cultural Safety Theory and as a result provide guidance for professionals working with international colleagues. Recommendations for practice are based on the importance of gaining an understanding of the host country's history and social context and of professionals examining their own individual worldviews. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Indigenous Health and Human Rights: A Reflection on Law and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Odette

    2018-01-01

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples bear a greater burden of disease and have lower life expectancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. These combined indicators are evidence of an entrenched health crisis in the Indigenous population that is linked to systemic disadvantage over many decades. In an effort to improve life expectancy and lessen the burden of disease, a number of strategies and national frameworks now embed a human rights-based approach to achieving health equality. This paper explores the application of human rights to Indigenous health and examines the inherent tensions that exist in engaging a system of law based on universal assumptions of the Enlightenment to advance Indigenous rights. What becomes apparent through this exploration is that the strategic approach of Indigenous peoples’ use of human rights, despite its genesis in a system of law that justified colonisation, has opened up opportunities to reframe fixed ideas of law and culture. PMID:29670026

  20. Indigenous Health and Human Rights: A Reflection on Law and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Odette

    2018-04-18

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples bear a greater burden of disease and have lower life expectancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. These combined indicators are evidence of an entrenched health crisis in the Indigenous population that is linked to systemic disadvantage over many decades. In an effort to improve life expectancy and lessen the burden of disease, a number of strategies and national frameworks now embed a human rights-based approach to achieving health equality. This paper explores the application of human rights to Indigenous health and examines the inherent tensions that exist in engaging a system of law based on universal assumptions of the Enlightenment to advance Indigenous rights. What becomes apparent through this exploration is that the strategic approach of Indigenous peoples’ use of human rights, despite its genesis in a system of law that justified colonisation, has opened up opportunities to reframe fixed ideas of law and culture.

  1. Gender, human rights and cultural diversity: reflections on a career in transcultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Marianne C

    2011-04-01

    The three issues of gender equality, human rights and cultural diversity have dominated my organizational commitments, research, and clinical practice in transcultural psychiatry. These issues are intertwined in many ways and have broad implications for transcultural psychiatry. With increasing globalization, psychiatrists in many countries are likely to be treating patients who have migrated from different cultures and who may have been exposed to a variety of traumatic experiences that have a profound impact on their mental health. Of particular concern is the group of torture survivors and the elucidation of their symptom manifestations, as well as effective therapeutic interventions, which clearly show how human rights issues are linked to research and clinical psychiatry. The analyses of how different ethnic groups use psychiatric services, epitomize how important it is to pay attention to gender aspects in the interpretation of the findings and their therapeutic, as well as policy, implications.

  2. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  3. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, L.D. [Univ. of Tennessee (United States); Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  4. Human rights values or cultural values? Pursuing values to maintain positive discipline in multicultural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro du Preez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on discipline in education often accentuate corporal punishment or measures to infuse moral fibre. In addition, many authors argue that inculcating a particular value system can promote discipline in schools. This could however be profoundly problematic in the light of the Constitution. We argue that positive discipline in multicultural school environments needs to be based in part on human rights values that are neither solely universally interpreted nor particularistically interpreted. We report on the data generated at a research workshop held as the final dissemination process of a four-year international research project entitled "Understanding human rights through different belief systems: intercultural and interreligious dialogue". Dialogue was chosen as a form of data gathering since it is more spontaneous than conventional questioning techniques and can thus generate more naturally occurring data to strengthen the outcomes of the project. It appears that some teachers believe discipline can only be maintained through the elevation of cultural values (particularism. We argue that schools should start negotiating, at the most basic level, the values, including emancipatory, human rights values, and cultural values, which could underpin positive discipline in multicultural schools. Drawing solely on cultural values is not only unlikely to solve the problem of discipline, but could also undermine the efforts to transform our diverse, democratic society.

  5. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects...... on the structural integrity of bone was investigated. Metapodial roe deer bone samples were artificially aged under humidity and atmospheres of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in room temperature. Elemental micro-analysis of bone material through SEM-EDX and molecular investigations through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy...

  6. Human Rights, Culture, and Literature. An Example in the Narrative of Latin American Social Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Guaraglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the theoretical proposal of Amartya Sen to consider human rights as demands of an ethical nature, capable of articulating a particular type of moral reciprocity, the article proposes to deepen the idea of human rights as cultural artifacts inseparable from the public sphere and from their logic of creation and legitimization of political and social identities. To do this, the paper adopts the advances of a recent field of research exploring the relation between literature and human rights, and discusses their possibilities for the case of Latin American literature. Through the analysis of four novels, belonging to the social criticism narrative in the middle of the twentieth century, the article shows the way in which the literary discourse has been involved in the promotion and expansion of human rights, and in the defense of new subjects of rights. When studying the way in which these fictions build arguments in favor of the expansion of the political space and of a more equitable reorganization of the national community, the article dares to contribute to a better understanding of both the way in which human rights are integrated and consolidated in other discourses, and the key role that literature claimed to have in the construction of a democratic ethics in the Latin American national states.

  7. Avatar in the Amazon - Narratives of Cultural Conversion and Environmental Salvation between Cultural Theory and Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ødemark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the New York Times reported that '[t]ribes of Amazon Find an Ally Out of "Avatar"', James Cameron. The alliance was against the building of Belo Monte, a hydroelectricdam in the Xingu River in Brazil. Cameron made a documentary about Belo Monte, A Message from Pandora. Here he states that Avatar becomes real in the struggle against the dam. This appears to confirm U. K. Heise's observation that the 'Amazon rainforest has long functioned as a complex symbol of exotic natural abundance, global ecological connectedness, and environmental crisis'. This construal, however, downplays the 'symbols' cultural components. In this article I show that the image of an ecological 'rainforest Indian' and a particular kind of culture constitutes a crucial part of the Amazon as 'a complex' cross-disciplinary 'symbol'. Firstly, I examine how an Amazonian topology (closeness to nature, natural cultures is both a product of an interdisciplinary history, and a place to speak from for ethno-political activist. Next I analyze how Amazonian cultures have been turned into 'ethnological isolates' representing a set of grand theoretical problems in anthropology, not least concerning the nature/culture-distinction, and how environmentalism has deployed the same topology. Finally I examine how Avatar and one of its cinematic intertexts, John Boorman's The Emerald Forest, is used as a model to understand the struggle over the Belo Monte. In a paradoxical way the symbolic power of indigenous people in ecological matters here appears to be dependent upon a non-relation, and a reestablishment of clear cut cultural boundaries, where 'the tribal' is also associated with the human past. Disturbingly such symbolic exportation of solutions is consonant with current exportations of the solution of ecological problems to 'other places'.

  8. A multi-cultural investigation into consumer environmental concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rousseau

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between consumer attitudes and perceptions towards environmental concern and to measure levels of environmental concern amongst multicultural groups. The study was based on past research in the field and uses a modified version of a questionnaire developed by various authors. A non-probability convenience sample (N=340 was drawn from English, Afrikaans and Xhosa-speaking respondents in the Eastern Cape. Fieldwork was carried out by students of Industrial Psychology at the University of Port Elizabeth. Results suggest that cultural influences deduced from home language and suburb are an important factor in determining environmental concern. Results further suggest that environmental concern influences buying preferences and attitudes toward environmental conservation and behaviour. These results have important implications for market segmentation, town planning and development. Opsomming Die hoof doelstelling van hierdie studie was om die verband tussen verbruikershoudings en waarnemings ten opsigte van omgewingsbesorgdheid te ondersoek en vlakke van omgewingsbesorgdheid by multikulturele groepe te meet. Die studie is gegrond op vorige navorsing in die veld en gebruik 'n aangepaste weergawe van 'n vraelys ontwikkel deur verskeie outeurs. n Nie-ewekansige gerieflikheidsteekproef (N=340 is getrek uit Engels, Afrikaans en Xhosa-sprekende respondente in die Oos-Kaap. Veldwerk is uitgevoer deur Bedryfsielkunde studente van die Universiteit van Port Elizabeth. Bevindinge suggereer dat kulturele invloede, afgelei van huistaal en voorstad, belangrike faktore is in die bepaling van omgewingsbesorgdheid. Bevindinge suggereer verder dat omgewingsbesorgdheid, koopvoorkeure en houdings ten opsigte van omgewingsbewaring en optrede beihvloed. Hierdie resultate het belangrike implikasies vir marksegmentasie, stadsbeplanning en ontwikkeling.

  9. Strengthening Culture of Recycling and Reusing from Environmental Axiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Del Valle Nadales Díaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to strengthen the culture of recycling and reuse from the environmental axiology in the students and teachers of the José Francisco Jiménez School, in the parish of Bolivia City of Pedraza state Barinas, under the action research method competitor. Consequently, it was developed in five phases described as: diagnosis, planning, execution, evaluation and systematization. The informants were two (2 classroom teachers, one (1 parents and representatives and two (02 students, belonging to the 6th grade of the aforementioned institution. The technique used for the collection of information was observation and interview, the instrument will be the observation guide for students and an interview guide for parents, representatives and teachers, the validity and reliability of the same was determined through of triangulation. Subsequently, the obtained results allowed to know the weaknesses in relation to the current situation of the garbage in the institution and the community in general. Based on the derivations that were generated, a set of actions aimed at students was developed in order to strengthen the entire content of environmental care in accordance with the new educational policies. In developing and evaluating the study, it was concluded that the actions carried out will be an alternative for students to process information related to the interactions of environmental systems, taking individual and collective actions in the protection and defense of the environment for sustainable development.

  10. The Right to Education in the International Regulations on Protection of Human Rights and its regulation in the National Legal System : Preliminary Analysis from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Creusa de Araújo Borges

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine, in this article, the question of the right to education, from the Univer- sal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966. In the Brazilian national law, they are analyzed the Federal Constitution of 1988 and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Educa- tion, 1996, regarding the regulation of education matter, in coordination with the inter- national instruments in question. It is noteworthy that the regulation of the matter at the national level, is influenced by the recognition of this right in international norms, but advances in the recognition of the right to higher education of marginalized social groups, expanding the mandatory gratuity and beyond elementary school because in the Brazilian case, basic education is compulsory and the principle of free governs the entire education system in official establishments. Set up in this way, the existence of an essential core regarding the right to education, which is fully chargeable.

  11. In the right words: addressing language and culture in providing health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees, executives, and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a group of experts from philanthropy, research, health care practice, and policy on April 4, 2003, to discuss the roles of language and culture in providing effective health care. During this Issue Dialogue, In the Right Words: Addressing Language and Culture in Providing Health Care, health grantmakers and experts from policy and practice participated in an open exchange of ideas and perspectives on language access and heard from fellow grantmakers who are funding innovative programs in this area. Together they explored ways to effectively support comprehensive language services, including the use of interpreters and translation of written materials. This Issue Brief synthesizes key points from the day's discussion with a background paper previously prepared for Issue Dialogue participants. It focuses on the challenges and opportunities involved with ensuring language access for the growing number of people who require it. Sections include: recent immigration trends and demographic changes; the effect of language barriers on health outcomes and health care processes; laws and policies regarding the provision of language services to patients, including an overview of public financing mechanisms; strategies for improving language access, including enhancing access in delivery settings, promoting advocacy and policy change, improving interpreter training, and advancing research; and roles for foundations in supporting improved language access, including examples of current activities. The Issue Dialogue focused mainly on activities and programs that ensure linguistic access to health care for all patients. Although language and culture are clearly inseparable, a full exploration of the field of cultural competence and initiatives that promote its application to the health care setting are beyond the scope

  12. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more…

  13. Effective environmental protection by the reform of the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1978-01-01

    The 52nd German Lawyers Meeting will be concerned in its legal department with the question of whether, from the points of view of the guaranteeing of the necessary environmental protection, additional regulations in the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights should be recommended. Here one is concerned, above all, with the problem of whether an administrative legal associations sueing or associations participation in administrative legal procedures is desirable in the interests of environmental protection. A negative answer must be given to this question. Discussion should concentrate on the problematical administrative legal interests, on the strengthening of administrative participation of popular opinion or interests in legal processes, on other improvements in administrative processes and on the legal control by Parliament of environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  14. Environmental studies for right of way; Levantamento ambiental das faixas de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savian, Michelle; Oliveira, Robson A. de; Fabri, Camila; Chichorro, Cristiano [Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Esteio S.A. was hired to accomplish in a pioneering way the Environmental Survey of approximately 5.000 kilometers of right-of-way, all over the country. To execute this work, Esteio collected several information as: Maps basic data (Topographical, Geological and Pedological) and cadastral field data that resulted respectively in a GIS (Geographical Information System) of thematic maps and a database with information of the pipeline corridor and their proximity. The final products will allow the management of the pipeline corridor in an integrated way, besides the elaboration of sensibility maps and environmental vulnerability. In case of accidents with the pipeline, it allows to combat it in an optimized way, applying a more appropriate logistics, reducing the response time with the intention to protect and to preserve in the best way the whole involved environment, minimizing environmental impacts. (author)

  15. Women and Land Ownership Rights in Kilimanjaro: A Tension between Women Land Ownership Rights and Culture: A case of Moshi Rural District Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Asantemungu, Raphael Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts and strategies geared towards women in realizing property rights in terms of empowerment, participation and decision making in the global context today many African societies are still characterized by social economic and political inequalities between men and women. This situation is worse in Tanzania rural areas where women land rights are violated as result of culture being regarded as a daily routine that provide the basis and ways in which land is owned and distribute...

  16. Beyond Litigation: The Need for Creativity in Working to Realise Environmental Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Chamberlain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental harm is one of the biggest challenges facing communities living in poverty across the world. Unfortunately, in developing strategies to combat environmental harm, the lawyers that support such communities often tend to focus purely on litigation. Yet there are many reasons why litigation is not ideally suited to the environmental context. These reasons include the need for speed in order to avert irreversible harm quickly, the difficulty in quantifying and proving environmental harm using conventional legal tests, the very technical subject matter with which judges are often unfamiliar and the challenge of securing scientific experts. Fortunately litigation is not the only option, and a wealth of alternative strategies to realise environmental rights exist. Using the campaign to protect the Mapungubwe World Heritage Site in South Africa as a case study, this article will examine three such alternatives: namely the linkages between advocacy campaigns and company share price, community learning exchanges and an interesting model for collaboratively monitoring compliance by mining companies.

  17. Cultural beliefs about a patient's right time to die: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Henry S; Cortez, Josie D; Hazuda, Helen P

    2009-11-01

    Generalist physicians must often counsel patients or their families about the right time to die, but feel ill-prepared to do so. Patient beliefs may help guide the discussions. Because little prior research addresses such beliefs, we investigated them in this exploratory, hypothesis-generating study. Anticipating culture as a key influence, we interviewed 26 Mexican Americans (MAs), 18 Euro-Americans (EAs), and 14 African Americans (AAs) and content-analyzed their responses. Nearly all subjects regardless of ethnic group or gender said God determines (at least partially) a patient's right time to die, and serious disease signals it. Yet subjects differed by ethnic group over other signals for that time. Patient suffering and dependence on "artificial" life support signaled it for the MAs; patient acceptance of death signaled it for the EAs; and patient suffering and family presence at or before the death signaled it for the AAs. Subjects also differed by gender over other beliefs. In all ethnic groups more men than women said the time of death is unpredictable; but more women than men said the time of death is preset, and family suffering signals it. Furthermore, most MA women--but few others--explicitly declared that family have an important say in determining a patient's right time to die. No confounding occurred by religion. Americans may share some beliefs about the right time to die but differ by ethnic group or gender over other beliefs about that time. Quality end-of-life care requires accommodating such differences whenever reasonable.

  18. Role of environmental rights in the urban design of public places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Sadeghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current period, followed by the industrial revolution, the damaging effects of the one-dimensional attitude towards the environment caused by human have had countless hazards. To cope with these risks, the respect and protection of environmental values has attracted today's urban human attention once again and the issues about the human right to a decent, safe and healthy environment which is called briefly" environmental rights ", have widely been discussed. In fact, this research is formed on the basis of the principle that the right to a healthy environment, must be respected in the design of public spaces and the legal aspects of this principle must be considered in dealing with these spaces, so one of the necessary contexts to the conversion of today’s public spaces to valuable urban places would be provided. Therefore, in this study the human right to a healthy, safe and decent environment and the related concepts has been reviewed and the role of the environment in the process of transforming urban spaces to urban places has been discussed. This study also emphasizes on the role of the noise pollution of the urban public spaces as one of the threatening factors of the right to the environment, in the inefficiency and disorder in the process of the conversion of these spaces to public places and while reviewing the laws to reduce such pollution in urban public spaces, it stresses the necessity of considering these rules in designing the urban public spaces. This study uses descriptive and analytic research methodology and investigation techniques of literature review by using library studies.

  19. "WHERE SOULS ARE FORGOTTEN" : Cultural Competencies, Forensic Evaluations, and International Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlin, Michael L.; McClain, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Cultural competency is critical in criminal forensic evaluations. Cultural competency eschews reliance on stereotypes, precluding the mistake of assuming that cultural dictates apply with equal force to all who share a cultural background, thus allowing the forensic examiner to provide a

  20. On "feeling right" in cultural contexts: how person-culture match affects self-esteem and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, C Ashley; Gelfand, Michele J; Kruglanski, Arie W; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Diener, Ed; Pierro, Antonio; Higgins, E Tory

    2010-11-01

    Whether one is in one's native culture or abroad, one's personality can differ markedly from the personalities of the majority, thus failing to match the "cultural norm." Our studies examined how the interaction of individual- and cultural-level personality affects people's self-esteem and well-being. We propose a person-culture match hypothesis that predicts that when a person's personality matches the prevalent personalities of other people in a culture, culture functions as an important amplifier of the positive effect of personality on self-esteem and subjective well-being at the individual level. Across two studies, using data from more than 7,000 individuals from 28 societies, multilevel random-coefficient analyses showed that when a relation between a given personality trait and well-being or self-esteem exists at the individual level, the relation is stronger in cultures characterized by high levels of that personality dimension. Results were replicated across extraversion, promotion focus, and locomotive regulatory mode. Our research has practical implications for the well-being of both cultural natives and migrants.

  1. New Lipids From Cultured Archaea and Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Bradley, A. S.; Hebting, Y.; Jahnke, L. L.; Embaye, T.; Orphan, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    The intact polar lipids of Archaea comprise cores with isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains with 20, 25 or 40 carbon atoms linked through ether bonds to glycerol. These cores can take the form of diethers or membrane- spanning tetraethers. Together with their wide array of polar head groups, these compounds are structurally diverse and potentially very useful as taxonomic markers for making assessments of microbial diversity independently of genomic approaches. Furthermore, the recalcitrant hydrocarbon chains of these lipids are the only really effective means to identify the presence of Archaea in ancient sedimentary environments. The advent of new LC-MS methods has enabled ready identification and quantification of intact polar lipids in cultures and environmental samples based on comparisons with appropriate standard compounds [1, 2]. However, these LC-MS analyses of intact lipids have also revealed the presence of additional compounds and it is likely that many of these represent chemical structures that are new to science. Elucidating these structures is a major analytical challenge because, generally, only minute amounts of material available for chemical characterization. In order to study these potentially new structures, one layer of information can be obtained by chemical degradation to remove and identify the polar head groups [2]. Cleavage of the ether bonds releases the hydrocarbon chains for their further characterization. One class of core lipids, the 3-hydroxyarchaeols, escaped detection for many years because strong acid treatments in the analysis protocols had destroyed hydroxyl-containing isoprenoid chains. We have now re-examined the lipids of a thermophilic methanogen, M. thermolithotrophicus, using mild procedures and avoiding strong acids. As well as the known compounds archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol and sn-3-hydroxyarchaeol, we encountered dihydroxyarchaeol. Moreover, the hydroxylated archaeols were found to exist as a very complex mixture of

  2. New trouble brewing: environmental associations are granted the right to institute group action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2005-01-01

    An important legislative project is the transposition of Directive 2003/35/EC of the European Parliament and the Council about public participation in the development of certain plans and programs related to the environment, and the amendment of Directives 85/337/EEC and 96/61EC of the Council about public participation and access to courts of law. These directives must be transposed into national law and administrative regulations by June 25, 2005. The Directive on Public Participation introduced the right to institute group action. If these provisions were adopted as planned, environmental associations henceforth would be in a position, among other things, to bring action against plant permits, permits under water management and atomic energy laws, allocations of certificates under the new emissions trading system, etc. On February 21, 2005, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) presented a first draft bill about supplementary provisions on legal remedies in environmental cases under the EU Directive (Environmental Legal Remedies Act), which is to be discussed with the Associations in the near future. The preface to the ministerial draft bill does not preclude the possibility of the introduction of group action giving rise to procedural delays in specific cases and, as a consequence, to additional expenses in investment projects. Legislation has ways and means to minimize negative consequences. (orig.)

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students’ environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the U.S. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more harmful to health, to the environment, and to social economic development of the nation than did the American respondents. Both groups desired transpar...

  4. CH Stands for Cheese, Right? A Swiss Culture Class and the National Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlitz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Culture has always been a part of foreign language learning. However, in recent years, more and more language professors advocate placing culture at the center of our classes. The question of just how to teach culture remains a topic of debate. This paper describes the reworking of a traditional German grammar and reading course into a class that…

  5. Striking the Right Note: The Cultural Preparedness Approach to Developing Resonant Career Guidance Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmani, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural preparedness is presented as a conceptual framework that could guide the development of culture-resonant interventions. The "Jiva" careers programme is presented as a case study to illustrate a method of career and livelihood planning based upon Indian epistemology and cultural practices. Social cognitive environments and career beliefs…

  6. Sending the Right Bill to the Right People: Climate change, environmental degradation, and social vulnerabilities in Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2012-01-01

    In a range of international reports Vietnam is pointed out as among the 5 to 10 most climate-vulnerable countries, which are taking center stage in global climate change assistance and thus attracting huge amounts of foreign aid for research, mitigation, adaptation, disaster management, etc....... However, for various reasons relating to global and domestic politics, climate change adaptation and mitigation in Vietnam are separating from general environmental management, while at the same time failing to address social inequality. From a global justice perspective this may seem irrelevant but when...... the resulting technocratic approaches are applied to aid programs, addressing climate change as an autonomous field, the problems on the ground become distorted. Based on field studies in central Vietnam, the paper argues that fragmented approaches risk missing the target of helping the most vulnerable...

  7. Environmental compliance considerations for the management of cultural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.A.; Whitfield, S.; McGinnis, K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines three key considerations underlying the programmatic management of cultural resources that may be affected by a large federal project. These considerations are statutory background and the compliance process, cultural resource compliance tasks, and quality assurance. The first consideration addresses the legal requirements and steps that must be met and taken for federal agencies to fulfill their cultural resource compliance responsibilities. The second consideration focuses on the tasks that must be performed by technical specialists to facilitate related federal and state compliance actions. The third consideration ensures that compliance requirements are being properly fulfilled. In the technical literature and compliance planning, archaeological and historic sites and Native American cultural resources are grouped under the general heading of cultural resources. Also included under this heading are the traditions and resources of Folk societies. Cultural resources encompass both material and nonmaterial aspects of our cultural heritage and include buildings, structures, objects, sites, districts, archaeological resources, places of religious importance, and unique, distinctive, or unusual lifeways. For compliance purposes, it is useful to treat these resources within four roughly chronological culture-historical periods: prehistoric, ethnohistoric, historic, and contemporary. 6 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Environmental Culture and the Factors Affecting It (Case Study: The Citizens of Shiraz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hemmati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the environmental crisis is considered as one of the major challenges that human is faced. Many scientists have proposed technological solutions to reduce or prevent environmental crises, however, some of them have suggested the necessity of new relation and interaction between nature and human, and also, the need for a new environmental culture. This study aims to explore the environmental culture and its influencing factors in Shiraz city. Research was conducted by using survey method, cluster sampling and questionnaire. In total, 402 completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Research findings indicate that environmental culture had positive and significant relationship with opportunities and facilities offered, feeling efficiency and environmental education. However, environmental culture had no significant relationship with environmental knowledge and social norms. Also, multivariate regression results show that opportunities and facilities offered and feeling efficiency are significant with environmental culture.

  9. Tuning in to the right wavelength: The importance of culture for effective crisis negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, the cultural diversity of those who perpetrate hostage incidents has increased dramatically. In this chapter, we examine key cultural differences in communication behavior and the implications of such differences to negotiation practice. We begin by illustrating the importance

  10. The use of environmental impact assessment in protecting the built cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Errol David

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had...... on the surrounding built and cultural heritage and examines how the environmental impact assessment was used during the development process....

  11. Culture and the human rights of women in Africa: Between light and shadow

    OpenAIRE

    Ssenyonjo, M

    2007-01-01

    Copyright @ School of Oriental and African Studies. Despite the ratification by African states of several human rights instruments protecting the human rights of women in Africa, and the solemn commitment of the African states to eliminate all forms of discrimination and harmful practices against women, women in Africa still continue to experience human rights violations. Most African women are denied the equal enjoyment of their human rights, in particular by virtue of the lesser status a...

  12. Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that…

  13. Institutionalizing environmental due diligence as part of the organization's culture: The Suncor Oil Sands Group experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.; Klym, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Suncor Oil Sands Group produces ca 22 million bbl/y of synthetic crude oil from oil sands in northern Alberta. Initiatives taken by the Group to install environmental due diligence as an integral part of Suncor culture are reviewed. Environmental due diligence means taking all reasonable care to safeguard the environment. To practice environmental due diligence, the organization and its members must have an environmental consciousness that can be observed, measured, and monitored through daily practices. In the period from startup of the oil sands plant in 1967 to the mid-1970s, Suncor culture could be described as research oriented, oriented toward examination of the viability of extracting oil from the oil sands and the development of new extraction processes. Management then moved toward a more production-based culture, in which environmental issues were sometimes perceived to be in conflict with production goals. External factors toward the end of the 1980s created a culture shift to an integration of production culture with social entities including environmental consciousness. A corporate push toward a new environmental culture was first concretized when the management's Health and Safety Policy was changed in 1990 to the Health, Safety and Environment Policy. A new Environmental Diligence Program was implemented in three phases, including planning, development of a comprehensive environmental management system, and implementation. Installation of the Program in the first phase is described, focusing on employee and management training, and results of the installation process are presented. Modifications of Suncor's loss control management program to integrate with the environmental diligence program are also noted. 2 refs

  14. Culturally appropriate environmental education: an example of a partnership with the Hmong American community

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Michele A. Schermann; Foung Hawj; MaiKia. Moua

    2012-01-01

    Society's increasing diversity poses many challenges to environmental educators. Numerous barriers and constraints to ethnic minority communities' environmental literacy and engagement in nature-based activities have been identified, including lack of outreach, discrimination or the perceived potential for discrimination, cultural differences, economic...

  15. Incorporating Indigenous Rights and Environmental Justice into Fishery Management: Comparing Policy Challenges and Potentials from Alaska and Hawaíi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Colonial processes including the dispossession of indigenous lands and resources and the development of Western management institutions to govern the use of culturally important fish resources have served in many ways to marginalize indigenous interests within the United States fisheries. In recent years, several US fishery institutions have begun to develop policies that can confront this colonial legacy by better accommodating indigenous perspectives and rights in fishery management practices. This paper analyzes two such policies: the 2005 community quota entity program in Alaska which permits rural communities (predominantly Alaska Native villages) to purchase and lease commercial halibut fishing privileges and the 1994 State of Hawaíi community-based subsistence fishing area (CBSFA) legislation through which Native Hawaiian communities can designate marine space near their community as CBSFAs and collaborate with the state of Hawaíi to manage those areas according to traditional Hawaiian practices. The analysis reveals a striking similarity between the trajectories of these two policies. While they both offered significant potential for incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into state or federal fishery management, they have so far largely failed to do so. Environmental managers can gain insights from the challenges and potentials of these two policies. In order to introduce meaningful change, environmental policies that incorporate indigenous rights and environmental justice require a commitment of financial and institutional support from natural resource agencies, a commitment from indigenous groups and communities to organize and develop capacity, and careful consideration of contextual and cultural factors in the design of the policy framework.

  16. The Analysis on the Integration and Embodiment of Traditional Cultural Element in Environmental Artistic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bao

    2018-03-01

    For this phase of environmental artistic design, the traditional culture element is one very precious design element, but it has difficulty in breaking out of its shell, and that looks too outdated, however, the traditional culture element would be more peculiar if ponderously adding some elements. This paper will further analyse the integration and manifestation of traditional culture element which from the environmental artistic design, it aims to integrate the tradition and modernity perfectly and give the spectators a refreshing and unconventional sense of design.

  17. Assessment of short reports using a human rights-based approach to tobacco control to the Commitee on Economics, Cultural and Social Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Carolyn; Henry, Kirsten; Loftus, John; Lando, Harry

    2017-07-28

    The health impact of tobacco use remains a major global public health concern and a human rights issue. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network (HRTCN) was established to increase the visibility of tobacco as a human rights issue. HRTCN submitted short reports to the UN Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights evaluating individual nations' tobacco control policies and offering recommendations. HRTCN reviewed Concluding Observations documents for nations for which the HRTCN submitted reports. If tobacco was mentioned in the Concluding Observations through acknowledging the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ratification, policy changes or discussing tobacco in the recommendations, this was scored as a positive finding. HRTCN also reviewed Concluding Observations for nations for which HRTCN did not submit reports as a comparison. Thirty-eight HRTCN reports were submitted and tobacco was mentioned in Concluding Observations for 11 nations for a rate of 28.9%. In a comparison set of Concluding Observations (n=59), 7% had comments or recommendations relative to tobacco. This was not a controlled study and the 28.9% 'success rate' for impacting the Concluding Observations, although encouraging, is less than optimal-and leaves room for improvement. The higher rate of tobacco mentions for the cases where the HRTCN short reports were submitted provides preliminary indications that the short reports may have potential to increase the state focus on tobacco control. Future work will seek to improve the design and scope of the reports, and the specificity of the background information and recommendations offered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Human ecology and environmentalism: Two different approaches to the relationships ecosystem/culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Sicard, Tomas

    2001-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the human ecology focus versus the environmental dimension analysis, emphasizing that the first one does not have theoretical instruments to adequately consider the human action inside the ecosystems, while the second one considers the concept of culture as an explanation of the human niche and then of the environmental problem. It ends with thoughts about the environmental or ecologist conception that is discussed in the Colombian peace negotiations

  19. "Ahakoa He Iti": Early Childhood Pedagogies Affirming of Maori Children's Rights to Their Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheryl; Ritchie, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This paper considers the position of tamariki Maori, the indigenous children of Aotearoa (a Maori name for New Zealand), in relation to the impact of colonization on their rights, including a focus on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the current educational policy arena. It then provides an…

  20. Selection of culturable environmental microbial strains for cellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental pollution by organic compounds is a global problem. Biological treatment methods are used to restore polluted environments. Microbial immobilization on abiotic surfaces is a recent strategy to improve the efficiency of these processes. In this technique, cell adhesion is a fundamental step for subsequent ...

  1. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  2. The Cultural Politics of Language in Sudan: Against the Racialising Logic of Language Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Eljak, Nada; Mugaddam, AbdelRahim; Makoni, Sinfree

    2017-01-01

    The sociolinguistic repertoires of individuals in Sudan are products of institutionalised orders of normalisation. The visibility of language in popular and official discourses in Sudan is always linked with wider cultural and political projects. This paper intends to engage with and explicate this observation by, first, examining how the dominant…

  3. Litigating Economic, Social and Cultural Rights against Transnational Corporations in Indonesian Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Prihandono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available States should take appropriate steps to ensure the effectiveness of domestic judicial mechanisms when addressing business-related human rights abuses. These steps may include ways to reduce legal, practical and other relevant barriers that could lead to a denial of access to remedy. To a certain degree, these problems exist in Indonesia’s judicial remedy mechanism. This article examines court decisions in five cases involving Transnational Corporations (TNCs. These decisions are examined to identify challenges and opportunities in bringing a case on ESC rights violations against TNCs. It is found that claim on ESC rights violation may be brought to the court, and the court has jurisdiction to entertain the case. However, of the five cases filed against TNCs, only in one case has the court decided in favour of the plaintiff. Most of the cases were rejected on procedural matters. This situation suggests that it remains burdensome for the victims of ESC rights violations to seek remedy at the court. There are procedural burdens that has to be faced by plaintiff when bringing ESC rights case against corporations, particularly TNCs. Nevertheless, there are new develop-ments in relation with pursuing ESC rights in court. One of the important development is private business contract between the govern-ment and private corporations may be annulled by the court, if the exercise of the contract would violate the government's obligation to fulfil human rights of the citizens

  4. Prospects for pro-environmental protein consumption in Europe: Cultural, culinary, economic and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Aiking, Harry

    2018-02-01

    The current ratio between plant and animal protein in the Western diet is causing serious threats to both public health and the environment. Healthy, pro-environmental protein consumption requires a transition to a diet with more plant protein and considerably less animal protein. The present paper focuses on the prospects of this transition by analyzing consumer responses to some key options in the context of regional differences across Europe. The aim is to assess how responses to the options might be shaped by 1) cultural, culinary and economic spatial gradients (including GDP per capita) at regional level and 2) differences in environmental friendly behavior and gender at individual level. The study, covering all EU members in 2012, compares regional level statistics (food supply data) with individual level statistics (consumer survey data) and vice-versa. The south-north latitude gradient showed a decreasing trend in vegetable and pulse protein supplies and, in parallel, a decreasing trend in positive consumer responses to the key options, probably due to differences in meal experiences. The west-east longitude gradient showed decreasing levels of animal protein supplies and GDP per capita. Individuals' willingness to do something positive for the environment and their gender played a weak but consistent role in the responses. To effectively stimulate diet changes, it is important to seek ways in which culinary and environmental aspects can complement each other and to ensure that diet changes do not depend solely on individual decisions but become an integral part of regional social processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stake and limit of nuclear energy on the respect of social, cultural and economic rights of African people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KABORE Al Hassan

    2009-06-01

    The development of the capacities of energy production generates economic, social and cultural progress. However the energy production, especially that related to nuclear power, comprises many risks for man and his environment. These risks are primarily related to safety and health. In the developing countries like Burkina Faso, the nuclear engineering is used in the field of socio-economic and cultural development, and is beneficial to agriculture, medicine, the breeding, the research and management of water resources. The use of this nuclear engineering must however be subjected to the safety standards in the prospect of minimizing dangers such as accident risks, the stealing of sealed sources or its use by unqualified people. Its use should also be done in line with respecting human rights according to the convention on the complementary repair of damages. That would help reduce considerably the impacts of the use of nuclear engineering on human rights relating to public health, the environment and to the food [fr

  6. The party of the people versus the cultural elite: Populism and nationalism in Flemish radical right rhetoric about artists

    OpenAIRE

    de Cleen, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the interplay between nationalism and populism in the Flemish \\ud (North-Belgian), Vlaams Bloc/Vlaams Belang’s (VB), populist radical right rhetoric about \\ud expressive culture. Building on a discourse theoretical analysis of three extensive case \\ud studies (concerts against the VB, the opposition between the VB and the Flemish theatres, \\ud and the VB’s criticism of the Flemish National Songfest), and a number of other \\ud controversial moments the article shows that...

  7. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Coomber, Ties; Passmore, Sam; Greenhill, Simon J; Kushnick, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  8. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D Atkinson

    Full Text Available The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  9. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kathryn R.; Gray, Russell D.; Greenhill, Simon J.; Jordan, Fiona M.; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Bibiko, Hans-Jörg; Blasi, Damián E.; Botero, Carlos A.; Bowern, Claire; Ember, Carol R.; Leehr, Dan; Low, Bobbi S.; McCarter, Joe; Divale, William; Gavin, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org) brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i) location of relevant cultural data, (ii) linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii) variable time and place foci for data, and (iv) spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into the major drivers

  10. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kathryn R; Gray, Russell D; Greenhill, Simon J; Jordan, Fiona M; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Bibiko, Hans-Jörg; Blasi, Damián E; Botero, Carlos A; Bowern, Claire; Ember, Carol R; Leehr, Dan; Low, Bobbi S; McCarter, Joe; Divale, William; Gavin, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org) brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i) location of relevant cultural data, (ii) linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii) variable time and place foci for data, and (iv) spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into the major drivers

  11. Ethical Issues in Family Practice: My CultureRight or Wrong?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health professionals educated in and practicing Western medicine in multicultural ... P K Moser & T L Carson,(Eds.)New York: Oxford University Press: 63., if a practice is harmful – as it is with FGM ... bad, or right or wrong independently of.

  12. Women's rights, the family, and organisational culture: a Lesotho case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, E

    1997-02-01

    Traditional cultural norms have had significant implications for the work and internal structure of Lesotho Save the Children (LSC). From 1964-90, the organization's work focused entirely on the needs of neglected and abandoned boys, for whom it provided residential care. After consultation with the Department of Social Welfare, it was decided to make the residential center a haven for girls as well as boys in need of protection. Many girls in Lesotho experience physical and sexual abuse within their families; moreover, daughters in poor families are often placed in households of wealthier extended family as domestics, where further abuse occurs. Cultural discomfort acknowledging and discussing sexuality extended to Children's Village staff responsible for the care of child rape victims. Coercive sex is often a prelude to marriage in Lesotho, where many women are kidnapped and raped by their prospective bridegrooms. In-service training has enabled staff to overcome their reticence regarding sexual issues and view rape as a criminal act. Although LSC is unable to challenge the oppression of women and children implicit in the traditional family, it continues to encourage girls and women to protest sexual violence, the abuse of their daughters, and the unequal distribution of labor within the family. All children in the LSC residence perform both male- and female-defined duties and attempts are being made to reduce the division of labor among staff in which females are caretakers and males are authority figures.

  13. Impact of environmental factors on the culturability and viability of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions encountered in food processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overney, Anaïs; Jacques-André-Coquin, Joséphine; Ng, Patricia; Carpentier, Brigitte; Guillier, Laurent; Firmesse, Olivier

    2017-03-06

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adhere to and persist on surfaces for months or even years may be responsible for its transmission from contaminated surfaces to food products. Hence the necessity to find effective means to prevent the establishment of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments. The aim of this study was to assess, through a fractional experimental design, the environmental factors that could affect the survival of L. monocytogenes cells on surfaces to thereby prevent the persistence of this pathogen in conditions mimicking those encountered in food processing plants: culture with smoked salmon juice or meat exudate, use of two materials with different hygiene status, biofilm of L. monocytogenes in pure-culture or dual-culture with a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, application of a drying step after cleaning and disinfection (C&D) and comparison of two strains of L. monocytogenes. Bacterial survival was assessed by culture, qPCR to quantify total cells, and propidium monoazide coupled with qPCR to quantify viable cells and highlight viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. Our results showed that failure to apply C&D causes cell persistence on surfaces. Moreover, the sanitation procedure leads only to a loss of culturability and appearance of VBNC populations. However, an additional daily drying step after C&D optimises the effectiveness of these procedures to reduce culturable populations. Our results reinforce the importance to use molecular tools to monitor viable pathogens in food processing plants to avoid underestimating the amounts of cells using only methods based on cell culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Left or right? Sources of political orientation: the roles of genetic factors, cultural transmission, assortative mating, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Riemann, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we used an extended twin family design to investigate the influences of genetic and cultural transmission as well as different sources of nonrandom mating on 2 core aspects of political orientation: acceptance of inequality and rejecting system change. In addition, we studied the sources of phenotypic links between Big Five personality traits and political beliefs using self- and other reports. Data of 1,992 individuals (224 monozygotic and 166 dizygotic twin pairs, 92 unmatched twins, 530 spouses of twins, 268 fathers, and 322 mothers) were analyzed. Genetically informative analyses showed that political attitudes are genetically but not environmentally transmitted from parents to offspring and that a substantial proportion of this genetic variance can be accounted for by genetic variance in personality traits. Beyond genetic effects and genotypic assortative mating, generation-specific environmental sources act to increase twins' and spouses' resemblance in political beliefs. The results suggest multiple sources of political orientations in a modern democracy.

  15. Guidelines for the Review of Environmental-Related Legislation Regarding the Realisation of the Right to Access to Sufficient Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Snyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of legislation for the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food is labelled as an international and national objective. Section 27(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 assigns a compulsory mandate to the South African government to take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The United Nations' Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO proposes a three-level strategy for the implementation of the right to food on a national legislative level, namely through: constitutional recognition, the implementation of a food framework law and the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation. This contribution focuses on the last level of legislative provisioning, namely the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation which influences, or possibly can, influence the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The right to access to sufficient food has multidimensional, interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral characteristics and consequently various sectors are involved in the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The FAO determines that the intended purpose will be to identify and review all sectoral legislation that might influence the availability, stability, access and adequacy of food, by means of a proposed reviewing process. The suggested reviewing process of the FAO is comprehensive and diverse; therefore the focus of this contribution is based on the reviewing of relevant environmental-related legislation only. The FAO does not make recommendations with regard to the specific aspects that need to be incorporated in environmental-related legislation to contribute to the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food (in other words the aspects against which environmental-related legislation can be evaluated. Therefore this

  16. Environmental and urbanistic upgrade of Obati Pipelines right-of-way; Recuperacao ambiental e urbanistica dos dutos Obati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penteado, Ralfo [Oena Assessoria e Consultoria Ltda. (Brazil); Duailibi, Miriam [Instituto ECOAR para a Cidadania, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper sets for the description of the methodology, strategies and activities of Obati environmental and urbanistic upgrade. Obati is a 50 km. pipeline, built in 1974, that runs from Barueri to Sao Caetano do Sul terminals. From 70's decade the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo grew tremendously and thousands of poor people happened to live just at Obati's right of way limits. Being aware of its social and environmental responsibility, PETROBRAS decided to improve the situation and settled a brand new program in which engineering works were added to an environmental education and social communication program. The results were the integrity of pipeline's right of way , a better life quality of the neighborhood and the accomplishment and partnership of citizens, company and local government to keep the area safe and to sustain the whole program. (author)

  17. Towards a more communicative and environmental teaching of english in Physical Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Emilio Valladares Fuente

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental education is an educational permanent process and systematic aimed at the integrated formation of the personality by taking into consideration the natural, socioeconomic, political and cultural factors, the education in its formative and instructive function takes an irreplaceable and necessary value in the school. The teaching of the English language offers possibilities of communication, interaction and culture for the attainment of this formation. In this work the author demonstrates how the environmental education encourages the process of teaching-learning of the English language for the advantages that it provides to the student by grouping the communicative forms per contexts and in a bilateral way this teaching contributes to the environmental education of the students of physical culture in the possibilities to research on the environmental topics of more concern so as to express ideas of the more competent possible form from the English language as a form of communication. This work takes part of a system of activities of learning to contribute to the environmental education from the English language that is found at present in the period of generalization in the faculties of physical culture of the country according the national meeting aggreement of the discipline Language in February of this year 2014.

  18. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  19. Carrying on the Good Fight: Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000--Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This paper summarizes a May 2000 conference about advancing the civil and human rights of people with disabilities from diverse cultures. The conference included people with disabilities from diverse cultures and members of national civil rights organizations. The conference identified five priority areas for attention: (1) cultivating leadership…

  20. Detection limits of Legionella pneumophila in environmental samples after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficiency of recovery and the detection limit of Legionella after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga are not known and so far no investigations have been carried out to determine the efficiency of the recovery of Legionella spp. by co-culture and compare it with that of conventional culturing methods. This study aimed to assess the detection limits of co-culture compared to culture for Legionella pneumophila in compost and air samples. Compost and air samples were spiked with known concentrations of L. pneumophila. Direct culturing and co-culture with amoebae were used in parallel to isolate L. pneumophila and recovery standard curves for both methods were produced for each sample. Results The co-culture proved to be more sensitive than the reference method, detecting 102-103 L. pneumophila cells in 1 g of spiked compost or 1 m3 of spiked air, as compared to 105-106 cells in 1 g of spiked compost and 1 m3 of spiked air. Conclusions Co-culture with amoebae is a useful, sensitive and reliable technique to enrich L. pneumophila in environmental samples that contain only low amounts of bacterial cells. PMID:23442526

  1. Being Right Isn't Always Enough: NFL Culture and Team Physicians' Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ross

    2016-11-01

    The job of being a sports team physician is difficult, regardless of the level, from high school to the National Football League. When a sports league receives the intensity of attention leveled at the NFL, though, a difficult occupation becomes even more challenging. Even for the NFL players themselves, players' best interests regarding health issues are often unclear. Football players are, as a lot, highly competitive individuals. They want to win, and they want to help the team win. It's a warrior culture, and respect is earned by playing hurt. Should the team physician respect a player's autonomy when this means allowing him to make choices that might lead to further personal harm, especially if the player's choices align with the preference of the coach and management? Or should the doctor set limits and balance the player's choices with a paternalistic set of constraints, perhaps in opposition to both the player's and the team's desires? Simplification of this web of conflicts of interest is the goal of the model proposed by Glenn Cohen, Holly Lynch, and Christopher Deubert. In my view, their proposal is very clever. As an idea, it meets the expectations its authors set, namely, to minimize the problem of conflict of interest in the delivery of health care services to NFL football players. The ethics of the proposal align well with certain moral goals, like treating the player's interests more fairly and treating the player's health as an end instead of as the means to an end. But will such a proposal ever make headway in the pressurized environment of the NFL? © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  2. the clash of property and environmental rights in the niger delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Property Rights in Economic History: Implications for. Research” (1986) 23 .... mechanisms of collective decision-making, for instance, a leisurely debate among the ..... with Multinational Oil Firms: The Nigerian Experience (Ed-Linform Services,.

  3. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track? Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Seok

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, which is presented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which indicate the economic performance of the intermodal freight system. The truck-only system is always regarded as the counterpart of the intermodal freight system in this dissertation. To examine the environmental performance of the intermodal freight system, CO2 emissions generated from all the processes in the intermodal chain, such as pre-haulage and post-haulage, long distance haulage, and transshipment, are estimated considering different sources that generate electricity and transmission loss of electricity (Chapters 3 and 4). To examine the economic performance of the system, two approaches are considered: (1) finding the intermodal breakeven distance for which the intermodal system is more competitive than the truck-only system (Chapter 5); (2) examining the economies of scale in the intermodal network and finding the route/system choice that minimizes the total freight transportation costs (Chapter 6). Finally, this dissertation attempts to find the trade-off between CO2 emissions (representing the environmental performance) and freight transportation cost (representing the economic performance) (Chapter 7)

  4. 76 FR 64991 - Environmental Assessment for the I-395 Air Rights Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... FHWA Environmental Impact and Related Procedures. The project is also being reviewed under Section 106... copies of the EA may also be viewed at the following locations: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA.... Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Library, 901 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20001. Walker Jones Education...

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  6. Environmental conditions of some paddy cum prawn culture fields of Cochin backwaters, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    ecological distortions because of its proximity to the sea. The results indicate that the fields in areas 1 and 3 have environmental conditions highly suited for prawn culture whereas in area 2 the salinity conditions are not very conducive for prawn growth...

  7. Writing from Different Cultural Contexts: How College Students Frame an Environmental SSI through Written Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Wallace, Alison M.; Dahlberg, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The research objective of this study was to describe the frames that students from two culturally distinct institutions used in their argumentative essays on a locally relevant environmental socioscientific issue. Participants (n = 47) were recruited from biology courses designed for pre-service elementary teachers at both a public university and…

  8. Synchronous environmental and cultural change in the prehistory of the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Samuel E; Gajewski, Konrad; Peros, Matthew C

    2010-12-21

    Climatic changes during the late Quaternary have resulted in substantial, often abrupt, rearrangements of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationship between these environmental changes and prehistoric human culture and population size remains unclear. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates alongside a network of paleoecological records (sedimentary pollen and charcoal) and paleoclimatic reconstructions, we show that periods of cultural and demographic change in the northeastern United States occurred at the same times as the major environmental-climatic transitions of that region. At 11.6, 8.2, 5.4, and 3.0 kyr BP (10(3) calendar years before present), changes in forest composition altered the distribution, availability, and predictability of food resources which triggered technological adjustments manifested in the archaeological record. Human population level has varied in response to these external changes in ecosystems, but the adoption of maize agriculture during the late Holocene also resulted in a substantial population increase. This study demonstrates the long-term interconnectedness of prehistoric human cultures and the ecosystems they inhabited, and provides a consolidated environmental-cultural framework from which more interdisciplinary research and discussion can develop. Moreover, it emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change in a temperate region.

  9. Editorial: Papers from the 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology - Cultural Diversity, Environmental Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Elaine K. Sutherland

    2008-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Dendrochronology - Cultural Diversity, Environmental Variability was held in Beijing, China from 11 to 17 June 2006. The conference was organized and hosted by the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IB_CAS) in conjunction with the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Group 5.01.07 (Tree-...

  10. Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella

  11. Reflected Places of Childhood: Applying the Ideas of Humanistic and Cultural Geographies to Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Sirpa

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates people-environment relationships from the viewpoint of humanistic and cultural geographies and highlights the importance of subjective experiences and emotional place attachment in the construction of environmental attitudes. Some core concepts of these research fields (e.g. "place,"…

  12. State Democratic Rights as Current Political Power Limit and a New Culture for Social Promotion of Development and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Rejane Liczbinski Sarreta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study relates to the democracy and political power considering the implementation of sustainability. Presented as theoretical basis the democratic principle itself, as well as the realization of human and fundamental rights. Exploring the possibility of re (construction of the state and own power and political and social culture of democracy through the promotion of development and sustainability. In a democratic state the appropriate political power embodies the rights of the citizen. A key element that should be considered is education for training social actors capable of promoting the transformation of dominant practices and that take important roles in politics and influence the state and society. The method used is deductive.

  13. Epilepsy, culture, identity and well-being: a study of the social, cultural and environmental context of epilepsy in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel

    2007-05-01

    Epilepsy presents an identity of exclusion, which at multiple levels hinders the ability to engage with one's community. This article describes an exploratory, mixed methods study (N = 42) of the relationship between the social, cultural and environmental context and the experience of living with epilepsy in Cameroon. Participants were identified as 'epileptics', consequently restrictions placed on them reduced their ability to perform traditional roles, affected their social value and excluded them from their communities. Participants detail the effects of their reduced 'social value' and the challenges they face in attempts to be re-integrated as productive and functioning members of society.

  14. A study of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention in a predominately African American workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cox, Tiffany L; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C; Jefferson, Wendy K; Brakhage, Cora

    2010-01-01

    The workplace may be an ideal venue for engaging African American women in behavioral interventions for weight reduction. To examine the effectiveness of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention among a group of predominately African American women in a workplace setting. Crossover design study. Workplace. A total of 39 women volunteered for this study, of whom 27 completed it. The control period involved observation of participants for 22 weeks after receiving standard counseling on lifestyle methods to achieve a healthy weight; following the control period, participants crossed over to the 22-week intervention period. The intervention was culturally enhanced using feedback derived from formative assessment and delivered as 15 group sessions. The primary outcome measure was the difference in weight change between the control and intervention periods; changes in waist circumference and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Most participants were obese, with a mean baseline body mass index of 36 kg/m², weight of 97.9 kg, and waist circumference of 111 cm. Weight increased during the control period by 0.7 kg but decreased by 2.6 kg during the intervention (net difference = -3.4 kg, P culturally enhanced behavioral weight loss intervention in a predominately African American workplace setting. The workplace may be conducive for targeting African American women who are disproportionately affected by obesity.

  15. Advance care planning, culture and religion: an environmental scan of Australian-based online resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Salgado, Amanda; Mader, Patrick; Boyd, Leanne M

    2017-04-20

    Objectives Culture and religion are important in advance care planning (ACP), yet it is not well understood how this is represented in ACP online resources. The aim of the present study was to identify the availability of Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets containing cultural and religious information. Methods An environmental scanning framework was used with a Google search conducted from 30 June 2015 to 5 July 2015. Eligible Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets were reviewed by two analysts (APS & PM) for information pertaining to at least one culture or religion. Common characteristics were agreed upon and tabulated with narrative description. Results Seven Australian-based ACP websites were identified with varying degrees of cultural and religious information. Seven Australian-based ACP informational booklets were identified addressing culture or religion, namely of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (n=5), Sikh (n=1) and Italian (n=1) communities. Twenty-one other online resources with cultural and religious information were identified, developed within the context of health and palliative care. Conclusions There is no comprehensive Australian-based ACP website or informational booklet supporting ACP across several cultural and religious contexts. Considering Australia's multicultural and multifaith population, such a resource may be beneficial in increasing awareness and uptake of ACP. What is known about the topic? Health professionals and consumers frequently use the Internet to find information. Non-regulation has resulted in the proliferation of ACP online resources (i.e. ACP websites and online informational booklets). Although this has contributed to raising awareness of ACP, the availability of Australian-based ACP online resources with cultural and religious information is not well known. What does this paper add? This paper is the first to use an environmental scanning methodology to identify

  16. Environmental justice and the rights of indigenous peoples: international and domestic legal perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westra, Laura

    2008-01-01

    ... Peoples: Some Recent ATCA Jurisprudence First Nations of Canada and the Legal and Illegal Attacks on their Existence 71 103 125 PART III - JUSTIFYING GENOCIDE: PRINCIPLES AND REALITY 7 8 Genocide and Eco-crime: The Interface Aboriginal Rights in Domestic and International Law, and the Special Case of Arctic Peoples 163 187 PART...

  17. The Aarhus Convention: A new regional convention on citizens' environmental rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wates, J.

    2000-01-01

    The UN ECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters had been adopted at Arhus, Denmark, at the Fourth Ministerial Conference in the 'Environment for Europe' process, and signed by thirty-five countries and the European Community. This paper summarises the main features of the Convention and briefly discusses its relevance to radioactive waste management issues. It then describes some of the activities currently being undertaken under the auspices of the Convention. (author)

  18. Gas Flaring in Nigeria. A Human Rights, Environmental and Economic Monstrosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuoka, Asume; Roderick, P.

    2005-06-01

    This Report tracks the flaring back to the closing days of colonial history, sketches the scale of the activity in what has become one of the world's biggest oil and gas producing countries, explains some of its implications for climate change and communities, shows how the practice constitutes a violation of human rights and is generally prohibited under the regulations, and concludes with recommendations for its elimination, and transparency

  19. Reduction of negative environmental impact generated by residues of plant tissue culture laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusleidys Cortés Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the activity developed by teaching and research laboratories for biotechnology purposes with an environmental approach to determine potential contamination risk and analyze the residuals generated. The physical - chemical characterization of the residuals was carried out from contamination indicators that can affect the dumping of residual water. In order to identify the environmental risks and sources of microbial contamination of plant material propagated by in vitro culture that generate residuals, all the risk activities were identified, the type of risk involved in each activity was analyzed, as well as whether or not the standards were met of aseptic normative. The dilution and neutralization was proposed for residuals with extreme values of pH. Since the results of the work a set of measures was proposed to reduce the negative environmental impact of the laboratory residuals. Key words: biosafety, environmental management, microbial contamination

  20. Sexual rights and sexual cultures: reflections on "the Zuma affair" and "new masculinities" in the South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Robins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is divided into three sections. The first section focuses on the contested nature of the sexual politics that surrounded the Jacob Zuma rape trial. This sexual politics was not simply the background to the "real" politics of the leadership succession battle between pro-Mbeki and pro-Zuma factions. The rise of sexual politics after apartheid, this paper argues, has largely been due to the politicization of sexuality and masculinity in response to HIV/AIDS. Section two examines the ways in which ideas about "traditional" Zulu masculinity were represented and performed in the Zuma trial, introducing the tension between universalistic sexual rights and particularistic sexual cultures. The third section of the paper is concerned with innovative attempts by a group of young men in Cape Town to create "alternative masculinities" (Connell, 1996 in a time of HIV and AIDS.

  1. Investigating organizational culture adaptability of broadcasting firm in response to environmental changes

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Salehi; Naser Mirsepasi; Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to study the present status of organizational adaptability in Iranian broadcasting system against environmental changes and present possible suggestions to empower the organization to cope with future changes. The study uses the method developed by Denison (1990) [Denison, D. R. (1990). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons.] to study the organizational changes. Using a sample of 354 randomly selected employees who worked ...

  2. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  3. Oil sands and organizational cultures: strategy and stakeholder dynamics in an environmental public consultation process (Alberta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, M.J.

    2000-07-01

    The demand for corporate responsiveness to environmental and social concerns, more specifically the requirement for public participation/consultation with stakeholders is, according to industry insiders, one of the most pressing changes for the oil industry. For this study, data on a public consultation process involving Syncrude Canada Limited, Alberta Environmental Protection, and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board was collected through a combination of public hearing transcripts, participant observation, interview methodologies and reports. >From the perspective of organizational strategy, stakeholder relations, institutional theory and organizational cultures, the author investigated the public consultation process. Strategic action was the central theme to emerge through the findings. Positioning strategies influenced by stakeholder status from the organization's viewpoint and stakeholder relationships informed by the network of stakeholder relationships are included in stakeholder dynamics. The management of organizational culture and the creation of an institutional field to generate and maintain values across the relational field of focal organizations, and reduce costs and conflicts, are included in strategic outcomes. The elaboration and extension of components of stakeholder and institutional theories are part of further results, as well as an integrated understanding of the dynamic interconnectedness of organizational cultures, strategies and stakeholders in an environmental public consultation process.

  4. The environmental self-management in the university community: a road to propitiate desirable changes in the environmental behaviors of the university youths, from their own cultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio García-Tejera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Education System power to the school as a promoter of development center, its social projection includes meeting the educational needs of the community, and community environmental education for sustainable development is inserted into the educational management of the school as cultural center of Higher Education. Consider the space as a community college gives the possibility of self-management actions, with the aim of improving environmental way the university community, using experiences that characterize the cultural practices of the university. For non-formal way contributes to environmental training, to stimulate responsibility for the planning and implementation of methods that characterize the management of their environment.

  5. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  6. Culture, mobility and human rights: considerations on social occupational therapy in the context of immigrants municipal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takao Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the need to revise education and professional action, in the context of social occupational therapy, facing the growing phenomenon of international migration, especially in the current construction of the municipal policy for immigrant populations in São Paulo, SP. The discussion is methodologically structured into three complementary lines of analysis results from documentary research accompanied by field study, visits, participations in meetings, inter-institutional forums, public hearings, thematic debates, in addition to literature review. In the first analysis axis, we discuss the current legislation in Brazil, the construction of migration policy at the municipal level and civil society articulations about human mobility, understood as a fundamental right. In the second, we discuss people care services, families and groups in migratory situation in São Paulo, SP. Finally, on the third axis, we discuss the cultural developments in social occupational therapy for professional action and training in the field of human mobility. As a result it was observed that the current panorama poses new professional challenges, forcing the occupational therapist to review its technical-political position face to the new realities of the contemporary world.

  7. Analysis of production and environmental effects of Nile tilapia and white shrimp culture in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, J.G.; Falconer, L.; Kittiwanich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Two case studies from Southeast Asia are used to analyse production, environmental effects, and economic optimisation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) pond culture. A projection of these data is made for the whole of Thailand. The results are analysed...... on a regional scale based on site selection using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). Farm-scale culture was simulated for (i) tilapia monoculture in Chiang Rai; (ii) shrimp monoculture in Chanthaburi; and (iii) Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) of tilapia and shrimp in Chon Buri. Together...... in ponds. Co-cultivation stimulates nitrogen dissolution (134 kg N cycle− 1), which is greater than in tilapia (96 kg N) or shrimp (52 kg N) monoculture, and doubles the NH4+ discharge to the environment (10.7 kg in tilapia monoculture, 20.5 kg in co-cultivation). However, eutrophication as a result...

  8. Nonlinear Dielectric Properties of Yeast Cells Cultured in Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Gomon; Fukuda, Naoki; Muraji, Masafumi

    The harmonics of the electric current through yeast suspensions, the nonlinear dielectric properties of yeast cells, have particular patterns according to the biological activity of the cells and the measurement of these patterns is a technique for determining the activity of living cells. The concentration of glucose and oxygen in yeast culture medium influences the manifestation of fermentation or respiration of yeast cells. Measurements were made with yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultured aerobically and anaerobically in sufficient glucose concentration, aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, and aerobically in limited glucose concentration, respiration. The results showed that the harmonics were barely apparent for yeast cells in aerobic fermentation and respiratory; however, cells in the anaerobic fermentation displayed substantial third and fifth harmonics. We can say that environmental condition affects the yeast cells' nonlinear properties, from another viewpoint, the measurements of the nonlinear properties are available to determine the activity of yeast cells adjusted to the conditions of their cultivation.

  9. Use of plant cell cultures to study the metabolism of environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Scheel, D.; von der Trenck, T.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of the following environmental chemicals has been studied in cell suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.):2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, diethylhexylphthalate , benzo [alpha] pyrene, and DDT. All chemicals tested, including the persistent ones, were partially metabolized. Polar conjugates predominated in all cases. A covalent incorporation into lignin could be demonstrated for 2,4-D and pentachlorophenol. A specific deposition in the cellular vacuole could be demonstrated for the beta-D-glucopyranoside conjugates derived from 2,4-D. A rapid assay procedure to evaluate the metabolism of a given 14 C-labeled chemical in plant cell suspension cultures is described. This procedure requires about 1 week, and the reproducibility of the results obtained has been assessed

  10. Environmental influences on childhood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-04-22

    Ethnicity is associated with differences in food-related beliefs, preferences, and behaviors, and cultural influences may contribute to the higher than average risk of obesity among children and youth in U.S. ethnic minority populations. However, cultural attitudes and beliefs are not the only potential source of ethnic variation in childhood obesity prevalence and should not be studied in isolation. Demographic, socio-structural, and environmental variables must also be considered. Available evidence indicates ethnic differences along several pathways that may increase risks of obesity development during gestation, infancy, childhood and adolescence. These include above-average prevalence of obesity in adult females and of maternal diabetes during pregnancy, parental attitudes and practices that may lead to overfeeding children, above-average levels of consumption of certain high calorie foods and beverages, and inadequate physical activity. Environments with lower than average neighborhood availability of healthful foods and higher than average availability of fast food restaurants, along with exposure to ethnically targeted food marketing may contribute to reliance on high calorie foods and beverages, and these foods may be socially and culturally valued. Attitudes about and environmental contexts for physical activity are also relevant. Increasingly, it is acknowledged that individual behaviors and lifestyles, e.g. food choices or child feeding practices, are responsive to the ecological contexts in which they are practiced. Focusing attention on the fluid interactions of cultural influences with contextual factors, of recognized importance for the study of childhood undernutrition, can also lead to further understanding of how to address ethnic disparities in childhood obesity.

  11. Cultural and environmental effects on the spectral development patterns of corn and soybeans: Field data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, E. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overall approach to crop spectral understanding is presented which serves to maintain a strong link between actual plant responses and characteristics and spectral observations from ground based and spaceborne sensors. A specific technique for evaluating field reflectance data, as a part of the overall approach, is also described. Results of the application of this technique to corn and soybeans reflectance data collected by and at Purdue/LARS indicate that a number of common cultural and environmental factors can significantly affect the temporal spectral development patterns of these crops in tasseled cap greenness (a transformed variable of LANDSAT MSS signals).

  12. Improving the Sustainability of Transportation: Environmental and Functional Benefits of Right Turn By-Pass Lanes at Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guerrieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional performances of conventional roundabouts (single-lane and multi-lane and innovative roundabouts (spiral, flower, C and turbo can be improved through right-turn bypass lanes controlled by stop, yield or free-flow signs. The article presents evaluations of the emissions of air pollutants (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particle pollution (PM10 and PM2.5, fuel consumption and construction, management, energetic and environmental costs in roundabouts without or with bypass lanes (controlled by stop, yield or free-flow. The suggested methodology has a general character and can be applied as a multi-parametric criterion for choosing road intersections, although, in the present paper, it has been employed only for a case study. For the aims of this research, we employed recent closed-form formulations to determine roundabout performances; moreover, we used the COPERT IV® software to estimate air emissions in nine different types of vehicles. Numerous traffic simulations were carried out. The variation in the maximum hourly traffic Qmax and annual traffic QTOT provided the appropriate domains of the examined geometric layouts, both in functional and environmental terms and with regard to generalized costs, estimated for a 10-year period. It resulted that the introduction of right-turn bypasses in all arms of conventional roundabouts with a one ring lane and one lane at the entries (single-lane roundabouts is the most cost-effective when the flows entering the roundabout are higher than Qmax = 2000 veh/h. Moreover, free-flow bypass lanes always provide greater capacity and lower delays than stop- or yield-signaled bypasses. However, with extremely high Qmax values, stop-controlled bypasses guarantee lower fuel consumption, while those with a yield sign lower total costs.

  13. Cultural Codes as Catalysts for Collective Conscientisation in Environmental Adult Education: Mr. Floatie, Tree Squatting and Save-Our-Surfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how cultural codes in environmental adult education can be used to "frame" collective identity, develop counterhegemonic ideologies, and catalyse "educative-activism" within social movements. Three diverse examples are discussed, spanning environmental movements in urban Victoria, British Columbia, Canada,…

  14. Enhancing Environmental Protection and Socio-Economic Development in Africa: A Fresh Look at the Right to a General Satisfactory Environment under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The African Charter to Human and Peoples' Rights is an innovative document as it is the first human rights albeit regional instrument to provide for a substantive right to environment. However, the right as provided under the Charter is encumbered as it is linked to the promotion of development. Such linkage has led to the argument that the right can only be invoked where it will not infringe the requirements of socio-economic development. While this issue appears to have engaged the attention of most commentators, there has not been much enquiry into what the right aims to achieve and the implication for the achievement of sustainable development objectives including environmental protection and poverty reduction in Africa. This article therefore seeks to evaluate the utility of the right to the pursuit of sustainable development objectives in Africa.

  15. Mackay campus of environmental education and digital cultural construction: the application of 3D virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shao-Chi; Chung, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Jun-Yi; Chang, Jhih-Ting; He, Cai-Ying; Cheng, Yi-Wen

    2012-04-01

    This study uses 3D virtual reality technology to create the "Mackay campus of the environmental education and digital cultural 3D navigation system" for local historical sites in the Tamsui (Hoba) area, in hopes of providing tourism information and navigation through historical sites using a 3D navigation system. We used Auto CAD, Sketch Up, and SpaceEyes 3D software to construct the virtual reality scenes and create the school's historical sites, such as the House of Reverends, the House of Maidens, the Residence of Mackay, and the Education Hall. We used this technology to complete the environmental education and digital cultural Mackay campus . The platform we established can indeed achieve the desired function of providing tourism information and historical site navigation. The interactive multimedia style and the presentation of the information will allow users to obtain a direct information response. In addition to showing the external appearances of buildings, the navigation platform can also allow users to enter the buildings to view lifelike scenes and textual information related to the historical sites. The historical sites are designed according to their actual size, which gives users a more realistic feel. In terms of the navigation route, the navigation system does not force users along a fixed route, but instead allows users to freely control the route they would like to take to view the historical sites on the platform.

  16. Medicinal Plant Gardens as an Option to the Development of an Environmental Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Yusleiby Peña Rondón

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to implement a medicinal plant gardens as an option to create values in an environmental culture in the Francisco Tamayo Technical School located in Barinitas parish, Bolívar municipality state Barinas. The approach of this study is qualitative thorough the participatory action research. Besides, it supports the field method and its methodological design is structured in four phases: (1 Reflection, (2 Planning, (3 Execution Plan, scopes and limitations (4 Reflection about all the process. The key people will be: (01 teacher, (03 students, (01 representative and a school worker who will give the accurate information to plan and execute the strategies. The technique of gathering information will be the participatory observation and the deep interview. The analysis techniques of gathering information will be the categorization to reduce, describe and interpretate it. Among the preliminary considerations are expected students get values to encourage the development of a sustainable environmental culture. It will also allow learning opportunities where involve the cognitive experience with the existential throughout field practices.

  17. Reliability of environmental sampling culture results using the negative binomial intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sharif S; Zhao, Jianyang; Li, Ben; Jiang, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is commonly used to estimate the similarity between quantitative measures obtained from different sources. Overdispersed data is traditionally transformed so that linear mixed model (LMM) based ICC can be estimated. A common transformation used is the natural logarithm. The reliability of environmental sampling of fecal slurry on freestall pens has been estimated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the natural logarithm transformed culture results. Recently, the negative binomial ICC was defined based on a generalized linear mixed model for negative binomial distributed data. The current study reports on the negative binomial ICC estimate which includes fixed effects using culture results of environmental samples. Simulations using a wide variety of inputs and negative binomial distribution parameters (r; p) showed better performance of the new negative binomial ICC compared to the ICC based on LMM even when negative binomial data was logarithm, and square root transformed. A second comparison that targeted a wider range of ICC values showed that the mean of estimated ICC closely approximated the true ICC.

  18. Science and education across cultures: another look at the Negev Bedouins and their environmental management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2014-12-01

    This is a rejoinder to the original article written by Wisam Sedawi, Orit Ben Zvi Assaraf, and Julie Cwikel about waste-related implication on the welfare of children living in the Negev's Bedouin Arab community. More specifically, the authors discuss the role of environmental education in the improvement of participants' life conditions. They do so by analyzing the impact of current precarious waste management practices on children's health and proposing the implementation of a science study unit in school that could assist them in dealing with the problem. My argument here is divided in three parts: first, based on the original article's information, I comment on some important characteristics of those unrecognized settlements and their waste production practices; second, I try to determine what kind of environmental education—if any—is necessary in that context to promote the desired changes put forward by the authors; and third, I adopt a cross-cultural approach to science and environmental literacy as means to provoke readers to consider the scientific value (often neglected) of traditional knowledge in attempting to solve the issues described in the original paper. In addition, both the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education (1977) and the Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility (1992) are used to support my argument, which also encompasses the concept of empowerment. Ultimately, bridging the Bedouin's traditional knowledge and Western modern science can help to improve science education at the school level in the unrecognized township under study by linking present and past in search of a more sustainable and peaceful future.

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Cultural Resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This study attempts to identify and analyze the impacts of the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives on cultural resources. The impacts include effects on Native American traditional cultural values, properties and practices. They also include effects on archeological or historic properties meeting the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to responding to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), this analysis addresses the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the Native American Religious Freedom Act (NARFA), and other relevant legislation. To meet their legally mandated cultural resources requirements, the SOR agencies will develop agreements and Implementation Plans with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), Tribes, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) detailing the measures necessary to best manage the resource. The planning and implementation activities will be staged over a number of years in consultation with affected Tribes.

  20. A hybrid multi-objective cultural algorithm for short-term environmental/economic hydrothermal scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Youlin; Zhou Jianzhong; Qin Hui; Wang Ying; Zhang Yongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Multi-objective optimization model of short-term environmental/economic hydrothermal scheduling. → A hybrid multi-objective cultural algorithm (HMOCA) is presented. → New heuristic constraint handling methods are proposed. → Better quality solutions by reducing fuel cost and emission effects simultaneously are obtained. -- Abstract: The short-term environmental/economic hydrothermal scheduling (SEEHS) with the consideration of multiple objectives is a complicated non-linear constrained optimization problem with non-smooth and non-convex characteristics. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model of SEEHS is proposed to consider the minimal of fuel cost and emission effects synthetically, and the transmission loss, the water transport delays between connected reservoirs as well as the valve-point effects of thermal plants are taken into consideration to formulate the problem precisely. Meanwhile, a hybrid multi-objective cultural algorithm (HMOCA) is presented to deal with SEEHS problem by optimizing both two objectives simultaneously. The proposed method integrated differential evolution (DE) algorithm into the framework of cultural algorithm model to implement the evolution of population space, and two knowledge structures in belief space are redefined according to the characteristics of DE and SEEHS problem to avoid premature convergence effectively. Moreover, in order to deal with the complicated constraints effectively, new heuristic constraint handling methods without any penalty factor settings are proposed in this paper. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed HMOCA method are demonstrated by two case studies of a hydrothermal power system. The simulation results reveal that, compared with other methods established recently, HMOCA can get better quality solutions by reducing fuel cost and emission effects simultaneously.

  1. Tensions and Challenges in Relation to the Enforceability of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights in Argentina in the Light of Recent Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Pérez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper problematizes around the myths and truths of civil and political rights, and of economic, social, and cultural rights, especially with regard to their legal enforceability. To do this, the article takes a normative approach to how both "groups" of rights have been built over time, to move on to a detailed analysis of the main doctrinal and jurisprudential trends in the field.  In turn, the paper draws a parallel between different theories of enforceability and conceptions of democracy. Finally, the article places emphasis on the present circumstances of the Argentine institutionality, which put at stake both the enforceability of economic, social, and cultural rights in the domestic level, and the leadership of the country on the subject at the regional level.

  2. Assessment of agricultural groundwater users in Iran: a cultural environmental bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Saeid; Chizari, Mohammad; Sadighi, Hassan; Bijani, Masoud

    2018-02-01

    Many environmental problems are rooted in human behavior. This study aimed to explore the causal effect of cultural environmental bias on `sustainable behavior' among agricultural groundwater users in Fars province, Iran, according to Klockner's comprehensive model. A survey-based research project was conducted to gathering data on the paradigm of environmental psychology. The sample included agricultural groundwater users ( n = 296) who were selected at random within a structured sampling regime involving study areas that represent three (higher, medium and lower) bounds of the agricultural-groundwater-vulnerability spectrum. Results showed that the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable was a strong determinant of sustainable behavior as it related to groundwater use, and that EnAE had the highest causal effect on the behavior of agricultural groundwater users. The adjusted model explained 41% variance of "groundwater sustainable behavior". Based on the results, the groundwater sustainable behaviors of agricultural groundwater users were found to be affected by personal and subjective norm variables and that they are influenced by casual effects of the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable. The conclusions reflect the Fars agricultural groundwater users' attitude or worldview on groundwater as an unrecoverable resource; thus, it is necessary that scientific disciplines like hydrogeology and psycho-sociology be considered together in a comprehensive approach for every groundwater study.

  3. Environmental monitoring by thin film nanocomposite sensors for cultural heritage preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Baoying; Chen, Xiaojiang; Fang, Dingyi; Perrone, Alessio; Pispas, Stergios; Vainos, Nikos A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental control is a crucial issue in cultural heritage preservation as it especially relates to sensitive artwork and antique object conservation. Storage and transport of artworks and antiques are operations requiring precise control of the environment. Current technology trends lead to miniaturization of environmental sensor devices in which low power dissipation and advanced non-contact or remote monitoring methods appear to offer significant advantages. In the above context, nanocomposite materials represent innovative alternative solutions for high sensitivity temperature and relative humidity (RH) sensing. The control of both of these parameters, together with the exposure to ultraviolet radiation, is important in minimizing aging and deterioration of art and antique objects. New schemes reported here consider the classes of CN x and CoCl 2 nanocomposites. First, CN x thin films are synthesized on Si substrates by reactive pulsed laser ablation of graphite targets in N 2 atmosphere to form capacitive sensors. On the other hand, CoCl 2 polymer matrix composite films are produced by spin coating or casting of the composite polymer/CoCl 2 on planar glass substrates. These latter systems present a new class of optically interrogated photonic sensors featuring powerless sensing head and remote monitoring capabilities. The prototype devices proposed for use in art conservation and museum applications have been tested under controlled environmental conditions and their performance is seen to be comparable, and in some cases superior, to conventional monitoring solutions.

  4. Sexual rights and sexual cultures: reflections on "the Zuma affair" and "new masculinities" in the South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Robins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is divided into three sections. The first section focuses on the contested nature of the sexual politics that surrounded the Jacob Zuma rape trial. This sexual politics was not simply the background to the "real" politics of the leadership succession battle between pro-Mbeki and pro-Zuma factions. The rise of sexual politics after apartheid, this paper argues, has largely been due to the politicization of sexuality and masculinity in response to HIV/AIDS. Section two examines the ways in which ideas about "traditional" Zulu masculinity were represented and performed in the Zuma trial, introducing the tension between universalistic sexual rights and particularistic sexual cultures. The third section of the paper is concerned with innovative attempts by a group of young men in Cape Town to create "alternative masculinities" (Connell, 1996 in a time of HIV and AIDS.Este artigo encontra-se dividido em três partes: a primeira enfoca a contestada natureza da política sexual que esteve no entorno do julgamento do estupro cometido por Jacob Zuma. Essa política sexual não foi simplesmente a sustentação da "verdadeira" política da luta pela sucessão na liderança das facções pró-Mbeki e pró-Zuma. Este artigo argumenta que o aumento das políticas sexuais depois do apartheid deve-se amplamente à politização da sexualidade e masculinidade em resposta ao HIV e à Aids; a segunda parte examina as formas pelas quais as idéias sobre masculinidade zulu tradicional foram representadas e demonstradas no julgamento de Zuma, apresentando a tensão entre os direitos sexuais universais e as culturas sexuais particulares; a terceira parte preocupa-se com as tentativas inovadoras por parte de grupos de homens jovens na Cidade do Cabo de criar "masculinidades alternativas" (Connel, 1996 nos tempos de HIV e Aids.

  5. THE USE OF DOCUMENTARY ÍNDIO CIDADÃO? IN A CULTURE PROJECT FOR THE REFLECTION ON THE RIGHTS OF BRAZILIAN NATIVE PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Siqueira da Silva Schneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the use of film source, which one has been worked in a culture project, that was approved and it has going on in the law school of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande  FURG. In this study, the methodology used is descriptive during the case study of culture project named I Ciclo de Estudos   Discutindo Direitos Históricos a partir do Documentário Índio Cidadão?, in that the film narrative, the documental research, and the bibliographic review are analyzed. It is discussed about the Brazilian native people rights which were declared by the Brazilian State since the Brasilian Constituent of 1987. It is reflected on the use of the film supply in the research and how it can be used in a specific way for the law study relating to the cultural projects. In relation to cultural project referred, it is questioned about the possible contributions that those actions can have in order to develop an awareness of academic society, including the acceptance and coexistence with cultural diversity at the University. It is concluded that the film source can contribute through cultural projects during the academic activities to promote the debate about the historical construction of rights and their effectiveness.

  6. Supranational Cultural Norms, Domestic Value Orientations and the Diffusion of Same-sex Union Rights in Europe, 1988–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, J.; Lutter, M.

    2013-01-01

    The process of policy diffusion is gaining increasing attention among social scientists. Following world society theory, a burgeoning literature reports a positive relationship between national linkages to global cultural norms and the diffusion of public policies. However, previous analyses do not simultaneously control for time-varying domestic cultural orientations. In order to conduct a stricter test of this theory, this article examines the wave of same-sex union (SSU) laws in Europe. Wh...

  7. O DIREITO DE PROPRIEDADE LIMITADO À DIMENSÃO AMBIENTAL / THE PROPERTY RIGHT LIMITED TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildemar Meneguzzi de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current article has the objective of discussing the limitations imposed on property rights. Using the qualitative research methodology and inductive method, the construction of the text comes from the study of the limiting factors of the use, enjoyment and fruition of the premises, using the contents of the Brazilian Federal Constitution and some of the reflections promoted by Antonio Bartolini, in the lecture Le situazioni giuridiche soggettive nel diritto europeo, as the main theoretical foundation. This research is justified because of the current planet pollution and the scarcity of several natural resources. It attempts to analyze the principle of social function as a restrictive factor, added to the natural and legal - internal and external - limits; modeled on the example of the condominium, the urban plan, the division of urban land and the expropriation, giving particular emphasis to environmental restrictions. As a result, we seek to certify the feasibility of absolute and arbitrary use of the property for a society that moves towards sustainability.

  8. A New Acquisition and Imaging System for Environmental Measurements: An Experience on the Italian Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Leccese

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new acquisition system for remote control of wall paintings has been realized and tested in the field. The system measures temperature and atmospheric pressure in an archeological site where a fresco has been put under control. The measuring chain has been designed to be used in unfavorable environments where neither electric power nor telecommunication infrastructures are available. The environmental parameters obtained from the local monitoring are then transferred remotely allowing an easier management by experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. The local acquisition system uses an electronic card based on microcontrollers and sends the data to a central unit realized with a Raspberry-Pi. The latter manages a high quality camera to pick up pictures of the fresco. Finally, to realize the remote control at a site not reached by internet signals, a WiMAX connection based on different communication technologies such as WiMAX, Ethernet, GPRS and Satellite, has been set up.

  9. Fed-batch and perfusion culture processes: economic, environmental, and operational feasibility under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates the current and future potential of batch and continuous cell culture technologies via a case study based on the commercial manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. The case study compares fed-batch culture to two perfusion technologies: spin-filter perfusion and an emerging perfusion technology utilizing alternating tangential flow (ATF) perfusion. The operational, economic, and environmental feasibility of whole bioprocesses based on these systems was evaluated using a prototype dynamic decision-support tool built at UCL encompassing process economics, discrete-event simulation and uncertainty analysis, and combined with a multi-attribute decision-making technique so as to enable a holistic assessment. The strategies were compared across a range of scales and titres so as to visualize how their ranking changes in different industry scenarios. The deterministic analysis indicated that the ATF perfusion strategy has the potential to offer cost of goods savings of 20% when compared to conventional fed-batch manufacturing processes when a fivefold increase in maximum viable cell densities was assumed. Savings were also seen when the ATF cell density dropped to a threefold increase over the fed-batch strategy for most combinations of titres and production scales. In contrast, the fed-batch strategy performed better in terms of environmental sustainability with a lower water and consumable usage profile. The impact of uncertainty and failure rates on the feasibility of the strategies was explored using Monte Carlo simulation. The risk analysis results demonstrated the enhanced robustness of the fed-batch process but also highlighted that the ATF process was still the most cost-effective option even under uncertainty. The multi-attribute decision-making analysis provided insight into the limited use of spin-filter perfusion strategies in industry. The resulting sensitivity spider plots enabled identification of the critical ratio of weightings of

  10. Knowledge of Good Blood Culture Sampling Practice among Healthcare Staffs in An Emergency Department - Are We Getting It Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, K S; Mohd Hashairi, F; Jusoh, A F; Aziz, A A; Nik Hisamuddin, N A R; Siti Asma, H

    2013-08-01

    Although a vital test, blood culture is often plagued with the problem of contamination and false results, especially in a chaotic emergency department setting. The objectives of this pilot study is to find out the level of understanding among healthcare staffs in emergency department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) regarding good blood culture sampling practice. All healthcare staffs in emergency department, HUSM who consented to this study were given a set of selfadministered anonymous questionnaire to fill. More than half (53.1%) of the 64 participants are emergency medicine residents. Majority of them (75%) have been working in the emergency medicine, HUSM for more than 2 years. More than half of them were able to answer correctly the amount of blood volume needed for culture in adult and pediatric patients. When asked what are the factors required to improve the true yield as well as to reduce the risk of culture contamination, the four commonest answers given were observing proper aseptic technique during blood sampling, donning sterile glove, proper hand scrubbing as well as ensuring the sterility of the equipments. This study suggests that there is a lack of proper knowledge of good blood culture sampling practice among our healthcare staffs in emergency department.

  11. Corporal Punishment of Children: an instance of the Challenge of Cultural Relativism and the Universality of Human Rights of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamzeh Zeinali

    2012-04-01

    and children's rights in the family is the most challenging area related to child protection against victimizing within the family of which corporal punishment of children is one. Referring to cultural relativism in countries that are committed to the implementation of United Nations documents in the context of criminal legislation on the one hand and being obliged to observe the religious rulings in this context on the other hand, make the balance very difficult to maintain. This article examines this issue in the light of international human rights and in general and specific documents about children in global and regional levels. امروزه کشورهای دنیا نسبت به شناسایی ارزش‌ها، اصول، قواعد و هنجارهای حقوق بشر، راهکاری تضمین، اجرا و نظارت بر آن‌ها از رهگذر مجموعه‌ای از اسناد، آموزه‌ها، رویه‌ها و نهادها اقدام کرد ه‌اند که از آن تحت عنوان نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر یاد می‌کنند. بر اساس این نظام، در پرتو مجموع مقررات بین‌المللی مربوط به حقوق بشر، یک نظام حمایتی به وجود آمده که با تمام اصول و نهادهایش درصدد استفاده همگان از ارزش‌های مشترک جهانی و تضمین احترام به آن‌ها برای افراد بشر است. شکل‌گیری این نظام و اجماع جهانی بر سر ارزش‌ها، اصول، قواعد و هنجارهای حقوق بشر موجبات جهان‌شمولی حقوق بشر را فراهم کرده است که بیش از هر چیز در کرامت انسانی ذاتی مردمان سراسر گیتی ریشه دارد. در نتیجه شکل‌گیری نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر کودکان، حمایت ویژه از کودکان به صورت عام و در برابر

  12. The environmental risk as a culture in the Sinos Valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDIR PEDDE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of analysis of the social-environmental perception will be developed from the discourse as a constitutive element of reality. The discourse practices and their concretion will be the source of meaning and social-cultural value. Thus, the chosen research method was the qualitative and quantitative case study. In the first part of the text we will recapture a theoretical input by Mary Douglas on risk and culture, as well as on the acceptance of the risks in society. In the second part, we cover a few data of the case of the risks resulting from the tanning industry and on how the society of the “Vale do Rio dos Sinos” relates to these risks. In this article we conclude that risk perception of the population is directly related with past experiences, thus, assigning a meaning to all new events. This meaning is the result of a sociocultural construction. It is worth noting that behind this history, there are basic issues related to population survival, i.e., both the industrialists and workers establish partnerships when the society creates a movement against the leather industry.

  13. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  14. Legal shape-shifting : On the protection of traditional cultural expressions and crossing the boundaries between copyright, cultural heritage and human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    For several decades, the protection of traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) has caused debate. The core of protection claims touches upon control and a say over the material as to its use, preservation, maintenance and development. Central concerns that arise from the absence of protection

  15. Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and conidial production of Diplocarpon mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Huang, L; Xiao, C L; Liu, J; Wei, J; Gao, X

    2010-06-01

    To identify media and environmental conditions suitable for rapid mycelial growth and sporulation of Diplocarpon mali. Liquid shake cultures were used to evaluate effects of media and environmental conditions on mycelial growth and conidial production of D. mali. Carrot sucrose broth (CSB), potato and carrot dextrose broth (PCDB) and potato and carrot sucrose broth (PCSB) were most favourable for rapid mycelial growth. PCDB, PCSB, PCB (potato and carrot broth) and carrot dextrose broth (CDB) were favourable for conidial production. All carbon sources tested and peptone favoured for mycelial growth. Carbon and nitrogen sources tested did not significantly stimulate conidial production. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and conidial production was 25 degrees C. No mycelial growth occurred at 5 or 30 degrees C, but D. mali survived at these temperatures. Active mycelial growth occurred at pH 5-7, and pH 5-8 was favourable for sporulation. PCDB and PCSB incubated at 25 degrees C for 14 day are recommended for mycelial growth and conidial production of D. mali. The information generated in this study will facilitate mycological and pathological research on D. mali and Marssonina leaf blotch of apple caused by D. mali.

  16. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law: Including a Systematic Analysis of Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. International Studies in Human Rights, 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiter, Klaus Dieter

    2006-01-01

    A trend has emerged of not defining education as a "human right" anymore, but of rather calling it a "human need". This has paved the way for an ever increasing commercialisation of education, excluding the poor from access to education. A problem at a different level is that states often do not know what is expected of them…

  18. When private water rights become a public asset: Stakeholder perspectives on the fairness of environmental water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiewicz, Anna; Dare, Melanie (Lain)

    2016-05-01

    This paper explores environmental water management as a social process of navigating conflicting interests through a distributive justice lens. Environmental water management can achieve substantial ecological outcomes and address ongoing river degradation caused by past management and climate change; however it also causes specific and substantial burdens and benefits to different groups of stakeholders. Given that in most developed countries the majority of land is under private tenure, environmental watering must have active cooperation of private landholders to achieve its ecological outcomes and thus it must effectively deal with an array of vested interests. Australia's reforms aimed at reallocating water from production to the environment have resulted in significant considerable volumes of environmental water. In the state of New South Wales, this water is managed by the state and national governments with the help of five Environmental Water Advisory Groups made up of a wide representation of interests. In this paper, we explore the perceptions of environmental, government, irrigator and grazing representatives, which demonstrate conflicting principles over how environmental water should be distributed. We detail how government water managers reconcile competing distributive principles of equity (ensuring that no one is disproportionally affected or benefits unduly), need (achieving environmental outcomes) and efficiency (prioritizing operational feasibility) in order to maintain the social acceptability of environmental water.

  19. Work-Life Integration Through the Use of Communication Technology With the Right Organisation Culture and Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Phey Key

    2014-01-01

    Work and career are important aspects of a person's life. In addition to providing fulfilment at a personal level, work puts one in an environment where one could develop relationships and receive social support. But these days, work hours are getting progressively longer and the boundary between work and life has become blurred. What was once gratifying and enjoyable has evolved to become progressively consuming and unpleasant. The prevailing corporate culture of long hours and an organisati...

  20. Strategic culture and environmental dimensions as determinants of anomie in publicly-traded and privately-held firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, J.L.; Martin, K.D.; Saini, A.

    2011-01-01

    Anomie is a condition in which normative guidelines for governing conduct are absent. Using survey data from a sample of U.S. manufacturing firms, we explore the impact of internal (cultural) and external (environmental) determinants of organizational anomie. We suggest that four internal

  1. Scuba diving & underwater cultural resources: differences in environmental beliefs, ascriptions of responsibility, and management preferences based on level of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Tiffany Cooper; Alan R. Graefe

    2001-01-01

    This study examined SCUBA divers' level of development in relationship to environmental beliefs, ascriptions of responsibility, and management preferences concerning the use and management of New York's Great Lakes' underwater cultural resources. More than 850 New York State divers were surveyed during the fall of 1999, ranging from novices to experts...

  2. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  3. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  4. Nanoparticle dispersion in environmentally relevant culture media: a TiO2 case study and considerations for a general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Allison M.; Ji, Zhaoxia; Holden, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle exposure in toxicity studies requires that nanoparticles are bioavailable by remaining highly dispersed in culture media. However, reported dispersion approaches are variable, mostly study-specific, and not transferable owing to their empirical basis. Furthermore, many published approaches employ proteinaceous dispersants in rich laboratory media, both of which represent end members in environmental scenarios. Here, a systematic approach was developed to disperse initially agglomerated TiO 2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide® TiO 2 P25, Evonik, NJ; primary particle size range 6.4–73.8 nm) in oligotrophic culture medium for environmentally relevant bacterial toxicity studies. Based on understanding particle–particle interactions in aqueous media and maintaining environmental relevance, the approach involves (1) quantifying the relationship between pH and zeta potential to determine the point of zero charge of select nanoparticles in water; (2) nominating, then testing and selecting, environmentally relevant stabilizing agents; and (3) dispersing via “condition and capture” whereby stock dry powder nanoparticles are sonicated in pre-conditioned (with base, or acid, plus stabilizing agent) water, then diluted into culture media. The “condition and capture” principle is transferable to other nanoparticle and media chemistries: simultaneously, mechanically and electrostatically, nanoparticles can be dispersed with surrounding stabilizers that coat and sterically hinder reagglomeration in the culture medium.

  5. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AS PART OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CULTURE / FUNDAMENTOS TEÓRICOS DE LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL COMO PARTE DE LA CULTURA AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar García Vázquez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article is the result of the experience and the scientific and researching work carried out by the staff of authors as a part of the project “Impact of the Pedagogical Universalization in Pilon Municipality”. Its aim is to contribute to the methodological and scientific preparation of educators, students and other professional people, from a review of the environmental education as a platform of the environmental culture. To make possible the shaping of an appropriate theoretical device that gets to the point of these elements it is necessary to analyze some of its foundations.

  6. Honorary Authorship Practices in Environmental Science Teams: Structural and Cultural Factors and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kevin C; Settles, Isis H; Montgomery, Georgina M; Brassel, Sheila T; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Soranno, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Overinclusive authorship practices such as honorary or guest authorship have been widely reported, and they appear to be exacerbated by the rise of large interdisciplinary collaborations that make authorship decisions particularly complex. Although many studies have reported on the frequency of honorary authorship and potential solutions to it, few have probed how the underlying dynamics of large interdisciplinary teams contribute to the problem. This article reports on a qualitative study of the authorship standards and practices of six National Science Foundation-funded interdisciplinary environmental science teams. Using interviews of the lead principal investigator and an early-career member on each team, our study explores the nature of honorary authorship practices as well as some of the motivating factors that may contribute to these practices. These factors include both structural elements (policies and procedures) and cultural elements (values and norms) that cross organizational boundaries. Therefore, we provide recommendations that address the intersection of these factors and that can be applied at multiple organizational levels.

  7. "No justice, no peace" and the right to self-determination: an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gary; Muhammed, Naeema; Slatin, Craig; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2014-01-01

    This is an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed, leaders of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network. Each of them talks about where they grew up, their politicization, how their paths crossed, their work together after Hurricane Floyd, and the unique challenges of organizing for social justice for black communities in the South. We learn of their fight against concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), primarily for the hog trade, and they take us up to North Carolina's Moral Monday protests of 2013 against legislation that threatens voting rights, public education, access to medical services, unemployment benefits, workers rights, occupational and environmental health, and women's access to reproductive health care. We are grateful to these two friends of New Solutions for their contribution to the journal, and we hope that their insights regarding struggles for social and environmental justice can serve as guides for us all.

  8. Environmental management of pipeline and right-of-way; Gerenciamento ambiental em servicos de manutencao de dutos e faixas de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos A.R.; Alves, Anibal J.C.; Chaves, Claudia J.M.M.; Campos, Cleber L.S.; Guarda, Juliana G.S.; Magalhaes, Milton P; Neto, Nilo M.C. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Yogui, Regiane T.T. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the environmental management experience of TRANSPETRO in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in maintenance services on pipelines and pipeline right-of-way areas, focusing on the requirements of these services in order to ensure the integrity of the system and on the limitations in connection with a great number of authorizations and governmental agencies involved and the use of the environmental management as a solution. These services include, basically, replacement of pipeline sections, geotechnical and upgrading services in right-of-way areas in a pipeline network of about 3700 km, implemented in a wide range of environments, from urban areas to environmentally protected areas. In the first place, consideration is given to the complex legal question related to the various laws and the necessity to obtain approvals such as licenses, authorizations, awards and statements of commitment pertaining to the great number of governmental agencies involved. Subsequently, the main environmental impacts pertaining to said services are approached, with presentation of the tools used in Environmental Management, such as analysis of environmental hazards and aspects, contractual requirements, plans, guideline sheets, procedures, training and monitoring. At the end, a description is presented of the difficulties met, of the solutions adopted and of the new attitudes that are required for a continuous improvement of the process. (author)

  9. The adaptive nature of culture. A cross-cultural analysis of the returns of local environmental knowledge in three indigenous societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Guèze, Maximilien; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Napitupulu, Lucentezza; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pyhälä, Aili

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have argued that the behavioral adaptations that explain the success of our species are partially cultural, i.e., cumulative and socially transmitted. Thus, understanding the adaptive nature of culture is crucial to understand human evolution. We use a cross-cultural framework and empirical data purposely collected to test whether culturally transmitted and individually appropriated knowledge provides individual returns in terms of hunting yields and health and, by extension, to nutritional status, a proxy for individual adaptive success. Data were collected in three subsistence-oriented societies: the Tsimane' (Amazon), the Baka (Congo Basin), and the Punan (Borneo). Results suggest that variations in individual levels of local environmental knowledge relate to individual hunting returns and to self-reported health, but not to nutritional status. We argue that this paradox can be explained through the prevalence of sharing: individuals achieving higher returns to their knowledge transfer them to the rest of the population, which explains the lack of association between knowledge and nutritional status. The finding is in consonance with previous research highlighting the importance of cultural traits favoring group success, but pushes it forward by elucidating the mechanisms through which individual and group level adaptive forces interact.

  10. Real-time PCR to supplement gold-standard culture-based detection of Legionella in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S; Jorgensen, F; Willis, C; Walker, J

    2015-10-01

    Culture remains the gold-standard for the enumeration of environmental Legionella. However, it has several drawbacks including long incubation and poor sensitivity, causing delays in response times to outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. This study aimed to validate real-time PCR assays to quantify Legionella species (ssrA gene), Legionella pneumophila (mip gene) and Leg. pneumophila serogroup-1 (wzm gene) to support culture-based detection in a frontline public health laboratory. Each qPCR assay had 100% specificity, excellent sensitivity (5 GU/reaction) and reproducibility. Comparison of the assays to culture-based enumeration of Legionella from 200 environmental samples showed that they had a negative predictive value of 100%. Thirty eight samples were positive for Legionella species by culture and qPCR. One hundred samples were negative by both methods, whereas 62 samples were negative by culture but positive by qPCR. The average log10 increase between culture and qPCR for Legionella spp. and Leg. pneumophila was 0·72 (P = 0·0002) and 0·51 (P = 0·006), respectively. The qPCR assays can be conducted on the same 1 l water sample as culture thus can be used as a supplementary technique to screen out negative samples and allow more rapid indication of positive samples. The assay could prove informative in public health investigations to identify or rule out sources of Legionella as well as to specifically identify Leg. pneumophila serogroup 1 in a timely manner not possible with culture. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Variability: An Evolutionary Account of East-West Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Mak, Miranda C. K.; Li, Tong; Wu, Bao Pei; Chen, Bin Bin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been conducted to document and sometimes to provide proximate explanations (e.g., Confucianism vs. Western philosophy) for East-West cultural differences. The ultimate evolutionary mechanisms underlying these cross-cultural differences have not been addressed. We propose in this review that East-West cultural differences (e.g.,…

  12. Streamlining and integrating right-of-way and utility processes with planning, environmental, and design processes in Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Many transportation projects require acquisition of land and accommodation of utility facilities in the : right-of-way. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and : Transportation Officials, and National Cooperative...

  13. Finding the Right Kind of Awe and Wonder: The Metaphysical Potential of Religion to Ground an Environmental Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that an anthropocentric fallacy permeates thinking within both technological and ecological approaches to environmentalism. In consequence, sustainable development is an incoherent concept through the weakness of its anthropocentric ethical grounding. Using the Judaeo-Christian tradition as an example, this paper examines the…

  14. Place-Based Dialogics: Adaptive Cultural and Interpersonal Approaches to Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey K. Sowards

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines conservation campaigns and how they employ place-based interpersonal communication tactics to better engage local communities in rural locations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Colombia. In collaboration with the non-governmental organization Rare, the authors explore how social marketing campaigns coupled with interpersonal communication can influence communities that are often considered the most marginalized and affected by environmental problems. Field research was conducted in Indonesia since 2008 and Colombia since 2014. Ethnography through participant observation and interviews were primary methods for data collection as well as a thorough analysis of organizational documents, such as websites, blogs, reports, and other written work. Using theories of dialogue and place-based studies of interpersonal communication, three key campaign strategies emerged from our research. First, cooperative engagement through semi-formalized information sharing is an important component of building a campaign in rural areas, which might include key stakeholder meetings, relationship building with local governmental, religious, and community leaders, and training sessions with local farmers or fishers. A second approach is based on critical listening and understanding through word of mouth involvement, such as community activities and improved understanding of the challenges that local people face in their communities. Finally, a third approach relates to the recognition of difference through engaging local culture. Campaign managers have used religious leaders, local languages, traditional customs and activities, and other place-based approaches to create inclusive conservation campaigns. These strategies demonstrate that conservation campaigns require intense interpersonal dialogue, long-term commitment, and place-based understanding.

  15. Effects of holding time and measurement error on culturing Legionella in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, W Dana; Kirkland, Kimberly H; Shelton, Brian G

    2014-10-01

    Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease require environmental testing of water samples from potentially implicated building water systems to identify the source of exposure. A previous study reports a large impact on Legionella sample results due to shipping and delays in sample processing. Specifically, this same study, without accounting for measurement error, reports more than half of shipped samples tested had Legionella levels that arbitrarily changed up or down by one or more logs, and the authors attribute this result to shipping time. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine the effects of sample holding/shipping time on Legionella sample results while taking into account measurement error, which has previously not been addressed. We analyzed 159 samples, each split into 16 aliquots, of which one-half (8) were processed promptly after collection. The remaining half (8) were processed the following day to assess impact of holding/shipping time. A total of 2544 samples were analyzed including replicates. After accounting for inherent measurement error, we found that the effect of holding time on observed Legionella counts was small and should have no practical impact on interpretation of results. Holding samples increased the root mean squared error by only about 3-8%. Notably, for only one of 159 samples, did the average of the 8 replicate counts change by 1 log. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis of frequent, significant (≥= 1 log10 unit) Legionella colony count changes due to holding. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-01-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse

  17. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  18. "Child Divorce": A Break from Parental Responsibilities and Rights Due to the Traditional Socio-Cultural Practices and Beliefs of the Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bekink

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent ground-breaking case the South African courts were for the first time requested to use their discretion to interfere in the parent-child relationship due to the traditional socio-cultural beliefs of the parents. In what has been described as "every parent's nightmare; the fancy of many teenagers", a 16 year-old schoolgirl from Milerton in the Western Cape asked to be "freed" from her parents to live semi-independently from them because of her unhappiness with the conservative manner in which her parents treated her. After considering the matter the judge assigned to the case granted her request to live semi-independently with a school friend and her family (called by the judge the host family until she reaches the age of 18 (her majority. Her parents were accorded permission to have limited contact with her. This case represents an example of the difficulties involved when balancing the rights of a teenager against those of the parents in matters of socio-cultural practice and belief. In a multi-cultural society such as South Africa the case raises numerous serious questions for other families. For instance, what standards will a court use to determine if parents are too conservative in bringing up their children and what factors will be taken into account? How much freedom and autonomy should children be given? How will courts prevent children from misusing the system just to get what their friends have, and - the ultimate question - are the rights of children superior to the traditional rights of parents in matters of socio-cultural practice, with specific reference to their upbringing? In this context it is the aim of this contribution to focus primarily on the questions asked above. Possible solutions for striking a balance between the rights of children and their parents are explored. The submission is made that the best interests principle is still the most important factor to be taken into account when balancing or weighing

  19. Environment Playing Short-handed: Margin of Appreciation in Environmental Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2015), s. 83-92 ISSN 2050-0394 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300681201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : European Court of Human Rights * margin of appreciation * environment Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/reel.12101/epdf

  20. Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Tej Ram; Deo, Prakash R; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the avoidable nature of maternal mortality, unacceptably high numbers of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Considering its preventability, maternal mortality is being increasingly recognised as a human rights issue. Integration of a human rights perspective in maternal health programmes could contribute positively in eliminating avertable maternal deaths. This study was conducted to explore socio-cultural and service delivery-related dimensions of maternal deaths in rural central India using a human rights lens. Social autopsies were conducted for 22 maternal deaths during 2011 in Khargone district in central India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The factors associated with maternal deaths were classified by using the 'three delays' framework and were examined by using a human rights lens. All 22 women tried to access medical assistance, but various factors delayed their access to appropriate care. The underestimation of the severity of complications by family members, gender inequity, and perceptions of low-quality delivery services delayed decisions to seek care. Transportation problems and care seeking at multiple facilities delayed reaching appropriate health facilities. Negligence by health staff and unavailability of blood and emergency obstetric care services delayed receiving adequate care after reaching a health facility. The study highlighted various socio-cultural and service delivery-related factors which are violating women's human rights and resulting in maternal deaths in rural central India. This study highlights that, despite the health system's conscious effort to improve maternal health, normative elements of a human rights approach to maternal health (i.e. availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of maternal health services) were not upheld. The data and analysis suggest that the deceased women and their relatives were unable to claim their entitlements and that the duty bearers were not

  1. Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Ram Jat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the avoidable nature of maternal mortality, unacceptably high numbers of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Considering its preventability, maternal mortality is being increasingly recognised as a human rights issue. Integration of a human rights perspective in maternal health programmes could contribute positively in eliminating avertable maternal deaths. This study was conducted to explore socio-cultural and service delivery–related dimensions of maternal deaths in rural central India using a human rights lens. Design: Social autopsies were conducted for 22 maternal deaths during 2011 in Khargone district in central India. The data were analysed using the matic analysis. The factors associated with maternal deaths were classified by using the ‘three delays’ framework and were examined by using a human rights lens. Results: All 22 women tried to access medical assistance, but various factors delayed their access to appropriate care. The underestimation of the severity of complications by family members, gender inequity, and perceptions of low-quality delivery services delayed decisions to seek care. Transportation problems and care seeking at multiple facilities delayed reaching appropriate health facilities. Negligence by health staff and unavailability of blood and emergency obstetric care services delayed receiving adequate care after reaching a health facility. Conclusions: The study highlighted various socio-cultural and service delivery–related factors which are violating women's human rights and resulting in maternal deaths in rural central India. This study highlights that, despite the health system's conscious effort to improve maternal health, normative elements of a human rights approach to maternal health (i.e. availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of maternal health services were not upheld. The data and analysis suggest that the deceased women and their relatives were

  2. Development of a decision aid for energy resource management for the Navajo Nation incorporating environmental cultural values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necefer, Len Edward

    Decision-making surrounding pathways of future energy resource management are complexity and requires balancing tradeoffs of multiple environmental, social, economic, and technical outcomes. Technical decision aid can provide a framework for informed decision making, allowing individuals to better understand the tradeoff between resources, technology, energy services, and prices. While technical decision aid have made significant advances in evaluating these quantitative aspects of energy planning and performance, they have not been designed to incorporate human factors, such as preferences and behavior that are informed by cultural values. Incorporating cultural values into decision tools can provide not only an improved decision framework for the Navajo Nation, but also generate new insights on how these perspective can improve decision making on energy resources. Ensuring these aids are a cultural fit for each context has the potential to increase trust and promote understanding of the tradeoffs involved in energy resource management. In this dissertation I present the development of a technical tool that explicitly addresses cultural and spiritual values and experimentally assesses their influence on the preferences and decision making of Navajo citizens. Chapter 2 describes the results of a public elicitation effort to gather information about stakeholder views and concerns related to energy development in the Navajo Nation in order to develop a larger sample survey and a decision-support tool that links techno-economic energy models with sociocultural attributes. Chapter 3 details the methods of developing the energy decision aid and its underlying assumptions for alternative energy projects and their impacts. This tool also provides an alternative to economic valuation of cultural impacts based upon an ordinal index tied to environmental impacts. Chapter 4 details the the influence of various cultural, environmental, and economic outcome information provided

  3. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  4. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  5. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  6. Contextual Drivers of Environmental Values Cross-Culturally: Evidence from Europe Between 2004 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Orru

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues continue to grow in international prominence, owing to the importance of environ- mental conditions to human wellbeing globally. This paper focuses on why people’s values toward care for nature and environmental protection change — one of the antecedents to pro-environmental norms and behaviour. We aimed to clarify how individual and country-level contextual factors affect environmental values in Europe. Our cross-national study used data on individual environmental values from the 2004 and 2012 rounds of the European Social Survey, in combination with macro-level data on socio-economic security, countries’ environmental performance and educational levels. Country-level results revealed that throughout the studied years, nature held more importance to people in countries with increased levels of unemployment and exacerbated income disparities, including in transitional, post-socialist economies. Care for environment is less prominent in countries already performing well in terms of socio-economic and environmental performance, i.e. in states that may have higher resilience capacity towards adverse environmental impacts. Besides a state’s science education, which functions as an effective socialiser of caring for nature, practical experiences with adverse environmental impacts (e.g. health impairment could be used to predict an increase in the mean value of the natural environment in a country.

  7. Universalizing Core Human Rights in the 'New' ASEAN: A Reassessment of Culture and Development Justifications Against the Global Rejection of Impunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Desierto

    2009-02-01

    -pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

    This paper responds to the defences of “culture” and “development” rights as justifications for exceptionalism in human rights obligations in Southeast Asia, particularly against the context of the passage of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Charter. Under the new ASEAN Charter, Member States have the general obligation to abide by the Organizational Principles of “adherence to the rule of law, good governance, the principles of democracy and constitutional government”, as well as “respect for fundamental freedoms, the promotion and protection of human rights, and the promotion of social justice”. More importantly, it is now the specific obligation of ASEAN Member States to “take all necessary measures, including the enactment of appropriate domestic legislation, to effectively implement the provisions of the Charter and to comply with all obligations of membership”, including the above-stated Organizational Principles.

    The paper shows the normative, conceptual, and empirical weaknesses of the “culture” and “development” justifications for creating exceptions to the observance and protection of core human rights norms. Assessing the right to culture as an exception to human rights observance, the paper asserts the ideological imprecision of the “right to culture” as an exception to human rights observance, noting that the porous definition of “culture” should not be equally valued in its assertion against core human rights norms which form part of general international law (e.g. jus cogens prohibitions, crimes against humanity, war crimes, egregious violations of human rights, obligations erga omnes and which can be modified only by a subsequent norm of the same

  8. The Higher Order Structure of Environmental Attitudes: A Cross-Cultural Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano L. Milfont

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Past research has suggested that Preservation and Utilization are the two higher order dimensions forming the hierarchical structure of environmental attitudes. This means that these two higher order dimensions could group all kinds of perceptions or beliefs regarding the natural environment people have. A crosscultural study was conducted in Brazil, New Zealand, and South Africa to test this hierarchical structure of environmental attitudes. Results from single- and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that environmental attitudes are a multidimensional construct, and that their first-order factors associate to each other to form a vertical structure. However, the question whether the vertical structure comprise a single higher order factor or two higher order factors still remains unanswered. These results are discussed and directions for future research trying to demonstrate that Preservation and Utilization, taken as distinct second-order environmental attitudes factors, are more empirically meaningful than a single and generalised environmental attitudes higher order factor are presented.

  9. Effects of deprivation of background environmental radiation on cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, M.C.; Pinto, M.; Antonelli, F.; Balata, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present results from an experiment aimed at investigating whether living cells are influenced by background ionizing radiation. Parallel human cell cultures were set-up in two separate laboratories and maintained for several months under identical conditions but for a 80 x different level of background ionizing radiation. Periodically, the cell cultures were monitored for the onset of divergences in biochemical behavior, using two distinct cellular biology assays, namely micronuclei induction and activity of enzymes implicated in the management of oxidative stress. To reveal any subtle modifications, responses were also amplified by subjecting cell cultures to acute stress induced by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. Compared to reference radiation background conditions, cultures maintained in a reduced background radiation environment handled the consequences of acute stress with diminished efficacy.

  10. Investigating genetic and environmental contributions to adolescent externalizing behavior in a collectivistic culture: a multi-informant twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Yu, J; Zhang, J; Li, X; McGue, M

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the etiology of adolescents' externalizing behavior (Ext) in collectivistic cultures. We aimed to fill this gap by investigating the genetic and environmental influences on Ext in Chinese adolescents. The etiological heterogeneity of aggression (AGG) and rule breaking (RB) was also examined. The study sample included 908 pairs of same-sex twins aged from 10 to 18 years (mean = 13.53 years, s.d. = 2.26). Adolescents' Ext were assessed with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment including Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report. Univariate genetic analyses showed that genetic influences on all measures were moderate ranging from 34% to 50%, non-shared environmental effects ranged from 23% to 52%, and shared environmental effects were significant in parent- and teacher-reported measures ranging from 29% to 43%. Bivariate genetic analyses indicated that AGG and RB shared large genetic influences (r g = 0.64-0.79) but moderate non-shared environmental factors (r e = 0.34-0.52). Chinese adolescents' Ext was moderately influenced by genetic factors. AGG and RB had moderate independent genetic and non-shared environmental influences, and thus constitute etiologically distinct dimensions within Ext in Chinese adolescents. The heritability of AGG, in particular, was smaller in Chinese adolescents than suggested by previous data obtained on Western peers. This study suggests that the collectivistic cultural values and Confucianism philosophy may attenuate genetic potential in Ext, especially AGG.

  11. Implications in studies of environmental risk assessments: Does culture medium influence the results of toxicity tests of marine bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Alejandra; Borrero-Santiago, Ana R; Riba, Inmaculada

    2018-04-14

    Two marine bacterial populations (Roseobacter sp. and Pseudomonas litoralis) were exposed to different concentrations of zinc (300, 625, 1250, 2000, 2500 and 5000 mg L -1 ) and cadmium (75, 250, 340, 500 and 1000 mg L -1 ) using two culture media (full nutrient Marine Broth 2216 "MB" and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilution with seawater of Marine Broth 2216 "MB SW "), in order to assess population responses depending on the culture medium and also potential adverse effects associated with these two metals. Different responses were found depending on the culture medium (Bacterial abundance (cells·mL -1 ), growth rates (μ, hours -1 ), and production of Extracellular Polysaccharides Substances (EPS) (μg glucose·cells -1 ). Results showed negative effects in both strains after the exposure to Zn treatments. Both strains showed highest metal sensitivity at low concentrations using both culture media. However, different results were found when exposing the bacterial populations to Cd treatments depending on the culture medium. Highest toxicity was observed using MB at low levels of Cd concentrations, whereas MB SW showed toxicity to bacteria at higher concentrations of Cd. Results not only showed adverse effects on Roseobacter sp. and Pseudomonas litoralis associated with the concentration of Zn and Cd, but also confirm that depending on the culture medium results can differ. This work suggests MB SW as an adequate culture medium to study metal toxicity bioassays in order to predict realistic effects on marine bacterial populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Who Defines Culturally Acceptable Health Access? Universal rights, healthcare politics and the problems of two Mbya-Guarani communities in the Misiones Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze the problems and barriers encountered when public policy health programs are implemented within indigenous communities. The initial stumbling block for such programs is precisely the idea of health as a universal right, around which emerges a characterization and stereotype of the indigenous population who are consequently addressed as a homogenized unit subsisting below the poverty line, and marginalized. A result of this is that the  particular ethno-cultural register of such populations fails to be acknowledged and form part of a systematic public health policy. Consequently, health policies become generalized in character, unable to variate and differentiate according to the culturally specific contexts within which health outreach and access is needed. In this sense, based on the results of an ethnographic study carried out in two Mbya-Guaraní indigenous communities of Argentina, our study highlights as to how public policies of indigenous health are perceived, their impact value measured, and the meanings which emerge locally about the policy practices implemented.Lastly, our study identifies problems that can be avoided in fulfilling the goals of universal policies and certain questions to consider at the time of policy design and implementation.

  13. Site study plan for cultural resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Cultural Resources Site Study Plan describes a field program to identify and evaluate the archaeological, historical, and Native American Indian resources of the site on local and regional perspectives; monitor and manage discovered cultural resources; and establish a worker education program. The archaeological field program consists of three pedestrian surveys: Survey 1 includes two EDBH seismic survey lines and the area within the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); Survey 2 includes the remainder of the site plus a 1/4 to 3/4-mi border area; and Survey 3 includes an assortment of offsite areas. The historical studies will identify and evaluate known and discovered historical sites and structures and the Native American Indian will identify and evaluate cultural and religious concerns expressed by Indian tribal groups. Prehistoric and historic sites will be evaluated to determine if they meet eligibility criteria for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. This site study plan describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities; organization of field personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements. The cultural resource studies will provide data for satisfying the Programmatic Agreement, engineering design needs, and SRP requirements for permits and approvals, and for minimizing effects to any cultural properties discovered during site characterization. 75 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  14. The opinions of residents towards economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts of tourism in Foça

    OpenAIRE

    Nevzat Gümüş; Salman Özüpekçe

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is, to determine the peoples’ ideas on the economic, social, cultural and environmental effects of tourism; investigate the altering of these ideas in terms of urban-rural, sex, occupation and level of education. A survey consisting of factual questions and Likert-type was carried out with 76 people who live in Foça district center, Yeni Foca town, New Bağarası and Gerenköy. In the light of the data obtained, the attitudes towards tourism activities...

  15. Simultaneous environmental manipulations in semi-perfusion cultures of CHO cells producing rh-tPA

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara,Mauricio; Becerra,Silvana; Díaz-Barrera,Alvaro; Berrios,Julio; Altamirano,Claudia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the combined effect of decreasing the temperature to a mild hypothermia range (34 and 31ºC) and switching to a slowly metabolizable carbon source (glucose substituted by galactose) on the growth and production of a recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rh-tPA) by Chinese hamster ovary cells in batch and semi-perfusion cultures. In batch cultures using glucose as a carbon source, decreasing the temperature caused a reduction in cell growth and an increase in specific pro...

  16. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Laboratory, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    activities. - Research Highlights: {yields} A higher percentage of Native Americans engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians interviewed. {yields} Caucasians rated environmental attributes as more important for consumptive and non-consumptive activities than they did for places where they engaged in religious/cultural ones. {yields} Native Americans rated environmental attributes as equally important regardless of the activities performed. {yields} Eco-cultural attributes (such as 'appears unspoiled') were rated as high as ecosystem services (e.g. unpolluted water).

  17. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    activities. - Research Highlights: → A higher percentage of Native Americans engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians interviewed. → Caucasians rated environmental attributes as more important for consumptive and non-consumptive activities than they did for places where they engaged in religious/cultural ones. → Native Americans rated environmental attributes as equally important regardless of the activities performed. → Eco-cultural attributes (such as 'appears unspoiled') were rated as high as ecosystem services (e.g. unpolluted water).

  18. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Laboratory, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    activities. - Research Highlights: {yields} A higher percentage of Native Americans engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians interviewed. {yields} Caucasians rated environmental attributes as more important for consumptive and non-consumptive activities than they did for places where they engaged in religious/cultural ones. {yields} Native Americans rated environmental attributes as equally important regardless of the activities performed. {yields} Eco-cultural attributes (such as 'appears unspoiled') were rated as high as ecosystem services (e.g. unpolluted water).

  19. Culture of fire and environmental education in wildfire-prone areas: current situation in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara Quesada-Fernández; Daniel Quesada-Fernández

    2013-01-01

    The culture of fire in the context of climate change has become a complicated relationship between people and natural areas. The interaction between people and fire is not a new issue. The use of fire by humans in most aspects of life, especially in rural areas, together with rapid and haphazard growth of structures in wildfire-prone areas, has led...

  20. Environmental Impact: Reinforce a Culture of Continuous Learning with These Key Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian; Gammell, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Fostering a robust professional learning culture in schools is vital for attracting and retaining high-caliber talent. Education leaders are looking for guidance on how to establish and sustain an environment that fosters continuous learning. Based on their experience in helping educators design and implement professional learning systems, the…

  1. Right to Development and Right to the City : A Proposal of Human Rights Categories Universal as assumptions Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Danielle Carneiro dos Santos Hilário

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Right to the City, in a conceptual dimension and wide, and his dialectical relationship with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and its universalism and cultural relativism categories. The Right to the City (RtC is capitula- ted as one of the categories of the Human Right to Development from the compartments on Human Rights to descend from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Linked to this assumption, the discussion of universalism and cultural relativism theories bring to the fore important questions and considerations as to RtC condition, since in its current design and trampled by an evil legacy of neoliberalism, this right has demonstrated the need for authoritative action of the State, given the nature of fundamental human right of the third dimension. Through RtC, boasts up of economic, social and cultural rights, requiring a positive action of the state as compliance guarantee this human right. In this bias, relevant are discussions about the concept of law, morality, liberalism, effectiveness and universality of human rights theories and cultural relativism in dialectic with the RtC and its complexity. It starts from the assumption that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other statements which have descended universality (despite criticism, however, this har- vest, it is imperative closer examination of the concept, forecast, guarantee and effective- ness fundamental human rights, which may lead to a mixed application of universalistic and relativistic theories when analyzed from the perspective of these institutes. The Hu- man Right to Development (RtD presupposes notions of environmental sustainability and economic democracy, with qualified participation of social subjects (wide citizenship, seen continuous and articulated perspective as guiding the development process.

  2. Metagenomic analyses of novel viruses and plasmids from a cultured environmental sample of hyperthermophilic neutrophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili, David; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2010-01-01

    Two novel viral genomes and four plasmids were assembled from an environmental sample collected from a hot spring at Yellowstone National Park, USA, and maintained anaerobically in a bioreactor at 85°C and pH 6. The double-stranded DNA viral genomes are linear (22.7 kb) and circular (17.7 kb...... respectively. Strategies are considered for assembling genomes of smaller genetic elements from complex environmental samples, and for establishing possible host identities on the basis of sequence similarity to host CRISPR immune systems....

  3. Promoting human subjects training for place-based communities and cultural groups in environmental research: curriculum approaches for graduate student/faculty training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    A collaborative team of environmental sociologists, community psychologists, religious studies scholars, environmental studies/science researchers and engineers has been working together to design and implement new training in research ethics, culture and community-based approaches for place-based communities and cultural groups. The training is designed for short and semester-long graduate courses at several universities in the northeastern US. The team received a 3 year grant from the US National Science Foundation's Ethics Education in Science and Engineering in 2010. This manuscript details the curriculum topics developed that incorporate ethical principles, particularly for group protections/benefits within the field practices of environmental/engineering researchers.

  4. Differentiation of behavioral health factors among students depending on selected socio-demographic, environmental and cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ślusarska

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Introduction. Behavioral factors of health are an important area of empirical cognition from the perspective of long-term individual as well as social investment in health. Aim. The assessment of health behaviors and their differentiation due to selected socio-demographic and environmental-cultural characteristics in a group of young adults. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional studies in the group of students of the city of Lublin were performed using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI by Z. Juczyński. The study also included the survey questions in the field of socio-demographic and cultural- environmental indicators. Results. The analysis concerned data on 1,593 randomly selected people (63.53% women, 36.47% men, aged 20-35 years (x = 22.16, SD =2.81. In the group, at 45.07% of students, the rate of intensity of health behaviors according to HBI was low, at 39.60% - was the average, and in only 11.30% -it was high. Conclusions. In the group, low rates of health behaviors intensity predominated. Among women, the students of medical university, non-smokers and those characterized by regular physical activity a higher level of health behaviors was shown.   Key words: behavioral factors, socio-demographic indicators, health status, young adults.

  5. Prospects for pro-environmental protein consumption in Europe : Cultural, culinary, economic and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Joop; Aiking, Harry

    2018-01-01

    The current ratio between plant and animal protein in the Western diet is causing serious threats to both public health and the environment. Healthy, pro-environmental protein consumption requires a transition to a diet with more plant protein and considerably less animal protein. The present paper

  6. Science and Education across Cultures: Another Look at the Negev Bedouins and Their Environmental Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2014-01-01

    This is a rejoinder to the original article written by Wisam Sedawi, Orit Ben Zvi Assaraf, and Julie Cwikel about waste-related implication on the welfare of children living in the Negev's Bedouin Arab community. More specifically, the authors discuss the role of environmental education in the improvement of participants' life conditions. They do…

  7. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  8. Building a Leadership Culture for Environmental Health in a Nurse-Led Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda L Demorest

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century (Costello et al., 2009. Temperature shifts caused by greenhouse gases have negative health impacts such as worsening of chronic diseases and increases in vector-borne diseases (American Public Health Association, 2016, which nurses are ethically responsible to address (American Nurses Association, 2015. At an interdisciplinary nurse-led clinic, staff were not prepared to assist patients in building resiliency related to the health impacts of climate change or to implement environmental sustainability in their workplace. Based on principles of partnership-based healthcare (Eisler & Potter, 2014, this project included Climate Conversations - sharing stories, values, and knowledge about climate change – (Minnesota Interfaith Power & Light, 2010 and evidence-based transformational leadership. The Nurses’ Environmental Awareness Tool (Schenk et al., 2015 was used to survey staff before and after they participated in behavioral interventions to incorporate environmental sustainability at their workplace. Compared to baseline, staffs’ knowledge of environmental sustainability increased significantly (pp

  9. Green Consumption: A Cross Cultural Study about Environmental Beliefs, Concerns, and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Côrtes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though young college students, from different countries, have ever growing access to information about environmental practices, this does not mean that they develop an awareness that leads to good practices of green consumption. Using a new scale, applied to 2372 college students from Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain, it was verified whether the perception of the environment of those youngsters is expressed by a construct which is reasonably structured by beliefs, concerns, and environment-friendly attitudes, through the analysis of the impacts caused by those dimensions onto their consumption practices. As a strategy for data analysis, was used exploratory factor analysis, with the use of the Mann-Whitney test on factors scores and Spearman correlation between the mean values of the factors. It was possible to conclude that, although there are similarities between the youngsters from Latin America and the group from Iberia (Spain and Portugal, there are significant differences on how such a perception is structured. The Iberians have an anthropocentric motivation, linked to the idea of preserving resources for the future, while the Latin Americans have a more holistic vision, in which the environmental beliefs play a role of an important background. Between the two groups there are also differences regarding the possibility to conciliate economical development with environmental conservation. It was noted that the green consumption is an answer to the environmental concerns for both groups, which are less influenced by other dimensions, and this fact could impact the marketing strategies towards those groups.  

  10. Teaching Energy Concepts by Working on Themes of Cultural and Environmental Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Energy is a central topic in physics and a key concept for understanding the physical, biological and technological worlds. It is a complex topic with multiple connections with different areas of science and with social, environmental and philosophical issues. In this paper we discuss some aspects of the teaching and learning of the energy…

  11. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Sonnard, V.; Kandhai, M.C.; Marugg, J.; Joosten, H.

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed to detect and identify Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. The method is based on selective enrichment at 45 ± 0.5°C in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth supplemented with 0.5 M NaCl and 10 mg/liter vancomycin (mLST) for 22 to 24 h followed by streaking on tryptone

  12. Heritage interpretation: a tool for conservation, protection and management of environmental and cultural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Continenza, Romolo; Redi, Fabio; Trizio, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    During the post-earthquake reconstruction process of the territory of L’Aquila, amongst the various initiatives aimed at re-launching the area from a social, economic and cultural point of view, in March 2015 the University of L’Aquila, the Institute of Construction Technologies of the Italian National Research Council, Federparchi, the Roffredo Caetani Onlus Foundation and the Pangea Onlus Institute signed an agreement to promote and develop education and research activities in the field of ...

  13. Structural Diversity of Streptococcal Mutans Synthesized under Different Culture and Environmental Conditions and Its Effect on Mutanase Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Próchniak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcal mutans synthesized under different conditions by growing cultures or by their glucosyltransferases were shown to exhibit a great structural and property diversity. Culturing and environmental factors causing structural differences in mutans were specified. All of the obtained biopolymers (76 samples were water-insoluble and most of them (72 had a structure with a predominance of α-(1→3-linked glucose (i.e., the content of α-(1→3-linkages in the glucan was always higher than 50%, but did not exceed 76%. An exception were four glucans containing more than 50% of α-(1→6-sequences. In these structurally unique mutans, the ratio of α-(1→3- to α-(1→6-bonds ranged from 0.75 to 0.97. Aside from one polymer, all others had a heavily branched structures and differed in the number of α-(1→3, α-(1→6, and α-(1→3,6 linkages and their mutual proportion. The induction of mutanase production in shaken flask cultures of Trichoderma harzianum by the structurally diverse mutans resulted in enzyme activities ranging from 0.144 to 1.051 U/mL. No statistical correlation was found between the total percentage content of α-(1→3-linkages in the α-glucan and mutanase activity. Thus, despite biosynthetic differences causing structural variation in the mutans, it did not matter which mutan structures were used to induce mutanase production.

  14. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  15. The relationship between Hofsted’s national cultural values and corporate environmental disclosure: an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Once, Saime; Almogtome, Akeel

    2014-01-01

    In   Turkey   and   most   other   countries,   there   are   many   of   organizations   that  have  both  social  and  economic  objectives.  These  organizations  may  include  non-­‐profit   organizations,   co-­‐operatives,   social   enterprises,   other   for   profit  with   environmental   and   social   obligations,   and   public   sector   organizations.  At  the  same  time  the  countries  around  the  world  became  collectively  dealing  with  environmental  crises  by  formul...

  16. Cultural and economic macro-environmental determinants of obesity: an analysis of 70 countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity is essentially caused by an energy imbalance whereby energy intake exceeds the amount of energy expenditure. Due to multifactorial nature of obesity, its determinants span from cell to society. Much of the research on obesity determinants has focused on individual level risk factors including genetic endowment, behavioural factors, socio-demographic and socio-economic status. Recent research has acknowledged the role of environmental factors that create obesity-promoting s...

  17. Place-Based Dialogics: Adaptive Cultural and Interpersonal Approaches to Environmental Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey K. Sowards; Carlos A. Tarin; Sarah D. Upton

    2017-01-01

    This study examines conservation campaigns and how they employ place-based interpersonal communication tactics to better engage local communities in rural locations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Colombia. In collaboration with the non-governmental organization Rare, the authors explore how social marketing campaigns coupled with interpersonal communication can influence communities that are often considered the most marginalized and affected by environmental problems. Field research was cond...

  18. Diversity of reductive dehalogenase genes from environmental samples and enrichment cultures identified with degenerate primer PCR screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Audrey Hug

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reductive dehalogenases are the critical enzymes for anaerobic organohalide respiration, a microbial metabolic process that has been harnessed for bioremediation efforts to resolve chlorinated solvent contamination in groundwater and is implicated in the global halogen cycle. Reductive dehalogenase sequence diversity is informative for the dechlorination potential of the site or enrichment culture. A suite of degenerate PCR primers targeting a comprehensive curated set of reductive dehalogenase genes was designed and applied to twelve DNA samples extracted from contaminated and pristine sites, as well as six enrichment cultures capable of reducing chlorinated compounds to non-toxic end-products. The amplified gene products from four environmental sites and two enrichment cultures were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq, and the reductive dehalogenase complement of each sample determined. The results indicate that the diversity of the reductive dehalogenase gene family is much deeper than is currently accounted for: one-third of the translated proteins have less than 70% pairwise amino acid identity to database sequences. Approximately 60% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenase genes were broadly distributed, being identified in four or more samples, and often in previously sequenced genomes as well. In contrast, 17% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenases were unique, present in only a single sample and bearing less than 90% pairwise amino acid identity to any previously identified proteins. Many of the broadly distributed reductive dehalogenases are uncharacterized in terms of their substrate specificity, making these intriguing targets for further biochemical experimentation. Finally, comparison of samples from a contaminated site and an enrichment culture derived from the same site eight years prior allowed examination of the effect of the enrichment process.

  19. Conflicted Heritage: Values, Visions and Practices in the Management and Preservation of Cultural and Environmental Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Kearsley

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage has become of great importance in a number of areas, including self-identity, community identity and as an economic sector through cultural tourism. Most definitions of heritage now accept that it is a perceptual construct with many meanings, both for those who identify and manage it and for those who consume it in various ways. Because heritage can be seen in many lights, the potential for conflict between users, managers and those who own heritage is high. This article examines the nature of heritage and heritage landscapes and discusses the many symbolic and economic benefits that can ensue; the changing nature of the markets for heritage is described. The various monetary and opportunity costs of heritage are discussed and the resultant conflicts outlined. The article goes on to examine the contradictions and conflicts inherent in the concept of authenticity and the issues involved in various modes of interpretation. Here the article asks that if heritage is accepted as that which ‘we’ wish to preserve, then who are ‘we’? This question is explored in the context of the impacts of tourism upon heritage in Southern New Zealand, including the impacts of recent development, perceptions of crowding and the nature of wilderness. Inter-cultural perceptions are explained through the differing perceptions of, and attitudes to, the natural world held by Maori and by others. The article concludes by noting that, while much heritage research is still based upon the product and its presentation, future studies will need to learn more on consumers, their attitudes , expectations and values.

  20. Social-cultural impacts of transnational oil corporations in environmentally sensitive areas. Documentation VII 1 E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, L

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of two case studies of indigenous peoples living in the Americas. It is the first report in a series and the others will be devoted to indigenous peoples in Africa and Asia. The focus is on the activities of transnational corporations on indigenous lands. However, it should be acknowledged from the outset that transnational corporations today act with the knowledge and consent of the national governments involved. The case studies cover oil development in diverse areas where indigenous peoples live: the rainforest and the arctic. The report concludes with recommendations for Governments and transnational corporations which, if followed could promote cultural diversity and sustainable development. (orig.).

  1. THE CULTURE WAR, MODERN ECONOMICS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    EUGENE C. HARGROVE

    2016-01-01

    La enseñanza de la ética en las escuelas públicas en los Estados Unidos se ha hecho casi imposible a causa de la guerra cultural y de la economía moderna. Cuando los católicos comenzaron a emigrar a los Estados Unidos a principios del siglo XIX, se dieron cuenta de que en las escuelas públicas se enseñaba la ética protestante y, por eso, crearon sus propias escuelas religiosas. Esta controversia ha continuado durante doscientos años. Para animar a los católicos a enviar a sus hijos a las escu...

  2. Environmental Remediation Full-Scale Implementation: Back to Simple Microbial Massive Culture Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Syakti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using bioaugmentation and biostimulation approach for contaminated soil bioremediation were investigated and implemented on field scale. We combine those approaches by culturing massively the petrophilic indigenous microorganisms from chronically contaminated soil enriched by mixed manure. Through these methods, bioremediation performance revealed promising results in removing the petroleum hydrocarbons comparatively using metabolite by product such as biosurfactant, specific enzymes and other extra-cellular product which are considered as a difficult task and will impact on cost increase.

  3. Sharing Economy vs Sharing Cultures? Designing for social, economic and environmental good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Light

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the story behind a crowdfunding service as an example of sharing technology. Research in a small neighborhood of London showed how locally-developed initiatives can differ in tone, scale, ambition and practice to those getting attention in the so-called sharing economy. In local accounts, we see an emphasis on organizing together to create shared spaces for collaborative use of resources and joint ownership of projects and places. Whereas, many global business models feature significant elements of renting, leasing and hiring and focus only on resource management, sometimes at the expense of community growth. The service we discuss is based in the area we studied and has a collective model of sharing, but hopes to be part of the new global movement. We use this hybridity to problematize issues of culture, place and scalability in developing sharing resources and addressing sustainability concerns. We relate this to the motivation, rhetoric and design choices of other local sharing enterprises and other global sharing economy initiatives, arguing, in conclusion, that there is no sharing economy, but a variety of new cultures being fostered.

  4. The effects of environmental deuterium on normal and neoplastic cultured cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bild, W.; Schuller, T.; Zhihai, Qin; Blankenstein, T.; Nastasa, V.; Haulica, I.

    2000-01-01

    The powdered culture media (RPMI - 1640) were reconstituted either with normal distilled water (150 ppm deuterium) either with deuterium - depleted water (DDW) in various concentrations (30, 60, 90 ppm) and sterilized by filtration with 0.2 μm filters. The cell lines used were NIH (normal mouse fibroblasts), RAG (mouse renal carcinoma) and TS/A (mouse mammary adenocarcinoma). In auxiliary tests, BAIBC mouse splenocytes in direct culture were used, stimulated for growth with concanavalin A or LPS (bacterial lipopolysaccharide). The estimation of the growth was made using the MTT assay or direct counting with trypan blue exclusion. The following results were obtained: Deuterium - depleted water had a stimulating effect on cell growth, the most important stimulating action being from the 90 ppm deuterium-water. The growth curves show, in a first phase, a stimulation of the rapid -growing neoplastic cells, followed by a slower growth of the normal cells. Amiloride 100 mM blocking of the Na + /K + membrane pump did not affect the cell growth curves, while the lansoprazole 100 mM blocking of the K + /H + ATP-ase brought the growth curves at the level of those with normal water. This might show an eventual involvement of the K + /H + antiport in the stimulating effects of the DDW. (authors)

  5. The Culture War, Modern Economics, and Environmental Education in The United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Eugene C

    2016-01-01

    Teaching ethics in public schools in the United States has been made almost impossible because of the Culture War and Modern Economics. When Catholics began to migrate to the United States in the early nineteenth century, they found that Protestant religion and ethics were taught in public schools and they created their own parochial schools. This controversy has continued for two hundred years. To encourage the Catholics to send their children to the public schools, by 1860 religion and ethics had been removed from the public schools. Concern about the teaching of ethics spread to other religious and non-religious groups. These groups attack the teaching of ethics as the indoctrination of the personal values of teachers, and when teachers include alternative ethical views to avoid indoctrination they are accused of relativism. According to Modern Economics, value terms are meaningless unless they have been translated into economic terms based on willingness to pay. This approach overlooks the social values that make up the cultural heritage of a society. Although children acquire these social values tacitly, since they are not taught these values as a common heritage, they come to believe that they invented them ahistorically and that they are just how they feel (ethical emotivism). By teaching children social values as a common heritage, the charges of indoctrination and relativism and the replacement of these values with economic terms can be avoided, later permitting a more objective role for ethics in public affairs among adults.

  6. Olive Tree in Emilia Romagna Region: an Ancient Crop, a New Environmental and Cultural Economic Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Licausi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Research Council Institute of Biometeorology of Bologna (IBIMET-CNR carried out a study aimed to the safeguard of autochthonous cultivars, through the census of secular olive tree plants, belonging to varieties at extinction risk or located in sites with historical or landscape add value in the Province of Bologna (North Italy with particular attention to phytometric characters, sanitary status of the plants and the relation with their location characteristics. The presence of ancient plants in a specific site may indicate the absence of limiting factors for olive trees development. Considering the environmental factor values of these locations, a classification of the territory in classes of suitability for the cultivation was defined, with the support of a Geographic Information System (GIS. Ancient olive trees data were also collected and catalogued in an internet site (http://olivisecolari.ibimet.cnr.it where it is possible to reach a virtual journey through studied olive trees. All plants are supplied with a phytometric card and a visualization on a map providing the exact location. The GIS elaboration of the environmental factors considered for the definition of the suitable lands for olive trees cultivation, identified 3556 ha as suitable, of which 972 ha highly suitable belonging to class I, where olive trees cultivation could be profitable because of suitable land morphology and the possibility of a good mechanization due to low field slopes.

  7. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  8. Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and pycnidial production of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y K; Xiao, C L; Rogers, J D

    2005-01-01

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens, the causal agent of Sphaeropsis rot of pears and apples, is a recently described species. In this study the effects of culture media, temperature, water potential, pH and light on mycelial growth and pycnidial production of S. pyriputrescens were evaluated. Apple juice agar and pear juice agar were most suitable for mycelial growth of all six isolates tested. Cornmeal agar was not suitable for either mycelial growth or pycnidial production. The fungus grew from -3 to 25 C, with optimum growth at 20 C and no growth at 30 C. The fungus grew at water potential as low as -5.6 MPa on potassium chloride-amended potato-dextrose agar (PDA). Hyphal extension was not observed at -7.3 MPa after 10 d incubation, but growth resumed when the inoculum plugs were placed on PDA. The fungus grew at pH 3.3-6.3 and optimum growth was at pH 3.3-4.2. No mycelial growth was observed at pH above 7.2 after 10 d incubation, but growth resumed when the inoculum plugs were transferred onto PDA. Regardless of medium tested, few pycnidia formed at 20 C in the dark. Pycnidial production was enhanced significantly by fluorescent light, but continuous light appeared to reduce pycnidial production, depending on the medium. Oatmeal agar (OMA) was most suitable for production of pycnidia and conidia. Pycnidia that formed on 3 wk old OMA cultures at 20 C under 12 h light/12 h dark produced abundant conidia, and the technique is recommended for inoculum production.

  9. Feeling right is feeling good: Psychological well-being and emotional fit with culture in autonomy- versus relatedness-promoting situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozefien eDe Leersnyder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current research tested the idea that it is the cultural fit of emotions, rather than certain emotions per se, that predicts psychological well-being. We reasoned that emotional fit in the domains of life that afford the realization of central cultural mandates would be particularly important to psychological well-being. We tested this hypothesis with samples from three cultural contexts that are known to differ with respect to their main cultural mandates: a European American (N = 30, a Korean (N = 80, and a Belgian sample (N = 266. Cultural fit was measured by comparing an individual’s patterns of emotions to the average cultural pattern for the same type of situation on the Emotional Patterns Questionnaire (De Leersnyder, Mesquita, & Kim, 2011. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found evidence for universality without uniformity: In each sample, psychological well-being was associated with emotional fit in the domain that was key to the cultural mandate. However, cultures varied with regard to the particular domain involved. Psychological well-being was predicted by emotional fit a in autonomy-promoting situations at work in the U.S., b in relatedness-promoting situations at home in Korea, and c in both autonomy-promoting and relatedness-promoting situations in Belgium. These findings show that the experience of culturally appropriate patterns of emotions contributes to psychological well-being. One interpretation is that experiencing appropriate emotions is itself a realization of the cultural mandates.

  10. Feeling right is feeling good: psychological well-being and emotional fit with culture in autonomy- versus relatedness-promoting situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Kim, Heejung; Mesquita, Batja

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the idea that it is the cultural fit of emotions, rather than certain emotions per se, that predicts psychological well-being. We reasoned that emotional fit in the domains of life that afford the realization of central cultural mandates would be particularly important to psychological well-being. We tested this hypothesis with samples from three cultural contexts that are known to differ with respect to their main cultural mandates: a European American (N = 30), a Korean (N = 80), and a Belgian sample (N = 266). Cultural fit was measured by comparing an individual's patterns of emotions to the average cultural pattern for the same type of situation on the Emotional Patterns Questionnaire (De Leersnyder et al., 2011). Consistent with our hypothesis, we found evidence for "universality without uniformity": in each sample, psychological well-being was associated with emotional fit in the domain that was key to the cultural mandate. However, cultures varied with regard to the particular domain involved. Psychological well-being was predicted by emotional fit (a) in autonomy-promoting situations at work in the U.S., (b) in relatedness-promoting situations at home in Korea, and (c) in both autonomy-promoting and relatedness-promoting situations in Belgium. These findings show that the experience of culturally appropriate patterns of emotions contributes to psychological well-being. One interpretation is that experiencing appropriate emotions is itself a realization of the cultural mandates.

  11. Complementarity of the professional practice between tourist and environmental and cultural guides in Florianópolis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Calçada de Lamare Leite

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The event reported in the paper took place in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, when the Federal Institute of Santa Catarina (IFSC organized and hosted the II World Forum of Professional and Technological Education, from May 28 to June 1, 2012, at the Convention Center Centro Sul, The activity “Free Tourist Tours” was offered to participants of the event with the intention of showing them the city and its surrounding areas. As methodological tools, a survey and interviews were conducted with those who went sightseeing. The main objective was to examine the practical experience of the students of the Campus Florianópolis Continente who acted in the categories Tourist Guide and Cultural and Environmental Guide in the tours offered by the event.

  12. Adaptation of anaerobic cultures of E scherichia coli  K‐12 in response to environmental trimethylamine‐N‐oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, Katie J.; Rolfe, Matthew D.; Crick, Ellen; Sanguinetti, Guido; Poole, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Systematic analyses of transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring when E scherichia coli  K‐12 switches from fermentative growth to anaerobic respiratory growth with trimethylamine‐N‐oxide (TMAO) as the terminal electron acceptor revealed: (i) the induction of torCAD, but not genes encoding alternative TMAO reductases; (ii) transient expression of frmRAB, encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase; and (iii) downregulation of copper resistance genes. Simultaneous inference of 167 transcription factor (TF) activities implied that transcriptional re‐programming was mediated by 20 TFs, including the transient inactivation of the two‐component system ArcBA; a prediction validated by direct measurement of phosphorylated ArcA. Induction of frmRAB, detection of dimethylamine in culture medium and formaldehyde production when cell‐free extracts were incubated with TMAO suggested the presence of TMAO demethylase activity. Accordingly, the viability of an frmRAB mutant was compromised upon exposure to TMAO. Downregulation of genes involved in copper resistance could be accounted for by TMAO inhibition of Cu(II) reduction. The simplest interpretation of the data is that during adaptation to the presence of environmental TMAO, anaerobic fermentative cultures of E . coli respond by activating the TorTSR regulatory system with consequent induction of TMAO reductase activity, resulting in net oxidation of menaquinone and inhibition of Cu(II) reduction, responses that are sensed by ArcBA and CusRS respectively. PMID:25471524

  13. Feeling right is feeling good: psychological well-being and emotional fit with culture in autonomy- versus relatedness-promoting situations

    OpenAIRE

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Kim, Heejung; Mesquita, Batja

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the idea that it is the cultural fit of emotions, rather than certain emotions per se, that predicts psychological well-being – i.e., feeling good about oneself, having no symptoms of depression. We reasoned that emotional fit in the domains of life that afford the realization of central cultural mandates would be particularly important to psychological well-being. We tested this hypothesis with samples from three cultural contexts that are known to differ with res...

  14. Environmental factors shaping cultured free-living amoebae and their associated bacterial community within drinking water network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafont, Vincent; Bouchon, Didier; Héchard, Yann; Moulin, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) constitute an important part of eukaryotic populations colonising drinking water networks. However, little is known about the factors influencing their ecology in such environments. Because of their status as reservoir of potentially pathogenic bacteria, understanding environmental factors impacting FLA populations and their associated bacterial community is crucial. Through sampling of a large drinking water network, the diversity of cultivable FLA and their bacterial community were investigated by an amplicon sequencing approach, and their correlation with physicochemical parameters was studied. While FLA ubiquitously colonised the water network all year long, significant changes in population composition were observed. These changes were partially explained by several environmental parameters, namely water origin, temperature, pH and chlorine concentration. The characterisation of FLA associated bacterial community reflected a diverse but rather stable consortium composed of nearly 1400 OTUs. The definition of a core community highlighted the predominance of only few genera, majorly dominated by Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Co-occurrence analysis also showed significant patterns of FLA-bacteria association, and allowed uncovering potentially new FLA - bacteria interactions. From our knowledge, this study is the first that combines a large sampling scheme with high-throughput identification of FLA together with associated bacteria, along with their influencing environmental parameters. Our results demonstrate the importance of physicochemical parameters in the ecology of FLA and their bacterial community in water networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intensive care unit environmental surfaces are contaminated by multidrug-resistant bacteria in biofilms: combined results of conventional culture, pyrosequencing, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H; Johani, K; Gosbell, I B; Jacombs, A S W; Almatroudi, A; Whiteley, G S; Deva, A K; Jensen, S; Vickery, K

    2015-09-01

    Hospital-associated infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality, and are expensive to treat. Organisms causing these infections can be sourced from the inanimate environment around a patient. Could the difficulty in eradicating these organisms from the environment be because they reside in dry surface biofilms? The intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral hospital was decommissioned and the opportunity to destructively sample clinical surfaces was taken in order to investigate whether multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) had survived the decommissioning process and whether they were present in biofilms. The ICU had two 'terminal cleans' with 500 ppm free chlorine solution; items from bedding, surrounds, and furnishings were then sampled with cutting implements. Sections were sonicated in tryptone soya broth and inoculated on to chromogenic plates to demonstrate MDROs, which were confirmed with the Vitek2 system. Genomic DNA was extracted directly from ICU samples, and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for femA to detect Staphylococcus aureus and the microbiome by bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed on environmental samples. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were cultured from 52% (23/44) of samples cultured. S. aureus PCR was positive in 50%. Biofilm was demonstrated in 93% (41/44) of samples by CLSM and/or SEM. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that the biofilms were polymicrobial and contained species that had multidrug-resistant strains. Dry surface biofilms containing MDROs are found on ICU surfaces despite terminal cleaning with chlorine solution. How these arise and how they might be removed requires further study. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  17. Indígenas urbanos y derechos culturales: los límites del multiculturalismo liberal Urban indians and cultural rights: the limits of multicultural liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bonilla Maldonado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se evalúan los límites del multiculturalismo liberal para describir y evaluar la realidad de los indígenas contemporáneos. El liberalismo multicultural llena de contenido la identidad indígena haciendo uso de las siguientes cinco categorías: territorio Ancestral, territorio rural, naturaleza salvaje, prácticas culturales atávicas y economía de subsistencia. Esta forma de entender la identidad indígena, además, es la base para sustentar quiénes son titulares legítimos de los derechos culturales compatibles con el liberalismo. Sin embargo, esta descripción de la identidad indígena choca con la realidad de buena parte de los indígenas contemporáneos. La realidad de una parte muy importante de estos individuos y colectividades está estrechamente relacionada com contextos urbanos que están fuera de sus territorios ancestrales. En México, por ejemplo, aproximadamente el 30% de los indígenas vive en ciudades, en Canadá lo hace el 50 % y en Australia el 75%. Hoy en día, el 61% de los indígenas estadounidenses y el 21% de los colombianos habitan en zonas urbanas. Los indígenas contemporáneos son, en buena parte, indígenas urbanos que forman parte de la economía de mercado. No obstante, el liberalismo multicultural, con sus categorías descriptivas y normativas, no tiene la posibilidad de reconocerlos y acomodarlos apropiadamente en la comunidad política.In this article, i assess the limits of liberal multiculturalism to describe and evaluate the reality of contemporary indians. Liberal multiculturalism structures indian identity appealing to the following five categories: ancestral territory, rural territory, wild nature, atavic cultural practices, and subsistence economy. This way of understanding indian identity, moreover, is the basis to justify who is entitled to the cultural rights that are compatible with liberalism. However, this description of indian identity collides with the reality of a great

  18. On the evaluation of cultural and environmental public goods, and its implications for social innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffeo, Michele; Bonini, Nicolao

    2013-01-01

    Public goods (e.g., parks) and welfare services (e.g., garbage disposal and transportation policies) are extremely important for the citizens' well-being but in the complex modern societies their influence and effectiveness are affected by the citizens' support. For this reason, it is crucial to understand which are the factors that influence the citizens' perception of the benefits, costs, and risks associated to public goods and welfare services. In this chapter, we describe some psychological variables that are relevant for the evaluation process of the public goods, but that are not considered by the standard economic models. At the same time, we show that some variables of central importance for the economic models do not significantly affect the citizens' evaluations. Finally, we discuss the concept of Nudge, a policy-making approach that suggests the use of psychological mechanisms to increase the citizens' support to public provision of welfare services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rural Environmental Management in Greece as a Cultural Frontier between the “Occident” and the “Orient”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizos, Thanasis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, is biogeographically and culturally a transition zone between the “east” and the “west”. Some of the older farming styles in it were considered as typical examples of an “oriental production style”. In the Greek state, these farming styles were considered as “outdated” and “backward” and the radical transformation of farming and the rural landscape was sought through intensification of agriculture and modernization of the rural society, a target accomplished by the 1970s and strengthened after the accession in the EU. Only recently, some of the features of older farming systems were reevaluated, in the light of negative environmental impacts of some modern farming styles. In this paper, the rural landscapes of Greece today are presented with a mention of the farming styles that have formed them, both “traditional” and “modern”. Some of the most important changes are discussed in an environmental management light via some examples: grazing management and forestry in the mountains; mixed and olive cultivation on the islands and southern Greece; and arable farming in the plains. The paper focuses on the visual and the environmental impacts of farming styles changes and briefly discusses possible future trends. The impacts are evaluated by empirical work, especially for the mixed farming and olive cultivation landscape and by the literature. The findings indicate that “traditional” farming styles did indeed have positive environmental impacts compared to “modern” ones and today some of their features could be used for sustainable rural landscape management.Grecia, en el extremo sur de la provincia de los Balcanes, es cultural y biogeográficamente una zona de transición entre el “este” y el “oeste”. Algunos de los estilos tradicionales agrarios están considerados ejemplos típicos de un “estilo de producción oriental”. En el Estado de Grecia

  20. The laboratory environmental algae pond simulator (LEAPS) photobioreactor: Validation using outdoor pond cultures of Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Williams, P.; Edmundson, S.; Chen, P.; Kruk, R.; Cullinan, V.; Crowe, B.; Lundquist, T.

    2017-09-01

    A bench-scale photobioreactor system, termed Laboratory Environmental Algae Pond Simulator (LEAPS), was designed and constructed to simulate outdoor pond cultivation for a wide range of geographical locations and seasons. The LEAPS consists of six well-mixed glass column photobioreactors sparged with CO2-enriched air to maintain a set-point pH, illuminated from above by a programmable multicolor LED lighting (0 to 2,500 µmol/m2-sec), and submerged in a temperature controlled water-bath (-2 °C to >60 °C). Measured incident light intensities and water temperatures deviated from the respective light and temperature set-points on average only 2.3% and 0.9%, demonstrating accurate simulation of light and temperature conditions measured in outdoor ponds. In order to determine whether microalgae strains cultured in the LEAPS exhibit the same linear phase biomass productivity as in outdoor ponds, Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina were cultured in the LEAPS bioreactors using light and temperature scripts measured previously in the respective outdoor pond studies. For Chlorella sorokiniana, the summer season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was 6.6% and 11.3% lower than in the respective outdoor ponds in Rimrock, Arizona, and Delhi, California; however, these differences were not statistically significant. For Nannochloropsis salina, the winter season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was statistically significantly higher (15.2%) during the 27 day experimental period than in the respective outdoor ponds in Tucson, Arizona. However, when considering only the first 14 days, the LEAPS biomass productivity was only 9.2% higher than in the outdoor ponds, a difference shown to be not statistically significant. Potential reasons for the positive or negative divergence in LEAPS performance, relative to outdoor ponds, are discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the LEAPS in predicting productivity, two other strains – Scenedesmus obliquus and Stichococcus minor

  1. Environmental controls on the boron and strontium isotopic composition of aragonite shell material of cultured Arctica islandica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-W. Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, the decrease in ocean pH associated with increasing atmospheric CO2, is likely to impact marine organisms, particularly those that produce carbonate skeletons or shells. Therefore, it is important to investigate how environmental factors (seawater pH, temperature and salinity influence the chemical compositions in biogenic carbonates. In this study we report the first high-resolution strontium (87Sr / 86Sr and δ88 / 86Sr and boron (δ11B isotopic values in the aragonite shell of cultured Arctica islandica (A. islandica. The 87Sr / 86Sr ratios from both tank water and shell samples show ratios nearly identical to the open ocean, which suggests that the shell material reflects ambient ocean chemistry without terrestrial influence. The 84Sr–87Sr double-spike-resolved shell δ88 / 86Sr and Sr concentration data show no resolvable change throughout the culture period and reflect no theoretical kinetic mass fractionation throughout the experiment despite a temperature change of more than 15 °C. The δ11B records from the experiment show at least a 5‰ increase through the 29-week culture season (January 2010–August 2010, with low values from the beginning to week 19 and higher values thereafter. The larger range in δ11B in this experiment compared to predictions based on other carbonate organisms (2–3‰ suggests that a species-specific fractionation factor may be required. A significant correlation between the ΔpH (pHshell − pHsw and seawater pH (pHsw was observed (R2 = 0.35, where the pHshell is the calcification pH of the shell calculated from boron isotopic composition. This negative correlation suggests that A. islandica partly regulates the pH of the extrapallial fluid. However, this proposed mechanism only explains approximately 35% of the variance in the δ11B data. Instead, a rapid rise in δ11B of the shell material after week 19, during the summer, suggests that the boron uptake changes when a thermal

  2. Getting To Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus

    This study takes its point of departure in human rights, equality and personal freedom, including support for the rights of LGBTI persons. Its intention is to combine these principles with respect for African communities, cultures, and the fortitude with which Africans face many challenges. Human...

  3. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  4. The Right to Communicate: At What Price? Economic Constraints to the Effective Use of Telecommunications in Education, Science, Culture and in the Circulation of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document presents the findings of a joint study on telecommunications in support of the education, science, culture, communication, and information sectors, particularly from the point of view of developing countries. The topics include: (1) an overview of the present situation from the user's perspective, with a focus on present practices…

  5. Non-Profit Ecological Organizations in the Function of the Realization of the Right to Freedom of Association and the Development of Civil Environmental Liability in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitimov, Bolat Zh.; Dussipov, Erkin Sh.; Altynbekkyzy, Alua; Ashimova, Dinara I.; Nurbek, Dana T.; Urazymbetov, Talgat E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental issues have become a central issue, which is considered not only at the state level, but also in the international arena. At the moment the main initiators of drawing attention to the environment are the environmental non-profit organizations. In developed countries, these organizations provide full support to the government and…

  6. Effect of environmental particulates on cultured human and bovine endothelium. Cellular injury via an oxidant-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.G.; Dodson, R.F.; Callahan, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of respirable environmental fibers on cultures of human umbilical vein and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers were studied. Interaction among endothelial cell monolayers and amosite and chrysotile asbestos, attapulgite, fiberglass, or latex beads resulted in rapid phagocytosis of the particulates. A gradient of time-dependent and concentration-dependent endothelial cell injury (measured by specific 51Cr release) was observed with amosite and attapulgite being markedly toxic. Chrysotile and fiberglass were much less toxic, and latex beads were not significantly injurious at any time or dose examined. Responses of bovine pulmonary artery and human endothelial vein endothelial cells to fiber phagocytosis and fiber-induced injury were similar. In human umbilical cell monolayers, fiber-mediated stimulation of the arachidonate metabolite prostacyclin paralleled endothelial cell injury; i.e. amosite and attapulgite were stimulatory, whereas fiberglass (0-500 micrograms/ml) and latex beads (10(9) beads/ml) did not significantly increase prostacyclin generation. Although chrysotile was only weakly cytotoxic, significant stimulation of prostacyclin was observed at the highest dose tested (500 micrograms/ml). To investigate whether toxic oxygen species may be involved in fiber-induced cytotoxicity, oxidant scavengers or inhibitors were used in injury studies. Both superoxide dismutase (a scavenger of O2-) and catalase (an inhibitor of H2O2) produced significant protection against fiber-mediated endothelial cell injury. In addition, chelation by deferoxamine of elemental Fe present in the fiber preparations was also protective, suggesting Fe, via the modified Haber-Weiss reaction, may promote hydroxyl radical formation and contribute to endothelial cell injury induced by these particulates

  7. Comparison of DOT-ELISA and Standard-ELISA for Detection of the Vibrio cholerae Toxin in Culture Supernatants of Bacteria Isolated from Human and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Lucas, Antonio; Pérez-Villagómez, María-Fernanda; Martínez-López, José-Patricio; García-Rodea, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelán, María-Guadalupe; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis; Villanueva-Zamudio, Altagracia

    2016-09-01

    A comparison of DOT-ELISA and Standard-ELISA was made for detection of Vibrio cholerae toxin in culture supernatants of bacteria isolated from human and environmental samples. A total of 293 supernatants were tested in a double blind assay. A correlation of 100 % was obtained between both techniques. The cholera toxin was found in 20 Inaba and 3 Ogawa strains. Positive samples were from seafood (17 samples), potable water (1 sample) and sewage (5 samples). The DOT-ELISA was useful as the standard-ELISA to confirm the presence of cholera toxin in the environmental samples.

  8. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  9. Whose Rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The debate over ritual infant male circumcision has increasingly been thematized as a Human Rights issue. But the claims on such rights seem highly conflicting. In particular, the rights of the child seems to conflict with the freedom of religion of parents, the rights of religious and ethnic...... minorities, and the rights of family and privacy. This disagreement is also present among scholars of religion. A reading of public statements by scholars of religion in the ongoing Danish (and Norwegian) debate reveals the lack of consensus of the study of religion when it comes to matters that are of great...... concern both for religious minorities and for individual citizens. This chapter examines the Law and Human Rights documents behind these conflicting claims and discusses the role of the scholar of religion in the debate....

  10. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  11. The national experience of using the concept of the safety culture and its possible adaptation in the environmental field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashev, S.V.; Skalets'kij, Yu.M.; Voronenko, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Based on interdisciplinary research a successful attempt of conceptual combination of ecological culture and ecological security is made. Because of the concept of the safety culture, an attempt to eliminate further restrictions on enhance NPP safety related to a person is made. The main feature of the safety culture is in the fact that the level of duties should be higher and better than usual good practice.

  12. The Right to Mothertongue Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The article examines how the right to mothertongue education is situated between political pluralism and cultural monism related to different value systems within the construction of the nation state......The article examines how the right to mothertongue education is situated between political pluralism and cultural monism related to different value systems within the construction of the nation state...

  13. Recourse right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The recourse right concerning nuclear power plants is analysed. It is emphasized that in the Brazilian civil liability legislation, the operator has this right against who admitted it through a written contract or against the individual who has acted or omitted to act whith the intent to provoke nuclear incidents. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  14. Interpreting sex differences in enamel hypoplasia in human and non-human primates: Developmental, environmental, and cultural considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatelli-Steinberg, D; Lukacs, J R

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a synoptic, critical evaluation of the evidence of, and potential etiological factors contributing to, sex differences in the expression of enamel hypoplasia (EH). Specifically, this review considers theoretical expectations and empirical evidence bearing on two central issues. The first of these is the impact of a theorized inherent male vulnerability to physiological stress on sex differences in EH. The second issue is the potential contribution to sex differences in EH of intrinsic differences in male and female enamel composition and development. To address this first issue, EH frequencies by sex are examined in samples subject to a high degree of physiological stress. Based on the concept of inherent male vulnerability (or female buffering), males in stressful environments would be expected to exhibit higher EH frequencies than females. This expectation is evaluated in light of cultural practices of sex-biased investment that mediate the relationship between environmental stress and EH expression. Defects forming prenatally afford an opportunity to study this relationship without the confounding effects of sex-biased postnatal investment. Data bearing on this issue derive from previously conducted studies of EH in permanent and deciduous teeth in both modern and archaeological samples as well as from new data on Indian schoolchildren. To address the second issue, fundamental male-female enamel differences are evaluated for their potential impact on EH expression. A large sex difference in the duration of canine crown formation in non-human primates suggests that male canines may have greater opportunity to record stress events than those of females. This expectation is examined in great apes, whose canines often record multiple episodes of stress and are sexually dimorphic in crown formation times. With respect to the first issue, in most studies, sex differences in EH prevalence are statistically nonsignificant

  15. Surface rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Corrêa Landim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cities of Brazil, social inequality is illustrated by violence, poverty, and unemployment located next to luxurious residential towers and armored passenger cars. In the face of this situation, the National Movement of Urban Reform encouraged the inclusion of the social function of property in Brazil's new constitution of 1988. Surface rights represent an urbanistic instrument in the city statute that is best aligned to the constitutional principles and urban policies. The current article compares two laws that govern the principle of surface rights and provides a brief history of the evolution of the state based on illuminism and the consequent change in paradigm affecting individual rights, including property and civil rights, and their interpretation under the Constitution. The article concludes by suggesting the use of land surface rights in a joint operation, matching the ownership of the property with urban planning policies and social interest.

  16. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  17. Distribution of phytoplankton community in relation to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Madihah Jaffar; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md.; Azharul Hoque, Md.

    2008-11-01

    This paper covers spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties in the cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia based on field measurement conducted during July 2005 to January 2006 to study the spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties of the bay. Phytoplankton samples and water parameters data were collected from five different stations located inside the bay during Southwest, Interseasonal and Northeast monsoons. Forty phytoplankton genera, representatives of 23 families, were found in the study area with a mean abundance of 1.55 ± 1.19 × 10 6 cells L -1. Most of these genera belong to diatoms (82.17%), Dinoflagellates (17.55%) and cyanobacteria (0.29%). Three genera were found to be dominant (>10%) in phytoplankton abundance and these were Coscinodiscus spp. (36.38%), Chaetoceros spp (17.65%) and Bacteriastrum spp. (10.98%). The most dominant genus was Coscinodiscus spp. which showed high abundance during all monsoons and stations (except Station 3). Among the seven environmental parameters tested in this study, water temperature, pH and suspended sediment concentration were found to be significantly different between monsoons. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between stations for the studied physico-chemical parameters. A clear differences in phytoplankton densities were observed between monsoons and stations with higher mean abundances during interseasonal monsoon (2.40 ± 1.37 × 10 6 cells L -1) and at station five (2.05 ± 0.74 × 10 6 cells L -1), respectively. Conversely, the diversity indices, both Shannon-Wiener (H) and Pielou (J), showed no significant difference throughout stations and monsoons (except (H) for monsoons). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) results demonstrated temporal differences in phytoplankton community structure with highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage. Through cluster analysis five

  18. The cultural diversity of the universal right to get married and form a family. Especifiyng concepts to take into account from Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Santolaya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our plural society faces an intercultural challenge that demands an answer to the new social needs at the individual-family, group and community levels from Social Work. Confronted by these realities, social workers should know not only the different ways of forming a family, but also the right to choose or not a partner or the impact of these practices on people’s lives, thus including a permanent defence of human rights within their interventions. Social Work and Human Rights are present both in their own definition as well as throughout the intervention process: information, advice, support, supervision, monitoring and evaluation. The following text offers an analysis of the different forms of marriage, particularly in those aspects related to the choice of couple and the reasons leading to give free consent to a matrimonial union. They are: arranged marriage, forced, supported by love or the marriage of convenience, specially present in our country since it has become a recipient country of immigrants. The reality of these different types of marriage is exposed, together with the legal framework and the context in which they arise and develop. A bibliographic review has been done, so as to reflect on these forms of marriage and the consequences that may have for the parties involved as well as for the professional practice of social workers.

  19. Rights of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kofman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A person’s identity is their sense of who and what they are, of who stands in significant relations to them, and of what is valuable to them. This is inevitably very broad, an immediate implication of which is that the concept of identity taken alone cannot do significant normative work. In some cases a person’s identity is bound up with the evil that they do or wish to do, and cannot thereby give them any right to do it. In other cases very powerful elements of a person’s identity – such as their attachment to loved ones – is certainly related to important rights, but it is not entirely clear that one needs the concept of identity to explicate or justify these rights; the deep involvement of their identity is arguably a byproduct of other important values in these cases (such as love, and those values can do the grounding work of the rights by themselves and more simply and clearly. Nevertheless, when suitably qualified, a person’s identity is central to accounting for important political rights. These ranges from rights to participate in cultural practices of one’s group, which sometimes implies duties on governments to support minorities threatened with extinction, to – at the outer limit – rights to arrange political administration. These rights are connected to both autonomy and fairness. Cultural rights are often taken either to be opposed to autonomy, or at best instrumental to personal autonomy (by providing ‘options’, but in fact, the ideal of autonomy, expressed by Mill as being the author of one’s life, requires that one be in control of significant aspects of one’s identity. Significant aspects of one’s identity are collectively determined within a culture. Cultures are not static, and their development is particularly affected by political boundaries. A fundamental right of autonomy implies, therefore, that groups be allowed, within reasonable constraints of general feasibility and stability, to arrange

  20. Are (Should) Human Rights (Be) Universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rhoda E.

    1998-01-01

    Believes that the purpose of human rights is to change many culturally ingrained habits and customs that violate the dignity of the individual. Expounds the differences between cultural relativism and cultural absolutism. States that "weak" cultural relativism is sometimes an appropriate response to human-rights violations. (CMK)

  1. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Consumers’ Generations Attitudes Towards Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Products in Apparel Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Dabija Dan-Cristian; Chebeň Juraj; Lančarič Drahoslav

    2017-01-01

    Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims...

  2. The cultural analysis in the environmental impact studies. Jepirachi wind pilot project and connecting road between the Aburra valley and Cauca River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Aura Luz; Carmona, Sergio Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This article is synthesis of the investigation to choose I in environment title of Master and Development of the National University of Host Colombia Medellin, on the speech, the social images and representations that emerge in the Studies from environmental Impact -EIA- from the cultural systems from communities affected by the implantation and operation. From two macro projects, that are part of the Plans of national Development, regional and local in Colombia: one, the Project Pilot of Generation of Aeolian Energy Jepirachi, in Colombian the Guajira discharge that affects indigenous communities of several establishments Wayuu in the sector of Average Moon. The other, the project of Road Connection between Valleys of the Aburra River - and the Cauca River, which it affects communities that inhabit an axis of rural transition - urban, whose cultural composition is diverse in its origin, mobility and interactions. It was left from two hypotheses: one, is that the analysis made in the cultural dimension of the EIA, is insufficient lo identify, lo evaluate and to handle the impacts on the cultural systems; second, front lo the treatment of the cultural systems is the existence of fundamental differences. There is cultural systems in Colombia which status is recognized greater and category than to others. The analysis of the speech allowed to obtain a diagnosis on semantic the rhetorical structure and - formal and textual cohesion, coherence, correlations and associations in the EIA and to identify the social images and representations that emerge on the populations taken part by the projects. Finally conclusions. That consider they leave to the debate on the cultural analyses that have been made in the EIA ,their emptiness and limitations and the different courses open that can take futures works from investigation

  3. Adjudicating socioeconomic rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christo Heunis

    It is trite to say that the adjudication of socio-economic rights is a new enterprise in South African jurisprudence, as it is to the jurisprudence of many other jurisdictions. Professor van Rensburg's paper seeks to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the interpretation and application ...

  4. Environmentalization of the Physical Education Curriculum in Brazilian Universities: Culturally Comparative Lessons from Critical Outdoor Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Cae; Payne, Phillip G.

    2017-01-01

    'Environmentalizing' curriculum in Brazil is a worthy goal of global educational reform for sustainability but is challenging given the limits to rational change thesis already argued in critical social science and post-structural deconstructionism. The federal government mandate to environmentalize undergraduate physical education programs poses…

  5. Teaching a Cross-Disciplinary Environmental Science, Policy, and Culture Course on Costa Rica's Ecotourism to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Toni; Rodgers, Vikki L.

    2012-01-01

    Within the business world, there is growing evidence and increasing acceptance that sustainability and environmental practices are the main drivers for current innovation and success. We developed an interdisciplinary, offshore course where undergraduate business students could truly investigate and experience the benefits of environmentally and…

  6. Cultural change and environmentalism: a cross-national approach of mass publics and decision makers Mudança cultural e ambientalismo: uma abordagem transnacional sobre opinião pública e agentes decisórios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ester

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study - the Global Environmental Survey (GOES - is the impact of cultural influences on environmental attitudes. GOES examines the cultural impact from a basic cross-national perspective, investigating the impact of cultural change and value shifts on environmental concern, attitudes, and behavior in both Western and non-Western societies. This study provides cross-national insights in how mass publics and decision makers in both developed and developing countries frame environmental problems and solutions. In addition, the project has shown how leading environmental decision makers and opinion leaders assess the environmental beliefs and attitudes of the public. Apparently, citizens are not yet ready to translate pro-environmental concerns into acceptance of far-reaching environmental policy measures. Citizens in both developed and developing countries seem to prefer voluntary lifestyle changes. Moving from environmental concern via policy support to actual (reported environmental behavior, we can conclude that persistent pro-environmental behavior does not describe citizens' environmental involvement and commitment. Our data indicate that environmentally relevant behaviors (e.g., transportation, energy use, recycling, household purchases, political activism do not form a consistent and coherent pattern. Practice of one type of ecologically conscious behavior does not predict engagement in another. It is not that people reserve a distinctive spot in their mental software for judging the environmental impact of habitual behaviors. Their mental mapping probably consists of manifold decisional heuristics, including comfort, health, safety, price, efficiency, effectiveness, and social responsibility, which are likely to be hierarchically ordered and in competition with environmental heuristics. A focus on specific behaviors, though, reveals that citizens may be deeply involved in "green" behavior. This is related in part to

  7. Effect of environmental and cultural conditions on medium pH and explant growth performance of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) shoot cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Bates, Rick; Carlson, John

    2015-01-01

    The medium pH level of plant tissue cultures has been shown to be essential to many aspects of explant development and growth. Sensitivity or tolerance of medium pH change in vitro varies according to specific requirements of individual species. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine medium pH change over time in storage conditions and with presence of explants, 2) evaluate the effects of medium pH change on explant growth performance and 3) assess the effects of adding a pH stabili...

  8. Role of the mid-Holocene environmental transition in the decline of late Neolithic cultures in the deserts of NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Licheng; Xiong, Shangfa; Ding, Zhongli; Jin, Guiyun; Wu, Jiabin; Ye, Wei

    2018-06-01

    The mid-Holocene environmental transition was characterised by global cooling and the abrupt weakening of the Northern Hemisphere monsoon systems. It is generally considered the key driver of the collapse of several mid-Holocene agricultural societies, on a global scale. However, only a few previous studies have tried to verify the climatic origin of the collapse of these societies, using the compilation of spatiotemporal data at a large scale. Especially, the nature of mid-Holocene human-environment interactions in the climatically-sensitive margin of the East Asian summer monsoon front remains to be thoroughly understood. However, a systematic compilation of archaeological data at a regional scale can be used to verify the role the mid-Holocene environmental transition played in the collapse of late Neolithic cultures in China. Here, we present a regional compilation of Holocene records from sub-aerial sedimentary deposits, lake sediments, and archaeological sites in the deserts of NE China and the adjacent regions to explore human-environment interactions during the mid-Holocene. Comparison of the records of Holocene climate change with the evolution of archaeological sites reveals that the mid-Holocene environmental transition resulted in ecosystem degradation in the deserts of NE China, rendering these areas much less habitable. Faced with substantially increased environmental pressures, the late Neolithic inhabitants used several subsistence strategies to adapt to the environmental transition, including change in agricultural practices and ultimately migration. Overall, our results support the view that a widespread mid-Holocene drought destroyed the rain-fed agricultural and/or plant-based subsistence economies, ultimately contributing to the collapse of late Neolithic cultures in NE China.

  9. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  10. Deconstructing Rights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    Kerala, India. Parallel Sessions II ... limits of a coming political community ... economies on women's rights & decentralization. Deconstructing ... resorts around all water sources inland and coastal, high-rise buildings ... None work in fishing industry (they have family links) ... ACCESS TO POWER gained by individual women ...

  11. Complementing the surveillance law principles of the Court of Strasbourg with its environmental law principles. An integrated technology approach to a human rights framework for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, P.J.A.; Galetta, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    If one looks at the case law of the European Court of Human Rights on surveillance matters, a well mature set of principles emerge, namely: legality, legitimacy, proportionality (the standard check) and, if the Court is "on it", also necessity and subsidiarity (the closer scrutiny check). We pass

  12. Bioethics and "Rightness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2017-03-01

    If bioethics seeks to affect what people do and don't do as they respond to the practical issues that confront them, then it is useful to take seriously people's sense of rightness. Rightness emerges from the fabric of a life-including the economy of its geography, the events of its times, its popular culture-to be what the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu calls a predisposition. It is the product of a way of life and presupposes continuing to live that way. Rightness is local and communal, holding in relationship those who share the same predisposing sense of how to experience. Rightness is an embodied way of evaluating what is known to matter and choosing among possible responses. Bioethics spends considerable time on what people should do and on the arguments that support recommended actions. It might spend more time on what shapes people's sense of the rightness of what they feel called to do. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  13. Selective cultures for the isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria: comparison of different combinations of environmental inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Patrícia M; Louvado, António; Oliveira, Vanessa; Coelho, Francisco J C R; Almeida, Adelaide; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The potential of estuarine microniches as reservoirs of biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated by testing different combinations of inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources. Selective cultures using diesel, petroleum, or paraffin as hydrophobic carbon sources were prepared and inoculated with water from the surface microlayer, bulk sediments, and sediment of the rhizosphere of Halimione portulacoides. These inocula were compared regarding the frequency of biosurfactant-producing strains among selected isolates. The community structure of the selective cultures was profiled using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene fragments at the end of the incubation. The DGGE profiles corresponding to the communities established in selective cultures at the end of the incubation revealed that communities were different in terms of structural diversity. The highest diversity was observed in the selective cultures containing paraffin (H (') = 2.5). Isolates were obtained from the selective cultures (66) and tested for biosurfactant production by the atomized oil assay. Biosurfactant production was detected in 17 isolates identified as Microbacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Serratia. The combination of estuarine surface microlayer (SML) water as inoculum and diesel as carbon source seems promising for the isolation of surfactant-producing bacteria. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file.

  14. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Consumers’ Generations Attitudes Towards Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Products in Apparel Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan-Cristian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims to highlight Romanian and Slovak consumers’ attitudes towards purchasing of goods from retailers that strive a clear focus on environmental responsibility and environmental friendly practices in apparel, footwear and sportswear retail. By means of a quantitative research based on a questionnaire administered to consumers of international retail chains with operations in both countries, the authors highlight differences in their perceptions and attitudes for buying green apparel, footwear and sportswear. Whereas Millennials and Gen Xers consumers in Romania and Slovakia believe that international apparel, footwear and sportswear retailers are less concerned about environmentally responsible behavior and the need of selling green products, Baby Boomers are more sensitive to such aspects and carefully select retailers according to their green strategy. This research provides specific findings about attitudes of different consumers’ generations within two emerging European countries (Romania, Slovakia.

  15. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  16. Environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulhaye, F.

    2005-01-01

    The environment is an intricate mixture of natural, built and social components. The natural environment includes air, water, land, climate, flora and fauna, while the built environment consists of the fabric of building infrastructure and open space. The social component of the environment embraces the aesthetics, amenity quality, architectural style, heritages, law behavior, values and traditions of the society. In ecological terms the environment is a distortion of natural ecosystems or an ecosystem in its own right. A characteristic of the urban area is their fast changing nature with respect to their size, form, density and activity. This dynamism stems out of the basic functions of economic, social and cultural developments. The complexity and multiplicity of urban activities gives rise to a variety of environmental problems. Given their different level of economic and social development and the geography, not all the cities have identical problems, yet they have much in common. While the large cities of developed countries have long suffered the problem of pollution, inner city decay and neighborhood collapse, those in the less developed countries face more varied complex problems due to their overpopulation, poverty, inadequacy and poor quality of urban services, infrastructure, transportation, and changing life style. However the increasing pollution is common to the most of the cities and is the major cause of environmental degradation. Given the very serious nature of this problem it is essential to tackle this issue by incorporating the environmental concerns in the education system of Pakistan. This paper would give a brief overview of the environmental problems, and a detailed analysis of the status environmental issues in Pakistan. (author)

  17. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  18. 2700 years of Mediterranean environmental change in central Italy: a synthesis of sedimentary and cultural records to interpret past impacts of climate on society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, Scott A.; Tunno, Irene; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Florindo, Fabio; Noble, Paula; Archer, Claire; Zimmerman, Susan; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Cifani, Gabriele; Passigli, Susanna; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    Abrupt climate change in the past is thought to have disrupted societies by accelerating environmental degradation, potentially leading to cultural collapse. Linking climate change directly to societal disruption is challenging because socioeconomic factors also play a large role, with climate being secondary or sometimes inconsequential. Combining paleolimnologic, historical, and archaeological methods provides for a more secure basis for interpreting the past impacts of climate on society. We present pollen, non-pollen palynomorph, geochemical, paleomagnetic and sedimentary data from a high-resolution 2700 yr lake sediment core from central Italy and compare these data with local historical documents and archeological surveys to reconstruct a record of environmental change in relation to socioeconomic history and climatic fluctuations. Here we document cases in which environmental change is strongly linked to changes in local land management practices in the absence of clear climatic change, as well as examples when climate change appears to have been a strong catalyst that resulted in significant environmental change that impacted local communities. During the Imperial Roman period, despite a long period of stable, mild climate, and a large urban population in nearby Rome, our site shows only limited evidence for environmental degradation. Warm and mild climate during the Medieval Warm period, on the other hand, led to widespread deforestation and erosion. The ability of the Romans to utilize imported resources through an extensive trade network may have allowed for preservation of the environment near the Roman capital, whereas during medieval time, the need to rely on local resources led to environmental degradation. Cool wet climate during the Little Ice Age led to a breakdown in local land use practices, widespread land abandonment and rapid reforestation. Our results present a high-resolution regional case study that explores the effect of climate change on

  19. Consumer Rights as Constitutional Rights - A Comparative Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    1984-07-24

    Jul 24, 1984 ... Therefore, denial of any aspect of development through voluntary or ... Convention on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) which is compulsory ..... Article 51 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution is an illustration of an.

  20. The Subak Cultural Landscape as Environmental Education: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences of Balinese Teachers, Student Teachers, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surata, Sang Putu Kaler; Vipriyanti, Nyoman Utari

    2018-01-01

    Bali's subak cultural landscape, with its ancient and extensive paddy-fields and irrigation system, is a valuable resource for place-based education. However, this landscape is threatened by various problems. Here we analyze the relationships among Balinese teachers, student teachers, and students, and review their knowledge, attitudes, and…

  1. Effect of environmental and cultural conditions on medium pH and explant growth performance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii shoot cultures [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The medium pH level of plant tissue cultures has been shown to be essential to many aspects of explant development and growth. Sensitivity or tolerance of medium pH change in vitro varies according to specific requirements of individual species. The objectives of this study are to 1 determine medium pH change over time in storage conditions and with presence of explants, 2 evaluate the effects of medium pH change on explant growth performance and 3 assess the effects of adding a pH stabilizer, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES that is commonly used in Douglas-fir micropropagation medium. Vegetative buds were collected in the spring before breaking dormancy from juvenile and mature donor trees for conducting these evaluations. Medium, with or without MES, was pre-adjusted to five pH levels before adding MES, agar and autoclaving. Medium pH changes and explant growth parameters were measured at eight different incubation times. Overall, MES provided a more stable medium pH, relative to starting pH values, under both light and dark storage conditions as well as with presence of explants. A general trend of decreasing medium pH over time was found comparing explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Explant height and weight growth increased over time, but differ among explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Our findings suggest that a 21-day subculture practice may best sustain medium freshness, medium pH level and desirable explant growth.

  2. Beyond environmental frames: The social representation and cultural resonance of nature in conflicts over a Dutch woodland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Arts, B.J.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Lengkeek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Frame analysis has been widely employed to understand environmental conflicts. Such studies emphasize the internal dynamics of conflict and focus on how actors discursively struggle with each other in order to gain hegemony over the dominant discourse on the issue. In this paper, we argue that the

  3. 78 FR 16528 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Cultural Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ....C. 1131-36) and other laws and policies, will frame the decision-making for the CRMP/EIS. The CRMP...-action and a preferred alternative. The potential environmental effects of each alternative will be... decisions related to this project are invited to participate in the scoping process and, if eligible, may...

  4. (En)Countering Social and Environmental Messages in the Rainforest Cafe [sic], Children's Picturebooks, and Other Visual Culture Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisberg, Mira; Han, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Our study critically examines social and environmental messages in a range of visual sites educating about rainforest environments. We focus primarily on the Rainforest Cafe, an international series of rainforest-themed edutainment restaurant/stores, whose inherent contradictions between consumption and conservation are quite disturbing when…

  5. The Right to Environmental Information on Sustainable Brazilian Context : The Declaration of Principle 10 in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Bill nº. 4148/2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Siqueira Tybusch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discrepancies between the Bill nº4148 / 2008 and Principle 10, which has about the commitment of States to ensure access to environmental information, generate the need for reflection on the actual Brazilian paradigms front of such a commitment, as well as sustainability Informational as a prerequisite to the realization of rights. Thus, the objective is to generally examine the relevant provisions to Principle 10, the prospects of the Declaration on Principle 10 in Latin America and the Caribbean and investigate the fundamentals of Bill No. 4148/2008, from the perspective of informational sustainability . After it is intended specifically delineate the contrasts between international goals and the said bill. It seeks to answer the question: The reasons which led the Law No. Project. 4148/2008 to the National Congress and its approval in the Chamber of Deputies, can be considered as opposed to the international commitments made by Brazil, with regard to sustainable environmental information, consolidating in a legal setback? The methodology has as basis of theory and approach to systemic-complex perspective. Procedures are bibliographical and documentary research. The technique is building fichamentos and summaries. Conclusively, one sees that Brazil has adopted contradictory paradigms for the right to environmental information, which need to be better delineated, otherwise these setbacks consubstanciarem in legal setback.

  6. Bioethics and international human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasma, D C

    1997-01-01

    Noting how the spread of medical technology is creating clashes with traditional values and within cultures, the author addresses the clash between Western rights-based incentives, as used by the United Nations to guarantee respect for life and dignity, and communitarian traditions. He proposes a mean between wholesale cultural relativism and international absolutism.

  7. The role of culture in adaptive responses to climate and environmental change in a Fijian village

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton , Clare

    2017-01-01

    Adapting to the new challenges climate change will bring is vital. Pacific Islands are often cited as being at the forefront of climate change, and despite a growing body of regional research there has been limited climate change adaptation research in regional deltas. The capacity of households and communities to respond to climate change in the face of multiple stressors is influenced by a variety of factors and elements shaped by the underlying social and cultural context. Recent work has ...

  8. Is there any way out there? Environmental and cultural influences in computing least-cost paths with GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairén Jiménez, Sara

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting subjects in post-structural landscape studies is the analysis of the relationships between its natural and cultural components: the structuring of the landscape, with the identification of the social practices and patterns of movement that took part around them. These patterns depend both on the natural form of the terrain and on socio-cultural decisions. In relation to the settlement pattern and distribution of rock art sites in the central- Mediterranean coastal area of Spain, a method is proposed to evaluate the role of cultural aspects of landscape in computing least-cost paths.

    Entre los recientes estudios dentro de la Arqueología del Paisaje, uno de los aspectos que presenta mayor potencial interpretativo es el análisis de la relación entre sus distintos componentes naturales y culturales: la articulación del paisaje – con la identificación de las prácticas sociales que se realizarían en torno a estos elementos y de las pautas de movimiento entre unos y otros. Este movimiento dependería tanto de las características naturales del terreno como de decisiones prácticas de carácter socio-cultural. A partir del estudio de la distribución del poblamiento y abrigos con arte rupestre neolíticos en las tierras centro-meridionales valencianas, se propone un sistema para la introducción y valoración del papel de los componentes culturales del paisaje en el cálculo de caminos óptimos mediante Sistemas de Información Geográfica.

  9. Resistant place identities in rural Charleston County, South Carolina: Cultural, environmental, and racial politics in the Sewee to Santee Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; A.C. Halfacre; P.T. Hurley

    2009-01-01

    The cultural and political implications of landscape change and urban growth in the western U.S. are well-documented. However, comparatively little scholarship has examined the effects of urbanization on sense of place in the southern U.S. We contribute to the literature on competing place meanings with a case study from the rural “Sewee to Santee” region of northern...

  10. Comparison of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis and conventional culture in the environmental survey of a hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Manaka, Akihiro; Tokue, Yutaka; Murakami, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infection is one of the most common complications within health care facilities. Certain studies have reported outbreaks resulting from contaminated hospital environments. Although the identification of bacteria in the environment can readily be achieved using culturing methods, these methods detect live bacteria. Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene is recognized to be effective for bacterial identification. In this study, we surveyed wards where drug-res...

  11. Biogenic selenium and tellurium nanoparticles synthesized by environmental microbial isolates efficaciously inhibit bacterial planktonic cultures and biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eZonaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with Se0- and Te0-based nanoparticles bio-synthesized by two selenite- and tellurite-reducing bacterial strains, namely Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02 and Ochrobactrum sp. MPV1, isolated from polluted sites. We discovered that, by regulating culture conditions and exposure time to the selenite and tellurite oxyanions, differently sized zero-valent Se and Te nanoparticles were produced. The results revealed that these Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles possess antimicrobial and biofilm eradication activity against E. coli JM109, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. In particular, Se0 nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity at quite low concentrations, below that of selenite. Toxic effects of both Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles can be related to the production of reactive oxygen species upon exposure of the bacterial cultures. Evidence so far achieved suggests that the antimicrobial activity seems to be strictly linked to the dimensions of the nanoparticles: indeed, the highest activity was shown by nanoparticles of smaller sizes. In particular, it is worth noting how the bacteria tested in biofilm mode responded to the treatment by Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles with a susceptibility similar to that observed in planktonic cultures. This suggests a possible exploitation of both Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles as efficacious antimicrobial agents with a remarkable biofilm eradication capacity.

  12. From empowerment to response-ability: rethinking socio-spatial, environmental justice, and nature-culture binaries in the context of STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; McGuire, Chad J.; Cardello, Suzanne

    2018-04-01

    In this conceptual paper, we draw upon the insights of Feminist Science Studies, in particular Karen Barad's concept of agential realism, as a critical analytical tool to re-think nature and culture binaries in dominant science knowledge-making practices and explanatory accounts, and their possible implications for science education in the context of socio-spatial and environmental injustices. Barad's framework proposes a relational and more expansive approach to justice, which takes into account consequential effects of nature-culture practices on humans, non-humans, and more than human vitalities. In efforts to understand potentialities of Barad's theory of agential realism, we situate our argument in the "story" of local children who encounter a bottle of cyanide in a former manufacturing building. The story takes place in a post-industrial urban city located in the U.S., caught up in an inverse relationship between the technological and scientific advances observed "globally" and the deteriorating environmental and living conditions experienced "locally" as the result of erstwhile industrial activity. Based on agential realist readings of the story and taking into consideration children's developing subjectivities, we argue that equity-oriented scholarship in science education might not be able to achieve justice devoid of understanding of the relatedness to plurality of life forms. We invite our readers to consider (re)configuring socio-spatial and environmental issues as an ethical response-ability that is constituted through relationships of care, recognition, openness, and responsiveness to vitalities of humans and nonhumans equally, one which cannot be conceptualized from a priori and distant calculations, but rather continuous entangled relations.

  13. Method of environmental management for the treatment and the right disposal of hazardous waste. case: contaminated land fuller with dielectric oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo, Edison Alexander; Cardona Gallo, Santiago Alonso; Rojano, Benjamin; Ruiz, Orlando Simon

    2012-01-01

    The environmental management of a dangerous waste understands different stages: generation, minimization, transport, appraisement, treatment and elimination. In this work two technologies are explored for the treatment and the elimination of a dangerous residual (RESPEL, Earth Fuller polluted with dielectric oil): a physical-chemistry and another biological one. For the physic-chemical Technology, was used as solvent and hexane reached a removal of the dielectric oil of around 87% on contaminated earth Fuller, with an ratio Fuller earth: solvent 1:8 w/v, a speed agitation of 100 rpm and a contact time of 30 min. Quality dielectric oil recovered is not suitable for use in electrical equipment, due to its low dielectric strength, low density and poor color. The land reclaimed Fuller had a bulk density of 0.641 g/ml, a density of 2,231 g/ml and a porosity of 72,075%, which indicates that this land is very close in their physical characteristics to Fuller earth clean. Biotechnology for the contaminated soil was treated in a biological reactor or Bioslurry evaluating the stirring speed and time of degradation necessary to achieve adequate levels of decontaminate to provide the waste in a landfill without conventional risk to human health ecosystems and humans, removals were achieved in this system the order of 49.68%, but did not reach the cleanup levels required by the Resolution 1170 of 1997 of DAMA, the result is important as it was believed that high concentrations of hydrocarbons of this type (more than 10 %) are inhibitory to biological activity. Chromatographic monitoring was made 10 hydrocarbon species present in the dielectric oil that are keys in this product.

  14. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

  15. Educação, meio ambiente e cultura: alquimias do conhecimento na sociedade de controle Education, environmental and culture: alchemical of knowledge in the control society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Godoy

    2009-12-01

    psychological subjects inseparable from wider political contexts; such aspect offers the pedagogy a strategic dimension that must be considered when analyzing pedagogical investments in present-days. Considering the characteristics that go through current social practices, the sort of environmental intervention (Foucault and the logic of control (Deleuze, Education, Environment and Culture, are approached as domains of objects upon which pedagogical investments are carried out nowadays.

  16. A cross-cultural comparison of eating behaviors and home food environmental factors in adolescents from São Paulo (Brazil) and Saint Paul-Minneapolis (US).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estima, Camilla C P; Bruening, Meg; Hannan, Peter J; Alvarenga, Marle S; Leal, Greisse V S; Philippi, Sonia T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Describe cross-cultural differences in nutrition-related factors among adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil and St Paul-Minneapolis, US. Two large-population-based studies with cross-cultural comparisons. Twelve São Paulo and 10 St Paul-Minneapolis high schools in 2009-2010. A total of 1,148 adolescents from São Paulo and 1,632 adolescents from St Paul-Minneapolis. Meal consumption, family meals, fast-food consumption, and home food availability. Binomial regressions, weighted for age distributions and adjusted for gender, were used to compare identical measures from each sample. Generally, São Paulo adolescents reported healthier nutritional outcomes than St Paul-Minneapolis adolescents. São Paulo adolescents were 7 times less likely to report high fast-food consumption than St Paul-Minneapolis adolescents (P culture. Interventions are needed to encourage youth and their families to maintain these patterns. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in suspended cultures of blue mussels exposed to different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2015-01-01

    corresponding to Good Ecological Status (GES) in the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) and in future climate change scenarios (higher metal concentrations and higher temperatures). For this purpose, GES is interpreted as good chemical status for the metals using the Environmental Quality Standards...... targets for Cd, Ni and Pb are not protective with respect to marine mussel production and probably should be reduced for marine waters. Climate changes may increase the metal contamination of mussels, but not to any critical level at the relatively unpolluted study sites. In conclusion, WFD targets should...

  18. Women Reproductive Rights in India: Prospective Future.

    OpenAIRE

    Kosgi, S; Hegde, VN; Rao, S; Bhat, US; Pai, N

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive rights were established as a subset of the human rights. Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. Issues regarding the reproductive rights are vigorously contested, regardless of the population’s socioeconomic level, religion or culture. Following review article discusses reproductive rights with respect to Indian context focusing on socio economic and cultural aspects. Also discusses sensitization of gover...

  19. What the growth of a space tourism industry could contribute to employment, economic growth, environmental protection, education, culture and world peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patrick; Autino, Adriano

    2010-06-01

    The authors argue that the creation of a popular new industry of passenger space travel could be economically and socially very beneficial in creating new employment in aerospace and related fields in order to supply these services. In doing so, the application of nearly a half-century of technological development that has yet to be used commercially could create many new aerospace engineering business opportunities. In addition, by growing to large scale, space tourism has unique potential to reduce the cost of space travel sharply, thereby making many other activities in space feasible and profitable. The paper discusses the scope for new employment, stimulating economic growth, reducing environmental damage, sustaining education particularly in the sciences, stimulating cultural growth, and preserving peace by eliminating any need for "resource wars".

  20. Nitrous Oxide (N2O production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris microalgae cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guieysse

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O is generated from axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favouring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO, the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems (e.g. 1.38–10.1 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1 in a 0.25 m deep raceway pond operated under Mediterranean climatic conditions. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  1. Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and sporulation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon and Maubl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A; Mandal, P; Dasgupta, S; Saha, D

    2008-05-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a common tea (Camellia sinensis) pathogen, usually does not sporulate or sporulates poorly in common media, which makes spore production difficult. In this study the effects of culture media, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH and light on mycelial growth and sporulation were evaluated. Among several carbon sources tested, glucose and sucrose were found superior for growth. Potassium nitrate supplemented media showed maximum growth amongst the tested inorganic nitrogen sources while peptone produced maximum growth among the tested organic nitrogen sources. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium was found to be the most suitable for mycelial growth and sporulation of L. theobromae. The fungus grow at temperatures ranging from 40 to 36 degrees C, with optimum growth at 28 degrees C and no growth was noted at 40 degrees C. There was no significant effect of different light period on growth of L. theobromae, but light enhanced sporulation. The fungus grow at pH 3.0-8.0 and optimum growth was observed at pH 6.0. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium with pH 6.0 was the most suitable for production of conidia of L. theobromae at 28 degrees C. Hence this media may be recommended for inoculum production for further studies.

  2. The first appearance of cattle in Denmark occurred 6000 years ago: an effect of cultural or climate and environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe-Nygaard, Nanna; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2006-01-01

    the youngest aurochs have similar values to Late Atlantic red deer from the same locality. As eastern Denmark was largely covered by forest, speculations on the origin of the grazing areas are many. The grass may have grown in openings in the forest, at the forest fringe, or more likely on the newly reclaimed......Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bones of contemporaneous Late Atlantic aurochs and early cattle in eastern Denmark are significantly different and provide information on the origin and feeding strategies of the earliest domestic cattle. The data show that the early cattle were...... feeding on grass right from the beginning 4000 cal. yr BC. In contrast, the youngest aurochs population primarily browsed and grazed from the dense forest floor resulting in rather negative 613C values measured on bone collagen. The oldest aurochs have similar isotope values to the earlier cattle, whereas...

  3. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  4. TALE OF THE HARMATTAN: ENVIRONMENTAL RIGHTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    (1999, pp.1092-3) also explains that ecocriticism is ―the study of explicitly ... the range of victims of eco-violence is semiotically extended through implicit ..... function translates to lexical bonding that compels a pragmatic treatment of converts,.

  5. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in suspended cultures of blue mussels exposed to different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marie; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Tørring, Ditte; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2018-02-01

    Farming of suspended mussels is important for generating high protein food and animal feed or for removing nutrients in eutrophic systems. However, the harvested mussels must not be severely contaminated by pollutants posing a potential health risk for the consumers. The present study estimated the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in suspended blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Limfjorden, Denmark, based on observations and modelling. Modelling was used to assess the suitability of suspended blue mussels as animal feed and food products at sea water metal concentrations corresponding to Good Ecological Status (GES) in the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) and in future climate change scenarios (higher metal concentrations and higher temperatures). For this purpose, GES is interpreted as good chemical status for the metals using the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) defined in the WFD priority substance daughter directives. Observations showed that suspended mussels were healthy with respect to metal pollution and generally less polluted than benthic mussels due to the smaller contact with the contaminated sediment. The model results showed that the WFD targets for Cd, Ni and Pb are not protective with respect to marine mussel production and probably should be reduced for marine waters. Climate changes may increase the metal contamination of mussels, but not to any critical level at the relatively unpolluted study sites. In conclusion, WFD targets should be revised to assure that the corresponding body burdens of metals in mussels are below the safety limits according to the EU Directives and the Norwegian classification for animal feed and food production.

  6. Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Transmission and Disease among Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed in Culture Compared to Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Foott

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of IHNV infection and disease were followed in a juvenile Chinook salmon population both during hatchery rearing and for two weeks post-release. Cumulative weekly mortality increased from 0.03%–3.5% as the prevalence of viral infection increased from 2%–22% over the same four-week period. The majority of the infected salmon was asymptomatic. Salmon demonstrating clinical signs of infection shed 1000 pfu mL-1 of virus into the water during a 1 min observation period and had a mean concentration of 106 pfu mL-1 in their mucus. The high virus concentration detected in mucus suggests that it could act as an avenue of transmission in high density situations where dominance behavior results in nipping. Infected smolts that had migrated 295 km down river were collected at least two weeks after their release. The majority of the virus positive smolts was asymptomatic. A series of transmission experiments was conducted using oral application of the virus to simulate nipping, brief low dose waterborne challenges, and cohabitation with different ratios of infected to naïve fish. These studies showed that asymptomatic infections will occur when a salmon is exposed for as little as 1 min to >102 pfu mL-1, yet progression to clinical disease is infrequent unless the challenge dose is >104 pfu mL-1. Asymptomatic infections were detected up to 39 d post-challenge. No virus was detected by tissue culture in natural Chinook juveniles cohabitated with experimentally IHNV-infected hatchery Chinook at ratios of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:20 for either 5 min or 24 h. Horizontal transmission of the Sacramento River strain of IHNV from infected juvenile hatchery fish to wild cohorts would appear to be a low ecological risk. The study results demonstrate key differences between IHNV infections as present in a hatchery and the natural environment. These differences should be considered during risk assessments of the impact of IHNV infections on wild salmon and

  7. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  8. A constituição de um território identitário pela garantia dos direitos fundiários: o Sítio Histórico e Patrimônio Cultural Kalunga / The constitution of a identity territory for warranty of land rights: The Historic and Cultural Site Kalunga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Nunes Martins de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the constitution of Historic and Cultural Site Kalunga, situated in the north of Goiás, making considerations about the communities it distributed in, the form of occupation in Cerrado of Goiás and the official recognition of its territory. Presents a discussion about how the discourses of identity self-assertion and the patrimonialization of quilombolas territory modify the reproductive strategies of these groups. This process, however, only occurs by external interference that works in raising awareness of these communities in relation to their constitutional rights. Before the need of self-assertion, the discourse of identity resignify the meaning of these communities struggle: the right to land. Finally, it detach the problem regarding community title of land property. These issues are discussed through a literature review that permeated the theme, observations and interviews made on the spot. Preliminarily, there are some conclusions that point to the need to rethink the policies that prioritize the cultural preservation directed to the quilombolas communities, rather than their actual demands.

  9. Women's Rights, Human Rights, and Duties: From Domination to Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester R. Kurtz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of women's rights as human rights can facilitate our identifying the causes, consequences, and potential remedies for the current quagmire in which we find themselves, but it needs some reformulation. To the traditional understandings of human rights, I add four conceptual tools: (1 Mahatma Gandhi’s idea of the counterparts of rights and duties, (2 Eisler’s concept of partnership (as opposed to dominator societies, (3 Johan Galtung’s expansion of our conception of violence to include its structural and cultural forms, and, finally, (4 the literature on nonviolence as a path to mobilization and transformation that resists existing social structures and builds new ones.

  10. Women Reproductive Rights in India: Prospective Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kosgi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive rights were established as a subset of the human rights. Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. Issues regarding the reproductive rights are vigorously contested, regardless of the population’s socioeconomic level, religion or culture. Following review article discusses reproductive rights with respect to Indian context focusing on socio economic and cultural aspects. Also discusses sensitization of government and judicial agencies in protecting the reproductive rights with special focus on the protecting the reproductive rights of people with disability (mental illness and mental retardation.

  11. Environmental ground borne noise and vibration protection of sensitive cultural receptors along the Athens Metro Extension to Piraeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2012-11-15

    Attiko Metro S.A., the state company ensuring the development of the Athens Metro network, has recently initiated a new extension of 7.6 km, has planned for line 3 of Athens Metro from Haidari to Piraeus "Dimotikon Theatre" towards "University of Piraeus" (forestation), connecting the major Piraeus Port with "Eleftherios Venizelos" International Airport. The Piraeus extension consists of a Tunnel Boring Machine, 2 tracks and, tunnel sections, as well as 6 stations and a forestation (New Austrian Tunnelling Method) at the end of the alignment. In order to avoid the degradation of the urban acoustic environment from ground borne noise and vibration during metro operation, the assessment of the required track types and possible noise mitigation measures was executed, and for each section and each sensitive building, the ground borne noise and vibration levels will be numerically predicted. The calculated levels were then compared with ground borne noise and vibration level criteria. The necessary mitigation measures were defined in order to guarantee, in each location along the extension, the allowable ground borne Noise and Vibration max. levels inside nearby sensitive buildings taking into account alternative Transfer Functions for ground borne noise diffusion inside the buildings. Ground borne noise levels were proven to be higher than the criterion where special track work is present and also in the case of the sensitive receptor: "Dimotikon Theatre". In order to reduce the ground borne noise levels to allowable values in these sections, the installation of tracks and special track work on a floating slab was assessed and recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 3 CFR 8464 - Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... culture is unique, certain rights are universal: the freedom of people—including women and ethnic and... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights Week, 2009 8464 Proclamation 8464 Presidential Documents...

  13. A philosophical approach to intellectual property rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the legitimacy of intellectual property by focusing on three topical issues, viz., the question of indigenous cultural rights, of computer software intellectual rights, and of intellectual property rights to essential drugs. A scheme of different arguments for the legitimacy...... of private property rights is applied to these issues, and each of the arguments assessed....

  14. Festive environmentalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Christiansen, Lene Bull

    2016-01-01

    Mikhail Bakhtin’s idea of the carnivalesque is applied here to a case study of eco-voluntourism at the Roskilde Festival, an international culture and music event held in Denmark. In the literature on popular forms of environmentalism a dichotomy between engaging and educating about the political...... ecology of environmental issues through empathy and affect versus fun and entertainment, is often drawn. We argue that the carnivalesque enables festivals to move beyond this dichotomy by implicitly acknowledging a mind-body tension (against a fixed binary), as embedded in Western culture, and by offering...

  15. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J. K.; York, E. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room (CER) for control of aerial environment. The CER was equipped with an auto-calibrating system for atmospheric CO2 control. The control systems for the hydroponic chambers were able to maintain acidity within +/- 0.2 pH units and the temperature with +/- 0.5 degree C. Mixing time for the 200-liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min. The CO2 control system was able to maintain aerial concentrations within +/- 10 ppm CO2 during the light period. The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was characterized during a 3-week period of vegetative development by leaf number and area, plant dry weight, total N content of plants, and N depletion from the nutrient solution. The growth characteristics among populations for three hydroponic chambers within the CER were not significantly different, and the percent standard errors of means of the measurements within populations from each chamber were nearly all less than 10%. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions.

  16. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  17. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Cor; Tramper, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth medium can be developed. Small-scale production looks particularly promising, not only technologically but also for societal acceptance. Economic feasibility, however, emerges as the real obstacle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. AIDS and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, D; Mann, J

    1995-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a health problem that is inseparable from individual and collective behavior and social forces, particularly linked with societal respect for human rights and dignity. In its second decade, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to thrive. Where organized communities have access to adequate information, education, and services, the incidence of infection has begun to decline. Elsewhere, HIV continues to reach new populations and new geographic areas. Lessons learned in more than a decade of prevention work point to new directions for expanding national responses, at a time when the UNAIDS program, to be launched in January 1996, offers opportunities for innovative, broad-based, coordinated, and expanded global action. Prevention activities have shown that the spread of HIV can be effectively reduced. Public health interventions, including providing information and applying prevention methods, reduce the probability of infection, the risk of transmission, and the chances of not accessing appropriate care or support once infection has set in. These are proximal interventions that yield the short-term benefits of the decline of incidence and improved quality and duration of life for those infected. Societal vulnerability translates today into the focus the pandemic has on individuals, communities, and nations that are disadvantaged, marginalized, or discriminated against for reasons of gender, age, race, sexual orientation, economic status, or cultural, religious, or political affiliation. A fully expanded response to HIV/AIDS requires a combination of risk-reduction (proximal) and contextual interventions--those directed at reducing vulnerability through social change to enable people to exert control over their own health. Contextual actions can be implemented in the short term (changing laws, policies, practices that discriminate, promoting human rights, developing the most vulnerable communities) and in the long term (cultural changes, gender equality in

  19. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  1. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative PCR in the model fungus Neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen D Cusick

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1 light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2 all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3 temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4 all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated, expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring

  2. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative PCR in the model fungus Neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Pirlo, Russell K; Cockrell, Allison L; Petersen, Emily R; Biffinger, Justin C

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1) light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2) all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3) temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4) all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated), expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring gene

  3. The Right to be Forgotten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Meg Leta; Jones, Elisabeth; Zeide, Elena

    The right to be forgotten gained international attention in May 2014, when the European Court of Justice ruled that Google was obligated to recognize European citizens’ data protection rights to address inadequate, irrelevant, or excessive personal information. As of April 14, 2015, Google received...... 239,337 requests to eliminate 867,930 URLs from search results and has removed 305,095 URLs, a rate of 41.5 percent. The right to be forgotten is intended to legally address digital information that lingers and threatens to shackle individuals to their past by exposing the information to opaque data...... processing and online judgment. There are a number of challenges to developing these rights – digital information means and touches so many aspects of life across cultures as they grapple with new policies. The controversial ruling and establishment of such a right, potential for a similar movement in the U...

  4. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching about Human Rights and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a flexible lesson plan integrating teaching about human rights into the existing curriculum about American Indians. Asserts that American Indians have the right to maintain their cultural ways and connects that subject to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Includes three lists of resources and references. (MJP)

  6. 'Culture and memory of the Sto. Antonio do Morro Grande/MG Quilombola community' program - case study: environmental licensing progress for the Rio de Janeiro-Belo Horizonte Gas Pipeline (GASBEL II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismerio, Marcia [Pallos Environmental Consulting, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (United States); Bartolini, Marcia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The 'Culture and Memory of the Sto. Antonio do Morro Grande Quilombola Community' Program was included in the environmental licensing process of the Rio de Janeiro-Minas Gerais gas pipeline ('GASBEL II'), as requested by the Palmares Cultural Foundation (Fundacao Cultural Palmares), which stipulates the elaboration and implementation of this program as a condition for obtaining the installation license. To develop the program and submit it to this institution, we used methodological procedures in the form of an anthropological social research, such as: interviews with the community's older or most active residents, and a preliminary recognition of the territory and the local culture; all in order to learn more about the community's history and current needs and to identify the remaining 'quilombolas' still living in the community. Analyzing the information raised the need for guided actions designed to rescue the community's cultural memory as an ethnic group and to contribute to its process of affirmation as a Traditional Rural 'Quilombola' Community. This led to the creation of the proposed 'Culture and Memory of the Sto. Antonio do Morro Grande Quilombola Community' Program, currently being developed for the Quilombola Community located in Ressaquinha, in the State of Minas Gerais. (author)

  7. Communication rights: Fundamental human rights for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2018-02-01

    The right to communicate includes the right to "freedom of opinion and expression" and rights and freedoms "without distinction of … language". The 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a time to celebrate and reflect on communication as a human right, particularly with respect to Article 19 and its relationship to national and international conventions, declarations, policies and practices. This review profiles articles from the special issue of International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (volume 20, issue 1) addressing communication rights from four perspectives: (1) communication rights of all people; (2) communication rights of people with communication disabilities; (3) communication rights of children and (4) communication rights relating to language. Divergent perspectives from across the globe are considered. First-hand accounts of people whose right to communicate is compromised/upheld are included and perspectives are provided from people with expertise and advocacy roles in speech-language pathology, audiology, linguistics, education, media, literature and law, including members of the International Communication Project. Three steps are outlined to support communication rights: acknowledge people - adjust the communication style - take time to listen. Future advocacy for communication rights could be informed by replicating processes used to generate the Yogyakarta Principles.

  8. Kingdom, covenant, and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos Vorster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research revisits the idea of a Christian perspective on human rights. Departing from a hermeneutics of trust, this article considers the concept of human rights from the perspective of revelation history. Revelation history departs from the consent of the parts of Scripture, irrespective of differences in dating, original languages, canonical differentiation, cultural, social and historical contexts. Scripture offers a theological unity consisting of various topics which are developed continuing and purposeful throughout the biblical revelation. Two of the major topics in Scripture as they are revealed by a revelation historical survey are the concepts kingdom of God and the covenant of God with God’s people. In this article these two concepts will be used as a foundation for a Christian theory of human rights both as legal human rights and moral human rights. The central theoretical argument of this investigation is that both the concepts kingdom and covenant are essentially about justice and relationships – the justice of the kingdom and the relation between God and humankind, the relation between people and the relation between humans and creation. These relations are the essence of the rights people have, vis-à-vis the authority of the day and other people. These rights, which deal with the orderly maintenance of relationships, can be formalised in legal human rights and should be nurtured and protected by the civil authorities. Christians and churches as moral agents in society have the calling to promote the idea of human rights in constitutional democracies.

  9. Entre Hechos y Derechos, la Reproducción Cultural de la Violencia de Género: la Banalización de la Desigualdad en Venezuela y en Francia (Between Facts and Rights, cultural reproduction of Gender-based Violence: the Trivialization of Inequality in ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pérez-Bravo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal rights, laws, pacts, treaties and national and international agreements on gender violence proposed by the OEA, the UN and UNESCO and subscribed by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela do not always reflect the actual facts. But we can ask ourselves whether this juridical machinery responds to the Venezuelan reality or, on the contrary, whether it is just a copy of other realities from more developed countries such as France. In that sense, the only kind of violence reported is the physical one. Physical violence is penalized in all of western societies; but other kinds of violence coexist with this cultural reality, which are invisible, not criminalized, and socially accepted. These include, first, affective nomadism; second, early pregnancy; third, paternal irresponsibility; and fourth, discrimination against women in politics and in the workforce, discrimination which has been accentuated by new rights, which indirectly exclude women from the labor market. This investigation is part of a comparative study between Venezuela and France, from a gender point of view. Los derechos, las leyes, los pactos, los tratados y los convenios nacionales e internacionales propuestos por la OEA, la ONU y la UNESCO, suscritos por la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, sobre la violencia de género, no siempre reflejan los hechos. Pero, cabría preguntarse si este aparato legal se corresponde con la realidad, o por el contrario es una copia, de países desarrollados, como Francia. Alrededor de esta realidad cultural, coexisten otros tipos de violencias invisibles, que no están tipificadas como delitos y son aceptadas socialmente: en primer lugar, el nomadismo afectivo; en segundo lugar, el embarazo precoz; en tercer lugar, la irresponsabilidad paternal; en cuarto lugar, la discriminación de las mujeres en la política y del trabajo formal. Esta investigación es parte de un estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Francia, desde el punto de vista de g

  10. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  11. Getting it Right: Study protocol to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a culturally-specific measure to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Maree L.; Hackett, Maree L.; Farnbach, Sara

    2016-01-01

    for a study aiming to determine the validity, sensitivity and specificity of the culturally adapted 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (aPHQ-9). Methods and analysis Cross-sectional validation study. A total of 500 people who self-identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, are ≥18 €...years of age......© Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. Introduction A freely available, culturally valid depression screening tool is required for use by primary care services across Australia to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander populations. This is the protocol...

  12. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Mächtle, B.; Schäbitz, F.; Wennrich, V.; Reindel, M.; Eitel, B.

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude peatlands of the Andes still remain relatively unexploited although they offer an excellent opportunity for well-dated palaeoenvironmental records. To improve knowledge about climatic and environmental changes in the western Andes of southern Peru, we present a high-resolution record of the Cerro Llamoca peatland for the last 8600 years. The 10.5 m long core consists of peat and intercalated sediment layers and was examined for all kinds of microfossils. We chose homogeneous peat sections for pollen analysis at decadal to centennial resolution. The inorganic geochemistry was analysed in 2 mm resolution (corresponding >2 years) using an ITRAX X-ray fluorescence core scanner. We interpret phases of relatively high abundances of Poaceae pollen in our record as an expansion of Andean grasslands during humid phases. Drier conditions are indicated by a significant decrease of Poaceae pollen and higher abundances of Asteraceae pollen. The results are substantiated by changes in arsenic contents and manganese/iron ratios, which turned out to be applicable proxies for in situ palaeoredox conditions. The mid-Holocene period of 8.6-5.6 ka is characterised by a series of episodic dry spells alternating with spells that are more humid. After a pronounced dry period at 4.6-4.2 ka, conditions generally shifted towards a more humid climate. We stress a humid/relatively stable interval between 1.8 and 1.2 ka, which coincides with the florescence of the Nasca culture in the Andean foothills. An abrupt turn to a sustained dry period occurs at 1.2 ka, which is contemporaneous with the demise of the Nasca/Wari society in the Palpa lowlands. Markedly drier conditions prevail until 0.75 ka, providing evidence of the presence of a Medieval Climate Anomaly. Moister but hydrologically highly variable conditions prevailed again after 0.75 ka, which allowed re-expansion of tussock grasses in the highlands, increased discharge into the Andean foreland and resettling of the

  13. China and Africa: Human Rights Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant concept behind that of power and sovereignty is national interest. ..... of whom deny that modern states have a moral or legal authority to represent them in ... protection of human rights based on cultural relativism would then only be.

  14. Decentralization, local power and women's rights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Millennium .... women's effective participation must be facilitated through special measures, such as ... through support for women's capacity development and networking. Resources ...

  15. On children's right to pluralism in education

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The starting points of this paper imply a use from one article (Englund 2010) published within the project (Education as a citizenship right – parents’ rights, children’s rights or …..) in which the parental right to educational authority is questioned. Using deliberative democracy as an ideal I am putting the question if it is possible to create a deliberative democracy without future citizens growing into a pluralist, deliberative culture developing deliberative capabilities, with schools s...

  16. Environmental education and indigenous approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, S.M.; Hussain, M.; Mahmood, T.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

  17. Culture and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, Neil G; Banissy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the nature and both environmental and cognitive origins of culturally associated differences in a range of behaviors. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents six empirical papers investigating diverse categories of potential culturally related effects as well as a review article, all of which provide timely updates of the current state of knowledge in this area.

  18. Adaptation and Cultural Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of adaptation in cultural diffusion. Explains that adaptation theory recognizes the lack of independence between innovations and their environmental settings. Discusses testing and selection, modification, motivation, and cognition. Suggests that adaptation effects are pervasive in cultural diffusion but require a broader, more…

  19. Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CR cultural resource CRM cultural resource management CRPM Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling DoD Department of Defense ESTCP Environmental...resource management ( CRM ) legal obligations under NEPA and the NHPA, military installations need to demonstrate that CRM decisions are based on objective...maxim “one size does not fit all,” and demonstrate that DoD installations have many different CRM needs that can and should be met through a variety

  20. Animal rights and environmemntal rights in Brazilian Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Costa Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article analyzes the arguments of the Federal Supreme Court of Brazil, used in the consideration of disputes concerning animal rights, in comparison with the developments of theorists in this field.The purpose of the article is to justify the necessity of respect for the rights of animals and the “animal dignity” by the courts.The methodology includes formal-legal analysis of courts’ decisions, comparative-legal analysis and synthesis as well as formal-logical analysis of scientific researches in the field of animal rights.The main results and scope of application. It is wrong to claim that the Brazilian Supreme Court decision in “Vaquejada” case (or even in “Farra do Boi” or cockfights cases would be an increase in the process of a supposed recognition of animal rights in the Brazilian constitutional jurisdiction. In such cases, most of the Judges who participated in the trial pondered and reinforced the prevalence of environmental law, including it wildlife protection (and non-submission of the animals to cruelty, pursuant to Art. 225, § 1, VII, of the Brazilian Constitution. In this way, it would have been disregarded the categorical difference between environmental law and animal rights. The Constitution itself encourages confusion between those categories when dealing with the prohibition of animal cruelty in a chapter on the environment (chap. VI. This article argues that the focus on the statement of environmental law, the Supreme Court allows them to be strengthened arguments considered as obstacles to the defenders of animal rights, particularly the anthropocentric argument that the balanced environment is important to make possible to human beings more quality of life. Analyzing the decisions, especially in of Vaquejada and Farra do Boi cases, it appears that points many important analyzed in the theoretical debate about animal rights, such as the notions of “animal dignity” and “flourishing life

  1. Environmental philosophy: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    Environmental philosophy is a hybrid discipline drawing extensively from epistemology, ethics, and philosophy of science and analyzing disciplines such as conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability studies, and political ecology. The book being discussed both provides an overview of environmental philosophy and develops an anthropocentric framework for it. That framework treats natural values as deep cultural values. Tradeoffs between natural values are analyzed using decision theory to the extent possible, leaving many interesting question for philosophical deliberation. This framework is supposed to be applicable in practical contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  3. Learning by Knowledge Networking across Cultures - The Experience of Joint Courses in Environmental Studies for Malaysian and Danish Engineering and Science students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Stærdahl, Jens; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    Engineers and planners working in trans-national production and aid project interventions in Third World countries must be able to 're-invent' technological systems across cultures and plan and build capacities of their counterparts. A series of joint courses on cleaner production (CP) and enviro......Engineers and planners working in trans-national production and aid project interventions in Third World countries must be able to 're-invent' technological systems across cultures and plan and build capacities of their counterparts. A series of joint courses on cleaner production (CP...... of the obstacles into resources for knowledge sharing. However, students have stressed their positive experience of cross-cultural communication. While a joint course of three-week duration by itself may involve only limited cross-cultural learning, serving primarily as an introduction to a long-term field study...

  4. Environmental Compliance Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panagiotis; Fitzmaurice, Malgosia

    2017-01-01

    Compliance mechanisms can be found in treaties regulating such diverse issues as human rights, disarmament law, and environmental law. In this bibliography, the focus will be on compliance mechanisms of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Compliance with norms of international

  5. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  6. Developing Cultural Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Fırat Altay

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at emphasizing the issue of teaching of culture in foreign languageteaching. In this respect, the reasons of teaching culture in foreign language classes arefocused on initially. So, the justifications of teaching culture are considered and explainedand by the help of a dialogue. Right after this, ways of developing cultural awareness is takeninto account. At this step, types of courses to develop cultural awareness are dealt with.Developing cultural awareness in class is another aspect to handle. Besides, ways ofdeveloping cultural awareness outside the class are worked on. Whether there are dangers ofusing culture in foreign language class is explained in dangers and problems part. In theconclusion, ideas of the writer on the subject as final remarks are clarified.

  7. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-12-01

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Transformation of Rights to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tarik GÜMÜŞ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has the right to education from birth, and this right should be available equally to everyone by the state. Basically, the state imposes important responsibilities in regard to providing education services in respect to the right to life in a manner worthy of human dignity towards individuals directly connected to the right to education.The right to education in the classification of fundamental rights and freedoms found in the second generation or the social and economic rights. After World War II, this right significantly institutionalized andmany new constitutions were enacted. Social and economic rights in constitutions of these states had important responsibilities installed as a constitutional assignment.Usually social and economic rights in constitutions in respect to the criteria "the means of economic dependence" is limited. Yet during this period the states were strongly willing to spend strongly in order to implement the right to education. However, since the mid-1970s, states have fallen into economic crisis. In order to adopt a solution to solve this crisis, there has been an emphasis on neo-liberal ideas. So that states a different approach from that period have led to enter into. In the new era that has survived from this, the process of globalization has accelerated and world-wide, neo-liberal shaped ideas, within the framework have led to the establishment of a new order.During this period globalization is taking shape as a process of international exchange that is characterized by a growing interconnectedness between political, social, cultural and economic systems beyond national borders. Thus in this process, important changes are taking place regarding the right to education. This change process is especially the case with respect to economic globalization. In this context economic globalization refers to a related process: the integration of world financial markets. In this process, as national economies open to

  10. Protecting the Right to Multicultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Adair

    1991-01-01

    Argues that a child has a right to multicultural education when the child is a member of a minority community or when the child's mother and father are members of different cultural groups. Concludes that multicultural education as established in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child should be developed further and elaborated in…

  11. Human Rights, Diversity, and Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize human rights values,…

  12. Do Social Rights Affect Social Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Mchangama, Jacob

    While the United Nations and NGOs are pushing for global judicialization of economic, social and cultural rights (ESCRs), little is known of their consequences. We provide evidence of the effects of introducing three types of ESCRs into the constitution: the rights to education, health and social...

  13. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, ENVIRONMENTAL WORK, LEADERSHIP STYLE ON THE JOB SATISFACTION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF TEACHING IN STATE COMMUNITY ACADEMY BOJONEGORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meithiana Indrasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tri Dharma college task, namely implements education and teaching, research and community service. Some of the factors that can affect the performance of the lecturer are organizational culture, work environment, leadership style, and job satisfaction. For this study aims to assess the effect of organizational culture, work environment, leadership style on job satisfaction lecturers as well as to analyze the influence of organizational culture, work environment, leadership style to the performance of lecturers. This study took 64 samples through census methods, and data collected through questionnaires in the form of Likert scale research.  Results of analysis proving the hypothesis indicated that organizational culture, work environment, leadership style positive impact significant job satisfaction lecturer Bojonegoro State Community College. As well as organizational culture, work environment, leadership style, job satisfaction and positive effect significant the performance of lecturers Bojonegoro State Community College. Suggested to the management community college that faculty performance can be optimized, provide incentives for lecturers in order to work in the world of education through awards, strive to the increase salaries, keeping in touch, comfort, creation of competition, healthy  performance appraisal is fair, providing an opportunity to follow the scientific activities at a cost from the academy. Encourage to continue their education to a higher level. Motivate to do research, and community service to the relevant fields at the expense of the institution/college or grants.

  14. Environmental risk concern and preferences for energy-saving measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, W; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    It is often assumed that higher environmental concern goes with more positive attitudes toward environmental management strategies and more environmentally friendly behavior. Cultural theory argues this relationship is more complex. Cultural theory distinguishes four ways of life, involving distinct

  15. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  16. Rights, goals, and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a

  17. Addressing the Right to Self-Determination: The Okinawans’ Claims from the Group-Based Rights Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tamura, Momoka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the Japanese society from the group-based rights perspective. International human rights law provides the rights mostly in an individualistic form. But there is also a development of the international standards of rights with group-dimensions. The right to self-determination under the common article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) provide a collective right to...

  18. The construction of environmental statements in the curriculum, in perspective of the will to make things right A construção dos enunciados ambientais no currículo, na perspectiva da vontade de verdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Alves de Oliveira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} A discussion is presented regarding the construction of the environmental discourse based on the talks from the teachers of the 2nd and the 27th Regional Education Coordination of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, having as a main point of this discussion, the influences of the mega-conferences on sustainable development and environment, as well as the naturalization of the modern thought in the current  conceptions on environment shown in the speeches of 30 high school educators. In the teachers’ talks it was possible to notice a common concern: to teach the “good direction” concerning the subjects life and environment, specially regarding preservation issues in the context of the urban environment. In the scope of this work, the desire for the good direction is called the “will to make things right”. As the observed speeches demonstrate very explicit relationships of power, the discussions will be based on the thoughts of the French philosopher Michel Foucault. It is our purpose to understand which statements constitute, in the teachers’ speeches, the will to make things right. Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} O presente artigo visa a pôr em discussão a construção do discurso

  19. Children's rights and school psychology: children's right to participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Gerison; Jimerson, Shane R; Shahroozi, Reza

    2014-02-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child detailed an international imperative to fulfilling, protecting, and respecting the rights of every child. In particular, the Convention set out a clear mandate for guaranteeing opportunities for children to be heard on all matters of concern to them. The attainment of these goals involves respecting and valuing children as active participants in the educational process. If fully implemented, the right of children to express views and have them taken seriously, throughout the school environment, would represent one of the most profound transformations in moving towards a culture of respect for children's rights, for their dignity and citizenship, and for their capacities to contribute significantly towards their own well-being. These values and principles are consistent with those of the school psychology profession, thus, school psychologists are encouraged to be at the Center of the process advocating and actualizing the Convention in schools throughout the world. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protect the environment, it is imperative to conduct environmental impact assessment ... Ethiopia enacted the Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation in 2002 ... flora, fauna, soil, air, water, climate, natural or cultural heritage, other.

  1. High technology and civil rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, P.

    1982-01-01

    Court decision reflect the widely felt lack of clarity about the present legal situation in the field of high technology. This confusion is also due to the fact that this legal situation is surrounded by civil rights constellations, which have more and more eroded the contours of our legal system in recent years: Today, civil rights are no longer specific, well-definable bulwarks for the citizen, but are more and more frequently interpreted by the supreme courts as sources of procedural requirements with more or less certain often vague consequences. This shifting of the accent in civil rights towards procedural matters is due to an innate logical necessity, however: The same civil right considered in the same situation, e.g., in planning for high technology, may give rise to very different, even contradictory individual claims. Therefore, one of the main modern objectives of civil rights becoming more and more apparent is the need to reconcile conflicting positions, which makes civil rights a driving force in balancing interests in the easiest possible way. Yet, one of the main deficiencies in this rapidly growing procedural approach is the one-sidedness often to be found as a result of isolated, punctual actions. This misses the objective of achieving adequate harmonization. As examples of such one-sided, isolated civil rights approaches, legal opinions are cited on the so-called public participation (possibility to object for those concerned) in the licensing procedures under the German Atomic Energy Act and for protection against environmental impacts. Quity rightly, this participation of the public is interpreted as an advance protection of civil rights. However, its consequences quite often are exaggerated. (orig.) [de

  2. Realizing the right to development in Nigeria: an examination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The United Nations General Assembly has, through several Conventions, emphasized the need for the full realization of the right to development, alongside the rights to food and clean water, the right to shelter and the right to housing. According to the United Nations, if Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR) are ...

  3. The ecology of primate material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  5. Environmental change in Bushbuckridge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, BFN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available to environmental change, but projecting current trends in the changes that we observe, combined with increased unpredictability of rainfall, threatens to decouple the age-old interdependencies in the this cultural landscape, and present inhabitants with conditions...

  6. Public participation, Good Environmental Governance and fulfilment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public participation, Good Environmental Governance and fulfilment of Environmental rights. ... international developments the role that public participation is expected to play in state governments\\' fulfilment of citizens\\' environmental rights.

  7. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Right Brain Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Adryce C.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes activities of a weekly enrichment class providing right-brain tasks to gifted elementary students. Activities, which centered on artistic creativity, were taken from "Drawing On the Right Side of the Brain" by B. Edwards. (CL)

  9. The Children’s Right to Music Project

    OpenAIRE

    Guylaine Vaillancourt; Sandi Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Sponsored by the Canadian Heritage Human Rights Grants and Contributions Program, the Children's Right to Music Project is an innovative program which increases awareness of the rights of children with disabilities as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Children, in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and in the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. Its focus on the rights of children to music represents a creative approa...

  10. Constitutional Rights in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Judhariksawan

    2018-01-01

    The constitution is fundamental to the life of the modern state as a major foothold in state governance. Includes the guarantee of constitutional rights of citizens. The The constitution is the basis of state organizers to be implemented so that the state is obliged to guarantee the fulfillment of citizens' constitutional rights. Human rights have become an important part of the modern constitution. This study will describe how human rights guarantees become part of consti...

  11. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  12. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  13. Understanding Cultural Differences in the Antecedents of Pro-Environmental Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Business Students in the United States and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordano, Mark; Welcomer, Stephanie; Scherer, Robert; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed business students in the U. S. (n = 256) and Chile (n = 310). The survey included measures drawn from studies of pro-environmental behavior using Schwartz's norm activation theory (Schwartz, 1977), the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), and a values-beliefs-norms model created by Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, and…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Assessment of Three Theories of Pro-Environmental Behavior: A Comparison between Business Students of Chile and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordano, Mark; Welcomer, Stephanie; Scherer, Robert F.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed business students in the United States (n = 256) and Chile (n = 310) to compare three theories of pro-environmental behavior.We examined Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action, Schawartz's norm activation theory, and the values-beliefs-norms theory created by Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, and Kalof. We produced reliable…

  15. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  16. Inalienable Rights of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbes, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Rights are statements of claim. The very conception of human rights cannot be understood without reference to the aggressive disposition to invade, violate, or override them. When socially sensitive leaders rise to the acceptance of these rights,... gradually such expressions of social conviction are either set aside due to some less idealistic…

  17. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  18. Consumer rights and protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care consumer rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS Here are ways that the health care law protects consumers. You must be covered, even if you have a pre-existing condition. No insurance plan can reject you, ...

  19. The right data for the right decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.D.; Olson, J.L.; Thurber, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper identifies and discusses a number of issues associated with the development and use of performance indicators for commercial nuclear power plants. The paper reviews the objectives of various users of performance indicators and addresses the problem of applying the right performance indicators to the needs of these users. The analysis concludes with a brief discussion of how the different user objectives of performance indicators can lead to conflicts over the definition and implementation of performance indicator systems

  20. Social Issue Entertainment 2.0: How pop culture, behavioral science and impact evaluation can motivate social and environmental change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, D.

    2010-12-01

    Mainstream entertainment’s influence on our cognition, emotions, and behavior is often profound. Mass media permeates both the public and private spheres of society, saturating communities with messages from a diverse range of sources. While advertisers regularly take advantage of the extensive reach and influence of the media, social scientists, policy makers, and nonprofits have seen little success in incorporating social and environmental messaging into entertainment. Harmony Institute’s goal is to harness the power of mainstream media to provide US audiences with entertainment that educates on social and environmental issues and increases both individual and community action. The entertainment the Institute helps to produce connects with viewers on both a cognitive and emotional level. The Institute uses innovative methods across disciplines in order to measure entertainment’s impact and influence. Since its founding two years ago, the Institute has worked on a wide range of projects that have helped to establish its methodology for measured impact that applies behavioral science theory and entertainment to social and environmental issues. Projects spanning media platforms and social/environmental issues have included a web serial drama incorporating issues of water conservation and ocean stewardship into the narrative and a fotonovela for Hispanic youth in Houston focused on local environmental issues. In summer 2010, the Harmony Institute released FTW! Net Neutrality For The Win: How Entertainment and the Science of Influence Can Save Your Internet, an issue-specific communications guide about open Internet access that explains how to craft a communications strategy that connects with audiences using behavioral science research findings. In 2010-2011, the Institute will focus on measuring the impact and influence that media can have on social and environmental issues. The Institute has developed a comprehensive media evaluation methodology that employs

  1. Environmental impact of aquaculture-sedimentation and nutrient loadings from shrimp culture of the southeast coastal region of the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biplob; Khan, Yusuf Sharif Ahmed; Das, Pranab

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient loadings were measured for surface seawater and bottom sediments of semi-intensive and improved extensive shrimp culture pond, adjacent estuary, and fallow land in the south-east coastal region of Bangladesh during August, 2000-January, 2001 to evaluate the impact of shrimp culture. The mean levels of nutrients found in the pond surface water were 108.780 mg/L for CaCO3, 0.526 mg/L for NH4+ -N, 3.075 wt% for organic carbon, 7.00 mg/L for PO4-P, 5.57 mg/L for NO3-N, and 7.33 mg/L for chlorophyll-a. The maximum mean value of H2S (0.232 mg/L) was found in estuarine water. Nutrients loading were found to be decreased with distance from the shrimp farm discharge unit in estuarine water. The mean level of organic matter, total nitrogen, and organic carbon were found in higher concentrations in sediments of cultured pond compared to bottom soil of adjacent fallow land at the same elevation. Extractable Ca values were found in higher concentration (550.33 ppt) in adjacent fallow land, as the shrimps for molting in shrimp ponds use extractable Ca. The relation between seawater H2S value and sediment pH (r = - 0.94); sediment organic carbon and sediment pH values (r = -0.76), sediment total nitrogen and sediment pH (r = -0.74) were found to be highly negatively correlated. Whereas the relation between seawater H2S value and sediment total nitrogen (r = 0.92), water NH4+ -N and sediment pH (r = 0.66) were found to be positively correlated. The results revealed that load of nutrients at eutrophic level in estuarine water, and decrease of soil pH; leading to acid sulphate soil formation indicates a negative impact of shrimp culture.

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation of an environmental health measurement instrument: Brazilian version of the health-care waste management • rapid assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozendey-Silva, Eliana Napoleão; da Silva, Cintia Ribeiro; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Wasserman, Julio Cesar; Rozemberg, Brani; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

    2016-09-05

    Periodic assessment is one of the recommendations for improving health-care waste management worldwide. This study aimed at translating and adapting the Health-Care Waste Management - Rapid Assessment Tool (HCWM-RAT), proposed by the World Health Organization, to a Brazilian Portuguese version, and resolving its cultural and legal issues. The work focused on the evaluation of the concepts, items and semantic equivalence between the original tool and the Brazilian Portuguese version. A cross-cultural adaptation methodology was used, including: initial translation to Brazilian Portuguese; back translation to English; syntheses of these translation versions; formation of an expert committee to achieve consensus about the preliminary version; and evaluation of the target audience's comprehension. Both the translated and the original versions' concepts, items and semantic equivalence are presented. The constructs in the original instrument were considered relevant and applicable to the Brazilian context. The Brazilian version of the tool has the potential to generate indicators, develop official database, feedback and subsidize political decisions at many geographical and organizational levels strengthening the Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) mechanism. Moreover, the cross-cultural translation expands the usefulness of the instrument to Portuguese-speaking countries in developing regions. The translated and original versions presented concept, item and semantic equivalence and can be applied to Brazil.

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation of an environmental health measurement instrument: Brazilian version of the health-care waste management • rapid assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Napoleão Cozendey-Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodic assessment is one of the recommendations for improving health-care waste management worldwide. This study aimed at translating and adapting the Health-Care Waste Management - Rapid Assessment Tool (HCWM-RAT, proposed by the World Health Organization, to a Brazilian Portuguese version, and resolving its cultural and legal issues. The work focused on the evaluation of the concepts, items and semantic equivalence between the original tool and the Brazilian Portuguese version. Methods A cross-cultural adaptation methodology was used, including: initial translation to Brazilian Portuguese; back translation to English; syntheses of these translation versions; formation of an expert committee to achieve consensus about the preliminary version; and evaluation of the target audience’s comprehension. Results Both the translated and the original versions’ concepts, items and semantic equivalence are presented. The constructs in the original instrument were considered relevant and applicable to the Brazilian context. The Brazilian version of the tool has the potential to generate indicators, develop official database, feedback and subsidize political decisions at many geographical and organizational levels strengthening the Monitoring and evaluation (M&E mechanism. Moreover, the cross-cultural translation expands the usefulness of the instrument to Portuguese-speaking countries in developing regions. Conclusion The translated and original versions presented concept, item and semantic equivalence and can be applied to Brazil

  4. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and ‘persistence’ in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically ‘nonculturable’ on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as ‘persisters’. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one’s bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known. This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron might be of much therapeutic benefit.

  5. The natural rights of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Walter E.; Smith, Ed; Reel, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    What does libertarian theory, Murray Rothbard’s theory in particular, tell us about the rights of children? The two foundational principles of Rothbardian libertarianism are the sanctity of private property and the rule of non-aggression. Persons, including children, are “self-owners”. Yet children, at a young age, are not yet capable of functioning fully as “self-owners.” They must be cared for, and the caring will necessarily involve some degree of aggression in the form of supervision and restraint. Parents and other caregivers play the role of trustees; and just as the beneficiary of a trust has the right to petition a court to change trustees or terminate the trustee relationship, so a child, able to express his preferences when it comes to the nature and degree of supervision and restraint to which he will be subjected, should equally enjoy that right while, in terms of property rights, a biological caregiver may have better “title” than an adoptive caregiver to be the child’s “trustee” given the child’s inability to express a preference for one or the other. What may seem to a contemporary sensibility as an extreme degree of childhood independence in the choice of caregivers and other freedom from supervision and restraint was common in pre-industrial America and continues to be the rule in some native cultures. PMID:24639983

  6. The Natural Rights of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Block

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available What does libertarian theory, Murray Rothbard’s theory in particular, tell us about the rights of children? The two foundational principles of Rothbardian libertarianism are the sanctity of private property and the rule of non-aggression. Persons, including children, are “self-owners”. Yet children, at a young age, are not yet capable of functioning fully as “self-owners.” They must be cared for, and the caring will necessarily involve some degree of aggression in the form of supervision and restraint. Parents and other caregivers play the role of trustees; and just as the beneficiary of a trust has the right to petition a court to change trustees or terminate the trustee relationship, so a child, able to express his preferences when it comes to the nature and degree of supervision and restraint to which he will be subjected, should equally enjoy that right while, in terms of property rights, a biological caregiver may have better “title” than an adoptive caregiver to be the child’s “trustee” given the child’s inability to express a preference for one or the other. What may seem to a contemporary sensibility as an extreme degree of childhood independence in the choice of caregivers and other freedom from supervision and restraint was common in pre-industrial America and continues to be the rule in some native cultures.

  7. The natural rights of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Walter E; Smith, Ed; Reel, Jordan

    2014-02-01

    What does libertarian theory, Murray Rothbard's theory in particular, tell us about the rights of children? The two foundational principles of Rothbardian libertarianism are the sanctity of private property and the rule of non-aggression. Persons, including children, are "self-owners". Yet children, at a young age, are not yet capable of functioning fully as "self-owners." They must be cared for, and the caring will necessarily involve some degree of aggression in the form of supervision and restraint. Parents and other caregivers play the role of trustees; and just as the beneficiary of a trust has the right to petition a court to change trustees or terminate the trustee relationship, so a child, able to express his preferences when it comes to the nature and degree of supervision and restraint to which he will be subjected, should equally enjoy that right while, in terms of property rights, a biological caregiver may have better "title" than an adoptive caregiver to be the child's "trustee" given the child's inability to express a preference for one or the other. What may seem to a contemporary sensibility as an extreme degree of childhood independence in the choice of caregivers and other freedom from supervision and restraint was common in pre-industrial America and continues to be the rule in some native cultures.

  8. The right and development: the nuclear right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, Guilhermina Lavos.

    1986-02-01

    The author analyses some juridical instruments signed among Brazil and his commercial partners in the nuclear field: the way as it has been reflected and it has modeled the Brazilian Nuclear Program - BNP. It is very much important a Nuclear Law/Bill of the Nuclear Rights directed to the uranium and the BNP defense. It is compared the Brazilian petroleum situation, before 1952, with the present uranium situation. It is purposed a Constitutional disposal, protecting the uranium and all the other nuclear strategic minerals state monopoly, to be inserted in the next Brazilian Constitution and the URANIOBRAS creation, similar to PETROBRAS. (author). 163 refs

  9. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  10. Visão do mundo, cuidado cultural e conceito ambiental: o cuidado do idoso com diabetes Mellitus Visión del cuidado del medio ambiente mundial cultural y concepto: el cuidado diario de la tercera edad con diabetes Mellitus World-view, cultural care and environmental concept: the daily care of the elderly with diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Maria Gomes Souza

    2012-03-01

    semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed through content analysis and contemplated pre-analysis, material investigation and treatment and interpretation of the obtained data. The categories that emerged from the testimonies in the light of Leininger' concepts are: World View, Cultural Care and Environmental Context. We believe that older people with DM2 feel a constant fragility about their lives, and they look to guarantee their health through the cultivation of faith in religion, the use of medicinal plants, and the support of health professionals.

  11. THE RESALE RIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses one of the most important rights of the authors of original works of art namely: the resale right. It will be analyzed the subject matter of the resale right, the works of art to which the resale right relates, the rates applicable to the resale right, the persons entitled to receive royalties, the term of protection of the resale right, third-country nationals entitled to receive royalties and the right to obtain information. Also, the article will refer to the EU Directive in the field: Directive 2001/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the resale right for the benefit of the author of an original work of art. It will be the subject of the article, also, the European Court of Justice jurisprudence related to the resale right, for example the judgment in the case C-518/08 (VEGAP vs. ADAGP, underlying that, in the light of the objectives pursued by Directive 2001/84, Member States may make their own legislative choice in determining the categories of persons capable of benefiting from the resale right after the death of the author of a work of art. One of parts of the article, will analyses the collective management for the resale right, especially: the terms of the collective management, forms of the collective management and examples. For all the above mentioned reasons, the article will refer to the main aspects of the resale right in a comprehensive manner and will analyses in a scientifically manner this very important right of the authors of original works of art.

  12. Measuring impairments of functioning and health in patients with axial spondyloarthritis by using the ASAS Health Index and the Environmental Item Set: translation and cross-cultural adaptation into 15 languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiltz, U; van der Heijde, D; Boonen, A; Bautista-Molano, W; Burgos-Vargas, R; Chiowchanwisawakit, P; Duruoz, T; El-Zorkany, B; Essers, I; Gaydukova, I; Géher, P; Gossec, L; Grazio, S; Gu, J; Khan, M A; Kim, T J; Maksymowych, W P; Marzo-Ortega, H; Navarro-Compán, V; Olivieri, I; Patrikos, D; Pimentel-Santos, F M; Schirmer, M; van den Bosch, F; Weber, U; Zochling, J; Braun, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Assessments of SpondyloArthritis international society Health Index (ASAS HI) measures functioning and health in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) across 17 aspects of health and 9 environmental factors (EF). The objective was to translate and adapt the original English version of the ASAS HI, including the EF Item Set, cross-culturally into 15 languages. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaptation has been carried out following the forward–backward procedure. In the cognitive debriefing, 10 patients/country across a broad spectrum of sociodemographic background, were included. Results The ASAS HI and the EF Item Set were translated into Arabic, Chinese, Croatian, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Thai and Turkish. Some difficulties were experienced with translation of the contextual factors indicating that these concepts may be more culturally-dependent. A total of 215 patients with axial SpA across 23 countries (62.3% men, mean (SD) age 42.4 (13.9) years) participated in the field test. Cognitive debriefing showed that items of the ASAS HI and EF Item Set are clear, relevant and comprehensive. All versions were accepted with minor modifications with respect to item wording and response option. The wording of three items had to be adapted to improve clarity. As a result of cognitive debriefing, a new response option ‘not applicable’ was added to two items of the ASAS HI to improve appropriateness. Discussion This study showed that the items of the ASAS HI including the EFs were readily adaptable throughout all countries, indicating that the concepts covered were comprehensive, clear and meaningful in different cultures. PMID:27752358

  13. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  14. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act

  15. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  16. Sustainable mining, local communities and environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokko Kai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable mining is an objective as well as a tool for balancing economic, social, and environmental considerations. Each of these three dimensions of mining – and sustainable development – has many components, some of which were chosen for closer study in the SUMILCERE project. While there is no single component that in itself provides a definitive argument for or against sustainable mining, the research reveals some that have proven valuable in the process of balancing the different dimensions of sustainability. In the SUMILCERE project, comparative studies enabled us to identify factors such as the following, which are essential when discussing the balancing in practice of the three dimensions of sustainable mining cited above: the framework and functionality of environmental regulation to protect the environment (environmental sustainability; competitiveness of the mining industry in light of environmental regulation and its enforcement (economic sustainability; public participation and the opportunities local communities have to influence their surroundings, as well as communities’ acceptance of projects (social sustainability before and during operations; and the protection of Sámi cultural rights in mining projects (social and cultural sustainability. Although each of the three dimensions of sustainability leaves room for discretion in the weight assigned to it, ecological sustainability, protected by smart environmental regulation and minimum standards, sets essential boundaries that leave no room for compromises. Economic and social sustainability are possible only within these limits. Details of the analyses in the Kolarctic area and accounts of the methods used can befound in the cited SUMILCERE articles.

  17. Property Rights and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Johnson; John McMillan; Christopher Woodruff

    2002-01-01

    Which is the tighter constraint on private sector investment: weak property rights or limited access to external finance? From a survey of new firms in post-communist countries, we find that weak property rights discourage firms from reinvesting their profits, even when bank loans are available. Where property rights are relatively strong, firms reinvest their profits; where they are relatively weak, entrepreneurs do not want to invest from retained earnings.

  18. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both household and plot levels, we show that crop choice...... restrictions are widespread and prevent crop diversification. Restrictions do not decrease household income, but restricted households work harder, and there are indications that they are supplied with higher quality inputs. Our findings are consistent with the view that it is possible to intervene effectively...

  19. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, in transition economies such as Vietnam and China, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both...... household and plot level, we show that crop choice restrictions are widespread and prevent crop diversification. Restrictions do not decrease household income, but restricted households work harder, and there are indications that they are supplied with higher quality inputs. Our findings are consistent...

  20. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  1. The Right to Education in a Globalized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the fundamental issues related to education as a human right, particularly in the context of rapid globalization. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations' 1959 Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the UN International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights all declare education to…

  2. Against Faith Schools: A Philosophical Argument for Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marples, Roger

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights grants parents the right to an education in conformity with their own religious convictions, this paper argues that parents should have no such rights. It also tries to demonstrate that religious and cultural minorities have no rights to establish faith schools and that it is a…

  3. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  4. Editors' Introduction: Justice, Rights, Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles gathered in this issue are the result of papers presented at the workshop held at the Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law on 20-21 May 2013 on Perspectives of Justice in Literature: Perspectives from Justice and Fundamental Rights in Literature: an Approach from Legal Culture in a European context. Literature and literary fiction can act as a thread that helps different disciplines to communicate with each other and can thus help go beyond the strictly legal field opening up to questions of justice and rights. These papers deal with issues of justice - mainly Fundamental Rights, but also procedural aspects of justice and its administration, philosophical perspectives of justice - and of legal culture - local, European, Universal - as reflected through and by literature. Los artículos que conforman este número son el resultado de las ponencias presentadas en el workshop celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica de Oñati el 20 y 21 mayo de 2013 sobre las perspectivas de la justicia en la literatura: Perspectivas desde la Justicia y los Derechos Fundamentales en la Literatura: un Enfoque de Cultura Jurídica en el Contexto Europeo. La literatura y la ficción literaria pueden ser un hilo que favorece que diferentes disciplinas se comuniquen entre sí y pueden de esta forma ayudar a ir más allá del campo jurídico estricto, planteando cuestiones sobre justicia y derechos. Estos artículos tratan sobre aspectos de la justicia (principalmente derechos fundamentales, pero también sobre procedimiento judicial y administración de la justicia, perspectivas filosóficas de la justicia y de cultura jurídica (local, europea, universal, de la forma en la que se han reflejado en la literatura.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543450

  5. Science, democracy, and the right to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark B; Guston, David H

    2009-09-01

    Debates over the politicization of science have led some to claim that scientists have or should have a "right to research." This article examines the political meaning and implications of the right to research with respect to different historical conceptions of rights. The more common "liberal" view sees rights as protections against social and political interference. The "republican" view, in contrast, conceives rights as claims to civic membership. Building on the republican view of rights, this article conceives the right to research as embedding science more firmly and explicitly within society, rather than sheltering science from society. From this perspective, all citizens should enjoy a general right to free inquiry, but this right to inquiry does not necessarily encompass all scientific research. Because rights are most reliably protected when embedded within democratic culture and institutions, claims for a right to research should be considered in light of how the research in question contributes to democracy. By putting both research and rights in a social context, this article shows that the claim for a right to research is best understood, not as a guarantee for public support of science, but as a way to initiate public deliberation and debate about which sorts of inquiry deserve public support.

  6. Teaching Human Rights through Global Education to Teachers in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadruddin, Munir Moosa

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is home to religious and cultural ideologies that greatly support the values of human rights. Nevertheless, the multilayered philosophies of human rights in Pakistan have at times heightened clashes and bred a culture of tension among higher education learners. Ideological filters in national education policies have removed human rights…

  7. Legal Enforcement of Social Rights: Enabling Conditions and Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Gloppen (Siri)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article commends the concise and useful analysis of courts and the legal enforcement of economic, social and cultural rights given in Christian Courtis’ book, Courts and the Legal Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Comparative Experiences of Justiciability. Yet, in

  8. The Human Rights as a Product: reflections about the news and the media culture / Os Direitos Humanos como Produto: reflexões sobre a informação e a cultura da mídia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Oliveira de Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss some problems involving the traditional media and the human rights nowadays. Adopting a critical, historical and dialectical approach, the paper makes an intersection between the traditional mass media and the DH in order to discuss issues on both subjects and pointing out possible alternatives. In order to carry out the study, the theories of Roland Barthes (1971, Joaquín Herrera Flores (2005 and Douglas Kellner (2001 are taken into consideration. It is important to stress that the intention of this paper is not to generalize results from our bibliographical research, but to detect tendencies and discern trends about the topic under discussion.Este artigo traz reflexões sobre algumas problemáticas envolvendo a mídia tradicional e a questão dos Direitos Humanos na atualidade. Adotando uma postura crítica, histórica e dialética, o trabalho faz uma intersecção entre os veículos de comunicação de massa tradicionais e os Direitos Humanos, com o propósito de problematizar questões sobre ambos e apontar possíveis saídas. Para tanto, dentre outros autores, foram utilizados os pressupostos desenvolvidos por Roland Barthes (1971, Joaquín Herrera Flores (2005 e Douglas Kellner (2001. Salienta-se que não se pretende generalizar resultados a partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, mas, sim, detectar tendências e vislumbrar possibilidades a respeito da temática em pauta.

  9. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  10. Organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  11. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    less consensual political cultures we may expect more extreme discourses on EA, the consequences of which are reflected upon in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of environmental assessment (EA) depends in part on meanings associated with EA (i.e., discourse). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results suggest that the general discourse in The Netherlands is that EA is a legal requirement, nothing more. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This discourse makes EA effective in protecting the environment, but not in the optimisation of environmental values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EA has a limited contribution to the development of policy alternatives or innovative solutions to environmental problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a high consensus among EA professionals, providing a common ground for working with EA.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Veriflow® Salmonella Species to USDA and FDA Culture-Based Methods for the Detection of Salmonella spp. in Food and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Amrita; Joelsson, Adam C; Terkhorn, Shawn P; Brown, Ashley S; Gaudioso, Zara E; Siciliano, Nicholas A

    2017-09-01

    Veriflow® Salmonella species (Veriflow SS) is a molecular-based assay for the presumptive detection of Salmonella spp. from environmental surfaces (stainless steel, sealed concrete, plastic, and ceramic tile), dairy (2% milk), raw meat (20% fat ground beef), chicken carcasses, and ready-to-eat (RTE) food (hot dogs). The assay utilizes a PCR detection method coupled with a rapid, visual, flow-based assay that develops in 3 min post-PCR amplification and requires only an 18 h enrichment for maximum sensitivity. The Veriflow SS system eliminates the need for sample purification, gel electrophoresis, or fluorophore-based detection of target amplification and does not require complex data analysis. This Performance Tested MethodSM validation study demonstrated the ability of the Veriflow SS method to detect low levels of artificially inoculated or naturally occurring Salmonella spp. in eight distinct environmental and food matrixes. In each reference comparison study, probability of detection analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the Veriflow SS method and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook Chapter 4.06 and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual Chapter 5 reference methods. A total of 104 Salmonella strains were detected in the inclusivity study, and 35 nonspecific organisms went undetected in the exclusivity study. The study results show that the Veriflow SS method is a sensitive, selective, and robust assay for the presumptive detection of Salmonella spp. sampled from environmental surfaces (stainless steel, sealed concrete, plastic, and ceramic tile), dairy (2% milk), raw meat (20% fat ground beef), chicken carcasses, and RTE food (hot dogs).

  13. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CIVIL RIGHTS AND MINORITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARTMAN, PAUL

    A MAJOR INTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION AND ITS AMENDMENTS, TO GUARANTEE EQUAL RIGHTS TO ALL CITIZENS REGARDLESS OF RACE, CREED, OR COLOR, HAS BEEN REINFORCED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES OF MANY STATES. IN SOME STATES SUCH LAWS HAVE BEEN ON RECORD FOR THREE-QUARTERS OF A CENTURY. IN OTHER STATES THE SAME CONSTITUTIONAL INTENT HAS BEEN DENIED BY…

  15. Race, Rights and Rebels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Krabbe, Julia

    An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies......An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies...

  16. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  17. The right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Stavri Sinjari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to life constitutes one of the main human rights and freedoms, foreseen by article 21 of the Albanian Constitution and article 2 of European Human Rights Convention. No democratic or totalitarian society can function without guarantees and protection of the human right to life We intend to address these issues on our article: What is life. What we legally understand with life. When the life starts and finish. How this right has evolved. Which is the state interest on protecting the life. Should we consider that the life is the same for all. Should the state interfere at any cost to protect the life. Is there any criminal charge for responsible persons to the violation of this right. Is this issue treated by European Human Rights Court. What are the Albanian legal provisions on protection of this right. This research is performed mainly according to a comparative and analytical methodology. Comperative analysis will be present almost throughout the paper. Treatment of issues of this research will be achieved through a system comparable with international standards in particular and the most advanced legislation in this area. At the same time, this research is conducted by analytical and statistical data processing. We believe that our research will make a modest contribution, not only to the legal literature, but also to criminal policy makers, law makers, lawyers and attorneys.

  18. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  19. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The heart has 4 sections called chambers. The right ventricle is one of the lower chambers. If you have ARVC, ... Kids and Teens, Men, WomenTags: arrhythmia, Arrhythmias, Arrhythmogenic Right ... April 1, 2006 Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians This ...

  20. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  1. UN human rights council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Mlrjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structure, mechanisms, practices and perspectives of the Human Rights Council, the UN body that, at universal level is the most important body in this area. Introductory section provides for a brief overview of the origins of human rights and the work of the Commission on Human Rights, in whose jurisdiction were questions of human rights before the establishment of the Council. After the introductory section the author gives an analysis of the structure, objectives, mandate and main procedures for the protection of human rights within the united Nations. In the final section the authorpoints out the advantages of this authority and criticism addressed to it, with emphasis on the possibility and the need for its reform.

  2. The Right to Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Coman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we set ourselves to analyze a subject, which, due to its importance andextreme complexity, generated many discussions and controversies both at national and international level:the right to life. The great evolution of the contemporary society and the progress registered in various fieldsbrought into the attention of the states, international organizations, specialists in the field and public opinionthe pressing problem of interpreting the content and limits of the human fundamental rights and liberties. Weset ourselves to analyze the main international instruments regulating the right to life and to identify thesituations where determining the content of this fundamental right in necessary. Without the intent of acomplete work, we understand, throughout this study, to highline the great importance of the right to liferespecting for the entire humanity.

  3. Rightsizing the Right Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Robert C.; Concannon, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how the Cincinnati (Ohio) Public Schools reorganized to achieve a 50% reduction of central-office jobs. Downsizing aims to reduce the organization's size and create a new organizational culture that is more efficient, leaner, and more responsive. Superintendents must set institutional goals, create a new organizational chart, decide who…

  4. Right Kinds of Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina; Freiesleben, Mikalea

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates how urban policies are meant to promote cohesion of a certain kind through neighbourhood-based urban regeneration programmes. The regeneration programme in focus aims at promoting socio-cultural encounters and ethnic minority participation, through particular notions of ...

  5. Environmental Factors Correlated with Culturable Enterococci Concentrations in Tropical Recreational Waters: A Case Study in Escambron Beach, San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdiel E. Laureano-Rosario

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci concentration variability at Escambron Beach, San Juan, Puerto Rico, was examined in the context of environmental conditions observed during 2005–2015. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST, turbidity, direct normal irradiance, and dew point were combined with local precipitation, winds, and mean sea level (MSL observations in a stepwise multiple regression analyses (Akaike Information Criteria model selection. Precipitation, MSL, irradiance, SST, and turbidity explained 20% of the variation in observed enterococci concentrations based upon these analyses. Changes in these parameters preceded increases in enterococci concentrations by 24 h up to 11 days, particularly during positive anomalies of turbidity, SST, and 480–960 mm of accumulated (4 days precipitation, which relates to bacterial ecology. Weaker, yet still significant, increases in enterococci concentrations were also observed during positive dew point anomalies. Enterococci concentrations decreased with elevated irradiance and MSL anomalies. Unsafe enterococci concentrations per US EPA recreational water quality guidelines occurred when 4-day cumulative precipitation ranged 481–960 mm; irradiance < 667 W·m−2; daily average turbidity anomaly >0.005 sr−1; SST anomaly >0.8 °C; and 3-day average MSL anomaly <−18.8 cm. This case study shows that satellite-derived environmental data can be used to inform future water quality studies and protect human health.

  6. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  7. Effect of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and pycnidial production of Lasiodiplodia theobromae in physic nut (Jatropha curcas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, P; Prakasam, V; Jonathan, E I; Samiyappan, R; Natarajan, C

    2013-07-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas) is an important commercial bio-diesel plant species and is being advocated for development of waste and dry land. The collar and root rot caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an important soil borne disease which causes considerable yield loss in this crop. In this study, the effects of culture media, temperature, photoperiod, carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on mycelial growth and pycnidial production were evaluated. Among the growth media tested, potato dextrose agar supported the highest growth followed by potato sucrose agar and corn meal agar. Among several carbon sources tested, carboxy methyl cellulose and sucrose were found superior for growth and pycnidial production. The nitrogen sources viz., ammonium oxalate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were recorded maximum mycelial growth and pycnidial production. The fungus grows at pH 5.0-9.0 and optimum growth was observed at pH 7.0.

  8. Environmental complexity and epistemology in global and local socio-cultural processes doi:10.5007/1807-1384.2010v7n2p45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Floriani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We start with the idea of 'multiple modernities' as opposed to a central ethos of modern Western capitalist rationality which is produced within an enclosed system in itself. We propose that these multiple modernities enroll at the principle of emergency marked by several crises and possibilities of alternatives.One such crisis pointed out here has a representational order in which the idea of 'science' undergoes a fundamental criticism, both in their epistemological, methodological practices and in their production. The paradigm of complexity goes across different fields of human production and social interaction in natural systems, where conflicts emerge at the level of production of knowledge itself (scientific and unscientific, in a situation of potential dialogue, the global culture but also located and of alternate forms of appropriation of territories and spaces of political management of the commons.

  9. Trauma patients' rights during resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Bruce

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Doctors and nurses working in hospital emergency departments face ethical and moral conflicts more so than in other health care units. Traditional curricular approaches to health professional education have been embedded in a discriminatory societal context and as such have not prepared health professionals adequately for the ethical realities of their practice. Furthermore, the discourse on ethical theories and ethical principles do not provide clear-cut solutions to ethical dilemmas but rather serve as a guide to ethical decision- making. Within the arena of trauma and resuscitation, fundamental ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice cannot be taken as absolutes as these may in themselves create moral conflict. Resuscitation room activities require a balance between what is “ ethically" correct and what is “pragmatically required” . Because of the urgent nature of a resuscitation event, this balance is often under threat, with resultant transgression of patients’ rights. This article explores the sources of ethical and moral issues in trauma care and proposes a culture of human rights to provide a context for preserving and protecting trauma patients’ rights during resuscitation. Recommendations for education and research are alluded to in concluding the article.

  10. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context.

  11. "The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications - Report 2012 (A/HRC/20/26)"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsdam, Helle; Mann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The various reports on cultural rights by UN Special Rapporteur Faridah Shaheed have provided a new universal standard for topics ranging from cultural diversity, cultural heritage, the right to artistic freedom and the effects of today's intellectual property regimes. This book’s team of interna...... and students teaching and studying in the fields of culture, heritage and human rights as well as policymakers who are working within cultural rights related issues.......The various reports on cultural rights by UN Special Rapporteur Faridah Shaheed have provided a new universal standard for topics ranging from cultural diversity, cultural heritage, the right to artistic freedom and the effects of today's intellectual property regimes. This book’s team...... of international contributors reflects upon the many aspects of cultural rights discussed in Faridah Shaheed’s reports and discusses how cultural rights support cultural diversity, foster intercultural dialogue and contribute to inclusive social, economic and political development. Drawing from a range...

  12. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  13. The effect of cultural interaction on cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2014-07-07

    Cultural transmission and cultural evolution are important for animals, especially for humans. I developed a new analytical model of cultural evolution, in which each newborn learns cultural traits from multiple individuals (exemplars) in parental generation, individually explores around learned cultural traits, judges the utility of known cultural traits, and adopts a mature cultural trait. Cultural evolutionary speed increases when individuals explore a wider range of cultural traits, accurately judge the skill level of cultural traits (strong direct bias), do not strongly conform to the population mean, increase the exploration range according to the variety of socially learned cultural traits (condition dependent exploration), and make smaller errors in social learning. Number of exemplars, population size, similarity of cultural traits between exemplars, and one-to-many transmission have little effect on cultural evolutionary speed. I also investigated how cultural interaction between two populations with different mean skill levels affects their cultural evolution. A population sometimes increases in skill level more if it encounters a less skilled population than if it does not encounter anyone. A less skilled population sometimes exceeds a more skilled population in skill level by cultural interaction between both populations. The appropriateness of this analytical method is confirmed by individual-based simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. LGBT rights versus Asian values: de/re-constructing the universality of human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Po-Han

    2016-01-01

    Law, especially from the international human rights regime, is a direct reference on which minority groups rely when it comes to ‘non-discrimination’. Drawing upon LGBT rights in Taiwan, as well as Hong Kong and Singapore, this article – through an application of K.H. Chen’s (2010) Asia as Method – critically reviews how global LGBT politics interact with local societies influenced by Confucianism. Along a perpetual competition between the universalism and cultural relativism of human rights,...

  15. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Gregor Fabio

    2018-01-01

    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification...

  16. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification’s...... impact, however, does not entail halting processes of gentrification once and for all....

  17. Docking screens: right for the right reasons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Peter; Irwin, John J

    2009-01-01

    Whereas docking screens have emerged as the most practical way to use protein structure for ligand discovery, an inconsistent track record raises questions about how well docking actually works. In its favor, a growing number of publications report the successful discovery of new ligands, often supported by experimental affinity data and controls for artifacts. Few reports, however, actually test the underlying structural hypotheses that docking makes. To be successful and not just lucky, prospective docking must not only rank a true ligand among the top scoring compounds, it must also correctly orient the ligand so the score it receives is biophysically sound. If the correct binding pose is not predicted, a skeptic might well infer that the discovery was serendipitous. Surveying over 15 years of the docking literature, we were surprised to discover how rarely sufficient evidence is presented to establish whether docking actually worked for the right reasons. The paucity of experimental tests of theoretically predicted poses undermines confidence in a technique that has otherwise become widely accepted. Of course, solving a crystal structure is not always possible, and even when it is, it can be a lot of work, and is not readily accessible to all groups. Even when a structure can be determined, investigators may prefer to gloss over an erroneous structural prediction to better focus on their discovery. Still, the absence of a direct test of theory by experiment is a loss for method developers seeking to understand and improve docking methods. We hope this review will motivate investigators to solve structures and compare them with their predictions whenever possible, to advance the field.

  18. The ontogeny of cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-04-01

    All primates engage in one or another form of social learning. Humans engage in cultural learning. From very early in ontogeny human infants and young children do not just learn useful things from others, they conform to others in order to affiliate with them and to identify with the cultural group. The cultural group normatively expects such conformity, and adults actively instruct children so as to ensure it. Young children learn from this instruction how the world is viewed and how it works in their culture. These special forms of cultural learning enable powerful and species-unique processes of cumulative cultural evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Community Culture and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide explores the concepts of community and culture and provides tools for identifying, assessing and working cooperatively within the social dynamics and local values connected to environmental protection.

  20. Finding the Right Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certified hospital Communicating with Healthcare Professionals for Caregivers Consumer Health Care • Home • Health Insurance Information • Your Healthcare Team Introduction Finding the Right Doctor Talking to Your Doctor Getting a Second ...