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Sample records for right-left foot difference

  1. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-12-01

    Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right-left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11-16 years). Participants were asked to fluently draw superimposed circles with their right dominant and left non-dominant hand. Temporal regularity of circle drawing movements was assessed for each hand using a digitizing tablet. Although all participants were right-handed, there was substantial inter-individual variation regarding the relative right-hand advantage for fluent circle drawing. All subjects underwent whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging at 3 Tesla. The right and left CST were defined as regions-of-interest and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity values were calculated for right and left CST. On average, mean FA values were higher in the left CST relative to right CST. The degree of right-left FA asymmetry showed a linear relationship with right-left asymmetry in fluent circle drawing after correction for age and gender. The higher the mean FA values were in the left dominant CST relative to the right non-dominant CST, the stronger was the relative right-hand advantage for regular circle drawing. These findings show that right-left differences in manual proficiency are highly variable in right-handed adolescents and that this variation is associated with a right-left microstructural asymmetry of the CST.

  2. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right-left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would...... be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11-16 years). Participants were asked to fluently draw superimposed circles with their right dominant and left non-dominant hand. Temporal regularity...... of circle drawing movements was assessed for each hand using a digitizing tablet. Although all participants were right-handed, there was substantial inter-individual variation regarding the relative right-hand advantage for fluent circle drawing. All subjects underwent whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging...

  3. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    © 2016, The Author(s). Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right–left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11–16 years). Partici...

  4. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... with the cleavage-lines of industrial society, but that it is an orientational metaphor which is articulated with others-in/out, up/down and front/back-and that we are in the process of moving beyond the industrial society right/left prototype. The second part looks at where New Labour is heading when moving beyond...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  5. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  6. Gender differences of foot characteristics in older Japanese adults using a 3D foot scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Mahshid; Kitano, Naruki; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of gender differences in foot shape assists shoe manufactures with designing appropriate shoes for men and women. Although gender differences in foot shapes are relatively known among young men and women, less is known about how the older men and women's feet differ in shape. A recent development in foot shape assessment is the use of 3D foot scanners. To our knowledge this technology has yet to be used to examine gender differences in foot shape of Japanese older adults. This cross-sectional study included 151 older men (74.5 ± 5.6 years) and 140 older women (73.9 ± 5.1 years) recruited in Kasama City, Japan. Foot variables were measured in sitting and standing positions using Dream GP Incorporated's 3D foot scanner, Footstep PRO (Osaka, Japan). Scores were analyzed as both raw and normalized to truncated foot length using independent samples t-test and analysis of covariance, respectively. In men, the measurement values for navicular height, first and fifth toe and instep heights, ball and heel width, ball girth, arch height index (just standing), arch rigidity index and instep girth were significantly greater than the women's, whereas the first toe angle, in both sitting and standing positions was significantly smaller. However, after normalizing, the differences in ball width, heel width, height of first and fifth toes in both sitting and standing and ball girth in sitting position were nonsignificant. According to Cohen's d, among all the foot variables, the following had large effect sizes in both sitting and standing positions: truncated foot length, instep, navicular height, foot length, ball girth, ball width, heel width and instep girth. This study provides evidence of anthropometric foot variations between older men and women. These differences need to be considered when manufacturing shoes for older adults.

  7. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  8. Foot Morphological Difference between Habitually Shod and Unshod Runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shu

    Full Text Available Foot morphology and function has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researchers and footwear manufacturers. In this study, 168 habitually unshod runners (90 males whose age, weight & height were 23±2.4 years, 66±7.1 kg & 1.68±0.13 m and 78 females whose age, weight & height were 22±1.8 years, 55±4.7 kg & 1.6±0.11 m (Indians and 196 shod runners (130 males whose age, weight & height were 24±2.6 years, 66±8.2 kg & 1.72±0.18 m and 66 females whose age, weight & height were 23±1.5 years, 54±5.6 kg & 1.62±0.15 m (Chinese participated in a foot scanning test using the easy-foot-scan (a three-dimensional foot scanning system to obtain 3D foot surface data and 2D footprint imaging. Foot length, foot width, hallux angle and minimal distance from hallux to second toe were calculated to analyze foot morphological differences. This study found that significant differences exist between groups (shod Chinese and unshod Indians for foot length (female p = 0.001, width (female p = 0.001, hallux angle (male and female p = 0.001 and the minimal distance (male and female p = 0.001 from hallux to second toe. This study suggests that significant differences in morphology between different ethnicities could be considered for future investigation of locomotion biomechanics characteristics between ethnicities and inform last shape and design so as to reduce injury risks and poor performance from mal-fit shoes.

  9. Heat Transfer Enhancement Studies in a Circular Tube Fitted with Right-Left Helical Inserts with Spacer

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Nagarajan; P. Sivashanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with 300 right-left helical screw inserts with 100 mm spacer of different twist ratio has been presented for laminar and turbulent flow.. The experimental data obtained were compared with those obtained from plain tube published data. The heat transfer coefficient enhancement for 300 RL inserts with 100 mm spacer is quite comparable with for 300 R-L inserts. Performance evalu...

  10. Foot Loading Characteristics of Different Graduations of Partial Weight Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusinde, Johannes; Pauser, Johannes; Swoboda, Bernd; Gelse, Kolja; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Limited weight bearing of the lower extremity is a commonly applied procedure in orthopaedic rehabilitation after reconstructive forefoot surgery, trauma surgery and joint replacement. The most frequent limitations are given as percentage of body weight (BW) and represent 10 or 50% BW. The extent of foot loading under these graduations of partial…

  11. Right-left ambiguity resolution using field corrector readout in a large planar drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Tarte, G.

    1980-02-01

    Induced signals on field corrector wires are used to resolve the right-left ambiguity in a large planar drift chamber. Efficient separation is obtained for +-3 cm drift cells, 4 meters long. Technical problems of the method, in particular the severe geometrical constraints, are discussed. Important features of the avalanche asymmetry can be inferred from the measurements

  12. Influence of auditory and audiovisual stimuli on the right-left prevalence effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Minakata, Katsumi; Ngo, Mary Kim

    2014-01-01

    occurs when the two-dimensional stimuli are audiovisual, as well as whether there will be cross-modal facilitation of response selection for the horizontal and vertical dimensions. We also examined whether there is an additional benefit of adding a pitch dimension to the auditory stimulus to facilitate...... vertical coding through use of the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) effect, where pitch is coded in terms of height in space. In Experiment 1, we found a larger right-left prevalence effect for unimodal auditory than visual stimuli. Neutral, non-pitch coded, audiovisual stimuli did...... not result in cross-modal facilitation, but did show evidence of visual dominance. The right-left prevalence effect was eliminated in the presence of SMARC audiovisual stimuli, but the effect influenced horizontal rather than vertical coding. Experiment 2 showed that the influence of the pitch dimension...

  13. Maintenance of longitudinal foot arch after different mid/hind-foot arthrodesis procedures in a cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanxi; Zhang, Kun; Qiang, Minfei; Hao, Yini

    2014-02-01

    Currently, the optimal treatment of flatfoot remains inconclusive. Our objectives were to understand the effect of different arthrodeses on maintenance of foot arch and provide experimental basis for rational selection in treatment of flatfoot. Sixteen fresh-frozen cadaver feet amputated above the ankle along with a section of leg were studied from ten males and six females. We used standard clinical techniques and hardware for making the arthrodeses. Plantar pressure in the medial and lateral longitudinal arch distribution was measured with a plantar pressure mapping system under different loading conditions. Values of plantar pressure reaction, mean and maximum dynamic peak pressure between all group pairs were statistically significant (Pfoot, compared with 1080 N after subtalar arthrodesis, 1200 N after talonavicular arthrodesis, 1080 N after calcaneocuboid arthrodesis, 1320 N after double arthrodesis, and 1560 N after triple arthrodesis. The plantar pressure reaction appeared at the load of 360 N in the lateral arch of the unoperated foot, compared with 600 N after subtalar arthrodesis, 600 N after talonavicular arthrodesis, 840 N after calcaneocuboid arthrodesis, 960 N after double arthrodesis, and 1440 N after triple arthrodesis. The triple arthrodesis provided the highest support to both arches; the double arthrodesis appeared to be similar to talonavicular arthrodesis in supporting the medial arch and similar to calcaneocuboid arthrodesis in supporting the lateral arch; subtalar arthrodesis was less effective in supporting both arches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2014-02-01

    Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = range of motion (ROM) of the midfoot (11.9° vs. 14.8°, d = 1.3, p = young adults. Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intelligent Automatic Right-Left Sign Lamp Based on Brain Signal Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winda, A.; Sofyan; Sthevany; Vincent, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Comfort as a part of the human factor, plays important roles in nowadays advanced automotive technology. Many of the current technologies go in the direction of automotive driver assistance features. However, many of the driver assistance features still require physical movement by human to enable the features. In this work, the proposed method is used in order to make certain feature to be functioning without any physical movement, instead human just need to think about it in their mind. In this work, brain signal is recorded and processed in order to be used as input to the recognition system. Right-Left sign lamp based on the brain signal recognition system can potentially replace the button or switch of the specific device in order to make the lamp work. The system then will decide whether the signal is ‘Right’ or ‘Left’. The decision of the Right-Left side of brain signal recognition will be sent to a processing board in order to activate the automotive relay, which will be used to activate the sign lamp. Furthermore, the intelligent system approach is used to develop authorized model based on the brain signal. Particularly Support Vector Machines (SVMs)-based classification system is used in the proposed system to recognize the Left-Right of the brain signal. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent Automatic brain signal-based Right-Left sign lamp access control system. The signal is processed by Linear Prediction Coefficient (LPC) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and the resulting experiment shows the training and testing accuracy of 100% and 80%, respectively.

  16. Reliability and minimal detectable difference in multisegment foot kinematics during shod walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Clare E; Brindle, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest recently in measuring kinematics within the foot during gait. While several multisegment foot models have appeared in the literature, the Oxford foot model has been used frequently for both walking and running. Several studies have reported the reliability for the Oxford foot model, but most studies to date have reported reliability for barefoot walking. The purpose of this study was to determine between-day (intra-rater) and within-session (inter-trial) reliability of the modified Oxford foot model during shod walking and running and calculate minimum detectable difference for common variables of interest. Healthy adult male runners participated. Participants ran and walked in the gait laboratory for five trials of each. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted and foot and ankle joint angle time series data were calculated. Participants returned for a second gait analysis at least 5 days later. Intraclass correlation coefficients and minimum detectable difference were determined for walking and for running, to indicate both within-session and between-day reliability. Overall, relative variables were more reliable than absolute variables, and within-session reliability was greater than between-day reliability. Between-day intraclass correlation coefficients were comparable to those reported previously for adults walking barefoot. It is an extension in the use of the Oxford foot model to incorporate wearing a shoe while maintaining marker placement directly on the skin for each segment. These reliability data for walking and running will aid in the determination of meaningful differences in studies which use this model during shod gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Angela Rossaneis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate differences with regard to foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus. Method: cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 1,515 individuals with diabetes mellitus aged 40 years old or older. Poisson regression models were used to identity differences in foot self-care deficit and lifestyle between sexes, adjusting for socioeconomic and clinical characteristics, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results: foot self-care deficit, characterized by not regularly drying between toes; not regularly checking feet; walking barefoot; poor hygiene and inappropriately trimmed nails, was significantly higher among men, though men presented a lower prevalence of feet scaling and use of inappropriate shoes when compared to women. With regard to lifestyle, men presented less healthy habits, such as not adhering to a proper diet and taking laboratory exams to check for lipid profile at the frequency recommended. Conclusion: the nursing team should take into account gender differences concerning foot self-care and lifestyle when implementing educational activities and interventions intended to decrease risk factors for foot ulceration.

  18. Multiband Slot-Based Dual Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abdo-Sanchez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A dual Composite Right-/Left-Handed Transmission Line (CRLH TL implementation that presents multiband behaviour is proposed in this contribution. The artificial TL is realized by loading a host microstrip line with alternate rectangular stubs and slots. The required series and shunt immittances are respectively provided by the slot and the stub. Due to the distributed nature of these immittances, the resultant phase response presents theoretically infinite RH and LH alternate bands, thus being appropriate for multiband applications. The design methodology is described with the help of a proposed TLs-based equivalent circuit and highlights the simplicity for balance condition. Full wave simulated results of the dispersion characteristics and frequency response of a unit-cell and a three-cells structure are presented.

  19. The dimensions of the tarsal sinus and canal in different foot positions and its clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleipool, R. P.; Blankevoort, L.; Ruijter, J. M.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; Oostra, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a reference for the dimensions of the tarsal sinus and canal in healthy adults in different foot positions to facilitate understanding of the kinematics of the subtalar joint, the effect of an implant, and other clinical issues. In a 3D CT stress test on 20 subjects, the right

  20. Age-related differences in foot mobility in individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jade M; Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Menz, Hylton B; Munteanu, Shannon E; Collins, Natalie J

    2018-01-01

    Age-related changes in midfoot mobility have the potential to influence success with foot orthoses intervention in people with patellofemoral pain (PFP). The aim of this study was to determine whether older people with PFP demonstrate less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. One hundred ninety four participants (113 (58%) women, age 32 ± 7 years, BMI 25 ± 4.9 kg/m 2 ) with PFP (≥ 6 weeks duration) were included, with foot mobility quantified using reliable and valid methods. K-means cluster analysis classified participants into three homogenous groups based on age. After cluster formation, univariate analyses of co-variance (covariates: sex, weight) were used to compare midfoot height mobility, midfoot width mobility, and foot mobility magnitude between age groups (significance level 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed three distinct age groups: 18-29 years ( n  = 70); 30-39 years ( n  = 101); and 40-50 years ( n  = 23). There was a significant main effect for age for midfoot height mobility ( p  mobility magnitude ( p  = 0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed that midfoot height mobility differed across all three groups (moderate to large effect sizes), and that foot mobility magnitude was significantly less in those aged 40-50 years compared to those aged 18-25 years (moderate effect size). There were no significant main effects for age for midfoot width mobility ( p  > 0.05). Individuals with PFP aged 40-50 years have less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. These findings may have implications for evaluation and treatment of older individuals with PFP.

  1. Are foot posture and functional health different in children with growing pains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela Margaret; Scutter, Sheila Doreen

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate and compare findings of foot posture and functional health between groups of children aged 4-6 years with and without leg pain (described as "growing pains"). The null hypothesis: that there is no difference in measures of either foot posture or functional health between groups of children with and without leg pain. A stratified random sample of children was obtained. The children were identified with and without leg pain using a validated questionnaire for parents. The examiner was blind to the children's pain status. The schools and child care centers were from each geographical quadrant of metropolitan Adelaide and a northern rural region of South Australia. One hundred and eighty children (94 boys, 86 girls) entered and completed the study. Children whose parents returned a completed questionnaire and consent form were entered into the study. All participants were assessed by the one examiner. The foot posture measures used were those found to be most reliable in previous studies and for which the intra-rater reliability of the examiner was ascertained. Initial analysis of foot posture measures between the leg pain and no leg pains groups indicated a statistically significant result for the measure of navicular height, but only on the left side (P = 0.033). Logistic regression modeling showed that navicular height (left foot only) was positively yet weakly related to growing pains (odds ratio, 1.072; 95% confidence interval: 0.991-1.160) and the effect was not significant (P = 0.08). Measures of functional health returned many statistically significant yet weakly correlated relationships. The null hypothesis of the present study was supported in terms of clinical significance. While the foot posture measure of navicular height on the left foot was statistically significant it was not predictive for growing pains nor clinically significant as a measure between groups. The present study does not support the

  2. Effects of wearing different personal equipment on force distribution at the plantar surface of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The wearing of personal equipment can cause specific changes in muscle activity and posture. In the present study, we investigated the influence of differences in equipment related weight loading and load distribution on plantar pressure. In addition, we studied functional effects of wearing different equipment with a particular focus on relevant changes in foot shape. Static and dynamic pedobarography were performed on 31 male soldiers carrying increasing weights consisting of different items of equipment. The pressure acting on the plantar surface of the foot increased with higher loading, both under static and dynamic conditions (p feet deformities which seem to flatten at an earlier load condition with a greater amount compared to subjects with normal arches. Improving load distribution should be a main goal in the development of military equipment in order to prevent injuries or functional disorders of the lower extremity.

  3. Charcot Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage (neuropathy). The bones are weakened enough to fracture, and with continued walking, the foot eventually changes ... difference. Advanced therapies for foot wounds are saving limbs, restoring ... in the feet come from the lower back. Pressure or chemical change in the nerve ...

  4. Biomechanical Differences of Foot-Strike Patterns During Running: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Matheus O; Davis, Irene S; Lopes, Alexandre D

    2015-10-01

    Systematic review with meta-analysis. To determine the biomechanical differences between foot-strike patterns used when running. Strike patterns during running have received attention in the recent literature due to their potential mechanical differences and associated injury risks. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, and SPORTDiscus) were searched through July 2014. Studies (cross-sectional, case-control, prospective, and retrospective) comparing the biomechanical characteristics of foot-strike patterns during running in distance runners at least 18 years of age were included in this review. Two independent reviewers evaluated the risk of bias. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model was used to combine the data from the included studies. Sixteen studies were included in the final analysis. In the meta-analyses of kinematic variables, significant differences between forefoot and rearfoot strikers were found for foot and knee angle at initial contact and knee flexion range of motion. A forefoot-strike pattern resulted in a plantar-flexed ankle position and a more flexed knee position, compared to a dorsiflexed ankle position and a more extended knee position for the rearfoot strikers, at initial contact with the ground. In the comparison of rearfoot and midfoot strikers, midfoot strikers demonstrated greater ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and decreased knee flexion range of motion compared to rearfoot strikers. For kinetic variables, the meta-analysis revealed that rearfoot strikers had higher vertical loading rates compared to forefoot strikers. There are differences in kinematic and kinetic characteristics between foot-strike patterns when running. Clinicians should be aware of these characteristics to help in the management of running injuries and advice on training.

  5. Foot strike pattern in preschool children during running: sex and shod-unshod differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Guardia-Monteagudo, Ignacio; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. There were no between-sex significant differences in both shod and unshod conditions in RFS. In the unshod condition, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of RFS prevalence in both boys (shod condition = 44.2% vs. 34.7% unshod condition) and girls (shod condition = 48.5% vs. 36.1% unshod condition). As for neutral support, there were no between-sex differences in both shod and unshod conditions or in the shod-unshod comparison. In preschool children, no between-sex differences were found in relation to prevalence of RFS and neutral support (no INV/EVE). Shod running alters FSP of running barefoot, producing a significant increase of RFS prevalence.

  6. Off-loading strategies in diabetic foot syndrome-evaluation of different devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Jürgen; Lange, Mario; Dullien, Silvia; Grifka, Joachim; Hertel, Gernot; Baier, Clemens; Koeck, Franz

    2017-02-01

    Diabetic foot syndrome is one of the most dreaded complications in diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of different offloading devices compared to walking in barefoot condition and in normal shoes both in healthy subjects and in patients with diabetes and neuropathy. Twenty patients with diabetes and polyneuropathy and ten healthy probands were included. Pedobarographic examination was performed in barefoot condition, with sneakers, postoperative shoes, Aircast® Diabetic Pneumatic Walker™ and VACO®diaped. In the diabetic group, a total contact cast was additionally tested. The most effective reduction of force was achieved by TCC (75%) and VACOdiaped (64.3%) with the VACO®diaped resulting in the most homogeneous distribution of forces all over the foot. A customized device like the TCC is still the most proven offloading device. However, a removable cast walker being based on vacuum pads and a cushioning sole, provides better results concerning force distribution.

  7. A comparative biomechanical analysis of habitually unshod and shod runners based on a foot morphological difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Fu, Weijie; Feng, Neng; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-08-01

    Running is one of the most accessible physical activities and running with and without footwear has attracted extensive attention in the past several years. In this study 18 habitually male unshod runners and 20 habitually male shod runners (all with dominant right feet) participated in a running test. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture the kinematics of each participant's lower limb. The in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system was employed to measure the pressure and force exerted on the pressure sensors of the insole. The function of a separate hallux in unshod runners is analyzed through the comparison of plantar pressure parameters. Owing to the different strike patterns in shod and unshod runners, peak dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were significantly different. Habitually shod runners exhibited a decreased foot strike angle (FSA) under unshod conditions; and the vertical average loading rate (VALR) of shod runners under unshod conditions was larger than that under shod conditions. This suggests that the foot strike pattern is more important than the shod or unshod running style and runners need to acquire the technique. It can be concluded that for habitually unshod runners the separate hallux takes part of the foot loading and reduces loading to the forefoot under shod conditions. The remaining toes of rearfoot strike (RFS) runners function similarly under unshod conditions. These morphological features of shod and unshod runners should be considered in footwear design to improve sport performance and reduce injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Establishing Differences in Thermographic Patterns between the Various Complications in Diabetic Foot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Gatt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the potential of thermography as an assessment tool for the detection of foot complications by understanding the variations in temperature that occur in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods. Participants were categorized according to a medical examination, ankle brachial index, doppler waveform analysis, and 10-gram monofilament testing into five groups: healthy adult, DM with no complications, DM with peripheral neuropathy, DM with neuroischaemia, and DM with peripheral arterial disease (PAD groups. Thermographic imaging of the toes and forefeet was performed. Results. 43 neuroischaemic feet, 41 neuropathic feet, 58 PAD feet, 21 DM feet without complications, and 126 healthy feet were analyzed. The temperatures of the feet and toes were significantly higher in the complications group when compared to the healthy adult and DM healthy groups. The higher the temperatures of the foot in DM, the higher the probability that it is affected by neuropathy, neuroischaemia, or PAD. Conclusions. Significant differences in mean temperatures exist between participants who were healthy and those with DM with no known complications when compared to participants with neuroischaemia, neuropathy, or PAD. As foot temperature rises, so does the probability of the presence of complications of neuropathy, neuroischaemia, or peripheral arterial disease.

  9. Effect of Different Flooring Designs on the Performance and Foot Pad Health in Broilers and Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuppava, Bussarakam; Visscher, Christian; Kamphues, Josef

    2018-05-03

    Litter quality has a significant influence on the performance and foot pad health in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of flooring designs on the performance and foot pad health in fattening broilers and turkeys. Three trials were conducted for each species using a total of 720 Ross 308 broilers and 720 Big 6 turkeys. After day seven, animals were randomly assigned to four groups with three subgroups each: G1—floor pens with litter, G2—floor pens with litter and floor heating, G3—partially-slatted flooring, including a littered area, and G4—fully-slatted flooring with a sand bath (900 cm²). Animals of both species had a significantly higher final body weight at dissection (day 36) after being reared on fully-slatted floors compared to common littered floors. In turkeys, the feed conversion ratio was worse in G4 (1.53 ± 0.04) than in G1 (1.47 ± 0.02) and G2 (1.48 ± 0.03). Water to feed ratio was significantly higher in G2 than other groups. Turkeys’ foot pad health was significantly better in G4 than in other groups beginning at day 21. In turkeys, platforms with slatted floors that allow for temporary separation of the feet from the litter could lead to improvements in foot pad health which could better enable the realization of species-specific behaviours and activities in littered areas.

  10. Effect of Different Flooring Designs on the Performance and Foot Pad Health in Broilers and Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussarakam Chuppava

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Litter quality has a significant influence on the performance and foot pad health in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of flooring designs on the performance and foot pad health in fattening broilers and turkeys. Three trials were conducted for each species using a total of 720 Ross 308 broilers and 720 Big 6 turkeys. After day seven, animals were randomly assigned to four groups with three subgroups each: G1—floor pens with litter, G2—floor pens with litter and floor heating, G3—partially-slatted flooring, including a littered area, and G4—fully-slatted flooring with a sand bath (900 cm2. Animals of both species had a significantly higher final body weight at dissection (day 36 after being reared on fully-slatted floors compared to common littered floors. In turkeys, the feed conversion ratio was worse in G4 (1.53 ± 0.04 than in G1 (1.47 ± 0.02 and G2 (1.48 ± 0.03. Water to feed ratio was significantly higher in G2 than other groups. Turkeys’ foot pad health was significantly better in G4 than in other groups beginning at day 21. In turkeys, platforms with slatted floors that allow for temporary separation of the feet from the litter could lead to improvements in foot pad health which could better enable the realization of species-specific behaviours and activities in littered areas.

  11. The sweating foot: local differences in sweat secretion during exercise-induced hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Caldwell, Joanne N; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2006-10-01

    Little is known regarding local differences in foot sweat secretion. Since such information is important to our understanding of sweat gland control for thermoregulatory modeling and for the design of footwear we explored this topic. Local sweat rates were investigated across core temperatures from 37-39 degrees C, achieved using endogenous (cycling) and exogenous heat (water-perfusion garment: 46 degrees C). Six healthy adults (three men, three women) performed one-legged, incremental cycling in a heated, climate-controlled chamber (36 degrees C, 60% relative humidity). Sweat rates were measured at the forehead and stationary (left) foot (capsules 3.16 cm2): three dorsal sites (base of toes, second metatarsal, and mid point), the lateral, and the central plantar surfaces. Terminal core temperatures ranged between 38.3-39.1 oC, with peak heart rates of 155-187 bpm. Most foot sweat rates were < 50% of that observed at the forehead: dorsal 1 (38%); dorsal 2 (54%); dorsal 3 (37%); lateral (24%); and plantar surfaces (18%). When averaged across the trial, local sweat rates were: 2.61 (forehead); 0.98 (dorsal 1); 1.39 (dorsal 2); 0.95 (dorsal 3); 0.62 (lateral); and 0.47 mg cm2 2 min-1 (plantar). Two key observations emerged. First, sweat secretion from the experimental foot averaged 30 ml x h(-1), peaking in the last 5 min at 50 ml x h(-1). Second, approximately 70% of the measured sweat flow emanated from the upper skin surfaces, with only 30% coming from the plantar surface.

  12. Sex differences in relative foot length and perceived attractiveness of female feet: relationships among anthropometry, physique, and preference ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Fisher, Maryanne L; Rupp, Barbara; Lucas, Deanna; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2007-06-01

    Foot size proportionate to stature is smaller in women than in men, and small feet apparently contribute to perceived physical attractiveness of females. This exploratory study investigated the sex difference in relative foot length and interrelations among foot length, physique, and foot preference ratings in samples from Austria and Canada, each comprised of 75 men and 75 women. The findings included the following lines of evidence: the sex difference in relative foot length replicated in both data sets; the magnitude of this sex effect was large. Relative foot length was smaller in young, nulliparous, and slim women. Pointed-toe and high-heel shoes were more likely worn by smaller, lighter, and slimmer women. Men reported liking women's feet in general more than vice versa. A vast majority of both men and women favored small feet in women, but large feet in men. One's own foot size appeared to correspond to evaluations of attractiveness; particularly, women with small feet preferred small feet in women in general. The preference for small feet in women was convergent across different methods of evaluating attractiveness. Directions for investigations in this emerging field of research on physical attractiveness are discussed.

  13. Effects of Wearing Different Personal Equipment on Force Distribution at the Plantar Surface of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schulze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The wearing of personal equipment can cause specific changes in muscle activity and posture. In the present study, we investigated the influence of differences in equipment related weight loading and load distribution on plantar pressure. In addition, we studied functional effects of wearing different equipment with a particular focus on relevant changes in foot shape. Methods. Static and dynamic pedobarography were performed on 31 male soldiers carrying increasing weights consisting of different items of equipment. Results. The pressure acting on the plantar surface of the foot increased with higher loading, both under static and dynamic conditions (p < 0.05. We observed an increase in the contact area (p < 0.05 and an influence of load distribution through different ways to carry the rifle. Conclusions. The wearing of heavier weights leads to an increase in plantar pressure and contact area. This may be caused by flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. The effects are more evident in subjects with flat feet deformities which seem to flatten at an earlier load condition with a greater amount compared to subjects with normal arches. Improving load distribution should be a main goal in the development of military equipment in order to prevent injuries or functional disorders of the lower extremity.

  14. Right-left asymmetry of γ quanta yield in a neutron resonance of 117Sn with parity nonconservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Borzakov, S.B.; Vo Van Tkhuan; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Frank, I.M.; Khrykin, A.S.; Sharapov, Eh.I.

    1984-01-01

    The right-left asymmetry was observed for the first time in the yield of γ quanta (esub(γ)=9.32 MeV) from radiative capture of polarized neutrons in the channel with total neutron momentum jsub(n)=lsub(n)+ssub(n)=1/2 was obtained d: GITAsub(psup(1/2))sup(n)=(0.27+-0.03)GITAsub(p)sup(n)

  15. Mobility and Balance and Their Correlation with Physiological Factors in Elderly with Different Foot Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Mohd Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines (1 the correlation between mobility and balance performances with physiological factors and (2 the relationship between foot postures with anthropometric characteristics and lower limb characteristics among elderly with neutral, pronated, and supinated foot. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in community-dwelling elderly (age: 69.86 ± 5.62 years. Participants were grouped into neutral (n=16, pronated (n=14, and supinated (n=14 foot based on the foot posture index classification. Anthropometric data (height, weight, and BMI, lower limb strength (5-STS and endurance (30 s chair rise test, mobility (TUG, and balance (FSST were determined. Data were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Body weight was negatively and moderately correlated (rs=-0.552, P<0.05 with mobility in supinated foot; moderate-to-high positive linear rank correlation was found between lower limb strength and mobility (rs=0.551 to 0.804, P<0.05 for pronated and neutral foot. Lower limb endurance was negatively and linearly correlated with mobility in pronated (rs=-0.699 and neutral (rs=-0.573 foot. No correlation was observed in balance performance with physiological factors in any of the foot postures. We can conclude that muscle function may be the most important feature to make movement possible in older persons regardless of the type of foot postures.

  16. Foot model for tracking temperature of safety boot insoles: application to different insole materials in firefighter boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, César; Sánchez-Álvarez, Eduardo J; Huertas-Talón, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    This research is based on the development of a human foot model to study the temperature conditions of a foot bottom surface under extreme external conditions. This foot model is made by combining different manufacturing techniques to enable the simulation of bones and tissues, allowing the placement of sensors on its surface to track the temperature values of different points inside a shoe. These sensors let researchers capture valuable data during a defined period of time, making it possible to compare the features of different safety boots, socks or soles, among others. In this case, it has been applied to compare different plantar insole materials, placed into safety boots on a high-temperature surface.

  17. Comparison of two different vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) treatments of multiple chronic diabetic foot wounds in the same extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğurlar, Meriç; Sönmez, Mesut Mehmet; Armağan, Raffi; Eren, Osman Tuğrul

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of two different vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) applications in one center between two groups of patients with Wagner Grade 3-4 multiple chronic diabetic foot wounds. The study was a randomized-controlled, prospective investigation between two groups of patients with Wagner Grade 3-4 multiple chronic diabetic foot wounds at single extremity. There were 10 patients in the first group receiving VAC treatment by means of Y-connector and 11 patients in the second group receiving bridge-VAC treatment. There were no significant difference in Revised Foot Function Index scores and total treatment costs between the both groups. The cost of the VAC dressing supplies in one session of the dressings was lower in the bridge-VAC group. In conclusion, although bridge-VAC treatment seems to be an alternative method to the VAC treatment by means of Y-connector, we found no superiority of one over the other VAC application for chronic diabetic foot wounds. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Allelopathic Effect of Dodder on Different Varieties of Lucerne and Bird’s Foot-Trefoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcheva Ekaterina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of cold aqueous extracts, both fresh and dry biomass of dodder (Cuscuta epithymum L. on lucerne (Medicago sativa L. and bird’s foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. Four different varieties of lucerne “Pleven 6”, “Dara”, “Roly”, “Multifoliolate” and bird’s foot-trefoil (“Gran San Gabriele”, “Leo”, “Local population 1”, “Local population 2” were studied in order to find some varieties with allelopathic tolerance. Ex-situ experiment was carried out as follows: 100 seeds of each variety were put in Petri dishes between filter paper, both cold extracts of parasitic weed biomass were pipetted at a ratio of 1:20 as against the seed mass and then were placed in a thermostat-operated device at a temperature of 22 ± 2°С. Distilled water was used as a control. Percentage inhibition, Index of tolerance and Index of plant development were calculated for assessment of the allelopathic effect of dodder on the early seedling growth, biomass synthesis and initial development of experimental varieties. As a whole, dry weed biomass was found as more toxic for the tested plants than the fresh one. Medicago sativa var. multifoliolate and Lotus corniculatus var. Local population 1 and Local population 2 showed a significant tolerance to the allelopathic influence of Cuscuta epithymum in all studied concentrations of aqueous extract of fresh weed biomass (25, 50 and 100 g l−1 and medium tolerance to aqueous extract of dry weed biomass (concentrations of 25 and 50 g l−1.

  19. Intraindividual right-left comparison of sonographic features in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köninger, Angela; Koch, Laura; Edimiris, Philippos; Nießen, Stefanie; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Kimmig, Rainer; Strowitzki, Thomas; Schmidt, Börge

    2014-10-01

    Sonographic features of polycystic ovaries consist of elevated antral follicle count or ovarian volume of at least one ovary. The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to estimate intraindividual differences in sonographic measurements between the both ovaries of PCOS patients and controls and clinical consequences. Both ovaries of 85 PCOS patients and 48 controls were scanned transvaginally and agreement of sonographic measurements was analyzed using the Bland-Altman method. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were computed. Mean differences between right and left ovaries were 0.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.32-0.80) follicles for AFC and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.34-1.92)ml for OV in the whole study population, 0.14 (95% CI: -0.68-0.96) follicles for AFC and 1.48 (95% CI: 0.39-2.58)ml for OV in PCOS patients, 0.42 (95% CI: -0.19-1.02) follicles for AFC and 0.53 (95% CI: -0.50-1.56)ml for OV in controls. Rather wide limits of agreement and low CCCs (ovaries for both sonographic measurements. Width between lower and upper limits of agreement was higher for PCOS patients than for controls. 23.5% of the PCOS patients showed polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) only in one ovary, resulting in 9.4% potentially missed PCOS diagnosis according to the Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Substantial differences in antral follicle count and ovarian volume between the right and left ovary were observed. In approximately 10% of the PCOS patients in our study only the examination of both ovaries has led to a reliable diagnosis of PCOS. In clinical practice it is recommended to scan both ovaries for a reliable diagnosis of abnormal sonographic findings in PCOM and PCOS diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional asymmetries in early learning during right, left, and bimanual performance in right-handed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Loayza, Francis R; Pastor, Maria A

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate differences in activity and connectivity during early learning due to the performing hand. Twenty right-handed subjects were recruited. The neural correlates of explicit visuospatial learning executed with the right, the left hand, and bimanually were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Connectivity analyses were carried out using the psychophysiological interactions model, considering right and left anterior putamen as index regions. A common neural network was found for the three tasks during learning. Main activity increases were located in posterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, anterior putamen, and cerebellum (IV-V), whereas activity decrements were observed in prefrontal regions. However, the left hand task showed a greater recruitment of left hippocampal areas when compared with the other tasks. In addition, enhanced connectivity between the right anterior putamen and motor cortical and cerebellar regions was found for the left hand when compared with the right hand task. An additional recruitment of brain regions and increased striato-cortical and striato-cerebellar functional connections is needed when early learning is performed with the nondominant hand. In addition, access to brain resources during learning may be directed by the dominant hand in the bimanual task. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Asymmetric right/left encoding of emotions in the human subthalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renana eEitan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN, an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12-30Hz, the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs.In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and

  2. Differences in foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossaneis, Mariana Angela; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Mathias, Thaís Aidar de Freitas; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-08-15

    to investigate differences with regard to foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus. cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 1,515 individuals with diabetes mellitus aged 40 years old or older. Poisson regression models were used to identity differences in foot self-care deficit and lifestyle between sexes, adjusting for socioeconomic and clinical characteristics, smoking and alcohol consumption. foot self-care deficit, characterized by not regularly drying between toes; not regularly checking feet; walking barefoot; poor hygiene and inappropriately trimmed nails, was significantly higher among men, though men presented a lower prevalence of feet scaling and use of inappropriate shoes when compared to women. With regard to lifestyle, men presented less healthy habits, such as not adhering to a proper diet and taking laboratory exams to check for lipid profile at the frequency recommended. the nursing team should take into account gender differences concerning foot self-care and lifestyle when implementing educational activities and interventions intended to decrease risk factors for foot ulceration. investigar as diferenças no autocuidado com os pés e no estilo de vida entre mulheres e homens diabéticos. estudo transversal realizado com uma amostra de 1.515 diabéticos com 40 anos ou mais. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão de Poisson para identificar diferenças entre os sexos na prevalência de déficit de autocuidado com os pés e no estilo de vida, ajustando-se por características socioeconômicas, clínicas, tabagismo e alcoolismo. a prevalência de déficit de autocuidado com os pés, caracterizada por baixa frequência de secagem dos espaços interdigitais; da não avaliação periódica dos pés; do hábito de andar descalço; de higiene insatisfatória e corte inadequado de unhas foi significativamente maior entre os homens. Contudo, eles apresentaram menor prevalência na prática de escaldar os pés e no uso

  3. Intra-rater repeatability of the Oxford foot model in healthy children in different stages of the foot roll over process during gait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, D J; Bencke, J; Stebbins, J A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repeatability of the Oxford foot model has been reported, but possible variations in the repeatability during the foot roll over process have not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine the relative and absolute repeatability of the model for each stage of the foot...... roll over process during gait and to compare foot kinematic data from this study with that from another centre as a preliminary examination of the model's inter-centre repeatability and validity. METHOD: Eight healthy children were tested twice at the gait laboratory. Foot kinematics from this study...... were plotted against those from an earlier repeatability study and repeatability statistics calculated for the three rockers of stance phase and swing phase. RESULTS: Foot kinematics from this study and an earlier repeatability study produced similar kinematic patterns and joint angle ranges...

  4. A compact very wideband amplifying filter based on RTD loaded composite right/left-handed transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Marasa, Mahmoud O Mahmoud; El-Khozondar, Hala Jarallah

    2015-01-01

    The composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) is presented as a general TL possessing both left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) natures. RH materials have both positive permittivity and positive permeability, and LH materials have both negative permittivity and negative permeability. This paper aims to design and analyze nonlinear CRLH-TL transmission line loaded with resonant tunneling diode (RTD). The main application of this design is a very wideband and compact filter that amplifies the travelling signal. We used OrCAD and ADS software to analyze the proposed circuit. CRLH-TL consists of a microstrip line which is loaded with complementary split-rings resonators (CSRRs), series gaps, and shunt inductor connected parallel to the RTD. The designed structure possess a wide band that ranges from 5 to 10.5 GHz and amplifies signal up to 50 %. The proposed design is of interest to microwave compact component designers.

  5. The Most Prevalnet Organism in Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Its Drug Sensitivity and Resistance to Different Standard Antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nageen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find the most prevalent organism in diabetic foot ulcers and its drug sensitivity and resistance to different standard antibiotics. Study Design: Adescriptive and cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Ward 7, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, from December 2010 to December 2012. Methodology: Ninety-five diabetic patients with infected foot wounds of Wegener grade 2 - 5 who had not received any previous antibiotics were included in the study by consecutive sampling. Pus culture specimen from wounds was taken and the organism isolated was identified. Also the most sensitive group of antibiotics and the most resistant one to that organism was noted. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism constituting 23.16% (n=22) of the organisms isolated; Escherichia coli with 17.89% (n=17) and Klebsiella with 12.63% (n=12) followed. Males presented more with diabetic foot (n=52) out of 95 patients. The most common age group affected was 41 - 60 years (73 patients). The organisms were most sensitive to Meropenem, effective in 90 (95%) patients and most resistant to Cotrimoxazole (80, 84% patients). Out of the 95 patients, 39 (41%) patients were hypertensive, 30 (31.5%) were obese and 14 (15%) were smokers. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism overall irrespective to gender, age groups and co-morbidity of the patients. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent organism in diabetic foot ulcers; the most effective antibiotic is Meropenem and least effective is Cotrimoxazole. (author)

  6. Minimal Clinically Important Differences for American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Score in Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiok Yang; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zainul-Abidin, Suraya; Ying, Hao; Koo, Kevin; Rikhraj, Inderjeet Singh

    2017-05-01

    The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score is one of the most common and adapted outcome scales in hallux valgus surgery. However, AOFAS is predominantly physician based and not patient based. Although it may be straightforward to derive statistical significance, it may not equate to the true subjective benefit of the patient's experience. There is a paucity of literature defining MCID for AOFAS in hallux valgus surgery although it could have a great impact on the accuracy of analyzing surgical outcomes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to define the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) for the AOFAS score in these patients, and the secondary aim was to correlate patients' demographics to the MCID. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 446 patients were reviewed preoperatively and followed up for 2 years. An anchor question was asked 2 years postoperation: "How would you rate the overall results of your treatment for your foot and ankle condition?" (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor, terrible). The MCID was derived using 4 methods, 3 from an anchor-based approach and 1 from a distribution-based approach. Anchor-based approaches were (1) mean difference in 2-year AOFAS scores of patients who answered "good" versus "fair" based on the anchor question; (2) mean change of AOFAS score preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up in patients who answered good; (3) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves method, where the area under the curve (AUC) represented the likelihood that the scoring system would accurately discriminate these 2 groups of patients. The distribution-based approach used to calculate MCID was the effect size method. There were 405 (90.8%) females and 41 (9.2%) males. Mean age was 51.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 13) years, mean preoperative BMI was 24.2 (SD = 4.1). Mean preoperative AOFAS score was 55.6 (SD = 16.8), with significant improvement to 85.7 (SD = 14.4) in 2 years ( P value

  7. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  8. Acute effect of different minimalist shoes on foot strike pattern and kinematics in rearfoot strikers during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Roberto; Rodano, Renato; Hamill, Joseph; Preatoni, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in minimalist shoes, no studies have compared the efficacy of different types of minimalist shoe models in reproducing barefoot running patterns and in eliciting biomechanical changes that make them differ from standard cushioned running shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of different footwear models, marketed as "minimalist" by their manufacturer, on running biomechanics. Six running shoes marketed as barefoot/minimalist models, a standard cushioned shoe and the barefoot condition were tested. Foot-/shoe-ground pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were measured in experienced rearfoot strike runners while they were running at 3.33 m · s⁻¹ on an instrumented treadmill. Physical and mechanical characteristics of shoes (mass, heel and forefoot sole thickness, shock absorption and flexibility) were measured with laboratory tests. There were significant changes in foot strike pattern (described by the strike index and foot contact angle) and spatio-temporal stride characteristics, whereas only some among the other selected kinematic parameters (i.e. knee angles and hip vertical displacement) changed accordingly. Different types of minimalist footwear models induced different changes. It appears that minimalist footwear with lower heel heights and minimal shock absorption is more effective in replicating barefoot running.

  9. Foot and mouth disease virus in different host species; the effect of vaccination on transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.

    2007-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious disease, affecting important livestock species like cattle, sheep and pigs. Therefore, FMD is listed as a notifiable disease to the Office International des Epizooties. The outbreaks of FMD in Europe in 2001 triggered the discussion about the use of

  10. A Compact Via-free Composite Right/Left Handed Low-pass Filter with Improved Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Choudhary, Dilip Kumar; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Kumar

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a compact via-free low pass filter is designed based on composite right/left handed (CRLH) concept. The structure uses open ended concept. Rectangular slots are etched on signal transmission line (TL) to suppress the spurious band without altering the performance and size of filter. The filter is designed for low pass frequency band with cut-off frequency of 3.5 GHz. The proposed metamaterial structure has several prominent advantages in term of selectivity up to 34 dB/GHz and compactness with average insertion loss less than 0.4 dB. It has multiple applications in wireless communication (such as GSM900, global navigation satellite system (1.559-1.610 GHz), GSM1800, WLAN/WiFi (2.4-2.49 GHz) and WiMAX (2.5-2.69 GHz)). The design parameters have been measured and compared with the simulated results and found excellent agreement. The electrical size of proposed filter is 0.14λ0× 0.11λ0 (where λ0 is free space wavelength at zeroth order resonance (ZOR) frequency 2.7 GHz).

  11. Effect of different culture systems on the production of foot and mouth disease trivalent vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Ismail Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of the stationary rawx, roller, and the suspension cell culture systems on the total virus yield infectivity and antigenicity. Materials and Methods: Three serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV (serotype A, O and SAT-2 were inoculated separately into baby hamster kidney-21 cell line in rawx, roller, and suspension cultivation systems using multiplicity of infection (1:100. Samples were taken from the total virus yield from each system at 15, 18, 21, and 24 h post-inoculation. Testing the total virus yield infectivity through virus titration and antigenicity through estimation of complement fixing titer and 146S content and evaluation of the potency of the vaccine prepared from the different cultivation systems were done. Results: The results showed that the FMDV titer of serotype A, O, and SAT-2 obtained from the roller cultivation system showed the highest level followed by suspension cultivation system then the rawx cultivation system. The FMDV titer showed its highest level at 21 h post-inoculation in all the cultivation systems and then decline at 24 h post-inoculation. The antigenicity reached its highest value content at 18 h post-inoculation either by complement fixation test or by quantifying the 146S intact virion. Montanide ISA 206 oil inactivated trivalent vaccines were prepared from the tested serotypes (A Iran O5. O Panasia and SAT-2/EGY/2012 harvested at 18 h post-inoculation from the 3 culture systems. The results of tracing the antibody response showed that the mean antibody response from the roller cultivation system start its protective antibody titer earlier at 2 weeks post-vaccination (WPV than the vaccine prepared from the other two cultivation system and the immune protection period lasts longer for 36 WPV for the roller cultivation system vaccine than the other two cultivation systems. Conclusion: The best cultivation system used for the production of FMD vaccine

  12. PELVIC ROTATION AND LOWER EXTREMITY MOTION WITH TWO DIFFERENT FRONT FOOT DIRECTIONS IN THE TENNIS BACKHAND GROUNDSTROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayumi Iwamoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When a tennis player steps forward to hit a backhand groundstroke in closed stance, modifying the direction of the front foot relative to the net may reduce the risk of ankle injury and increase performance. This study evaluated the relationship between pelvic rotation and lower extremity movement during the backhand groundstroke when players stepped with toes parallel to the net (Level or with toes pointed towards the net (Net. High school competitive tennis players (eleven males and seven females, 16.8 ± 0.8 years, all right- handed performed tennis court tests comprising five maximum speed directional runs to the court intersection line to hit an imaginary ball with forehand or backhand swings. The final backhand groundstroke for each player at the backcourt baseline was analyzed. Pelvic rotation and lower extremity motion were quantified using 3D video analysis from frontal and sagittal plane camera views reconstructed to 3D using DLT methods. Plantar flexion of ankle and supination of the front foot were displayed for both Net and Level groups during the late phase of the front foot step. The timings of the peak pelvis rotational velocity and peak pelvis rotational acceleration showed different pattern for Net and Level groups. The peak timing of the pelvis rotational velocity of the Level group occurred during the late phase of the step, suggesting an increase in the risk of inversion ankle sprain and a decrease in stroke power compared to the Net group

  13. The Study of Influence of Different Methods of Local Treatment on Wound Healing in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, E L; Tokmakova, A Y; Shestakova, M V; Galstyan, G R; Doronina, L P

    To evaluate the influence of different methods of local treatment on tissue repair in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. We evaluated such clinical characteristics as wound size and local perfusion after using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), local collagen, and standard care in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. We observed 63 patients with neuropathic and neuroischemic forms of diabetic foot (without critical ischemia) after surgical debridement. After that 21 patients received NPWT, 21 local collagen treatment and 21 ― standard care. After using NPWT wound area and depth decreased in 19,8% and 42,8% (p<0.05), in group of collagen dressings in 26,4 and 30,4% (p<0.05). In control group those parameters were 17,0 и 16.6% respectively (p<0.05). There was found the significant increase of local perfusion according to oxygen monitoring in group of NPWT (p<0.05). The received data showed that the intensity of lower limb tissue repair processes increases more significant after using NPWT and collagen dressings in comparison to standard care which is found according to wound size and tissue perfusion alterations.

  14. The reliability, accuracy and minimal detectable difference of a multi-segment kinematic model of the foot-shoe complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Paul, Gunther; Thewlis, Dominic

    2013-04-01

    Kinematic models are commonly used to quantify foot and ankle kinematics, yet no marker sets or models have been proven reliable or accurate when wearing shoes. Further, the minimal detectable difference of a developed model is often not reported. We present a kinematic model that is reliable, accurate and sensitive to describe the kinematics of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg during walking gait. In order to achieve this, a new marker set was established, consisting of 25 markers applied on the shoe and skin surface, which informed a four segment kinematic model of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg. Three independent experiments were conducted to determine the reliability, accuracy and minimal detectable difference of the marker set and model. Inter-rater reliability of marker placement on the shoe was proven to be good to excellent (ICC=0.75-0.98) indicating that markers could be applied reliably between raters. Intra-rater reliability was better for the experienced rater (ICC=0.68-0.99) than the inexperienced rater (ICC=0.38-0.97). The accuracy of marker placement along each axis was <6.7 mm for all markers studied. Minimal detectable difference (MDD90) thresholds were defined for each joint; tibiocalcaneal joint--MDD90=2.17-9.36°, tarsometatarsal joint--MDD90=1.03-9.29° and the metatarsophalangeal joint--MDD90=1.75-9.12°. These thresholds proposed are specific for the description of shod motion, and can be used in future research designed at comparing between different footwear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prediction of outcome in individuals with diabetic foot ulcers: focus on the differences between individuals with and without peripheral arterial disease. The EURODIALE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompers, L.; Schaper, N.; Apelqvist, J.

    2008-01-01

    ulcer size, peripheral neuropathy and PAD. When analyses were performed according to PAD status, infection emerged as a specific predictor of non-healing in PAD patients only. Conclusions/Interpretation Predictors of healing differ between patients with and without PAD, suggesting that diabetic foot......Aims/hypothesis Outcome data on individuals with diabetic foot ulcers are scarce, especially in those with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We therefore examined the clinical characteristics that best predict poor outcome in a large population of diabetic foot ulcer patients and examined whether...

  16. Experimental and model-based analysis of differences in perception of cutaneous electrical stimulation across the sole of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Ken Steffen; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Grill, Warren M; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2013-09-01

    During electrocutaneous stimulations, variation in skin properties across locations can lead to differences in neural activation. However, little focus has been given to the effect of different skin thicknesses on neural activation. Electrical stimulation was applied to six sites across the sole of the foot. The intensities used were two and four times perception threshold. The subjects (n = 8) rated the perception quality and intensity using the McGill Pain Questionnaire and a visual analog scale (VAS). A finite element model was developed and combined with the activation function (AF) to estimate neural activation. Electrical stimulation was perceived as significantly less sharp at the heel compared to all other sites, except one site in the forefoot (logistic regression, p model showed that the AF was between 91 and 231 % higher at the five other sites than at the heel. The differences in perception across the sole of the foot indicated that the CNS received different inputs depending on the stimulus site. The lower AF at the heel indicated that the skin thicknesses could contribute to the perceived differences.

  17. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  18. Differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and Bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, M.; Wernery, U.; Kinne, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two Bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A SAU 22/92. Five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. The inoculated sheep, which served...... as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of FMD and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. The presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for several days after inoculation. In contrast, the inoculated dromedary camels were not susceptible to FMDV...... type A infection. None of them showed clinical signs of FMD or developed viraemia or specific anti-FMDV antibodies despite the high dose of virus inoculated. All the contact sheep and contact dromedaries that were kept together with the inoculated camels remained virus-negative and did not seroconvert...

  19. Sex-related differences in foot shape of adult Caucasians--a follow-up study focusing on long and short feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Langbein, C; Horstmann, T; Grau, S

    2011-03-01

    The study's purpose was to substantiate findings on sex-related differences in foot morphology focusing on fringe sizes. Altogether, 287 Caucasian adults with long or short feet were scanned. Data were analysed together with data from 847 subjects from a previous study with comparable inclusion criteria and anthropometric data by: (1)comparing absolute measures within 237-277 mm foot length (FL); (2) comparing averaged measures across sizes in % of foot length for 203-323 mm FL; (3) reclassifying the additional subjects into a previously defined foot type classification. Male feet were wider and higher for the same FL. Averaged across sizes, no relevant differences between sexes were found for widths and heights. Slender or flat-pointed foot types were more common in longer feet, shorter feet tended to be bigger. Definitions for 'long' and 'short' are sex-related with an offset of three shoe sizes (EU). Results of this follow-up study on long and short feet can substantiate previous findings mainly described for the most common sizes. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Improper footwear can cause pain and injury and proper fit is a major criterion for shoe buyers. Knowledge about sex-related differences in foot shape is important for shoe design. This study supplements the field of knowledge for very small and large feet.

  20. Reliability of AOFAS diabetic foot questionnaire in Charcot arthropathy: stability, internal consistency, and measurable difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Vibhu; Spratt, Kevin F; Pinzur, Michael S; Baumhauer, Judith; Rudicel, Sally; Saltzman, Charles L

    2005-09-01

    The development of Charcot changes is known to be associated with a high rate of recurrent ulceration and amputation. Unfortunately, the effect of Charcot arthropathy on quality of life in diabetic patients has not been systematically studied because of a lack of a disease-specific instrument. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an instrument to evaluate the health-related quality of life of diabetic foot disease. Subjects diagnosed with Charcot arthropathy completed a patient self-administered questionnaire, and clinicians completed an accompanying observational survey. The patient self-administered questionnaire was organized into five general sections: demographics, general health, diabetes-related symptoms, comorbidities, and satisfaction. The scales measured the effect in six health domains: 1) general health, 2) care, 3) worry, 4) sleep, 5) emotion, and 6) physicality. The psychometric properties of the scales were evaluated and the summary scores for the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were compared to published norms for other major medical illnesses. Of the 89 enrolled patients, 57 who completed the questionnaire on enrollment returned a second completed form at 3-month followup. Over the 3-month followup period most of the patients showed an improvement in the Eichenholtz staging. The internal consistency of most was moderate to high and, in general, the scale scores were stable over 3 months. However, several of the scales suffered from low-ceiling or high-floor effects. Patients with Charcot arthropathy had a much lower physical component score on enrollment than the reported norms for other disease conditions, including diabetes. Quality of life represents an important set of outcomes when evaluating the effectiveness of treatment for patients with Charcot arthropathy. This study represents an initial attempt to develop a standardized survey for use with this patient population. Further studies need to be done with larger groups of

  1. An exploratory study on differences in cumulative plantar tissue stress between healing and non-healing plantar neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bril, Adriaan; Wissink, Marieke; Bus, Sicco A.

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical stress is important in causing and healing plantar diabetic foot ulcers, but almost always studied as peak pressure only. Measuring cumulative plantar tissue stress combines plantar pressure and ambulatory activity, and better defines the load on ulcers. Our aim was to explore differences

  2. The effect of three different foot interventions on standing balance in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblauch, Henrik; Samuelsen, Jona A. S.; Sporsheim, Susanne B.

    2018-01-01

    Study Design: Experimental, randomised crossover study.  Objectives: To investigate if three different interventions that provided plantar proprioceptive input were able to make acute improvements to the one-legged standing balance.  Background: Improved balance reduces the risk of falling. There...

  3. Evaluation of the interplay effect when using RapidArc to treat targets moving in the craniocaudal or right-left direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Reisner, Adam; Winey, Brian; Schofield, Debbie; Ionascu, Dan; Allen, Aaron M.; Popple, Richard; Lingos, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We have investigated the dosimetric errors caused by the interplay between the motions of the LINAC and the tumor during the delivery of a volume modulated arc therapy treatment. This includes the development of an IMRT QA technique, applied here to evaluate RapidArc plans of varying complexity. Methods: An IMRT QA technique was developed, which involves taking a movie of the delivered dose (0.2 s frames) using a 2D ion chamber array. Each frame of the movie is then moved according to a respiratory trace and the cumulative dose calculated. The advantage of this approach is that the impact of turning the beam on at different points in the respiratory trace, and of different types of motion, can be evaluated using data from a single irradiation. We evaluated this technique by comparing with the results when we actually moved the phantom during irradiation. RapidArc plans were created to treat a 62 cc spherical tumor in a lung phantom (16 plans) and a 454 cc irregular tumor in an actual patient (five plans). The complexity of each field was controlled by adjusting the MU (312-966 MU). Each plan was delivered to a phantom, and a movie of the delivered dose taken using a 2D ion chamber array. Patient motion was modeled by shifting each dose frame according to a respiratory trace, starting the motion at different phases. The expected dose distribution was calculated by blurring the static dose distribution with the target motion. The dose error due to the interplay effect was then calculated by comparing the delivered dose with the expected dose distribution. Peak-to-peak motion of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cm in the craniocaudal and right-left directions, with target periods of 3 and 5 s, were evaluated for each plan (252 different target motion/plan combinations). Results: The daily dose error due to the interplay effect was less than 10% for 98.4% of all pixels in the target for all plans investigated. The percentage of pixels for which the daily dose error could be

  4. Effects of foot massage applied in two different methods on symptom control in colorectal cancer patients: Randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Neşe; Kutlutürkan, Sevinç; Uğur, Işıl

    2017-06-01

    This randomized controlled clinical study aimed to determine the effect of 2 foot massage methods on symptom control in people with colorectal cancer who received chemoradiotherapy. Data were collected between June 16, 2015, and February 10, 2016, in the Department of Radiation Oncology of an oncology training and research hospital. The sample comprised 60 participants. Data were collected using an introductory information form, common terminology criteria for adverse events and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires C30 and CR29. Participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups: classical foot massage, reflexology, and standard care control. The classical massage group received foot massage using classical massage techniques, and the reflexology group received foot reflexology focusing on symptom-oriented reflexes twice a week during a 5-week chemoradiotherapy treatment schedule. The control group received neither classical massage nor reflexology. All patients were provided with the same clinic routine care. The classical massage was effective in reducing pain level and distension incidence while foot reflexology was effective in reducing pain and fatigue level, lowering incidence of distension and urinary frequency and improving life quality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Foot strike pattern differently affects the axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation in downhill trail running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlene; Horvais, Nicolas; Rossi, Jérémy; Millet, Guillaume Y; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2016-06-14

    Trail runners are exposed to a high number of shocks, including high-intensity shocks on downhill sections leading to greater risk of osseous overuse injury. The type of foot strike pattern (FSP) is known to influence impact severity and lower-limb kinematics. Our purpose was to investigate the influence of FSP on axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation during an intense downhill trail run (DTR). Twenty-three trail runners performed a 6.5-km DTR (1264m of negative elevation change) as fast as possible. Four tri-axial accelerometers were attached to the heel, metatarsals, tibia and sacrum. Accelerations were continuously recorded at 1344Hz and analyzed over six sections (~400 steps per subject). Heel and metatarsal accelerations were used to identify the FSP. Axial, transverse and resultant peak accelerations, median frequencies and shock attenuation within the impact-related frequency range (12-20Hz) were assessed between tibia and sacrum. Multiple linear regressions showed that anterior (i.e. forefoot) FSPs were associated with higher peak axial acceleration and median frequency at the tibia, lower transverse median frequencies at the tibia and sacrum, and lower transverse peak acceleration at the sacrum. For resultant acceleration, higher tibial median frequency but lower sacral peak acceleration were reported with forefoot striking. FSP therefore differently affects the components of impact shock acceleration. Although a forefoot strike reduces impact severity and impact frequency content along the transverse axis, a rearfoot strike decreases them in the axial direction. Globally, the attenuation of axial and resultant impact-related vibrations was improved using anterior FSPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Different Storage Temperatures on the Efficacy of the Bivalent Foot and Mouth Disease Oil Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab El-Sayed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The storage stability of locally produced double oil emulsion adjuvant bivalent Foot and mouth disease (FMD vaccine prepared from type O1/Aga/ EGY/93 strain and A/EGY/1/2006 had been determined depending on its shelf life in different storage temperatures during the registration of this vaccine by the Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abbasia, Cairo. Samples of this vaccine were kept at 4°C for period of 27 months; at 25°C for 5 weeks and at 37°C for 3 weeks. The potency of these vaccine samples was evaluated in guinea pigs as laboratory animal's model. The obtained results confirmed that the vaccine keep its potency beyond the normal conservation period at 4°C for two years with 100% protection against challenge with FMDV O1/Aga/EGY/93 and at 25°C for 3 weeks and at 37°C for 1 week, showing 80% protection when storage of the vaccine at 25°C for 4 weeks; at 37°C for 2 weeks. On challenge with A/EGY/1/2006 the vaccine gave 100% protection when storage at 4°C for 21 months; at 25°C for 2 weeks and at 37°C for 1 week. Otherwise it gave 80% protection when storage at 4°C for 24 months; at 25°C for 3 weeks and at 37°C for 2 weeks then became invalid after 27 months at 4°C; after 4 weeks at 25°C and for 3 weeks at 37°C. So it could be concluded that 4°C is the best temperature of choice for storage of the oil inactivated bivalent FMD vaccine.

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease virus : the role of infection routes and species differences in the transmission of FMDV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda Cabrera, C.

    2015-01-01

    ÁFoot-and-mouth disease is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals (e.g. cattle, sheep, pigs) and can cause severe economic losses to the farm animal industries. The aim of this thesis was to quantify underlying mechanisms regarding transmission of FMDV. With data from past animal

  8. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... early. Start OverDiagnosisThe cause may be FEMORAL ANTEVERSION, TIBIAL TORSION or METATARSUS ADDUCTUS, commonly called intoeing. Self CareSee your doctor. Start OverDiagnosisYou may have a STRESS FRACTURE of the bones in your foot. The pain ...

  9. Foot pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you were born with or develops later Injury Shoes that fit poorly or do not have much cushioning Too much walking or other sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, which becomes red, swollen, ...

  10. Mycetoma foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Gooptu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was treated with a multi-drug therapy along with debridement of the painful nodule. He experienced symptomatic relief and a regression of the swelling within the three months of follow-up so far. Due to the relatively slow progression of the disease, patients are diagnosed at a late stage. Hence, emphasis should be placed on health education and the importance of wearing footwear.

  11. Within-patient right-left blinded comparison of diode (810 nm) laser therapy and intense pulsed light therapy for hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, H; Ibbotson, S H; Dawe, R S; Ferguson, J; Moseley, H

    2008-10-01

    Excessive facial hair in women can cause significant psychological distress. A variety of treatment methods are available, including lasers and, more recently, intense pulsed light (IPL) sources. There are very few studies comparing laser and IPL devices. The purpose of our study was to compare a laser diode device with an IPL, using a within-patient, right-left, assessor-blinded, controlled, study design. Hair counts were made, using coded close-up photographs. Treatments were carried out on three occasions at 6-week intervals, and a final assessment was made 6 weeks following the third treatment. Patient self-assessment was also included. Nine women were recruited, and seven completed the study. Average hair counts in a 16 cm(2) area before and after treatment were, respectively, 42.4 and 10.4 (laser), 38.1 and 20.4 (IPL), 45.3 and 44.7 (control). Both laser and IPL reduced the hair count substantially; laser vs control was significant at P=0.028, but IPL vs control had P=0.13, suggesting that more subjects or more treatments were required if statistical significance were to be achieved. Despite subjecting the patients to higher pain scores and more inflammation, laser was preferred by five patients; two preferred IPL and one had no preference.

  12. The Comparison of Forces Applied to the Knee Extensor Mechanism during Stance Phase of Gait in Flat Footed Females Three Different in-Shoe Orthotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Razeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been postulated that subtalar position and movement would influence the function of the foot and the lower limb’s biomechanical alignment as a whole. The aim of this study was to compare the changes of force applied to the knee extensor mechanism of the female subjects while applying three different in-shoe orthotic appliances. Materials & Methods: Feiss Line test was used to assign a group of 10 healthy female subjects aged at 19-25 years as flat foot group. Retro reflective calibration and tracking markers were placed on the subjects over anatomically relevant locations. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected by employing a three dimensional motion capture system (Qualisys®Ltd, Sweden and a force platform (Kistler®, Switzerland respectively, while subjects walked at their preferred speed with 3 different in-shoe orthotics: simple insole, insole with medial arch support, insole with medial arch support and medial heel wedge, and insole with medial arch support and lateral forefoot wedge. Results: A statistically significant lower amount of the force applied to the extensor mechanism was found while applying medial arch support combined with lateral wedge (P=0.005. Conclusion: It could be concluded that changes of the different foot insoles would alter the force applied to the knee extensor mechanism. Results of this study emphasize the immediate effect of applying a medial arch support combined lateral wedge on reduction of the force applied to the extensor mechanism through which decrease a tendency towards musculoskeletal injuries.

  13. Effects of a carbohydrase complex added in different inclusion rates in feeds for broilers on growth performance, digesta viscosity and foot pad health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, M; Weiß, H; Hankel, J; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is a widespread disease in poultry and important for economic and animal welfare reasons. It is well recognized that using non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes can affect excreta/litter quality (not only in terms of moisture content but also regarding water evaporation) at high stocking densities and might help to prevent FPD and further negative effects of NSP. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a carbohydrase complex (CC) in different dietary inclusion rates on performance, digesta viscosity and foot pad health in broilers from 9 to 37 days of life. In total, 240 broilers were divided into 12 floor pens of 20 birds and received one of four different experimental diets. The four wheat- and soyabean meal-based diets only differed in the inclusion rate of CC: 0%, 50%, 100% and 500% of the recommended dose of CC (Endo-1,4-ß-xylanase and Endo-1,3(4)-ß-glucanase; 50 g/t). The addition of CC led to a significant decrease of digesta viscosity in the proximal small intestine, a tendency of improved feed conversion ratio, and significantly favoured FPD-scores (Treatment 2). At the higher tested inclusion rate of CC (500% of recommended dose), the FPD score was worser than in the treatments with 50% and 100% of the recommended enzyme dosage. No improvements among treatments were observed in terms of body weight and dry matter content of excreta and litter at the end of trial. The low positive effects on foot pad health in this study were presumably associated with the low NSP content in the experimental diets (soluble arabinoxylans: 7.38 g/kg as fed). In conclusion, the addition of the evaluated CC reduced digesta viscosity. An improvement of foot pad health could only be seen in the treatment with 50% of the recommended enzyme dosage in the diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The Difference Between the Healing and the Nonhealing Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Review of the Role of the Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Danielle; Saeed, Mujahid; Narendran, Parth; Tiwari, Alok

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic foot disease carries a high morbidity and is a leading cause of lower limb amputation. This may in part be due to the effect diabetes mellitus (DM) has on the microcirculation including in the skin. We conducted a review of studies that have examined the relationship between microcirculatory function and wound healing in patients with DM. A search of the Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases was performed coupled with a review of references for the period 1946 to March 2015. Nineteen studies of diverse methodology and cohort selection were identified. Poor function of the microcirculation was related to poor outcome. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO 2 ) was the most commonly used method to measure the microcirculation and thresholds for poor outcome proposed ranged from 10 mmHg to diabetic and nondiabetic patients. While it is not possible to draw firm conclusions from the evidence currently available there are clear areas that warrant research. Good microcirculation unsurprisingly appears to associate with better wound healing. The influence of DM is not clear, and neither is the degree of improvement required to achieve healing. Studies that examine a clearly defined cohort both with and without DM are urgently required. Accurate quantitative assessment of microcirculation will aid prediction of wound healing identifying those at greatest risk of amputation.

  15. The diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestring, T.; Fiedler, R.; Greitemann, B.; Sciuk, J.; Peters, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Familiarity with the spectrum of findings in the different imaging modalities appears essential. Radiographically, significant changes include Charcot joints of the tarsus (destructive type) and bone absorption of the forefoot (mutilating type). In diabetic foot problems, magnetic resonance imaging and leukocyte scintigraphy appear to be the most effective tools for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of both techniques in active, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis. (orig.) [de

  16. Taiwanese adult foot shape classification using 3D scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Wang, Mao-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    This study classifies the foot shapes of Taiwanese using 3D foot scanning data from 2000 males and 1000 females. Nine foot dimensions relative to foot length and absolute measures in the common foot length categories were applied to compare the gender differences. Using foot breadth in % foot length (% FL), ball of foot length in % FL and arch height in % FL as feature parameters, three foot shape types for males and females can be classified. Significant gender differences were found in seven of the nine foot dimensions. Females had greater ball of foot length than males (0.2% FL). When comparing feet of the same foot length, males had greater breadth, girth and height dimensions than females, except for toe height. In addition, ethnic differences in foot shape were also observed. The findings can provide very useful information for building gender-specific shoe lasts and designing footwear insoles. 3D foot scanning data of 2000 males and 1000 females were classified into three different footshapes for males and females, respectively. Gender and ethnic differences on foot shape were also compared. The finding scan provide very useful information for gender-specific shoe last design and footwear production.

  17. An Attempt to Determine the Construct Validity of Measures Hypothesized to Represent an Orientation to Right, Left, or Integrated Hemispheric Brain Function for a Sample of Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrower, Jule; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study attempts to obtain evidence of the construct validity of pupil ability tests hypothesized to represent orientation to right, left, or integrated hemispheric function, and of teacher observation subscales intended to reveal behaviors in school setting that were hypothesized to portray preference for right or left brain function. (Author)

  18. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  19. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  20. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (Pfoot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  2. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  4. The total right/left-volume index: a new and simplified cardiac magnetic resonance measure to evaluate the severity of Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve: a comparison with heart failure markers from various modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösch, Olga; Sohns, Jan Martin; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Lauerer, Peter; Rosenberg, Christina; Kowallick, Johannes Tammo; Kutty, Shelby; Unterberg, Christina; Schuster, Andreas; Faßhauer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The classification of clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction of the pathologically altered right heart with the anatomically-supposedly-normal left heart and to derive from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) a simple imaging measure for the clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly. Twenty-five patients at a mean age of 26±14 years with unrepaired Ebstein anomaly were examined in a prospective study. Disease severity was classified using CMR volumes and functional measurements in comparison with heart failure markers from clinical data, ECG, laboratory and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiography. All examinations were completed within 24 hours. A total right/left-volume index was defined from end-diastolic volume measurements in CMR: total right/left-volume index=(RA+aRV+fRV)/(LA+LV). Mean total right/left-volume index was 2.6±1.7 (normal values: 1.1±0.1). This new total right/left-volume index correlated with almost all clinically used biomarkers of heart failure: brain natriuretic peptide (r=0.691; P=0.0003), QRS (r=0.432; P=0.039), peak oxygen consumption/kg (r=-0.479; P=0.024), ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production at anaerobic threshold (r=0.426; P=0.048), the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.692; P=0.009), tricuspid valve offset (r=0.583; P=0.004), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.554; P=0.006). Previously described severity indices ([RA+aRV]/[fRV+LA+LV]) and fRV/LV end-diastolic volume corresponded only to some parameters. In patients with Ebstein anomaly, the easily acquired index of right-sided to left-sided heart volumes from CMR correlated well with established heart failure markers. Our data suggest that the total right/left-volume index should be used as a new and simplified CMR measure, allowing more accurate assessment of disease severity than previously described scoring systems. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Gender differences in body-sway factors of center of foot pressure in a static upright posture and under the influence of alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Tamotsu; Demura, Shinichi; Noda, Masahiro; Yamada, Takayoshi

    2004-07-01

    This study aimed to examine gender differences in 4 body-sway factors of the center of foot pressure (CFP) during a static upright posture and the influence of alcohol intake on them. Four body-sway factors were interpreted in previous studies using factor analysis (the principal factor method and oblique solution by promax-rotation) on 220 healthy young males and females as follows; unit time sway, front-back sway, left-right sway and high frequency band power. The CFP measurement for 1 min was carried out twice with 1 min rest. The measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, whole body reaction time, standing on one leg with eyes closed, and CFP were carried out before and after the alcohol intake using 11 healthy young males and females. The measurement device used was an Anima's stabilometer G5500. The data sampling frequency was 20 Hz. Reliability of 4 body-sway factors was very high. Significant gender differences were found in the left-right sway and the high frequency band power factors, but the influence on body-sway is, as a whole, can be disregarded. These four sway factors can determine the influence of alcohol intake as efficient as 32 sway parameters.

  6. Effects of ankle-foot orthoses on mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Accurate and precise mediolateral foot placement is important for balance during gait, but is impaired post stroke. Mediolateral foot placement may be improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ankle-foot orthosis improves mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke ambulation. Crossover trial with randomized order of conditions tested. The accuracy and precision of mediolateral foot placement was quantified while subjects targeted four different randomized step widths. Subjects were tested with and without their regular non-rigid ankle-foot orthosis in two separate visits (order randomized). While ankle-foot orthosis use corrected foot and ankle alignment (i.e. significantly decreased mid-swing plantar flexion, p = 0.000), effects of ankle-foot orthosis use on hip hiking (p = 0.545), circumduction (p = 0.179), coronal plane hip range of motion (p = 0.06), and mediolateral foot-placement ability (p = 0.537) were not significant. While ankle-foot orthosis-mediated equinovarus correction of the affected foot and ankle was not associated with improved biomechanics of walking (i.e. proximal ipsilateral hip kinematics or mediolateral foot-placement ability), it may affect other aspects of balance that were not tested in this study (e.g. proprioception, cerebellar, vestibular, and cognitive mechanisms). Studies that investigate the effect of ankle-foot orthosis on gait can help advance stroke rehabilitation by documenting the specific gait benefits of ankle-foot orthosis use. In this study, we investigated the effect of ankle-foot orthosis use on mediolateral foot-placement ability, an aspect of gait important for maintaining balance. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  7. Bunion foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallux valgus deformity is a complex chronic progressive disease primarily characterized by a lateral great toe deviation and deformity of the first metatarsophalageal joint. Numerous etiological factors are related with the expression of this disease, and they are divided into two categories: endogenous and exogenous. Complexity of the hallux valgus deformity is reflected with the progression of the disease that gives rise to numerous forefoot deformities. The diagnosis is first of all affirmed by clinical examination and x-ray of the feet in a standing position. Treatment could be either operative or conservative. Conservative treatment has shown to be totally unsuccessful. Before decision making on the type of operative treatment, the patient’s complaints, age, profession, clinical and x-ray findings must be taken into consideration. Until now, over two hundred different operative procedures have been described, which clearly supports the observation that there is no single method which could resolve all clinical varieties of this deformity. Therefore, today, when making a choice on the surgical procedure of hallux valgus deformity, the utilization of surgical algorithm is recommended. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41004

  8. Effects of different foot progression angles and platform settings on postural stability and fall risk in healthy and medial knee osteoarthritic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saad Jawaid; Khan, Soobia Saad; Usman, Juliana; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of varying toe angles at different platform settings on Overall Stability Index of postural stability and fall risk using Biodex Balance System in healthy participants and medial knee osteoarthritis patients. Biodex Balance System was employed to measure postural stability and fall risk at different foot progression angles (ranging from -20° to 40°, with 10° increments) on 20 healthy (control group) and 20 knee osteoarthritis patients (osteoarthritis group) randomly (age: 59.50 ± 7.33 years and 61.50 ± 8.63 years; body mass: 69.95 ± 9.86 kg and 70.45 ± 8.80 kg). Platform settings used were (1) static, (2) postural stability dynamic level 8 (PS8), (3) fall risk levels 12 to 8 (FR12) and (4) fall risk levels 8 to 2 (FR8). Data from the tests were analysed using three-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance. The participant group, platform settings and toe angles all had a significant main effect on balance ( p ≤ 0.02). Platform settings had a significant interaction effect with participant group F(3, 144) = 6.97, p fall risk as compared to the healthy group. Changing platform settings has a more pronounced effect on balance in knee osteoarthritis group than in healthy participants. Changing toe angles produced similar effects in both the participant groups, with decreased stability and increased fall risk at extreme toe-in and toe-out angles.

  9. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Right: Left:: East: West. Evidence that individuals from East Asian and South Asian cultures emphasize right hemisphere functions in comparison to Euro-American cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Comparative study of the cytokine/chemokine response in children with differing disease severity in enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection can lead to a rapidly progressing, life-threatening, and severe neurological disease in young children, including the development of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. This study aims to further characterize the specific immunological features in EV71-mediated HFMD patients presenting with differing degrees of disease severity. METHODOLOGY: Comprehensive cytokine and chemokine expression were broadly evaluated by cytokine antibody array in EV71-infected patients hospitalized for HFMD compared to Coxsackievirus A16-infected patients and age-matched healthy controls. More detailed analysis using Luminex-based cytokine bead array was performed in EV71-infected patients stratified into diverse clinic outcomes. Additionally, immune cell frequencies in peripheral blood and EV71-specific antibodies in plasma were also examined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of several cytokines and chemokines were significantly increased in plasma from EV71-infected patients compared to healthy controls, which further indicated that: (1 GM-CSF, MIP-1β, IL-2, IL-33, and IL-23 secretion was elevated in patients who rapidly developed disease and presented with uncomplicated neurological damage; (2 G-CSF and MCP-1 were distinguishably secreted in EV71 infected very severe patients presenting with acute respiratory failure; (3 IP-10, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF levels were much higher in cerebrospinal fluid than in plasma from patients with neurological damage; (4 FACS analysis revealed that the frequency of CD19(+HLADR(+ mature B cells dynamically changed over time during the course of hospitalization and was accompanied by dramatically increased EV71-specific antibodies. Our data provide a panoramic view of specific immune mediator and cellular immune responses of HFMD and may provide useful immunological profiles for monitoring the progress of EV71-induced fatal neurological symptoms with acute respiratory failure.

  13. Characteristics of the gait adaptation process due to split-belt treadmill walking under a wide range of right-left speed ratios in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hikaru; Sato, Koji; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2018-01-01

    The adaptability of human bipedal locomotion has been studied using split-belt treadmill walking. Most of previous studies utilized experimental protocol under remarkably different split ratios (e.g. 1:2, 1:3, or 1:4). While, there is limited research with regard to adaptive process under the small speed ratios. It is important to know the nature of adaptive process under ratio smaller than 1:2, because systematic evaluation of the gait adaptation under small to moderate split ratios would enable us to examine relative contribution of two forms of adaptation (reactive feedback and predictive feedforward control) on gait adaptation. We therefore examined a gait behavior due to on split-belt treadmill adaptation under five belt speed difference conditions (from 1:1.2 to 1:2). Gait parameters related to reactive control (stance time) showed quick adjustments immediately after imposing the split-belt walking in all five speed ratios. Meanwhile, parameters related to predictive control (step length and anterior force) showed a clear pattern of adaptation and subsequent aftereffects except for the 1:1.2 adaptation. Additionally, the 1:1.2 ratio was distinguished from other ratios by cluster analysis based on the relationship between the size of adaptation and the aftereffect. Our findings indicate that the reactive feedback control was involved in all the speed ratios tested and that the extent of reaction was proportionally dependent on the speed ratio of the split-belt. On the contrary, predictive feedforward control was necessary when the ratio of the split-belt was greater. These results enable us to consider how a given split-belt training condition would affect the relative contribution of the two strategies on gait adaptation, which must be considered when developing rehabilitation interventions for stroke patients.

  14. Differences in minor amputation rate in diabetic foot disease throughout Europe are in part explained by differences in disease severity at presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Battum, P; Schaper, N; Prompers, L

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of minor amputation may vary significantly, and determinants of minor amputation have not been studied systematically. We evaluated minor amputation rate, the determinants of minor amputation and differences in amputation rate between European centres....

  15. [Foot growth and foot types in children and adolescents: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miaomiao; Wang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Foot shape and size are important for footwear design and production. Information about important foot characteristics helps not only to improve shoe comfort but to maintain the proper physiological development of the feet. What's more, plenty of studies have suggested that the shape of the shoe must closely resemble the shape of the foot to create a properly fitted shoe. This means that the differences between various populations should be considered and that footwear should be designed according to the measurements of users. Childhood and adolescent are important periods of human growth. During these periods, foot shape changes with human growth and can be influenced by extrinsic factors. Therefore, the foot shape characteristics of children and adolescents should be investigated. The results from these investigations can contribute to developing appropriate shoe for children and adolescents, improving perceived comfort of children shoes and preventing pedopathy among children and adolescents. This review aims to discuss measuring methods of foot shape, types of foot shape, and factors influencing foot shape. The results of the review can provide recommendations for investigating growth development of foot shape and useful information for consumers and shoe manufacturers.

  16. The foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging of the foot and ankle can be difficult because of the complex anatomy. Familiarity with the bony and ligamentous anatomy is essential for proper evaluation of radiographic findings. Therefore, pertinent anatomy is discussed as it applies to specific injuries. Special views, tomography, arthrography, and other techniques may be indicated for complete evaluation of foot and ankle trauma

  17. Foot Function, Foot Pain, and Falls in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Arunima; Hagedorn, Thomas J; Dufour, Alyssa B; Menz, Hylton B; Casey, Virginia A; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-01-01

    Although foot pain has been linked to fall risk, contributions of pain severity, foot posture, or foot function are unclear. These factors were examined in a cohort of older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of foot pain, severity of foot pain, and measures of foot posture and dynamic foot function with reported falls in a large, well-described cohort of older adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Foot pain, posture, and function were collected from Framingham Foot Study participants who were queried about falls over the past year (0, 1, and ≥2 falls). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of falls with foot pain, pain severity, foot posture, and foot function adjusting for covariates. The mean age of the 1,375 participants was 69 years; 57% were female, and 21% reported foot pain (40% mild pain, 47% moderate pain, and 13% severe pain). One-third reported falls in the past year (1 fall: n = 263, ≥2 falls: n = 152). Foot pain was associated with a 62% increased odds of recurrent falls. Those with moderate and severe foot pain showed increased odds of ≥2 falls (OR 1.78, CI 1.06-2.99, and OR 3.25, CI 1.65-7.48, respectively) compared to those with no foot pain. Foot function was not associated with falls. Compared to normal foot posture, those with planus foot posture had 78% higher odds of ≥2 falls. Higher odds of recurrent falls were observed in individuals with foot pain, especially severe foot pain, as well as in individuals with planus foot posture, indicating that both foot pain and foot posture may play a role in increasing the risk of falls among older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The structural style of foot wall shortcuts along the eastern foothills of the Colombian eastern cordillera. Differences with other inversion related structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Andres; Parra, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    For the first time we show geological evidence of unambiguously documented foot wall shortcuts adjacent to the trace of inverted master normal faults, in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. The Eastern Cordillera is an orogen whose width and location are traced by a Mesozoic Graben. However, few structures related with the Graben have been documented up to the date. In this study we propose the Ariari-Guatiquia region as a type location for a unique observation of foot wall shortcuts. The master normal faults in the Ariari-Guatiquia region, and documented in this manuscript, were active during the Lower Cretaceous, partially inverted during the Andean orogenesis (since the Oligocene at least) and active still nowadays. In the hanging wall basins of those master normal faults, like the Servita fault, all the Cretaceous syn-rift sequence has been deposited and maximum paleo-temperatures in the lowermost Cretaceous rocks are higher than those for the Zircon FT partial annealing zone (250 Celsius degrade; 23,15 K). In contraction, the inverted master normal faults are high angle basement involved features that generated the main topographic contrast and exposing Lower Cretaceous units or older. In contrast, in the adjacent foot wall shortcuts only part of the syn-rift Lower Cretaceous sequence was deposited or more commonly was not deposited at all. Maximum paleo-temperatures reached by the basal Cretaceous units exposed in the hanging wall blocks of the foot wall shortcuts are always less than those of the Zircon FT partial annealing zone (250 Celsius degrade; 23,15 K). Finally we use AFT data to document that the foot wall shortcuts originated during the Late Miocene and later as shallowly dipping faults generating low elevation hanging wall areas. All the described features are present in the Ariari-Guatiquia region. However, northwards and along strike in the Eastern foothills there is a lot of partially analogue scenarios with respect to those described in the

  19. Holographic interferometry for early diagnosisof children flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Petrovich Bolshakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first experience ofthe use of holographic interferometr y for earlydiagnosis of the flat foot in 4-5 years old children.13 patients were examined. The results of the clinicalexamination, plantography, and of the graphicalreconstruction of the form of the foot arch basedon the interferogramms of the prints on Pedilen areanalyzed. We revealed typical differences betweenthe form of the foot arches in children with flat foot and children with normal status. The use of the proposed method for early detection of congenital pes valgus and of the signs of “flexible flat” foot is being suggested.

  20. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  1. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS......: This study is based on a questionnaire survey sent out to healthcare professionals, primarily doctors, working with diabetic foot ulcers and Charcot feet in the public sector of the Danish healthcare system. RESULTS: The survey obtained a 52% response rate. A temperature difference of > 2 °C between the two...... and treatment practices of acute diabetic Charcot foot at diabetes foot clinics in Denmark. The responders seem to follow the international recommendations and guidelines on management of the acute diabetic Charcot foot, despite a lack of Danish guidelines. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  2. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Jeff G; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A

    2013-09-01

    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Contributions of foot muscles and plantar fascia morphology to foot posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Salih; Mickle, Karen J; Nester, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia differ between different foot postures. However, how each individual plantar structure contribute to foot posture has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between static foot posture and morphology of plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia and thus the contributions of these structures to static foot posture. A total of 111 participants were recruited, 43 were classified as having pes planus and 68 as having normal foot posture using Foot Posture Index assessment tool. Images from the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), peroneus longus and brevis (PER), flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles, and the calcaneal (PF1), middle (PF2) and metatarsal (PF3) regions of the plantar fascia were obtained using a Venue 40 ultrasound system with a 5-13 MHz transducer. In order of decreasing contribution, PF3 > FHB > FHL > PER > FDB were all associated with FPI and able to explain 69% of the change in FPI scores. PF3 was the highest contributor explaining 52% of increases in FPI score. Decreased thickness was associated with increased FPI score. Smaller cross sectional area (CSA) in FHB and PER muscles explained 20% and 8% of increase in FPI score. Larger CSA of FDB and FHL muscles explained 4% and 14% increase in FPI score respectively. The medial plantar structures and the plantar fascia appear to be the major contributors to static foot posture. Elucidating the individual contribution of multiple muscles of the foot could provide insight about their role in the foot posture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A comparative assessment of the risks of introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease among different pig sectors in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Hernandez-Jover

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale pig producers are believed to pose higher biosecurity risks for the introduction and spread of exotic diseases than commercial pig producers. However, the magnitude of these risks are poorly understood. This study is a comparative assessment of the risk of introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD through different sectors of the pig industry: 1 large-scale pig producers; 2 small-scale producers (< 100 sows selling at saleyards and abattoirs; and, 3 small-scale producers selling through informal means. An exposure and consequence assessments were conducted assuming FMD virus was introduced into Australia through illegal importation of infected meat. A quantitative assessment, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation, was used to calculate the probabilities of exposure and spread. Input data for these assessments were obtained from a series of data gathering exercises among pig producers, industry statistics and literature. Findings of this study suggest there is an Extremely low probability of exposure (8.69 × 10-6 to 3.81 × 10-5 for the three sectors of the pig industry, with exposure through direct swill feeding being 10 to 100 times more likely to occur than through contact with infected feral pigs.. Spread of FMD from the index farm is most likely to occur through movement of contaminated fomites, pigs and ruminants. The virus is more likely to spread from small-scale piggeries selling at saleyards and abattoirs than from other piggeries. The most influential factors on the spread of FMD from the index farm is the ability of the farmer to detect FMD, the probability of FMD spread through contaminated fomites and the presence of ruminants on the farm. Although small-scale producers selling informally move animals less frequently and do not use external staff, movement of pigs to non-commercial pathways could jeopardize animal traceability in the event of a disease outbreak. This study suggest that

  5. Development and validation of a questionnaire designed to measure foot-health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P J; Patterson, C; Wearing, S; Baglioni, T

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the principles of content, criterion, and construct validation to a new questionnaire specifically designed to measure foot-health status. One hundred eleven subjects completed two different questionnaires designed to measure foot health (the new Foot Health Status Questionnaire and the previously validated Foot Function Index) and underwent a clinical examination in order to provide data for a second-order confirmatory factor analysis. Presented herein is a psychometrically evaluated questionnaire that contains 13 items covering foot pain, foot function, footwear, and general foot health. The tool demonstrates a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability.

  6. The diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The diabetic foot presents a complex interplay of neuropathic, macrovascular, and microvascular disease on an abnormal metabolic background, complicated by an increased susceptibility to mechanical, thermal, and chemical injury and decreased healing ability. The abnormalities of diabetes, once present, are not curable. But most severe foot abnormalities in the diabetic are due to neglect of injury and are mostly preventable. The physician must ensure that the diabetic patient learns the princ...

  7. Athlete's Foot: Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-10-01

    In brief: Athletes are particularly prone to athlete's foot because they are generally more exposed than others to conditions that encourage fungal growth, eg, communal showers and locker rooms. Diagnosis of athlete's foot rests on clinical suspicion and laboratory testing. Treatment may consist of topical antifungal agents and, for more resistant cases, oral griseofulvin. Preventive measures include keeping the feet dry, wearing nonocclusive leather shoes or sandals and absorbent cotton socks, and applying talcum or antifungal powder at least twice daily.

  8. [Minor foot amputations in diabetic foot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, C; Eckhard, M; Szalay, G; Heiss, C

    2016-10-01

    The treatment strategy for diabetic foot syndrome must take into account protective sensibility of the foot, open wounds, infection status, and the rules of septic bone surgery. Interventions are classified as elective, prophylactic, curative, or emergency. Amputations in the forefoot and midfoot region are performed as ray amputations (including metatarsal), which can often be carried out as "inner" amputations. Gentle tissue treatment mandatory because of greater risk of revision with re-amputation compared to classical amputation. Good demarcation of infection, acute osteomyelitis, osteolytic lesions, neurotropic ulcer, arterial and venous blood flow to the other toes, gangrene of other toes with metatarsal affection. Arterial occlusive disease, infection of neighboring areas, avoidable amputations, poorly healing ulcers on the lower leg. Primary dorsal approach; minimal incisional distance (5 cm) to minimize skin necrosis risk. Atraumatic preparation, minimize hemostasis to not compromise the borderline perfusion situation. In amputations, plantar skin preparation and longer seams placed as dorsal as possible, either disarticulated and maintain cartilage, or round the cortical metatarsal bone after resection. Diabetes control. Braun splint, mobilization in a shoe with forefoot decompression and hindfoot support, physiotherapy. Antibiotics based on resistance testing. If no complications, dressing change on postoperative day 1. Optimal wound drainage by lowering foot several times a day; drainage removal after 12-24 h. Insoles and footwear optimization. Amputations require continued attention and if necessary treatment to avoid sequelae. Insufficient treatment associated with recurrent ulceration and altered anatomy.

  9. Education for diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to stratify the risk in a consecutive group of diabetic patients presenting, for the first time, in a diabetic foot clinic. Additional aims were to investigate the preventive measures in the local health system and to evaluate the level of patient’s awareness about diabetic foot-associated morbidity. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult diabetic patients referred to a Diabetic Foot Clinic of a Municipal Public Hospital comprised the sample for this observational study. The enrollment visit was considered as the first health-system intervention for potential foot morbidity. The average time elapsed since a diagnosis of diabetes among patients was five years. Rresults: At the time of presentation, 94% of sample was not using appropriate footwear. Pedal pulses (dorsalis pedis and/or posterior tibial arteries were palpable in 76% of patients. Thirty subjects (60% had signs of peripheral neuropathy. Twenty-one subjects (42% had clinical deformity. There was a positive correlation between a history of foot ulcer, the presence of peripheral neuropathy, and the presence of foot deformity (p < 0.004 in each correlation. Cconclusions: Informing and educating the patients and those interested in this subject and these problems is essential for favorable outcomes in this scenario.

  10. Angiography in the region of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-06-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg.

  11. Angiography in the region of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg. (orig.) [de

  12. Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuping; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Witana, Channa P; Lee Au, Emily Yim

    2008-08-01

    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p > 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R(2) greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

  13. A study of dynamic foot pressure measurement in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka D Madhale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcer is a major source of morbidity and a leading cause of hospitalization. It is estimated that approximately 20% of hospital admissions among patients with diabetes mellitus are due to diabetic foot ulcer. It can lead to infection, gangrene, amputation, and even death if appropriate care is not provided. Overall, the lower limb amputation in diabetic patients is 15 times higher than in non-diabetics. In the majority of cases, the cause for the foot ulcer is the altered architecture of the foot due to neuropathy resulting in abnormal pressure points on the soles. Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner and check its reliability and validity which can help to prevent foot ulceration. Design/Methodology/Approach: In the present study, a low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner is developed, and dynamic plantar pressures in a group of 110 Indian patients with diabetes with or without neuropathy and foot ulcers are measured. Practical Implications: If these pressure points can be detected, ulcers can be prevented by providing offloading footwear. Originality/Value: Differences are found in dynamic foot pressures in different study groups, namely, diabetic patients, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, patients with foot ulcers, and nondiabetics. The differences are significant (P < 0.01, which showed the validity of the tool. Reliability and consistency of the tool was checked by test–retest method. Paper Type: Original Research work. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that the scanner is successfully developed and it can measure foot pressures. It is a novel device to proactively monitor foot health in diabetics in an effort to prevent and reduce diabetic foot complications.

  14. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Beyond the Bottom of the Foot: Topographic Organization of the Foot Dorsum in Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Taryn; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Sun, Yao; Barss, Trevor S; Kaupp, Chelsea; Munro, Bridget; Frank, Nick; Zehr, E Paul

    2017-12-01

    Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking. Muscle activity from muscles acting at the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder were recorded along with ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetic information from forces under the foot. All data were sorted on the basis of stimulus occurrence in 12 step cycle phases, before being averaged together within a phase for subsequent analysis. Results reveal dynamic changes in reflex amplitudes and kinematics that are site specific and phase dependent. Most responses from discrete sites on the foot dorsum were seen in the swing phase suggesting function to conform foot trajectory to maintain stability of the moving limb. In general, responses from lateral stimulation differed from medial stimulation, and effects were largest from stimulation at the distal end of the foot at the metatarsals; that is, in anatomical locations where actual impact with an object in the environment is most likely during swing. Responses to stimulation extend to include muscles at the hip and shoulder. We reveal that afferent feedback from specific cutaneous locations on the foot dorsum influences stance and swing phase corrective responses. This emphasizes the critical importance of feedback from the entire foot surface in locomotor control and has application for rehabilitation after neurological injury and in footwear development.

  16. Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Vivienne Helaine; Searle, Angela; Spink, Martin J

    2016-11-11

    Foot pain is a common problem affecting up to 1 in 5 adults and is known to adversely affect activities of daily living and health related quality of life. Orthopaedic footwear interventions are used as a conservative treatment for foot pain, although adherence is known to be low, in part due to the perception of poor comfort and unattractiveness of the footwear. The objective of this trial was to assess the efficacy of flip-flop style footwear (Foot Bio-Tec©) with a moulded foot-bed in reducing foot pain compared to participant's usual footwear. Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial using computer generated random allocation schedule at an Australian university podiatry clinic. 108 volunteers with disabling foot pain were enrolled after responding to an advertisement and eligibility screening. Participants were randomly allocated to receive footwear education and moulded flip-flop footwear to wear as much as they were comfortable with for the next 12 weeks (n = 54) or footwear education and instructions to wear their normal footwear for the next 12 weeks (n = 54). Primary outcome was the pain domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). Secondary outcomes were the foot function and general foot health domains of the FHSQ, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for foot pain and perceived comfort of the intervention footwear. Compared to the control group, the moulded flip-flop group showed a significant improvement in the primary outcome measure of the FHSQ pain domain (adjusted mean difference 8.36 points, 95 % CI 5.58 to 13.27, p footwear and six (footwear group = 4) were lost to follow up. Our results demonstrate that flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed can have a significant effect on foot pain, function and foot health and might be a valuable adjunct therapy for people with foot pain. ACTRN12614000933651 . Retrospectively registered: 01/09/2014.

  17. Veterinary realities: what is foot and mouth disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, J.; Mol, A.

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary science draws on different traditions for knowing and acting, and mobilises different kinds of materials and techniques. This article explores these differences and their tensions for the diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in the UK in 2001. It shows that when they talk of foot and mouth

  18. Imaging of Charcot foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer; Schmitz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The onset of a Charcot foot ist a feared complication of a long lasting diabetes mellitus. A peripheral neuropathy and continuous weight bearing of the foot subsequent to repeated traumas depict the conditions. There exist three types of a Charcot foot, an atrophic, a hypertophic and a mixed type. In early stages a differentiation from osteoarthritis is difficult. Subluxation or luxation within the Lisfranc's joint is typical. The joints of the foot could rapidly and extensively be destroyed or may present the morphology of a 'superosteoarthritis'. Often, soft tissue infections or osteomyelitis evolve from ulcers of the skin as entry points. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis necessitate MR imaging as plain radiography offers only low sensitivity for detection of an osteomyelitis. The existence of periosteal reactions is not a proof for osteomyelitis. Bone marrow edema and soft tissue edema also appear in a non infected Charcot foot. The range of soft tissue infections goes from cellulitis over phlegmon to abscesses. The ghost sign is the most suitable diagnostic criterion for osteomyelitis. In addition, the penumbra sign or the existence of a sinus tract between a skin ulcer and the affected bone may be helpful. (orig.)

  19. Pathophysiology diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafril, S.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to have many complications. Diabetes and its complications are rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and one of the most distressing is Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). Chronic wound complications are a growing concern worldwide, and the effect is a warning to public health and the economy. The etiology of a DFU is multifaceted, and several components cause added together create a sufficient impact on ulceration: neuropathy, vasculopathy, immunopathy, mechanical stress, and neuroarthropathy. There are many classifications of the diabetic foot. About 50% of patients with foot ulcers due to DM present clinical signs of infection. It is essential to manage multifactorial etiology of DFU to get a good outcome.

  20. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  1. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS...... for offloading (83%). All centres use some form of a multidisciplinary team, with the most common permanent members being orthopaedic surgeons (71%), wound specialist nurses (76%), podiatrists (65%), endocrinologists (47%) and diabetes specialist nurses (41%). CONCLUSION: We conducted a survey of the diagnosis...

  2. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  3. Hallux valgus and plantar pressure loading: the Framingham foot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV), a common structural foot deformity, can cause foot pain and lead to limited mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in plantar pressure and force during gait by HV status in a large population-based cohort of men and women. Methods A trained examiner performed a validated physical examination on participants’ feet and recorded the presence of hallux valgus and other specific foot disorders. Each foot was classified into one of four mutually exclusive groups based on the foot examination. Foot groups were: (i) HV only, (ii) HV and at least one additional foot disorder (FD), (iii) no HV but at least one other FD, and (iv) neither HV nor FD (referent). Biomechanical data for both feet were collected using Tekscan Matscan. Foot posture during quiet standing, using modified arch index (MAI), and foot function during gait, using center of pressure excursion index (CPEI), were calculated per foot. Further, walking scans were masked into eight sub-regions using Novel Automask, and peak pressure and maximum force exerted in each region were calculated. Results There were 3205 participants, contributing 6393 feet with complete foot exam data and valid biomechanical measurements. Participants with HV had lower hallucal loading and higher forces at lesser toes as well as higher MAI and lower CPEI values compared to the referent. Participants with HV and other FDs were also noted to have aberrant rearfoot forces and pressures. Conclusions These results suggest that HV alters foot loading patterns and pressure profiles. Future work should investigate how these changes affect the risk of other foot and lower extremity ailments. PMID:24138804

  4. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  5. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  6. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too much pressure on your toes. If your feet have changed shape, such as from Charcot’s foot, you may need ... care visit if you have changes in the shape of your feet loss of feeling in your feet peripheral artery ...

  7. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the ball of the foot when walking, running and jumping. Sesamoid injuries can involve the bones, tendons and/or surrounding ... on the ball of the foot, such as running, basketball, football, golf, tennis and ballet. ... of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of ...

  8. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from running and side-to-side cutting, sliding or tackling ...

  9. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  10. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    2018-03-01

    The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of the OFM in children with foot deformity. Intra-tester repeatability was assessed for 45 children (15 typically developing, 15 hemiplegic, 15 clubfoot). Inter-tester repeatability was assessed in the clubfoot population. The mean absolute differences between testers (clubfoot) and sessions (clubfoot and hemiplegic) were calculated for each of 15 clinically relevant, kinematic variables and compared to typically developing children. Children with clubfoot showed a mean difference between visits of 2.9° and a mean difference between raters of 3.6° Mean absolute differences were within one degree for the intra and inter-rater reliability in 12/15 variables. Hindfoot rotation, forefoot/tibia abduction and forefoot supination were the most variable between testers. Overall the clubfoot data were less variable than the typically developing population. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated slightly higher differences between sessions (mean 4.1°), with the most reliable data in the sagittal plane, and largest differences in the transverse plane. The OFM was designed to measure different types of foot deformity. The results of this study show that it provides repeatable results in children with foot deformity. To be distinguished from measurement artifact, changes in foot kinematics as a result of intervention or natural progression over time must be greater than the repeatability reported here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-12-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  12. Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in blood flow to the foot. Darkening or loss of hair may indicate that the blood or nerve supply has decreased. Less blood to the foot can ... differences between hot/warm and cold water. Shower water can be first tested ... identify any loss of temperature sensation. Testing for any change in ...

  13. [Foot reflexology massage: a clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselring, A

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible usefulness of foot reflexology on the recovery after a surgical intervention. 130 patients participated in the study. They underwent abdominal surgery under full anesthesia for different, but exclusively gynecological reasons. Foot reflexology investigated in this study was applied only for a few days for each patient. The following parameters were recorded: the subjective, self-assessed, general condition, pain intensity, movement of the bowels, micturition and sleep, beginning on the day before operation until day 10. Two other treatments served as controls, a simple massage of the foot or a personal conversation. The simple massage turned out to be a relaxing, positive experience, whereas foot reflexology had various effects, some of them were even negative. The conclusion was that foot reflexology is not recommended for acute, abdominal postsurgical situations in gynecology because it can occasionally trigger abdominal pain. This project is one of the few studies planned, conducted and performed by the nursing staff.

  14. A New Mobile Application for Standardizing Diabetic Foot Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Chatwin, Katie E; Ng, Choon-Ching; Abbott, Caroline A; Bowling, Frank L; Rajbhandari, Satyan; Boulton, Andrew J M; Reeves, Neil D

    2018-01-01

    We describe the development of a new mobile app called "FootSnap," to standardize photographs of diabetic feet and test its reliability on different occasions and between different operators. FootSnap was developed by a multidisciplinary team for use with the iPad. The plantar surface of 30 diabetic feet and 30 nondiabetic control feet were imaged using FootSnap on two separate occasions by two different operators. Reproducibility of foot images was determined using the Jaccard similarity index (JSI). High intra- and interoperator reliability was demonstrated with JSI values of 0.89-0.91 for diabetic feet and 0.93-0.94 for control feet. Similarly high reliability between groups indicates FootSnap is appropriate for longitudinal follow-ups in diabetic feet, with potential for monitoring pathology.

  15. Biomechanically acquired foot types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Over the years, orthopedics of the foot has gone through many stages and phases, each of which has spawned a whole vocabulary of its own. According the author, today we are in the biomechanical age, which represents a step forward in understanding the mechanisms governing the functions of the lower extremity. A great deal of scientific research on the various foot types and pathological entities is now being performed. This paper discusses how, from a radiographic point of view, a knowledge of certain angular relationships must be achieved before one can perform a biomechanical evaluation. In order to validate the gross clinical findings, following an examination of a patient, a biomechanical evaluation can be performed on the radiographs taken. It must be remembered, however, that x-rays are never the sole means of making a diagnosis. They are just one of many findings that must be put together to arrive at a pertinent clinical assessment or diagnosis

  16. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  17. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  18. Health education programmes to improve foot self-care practices and foot problems among older people with diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Sharoni, Siti Khuzaimah; Minhat, Halimatus Sakdiah; Mohd Zulkefli, Nor Afiah; Baharom, Anisah

    2016-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of health education programmes to improve foot self-care practices and foot problems among older people with diabetes. The complications of diabetes among older people are a major health concern. Foot problems such as neuropathy, ulcer and ultimately amputation are a great burden on older people with diabetes. Diabetes foot education programmes can influence the behaviour of older people in practising foot self-care and controlling the foot problems. However, the educational approaches used by the educators are different. Therefore, it is important to assess the education programmes from various evidence-based practices. Six databases, EBSCOhost medical collections (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection), SAGE, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and Web of Science, were used to search for articles published from January 2000 to March 2015. The search was based on the inclusion criteria and keywords including 'foot', 'care' and 'diabetes'. Fourteen studies were assessed and reviewed in the final stage. Health education programmes varied according to their design, setting, approach, outcome measured and results. Foot assessment, verbal and written instructions and discussion were proved to improve the foot self-care and foot problems. Subsequent follow-ups and evaluations had a significant effect. An improvement was observed in foot self-care scores and foot problems (such as neuropathy, foot disability, lesion, ulcer, tinea pedis and callus grade) after implementation of the health education programme. The findings of this study support the claim that a health education programme increases the foot self-care scores and reduces the foot problems. However, there were certain methodological concerns in the reviewed articles, indicating the need for further evaluation. In future, researchers and practitioners must implement a vigorous education programme focusing on diabetes foot self-care among the

  19. Factors associated with combined hand and foot eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As for hand eczema, the aetiology of foot eczema is multifactorial and not very well understood. The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with foot eczema in a cohort of hand eczema patients being classified into different subgroups. METHODS: Associations between...... foot and hand eczema were studied in a cross-sectional design in a cohort of hand eczema patients. Consecutive patients were recruited from nine different European Centres during the period October 2011-September 2012. Data on demographic factors, presence of foot eczema, hand eczema duration...... and severity, and whether the hand eczema was work-related or not were available, as well as patch-test results. RESULTS: Of a total of 427 hand eczema patients identified, information on foot eczema was available in 419 patients who were included in the present study. A total of 125 patients (29.8%) had...

  20. Challenging the foundations of the clinical model of foot function: further evidence that the root model assessments fail to appropriately classify foot function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Hannah L; Nester, Christopher J; Bowden, Peter D; Jones, Richard K

    2017-01-01

    The Root model of normal and abnormal foot function remains the basis for clinical foot orthotic practice globally. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between foot deformities and kinematic compensations that are the foundations of the model. A convenience sample of 140 were screened and 100 symptom free participants aged 18-45 years were invited to participate. The static biomechanical assessment described by the Root model was used to identify five foot deformities. A 6 segment foot model was used to measure foot kinematics during gait. Statistical tests compared foot kinematics between feet with and without foot deformities and correlated the degree of deformity with any compensatory motions. None of the deformities proposed by the Root model were associated with distinct differences in foot kinematics during gait when compared to those without deformities or each other. Static and dynamic parameters were not correlated. Taken as part of a wider body of evidence, the results of this study have profound implications for clinical foot health practice. We believe that the assessment protocol advocated by the Root model is no longer a suitable basis for professional practice. We recommend that clinicians stop using sub-talar neutral position during clinical assessments and stop assessing the non-weight bearing range of ankle dorsiflexion, first ray position and forefoot alignments and movement as a means of defining the associated foot deformities. The results question the relevance of the Root assessments in the prescription of foot orthoses.

  1. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  2. Bearing capacity of Skirt circular footing on sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Z. EL Wakil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skirts are used to improve the bearing capacity of shallow footings on sandy soil by constraining the soil beneath and containing the plastic flow of soil. They are used as an alternative to deep foundations in soils with low strength at the surface. As there has been available little work studying the performance of skirted foundation, we are performing eighteen laboratory experiments on circular steel footings of different diameters and different skirt lengths. The aim of these experiments is to shed some lights on the effects of skirts on the bearing capacity of shallow footings. The effects of skirt length and the relative density of sand on the ultimate load attained were investigated. From the accomplished laboratory tests, it was found that skirts improve appreciably the sustainability of shallow footings to applied load as they increase the ultimate load of shallow footings by some up to 6.25 times for the current study conditions and variables. The performance of skirted footing depends upon the relative density of sand and on the skirt length to footing diameter ratio. Skirts are more beneficial in case of footings on loose sand than in case of medium and dense sand.

  3. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi eNaito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How very long-term (over many years motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while he rotated his right ankle at 1Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  4. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  5. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  6. The association between foot-care self efficacy beliefs and actual foot-care behaviour in people with peripheral neuropathy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swerissen Hal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy often do not implement the foot-care behavioural strategies that are suggested by many health professionals. The concept of self-efficacy has been shown to be an effective predictor of behaviour in many areas of health. This study investigated the relationships between foot-care self-efficacy beliefs, self-reported foot-care behaviour and history of diabetes-related foot pathology in people with diabetes and loss of protective sensation in their feet. Methods Ninety-six participants were included in this cross-sectional study undertaken in a regional city of Australia. All participants had diabetes and clinically diagnosed loss of protective sensation in their feet. The participants completed a self-report pen-paper questionnaire regarding foot-care self efficacy beliefs (the "Foot Care Confidence Scale" and two aspects of actual foot-care behaviour-preventative behaviour and potentially damaging behaviour. Pearson correlation coefficients were then calculated to determine the association between foot-care self-efficacy beliefs and actual reported foot-care behaviour. Multiple analysis of variance was undertaken to compare mean self-efficacy and behaviour subscale scores for those with a history of foot pathology, and those that did not. Results A small positive correlation (r = 0.2, p = 0.05 was found between self-efficacy beliefs and preventative behaviour. There was no association between self-efficacy beliefs and potentially damaging behaviour. There was no difference in self-efficacy beliefs in people that had a history of foot pathology compared to those that did not. Conclusion There is little association between foot-care self-efficacy beliefs and actual foot-care behaviour. The usefulness of measuring foot-care self-efficacy beliefs to assess actual self foot-care behaviour using currently available instruments is limited in people with diabetes and loss of protective

  7. Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Arnold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 3D gait analysis, kinematics of the foot joints are usually reported via isolated time histories of joint rotations and no information is provided on the relationship between rotations at different joints. The aim of this study was to identify movement coordination patterns in the foot during walking by expanding an existing vector coding technique according to an established multi-segment foot and ankle model. A graphical representation is also described to summarise the coordination patterns of joint rotations across multiple patients. Methods Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics were recorded in 13 adults during walking. A modified vector coding technique was used to identify coordination patterns between foot joints involving calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux segments. According to the type and direction of joints rotations, these were classified as in-phase (same direction, anti-phase (opposite directions, proximal or distal joint dominant. Results In early stance, 51 to 75% of walking trials showed proximal-phase coordination between foot joints comprising the calcaneus, midfoot and metatarsus. In-phase coordination was more prominent in late stance, reflecting synergy in the simultaneous inversion occurring at multiple foot joints. Conversely, a distal-phase coordination pattern was identified for sagittal plane motion of the ankle relative to the midtarsal joint, highlighting the critical role of arch shortening to locomotor function in push-off. Conclusions This study has identified coordination patterns between movement of the calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux by expanding an existing vector cording technique for assessing and classifying coordination patterns of foot joints rotations during walking. This approach provides a different perspective in the analysis of multi-segment foot kinematics, and may be used for the objective quantification of the alterations in foot joint

  8. Foot placement modulation diminishes for perturbations near foot contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2018-01-01

    Whenever a perturbation occurs during walking we have to maintain our balance using the recovery strategies that are available to us. Foot placement adjustment is often considered an important recovery strategy. However, because this strategy takes time it is likely a poor option if the foot is

  9. Mortality associated with acute Charcot foot and neuropathic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Juliette; Hubbard, Richard; Game, Fran; Jeffcoate, William

    2010-01-01

    To compare the mortality of patients with an acute Charcot foot with a matched population with uninfected neuropathic foot ulcers (NFUs). Data were extracted from a specialist departmental database, supplemented by hospital records. The findings were compared with the results of earlier populations

  10. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang Fan

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1 in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01 in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2 in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01 in the rate of change of footprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  11. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2011-03-18

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (pplantar; (2) in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (pfootprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  12. Analysis of foot kinematics wearing high heels using the Oxford foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizi; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien Steven

    2018-04-29

    Wearing high heels is thought to lead to various foot disorders and injuries such as metatarsal pain, Achilles tendon tension, plantar fasciitis and Haglund malformation. However, there is little available information explaining the specific mechanisms and reasons why wearing high heels causes foot deformity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the foot kinematics of high heel wearers and compare any differences with barefoot individuals using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Fifteen healthy women aged 20-25 years were measured while walking barefoot and when wearing high heels. The peak value of angular motion for the hallux with respect to the forefoot, the forefoot with respect to the hind foot, and the hind foot with respect to the tibia were all analyzed. Compared to the barefoot, participants wearing high heels demonstrated larger hallux dorsiflexion (22.55∘± 1.62∘ VS 26.6∘± 2.33∘ for the barefoot; P= 0.001), and less hallux plantarflexion during the initial stance phase (-4.86∘± 2.32∘ VS -8.68∘± 1.13∘; Pfoot demonstrated a larger dorsiflexion in the horizontal plane (16.59∘± 1.69∘ VS 12.08∘± 0.9∘; Pfoot extension rotation (-5.49∘± 0.69∘ VS -10.73∘± 0.42∘; P= 0.001). These findings complement existing kinematic evidence that wearing high heels can lead to foot deformities and injuries.

  13. Foot-strike pattern and performance in a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2013-05-01

    To determine prevalence of heel strike in a midsize city marathon, if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender. Foot-strike classification (forefoot, midfoot, heel, or split strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1-km mark for 2112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon. 1991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n = 1865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (P strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher exact test. In addition, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test. The high prevalence of heel striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of most mid-distance to long-distance runners and, more important, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel-strike running pattern. This knowledge can help clinicians appropriately diagnose, manage, and train modifications of injured runners.

  14. What is the diabetic foot?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in the complications related to diabetes as a result of this increasing ... A number of contributory factors work together to cause foot ... neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformities, external ... it is usually a combination of problems rather than a single risk ... This results in increased oxidative stress.

  15. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.

  16. Avoiding foot complications in diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preceded by a foot ulcer.1,2 Every 30 seconds a lower limb or part of a lower limb is ... of foot ulcers are peripheral neuropathy, deformity, peripheral vascular disease and ... Repetitive stresses cause hyperkeratosis, followed by subcutaneous ...

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  18. Implementation of foot thermometry plus mHealth to prevent diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Porras, Maria; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Gilman, Robert H; Malaga, German; Armstrong, David G; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-04-19

    Diabetic foot neuropathy (DFN) is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus; its early diagnosis and intervention can prevent foot ulcers and the need for amputation. Thermometry, measuring the temperature of the feet, is a promising emerging modality for diabetic foot ulcer prevention. However, patient compliance with at-home monitoring is concerning. Delivering messages to remind patients to perform thermometry and foot care might be helpful to guarantee regular foot monitoring. This trial was designed to compare the incidence of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) between participants who receive thermometry alone and those who receive thermometry as well as mHealth (SMS and voice messaging) over a year-long study period. This is an evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-month trial. Individuals with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged between 18-80 years, having a present dorsalis pedis pulse in both feet, are in risk group 2 or 3 using the diabetic foot risk classification system (as specified by the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot), have an operating cell phone or a caregiver with an operating cell phone, and have the ability to provide informed consent will be eligible to participate in the study. Recruitment will be performed in diabetes outpatient clinics at two Ministry of Health tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. participants in both groups will receive education about foot care at the beginning of the study and they will be provided with a thermometry device (TempStat™). TempStat™ is a tool that captures a thermal image of the feet, which, depending on the temperature of the feet, shows different colors. In this study, if a participant notes a single yellow image or variance between one foot and the contralateral foot, they will be prompted to notify a nurse to evaluate their activity within the previous 2 weeks and make appropriate recommendations. In addition to thermometry, participants in the intervention arm

  19. Development of Foot Massage Program on Nausea and Vomiting for Cancer Patients: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Guru Prapti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to develop a foot massage program to support care activity in reducing nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Two phases, a literature review and the development of a foot massage program were conducted. The literature review was to analyze state of the art massage techniques by reviewing problems, related theories and supporting evidence. Method: Eight published studies in the English language were reviewed. A massage can be performed for different durations, from 10 minutes up to 60 minutes for three to six weeks and can be applied on various body areas. We found that the soft stroke/effleurage seems to be the best method and is most suitable for patients with cancer. It is also evident that foot massaging can be applied as a modality to reduce nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Result: We developed a foot massage program specifically for patients with cancer. The foot massage program comprised of three sessions, including 1 education session, 2 preparation session, and 3 foot massage session. In the education session, patients obtain brief information about the definition of a foot massage, the benefits and contraindication of foot massaging. During the preparation phase, foot soaking and warming up are performed. Subsequently, the foot massage is applied and should last for 30 minutes. Further research is recommended to test the effectiveness of the proposed foot massage program for nausea and vomiting in cancer patients across countries including Indonesia. Key Words: Foot massage program, chemotherapy, nausea and vomiting

  20. Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Werbel, William A; Daoud, Adam I; D'Andrea, Susan; Davis, Irene S; Mang'eni, Robert Ojiambo; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2010-01-28

    Humans have engaged in endurance running for millions of years, but the modern running shoe was not invented until the 1970s. For most of human evolutionary history, runners were either barefoot or wore minimal footwear such as sandals or moccasins with smaller heels and little cushioning relative to modern running shoes. We wondered how runners coped with the impact caused by the foot colliding with the ground before the invention of the modern shoe. Here we show that habitually barefoot endurance runners often land on the fore-foot (fore-foot strike) before bringing down the heel, but they sometimes land with a flat foot (mid-foot strike) or, less often, on the heel (rear-foot strike). In contrast, habitually shod runners mostly rear-foot strike, facilitated by the elevated and cushioned heel of the modern running shoe. Kinematic and kinetic analyses show that even on hard surfaces, barefoot runners who fore-foot strike generate smaller collision forces than shod rear-foot strikers. This difference results primarily from a more plantarflexed foot at landing and more ankle compliance during impact, decreasing the effective mass of the body that collides with the ground. Fore-foot- and mid-foot-strike gaits were probably more common when humans ran barefoot or in minimal shoes, and may protect the feet and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries now experienced by a high percentage of runners.

  1. Evaluation of foot static disturbances in patients with rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kuryliszyn-Moskal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Rheumatic diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis constitute the most frequent pathological states leading to the development of foot deformities, which reduce quality of life and cause disability. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of plantoconturographic examinations, obtained by means of a computer podoscope, in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Special attention was paid to the differences in the values of each parameter determining the level of foot function. Material and methods : The study was performed in 94 female patients divided into two groups according to the type of disease. There were 54 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 40 with osteoarthritis. The control group consisted of 34 healthy women. The plantographic assessment of static foot structure was carried out by means of a device for computer-aided foot examination. Results : A fallen transverse arch of the right foot was statistically much more frequent in the rheumatoid arthritis patients than in osteoarthritis patients or the control group (p < 0.005 and p < 0.05, respectively. Significant differences in the values of the Wejsflog index were observed in the case of left foot between rheumatoid arthritis patients and the control group (p < 0.05. Similarly, there were statistically significant differences in the values of the hallux valgus angle ( for the right foot between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients or control group (in both cases p < 0.05. Conclusions : Rheumatic diseases predispose patients to disturbances of static foot function. The obtained results highlight the importance of diagnosing foot static disturbances in the prevention of destructive changes affecting the functioning of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  2. Gait kinematics of subjects with ankle instability using a multisegmented foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Roel; Willems, Tine; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark; Pataky, Todd; Roosen, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Many patients who sustain an acute lateral ankle sprain develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). Altered ankle kinematics have been reported to play a role in the underlying mechanisms of CAI. In previous studies, however, the foot was modeled as one rigid segment, ignoring the complexity of the ankle and foot anatomy and kinematics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate stance phase kinematics of subjects with CAI, copers, and controls during walking and running using both a rigid and a multisegmented foot model. Foot and ankle kinematics of 77 subjects (29 subjects with self-reported CAI, 24 copers, and 24 controls) were measured during barefoot walking and running using a rigid foot model and a six-segment Ghent Foot Model. Data were collected on a 20-m-long instrumented runway embedded with a force plate and a six-camera optoelectronic system. Groups were compared using statistical parametric mapping. Both the CAI and the coper group showed similar differences during midstance and late stance compared with the control group (P foot segment showed a more everted position during walking compared with the control group. Based on the Ghent Foot Model, the rear foot also showed a more everted position during running. The medial forefoot showed a more inverted position for both running and walking compared with the control group. Our study revealed significant midstance and late stance differences in rigid foot, rear foot, and medial forefoot kinematics The multisegmented foot model demonstrated intricate behavior of the foot that is not detectable with rigid foot modeling. Further research using these models is necessary to expand knowledge of foot kinematics in subjects with CAI.

  3. The effect of gender on foot anthropometrics in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva de Castro, Alessandra; Rebelatto, Jose Rubens; Aurichio, Thais Rabiatti

    2011-08-01

    Some questions remain regarding the anthropometric differences between the feet of young men and women, but the gap is much greater when dealing with older adults. No studies were found concerning these differences in an exclusively older adult population, which makes it difficult to manufacture shoes based on the specific anthropometric measurements of the older adult population and according to gender differences. To identify differences between the anthropometric foot variables of older men and women. Cross-sectional. 154 older women (69.0 ± 6.8 y) and 131 older men (69.0 ± 6.5 y). The foot evaluations comprised the variables of width, perimeter, height, length, 1st and 5th metatarsophalangeal angles, the Arch Index (AI), and the Foot Posture Index (FPI). A data analysis was performed using t test and a post hoc power analysis. Women showed significantly higher values for the width and perimeter of the toes, width of the metatarsal heads, and width of the heel and presented significantly lower values for the height of the dorsal foot after normalization of the data to foot length. The 1st and 5th metatarsophalangeal angles were smaller in the men. There were no differences between men and women with respect to AI and FPI. Overall, the current study shows evidence of differences between some of the anthropometric foot variables of older men and women that must be taken into account for the manufacture of shoes for older adults.

  4. Standardizing foot-type classification using arch index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Weil, Rich; de Boer, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a reliable classification standard for foot type makes drawing conclusions from existing research and clinical decisions difficult, since different foot types may move and respond to treatment differently. The purpose of this study was to determine interrater agreement for foot-type classification based on photo-box-derived arch index values. For this correlational study with two raters, a sample of 11 healthy volunteers with normal to obese body mass indices was recruited from both a community weight-loss programme and a programme in physical therapy. Arch index was calculated using AutoCAD software from footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box. Classification as high-arched, normal, or low-arched foot type was based on arch index values. Reliability of the arch index was determined with intra-class correlations; agreement on foot-type classification was determined using quadratic weighted kappa (κw). Average arch index was 0.215 for one tester and 0.219 for the second tester, with an overall range of 0.017 to 0.370. Both testers classified 6 feet as low-arched, 9 feet as normal, and 7 feet as high-arched. Interrater reliability for the arch index was ICC=0.90; interrater agreement for foot-type classification was κw=0.923. Classification of foot type based on arch index values derived from plantar footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box showed excellent reliability in people with varying BMI. Foot-type classification may help clinicians and researchers subdivide sample populations to better differentiate mobility, gait, or treatment effects among foot types.

  5. Standardizing Foot-Type Classification Using Arch Index Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Rich; de Boer, Emily

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The lack of a reliable classification standard for foot type makes drawing conclusions from existing research and clinical decisions difficult, since different foot types may move and respond to treatment differently. The purpose of this study was to determine interrater agreement for foot-type classification based on photo-box-derived arch index values. Method: For this correlational study with two raters, a sample of 11 healthy volunteers with normal to obese body mass indices was recruited from both a community weight-loss programme and a programme in physical therapy. Arch index was calculated using AutoCAD software from footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box. Classification as high-arched, normal, or low-arched foot type was based on arch index values. Reliability of the arch index was determined with intra-class correlations; agreement on foot-type classification was determined using quadratic weighted kappa (κw). Results: Average arch index was 0.215 for one tester and 0.219 for the second tester, with an overall range of 0.017 to 0.370. Both testers classified 6 feet as low-arched, 9 feet as normal, and 7 feet as high-arched. Interrater reliability for the arch index was ICC=0.90; interrater agreement for foot-type classification was κw=0.923. Conclusions: Classification of foot type based on arch index values derived from plantar footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box showed excellent reliability in people with varying BMI. Foot-type classification may help clinicians and researchers subdivide sample populations to better differentiate mobility, gait, or treatment effects among foot types. PMID:23729964

  6. Cold immersion recovery responses in the diabetic foot with neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharara, Manish; Viswanathan, Vijay; Cobb, Jonathan E

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the effectiveness of testing cold immersion recovery responses in the diabetic foot with neuropathy using a contact thermography system based on thermochromic liquid crystals. A total of 81 subjects with no history of diabetic foot ulceration were assigned to neuropathy, non neuropathy and healthy groups. Each group received prior verbal and written description of the test objectives and subsequently underwent a comprehensive foot care examination. The room temperature and humidity were consistently maintained at 24 degrees C and less than 50%, respectively, with air conditioning. The right foot for each subject was located on the measurement platform after cold immersion in water at 18-20 degrees C. Whole-field thermal images of the plantar foot were recorded for 10 minutes. Patients with diabetes with neuropathy show the highest 'delta temperature', that is difference between the temperature after 10-minute recovery period and baseline temperature measured independently at all the three sites tested, that is first metatarsal head (MTH), second MTH and heel. This clinical study showed for the first time the evidence of poor recovery times for the diabetic foot with neuropathy when assessing the foot under load. A temperature deficit (because of poor recovery to baseline temperature) suggests degeneration of thermoreceptors, leading to diminished hypothalamus-mediated activity in the diabetic neuropathic group.

  7. Combined diabetic foot infections treatment, complicated by foot phlegmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavruyan O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article shows the analysis of treatment results of 163 patients with diabetic foot infections, complicated by foot phlegmon. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The control group received traditional treatment and had an autopsy deep plantar space done and then, during the second phase, cytokine-rich autoplatelet concentrate had been applied. The research results confirmed a significant decrease in the duration of treatment and hospitalization of patients in the hospital.

  8. How prosody marks shifts in footing in classroom discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skidmore, David; Murakami, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    concept of footing. We show that, within an episode of teacher-led plenary discourse, prosody may be used to signal shifts in footing between different kinds of pedagogic activity. We identify: (i) teacher-led IRF (Initiation– Response–Feedback) discussion; (ii) the teacher’smodelling of exploratory talk......; (iii) a shift to instruction-giving. If teachers are able to model the enquiring tone of exploratory talk, they may in turn encourage more thoughtful contributions from students....

  9. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Matthew; Chuter, Vivienne; Munteanu, Shannon; Hawke, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91%) while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have a 3-6 fold increased likelihood of experiencing a

  10. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew West

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Results Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91% while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

  11. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical

  12. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution in CAD-CAM and prefabricated foot orthoses in patients with flexible flatfeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Banafsheh; Saeedi, Hassan; Jalali, Maryam; Farzadi, Maede; Norouzi, Ehsan

    2017-12-01

    The effect of foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution has been proven by researchers but there are some controversies about advantages of custom-made foot orthoses to less expensive prefabricated foot orthoses. Nineteen flatfeet adults between 18 and 45 participated in this study. CAD-CAM foot orthoses were made for these patients according to their foot scan. Prefabricated foot orthoses were prepared according to their foot size. Plantar pressure, force and contact area were measured using pedar ® -x in-shoe system wearing shoe alone, wearing CAD-CAM foot orthoses and wearing prefabricated foot orthoses. Repeated measures ANOVA model with post-hoc, Bonferroni comparison were used to test differences. CAD-CAM and prefabricated foot orthoses both decreased pressure and force under 2nd, 3-5 metatarsal and heel regions comparing to shoe alone condition. CAD-CAM foot orthosis increased pressure under lateral toe region in comparison to shoe alone and prefabricated foot orthosis. Both foot orthoses increased pressure and contact area in medial midfoot region comparing to shoe alone condition. Increased forces were seen at hallux and lateral toes by prefabricated foot orthoses in comparison with CAD-CAM foot orthoses and control condition, respectively. According to the results, both foot orthoses could decrease the pressure under heel and metatarsal area. It seems that the special design of CAD-CAM foot orthoses could not make great differences in plantar pressure distribution in this sample. Further research is required to determine whether these results are associated with different scan systems or design software. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.H.; Tong, D.T.F.; Crim, J.R.; Seeger, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase 99m Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal 99m Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a 111 In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  14. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.H. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tong, D.T.F. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crim, J.R. [Durham Radiology Associates, Durham, NC (United States); Seeger, L.L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a {sup 111}In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  15. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  16. Specificity of foot configuration during bipedal stance in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabona, Antonino; Leonardi, Giuseppa; Aimola, Ettore; La Grua, Giovanni; Polizzi, Cristina Maria; Cioni, Matteo; Valle, Maria Stella

    2016-05-01

    Learning highly specialized upright postures may be of benefit for more common as well as for novel stances. In this study, we asked whether this generalization occurs with foot configurations previously trained or depends on a generic increase in balance difficulty. We also explored the possibility that the benefit may concern not only the level of postural performance but also the structural organization of the upright standing. Ten elite professional ballet dancers were compared to ten untrained subjects, measuring the motion of the center of pressure (COP) across a set of five stances with different foot configurations. The balance stability was measured computing the area, the sway path, and the root mean square of the COP motion, whereas the structure of the postural control was assessed by compute approximate entropy, fractal dimension and the mean power frequency. The foot position included common and challenging stances, with the level of difficulty changed across the configurations. Among these conditions, only one foot configuration was familiar to the dancers. Statistically significant differences between the two groups, for all the parameters, were observed only for the stance with the foot position familiar to the dancers. Stability and structural parameters exhibited comparable differences. We concluded that the benefit from classical ballet is limited to a specific foot configuration, regardless of the level of stance difficulty or the component of postural control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of kinesiotaping on foot posture in participants with pronated foot: a quasi-randomised, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, Alejandro; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Baron-Lopez, Francisco Javier; Labajos-Manzanares, Maria Teresa; Hush, Julia; Hancock, Mark Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether kinesiotaping improves excessive foot pronation compared with sham kinesiotaping. Quasi-randomised, double-blind study. One primary care centre. One hundred and thirty participants were screened for inclusion. Sixty-eight participants with pronated feet [Foot Posture Index (FPI)≥ 6] were enrolled, and the follow-up rate was 100%. Participants were allocated into one of two groups: an experimental kinesiotaping group (KT1) and a sham taping group (KT2). Measures were collected by a blinded assessor at baseline, and 1 minute, 10 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours after taping. The primary outcome was total FPI score, and the secondary outcome was rear-foot FPI score. There were no significant differences in total FPI score between kinesiotaping and sham taping at any time point. Similarly, there were no significant differences in rear-foot FPI score, apart from at 60-minute follow-up when the difference between groups was significant (P=0.04) but the effect size was very small (0.85 points on the rear-foot FPI score between -6 and +6). Kinesiotaping does not correct foot pronation compared with sham kinesiotaping in people with pronated feet. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Foot posture in basketball players with history of the shin splint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Forghany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shin splint is one of the common injuries in most athletes. Although the relationship between abnormal foot posture and shin splint has been reported previously but, the relation between foot posture and shin splint has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between foot postures in basketball players and the history of shin splint. Materials and Methods: Thirty Iranian male basketball players who had experience of shin splint during last three months were participated in this study. Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 was used as the measure of foot posture. Talar head palpation, curvature at the lateral malleoli, inversion/eversion of the calcaneus, prominence in the region of the talonavicular joint, congruence of the medial longitudinal arch, abduction /adduction of the forefoot on the rear foot were 6 items which were assessed with FPI in the standing position. Foot posture was defined as ‘normal’, ‘supinated’ or ‘pronated. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS, version16. Results: Most participants showed abnormal foot posture (%80. Fifty-three percent of subjects had pronated foot (%53 and 10% did hyper-pronation. The foot postures of 17% of participants were in supination. The results of this study did not show a significant difference in foot posture between right and left foot (P > 0.05. Conclusion: abnormal foot posture were common (%80 in basketball players with the history of shin splints. These findings could support this idea that the footwear and orthotic prescription both can prevent and treat basketball players with history of shin splints. Keywords: Foot posture, Shin splints, Basketball

  19. Patients With Diabetic Foot Disease Fear Major Lower-Extremity Amputation More Than Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Dane K; Raspovic, Katherine M; Suder, Natalie C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most-feared complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), comparing those with diabetic foot pathology with those without diabetic foot pathology. We determined the frequency of patients ranking major lower-extremity amputation (LEA) as their greatest fear in comparison to blindness, death, diabetic foot infection (DFI), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. We further categorized the study group patients (N = 207) by their pathology such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), Charcot neuroarthropathy, foot infection, or acute neuropathic fractures and dislocations. The control group (N = 254) was comprised of patients with diabetes who presented with common non-diabetes-related foot pathology. A total of 461 patients were enrolled in this study and included 254 patients without diabetic foot complications and 207 patients with diabetic foot problems. When comparing patients with and without diabetic disease, no significant differences were observed with regard to their fear of blindness, DFI, or ESRD requiring dialysis. Patients with diabetic foot disease (61 of 207, 31.9%) were 136% more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.51-3.70; P = .002] to rank major LEA as their greatest fear when compared with diabetic patients without foot disease (42 of 254, 16.5%) and were 49% less likely (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.34-0.79; P = .002) to rank death as their greatest fear compared with patients without diabetic foot disease. Patients with diabetic foot pathology fear major LEA more than death, foot infection, or ESRD. Variables that were associated with ranking LEA as the greatest fear were the presence of a diabetic-related foot complication, duration of DM ≥10 years, insulin use, and the presence of peripheral neuropathy. Level II: Prospective, Case controlled study.

  20. Ultrasound Findings of the Painful Ankle and Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheil Artul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To document the prevalence and spectrum of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS findings at different parts of the foot. Materials and Methods: All MSKUS studies conducted on the foot during a 2-year period (2012-2013 at the Department of Radiology were reviewed. Demographic parameters including age, gender, and MSKUS findings were documented. Results: Three hundred and sixty-four studies had been conducted in the 2-year period. Ninety-three MSKUS evaluations were done for the ankle, 30 studies for the heel, and 241 for the rest of the foot. The most common MSKUS finding at the ankle was tenosynovitis, mostly in female patients; at the heel it was Achilles tendonitis, also mostly in female patients; and for the rest of the foot it was fluid collection and presence of foreign body, mainly in male patients. The number of different MSKUS abnormalities that were reported was 9 at the ankle, 9 at the heel, and 21 on the rest of the foot. Conclusions: MSKUS has the potential for revealing a huge spectrum of abnormalities. The most common finding was collection/hematoma and foreign bodies at the foot, tenosynovitis at the ankle, and Achilles tendinitis at the heel.

  1. Heel–toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.

  2. Risk factors for development of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Adriana M.W.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; King, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    different types of foot lesions (hyperkeratosis, nodular lesions, papillomatous growths, and fissures) in captive flamingos. The study was based on photos of 445 pairs of flamingo foot soles. Data originating from 337 birds in 10 different zoos were included. The odds of birds having hyperkeratosis......Foot lesions are highly prevalent in captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus spp.); however, the etiology of these lesions remains mainly speculative. The objectives of this study were to identify climatic factors (latitude, temperature, and housing) and surface factors influencing the risk of four...... and substrate appear to affect the odds of developing different types of foot lesions....

  3. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model protocol in presence of foot deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Matricali, Giovanni A; Spaepen, Pieter; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-07-01

    Repeatability studies on 3D multi-segment foot models (3DMFMs) have mainly considered healthy participants which contrasts with the widespread application of these models to evaluate foot pathologies. The current study aimed at establishing the repeatability of the 3DMFM described by Leardini et al. in presence of foot deformities. Foot kinematics of eight adult participants were analyzed using a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience. The inter-trial variability was higher compared to the kinematics of healthy subjects. Consideration of relative angles resulted in the lowest inter-session variability. The absolute 3D rotations between the Sha-Cal and Cal-Met seem to have the lowest variability in both therapists. A general trend towards higher σ(sess)/σ(trial) ratios was observed when the midfoot was involved. The current study indicates that not only relative 3D rotations and planar angles can be measured consistently in patients, also a number of absolute parameters can be consistently measured serving as basis for the decision making process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between foot posture and lower limb kinematics during walking: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Murley, George S; Butterworth, Paul; Levinger, Pazit; Menz, Hylton B; Landorf, Karl B

    2013-07-01

    Variations in foot posture, such as pes planus (low-arched foot) or pes cavus (high-arched foot), are thought to be an intrinsic risk factor for injury due to altered motion of the lower extremity. Hence, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the relationship between foot posture and lower limb kinematics during walking. A systematic database search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Embase and Inspec was undertaken in March 2012. Two independent reviewers applied predetermined inclusion criteria to selected articles for review and selected articles were assessed for quality. Articles were then grouped into two broad categories: (i) those comparing mean kinematic parameters between different foot postures, and (ii) those examining associations between foot posture and kinematics using correlation analysis. A final selection of 12 articles was reviewed. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity between studies. Selected articles primarily focused on comparing planus and normal foot postures. Five articles compared kinematic parameters between different foot postures - there was some evidence for increased motion in planus feet, but this was limited by small effect sizes. Seven articles investigated associations between foot posture and kinematics - there was evidence that increasing planus foot posture was positively associated with increased frontal plane motion of the rearfoot. The body of literature provides some evidence of a relationship between pes planus and increased lower limb motion during gait, however this was not conclusive due to heterogeneity between studies and small effect sizes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of foot structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical evaluation by validated measures and serological correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bartoloni Bocci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine foot involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to characterize structural alterations in patients with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP antibody-positive and -negative disease. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with RA with foot pain were consecutively enrolled. The Manchester Hallux Valgus (MHV rating scale was used to evaluate the hallux valgus deformity degree. The Foot Posture Index (FPI6, a novel, foot-specific outcome measure, was adopted in order to quantify variation in the position of the foot. The findings were correlated with disease duration and presence or absence of anti-CCP antibodies. Results: About 84.6% patients had different degrees of hallux valgus and 65.4% subjects had a pronated foot. These two foot alterations were prevalently found in patients with long-standing disease and circulating anti-CCP antibodies. On the contrary, RA patients without anti-CCP and early disease essentially displayed a supinated foot without relevant hallux valgus deformity. Conclusion: Our findings allowed to identify different anatomic foot alterations in RA patients according to disease duration and negative prognostic factors such as anti-CCP antibodies. Our findings support the role of an accurate analysis of foot structural damage and may suggest the usefulness of a correct plantar orthosis prescription also in early phases of the disease.

  6. A comparison of foot kinematics in people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Barton, Christian J; Cotchett, Matthew P; McSweeney, Simone R; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-10-01

    Foot posture is thought to influence predisposition to overuse injuries of the lower limb. Although the mechanisms underlying this proposed relationship are unclear, it is thought that altered foot kinematics may play a role. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate differences in foot motion between people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Foot posture in 19 participants was documented as normal-arched (n=10) or flat-arched (n=9) using a foot screening protocol incorporating measurements from weightbearing antero-posterior and lateral foot radiographs. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the tibia, rearfoot and forefoot during walking were evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analysis system incorporating a multi-segment foot model (OFM). Participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated greater peak forefoot plantar-flexion (-13.7° ± 5.6° vs -6.5° ± 3.7°; p=0.004), forefoot abduction (-12.9° ± 6.9° vs -1.8° ± 6.3°; p=0.002), and rearfoot internal rotation (10.6° ± 7.5° vs -0.2°± 9.9°; p=0.018) compared to those with normal-arched feet. Additionally, participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated decreased peak forefoot adduction (-7.0° ± 9.2° vs 5.6° ± 7.3°; p=0.004) and a trend towards increased rearfoot eversion (-5.8° ± 4.4° vs -2.5° ± 2.6°; p=0.06). These findings support the notion that flat-arched feet have altered motion associated with greater pronation during gait; factors that may increase the risk of overuse injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  8. Nuclear medicine imaging of diabetic foot infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capriotti, Gabriela; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Signore, Alberto; Chianelli, Marco; Prandini, Napoleone

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Osteomyelitis of the foot is the most frequent complication in diabetic patients. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in diagnosis and for therapy follow-up, using different tracers. We reviewed 57 papers on diabetic foot imaging (published from 1982 to 2004, 50 original papers and 7 reviews), for a total of 2889 lesions. Data analysis has been carried out to establish which imaging technique could be used as a 'gold standard' for diagnosis of infection and to evaluate the extent of disease and to monitor the efficacy of therapy. Data analysis revealed that three-phase bone-scan is sensitive but not specific whereas specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 99m Tc-WBC scintigraphy is higher than 111 In- WBC scintigraphy. In the forefoot leukocyte scintigraphy may be useful for diagnosis of osteomyelitis and for monitoring the response to medical treatment. In the mid/hind foot the leukocytes uptake is not related only to the presence of infected region, but it is attributed to inflammation, fractures and reparative processes. Other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc/ 111 In-HIG, radiolabelled antibody and their fragments, showed high sensibility, but lower specificity than WBC (96.8/66.5, 95.8/70.2, 91.3/62 vs 85.8/84.5). Conclusion: It emerged that in the forefoot when clinical suspicious of osteomyelitis is low and medical treatment is contemplated, three-phase bon scan is the procedure of choice. A positive test is not diagnostic for osteomyelitis, and radiolabelled WBC scintigraphy is necessary. In the mid/hind foot, diagnosis of neuropathic joint with infection is problematic. Radiolabelled WBC imaging is probably the most accurate test for determining the presence of infection. Although a negative study strongly indicate the absence of osteomyelitis, it is important to note that a positive result requires a complementary study with marrow agent. (author)

  9. Preliminary investigation of foot pressure distribution variation in men and women adults while standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, R; Mishra, A; Anand, Sneh; Ammini, A C

    2011-09-01

    Women and men are anatomically and physiologically different in a number of ways. They differ in both shape and size. These differences could potentially mean foot pressure distribution variation in men and women. The purpose of this study was to analyze standing foot pressure image to obtain the foot pressure distribution parameter - power ratio variation between men and women using image processing in frequency domain. We examined 28 healthy adult subjects (14 men and 14 women) aged between 20 and 45 years was recruited for our study. Foot pressure distribution patterns while standing are obtained by using a PedoPowerGraph plantar pressure measurement system for foot image formation, a digital camera for image capturing, a TV tuner PC-add on card, a WinDvr software for still capture and Matlab software with dedicated image processing algorithms have been developed. Various PedoPowerGraphic parameters such as percentage medial impulse (PMI), fore foot to hind foot pressure distribution ratio (F/H), big toe to fore foot pressure distribution ratio (B/F) and power ratio (PR) were evaluated. In men, contact area was significantly larger in all regions of the foot compared with women. There were significant differences in plantar pressure distribution but there was no significant difference in F/H and B/F ratio. Mean PR value was significantly greater in men than women under the hind foot and fore foot. PMI value was greater in women than men. As compared to men, women have maximum PR variations in the mid foot. Hence there is significant difference at level pfeet can provide suitable guidelines to biomedical engineers and doctor for designing orthotic devices for reliving the area of excessively high pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Criterion-related validity of the foot health status questionnaire regarding strength and plantar pressure measurements in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Galan-Mercant, Alejandro; Martín-Borras, Maria Carmen; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Criterion-related validity of a self-administered questionnaire listed as gold standard requires objective testing. The aim of this study was to analyze the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) using functional variable measures (dynamic plantar pressure and foot strength). A total of 22 elderly healthy participants (13 women and 9 men) were screened by interview and physical examination for foot or gait abnormalities. Foot strength, footprint pressure, and foot health status were measured. All the items of the FHSQ show significant correlation with functional variables, but general foot health shows the highest correlation with the 4 physical variables related to plantar pressure (R2 = 0.741), followed by foot pain (R2 = 0.652). A set of different, directly measured physical variables related to foot strength and plantar pressure significantly correlate with the FHSQ dimensions. Cross-sectional trial.

  11. Does Foot Massage Relieve Acute Postoperative Pain? A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Chanif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to examine the current state of knowledge regarding foot massageto determine if foot massage has an effect on relieving acute postoperative pain.Method: The following questions were used to guide this review: How does pain occur?What is the pain management modalities used in relieving acute postoperative pain? Does footmassage relieve acute postoperative pain? A comprehensive systematic search of publishedliterature and journal articles from Science Direct, CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest and fromrelevant textbooks was conducted. The universal case entry website, Google-scholar was usedas well. The following keywords were used: foot massage, pain management, andpostoperative pain. Eight studies on foot massage and more than thirty related articles werereviewed.Result: Postoperative pain is caused by tissue damage that induces release of chemicalmediators from the surgical wound. The four processes of pain are transduction, transmission,perception and modulation. Pain medication is the goal standard for acute postoperative painrelief. In addition, foot massage is a modality that can be used in relieving acute postoperativepain. Massage stimulates large nerve fibers and dermatome layers which contain tactile andpressure receptors. The receptors subsequently transmit the nerve impulse to the centralnervous system. The gate control system in the dorsal horn is activated through the inhibitoryinterneuron, thus closing the gate. Subsequently, the brain does not receive the pain message.Eight reviewed studies demonstrated that foot massage relieves acute postoperative pain.However, there were some methodological limitations of these studies.Conclusion: It is recommended to examine the effect of foot massage on acute postoperativepain with high homogenous samples using various duration of massage and range of time forpain measurement at different settings.Key words: foot massage, pain management and postoperative pain.

  12. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  13. The Influence of Foot-Strike Technique on the Neuromechanical Function of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A; Farris, Dominic J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals). An inverse dynamic analysis was performed to estimate joint moments generated about the midfoot, as well as mechanical work and power. The midfoot was more plantar flexed (higher arch) at foot contact when running with a forefoot running technique (RFS 0.2 ± 1.8 vs FFS 6.9 ± 3.0°, effect size (ES) = 2.7); however, there was no difference in peak midfoot dorsiflexion in stance (RFS -11.6 ± 3.0 vs FFS -11.4 ± 3.4°, ES = 0.63). When running with a forefoot technique, participants generated greater moments about the midfoot (27% increase, ES = 1.1) and performed more negative work (240% increase, ES = 2.2) and positive work (42% increase, ES = 1.1) about the midfoot. Average stance-phase muscle activation was greater for flexor digitorum brevis (20% increase, ES = 0.56) and abductor hallucis (17% increase, ES = 0.63) when running with a forefoot technique. Forefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique.

  14. Validity and Reliability of Visual Analog Scale Foot and Ankle: The Turkish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Gozde; Turgut, Elif; Dilek, Burcu; Baltaci, Gul; Bek, Nilgun; Yakut, Yavuz

    The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the visual analog scale foot and ankle (VAS-FA) among healthy subjects and patients with foot problems. A total of 128 participants, 65 healthy subjects and 63 patients with foot problems, were evaluated. The VAS-FA was translated into Turkish and administered to the 128 subjects on 2 separate occasions with a 5-day interval. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's α. The validity was assessed using the correlations with Turkish versions of the Foot Function Index, the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, and the Short-Form 36-item Health Survey. A statistically significant difference was found between the healthy group and the patient group in the overall score and subscale scores of the VAS-FA (p Foot Function Index, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, and Short-Form 36-item Health Survey scores in the healthy and patient groups both. The Turkish version of the VAS-FA is sensitive enough to distinguish foot and ankle-specific pathologic conditions from asymptomatic conditions. The Turkish version of the VAS-FA is a reliable and valid method and can be used for foot-related problems. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects on foot external rotation of the modified ankle-foot orthosis on post-stroke hemiparetic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Hong Min; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of heel-opened ankle foot orthosis (HOAFO) on hemiparetic gait after stroke, especially on external foot rotation, and to compare the effects of HOAFO with conventional plastic-AFO (pAFO) and barefoot during gait. This cross-over observational study involved 15 hemiparetic patients with external rotation of the affected foot. All subjects were able to walk independently, regardless of their usual use of a single cane, and had a less than fair-grade in ankle dorsiflexion power. Each patient was asked to walk in three conditions with randomized sequences: 1) barefoot, 2) with a pAFO, and 3) with an HOAFO. Their gait patterns were analyzed using a motion analysis system. Fifteen patients consisted of nine males and six females. On gait analysis, hip and foot external rotation were significantly greater in pAFO (-3.35° and -23.68°) than in barefoot and HOAFO conditions (pexternal rotation compared with pAFO; although there was no significant difference between HOAFO and barefoot walking. Walking speed and percentage of single limb support were significantly greater for HOAFO than in barefoot walking. HOAFO was superior to pAFO in reducing hip and foot external rotation during the stance phase in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. HOAFO may, therefore, be useful in patients with excessive external rotation of the foot during conventional pAFO.

  16. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  17. Touch-less interaction with medical images using hand & foot gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Smith, Jeremiah; Sousa, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    control. In this paper, we present a system for gesture-based interaction with medical images based on a single wristband sensor and capacitive floor sensors, allowing for hand and foot gesture input. The first limited evaluation of the system showed an acceptable level of accuracy for 12 different hand...... & foot gestures; also users found that our combined hand and foot based gestures are intuitive for providing input....

  18. The Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

  19. Diabetic gangrene of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Junji; Hoshi, Makoto; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo; Kimura, Masakata; Ichinohe, Hitomoto.

    1983-01-01

    A case of severe diabetic gangrene was reported. Angiography showed no evidence of ischemic changes in the foot, except for mild atherosclerosis in the femoral and popliteal arteries. Tc-99m labelled macroagglugated albumine (MAA) was injected transcatheterally into the abdominal aorta to see the blood perfusion of the lower extremities, which showed increased blood flow of the foot as well as the presence of micro arteriovenous shuntings shown by the appearance of both lungs. Damages of the microcirculation are thought to have much influences on the formation of diabetic gangrene. Histopathological findings supported above. (author)

  20. Comparison of plantar pressure on normal -footed vs. high arch-footed badminton players in two-way lunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parvane bazipoor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to the individuals with a normal arch structure, those with high or low arch can be at an increased risk of overuse injuries. The risk of overuse injury among athletes is high due, in part, to the repeated loading of the lower extremities. The current study aimed to determine if foot type (high-arched or normal results in differences in plantar pressure during two badminton-specific movements (right-reverse lunge and right-lateral lunge. Methods: Twenty badminton players (10 with normal feet and 10 with higharched feet completed five trials in both right-reverse and right-lateral lunge, while in-shoe pressure data were collected at 100 Hz. The peak pressure and mean pressure were analyzed among the subjects for five major anatomical regions of the foot, using the independent t test in SPSS version 20. The foot type was determined by the foot posture index (FPI (α<0.05. Results: Results showed that the plantar pressure characteristics of normal and high-arched feet were different; such that in high-arched feet, as compared to normal subjects, there were significantly fewer pressure strikes in the medial (P=0.010 and lateral (P=0.002 mid-foot in right-reverse lunge and this was significantly higher in forefoot (P=0.003 and toes (P=0.010. However, the peak (P=0.157 and mean (P=0.104 pressure in the heel was higher but not significant. In the right- lateral lunge, we found statistically lower peak pressure stroke for the lateral mid-foot (P=0.010 and forefoot (P=0.011; however, the mean pressure was lower in the lateral (P=0.010 and medial (P=0.040 mid-foot and forefoot (P=0.120, although it was not significant in the forefoot. Conclusion: Results showed that the medial longitudinal arch of the foot might cause pressure differences in the feet among the players with normal and higharched feet. As the results demonstrated, in high-arched feet, there are some regions where plantar pressure is higher and some where it is lower

  1. Fleet of Foot: Adolescent Foot and Ankle Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Kelly Bromley

    2018-01-01

    In today's world of advanced technologies, accessible transportation, and fingertip talking, adolescents are spending too many hours each day sedentary. The purpose of this article is to underscore the importance of foot and ankle mobility in an adolescent population that spends very little time on their feet. Physical educators and athletic…

  2. A new approach to children's footwear based on foot type classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, M; Grau, S; Krauss, I; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2009-08-01

    Current shoe designs do not allow for the comprehensive 3-D foot shape, which means they are unable to reproduce the wide variability in foot morphology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to capture these variations of children's feet by classifying them into groups (types) and thereby provide a basis for their implementation in the design of children's shoes. The feet of 2867 German children were measured using a 3-D foot scanner. Cluster analysis was then applied to classify the feet into three different foot types. The characteristics of these foot types differ regarding their volume and forefoot shape both within and between shoe sizes. This new approach is in clear contrast to previous systems, since it captures the variability of foot morphology in a more comprehensive way by using a foot typing system and therefore paves the way for the unimpaired development of children's feet. Previous shoe systems do not allow for the wide variations in foot morphology. A new approach was developed regarding different morphological foot types based on 3-D measurements relevant in shoe construction. This can be directly applied to create specific designs for children's shoes.

  3. [Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by color Doppler sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier, I; Bodner, G; Egger, I; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Herold, M

    1999-06-01

    Using colour Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo group significantly differed concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy.

  4. A musculoskeletal foot model for clinical gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Prabhav; Andersen, Michael S; Macwilliams, Bruce A

    2010-06-18

    Several full body musculoskeletal models have been developed for research applications and these models may potentially be developed into useful clinical tools to assess gait pathologies. Existing full-body musculoskeletal models treat the foot as a single segment and ignore the motions of the intrinsic joints of the foot. This assumption limits the use of such models in clinical cases with significant foot deformities. Therefore, a three-segment musculoskeletal model of the foot was developed to match the segmentation of a recently developed multi-segment kinematic foot model. All the muscles and ligaments of the foot spanning the modeled joints were included. Muscle pathways were adjusted with an optimization routine to minimize the difference between the muscle flexion-extension moment arms from the model and moment arms reported in literature. The model was driven by walking data from five normal pediatric subjects (aged 10.6+/-1.57 years) and muscle forces and activation levels required to produce joint motions were calculated using an inverse dynamic analysis approach. Due to the close proximity of markers on the foot, small marker placement error during motion data collection may lead to significant differences in musculoskeletal model outcomes. Therefore, an optimization routine was developed to enforce joint constraints, optimally scale each segment length and adjust marker positions. To evaluate the model outcomes, the muscle activation patterns during walking were compared with electromyography (EMG) activation patterns reported in the literature. Model-generated muscle activation patterns were observed to be similar to the EMG activation patterns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb...

  6. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  7. Management of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, M.; Amin, Z.; Chaudhary, T. H.; Shaheen, J.; Alvi, Z. R.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the infecting agent in diabetic food infection with the susceptibility pattern, and to evaluate the effect of wound infection, was culopathy, neuropathy and control of diabetes mellitus on the outcome of the patients. Design: A descriptive and observational study. Place and duration of study: Patients with diabetic foot, admitted in surgical unit 1, B.V. Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 1999 to April 2000, were included in this study. Subject and methods: A total of 60 known diabetic patients were studied, out of these 47 were males and 13 females. They were assessed for angiopathy, neuropathy and extend of foot involvement. Necessary investigations, including x-ray foot, ECG, serum urea and creatinine, pus culture and sensitivity were carried out. Diabetes was controlled on insulin of the basis of serum sugar and urine sugar chart and treated accordingly. Results: The most common age of foot involvement was between 40-70 years. Right side was involved more often than the left (67%: 37%). Most of the infections were due to staphylococcus (50%), pseudomonas (25%) and streptococci (8%). Antibiotic was started based on sensitivity report. Fluoro quinolone plus clindamycin was used in 50%, fluoro quinolone plus metronidazole in 20% and amoxicillin/clavulanate in 23%. Most of the patients (61.7%) were in grade iii or iv of Meggit wagner classification of diabetic foot. Three patients (5%) were treated by below knee amputations while 1.7% patient by above knee amputation. In twenty-four (40%) patients some form of to amputation/ray amputation had to be done,while 32(53.3%) patients had complete healing of would without any amputation. Mortality was 3.33% all the 4 patients (6.7%) who presented late, having uncontrolled diabetes, with angiopathy (absent foot pulses), neuropathy, infection of the foot (grade iii or above) resulted in major amputation sooner or latter. The 32 patients (53.3%) having controlled diabetes mellitus with no angiopathy or

  8. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115... protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear foot protection equipment when potential foot injury may result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinforcing steel in cast-in-place concrete footings. (2) Pressure-treated wood. (i) Pressure-treated wood footings must consist of a minimum of two layers of nominal 2-inch thick pressure-treated wood, a single... values listed have been reduced by the dead load of the concrete footing. 4. Concrete block piers must...

  10. Left, right, left, right, eyes to the front! Müller-Lyer bias in grasping is not a function of hand used, hand preferred or visual hemifield, but foveation does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, John; de Wit, Matthieu M; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether the control of movement of the left hand is more likely to involve the use of allocentric information than movements performed with the right hand. Previous studies (Gonzalez et al. in J Neurophys 95:3496-3501, 2006; De Grave et al. in Exp Br Res 193:421-427, 2009) have reported contradictory findings in this respect. In the present study, right-handed participants (N = 12) and left-handed participants (N = 12) made right- and left-handed grasps to foveated objects and peripheral, non-foveated objects that were located in the right or left visual hemifield and embedded within a Müller-Lyer illusion. They were also asked to judge the size of the object by matching their hand aperture to its length. Hand apertures did not show significant differences in illusory bias as a function of hand used, handedness or visual hemifield. However, the illusory effect was significantly larger for perception than for action, and for the non-foveated compared to foveated objects. No significant illusory biases were found for reach movement times. These findings are consistent with the two-visual system model that holds that the use of allocentric information is more prominent in perception than in movement control. We propose that the increased involvement of allocentric information in movements toward peripheral, non-foveated objects may be a consequence of more awkward, less automatized grasps of nonfoveated than foveated objects. The current study does not support the conjecture that the control of left-handed and right-handed grasps is predicated on different sources of information.

  11. Diabetes: foot ulcers and amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dereck L

    2011-08-26

    Diabetic foot ulceration is full-thickness penetration of the dermis of the foot in a person with diabetes. Severity is classified using the Wagner system, which grades it from 1 to 5. The annual incidence of ulcers among people with diabetes is 2.5% to 10.7% in resource-rich countries, and the annual incidence of amputation for any reason is 0.25% to 1.8%. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent foot ulcers and amputations in people with diabetes? What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetes with foot ulceration? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: debridement, human cultured dermis, human skin equivalent, patient education, pressure off-loading with felted foam or pressure-relief half-shoe, pressure off-loading with total-contact or non-removable casts, screening and referral to foot-care clinics, systemic hyperbaric oxygen for non-infected ulcers, systemic hyperbaric oxygen in infected ulcers, therapeutic footwear, topical growth factors, and wound dressings.

  12. Footwear interventions for foot pain, function, impairment and disability for people with foot and ankle arthritis: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecklington, Mike; Dalbeth, Nicola; McNair, Peter; Gow, Peter; Williams, Anita; Carroll, Matthew; Rome, Keith

    2017-11-03

    To conduct a literature review on the effectiveness of footwear on foot pain, function, impairment and disability for people with foot and ankle arthritis. A search of the electronic databases Scopus, Medline, CINAHL, SportDiscus and the Cochrane Library was undertaken in September 2017. The key inclusion criteria were studies reporting on findings of footwear interventions for people with arthritis with foot pain, function, impairment and/or disability. The Quality Index Tool was used to assess the methodological quality of studies included in the qualitative synthesis. The methodological variation of the included studies was assessed to determine the suitability of meta-analysis and the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system. Between and within group effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. 1440 studies were identified for screening with 11 studies included in the review. Mean (range) quality scores were 67% (39-96%). The majority of studies investigated rheumatoid arthritis (n = 7), but also included gout (n = 2), and 1st metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis (n = 2). Meta-analysis and GRADE assessment were not deemed appropriated based on methodological variation. Footwear interventions included off-the-shelf footwear, therapeutic footwear and therapeutic footwear with foot orthoses. Key footwear characteristics included cushioning and a wide toe box for rheumatoid arthritis; cushioning, midsole stability and a rocker-sole for gout; and a rocker-sole for 1st metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis. Between group effect sizes for outcomes ranged from 0.01 to 1.26. Footwear interventions were associated with reductions in foot pain, impairment and disability for people with rheumatoid arthritis. Between group differences were more likely to be observed in studies with shorter follow-up periods in people with rheumatoid arthritis (12 weeks). Footwear interventions improved foot pain, function and disability in

  13. Foot Problems in a Group of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unmet Need for Foot Care

    OpenAIRE

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. Patients and Methods: A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapie...

  14. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, J H

    1976-09-01

    Persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the manufacture of Cheddar, Mozzarella, Camembert cheese prepared from milk of cows experimentally infected with the virus was studied. Cheese samples were made on a laboratory scale with commercial lactic acid starter cultures and the microbial protease MARZYME as a coagulant. Milk was heated at different temperatures for different intervals before it was made into cheese. Food-and-mouth disease virus survived the acidic conditions of Cheddar and Camembert cheese processing but not that of Mozzarella. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived processing but not curing for 30 days in Cheddar cheese preparaed from heated milk. However, the virus survived curing for 60 days but not for 120 days in cheese (pH 5) prepared from unheated milk. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived in Camembert cheese (pH 5) for 21 days at 2 C but not for 35 days.

  15. Changes in foot and shank coupling due to alterations in foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Michael B; Buckley, John G

    2008-03-01

    Determining if and how the kinematic relationship between adjacent body segments changes when an individual's gait pattern is experimentally manipulated can yield insight into the robustness of the kinematic coupling across the associated joint(s). The aim of this study was to assess the effects on the kinematic coupling between the forefoot, rearfoot and shank during ground contact of running with alteration in foot strike pattern. Twelve subjects ran over-ground using three different foot strike patterns (heel strike, forefoot strike, toe running). Kinematic data were collected of the forefoot, rearfoot and shank, which were modelled as rigid segments. Coupling at the ankle-complex and midfoot joints was assessed using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques. In general good coupling was found between rearfoot frontal plane motion and transverse plane shank rotation regardless of foot strike pattern. Forefoot motion was also strongly coupled with rearfoot frontal plane motion. Subtle differences were noted in the amount of rearfoot eversion transferred into shank internal rotation in the first 10-15% of stance during heel strike running compared to forefoot and toe running, and this was accompanied by small alterations in forefoot kinematics. These findings indicate that during ground contact in running there is strong coupling between the rearfoot and shank via the action of the joints in the ankle-complex. In addition, there was good coupling of both sagittal and transverse plane forefoot with rearfoot frontal plane motion via the action of the midfoot joints.

  16. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with 111 In-oxin or 99m Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, 99m Tc/ 111 In-human immunoglobulin, 67 Ga-citrate and 99m Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed

  17. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W. (Gottingen Univ. (Germany). Dep. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with [sup 111]In-oxin or [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, [sup 99m]Tc/[sup 111]In-human immunoglobulin,[sup 67] Ga-citrate and [sup 99m]Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed.

  18. Plantar loading changes with alterations in foot strike patterns during a single session in habitual rear foot strike female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernozek, Thomas W; Vannatta, Charles N; Gheidi, Naghmeh; Kraus, Sydnie; Aminaka, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Characterize plantar loading parameters when habitually rear foot strike (RFS) runners change their pattern to a non-rear foot strike (NRFS). Experimental. University biomechanics laboratory. Twenty three healthy female runners (Age: 22.17 ± 1.64 yrs; Height: 168.91 ± 5.46 cm; Mass: 64.29 ± 7.11 kg). Plantar loading was measured using an in-sole pressure sensor while running down a 20-m runway restricted to a range of 3.52-3.89 m/s under two conditions, using the runner's typical RFS, and an adapted NRFS pattern. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to detect differences in loading between these two conditions. Force and pressure variables were greater in the forefoot and phalanx in NRFS and greater in the heel and mid foot in RFS pattern, but the total force imposed upon the whole foot and contact time remained similar between conditions. Total peak pressure was higher and contact area was lower during NRFS running. The primary finding of this investigation is that there are distinctly different plantar loads when changing from a RFS to NRFS during running. So, during a transition from RFS to a NRFS pattern; a period of acclimation should be considered to allow for adaptations to these novel loads incurred on plantar regions of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Foot Exercises on Wound Healing in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With a Foot Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraydin, Şahizer; Avşar, Gülçin

    2017-12-19

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of foot exercises on wound healing in type 2 diabetic patients with a diabetic foot ulcer. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Sixty-five patients from an outpatient clinic with grade 1 or 2 ulcers (Wagner classification) who met study criteria agreed to participate; 60 patients completed the study and were included in the final analysis. Subjects were followed up between February 2014 and June 2015. Subjects were recruited by the researchers in the clinics where they received treatment. Subjects were randomly allocated to either the control or intervention group. Data were collected using investigator-developed forms: patient information form and the diabetic foot exercises log. Patients in the intervention group received standard wound care and performed daily foot exercises for 12 weeks; the control group received standard wound care but no exercises. The ulcers of the patients in both the intervention and control groups were examined and measured at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks. The groups were compared in terms of the ulcer size and depth. To analyze and compare the data, frequency distribution, mean (standard deviation), variance analysis, and the independent samples t test and the χ test were used. The mean ulcer areas were 12.63 (14.43), 6.91 (5.44), 4.30 (3.70), and 3.29 (3.80) cm (P diabetic foot ulcer sizes in the study intervention group in the 4th and 12th weeks compared to beginning baseline (P ≤ .05). However, only the 12th week was different from the beginning in the control group (P = .000). The mean depths of the ulcers were 0.56 (0.85), 0.42 (0.68), 0.36 (0.50), and 0.28 (0.38) cm in the study intervention group (P foot exercises should be included in the treatment plan when managing patients with diabetic foot ulcers.

  20. Diagnostic values for skin temperature assessment to detect diabetes-related foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Jaap J.; Prijs, Miranda; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, C.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Skin temperature assessment is a promising modality for early detection of diabetic foot problems, but its diagnostic value has not been studied. Our aims were to investigate the diagnostic value of different cutoff skin temperature values for detecting diabetes-related foot complications such as

  1. Diagnostic values for skin temperature assessment to detect diabetes-related foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Jaap J.; Prijs, Miranda; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Skin temperature assessment is a promising modality for early detection of diabetic foot problems, but its diagnostic value has not been studied. Our aims were to investigate the diagnostic value of different cutoff skin temperature values for detecting diabetes-related foot

  2. Assessing the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle by a modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    Foot disorders are the main cause of dairy cow lameness and are considered to have a major impact on the welfare of dairy cattle. This study adopts a modeling approach, using a dynamic stochastic model, to provide more insight into the welfare impact of different types of foot disorders, both

  3. Epidemiology of ankle and foot overuse injuries in sports : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, S.; Dekker, R.; Postema, K.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries are quite diverse in research methodology, data reporting, and outcomes. The aims of this systematic review were to analyze the methodology of published studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries in different sports disciplines and to

  4. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linah Wafai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual’s quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standardized method to quantify asymmetry. This paper investigates the use of plantar pressure asymmetry for pathological gait diagnosis. The results of this study involving plantar pressure analysis in fifty one participants (31 healthy and 20 with foot pathologies support the presence of plantar pressure asymmetry in normal gait. A higher level of asymmetry was detected at the majority of the regions in the feet of the pathological population, including statistically significant differences in the plantar pressure asymmetry in two regions of the foot, metatarsophalangeal joint 3 (MPJ3 and the lateral heel. Quantification of plantar pressure asymmetry may prove to be useful for the identification and diagnosis of various foot pathologies.

  5. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade, yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew, a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs. When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  6. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals) are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew), a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs). When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  7. Minimizing Hexapod Robot Foot Deviations Using Multilayer Perceptron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Valaitis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rough-terrain traversability is one of the most valuable characteristics of walking robots. Even despite their slower speeds and more complex control algorithms, walking robots have far wider usability than wheeled or tracked robots. However, efficient movement over irregular surfaces can only be achieved by eliminating all possible difficulties, which in many cases are caused by a high number of degrees of freedom, feet slippage, frictions and inertias between different robot parts or even badly developed inverse kinematics (IK. In this paper we address the hexapod robot-foot deviation problem. We compare the foot-positioning accuracy of unconfigured inverse kinematics and Multilayer Perceptron-based (MLP methods via theory, computer modelling and experiments on a physical robot. Using MLP-based methods, we were able to significantly decrease deviations while reaching desired positions with the hexapod's foot. Furthermore, this method is able to compensate for deviations of the robot arising from any possible reason.

  8. Towards an efficient and robust foot classification from pedobarographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco P M; Sousa, Andreia; Santos, Rubim; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational framework for automatic foot classification from digital plantar pressure images. It classifies the foot as left or right and simultaneously calculates two well-known footprint indices: the Cavanagh's arch index (AI) and the modified AI. The accuracy of the framework was evaluated using a set of plantar pressure images from two common pedobarographic devices. The results were outstanding, as all feet under analysis were correctly classified as left or right and no significant differences were observed between the footprint indices calculated using the computational solution and the traditional manual method. The robustness of the proposed framework to arbitrary foot orientations and to the acquisition device was also tested and confirmed.

  9. Shoe concerns and foot problems of wearers of safety footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, S J; Quine, S

    1993-05-01

    In Australia workers in many industries are required to wear safety footwear (footwear incorporating a steel toe cap). An investigation of the problems reported by 321 workers (70 per cent male) employed in a broad range of work activities and required to wear safety footwear was conducted in 1990 and 1991. Respondents were interviewed by a professionally trained podiatrist using a structured questionnaire followed by a foot examination. An extremely high percentage (91 per cent) of subjects reported one or more foot problems (which were verified by the podiatrist), and most considered that the safety footwear either caused the problem or adversely affected an existing foot condition. The main shoe concerns reported were excessive heat (65 per cent of all respondents), inflexible soles (52 per cent), weight (48 per cent) and pressure from steel toe cap (47 per cent). Certain gender differences were identified. General recommendations are made.

  10. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Grubman, Marvin J.; Baxt, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control s...

  12. [Therapeutic uses of ortho-podiatry in the diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Herranz, Marta; Bas Caro, Pedro; Carabantes Alarcón, David; Padín Galea, José Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers are a major public health problem given by different situations: the chronic nature of the injury, a low response to treatment, relapse rates, etc. Therefore pose a serious personal, family health and social, with a significant expenditure of human and material resources. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team which integrates a podiatrist as part of it. He will address especially the pre-ulcers, and have a singular care in diabetic foot by treatment with orthosis. Since your question can be seen changes in the feet of diabetic patients could be treated on an outpatient basis.

  13. Diagnosis and Management of Common Foot Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, David; Sprouse, Ryan A; Armen, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Foot fractures are among the most common foot injuries evaluated by primary care physicians. They most often involve the metatarsals and toes. Patients typically present with varying signs and symptoms, the most common being pain and trouble with ambulation. Diagnosis requires radiographic evaluation, although emerging evidence demonstrates that ultrasonography may be just as accurate. Management is determined by the location of the fracture and its effect on balance and weight bearing. Metatarsal shaft fractures are initially treated with a posterior splint and avoidance of weight-bearing activities; subsequent treatment consists of a short leg walking cast or boot for four to six weeks. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures have different treatments depending on the location of the fracture. A fifth metatarsal tuberosity avulsion fracture can be treated acutely with a compressive dressing, then the patient can be transitioned to a short leg walking boot for two weeks, with progressive mobility as tolerated after initial immobilization. A Jones fracture has a higher risk of nonunion and requires at least six to eight weeks in a short leg non-weight-bearing cast; healing time can be as long as 10 to 12 weeks. Great toe fractures are treated with a short leg walking boot or cast with toe plate for two to three weeks, then a rigid-sole shoe for an additional three to four weeks. Lesser toe fractures can be treated with buddy taping and a rigid-sole shoe for four to six weeks.

  14. Traumatic Foot Fractures in Hard Working Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Semieka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 45 hard working donkeys suffering from different types of traumatic foot fractures. These animals were selected from the clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Assiut University during the period of 2007-2010. Based on history, clinical signs and radiographic examination, various types of traumatic foot fractures were diagnosed and recorded. These fractures were affect metacarpal bones (N. =16, metatarsal bones (N. =9, proximal phalanx (N. = 13, middle phalanx (N. = 3, distal phalanx (N. = 2 and proximal sesamoid bones (N. = 2. It could be concluded that fractures of the large metacarpal bones are the most common types followed by fractures of the proximal phalanx of the thoracic limb then fractures of the metatarsal bones. Fractures of the middle phalanx, distal phalanx and proximal sesamoid bone are less common in donkeys. Single fractures of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones are more common than comminuted one, in addition diaphyseal fractures of these bones are more common than metaphyseal or epiphyseal fractures. In the proximal phalanx, comminuted fractures are more common than single fractures.

  15. Scenarios for eradicating foot-and-mouth disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E.J.; Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Vlieger, de J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Research project commissioned by the Ministery of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. With the help of desk-research and input-output analysis quantitative information is assembled about the differences in cost for agribusiness and tourism of two eradication scenarios for foot-and-mouth

  16. Corrosion inhibition and adsorption characteristics of camel foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibitive performance of Camel foot (Piliostigma thonningii) leave extract was investigated on corrosion of mild steel in 1.5M hydrochloric at different temperature (25oC to 60oC) using weight loss and hydrogen evolution measurement. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the extract and characterized with Gas ...

  17. Increasing patient involvement in the diabetic foot pathway: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, E; Hacking, B; O'Carroll, R; Young, M; Jahr, J; Borthwick, C; Callander, A; Berrada, Z

    2016-11-01

    This pilot study aimed to explore whether the use of an intervention to increase shared decision-making (Decision Navigation) increased decision self-efficacy and foot-treatment adherence in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer. Fifty-six patients with a diabetic foot ulcer were randomized to receive Decision Navigation (N = 30) or usual care (N = 26). Primary outcomes included decision self-efficacy, adherence to foot treatment as reported by the participant and adherence to foot treatment as reported by the clinician. Secondary outcomes included foot ulcer healing rate, health-related quality of life, decision conflict and decision regret. Despite participants rating Decision Navigation as very helpful, mixed analyses of variance revealed no differences in decision self-efficacy or adherence between those receiving Decision Navigation and those receiving usual care. There were no differences between groups with regards to the secondary outcomes, with the exception of decision conflict which increased over time (12 weeks) for those receiving Decision Navigation. An intervention that facilitated patient involvement in treatment decisions did not have any impact on decisional confidence or adherence to foot treatment. This does not provide support for the suggestion that personalized care can improve health-related outcomes at this progressed stage of the patient's disease trajectory. We suggest that the diabetic foot population may benefit from interventions aimed at increasing motivation to engage with care pathways, centred on challenging personal controllability beliefs. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  18. Effectiveness of Foot Orthoses Versus Rocker-Sole Footwear for First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis: Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of prefabricated foot orthoses to rocker-sole footwear in reducing foot pain in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Participants (n = 102) with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive individualized, prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear. The primary outcome measure was the pain subscale on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included the function, footwear, and general foot health subscales of the FHSQ; the Foot Function Index; severity of pain and stiffness at the first MTP joint; perception of global improvement; general health status; use of rescue medication and co-interventions to relieve pain; physical activity; and the frequency of self-reported adverse events. The FHSQ pain subscale scores improved in both groups, but no statistically significant difference between the groups was observed (adjusted mean difference 2.05 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -3.61, 7.71; P = 0.477). However, the footwear group exhibited lower adherence (mean ± SD total hours worn 287 ± 193 versus 448 ± 234; P footwear are similarly effective at reducing foot pain in people with first MTP joint OA. However, prefabricated foot orthoses may be the intervention of choice due to greater adherence and fewer associated adverse events. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Foot strike pattern in children during shod-unshod running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Balboa, Fernando Redondo; Pinillos, Felipe García

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no INV/EVE and no foot rotation) in children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 713 children, aged 6 to 16 years, participated in this study (Age=10.28±2.71years, body mass index [BMI]=19.70±3.91kg/m 2 , 302 girls and 411 boys). A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder, to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. RFS prevalence was similar between boys and girls in both shod and unshod conditions. In the unshod condition there was a significant reduction (p<0.001) of RFS prevalence both in boys (shod condition=83.95% vs. 62.65% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=87.85% vs. 62.70% unshod condition). No significant differences were found in INV/EVE and foot rotation between sex groups. In the unshod condition there was a significant increase (p<0.001) of neutral support (no INV/EVE) both in boys (shod condition=12.55% vs. 22.22% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=17.9% vs. 28.15% unshod condition). In addition, in the unshod condition there is a significant reduction (p<0.001) of neutral support (no foot rotation) both in boys (shod condition=21.55% vs. 11.10% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=21.05% vs. 11.95% unshod condition). In children, RFS prevalence is lower than adult's population. Additionally, barefoot running reduced the prevalence of RFS and INV/EVE, however increased foot rotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Jensen, M L; Obling, K

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount...... of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe....

  1. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  2. A survey of elephant husbandry and foot health in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Karen D; Shepherdson, David J; Owens, Terrah M; Keele, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The foot health of elephants in human care is a longstanding concern. In 2001, the AZA Standards for Elephant Management and Care were published recommending husbandry to improve foot health. This article reports the results of a 2006 survey: basic statistics describing facility, husbandry, and foot health attributes are reported and relationships among variables are investigated. Median area available to elephants exceeded Standard recommendations (755 ft(2) per elephant indoor and 10,000 ft(2) outdoor). Concrete makes up 69% of indoor area and natural substrates account for 85% of outdzoor area. Elephants in AZA facilities received an average of 45.5 min/day of exercise, and facilities with a structured exercise plan provided significantly more exercise than did facilities without a structured exercise plan (z=-2.522, P=0.012). Enrichment is important to psychological health and may also stimulate activity beneficial to foot health; 95% of institutions had a structured enrichment program. Preventative foot care was nearly universal, and 100% of facilities performed routine nail and pad trimming. However, foot pathology has not been eradicated; 33% of institutions reported at least one pathology in the previous year. This study found a strong inverse relationship between foot pathology and exercise (chi(2)(3)=24.34, Pelephants seemed to experience lower rates of foot pathology and arthritis than Asian elephants; however, this was explained by differences in age.

  3. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  4. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; T?rholm, S?ren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A.; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Methods ...

  5. A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, C. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    In general, diabetic foot ulcers result from abnormal mechanical loading of the foot, such as repetitive moderate pressure applied to the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes changes in foot structure, affecting foot function and subsequently leading to

  6. Stress Fractures of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Munier; Clutton, Juliet; Ridgewell, Mark; Lyons, Kathleen; Perera, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle may be more common among athletes than previously reported. A low threshold for investigation is warranted and further imaging may be appropriate if initial radiographs remain inconclusive. Most of these fractures can be treated conservatively with a period of non-weight-bearing mobilization followed by gradual return to activity. Early surgery augmented by bone graft may allow athletes to return to sports earlier. Risk of delayed union, nonunion, and recurrent fracture is high. Many of the patients may also have risk factors for injury that should be modified for a successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overuse syndromes of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Peloschek, P.; Weidekamm, C.; Uffmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse syndromes due to lifestyle problems or sporting activities commonly lead to foot abnormalities. The tendons of the long flexor and extensor muscles are specifically prone to degeneration. The various disorders may be classified by a grading system that includes peritendinous inflammation, degenerative tendon disease, and ruptures. Bone marrow edema is another typical manifestation of overuse. It may be differentiated from inflammatory or traumatic forms of edema by its anatomic distribution. Systematic pattern recognition is based on the concept of musculotendinous and osseous kinetic chains. (orig.) [de

  8. The effect of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics assessed using a 4-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth

    2017-09-01

    The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20-65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20-24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53-65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P < .001). Between hindfoot/tibia, there was a significant difference for all parameters except for motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects.

  9. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of healthy foot shape: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Kristina; Booth, Brian G; Danckaers, Femke; Burg, Fien; Vermaelen, Philippe; Duerinck, Saartje; Sijbers, Jan; Huysmans, Toon

    2018-01-01

    Foot morphology has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researches and footwear manufacturers. Usually, the morphology of the foot is quantified by 2D footprints. However, footprint quantification ignores the foot's vertical dimension and hence, does not allow accurate quantification of complex 3D foot shape. The shape variation of healthy 3D feet in a population of 31 adult women and 31 adult men who live in Belgium was studied using geometric morphometric methods. The effect of different factors such as sex, age, shoe size, frequency of sport activity, Body Mass Index (BMI), foot asymmetry, and foot loading on foot shape was investigated. Correlation between these factors and foot shape was examined using multivariate linear regression. The complex nature of a foot's 3D shape leads to high variability in healthy populations. After normalizing for scale, the major axes of variation in foot morphology are (in order of decreasing variance): arch height, combined ball width and inter-toe distance, global foot width, hallux bone orientation (valgus-varus), foot type (e.g. Egyptian, Greek), and midfoot width. These first six modes of variation capture 92.59% of the total shape variation. Higher BMI results in increased ankle width, Achilles tendon width, heel width and a thicker forefoot along the dorsoplantar axis. Age was found to be associated with heel width, Achilles tendon width, toe height and hallux orientation. A bigger shoe size was found to be associated with a narrow Achilles tendon, a hallux varus, a narrow heel, heel expansion along the posterior direction, and a lower arch compared to smaller shoe size. Sex was found to be associated with differences in ankle width, Achilles tendon width, and heel width. Frequency of sport activity was associated with Achilles tendon width and toe height. A detailed analysis of the 3D foot shape, allowed by geometric morphometrics, provides insights in foot variations in three dimensions that can not be

  10. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E. V. B.; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Sjef G.; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared

  11. A new method to normalize plantar pressure measurements for foot size and foot progression angle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.; Stolwijk, N.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement provides important information about the structure and function of the foot and is a helpful tool to evaluate patients with foot complaints. In general, average and maximum plantar pressure of 6-11 areas under the foot are used to compare groups of subjects. However,

  12. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    Introduction The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in

  13. Analysis of risk factors for neuropathic foot ulceration in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P J; Stocks, A E; Whittam, D J

    1996-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects about one in 25 Australians. Neuropathic foot ulceration is a frequent complication in persons with diabetes. This study evaluates the importance of different risk factors for the development of this condition. The role of nonenzymatic glycosylation and pressure beneath the sole of the foot in the pathogenesis of neuropathic foot ulcers was investigated. Twenty-seven subjects with diabetes with a recent history of neuropathic foot ulceration were matched by age and sex with a group of 50 control subjects without neuropathy or history of foot ulceration. The degree of nonenzymatic glycosylation was assessed by analyzing the average level of glycosylated hemoglobin in the 3 years prior to the development of the foot ulcer and a goniometer assessment of peripheral joint (hand and ankle) flexibility. Dynamic pressure of the plantar aspect of the foot was recorded using a Musgrave Footprint System pedobarograph during a normal gait cycle. There was no significant difference in age, sex, body mass index, and duration or type of diabetes between the ulcer and control groups. The pressure of the plantar aspect of the foot was significantly elevated (p < 0.01). Ankle joint flexibility was reduced (p < 0.01) in cases with neuropathic foot ulceration compared with the control group. There was a trend toward elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c fraction) or HbA1c in the ulcer group (p = 0.06). The results suggested that nonenzymatic glycosylation occurs at a more significant level in patients with diabetes with a history of neuropathic foot ulceration.

  14. Muscular activity and torque of the foot dorsiflexor muscles during decremental isometric test: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Muñoz, Maria; González-Sánchez, Manuel; Martín-Martín, Jaime; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the torque variation level that could be explained by the muscle activation (EMG) amplitude of the three major foot dorsiflexor muscles (tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), extensor hallucis longus (EHL)) during isometric foot dorsiflexion at different intensities. In a cross-sectional study, forty-one subjects performed foot dorsiflexion at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) with the hip and knee flexed 90° and the ankle in neutral position (90° between leg and foot). Three foot dorsiflexions were performed for each intensity. Outcome variables were: maximum (100% MVC) and relative torque (75%, 50%, 25% MVC), maximum and relative EMG amplitude. A linear regression analysis was calculated for each intensity of the isometric foot dorsiflexion. The degree of torque variation (dependent variable) from the independent variables explain (EMG amplitude of the three major foot dorsiflexor muscles) the increases when the foot dorsiflexion intensity is increased, with values of R 2 that range from 0.194 (during 25% MVC) to 0.753 (during 100% MVC). The reliability of the outcome variables was excellent. The EMG amplitude of the three main foot dorsiflexors exhibited more variance in the dependent variable (torque) when foot dorsiflexion intensity increases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gross Motor Skills in Children With Idiopathic Clubfoot and the Association Between Gross Motor Skills, Foot Involvement, Gait, and Foot Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Iversen, Maura D; Broström, Eva W

    2017-02-24

    Little is known regarding gross motor skills (GMS) in children with idiopathic clubfoot (IC). This study describes GMS, specifically foot involvement and asymmetries, and analyses the association between GMS, gait, and foot status in children with IC. Gross motor tasks and gait were analyzed in children with IC and typically developed (TD) children. GMS were assessed using videotapes and the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and GDI-Kinetic were calculated from gait analyses. Children were divided into bilateral, unilateral clubfoot, or TD groups. To analyze asymmetries, feet within each group were further classified into superior or inferior foot, depending on their CAP scores. Correlations identified associations between CAP and GDI, GDI-Kinetic, passive foot motion, and Dimeglio Classification Scores at birth in the clubfeet. In total, 75 children (mean age, 5 years) were enrolled (bilateral n=22, unilateral clubfoot n=25, TD=28). Children with clubfeet demonstrated significantly lower GMS, gait, and foot motion compared with TD children. One leg standing and hopping deviated in 84% and 91%, respectively, in at least one foot in children with clubfoot. Gross motor asymmetries were evident in both children with bilateral and unilateral involvement. In children with unilateral clubfoot, contralateral feet showed few deviations in GMS compared with TD; however, differences existed in gait and foot motion. The association between GMS and gait, foot motion, and initial foot status varied between poor and moderate. Gross motor deficits and asymmetries are present in children with both bilateral and unilateral IC. Development of GMS of the contralateral foot mirrors that of TD children, but modifies to the clubfoot in gait and foot motion. The weak association with gait, foot motion, and initial clubfoot severity indicates that gross motor measurements represent a different outcome entity in clubfoot treatment. We therefore, recommend

  16. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Radiology of the foot in alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Lombardo, F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have reviewed the radiographic patterns of the foot in 28 patients affected by neuropathic joint disease complicating alcoholism, out of a series of 82 chronic ethylic patients. Sixteen of them were also affected by diabetes mellitus. On the basis of X-ray findings, lesion were divided into tree groups, reflecting the evolution of the disease: 1) early changes, especially affecting the soft tissue and joints;2) definite lesions, consisting of fractures, osteolysis, bone destruction and amputation, periarticulardebris; 3)''healing'' signs, simulating degenerative joint disease, which cause severe and weakening deformities. Tabe dorsalis and diabetic osteoarthropathy must be differentiated from alcohol-induced syndrome. Even though a correct differential diagnosis is often difficult to reach, it must be kept in mind that focal/diffuse osteopenia is the most characteristic manifestation of alcoholic osteopathy, whereas different radiographic findings simulate chronic degenerative arthropathies

  18. The diabetic foot; Der diabetische Fuss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestring, T. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Fiedler, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Technische Orthopaedie und Rehabilitation, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Greitemann, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Technische Orthopaedie und Rehabilitation, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Sciuk, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Familiarity with the spectrum of findings in the different imaging modalities appears essential. Radiographically, significant changes include Charcot joints of the tarsus (destructive type) and bone absorption of the forefoot (mutilating type). In diabetic foot problems, magnetic resonance imaging and leukocyte scintigraphy appear to be the most effective tools for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of both techniques in active, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Da der diabetische Fuss zu einer der haeufigsten Komplikationen der Grunderkrankung zaehlt, muss das Befundspektrum bei den verschiedenen bildgebenden Verfahren bekannt sein. Bei der diabetischen Osteoarthropathie werden uebersichtsradiographisch 2 Formen unterschieden: der destruierende Typ, der die Tarsalknochen bevorzugt, und der mutilierende Typ, welcher sich an den Roehrenknochen des Fusses manifestiert. Die Magnetresonanztomographie und die Leukozytenszintigraphie sind zum Nachweis bzw. Ausschluss einer Osteomyelitis am besten geeignet. Aber auch diese Methoden koennen nicht sicher eine nicht infizierte, aktive Osteoarthropathie von einer Osteomyelitis differenzieren. (orig.)

  19. The effect of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics assessed using a 4-segment foot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Methods: Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20–65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20–24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53–65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Results: Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Conclusion: Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects. PMID:28858109

  20. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: preventative foot care; diabetes; risk stratification: self care. Introduction ... diabetes is considered to be a key indicator of the quality of foot ... loss of protective sensation, the importance of foot monitoring on a daily basis, the proper ...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection,” and ASTM F... footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be...

  2. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  3. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  4. Preventing Diabetic Foot Complications : Strategic Recommendations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diabetic foot is the commonest cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation in the developed and developing nations. Several risk factors predispose the diabetic patient to foot ulceration and peripheral neuropathy, with peripheral vascular disease are the commonest risk factors. Clinical examination for these risk ...

  5. Computer vision algorithm for diabetic foot injury identification and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda M, C. L.; Solis S, L. O.; Martinez B, M. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Garza V, I.; Martinez F, M.; Castaneda M, R.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: lsolis@uaz.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Diabetic foot is one of the most devastating consequences related to diabetes. It is relevant because of its incidence and the elevated percentage of amputations and deaths that the disease implies. Given the fact that the existing tests and laboratories designed to diagnose it are limited and expensive, the most common evaluation is still based on signs and symptoms. This means that the specialist completes a questionnaire based solely on observation and an invasive wound measurement. Using the questionnaire, the physician issues a diagnosis. In the sense, the diagnosis relies only on the criteria and the specialists experience. For some variables such as the lesions area or their location, this dependency is not acceptable. Currently bio-engineering has played a key role on the diagnose of different chronic degenerative diseases. A timely diagnose has proven to be the best tool against diabetic foot. The diabetics foot clinical evaluation, increases the possibility to identify risks and further complications. The main goal of this paper is to present the development of an algorithm based on digital image processing techniques, which enables to optimize the results on the diabetics foot lesion evaluation. Using advanced techniques for object segmentation and adjusting the sensibility parameter, allows the correlation between the algorithms identified wounds and those observed by the physician. Using the developed algorithm it is possible to identify and assess the wounds, their size, and location, in a non-invasive way. (Author)

  6. Computer vision algorithm for diabetic foot injury identification and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda M, C. L.; Solis S, L. O.; Martinez B, M. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Garza V, I.; Martinez F, M.; Castaneda M, R.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the most devastating consequences related to diabetes. It is relevant because of its incidence and the elevated percentage of amputations and deaths that the disease implies. Given the fact that the existing tests and laboratories designed to diagnose it are limited and expensive, the most common evaluation is still based on signs and symptoms. This means that the specialist completes a questionnaire based solely on observation and an invasive wound measurement. Using the questionnaire, the physician issues a diagnosis. In the sense, the diagnosis relies only on the criteria and the specialists experience. For some variables such as the lesions area or their location, this dependency is not acceptable. Currently bio-engineering has played a key role on the diagnose of different chronic degenerative diseases. A timely diagnose has proven to be the best tool against diabetic foot. The diabetics foot clinical evaluation, increases the possibility to identify risks and further complications. The main goal of this paper is to present the development of an algorithm based on digital image processing techniques, which enables to optimize the results on the diabetics foot lesion evaluation. Using advanced techniques for object segmentation and adjusting the sensibility parameter, allows the correlation between the algorithms identified wounds and those observed by the physician. Using the developed algorithm it is possible to identify and assess the wounds, their size, and location, in a non-invasive way. (Author)

  7. Influence of slope steepness, foot position and turn phase on plantar pressure distribution during giant slalom alpine ski racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Falda-Buscaiot

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the evolution of ground reaction force during alpine skiing turns. Specifically, this study investigated how turn phases and slope steepness affected the whole foot normal GRF pattern while performing giant slalom turns in a race-like setting. Moreover, the outside foot was divided into different plantar regions to see whether those parameters affected the plantar pressure distribution. Eleven skiers performed one giant slalom course at race intensity. Runs were recorded synchronously using a video camera in the frontal plane and pressure insoles under both feet's plantar surface. Turns were divided according to kinematic criteria into four consecutive phases: initiation, steering1, steering2 and completion; both steering phases being separated by the gate passage. Component of the averaged Ground Reaction Force normal to the ski's surface([Formula: see text], /BW, and Pressure Time Integral relative to the entire foot surface (relPTI, % parameters were calculated for each turn phases based on plantar pressure data. Results indicated that [Formula: see text] under the total foot surface differed significantly depending on the slope (higher in steep sections vs. flat sections, and the turn phase (higher during steering2 vs. three other phases, although such modifications were observable only on the outside foot. Moreover, [Formula: see text] under the outside foot was significantly greater than under the inside foot.RelPTI under different foot regions of the outside foot revealed a global shift from forefoot loading during initiation phase, toward heel loading during steering2 phase, but this was dependent on the slope studied. These results suggest a differentiated role played by each foot in alpine skiing turns: the outside foot has an active role in the turning process, while the inside foot may only play a role in stability.

  8. Biofeedback for foot offloading in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Z; de León Rodriguez, D; Allet, L; Golay, A; Assal, M; Assal, J-P; Hauert, C-A

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of high plantar pressure in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy is mandatory for prevention of foot ulcers and amputations. We used a new biofeedback-based method to reduce the plantar pressure at an at-risk area of foot in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. Thirteen diabetic patients (age 60.8 +/- 12.3 years, body mass index 29.0 +/- 5.0 kg/m(2)) with peripheral neuropathy of the lower limbs were studied. Patients with memory impairment were excluded. The portable in-shoe foot pressure measurement system (PEDAR) was used for foot offloading training by biofeedback. The learning procedure consisted in sequences of walking (10 steps), each followed by a subjective estimation of performance and objective feedback. The goal was to achieve three consecutive walking cycles of 10 steps, with a minimum of seven steps inside the range of 40-80% of the baseline peak plantar pressure. The peak plantar pressure was assessed during the learning period and at retention tests. A significant difference in peak plantar pressure was recorded between the beginning and the end of the learning period (when the target for plantar pressure was achieved) (262 +/- 70 vs. 191 +/- 53 kPa; P = 0.002). The statistically significant difference between the beginning of learning and all retention tests persisted, even at the 10-day follow-up. Terminal augmented feedback training may positively affect motor learning in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and could possibly lead to suitable foot offloading. Additional research is needed to confirm the maintenance of offloading in the long term.

  9. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable...... limitations regarding reliability and validity. METHODS: One hundred thirty subjects with mean foot size 44 (41-50 European size) participated. Two examiners, blinded to each other's measurements, measured the right foot of the subjects twice and the left foot once. The position of the most medial aspect...... of the navicular in the mediolateral direction was projected vertically onto a piece of paper placed under the subject's foot, and compared to the position of the forefoot and hindfoot to obtain the FLT value. RESULTS: FLT values ranged from -8 to 14 mm, with a mean (+/-SD) of 3.7 +/- 3.4 mm. The intratester...

  10. Growth factors for treating diabetic foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Gluud, Christian; Nicola, Susana

    2015-01-01

    following treatment for diabetic foot ulcers (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.94; P value 0.56, low quality of evidence)Although 11 trials reported time to complete healing of the foot ulcers in people with diabetes , meta-analysis was not possible for this outcome due to the unique comparisons within each trial...... (minimum of one toe), complete healing of the foot ulcer, and time to complete healing of the diabetic foot ulcer as the primary outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Independently, we selected randomised clinical trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data in duplicate. We estimated risk ratios......BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers are a major complication of diabetes mellitus, often leading to amputation. Growth factors derived from blood platelets, endothelium, or macrophages could potentially be an important treatment for these wounds but they may also confer risks. OBJECTIVES: To assess...

  11. One- and multi-segment foot models lead to opposite results on ankle joint kinematics during gait: Implications for clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothrat, Claude; Authier, Guillaume; Viehweger, Elke; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2015-06-01

    Biomechanical models representing the foot as a single rigid segment are commonly used in clinical or sport evaluations. However, neglecting internal foot movements could lead to significant inaccuracies on ankle joint kinematics. The present study proposed an assessment of 3D ankle kinematic outputs using two distinct biomechanical models and their application in the clinical flat foot case. Results of the Plug in Gait (one segment foot model) and the Oxford Foot Model (multisegment foot model) were compared for normal children (9 participants) and flat feet children (9 participants). Repeated measures of Analysis of Variance have been performed to assess the Foot model and Group effects on ankle joint kinematics. Significant differences were observed between the two models for each group all along the gait cycle. In particular for the flat feet group, opposite results between the Oxford Foot Model and the Plug in Gait were revealed at heelstrike, with the Plug in Gait showing a 4.7° ankle dorsal flexion and 2.7° varus where the Oxford Foot Model showed a 4.8° ankle plantar flexion and 1.6° valgus. Ankle joint kinematics of the flat feet group was more affected by foot modeling than normal group. Foot modeling appeared to have a strong influence on resulting ankle kinematics. Moreover, our findings showed that this influence could vary depending on the population. Studies involving ankle joint kinematic assessment should take foot modeling with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accuracy of Plantar Electrodes Compared with Hand and Foot Electrodes in Fat-free-mass Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Y. Jaffrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI.

  13. Estimation of stature from hand and foot dimensions in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Yong Min; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2018-04-01

    The estimation of stature using foot and hand dimensions is essential in the process of personal identification. The shapes of feet and hands vary depending on races and gender, and it is of great importance to design an adequate equation in consideration of variances to estimate stature. This study is based on a total of 5,195 South Korean males and females, aged from 20 to 59 years. Body dimensions of stature, hand length, hand breadth, foot length, and foot breadth were measured according to standard anthropometric procedures. The independent t-test was performed in order to verify significant gender-induced differences and the results showed that there was significant difference between males and females for all the foot-hand dimensions (pfoot length showed highest correlation, whereas the hand breadth showed least correlation. The stepwise regression analysis was conducted, and the results showed that males had the highest prediction accuracy in the regression equation consisting of foot length and hand length (R 2 =0.532), whereas females had the highest accuracy in the regression model consisting of foot length and hand breadth (R 2 =0.437) The findings of this study indicated that hand and foot dimensions can be used to predict the stature of South Korean in the forensic science field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  15. Foot problems in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an unmet need for foot care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapies were determined by the questionnaire. Radiological changes were assessed according to modified Larsen scoring system. The scores of disease activity scale of 28 joints and Health Assessment Questionnaire indicating the functional status of RA patients were collected from patient files. A total of 100 RA patients (90 female, 10 male) with a mean age of 52.5 ±10.9 years were enrolled to the study. Eighty-nine of the 100 patients had experienced foot complaints/symptoms in the past or currently. Foot pain and foot symptoms were reported as the first site of involvement in 14 patients. Thirty-six patients had ankle pain and the most common sites of the foot symptoms were ankle (36%) and forefoot (30%) followed by hindfoot (17%) and midfoot (7%) currently. Forty-nine of the patients described that they had difficulty in performing their foot care. Insoles and orthopedic shoes were prescribed in 39 patients, but only 14 of them continued to use them. The main reasons for not wearing them were; 17 not helpful (43%), 5 made foot pain worse (12.8%), and 3 did not fit (7.6%). Foot symptoms were reported to be decreased in 24 % of the subjects after the medical treatment and 6 patients indicated that they had underwent foot surgery. Current foot pain was significantly associated with higher body mass index and longer disease duration, and duration of morning stiffness. The radiological scores did not correlate with duration of foot symptoms and current foot pain (p>0.05) but the total number of foot deformities was

  16. Development of an Active Ankle Foot Orthosis to Prevent Foot Drop and Toe Drag in Hemiplegic Patients: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyoon Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed an active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO that controls dorsiflexion/plantarflexion of the ankle joint to prevent foot drop and toe drag during hemiplegic walking. To prevent foot slap after initial contact, the ankle joint must remain active to minimize forefoot collision against the ground. During late stance, the ankle joint must also remain active to provide toe clearance and to aid with push-off. We implemented a series elastic actuator in our AAFO to induce ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The activator was controlled by signals from force sensing register (FSR sensors that detected gait events. Three dimensional gait analyses were performed for three hemiplegic patients under three different gait conditions: gait without AFO (NAFO, gait with a conventional hinged AFO that did not control the ankle joint (HAFO, and gait with the newly-developed AFO (AAFO. Our results demonstrate that our newly-developed AAFO not only prevents foot drop by inducing plantarflexion during loading response, but also prevents toe drag by facilitating plantarflexion during pre-swing and dorsiflexion during swing phase, leading to improvement in most temporal-spatial parameters. However, only three hemiplegic patients were included in this gait analysis. Studies including more subjects will be required to evaluate the functionality of our newly developed AAFO.

  17. Mechanics of the foot Part 2: A coupled solid-fluid model to investigate blood transport in the pathologic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithraratne, K; Ho, H; Hunter, P J; Fernandez, J W

    2012-10-01

    A coupled computational model of the foot consisting of a three-dimensional soft tissue continuum and a one-dimensional (1D) transient blood flow network is presented in this article. The primary aim of the model is to investigate the blood flow in major arteries of the pathologic foot where the soft tissue stiffening occurs. It has been reported in the literature that there could be up to about five-fold increase in the mechanical stiffness of the plantar soft tissues in pathologic (e.g. diabetic) feet compared with healthy ones. The increased stiffness results in higher tissue hydrostatic pressure within the plantar area of the foot when loaded. The hydrostatic pressure acts on the external surface of blood vessels and tend to reduce the flow cross-section area and hence the blood supply. The soft tissue continuum model of the foot was modelled as a tricubic Hermite finite element mesh representing all the muscles, skin and fat of the foot and treated as incompressible with transversely isotropic properties. The details of the mechanical model of soft tissue are presented in the companion paper, Part 1. The deformed state of the soft tissue continuum because of the applied ground reaction force at three foot positions (heel-strike, midstance and toe-off) was obtained by solving the Cauchy equations based on the theory of finite elasticity using the Galerkin finite element method. The geometry of the main arterial network in the foot was represented using a 1D Hermite cubic finite element mesh. The flow model consists of 1D Navier-Stokes equations and a nonlinear constitutive equation to describe vessel radius-transmural pressure relation. The latter was defined as the difference between the fluid and soft tissue hydrostatic pressure. Transient flow governing equations were numerically solved using the two-step Lax-Wendroff finite difference method. The geometry of both the soft tissue continuum and arterial network is anatomically-based and was developed using

  18. Holistic management of diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the most costly and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, which affect 15% of diabetic patients during their lifetime. DFUs are complex, chronic wounds, which have a major long-term impact on the morbidity, mortality and quality of patients’ lives. Individuals who develop a DFU are at greater risk of premature death, myocardial infarction and fatal stroke than those without a history of DFU. Unlike other chronic wounds, the development and progression of DFU is often complicated by wideranging diabetic changes, such as neuropathy and vascular disease. The management of DFU should be optimized by using a multidisciplinary team, due to a holistic approach to wound management is required. Based on studies, blood sugar control, wound debridement, advanced dressings and offloading modalities should always be a part of DFU management. Furthermore, surgery to heal chronic ulcer and prevent recurrence should be considered as an essential component of management in some cases.

  19. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  20. Relationship between sagittal plane kinematics, foot morphology and vertical forces applied to three regions of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, I.; Sawacha, Z.; Guiotto, A.; Mazza, C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic analysis of human motion with a multi-segment musculoskeletal foot model requires the distribution of loading applied to the modeled foot segments to be determined. This work thus examines the existence of any correlation between intersegmental foot kinematics, foot morphology, and the distribution of vertical loading in a multi-segment foot model. Gait analysis trials were performed by 20 healthy subjects at a self-selected speed with intersegmental foot joint angles and the distribu...

  1. A cross-sectional observational study comparing foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Potter, Julia; Mamode, Louis

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and compare foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls; and between stroke fallers and non-fallers. Participants were recruited from community groups and completed standardized tests assessing sensation, foot posture, foot function, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsal phalangeal joint range of motion (1st MPJ ROM), hallux valgus presence and severity. Twenty-three stroke participants (mean age 75.09 ± 7.57 years; 12 fallers) and 16 controls (mean age 73.44 ± 8.35 years) took part. Within the stroke group, reduced 1st MPJ sensation (p = 0.016) and 1st MPJ ROM (p = 0.025) were observed in the affected foot in comparison to the non-affected foot; no other differences were apparent. Pooled data (for both feet) was used to explore between stroke/control (n = 78 feet) and stroke faller/non-faller (n = 46 feet) group differences. In comparison to the control group, stroke participants exhibited reduced sensation of the 1st MPJ (p = 0.020), higher Foot Posture Index scores (indicating greater foot pronation, p = 0.008) and reduced foot function (p = 0.003). Stroke fallers exhibited significantly greater foot pronation in comparison to non-fallers (p = 0.027). Results indicated differences in foot and ankle characteristics post stroke in comparison to healthy controls. These changes may negatively impact functional ability and the ability to preserve balance. Further research is warranted to explore the influence of foot problems on balance ability and falls in people with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Foot problems are common post stroke. As foot problems have been linked to increased fall risk among the general population we recommend that it would be beneficial to include foot and ankle assessments or a referral to a podiatrist for people with stroke who report foot problems. Further research is needed to explore if we can improve functional

  2. [Preparation and antimicrobial effect of aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Su-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ling-Ling

    2013-06-01

    To prepare the aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care and research the inhibition effect on the different bacteria and pathogenic fungus which cause dermatophytosis. It was prepared by using Sophoraflavescens and Dictamnus dasycarpus as materials with the addition of Aloe extract, essential oil, surfactant, etc. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was researched by the levitation liquid quantitative method. The foot wash smelled faintly scent. The use of this product can produce a rich foam. The inhibitory rate were all more than 90%. The preparation process of the foot wash was simple. It has obviously bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect.

  3. Research on the Influence of Orthopaedic Inserts on Pressure Distribution in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Rutulys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of individual orthopaedic inserts on pressure distribution in the foot. Feet deformations, types of orthopaedic inserts, materials and pressure in the foot testing methods are discussed. Experimental computer measurements of pressure in the foot before and after the use of inserts have been done. During research, the inserts made of different kinds of materials selected according to human weight, pathology, skin sensitivity and many other reasons has been used. It has been determinated that orthopaedic inserts have a more noticeable impact on children whose feet is adjusted easier if compared with those of adults.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Foot care education and self management behaviors in diverse veterans with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Olson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan M Olson1, Molly T Hogan2, Leonard M Pogach3, Mangala Rajan3, Gregory J Raugi4, Gayle E Reiber51University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Department of Veterans Affairs, New Jersey Healthcare System, Center for Healthcare Knowledge Management, East Orange, NJ, USA; 4Division of Dermatology, VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA, USA; 5Research and Development, VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to examine differences in self-reported diabetes foot care education, self management behaviors, and barriers to good foot care among veterans with diabetes by race and ethnicity. Data was collected using the Veterans Health Administration Footcare Survey, a validated tool that assessed demographic, general health, diabetes and foot self-care information, barriers to foot self-care, receipt of professional foot care, and satisfaction with current care. We mailed surveys to a random sample of patients with diabetes from eight VA medical centers. Study participants were 81% White; 13% African American; 4% Asian, and 2% American Indian and Pacific Islanders. The majority of respondents felt that they did not know enough about foot self-care. There were large gaps between self-reported knowledge and actual foot care practices, even among those who reported “knowing enough” on a given topic. There were significant differences in self-reported foot care behaviors and education by race and ethnicity. These findings document the need for culturally-specific self-management education to address unique cultural preferences and barriers to care.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic foot, patient self-management, ethnic groups, education

  5. Validation of Foot Placement Locations from Ankle Data of a Kinect v2 Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerse, Daphne; Coolen, Bert; Kolijn, Detmar; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2017-10-10

    The Kinect v2 sensor may be a cheap and easy to use sensor to quantify gait in clinical settings, especially when applied in set-ups integrating multiple Kinect sensors to increase the measurement volume. Reliable estimates of foot placement locations are required to quantify spatial gait parameters. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of distance from the sensor, side and step length on estimates of foot placement locations based on Kinect's ankle body points. Subjects (n = 12) performed stepping trials at imposed foot placement locations distanced 2 m or 3 m from the Kinect sensor (distance), for left and right foot placement locations (side), and for five imposed step lengths. Body points' time series of the lower extremities were recorded with a Kinect v2 sensor, placed frontoparallelly on the left side, and a gold-standard motion-registration system. Foot placement locations, step lengths, and stepping accuracies were compared between systems using repeated-measures ANOVAs, agreement statistics and two one-sided t -tests to test equivalence. For the right side at the 2 m distance from the sensor we found significant between-systems differences in foot placement locations and step lengths, and evidence for nonequivalence. This distance by side effect was likely caused by differences in body orientation relative to the Kinect sensor. It can be reduced by using Kinect's higher-dimensional depth data to estimate foot placement locations directly from the foot's point cloud and/or by using smaller inter-sensor distances in the case of a multi-Kinect v2 set-up to estimate foot placement locations at greater distances from the sensor.

  6. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  7. Diabetic foot--what can we learn from leprosy? Legacy of Dr Paul W. Brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Andrew J M

    2012-02-01

    Leprosy and diabetes, though two very different conditions, may both result in severe loss of sensation in the feet, which are then a great risk of painless injury and ulceration. Seminal observations made by the late Dr Paul W. Brand, a surgeon working with leprosy patients in South India in the mid-20th century, resulted in the subsequent development of treatments to manage insensitive foot ulcers that are today entirely applicable to patients with diabetes. As a consequence of his research, the recognition of the relationship between insensitivity, repetitive pressures and skin breakdown has helped our understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of neuropathic foot lesions in diabetes: the development of the total contact cast and other casting devices to treat such lesions forms the basis of management of diabetic foot lesions with off-loading devices that are widely used in the 21st century in diabetic foot clinics around the world. Moreover, observations by Brand that the foot 'heats up before it breaks down' resulted in more recent research showing that self-skin temperature monitoring might help reduce the incidence of recurrent neuropathic foot ulcers in diabetes. In summary, Brand's understanding of 'the gift of pain' that, when lost, results in the late complications of diabetic neuropathy has guided the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic foot problems in the 21st century. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess disabling foot pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrow, A P; Papageorgiou, A C; Silman, A J; Thomas, E; Jayson, M I; Macfarlane, G J

    2000-03-01

    This study outlines the design and validation of a new self-administered instrument for assessing foot pain and disability. The 19-item questionnaire was tested on 45 rheumatology patients, 33 patients who had attended their general practitioner with a foot-related problem and 1000 responders to a population survey of foot disorders. Levels of reported disability were found to be greatest for rheumatology patients and least for community subjects. In addition, the instrument was able to detect differences in disability levels reported by community subjects who did and did not consult with a health care professional and those who did and did not have a history of past and current foot pain. A good level of agreement was found when items on the questionnaire were compared with similar items on the ambulation sub-scale of the Functional Limitation Profile questionnaire. A Cronbach's alpha value of 0.99 and item-total correlation values between 0.25 and 0.62 confirmed the internal consistency of the instrument. Finally the results of a principal components analysis identified three constructs that reflected disabilities that are associated with foot pain: functional limitation, pain intensity and personal appearance. The design of the foot disability questionnaire makes it a suitable instrument for assessing the impact of painful foot conditions in both community and clinical populations.

  9. Development and validation of a computational model to study the effect of foot constraint on ankle injury due to external rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Hunley, Stanley C; Powell, John W; Haut, Roger C

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies, using two different manners of foot constraint, potted and taped, document altered failure characteristics in the human cadaver ankle under controlled external rotation of the foot. The posterior talofibular ligament (PTaFL) was commonly injured when the foot was constrained in potting material, while the frequency of deltoid ligament injury was higher for the taped foot. In this study an existing multibody computational modeling approach was validated to include the influence of foot constraint, determine the kinematics of the joint under external foot rotation, and consequently obtain strains in various ligaments. It was hypothesized that the location of ankle injury due to excessive levels of external foot rotation is a function of foot constraint. The results from this model simulation supported this hypothesis and helped to explain the mechanisms of injury in the cadaver experiments. An excessive external foot rotation might generate a PTaFL injury for a rigid foot constraint, and an anterior deltoid ligament injury for a pliant foot constraint. The computational models may be further developed and modified to simulate the human response for different shoe designs, as well as on various athletic shoe-surface interfaces, so as to provide a computational basis for optimizing athletic performance with minimal injury risk.

  10. Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Wattanarojanaporn, Thongaek; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks have not been explored. This is an unshod population, and its members have a unique lifestyle living among others in our modern era. Beginning at their ordainment, they follow strict rules about barefoot walking, the amount of daily walking, and their sitting position, practices that theoretically can increase their risk of developing foot and ankle problems. To evaluate the prevalence ofcommon foot and ankle problems in Thai monks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in combination with foot and ankle examinations of monks living in northern Thailand Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. Results of the interviews and the foot and ankle examinations were evaluated. Two hundred and nine monks from 28 temples were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found included callosity (70.8%), toe deformities (18.2%), plantar fasciitis (13.4%), metatarsalgia (3.8%), and numbness (2.9%). Callosity and toe deformities were associated with prolonged barefoot walking over extended periods since ordainment (p < 0.05). The callosity was found on the forefoot (47.3%), lateral malleolus (40.7%), and heel (12%). Arch types were considered normal in 66.4% of cases, high in 21.6%, and low in 12%. No association was found between arch type and foot and ankle problems. Callosity and toe deformity were the most common foot and ankle problems found in Thai monks, especially those with prolonged period of barefoot walking and long-term duration ofordainment. The unique pattern of walking and sitting of Thai monks may have contributed to the development of those feet and ankle problems.

  11. The effect of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of strip footing supported on reinforced sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa El Sawwaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests on the influence of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of a model strip footing adjacent to the excavation and supported on reinforced granular soil. Initially, the response of the strip footings supported on un-reinforced sand and subjected to vertical loads (which were constant during the test due to adjacent deep excavation-induced lateral soil movement were obtained. Then, the effects of the inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in supporting soil on the model footing behavior under the same conditions were investigated. The studied factors include the value of the sustained footing loads, the location of footing relative to the excavation, the affected depth of soil due to deep excavation, and the relative density of sand. Test results indicate that the inclusion of soil reinforcement in the supporting sand significantly decreases both vertical settlements and the tilts of the footings due to the nearby excavation. However, the improvements in the footing behavior were found to be very dependent on the location of the footing relative to excavation. Based on the test results, the variation of the footing measured vertical settlements with different parameters are presented and discussed.

  12. Characteristics Associated with Hallux Valgus in a Population-Based Study of Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Alyssa B.; Casey, Virginia A.; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) is common in older adults, but limited studies of risk factors have reported conflicting results. This cross-sectional analysis examined the association of HV with foot pain and other characteristics in older adults. Methods HV, foot pain, foot structure (planus, rectus, cavus), current and past high heel use, age, and body mass index were assessed in the population-based Framingham Foot Study. Sex-specific logistic and multinomial logistic regression examined the association of HV and HV with pain with study variables. Results Of 1352 men and 1725 women (mean age 66 ± 10.5 years), 22% of men and 44% of women had HV and 3% of men and 11% of women had HV with pain. Foot pain increased odds of HV in both sexes (p 30 kg/m2 decreased odds of HV by 33% in men and 45% in women (p<0.05). In women only, odds of Pain & HV vs. No Pain & No HV were greater with older age and planus foot structure. Conclusions Our work showed different associations in participants who had HV with pain compared to those without foot pain. In both men and women, strong relations were observed between HV and foot pain and inversely with BMI. Older age was associated with HV in women only, as were protective associations with cavus foot structure. PMID:24965070

  13. The effect of foot reflexology on physiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reflexology have a positive impact on stabilize the physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate. This study aims to investigate the effects of foot reflexology on physiological parameters of patients before coronary angiography. This study is an interventional study performed in Kashan hospitals and 100 male patients undergoing angioplasty were randomly divided into two groups. In the intervention group for 30 minutes of foot reflexology massage and stimulate the soles of the feet in three points the solar plexus, the pituitary gland and the heart was performed, but in the control group was only Masazhmvmy feet. The vital signs 30 minutes before and after the intervention in both groups were measured. To analyze the data, t-test and ANOVA with repeated observations was used. The mean systolic blood pressure in both groups had significant difference compared to before [0010. = p]. Diastolic blood pressure in both groups had significant difference compared to before [420. = p]. Changes in heart rate before and after the intervention had no significant difference [090. = p]. The average number of breathing in both groups had significant difference compared to before [0010. = p and 0010.> P]. Foot reflexology can sustain physiological parameters such as systolic and diastolic pressure.

  14. Modelling of gecko foot for future robot application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, A.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Every gecko has an approximately million microscale hairs called setae which made it easy for them to cling from different surfaces at any orientation with the aid of Van der Waals force as the primary mechanism used to adhere to any contact surfaces. In this paper, a strain simulation using Comsol Multiphysic Software was conducted on a 3D MEMS model of an actuated gecko foot with the aim of achieving optimal sticking with various polymetric materials for future robots application. Based on the stress and strain analyses done on the seven different polymers, it was found that polysilicon had the best result which was nearest to 0%, indicating the strongest elasticity among the others. PDMS on the hand, failed in the simulation due to its bulk-like nature. Thus, PDMS was not suitable to be used for further study on gecko foot robot.

  15. Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Unilateral Drop Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenju; Miyata, Hajime; Motegi, Takahide; Shibano, Ken; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders associated with hyperthyroidism have several variations in their clinical phenotype, such as ophthalmopathy, periodic paralysis, and thyrotoxic myopathy. We herein report an unusual case of thyrotoxic myopathy presenting as unilateral drop foot. Histopathological examinations of the left tibialis anterior muscle showed marked variation in the fiber size, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrotic and regenerated muscle fibers with predominantly type 1 fiber atrophy. Medical treatment with propylthiouracil resulted in complete improvement of the left drop foot. This case expands the phenotype of thyrotoxicosis and suggests that thyrotoxicosis be considered as a possible cause of unilateral drop foot.

  16. Diabetic foot syndrome as an interdisciplinary problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Rymkiewicz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disease of the growing maturity. Diabetic foot syndrome is a chronic complications of diabetes. In neuropathic sensory disorders, ischemia of the lower limbs, and improper alignment metabolic control may occur in minor injuries around the foot, giving rise to a difficult healing ulcers. Even minor wounds rapidly infection by pathogenic bacteria, which significantly hinders their treatment. Health and life-saving solution in situations of persistent symptoms of infection is amputation of the lower limb. Doing so, however, does not solve the problem of diabetic and should be the final proceedings after having exhausted all possible treatments for diabetic foot syndrome.

  17. Overweight, obesity and foot posture in children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Montes-Alguacil, Jesus; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Alfageme-Garcia, Pilar; Cervera-Marin, Jose A; Morales-Asencio, Jose M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between obesity and foot posture in children. This cross-sectional study is based on a sample population of 1798 schoolchildren (873 boys and 925 girls) aged between 6 and 12 years. The height and weight of each subject was measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Foot posture was described by means of the foot posture index (FPI). The differences among various foot postures in relation to BMI, for the total sample, were tested using the Games-Howell test. In addition, cross tabulation for different gender groups and BMI categories was applied and tested using χ 2 . The mean BMI was 18.94 (standard deviation (SD) 3.65 kg/m 2 ) in the boys and 18.90 (SD 3.64 kg/m 2 ) in the girls, and the FPI was 3.97 (SD 2.98) in the boys and 3.68 (SD 2.86) in the girls. The FPI results show that among the boys aged 6 years, the right foot was more pronated than among the girls (FPI 4.8-4.1, P = 0.034), while among the boys aged 7 years, this was true for the left foot (4.4-3.7, P = 0.049). For the other ages, there were no significant differences in the FPI between the sexes. There were no significant differences between the value, or categories, of BMI and the FPI in the different age groups. In children aged between 6 and 12 years, body mass does not appear to have an important bearing on static foot posture. Furthermore, the variables gender and age are of scant importance in determining foot posture in children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Is the foot elevation the optimal position for wound healing of a diabetic foot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D J; Han, S K; Kim, W K

    2010-03-01

    In managing diabetic foot ulcers, foot elevation has generally been recommended to reduce oedema and prevent other sequential problems. However, foot elevation may decrease tissue oxygenation of the foot more than the dependent position since the dependent position is known to increase blood flow within the arterial system. In addition, diabetic foot ulcers, which have peripheral vascular insufficiency, generally have less oedema than other wounds. Therefore, we argue that foot elevation may not be helpful for healing of vascularly compromised diabetic foot ulcers since adequate tissue oxygenation is an essential factor in diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of foot height on tissue oxygenation and to determine the optimal foot position to accelerate wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers. This study included 122 cases (73 males and 47 females; two males had bilateral disease) of diabetic foot ulcer patients aged 40-93 years. Trans-cutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO(2)) values of diabetic feet were measured before and after foot elevation (n=21). Elevation was achieved by placing a foot over four cushions. We also measured foot TcpO(2) values before and after lowering the feet (n=122). Feet were lowered to the patient's tibial height, approximately 30-35 cm, beside a bed handrail. Due to the large number of lowering measurements, we divided them into five sub-groups according to initial TcpO(2.) Tissue oxygenation values were compared. Foot-elevation-lowered TcpO(2) values before and after elevation were 32.5+/-22.2 and 23.8+/-23.1 mmHg (pFoot-lowering-augmented TcpO(2) values before and after lowering were 44.6+/-23.8 and 58.0+/-25.9 mmHg (pfoot lowering, rather than elevation, significantly augments TcpO(2) and may stimulate healing of diabetic foot ulcers. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison platelet indices in diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardia, A. I.; Gatot, D.; Lindarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic disease which incidence increases every year. Some diabetic patients have diabetic foot ulcer as acomplication. The occurrence of ulcers in diabetic patients can be caused by the presence of thrombosis due to increased platelet function. Therefore, a cross-sectional study on 40 diabetic patients was performed at RSUP Adam Malik Medan to see whether there were differences in platelet indices between diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot ulcers. Platelets indices were examined and looked for differences in diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot ulcers. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney U test with 95% CI. P-valuediabetic patients with diabetic foot ulcers indicating more reactive and aggregatable platelet function.

  20. Foot health and quality of life among university students: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez-Sanz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Foot problems are believed to reduce quality of life and are increasingly present. Even among young adults of university age, untreated foot problems can lead to postural and mobility problems. Accordingly, our aim here was to determine the relationship between foot health and quality of life and general health among male and female university students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at the Podiatric Medicine and Surgery Clinic of the University of Coruña, Ferrol, Spain. METHODS: A sample of 112 participants of median age 22 years came to a health center, where self-reported data were registered, including professional activity, and scores obtained through the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ were compared. RESULTS: In Section One of the FHSQ, the university students recorded lower scores of 66.66 in the footwear domain and 60 in the general foot health domain and higher scores of 84.37 in the foot pain domain and 93.75 in the foot function domain. In Section Two, they obtained lower scores of 60 in the overall health domain and 62.50 in the vigor domain and higher scores of 100 in the physical activity and 87.50 in the social capacity domain. Differences between males and females were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, which showing statistical significance (P < 0.05 regarding the dimensions of footwear and general foot health. CONCLUSIONS: These university students’ quality of life relating to foot health was poor. This appears to be associated with the university period, regardless of gender.

  1. Study on the foot shape characteristics of the elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiang Dong; Xue, Chao-Hua; Li, Yan

    2017-12-01

    With aging, the feet of the elderly above 60 years old in China present degenerative changes, deformities, and diseases, which significantly affect their daily activities. The authors aimed to study the morphological characteristics of the feet and identify the foot type according to size (length and width) and defect characteristics of elderly feet in China. A convenient sample of 1000 subjects above 60 years old was recruited mainly in the regions of Shanghai, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, and Sichuan in China. Foot images were collected, and 800 (male 398, female 402) valid questionnaires were recovered. A total of 800 elderly subjects as the test group were invited to measure their foot sizes by means of a Footprint Collector (Tong Yuan Tang Health Management Limited, Qingdao in Shandong province). The foot type of the elderly was compared with that of the general adult Chinese population as the control group using the t-test for independent samples. Hallux valgus (46.9%) and flat foot (50.0%) were the most common foot shape deformities. The most frequent foot diseases were foot scaling (91.2%) and calluses (96.3%). The medial width of the first metatarsal-toe joint of the elderly was significantly higher (elderly female, 44.95±4.86mm; elderly male, 48.55±4.94mm) than that of the general adult population (adult female, 40.18±3.43mm; adult male, 43.22±3.20mm) (p<0.01). The foot length of the elderly was not significantly different from that of the general adult Chinese population. The width of the first metatarsal-toe joint in the forefoot of the elderly was significantly higher than that of the general adult Chinese population, which was consistent with the result that a high proportion of elderly subjects presented hallux valgus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Foot shape and its relationship with somatic characteristics in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The preschool period, characterised by high intensity of ontogenetic developmental changes, is considered to be the most important regarding formation of the foot. Getting to know the issue of the foot anatomy in children in this period is the main problem, which is the starting point towards proper prevention, examination, or correction of its deformities. Aim of the research: To analyse the shape of children’s feet and its relationship with chosen somatic characteristics in pre-school children. Material and methods : The study group comprised 80 five-year-old children recruited from randomly selected pre-schools in the Podkarpackie region. A CQ-ST podoscope was used as the research tool. In order to evaluate intersex differences at the average level of the tested variables, we used the Student’s t test or alternatively the Mann-Whitney U test. The relations between tested variables was assessed using Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s rank correlation. Results : A low percentage of foot deformities in the children was found. In girls, statistically significant relationships were seen between Clarke’s angle in the right foot and body mass index as well as between Wejsflog index in the right foot and body weight and height. In the case of boys, Clarke’s angle and Wejsflog index in the left foot correlated with body mass index. Conclusions: We can therefore assume that most of the surveyed girls and boys had correctly longitudinally and transversely arched feet and toes positioned correctly. Excessive weight was a factor distorting the foot shape in children; it caused a deterioration of longitudinal and transverse arch of the right foot in girls, and left foot flattening occurred in boys.

  3. Presence of chronic diabetic foot ulcers is associated with more frequent and more advanced retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, A; Katzman, P; Andreasson, S; Löndahl, M

    2018-05-23

    To clarify the frequency and severity of diabetic retinopathy in a group of people with Type 2 diabetes and chronic diabetic foot ulcers, and to compare visual acuity, levels of retinopathy and clinical significant macular oedema with a matched control group of people with Type 2 diabetes without a history of chronic diabetic foot ulcers. Visual acuity and fundus imaging were evaluated in 90 white people with at least 3 months' duration of full-thickness diabetic foot ulcers below the ankle and the results compared with those in 180 white people with Type 2 diabetes without a history of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (control group). Controls were matched for age, sex and duration of diabetes. Despite similar age and diabetes duration, severe non-proliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in 41% of the people in the diabetic foot ulcer group as compared to 15% in the control group (Pdiabetic foot ulcer group was without any diabetic retinopathy as compared to 34% among controls. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy was more common in the diabetic foot ulcer group (31% vs 8%; Pdiabetic retinopathy did not differ between groups. Clinically significant macular oedema was more frequently present, and the diabetic foot ulcer group exhibited significantly worse results in best and worst eye visual acuity testing. In this northern European setting almost all people with Type 2 diabetes and chronic diabetic foot ulcers had diabetic retinopathy. Almost one-third had proliferative diabetic retinopathy as compared to diabetic retinopathy was linked to worse visual acuity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-segment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during treadmill and overground running

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Jonathan Kenneth; Taylor, Paul John; Vincent, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    Although physiologically beneficial, running is known to be associated with a high incidence of chronic injuries. Excessive coronal and transverse plane motions of the foot segments and strain experienced by the plantar fascia are linked to the development of a number of chronic injuries. This study examined differences in multi-segment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during treadmill and overground running. Twelve male recreational runners ran at 4.0 m.s-1 in both treadmill and ove...

  5. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  6. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects

  7. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...

  8. Clinical and functional correlates of foot pain in diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Dekker, E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: patients with diabetes mellitus frequently suffer from foot pain. This pain seems to be a neglected area in studies on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with foot pain in diabetic patients. In addition, the relationships between foot

  9. Increased plantar foot pressure in persons affected by leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slim, Frederik J.; van Schie, Carine H.; Keukenkamp, Renske; Faber, William R.; Nollet, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Although foot pressure has been reported to be increased in people affected by leprosy, studies on foot pressure and its determinants are limited. Therefore, the aim was to assess barefoot plantar foot pressure and to identify clinical determinants of increased plantar foot pressure in leprosy

  10. Foot bones from Omo: implications for hominid evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebo, Daniel L; Schwartz, Gary T

    2006-04-01

    We reanalyze a hominid talus and calcaneus from Omo dating to 2.2 mya and 2.36 mya, respectively. Although both specimens occur at different localities and times, both tarsals articulate well together, suggesting a single taxon on the basis of size and function. We attribute these foot bones to early Homo on the basis of their morphology. The more modern-like tarsal morphology of these Omo foot bones makes them very similar to a talus from Koobi Fora (KNM-ER 813), a specimen attributed to Homo rudolfensis or Homo erectus. Although the Omo tarsals are a million years younger than the oldest known foot bones from Hadar, both localities demonstrate anatomical differences representing two distinct morphological patterns. Although all known hominid tarsals demonstrate clear bipedal features, the tarsal features noted below suggest that biomechanical changes did occur over time, and that certain features are associated with different hominid lineages (especially the robust australopithecines). Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D' Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D

    2008-09-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.

  12. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feature story, podcast, and other CDC resources about personal hygiene... Prevention People infected with hand, foot, and mouth ... these countries can protect themselves by practicing good personal hygiene. Learn more . To learn more about outbreaks occurring ...

  13. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  14. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  15. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long bones of the fingers or toes. Plantar fascia - Plantar fascia is a thin layer of tough tissue supporting ... the foot. Plantar fasciitis - An inflammation of the plantar fascia. Symptoms are usually pain at the bottom of ...

  16. The chicken foot digital replant training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung

    2015-01-01

    A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.

  17. On-the-Job Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves your efficiency and keeps you on the job. Your podiatric physician and surgeon is a specialist ... 20814 FP-65M-4/96 2014 ON-THE-JOB FOOT HEALTH YOUR PODIATRIC PHYSICIAN TALKS ABOUT ON- ...

  18. 130 DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: CURRENT TRENDS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    *Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ... well as patient education will markedly .... broad spectrum antibiotic therapy only .... Discuss any foot powders with a healthcare professional prior to use. 2.

  19. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2010-01-01

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indic...

  20. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.

  1. Foot Marching, Load Carriage, and Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Foot blisters: Though not a musculoskeletal injury , past studies and reviews have described foot blisters as one of the most common marching... injuries were the highest among all activities in these studies, ranging from 36 to 69 limited duty days per injury .23, 24 The top three most common ...Knapik, and J.J. 1994. Exercise, training and injuries . Sports Med 18(3): 202-1. 35. APHC (Prov) Blister Prevention Factsheet. 2015. Available at

  2. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  3. CLINICOMICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Palaniappan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors affecting all organs in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the common and serious long-term complications of diabetes leads to recurrent and chronic infections, which results in limb loss when treatment is delayed. The aim of this study is to find out the clinical outcome and microbiological profile in patients admitted with diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study conducted between November 2008 to November 2009 over 50 patients with history of foot ulceration and diabetes. 50 patients were admitted with diabetic foot ulcer over a period of one year between November 2008-2009. They were studied after getting written consent. A predesigned pro forma was used to get the parameters comprising age, gender, duration, type of diabetes mellitus, presence of neuropathy, nephropathy (serum creatinine, urine albumin, retinopathy (screening funduscopy by ophthalmologist. RESULTS Among 50 patients admitted and treated for diabetic foot ulcers with mean stay of 18 days, 29 (58% had complete healing on conservative management, 18 (36% underwent minor amputation (toes, 3 (6% had major amputation (below knee/above knee. No mortality among the study groups encountered. Gram-negative aerobes E. coli (36%, Pseudomonas (52%, Klebsiella (28%, Proteus vulgaris (20% and Acinetobacter (16% were most frequently isolated followed by gram-positive aerobes MRSA (14%, Enterococcus (6%, Strep pyogenes (4% and no anaerobic growth. CONCLUSION Diabetic foot infections are frequently polymicrobial and predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacteria at presentation. Multidrug resistance pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in diabetic foot ulcer is at its emergence and life threatening. Initial aggressive multimodal approach with surgical intervention, culture specific and sensitive targeted combined broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases the morbidity and mortality

  4. Classification of the height and flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Mettte Kjaergaard; Friis, Rikke; Michaelsen, Maria Skjoldahl

    2012-01-01

    -off values presented in this study can be used to categorize people performing standing work into groups of different foot arch types. The results of this study are important for investigating a possible link between arch height and arch movement and the development of injuries....... was to identify cut-off values for maximum values and ROM of the MLA of the foot during static tests and to identify factors influencing foot posture. METHODS: The participants consisted of 254 volunteers from Central and Northern Denmark (198 m/56 f; age 39.0 +/- 11.7 years; BMI 27.3 +/- 4.7 kg/m2). Navicular...... height (NH), longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and Feiss line (FL) were measured for either the left or the right foot in a subtalar neutral position and subtalar resting position. Maximum values and ROM were calculated for each test. The 95% and 68% prediction intervals were used as cut-off limits. Multiple...

  5. The effect of foot reflexology and back massage on hemodialysis patients' fatigue and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Kevser Sevgi; Balci Akpinar, Reva

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of foot reflexology and back massage on optimizing the sleep quality and reducing the fatigue of hemodialysis patients. The study includes 105 volunteer patients who were registered at a private dialysis clinic and were receiving hemodialysis treatment. Foot reflexology and back massage were administered to the patients two times a week for four weeks. The Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index were used to collect data. The differences between the pretest and posttest score averages of the patients on the Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index were statistically significant (p Foot reflexology and back massage were shown to improve the sleep quality and reduce the fatigue of hemodialysis patients. Compared to back massage, foot reflexology was determined to be more effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of foot load during ballet dancers' gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Marketa; Tepla, Lucie; Svoboda, Zdenek; Janura, Miroslav; Cieslarová, Miloslava

    2014-01-01

    Ballet is an art that puts extreme demands on the dancer's musculoskeletal system and therefore significantly affects motor behavior of the dancers. The aim of our research was to compare plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait between a group of professional ballet dancers and non-dancers. Thirteen professional dancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 24.1 ± 3.8 years) and 13 nondancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 26.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in this study. Foot pressure analysis during gait was collected using a 2 m pressure plate. The participants were instructed to walk across the platform at a self-selected pace barefoot. Three gait cycles were necessary for the data analysis. The results revealed higher (p < 0.05) pressure peaks in medial edge of forefoot during gait for dancers in comparison with nondancers. Furthermore, differences in total foot loading and foot loading duration of rearfoot was higher (p < 0.05) in dancers as well. We can attribute these differences to long-term and intensive dancing exercises that can change the dancer's gait stereotype.

  7. Morfologie dětské nohy Child's foot morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Riegerová

    2005-02-01

    . Longitudinal foot vault was evaluated by Plantographic method by index method and processed by "Foot" software; the big toe and little toe axis in the sense of valgozity and varozity, the size of foot angle. Statistically significant differences were evaluated by means of Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney tests, Scheffe test and chí-quadrate test (Statistica, vers. 6. The state of longitudinal foot vault appeared as relatively satisfactory. The normal foot of I. and II. degree was determined with highest frequency. The occurrence of flat foot and high foot did not signify any principal problem in these age categories. The deformation of big toe and little toe occurred in high frequency in both genders and in all age categories. In boys the valgoze angle reached the range 2.6–7.9°, in girls 4.3–8.1°. The average values of big toe varozity were higher. Little toe angle (valgozity in the group of boys reached the range of values 15.4° to 20.4°, in girls 14.4° to 18.6°. At the end we can evaluate the longitudinal foot vault in child's age categories as corresponding with the ontogenesis phase. The analysis of morphological parameters in the area of anterior part of foot proved the deformations in medial and lateral foot rays in high frequency. The foot angle in posterior part of the foot responds the reference values of established age categories.

  8. Foot kinematics in patients with two patterns of pathological plantar hyperkeratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowker Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Root paradigm of foot function continues to underpin the majority of clinical foot biomechanics practice and foot orthotic therapy. There are great number of assumptions in this popular paradigm, most of which have not been thoroughly tested. One component supposes that patterns of plantar pressure and associated hyperkeratosis lesions should be associated with distinct rearfoot, mid foot, first metatarsal and hallux kinematic patterns. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which this was true. Methods Twenty-seven subjects with planter pathological hyperkeratosis were recruited into one of two groups. Group 1 displayed pathological plantar hyperkeratosis only under metatarsal heads 2, 3 and 4 (n = 14. Group 2 displayed pathological plantar hyperkeratosis only under the 1st and 5th metatarsal heads (n = 13. Foot kinematics were measured using reflective markers on the leg, heel, midfoot, first metatarsal and hallux. Results The kinematic data failed to identify distinct differences between these two groups of subjects, however there were several subtle (generally Conclusions There was some evidence of small differences between planter pathological hyperkeratosis groups. Nevertheless, there was too much similarity between the kinematic data displayed in each group to classify them as distinct foot types as the current clinical paradigm proposes.

  9. Comparison of dynamic balance ability in healthy university students according to foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare dynamic balance ability according to foot shape, defined as normal, pronated, or supinated on the basis of the height of the medial arch. [Subjects] In this study, 14 subjects for the pronated foot group, 14 for the supinated foot group, and 14 for the normal foot group were selected from among 162 healthy university students by using the navicular drop test proposed by Brody. To measure dynamic balance ability, a star excursion balance test (SEBT) was conducted for each group, in which a cross-shaped line and lines at 45° in eight directions were drawn on the floor. In this study, only three directions were used, namely anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial. The mean of the SEBT was calculated by measuring three times for each group, and the values were standardized using the following equation: measured value/leg length × 100. [Results] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability were found between the normal, pronated, and supinated foot groups. [Conclusion] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability according to the foot shape were found among the healthy university students with normal, pronated, and supinated feet.

  10. The effectiveness of non-surgical interventions in the treatment of Charcot foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline; Kumar, Saravana; Causby, Ryan

    2007-12-01

    Background  Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is commonly known as 'Charcot foot'. It is a serious foot complication of diabetes mellitus that can frequently lead to foot ulceration, gangrene, hospital admission and foot amputation. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of Charcot foot is taken involving medical and allied health professionals. The management approach may also differ between different countries. To date, there is no systematic review of the literature undertaken to identify the clinical effectiveness of non-operative interventions in the treatment of acute Charcot foot. Objective  The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions with reducing lesions, ulceration, the rate of surgical intervention, reducing hospital admissions and improve the quality of life of subjects with Charcot foot. Search strategy  A comprehensive search strategy was undertaken on databases available from University of South Australia from their inception to November 2006. Selection criteria  Randomised controlled trials or clinical controlled trials were primarily sought. Critical appraisal of study quality and data extraction was undertaken using Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Review Manager software was used to calculate comparative statistics. Results  This review identified 11 trials and five trials were included in the review. Three trials involved the use of bisphosphonate, a pharmacological agent. Two experimental treatments were also included, evaluating palliative radiology and magnetic fields. No trials were found using immobilisation and off-loading interventions for acute Charcot foot. The overall methodological quality score of the five studies was moderate. Owing to heterogeneous data, meta-analysis could not be performed. The trials did not report on reducing lesions, ulceration, rate of surgical intervention, hospital admissions and the quality of life of subjects with Charcot foot. The

  11. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  12. In-hospital costs of diabetic foot disease treated by a multidisciplinary foot team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, Willem D.; Luiten, Jacky; van Dongen, Jelle; Kuppens, Bram; Van Neck, Johan W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Coert, J. Henk

    2017-01-01

    Background The diabetic foot imposes significant burden on healthcare systems. Obtaining knowledge on the extent of the costs of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is of value to health care researchers investigating cost-effectiveness of interventions that prevent these costly complications. Objectives To

  13. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a

  14. COMPARISON OF GAIT USING A MULTIFLEX FOOT VERSUS A QUANTUM FOOT IN KNEE DISARTICULATION AMPUTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; SPITS, GMA; HOF, AL; Tuil, P.

    The subjective responses and gait patterns of unilateral knee disarticulation amputees wearing prostheses fitted first with the Multiflex foot and then with the Quantum foot were studied. Nine amputees were included in the trial. A questionnaire asked the amputees about their preference for one of

  15. From the diabetic foot ulcer and beyond: how do foot infections spread in patients with diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose Luis; Pulido-Duque, Juan; Maynar, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A diabetic foot infection is usually the result of a pre-existing foot ulceration and is the leading cause of lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. It is widely accepted that diabetic foot infections may be challenging to treat for several reasons. The devastating effects of hyperglycemia on host defense, ischemia, multi-drug resistant bacteria and spreading of infection through the foot may complicate the course of diabetic foot infections. Understanding the ways in which infections spread through the diabetic foot is a pivotal factor in order to decide the best approach for the patient's treatment. The ways in which infections spread can be explained by the anatomical division of the foot into compartments, the tendons included in the compartments, the initial location of the point of entry of the infection and the type of infection that the patient has. The aim of this paper is to further comment on the existed and proposed anatomical principles of the spread of infection through the foot in patients with diabetes. PMID:23050067

  16. The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis measuring models referenced by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in body composition in standing position. KC Hsieh, HK Lu, CH Chen, TR Jang, YY Chen, MF Kao ...

  17. The Effect of Foot Exercises on Wound Healing in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With a Foot Ulcer: A Randomized Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraydin, Şahizer; Avşar, Gülçin

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of foot exercises on wound healing in type 2 diabetic patients with a diabetic foot ulcer. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Sixty-five patients from an outpatient clinic with grade 1 or 2 ulcers (Wagner classification) who met study criteria agreed to participate; 60 patients completed the study and were included in the final analysis. Subjects were followed up between February 2014 and June 2015. Subjects were recruited by the researchers in the clinics where they received treatment. Subjects were randomly allocated to either the control or intervention group. Data were collected using investigator-developed forms: patient information form and the diabetic foot exercises log. Patients in the intervention group received standard wound care and performed daily foot exercises for 12 weeks; the control group received standard wound care but no exercises. The ulcers of the patients in both the intervention and control groups were examined and measured at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks. The groups were compared in terms of the ulcer size and depth. To analyze and compare the data, frequency distribution, mean (standard deviation), variance analysis, and the independent samples t test and the χ test were used. The mean ulcer areas were 12.63 (14.43), 6.91 (5.44), 4.30 (3.70), and 3.29 (3.80) cm (P diabetic foot ulcer sizes in the study intervention group in the 4th and 12th weeks compared to beginning baseline (P ≤ .05). However, only the 12th week was different from the beginning in the control group (P = .000). The mean depths of the ulcers were 0.56 (0.85), 0.42 (0.68), 0.36 (0.50), and 0.28 (0.38) cm in the study intervention group (P foot exercises should be included in the treatment plan when managing patients with diabetic foot ulcers.

  18. Foot loading characteristics during three fencing-specific movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Caroline; Martinelli, Nicolo; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Plantar pressure characteristics during fencing movements may provide more specific information about the influence of foot loading on overload injury patterns. Twenty-nine experienced fencers participated in the study. Three fencing-specific movements (lunge, advance, retreat) and normal running were performed with three different shoe models: Ballestra (Nike, USA), Adistar Fencing Lo (Adidas, Germany), and the fencers' own shoes. The Pedar system (Novel, Munich, Germany) was used to collect plantar pressures at 50 Hz. Peak pressures, force-time integrals and contact times for five foot regions were compared between four athletic tasks in the lunge leg and supporting leg. Plantar pressure analysis revealed characteristic pressure distribution patterns for the fencing movements. For the lunge leg, during the lunge and advance movements the heel is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. For the supporting leg, during the lunge and advance movements the forefoot is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. Fencing-specific movements load the plantar surface in a distinct way compared with running. An effective cushioning in the heel and hallux region would help to minimize foot loading during fencing-specific movements.

  19. Finger and foot tapping sensor system for objective motor assessment

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    Đurić-Jovičić Milica

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Finger tapping test is commonly used in neurological examinations as a test of motor performance. The new system comprising inertial and force sensors and custom proprietary software was developed for quantitative estimation and assessment of finger and foot tapping tests. The aim of this system was to provide diagnosis support and objective assessment of motor function. Methods. Miniature inertial sensors were placed on fingertips and used for measuring finger movements. A force sensor was placed on the fingertip of one finger, in order to measure the force during tapping. For foot tapping assessment, an inertial sensor was mounted on the subject’s foot, which was placed above a force platform. By using this system, various parameters such as a number of taps, tapping duration, rhythm, open and close speed, the applied force and tapping angle, can be extracted for detailed analysis of a patient’s motor performance. The system was tested on 13 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 14 healthy controls. Results. The system allowed easy measurement of listed parameters, and additional graphical representation showed quantitative differences in these parameters between neurological patient and healthy subjects. Conclusion. The novel system for finger and foot tapping test is compact, simple to use and efficiently collects patient data. Parameters measured in patients can be compared to those measured in healthy subjects, or among groups of patients, or used to monitor progress of the disease, or therapy effects. Created data and scores could be used together with the scores from clinical tests, providing the possibility for better insight into the diagnosis. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175090 and Grant no. 175016

  20. A metric study of insole foot impressions in footwear of identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Michael S; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2017-11-01

    Foot impressions are of utmost importance in crime scene investigations. Foot impressions are available in the form of barefoot prints, sock-clad footprints, and as impressions within footwear. Sometimes suspects leave their footwear at the crime scene, and the insole of this footwear may contain the foot impression of the suspect which may be important evidence linking him or her to the crime. The task of identification based on the analysis of footprints can be challenging when the footprints belonging to one of the identical twin is available for examination. The present study is based on the quantitative measures of the foot impressions in the footwear of adult identical twins. The study was conducted on four sets of female monozygotic twins from the United States of America. A total of 17 length and breadth measurements were taken on each foot impression. A combination of Reel Method and Extended Gunn Method was utilized to produce the measurements. The measurements of the foot impressions were compared among the twins on the right and the left side. Differences were found in the various footprint measurements among the twins. The study's sample size was not large enough to apply robust statistical tests, but the study is significant in that it presents the first detailed comparative analysis of a large number of measurements of insole foot impressions of adult twins. The observations derived from the study are likely to assist forensic investigations in cases involving the foot impressions of the twins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation between anatomic foot and ankle movement measured with MRI and with a motion analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Barrientos, C; Liu, X C; Lyon, R; Tassone, C; Thometz, J; Tarima, S

    2012-07-01

    Several studies have attempted to measure how well external markers track internal bone movement using pins drilled into the foot, but this is too invasive for the pediatric population. This study investigated how well a six segment foot model (6SFM) using external markers was able to measure bone movement in the foot compared to MRI measurements. The foot was moved into different positions using a plastic foot jig and measurements were taken with both systems. The aims were to: (1) Look at the correlation between movement tracked with an Electronic Motion Tracking System (EMTS) and by measurements derived from MRI images, specifically the principal intercept angles (PIAs) which are the angles of intersection between principal axes of inertia of bone volumes. (2) To see how well external motion measured by the 6SFM could predict PIAs. Four bone pairs had their movement tracked: Tibia-Calcaneus, Calcaneus-Cuboid, Navicular-1st Metatarsal, and 1st Metatarsal-Hallux. The results showed moderate correlation between measured PIAs and those predicted at the Tibia-Calcaneus, Navicular-1st Metatarsal, and 1st Metatarsal-Hallux joints. Moderate to high correlation was found between the PIA and movement in a single anatomic plane for all four joints at several positions. The 6SFM using the EMTS allows reliable tracking of 3D rotations in the pediatric foot, except at the Calcaneus-Cuboid joint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The detailed measurement of foot clearance by young adults during stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telonio, A; Blanchet, S; Maganaris, C N; Baltzopoulos, V; McFadyen, B J

    2013-04-26

    Foot clearance is an important variable for understanding safe stair negotiation, but few studies have provided detailed measures of it. This paper presents a new method to calculate minimal shoe clearance during stair descent and compares it to previous literature. Seventeen healthy young subjects descended a five step staircase with step treads of 300 mm and step heights of 188 mm. Kinematic data were collected with an Optotrak system (model 3020) and three non-colinear infrared markers on the feet. Ninety points were digitized on the foot sole prior to data collection using a 6 marker probe and related to the triad of markers on the foot. The foot sole was reconstructed using the Matlab (version 7.0) "meshgrid" function and minimal distance to each step edge was calculated for the heel, toe and foot sole. Results showed significant differences in minimum clearance between sole, heel and toe, with the shoe sole being the closest and the toe the furthest. While the hind foot sole was closest for 69% of the time, the actual minimum clearance point on the sole did vary across subjects and staircase steps. This new method, and the findings on healthy young subjects, can be applied to future studies of other populations and staircase dimensions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A simple field method to identify foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlène; Poupard, Thibaut; Gimenez, Philippe; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre

    2014-05-07

    Identifying foot strike patterns in running is an important issue for sport clinicians, coaches and footwear industrials. Current methods allow the monitoring of either many steps in laboratory conditions or only a few steps in the field. Because measuring running biomechanics during actual practice is critical, our purpose is to validate a method aiming at identifying foot strike patterns during continuous field measurements. Based on heel and metatarsal accelerations, this method requires two uniaxial accelerometers. The time between heel and metatarsal acceleration peaks (THM) was compared to the foot strike angle in the sagittal plane (αfoot) obtained by 2D video analysis for various conditions of speed, slope, footwear, foot strike and state of fatigue. Acceleration and kinematic measurements were performed at 1000Hz and 120Hz, respectively, during 2-min treadmill running bouts. Significant correlations were observed between THM and αfoot for 14 out of 15 conditions. The overall correlation coefficient was r=0.916 (Pstrike except for extreme forefoot strike during which the heel rarely or never strikes the ground, and for different footwears and states of fatigue. We proposed a classification based on THM: FFS<-5.49ms

  4. Incidence and variance of foot and ankle injuries in elite college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Jost, Patrick W; Honkamp, Nicholas; Norwig, John; West, Robin; Bradley, James P

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a study on the risk for foot and ankle injuries in college football players on the basis of injury type and player position. In February 2006, we evaluated 320 intercollegiate football players at the National Football League Combine. All pathologic conditions and surgical procedures of the foot and ankle were recorded, and data were analyzed by player position to detect any trends. Seventy-two percent (n = 231) of the players had a history of foot and ankle injuries, with a total of 287 foot and ankle injuries (1.24 injuries/player injured). The most common injuries were lateral ankle sprain (n = 115), syndesmotic sprain (50), metatarsophalangeal dislocation/turf toe (36), and fibular fracture (25). Foot and ankle injuries were most common in kickers/punters (100% incidence), special teams (100%), running backs (83%), wide receivers (83%), and offensive linemen (80%). Lateral ankle sprains, the most common injuries, were treated surgically only 2.6% of the time. Offensive linemen were most likely to have had syndesmotic sprains (32%), and quarterbacks had the highest incidence of fibular fractures (16%). Foot and ankle injuries are common in collegiate football players, affecting 72% of players. Thirteen percent underwent surgical treatment. Trends are seen in the types of injuries for the different player positions.

  5. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew; Nickel, Eric; Medvec, Joseph; Brielmaier, Steven; Pike, Alvin; Weber, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three different flat region lengths within its effective rocker shape. It was hypothesized that longer flat regions of the effective rocker shape would lead to improved standing balance outcomes and reduced walking performance for unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. However, no significant changes were seen in the balance and mobility outcomes of 12 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users when using the three prosthetic foot conditions. Subjects in the study significantly preferred prosthetic feet with relatively low to moderate flat regions over those with long flat regions. All the subjects without loss of light touch or vibratory sensation selected the prosthetic foot with the shortest flat region. More work is needed to investigate the effects of prosthetic foot properties on balance and mobility of prosthesis users.

  6. Prevalence of Flat Foot: Comparison between Male and Female Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 7-12 year old students and to investigate the relationship between flat foot and age and sex. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 945 students (460 girls and 485 boys were examined. The presence of flatfoot and the degree of its severity according to Tachdjian's system of grading for flatfoot was assessed. Results: The data showed that the overall prevalence of flat foot was 74% out of which 23% were mild, 34% were moderate and 17% were severe. The prevalence of flat foot in girl and boy students were 75.2% and 72.6% respectively, but this difference was not significant. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of flat foot and age. Discussion: This study showed that flat foot is a common problem among primary school students and should be addressed by responsible organizations.

  7. Is simulation training effective in increasing podiatrists' confidence in foot ulcer management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régo Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot ulcers are a frequent reason for diabetes-related hospitalisation. Clinical training is known to have a beneficial impact on foot ulcer outcomes. Clinical training using simulation techniques has rarely been used in the management of diabetes-related foot complications or chronic wounds. Simulation can be defined as a device or environment that attempts to replicate the real world. The few non-web-based foot-related simulation courses have focused solely on training for a single skill or "part task" (for example, practicing ingrown toenail procedures on models. This pilot study aimed to primarily investigate the effect of a training program using multiple methods of simulation on participants' clinical confidence in the management of foot ulcers. Methods Sixteen podiatrists participated in a two-day Foot Ulcer Simulation Training (FUST course. The course included pre-requisite web-based learning modules, practicing individual foot ulcer management part tasks (for example, debriding a model foot ulcer, and participating in replicated clinical consultation scenarios (for example, treating a standardised patient (actor with a model foot ulcer. The primary outcome measure of the course was participants' pre- and post completion of confidence surveys, using a five-point Likert scale (1 = Unacceptable-5 = Proficient. Participants' knowledge, satisfaction and their perception of the relevance and fidelity (realism of a range of course elements were also investigated. Parametric statistics were used to analyse the data. Pearson's r was used for correlation, ANOVA for testing the differences between groups, and a paired-sample t-test to determine the significance between pre- and post-workshop scores. A minimum significance level of p Results An overall 42% improvement in clinical confidence was observed following completion of FUST (mean scores 3.10 compared to 4.40, p Conclusions This pilot study suggests simulation training

  8. Treatment options for diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneville, Eric; Robineau, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Diabetic foot osteomyelitis therapeutical options are based on antibiotic therapy and surgical resection of the infected bone(s). Surgical and medical approaches of patients suffering from a diabetic foot osteomyelitis do not oppose but are complementary and need to be discussed as a tailored manner. Areas covered: The aim of the present article is to discuss data issued from the most recent guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot on the management of the diabetic foot infection and from a search in the current literature using the terms diabetic foot osteomyelitis and treatment/therapy/therapeutical in both PubMed and Medline, restricted to the last five years. Expert opinion: Surgical removal of the entire infected bone(s) has been considered in the past as the standard treatment but medical approach of these patients has now proven efficacy in selected situations. The current emergence of bacteria, especially among Gram negative rods, resistant to almost all the available antibiotics gradually augments the complexity of the management of these patients and is likely to decrease the place of the medical approach and to worsen the outcome of these infections in the next future.

  9. Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Everett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes stress and moraic constituencies in Paumari, an endangered language of the Arawan family of the Brazilian Amazon. It argues that Paumari feet are quantity-insensitive iambs, built from right-to-left within the prosodic word. Both of these latter claims are theoretically important because they violate some proposed universals of foot structure. The paper also discusses more general implications of the Paumari data for theories of foot size and shape, proposing two constraints on foot size, Foot Maximality and Foot Minimality, to replace the less fine-tuned constraint Foot Binarity.

  10. Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki M Stolwijk

    Full Text Available In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA. We found that Malawian adults: (1 loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2 had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3 had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints.

  11. The Dutch version of the Oxford Ankle and Foot Questionnaire for Children: Useful for evaluation of pediatric foot problems in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Elise; Selles, Ruud; van Nieuwkasteele, Shelly; Bessems, Gert; Pollet, Virginie; Hovius, Steven; van Nieuwenhoven, Christianne

    2017-11-04

    The purpose of this study is to develop a Dutch version of the Oxford Ankle and Foot Questionnaire for Children (OxAFQ-c) to allow evaluation of pediatric foot care. The OxAFQ-c was translated into Dutch, according to the ISPOR-guidelines. Children with different foot and ankle complaints completed the OxAFQ-c at baseline, after two weeks, and after 4-6 months. Measurement properties were assessed in terms of reliability, responsiveness, and construct validity. Test-retest reliability showed moderate intraclass correlation coefficients. Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement. After 4-6 months, the group that experienced improvement also showed improved questionnaire outcomes, indicating responsiveness. Moderate correlation between the OxAFQ-c and the Kidscreen and foot-specific VAS-scores were observed, indicating moderate construct validity. The Dutch OxAFQ-c showed moderate to good measurement properties. However, because we observed limited sensitivity to changes and wide limits of agreement in individual patients, we think the questionnaire should only be used in groups. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  13. Foot placement strategy in pushing and pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are very common in daily and industrial workplaces. They are one major source of musculoskeletal complaints. This study aimed to examine the foot placement strategy while pushing and pulling. Thirteen young males and ten young females were recruited as participants. A two (pushing and pulling) by four (48 cm, 84 cm, 120 cm, and 156 cm) factorial design was used. Exertion direction and exertion height significantly affected foot placement strategy. Pushing task needed more anteroposterior space than pulling task. The percentages of female/male for trailing foot position ranged from 77% to 90% (pushing) and from 80% to 93% (pulling) across the exertion heights. Practitioners should provide an anteroposterior space approximately to 70% body stature for workers to exert their maximum pulling and pushing strengths.

  14. Metallic Foreign Body in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A foreign body injury of the foot is a frequently encountered problem. These foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues, and their removal can be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, the removal of a foreign body requires good preoperative preparations. The surgical treatment results of patients with a foreign body, identified as a sewing needle, that had penetrated their foot were evaluated. Material and Method: Thirty-four patients (11 males, 23 females; mean age, 30.2 ± 18.6 years who were surgically treated between 2011 and 2013 were included. Data concerning the affected limb, placement of the needle, imaging techniques, season when the injury occurred, time between medical intervention and injury, anaesthesia type, fluoroscopy of use during surgery and surgical complications were analyzed. Results: A sewing needle had penetrated the right foot of 20 (58.8% patients and the left foot of 14 (41.1% patients. Broken needles were found in the toes of 14 (41.1% patients, in the middle of the foot of 12 (35.2% patients and in the heel area of 8 (23.5% patients. The injuries occurred in summer in 13 (38.2% patients, in winter in seven (20.6% patients, in spring in one (2.9% patient and in autumn in 13 (38.2% patients. Needle penetration had occurred in 28 (82.3% patients at home and 6 (17.6% patients outside of the home environment. The average follow-up time was 8.9 ± 2.8 months. Discussion: Removal of foreign bodies from the foot requires good preoperative preparations. Foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues. It is important to perform detailed physical and radiological examinations to obtain good treatment results in these patients.

  15. The association of foot structure and footwear fit with disability in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Polly Qx; Shields, Nora; Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos; Barrett, Joanna T; Evans, Angela M; Taylor, Nicholas F; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2015-01-01

    Foot deformity, flat feet, and the use of ill-fitting footwear are common in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was to determine whether these observations are associated with foot-specific disability in this group. A cross-sectional study design. Foot structure (foot posture determined using the Arch Index, presence of hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities) and footwear fit (determined by length and width percentage differences between the participant's foot and footwear) were assessed in 50 participants with DS (22 females, 28 males) aged five to 18 with a mean (SD) age of 10.6 (3.9) years. Foot-specific disability was determined using the parent-reported Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for Children (OxAFQ-C). Associations between foot structure and footwear fit with the four domains (Physical, School and play, Emotional and Footwear) of the OxAFQ-C were determined using multivariate regression modelling. The mean (SD) Arch Index was 0.29 (0.08), and the prevalence of flat feet, hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities was 76%, 10% and 12% respectively. Few participants wore footwear that was too short (10%), but the use of footwear that was too narrow was common (58%). The presence of hallux valgus was significantly associated with increased disability for the OxAFQ-C School and play domain scores. The use of narrow-fitting footwear was significantly associated with increased levels of disability for the OxAFQ-C Physical, School and play, and Emotional domains. However, these variables only explained between 10% to 14% of the variance in the OxAFQ-C domain scores. There were no significant associations between foot structure and footwear fit with the OxAFQ-C Footwear domain scores. Flatter feet and lesser toe deformities are not associated with foot-specific disability in children and adolescents with DS. Hallux valgus is associated with foot-specific disability during school and play activities. Ill-fitting footwear (too

  16. Foot segmental motion and coupling in stage II and III tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Maarten; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Wuite, Sander; Roels, Charlotte; Staes, Filip; Deschamps, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Classification systems developed in the field of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction omit to include dynamic measurements. Since this may negatively affect the selection of the most appropriate treatment modality, studies on foot kinematics are highly recommended. Previous research characterised the foot kinematics in patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction. However, none of the studies analysed foot segmental motion synchrony during stance phase, nor compared the kinematic behaviour of the foot in presence of different posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stages. Therefore, we aimed at comparing foot segmental motion and coupling in patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction grade 2 and 3 to those of asymptomatic subjects. Foot segmental motion of 11 patients suffering from posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stage 2, 4 patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stage 3 and 15 asymptomatic subjects was objectively quantified with the Rizzoli foot model using an instrumented walkway and a 3D passive motion capture system. Dependent variables were the range of motion occurring at the different inter-segment angles during subphases of stance and swing phase as well as the cross-correlation coefficient between a number of segments. Significant differences in range of motion were predominantly found during the forefoot push off phase and swing phase. In general, both patient cohorts demonstrated a reduced range of motion compared to the control group. This hypomobility occurred predominantly in the rearfoot and midfoot (pfoot which should be considered in the decision making process since it may help explaining the success and failure of certain conservative and surgical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and

  18. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk

  19. Unilateral Cleft Hand with Cleft Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Ahmed, Sheikh Mushtaq; Nazir, Abid

    2009-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the hand form an important class of congenital malformations. They have a huge functional importance because of the part played by the hand in the daily activities of a person. The deformities also have significant cosmetic significance and may also be associated with other anomalies. Amongst the congenital anomalies, central deficiency or cleft hand is relatively rare. The association of cleft foot with cleft hand is an even more rare occurance. We present a case report of a 6 year old child, born of a non-consanginous marriage, having congenital central deficiency of ipsilateral hand and foot. PMID:21475543

  20. MR Imaging of the Diabetic Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eoghan; Morrison, William B; Zoga, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of the peripheral nervous, vascular, and immune systems contribute to the development of numerous foot and ankle pathologies in the diabetic population. Although radiographs remain the most practical first-line imaging tool, magnetic resonance (MR) is the tertiary imaging modality of choice, allowing for optimal assessment of bone and soft tissue abnormalities. MR allows for the accurate distinction between osteomyelitis/septic arthritis and neuropathic osteoarthropathy. Furthermore, it provides an excellent presurgical anatomic road map of involved tissues and devitalized skin to ensure successful limited amputations when required. Signal abnormality in the postoperative foot aids in the diagnosis of recurrent infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing length of stay for acute diabetic foot episodes: employing an extended scope of practice podiatric high-risk foot coordinator in an acute foundation trust hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Matthew J; Bower, Virginia M; Walsh, Tom P; Yates, Ben J

    2013-12-11

    To enhance the acute management of people with diabetic foot disease requiring admission, an extended scope of practice, podiatric high-risk foot coordinator position, was established at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon in 2010. The focus of this new role was to facilitate more efficient and timely management of people with complex diabetic foot disease. The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of the podiatric high-risk foot coordinator role on length of stay, rate of re-admission and bed cost. This study evaluated the difference in length of stay and rate of re-admission between an 11- month pre-pilot period (November 2008 to October 2009) and a 10-month pilot period (August 2010 to June 2011). The estimated difference in bed cost between the pre-pilot and pilot audits was also calculated. Inclusion criteria were restricted to inpatients admitted with a diabetic foot ulcer, gangrene, cellulitis or infection as the primary cause for admission. Eligible records were retrieved using ICD-10 (V9) coding via the hospital clinical audit department for the pre-pilot period and a unique database was used to source records for the pilot phase. Following the introduction of the podiatric high-risk foot coordinator, the average length of stay reduced from 33.7 days to 23.3 days (mean difference 10.4 days, 95% CI 0.0 to 20.8, p = 0.050). There was no statistically significant difference in re-admission rate between the two study periods, 17.2% (95% CI 12.2% to 23.9%) in the pre-pilot phase and 15.4% (95% CI 12.0% to 19.5%) in the pilot phase (p = 0.820). The extrapolated annual cost saving following the implementation of the new coordinator role was calculated to be £234,000 for the 2010/2011 year. This audit found that the extended scope of practice coordinator role may have a positive impact on reducing length of stay for diabetic foot admissions. This paper advocates the role of a podiatric high-risk foot coordinator utilising an extended scope of

  3. The use of differential scintigraphy in the clinical diagnosis of osseous and soft tissue changes affecting the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.J.; Jacobs, A.M.; Oloff, L.; Drago, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Prompt recognition of cellulitis, osteomyelitis, diabetic osteolysis, Charcot neuroarthropathy, septic synovitis, and deep plantar abscesses in the diabetic foot is essential because the therapy is drastically different. Differential diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by recently developed scanning techniques

  4. Atividade eletromiográfica durante o agachamento unipodal associado a diferentes posições do pé Actividad electromiográfica durante el agache unipodal asociado a diferentes posiciones del pie Electromyographic activity during one-legged squatting under different foot positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ribeiro

    2007-02-01

    performing squat with technique variations. Eight healthy volunteers performed squats under 5 types of foot positions: neutral position, under a 10º descending wedge, under a 10º ascending wedge, under a 10º medial wedge and under a 10º lateral wedge. It was evaluated electromyographic data of vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, using One-Way ANOVA. The EMG integrated values was not significantly different across the 5 foot positions. The results of this study suggest that different foot positions during one-legged squat do not cause changes in muscle recruitment.

  5. Radionuclide imaging in diagnosis and therapy of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of angiopathy or infection of the diabetic foot is the key to the successful management. Radionuclide imaging is very useful in detecting diabetic microangiopathy, assessing the prognosis of foot ulcers, and diagnosing the osteomyelitis

  6. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  7. Comorbidities associated with Egyptian diabetic foot disease subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Special attention should be paid toward the identification of patients who are at risk of foot ulceration to help prevent foot problems. Comorbid conditions must also be identified early and managed aggressively.

  8. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  9. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control.

  10. Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot: A multidisciplinary approach accounting for the complex pathobiology and biomechanics of the diabetic foot is crucial to decrease the rate of amputations.

  11. 3D finite element model of the diabetic neuropathic foot: a gait analysis driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2014-09-22

    Diabetic foot is an invalidating complication of diabetes that can lead to foot ulcers. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) allows characterizing the loads developed in the different anatomical structures of the foot in dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a subject specific 3D foot FE model (FEM) of a diabetic neuropathic (DNS) and a healthy (HS) subject, whose subject specificity can be found in term of foot geometry and boundary conditions. Kinematics, kinetics and plantar pressure (PP) data were extracted from the gait analysis trials of the two subjects with this purpose. The FEM were developed segmenting bones, cartilage and skin from MRI and drawing a horizontal plate as ground support. Materials properties were adopted from previous literature. FE simulations were run with the kinematics and kinetics data of four different phases of the stance phase of gait (heel strike, loading response, midstance and push off). FEMs were then driven by group gait data of 10 neuropathic and 10 healthy subjects. Model validation focused on agreement between FEM-simulated and experimental PP. The peak values and the total distribution of the pressures were compared for this purpose. Results showed that the models were less robust when driven from group data and underestimated the PP in each foot subarea. In particular in the case of the neuropathic subject's model the mean errors between experimental and simulated data were around the 20% of the peak values. This knowledge is crucial in understanding the aetiology of diabetic foot. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Fiers, Pieter; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s -1 while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 ± 3.5°) and positive foot angle (20.4 ± 4.8°) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 ± 6.3°) and more horizontal foot (1.6 ± 3.1°). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 ± 4.4°) and a small foot angle (7.0 ± 5.1°) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing "strategies" such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.

  13. The impact of obesity on foot morphology in women aged 48 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Tománková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is major risk factor for many diseases within society and represents extensive loads for the feet which lead to various foot disorders and deformities. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity as represented by percent body fat (PBF on foot morphology. Methods: The study sample included 139 Czech women aged 48-69 years. The women were divided into two groups by PBF: non-obese women (NOW (n = 66; PBF < 35% and obese women (OW (n = 73; PBF > 35%. Measurements included % PBF and width, length and angle dimensions of foot. The Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI was calculated for each foot. Results: We found significant differences between OW and NOW in these parameters: direct forefoot width (sin. p = .02, rpb = .20, direct heel width (sin. p = .01, rpb = .22; dex. p < .01, rpb = .22, hallux angle (sin. p = .01, rpb = .25 and CSI (sin. p < .01, rpb = .26; dex. p < .01, rpb = .27. The results showed that the mean values of the heel width and CSI were significantly higher in OW on both feet, the mean values of forefoot width only on the left foot. Conclusions: Results proved that obesity impacts all parts of the foot (heel, longitudinal foot arch, forefoot. Despite significant differences of the CSI between NOW and OW, the number of subjects with flat feet was in both groups negligible.

  14. Automatic detection of diabetic foot complications with infrared thermography by asymmetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

    2015-02-01

    Early identification of diabetic foot complications and their precursors is essential in preventing their devastating consequences, such as foot infection and amputation. Frequent, automatic risk assessment by an intelligent telemedicine system might be feasible and cost effective. Infrared thermography is a promising modality for such a system. The temperature differences between corresponding areas on contralateral feet are the clinically significant parameters. This asymmetric analysis is hindered by (1) foot segmentation errors, especially when the foot temperature and the ambient temperature are comparable, and by (2) different shapes and sizes between contralateral feet due to deformities or minor amputations. To circumvent the first problem, we used a color image and a thermal image acquired synchronously. Foot regions, detected in the color image, were rigidly registered to the thermal image. This resulted in 97.8%±1.1% sensitivity and 98.4%±0.5% specificity over 76 high-risk diabetic patients with manual annotation as a reference. Nonrigid landmark-based registration with B-splines solved the second problem. Corresponding points in the two feet could be found regardless of the shapes and sizes of the feet. With that, the temperature difference of the left and right feet could be obtained.

  15. Topical propolis improves wound healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Aboutorabi, Robab; Ravari, Hassan; Fathi Najafi, Mohsen; Ataei Azimi, Sajad; Javadian Langaroodi, Adineh; Yaghoubi, Mohammad Ali; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-08-22

    In this randomized controlled trial, diabetic patients with foot ulcers (Wagner grades 1 and 2) were randomly assigned to conventional therapies for diabetic foot ulcer plus topical propolis ointment (5%; twice daily) or conventional therapies alone. The process of ulcer healing was observed during 4 weeks and compared between the two groups regarding the size, erythema, exudates, white blood cell (WBC) count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The process of ulcer size reduction during the four-week period of study was significantly different between the groups. However, this difference was not significant between the third and fourth weeks. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding erythema and exudate reduction as well as WBC count and ESR. Administration of topical propolis ointment in addition to the conventional treatments of diabetic foot ulcer could reduce the size of ulcers with Wagner grades 1 and 2.

  16. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  17. Glomerular epithelial foot processes in normal man and rats. Distribution of true width and its intra- and inter-individual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, H J; Seefeldt, T; Osterby, R

    1980-01-01

    The width of individual glomerular epithelial foot processes appears very different on electron micrographs. A method for obtainining distributions of the true width of foot processes from that of their apparent width on electron micrographs has been developed based on geometric probability theory pertaining to a specific geometric model. Analyses of foot process width in humans and rats show a remarkable interindividual invariance implying rigid control and therefore great biological significance of foot process width or a derivative thereof. The very low inter-individual variation of the true width, shown in the present paper, makes it possible to demonstrate slight changes in rather small groups of patients or experimental animals.

  18. Impact of a diabetic foot care education program on lower limb amputation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al-Wahbi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-WahbiDepartment of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City and King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyahd, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetic foot complications are a leading cause of lower extremity amputation. With the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Arab world, specifically in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the rate of amputation will rise significantly. A diabetic foot care program was implemented at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2002. The program was directed at health care staff and patients to increase their awareness about diabetic foot care and prevention of complications. The purpose of this study was to perform a primary evaluation of the program’s impact on the rate of lower extremity amputation due to diabetic foot complications.Method: This pilot study was the first analysis of the diabetic foot care program and examined two groups of participants for comparison, ie, a “before” group having had diabetic foot ulcers managed between 1983, when the hospital was first established, and 2002 when the program began and an “after group” having had foot ulcers managed between 2002 and 2004, in the program’s initial phase. A total of 41 charts were randomly chosen retrospectively. A data sheet containing age, gender, medical data, and the presentation, management, and outcome of diabetic foot cases was used for the analysis.Results: The before group contained 20 patients (17 males and the after group contained 21 patients (16 males. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age and comorbidities. The rate of amputation was 70% in the before group and 61.9% in the after group. There was a decrease in the percentage of toe amputation in the after group and an increase in the percentage of below-knee amputation in the before group. However, these changes were not significant.Conclusion: The program, although evaluated at an early

  19. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... protective footwear. (1) Protective footwear must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i... in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations... protective footwear complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard... above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section. [62...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for... effective as protective footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards...

  2. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We

  3. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS:

  4. Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Louise

    2006-07-01

    Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening

  5. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER... protection. (a) Personnel working in areas or engaged in activities where there is a reasonable probability...

  6. Ambulatory assessment of ankle and foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    Ground reaction force (GRF) measurement is important in the analysis of human body movements. The main drawback of the existing measurement systems is the restriction to a laboratory environment. This paper proposes an ambulatory system for assessing the dynamics of ankle and foot, which integrates

  7. Ron Rash: One Foot in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of Ron Rash's novel One Foot in Eden, focusing on his attachment to place and his depiction of the internal conflicts between farmers and townspeople in a small Appalachian community. Rash depicts the contemporary Southerner’s struggle to maintain his or her roots in a time of rapid...

  8. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  9. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  10. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0 to 3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to a significant changes in the impedance related...

  11. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0-3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to significant changes in the impedance related...

  12. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment

  13. A Foot Operated Timeout Room Door Latch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R. M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a foot operated timeout room door latch that permits staff members to maintain a misbehaving retarded individual in timeout without locking the door. Use of the latch also frees the staff member involved to record behavioral observations or reinforce appropriate behavior. (Author)

  14. Intraarterial tolazoline in angiography of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, B.

    1978-01-01

    Foot angiography was performed in 32 diabetic patients with and without intraarterial injection of tolazoline (Priscoline). The angiographic quality was improved with tolazoline, manifested as an increased flow rate with acceleration of the arteriovenous transit time, a higher incidence of complete arterial filling with contrast medium in clinically important regions, and considerably longer arterial segments demonstrated within defined regions of measurement. (Auth.)

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Common causes for non-healing of diabetic foot ulcers are infection and/or ischaemia. Diabetic patients are compromised hosts as far as wound healing is concerned. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a defective cellular and humoral immunity. In particular, decreased chemotaxis, decreased

  16. Diabetic foot and PAD: the endovascular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, J. A.; Lammer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is recognized as one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Active revascularisation plays a crucial role in achieving ulcer healing. Non-surgical, minimally invasive, revascularisation options for DFU have expanded over the last decade and have become a

  17. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S L; Leach, I H; Charnley, R M

    1993-12-01

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. Histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis.

  18. Frequency of foot deformity in preschool girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In order to determine the moment of creation of postural disorders, regardless of the causes of this problem, it is necessary to examine the moment of entry of children into a new environment, ie. in kindergarten or school. There is a weak evidence about the age period when foot deformity occurs, and the type of these deformities. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the occurrence of foot deformities and age characteristics of girls. Methods. The research was conducted in preschools 'Radosno detinjstvo' in the region of Novi Sad, using the method of random selection, on the sample of 272 girls, 4-7 years of age, classified into four strata according to the year of birth. To determine the foot deformities measurement technique using computerized digitized pedografy (CDP was applied. Results. In preschool population girls pes transversoplanus and calcanei valga deformities occurred in a very high percentage (over 90%. Disturbed longitudinal instep ie flat feet also appeared in a high percentage, but we noted the improvement of this deformity according to increasing age. Namely, there was a statistically significant correlation between the age and this deformity. As a child grows older, the deformity is lower. Conclusion. This study confirmed that the formation of foot arches probably does not end at the age of 3-4 years but lasts until school age.

  19. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find a Foot & Ankle Orthopaedic Surgeon Page Content Who ... your prescribed treatment (surgical and/or non-surgical) ​ Find a Surgeon ​ Click here to find a foot ...

  20. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot ulceration and amputation cause extensive burden on individuals and health care systems. One of the reasons for the poor outcome of foot complications in developing countries is the lack of patient education. Due to the multi-factorial pathology of diabetic foot ulceration, the person with diabetes should receive health ...

  1. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  2. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. ... could be used for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian livestock. Keyword: Foot and Mouth Disease ... 2 blended with Incomplete. Seepic Adjuvant (ISA) montanide 206, which.

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Seven different serotypes (and numerous variants) of FMDV have been...... it is important to characterize the viruses that are circulating if vaccination is being used for disease control. This review describes current methods for the detection and characterization of FMDVs. Sequence information is increasingly being used for identifying the source of outbreaks. In addition...

  4. Foot strike patterns after obstacle clearance during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Shane D; Stergiou, Nicholas; Hreljac, Alan; Houser, Jeremy; Blanke, Daniel; Alberts, L Russell

    2002-01-01

    Running over obstacles of sufficient height requires heel strike (HS) runners to make a transition in landing strategy to a forefoot (FF) strike, resulting in similar ground reaction force patterns to those observed while landing from a jump. Identification of the biomechanical variables that distinguish between the landing strategies may offer some insight into the reasons that the transition occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in foot strike patterns and kinetic parameters of heel strike runners between level running and running over obstacles of various heights. Ten heel strike subjects ran at their self-selected pace under seven different conditions: unperturbed running (no obstacle) and over obstacles of six different heights (10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% of their standing height). The obstacle was placed directly before a Kistler force platform. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed on the subject means of selected kinetic parameters. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P strike patterns were affected by the increased obstacle height. Between the 12.5% and 15% obstacle conditions, the group response changed from a heel strike to a forefoot strike pattern. At height > 15%, the pattern was more closely related to the foot strike patterns found in jumping activities. This strategy change may represent a gait transition effected as a mechanism to protect against increased impact forces. Greater involvement of the ankle and the calf muscles could have assisted in attenuating the increased impact forces while maintaining speed after clearing the obstacle.

  5. Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K T; Savage, R; Pataky, T C; Morse, S A; Webster, E; Falkingham, P L; Ren, L; Qian, Z; Collins, D; Bennett, M R; McClymont, J; Crompton, R H

    2013-06-06

    Footprints are the most direct source of evidence about locomotor biomechanics in extinct vertebrates. One of the principal suppositions underpinning biomechanical inferences is that footprint geometry correlates with dynamic foot pressure, which, in turn, is linked with overall limb motion of the trackmaker. In this study, we perform the first quantitative test of this long-standing assumption, using topological statistical analysis of plantar pressures and experimental and computer-simulated footprints. In computer-simulated footprints, the relative distribution of depth differed from the distribution of both peak and pressure impulse in all simulations. Analysis of footprint samples with common loading inputs and similar depths reveals that only shallow footprints lack significant topological differences between depth and pressure distributions. Topological comparison of plantar pressures and experimental beach footprints demonstrates that geometry is highly dependent on overall print depth; deeper footprints are characterized by greater relative forefoot, and particularly toe, depth than shallow footprints. The highlighted difference between 'shallow' and 'deep' footprints clearly emphasizes the need to understand variation in foot mechanics across different degrees of substrate compliance. Overall, our results indicate that extreme caution is required when applying the 'depth equals pressure' paradigm to hominin footprints, and by extension, those of other extant and extinct tetrapods.

  6. Ankle and foot tuberculosis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To know the biological behavior of ankle and foot tuberculosis (AFTB and to know the reasons for delay in diagnosis and treatment of AFTB in our population. Materials and Methods: Patients with non-healing ulcers/sinuses/swellings in the ankle and foot region are the subjects of present study. Detailed clinical history, physical examination and relevant investigations were done in all cases. Pus/wound discharge for acid fast bacillus (AFB study and biopsy from wound margin/sinus tract was taken in all the cases. Results: During the period from July 2007-June 2012, 20 cases of AFTB were treated. Out of them five cases were difficult to diagnose and a mean period of 6 month to 5year was elapsed before final diagnosis was established. Out of these five cases - three cases were diabetic with ulcers and sinuses in the heel and ankle region. One case was wrongly diagnosed as angiodysplasia with A-V malformation of foot and diagnosis was delayed for 5 year. In one case of rheumatoid arthritis with abscess in ankle joint, the diagnosis was delayed for 1year. Conclusion: AFTB is very rare condition. AFTB is suspected in cases with long standing pain/swelling/discharging sinus in the foot and thorough investigations is must to differentiate from other foot diseases. Diagnosis is delayed due to lack of clinical suspicion and non-confirmatory biopsy reports. Early diagnosis and ATT for 9-18 months is must in all cases of AFTB to prevent joint involvement and other complications.

  7. Cyclic settlement behavior of strip footings resting on reinforced layered sand slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. El Sawwaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the behavior of model strip footings supported on a loose sandy slope and subjected to both monotonic and cyclic loads. The effects of the partial replacement of a compacted sand layer and the inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement were investigated. Different combinations of the initial monotonic loads and the amplitude of cyclic loads were chosen to simulate structures in which loads change cyclically such as machine foundations. The affecting factors including the location of footing relative to the slope crest, the frequency of the cyclic load and the number of load cycles were studied. The cumulative cyclic settlement of the model footing supported on a loose sandy slope, un-reinforced and reinforced replaced sand deposits overlying the loose slope were obtained and compared. Test results indicate that the inclusion of soil reinforcement in the replaced sand not only significantly increases the stability of the sandy slope itself but also decreases much both the monotonic and cumulative cyclic settlements leading to an economic design of the footings. However, the efficiency of the sand–geogrid systems depends on the properties of the cyclic load and the location of the footing relative to the slope crest. Based on the test results, the variation of cumulative settlements with different parameters is presented and discussed.

  8. Is the rearfoot pattern the most frequently foot strike pattern among recreational shod distance runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Matheus Oliveira; Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Yamato, Tiê Parma; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2015-02-01

    To determine the distribution of the foot strike patterns among recreational shod runners and to compare the personal and training characteristics between runners with different foot strike patterns. Cross-sectional study. Areas of running practice in São Paulo, Brazil. 514 recreational shod runners older than 18 years and free of injury. Foot strike patterns were evaluated with a high-speed camera (250 Hz) and photocells to assess the running speed of participants. Personal and training characteristics were collected through a questionnaire. The inter-rater reliability of the visual foot strike pattern classification method was 96.7% and intra-rater reliability was 98.9%. 95.1% (n = 489) of the participants were rearfoot strikers, 4.1% (n = 21) were midfoot strikers, and four runners (0.8%) were forefoot strikers. There were no significant differences between strike patterns for personal and training characteristics. This is the first study to demonstrate that almost all recreational shod runners were rearfoot strikers. The visual method of evaluation seems to be a reliable and feasible option to classify foot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  10. Migratory routes and at-sea threats to Pink-footed Shearwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Hodum, Peter; Colodro, Valentina; Carle, Ryan; López, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) is a seabird with a breeding range restricted to three islands in Chile and an estimated world population of approximately 56,000 breeding individuals (Muñoz 2011, Oikonos unpublished data). Due to multiple threats on breeding colonies and at-sea, Pink-footed Shearwaters are listed as Endangered by the government of Chile (Reglamento de Clasificación de Especies, 2011), Threatened by the government of Canada (Environment Canada 2008), and are listed under Appendix 1 of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP 2013). A principal conservation concern for the species is mortality from fisheries bycatch during the breeding and non-breeding seasons; thus, identification of areas of overlap between at-sea use by Pink-footed Shearwaters and fisheries is a high priority conservation objective (Hinojosa Sáez and Hodum 1997, Mangel et al. 2013, ACAP 2013). During the non-breeding period, Pink-footed Shearwaters range as far north as Canada, although little was known until recently about migration routes and important wintering areas where fisheries bycatch could be a risk. Additionally, Pink-footed Shearwaters face at-sea threats during the non-breeding season off the west coast of North America. Recently, areas used by wintering Pink-footed Shearwaters have been identified as areas of interest for developing alternative energy offshore in North America (e.g., floating wind generators; Trident Winds 2016). The goal of our study was to track Pink-footed Shearwater post-breeding movements with satellite tags to identify timing and routes of migration, locate important non-breeding foraging habitats, and determine population distribution among different wintering regions.

  11. Procalcitonin and proinflammatory parameters in diabetic foot infection as new predictive factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheem, Shler Gh.; Al-Barzinji, Ruqaya M.; Mansoor, Husham Y.; Al-Dabbagh, Ali A.

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic foot is a common complication of diabetes due to changes in blood vessels and nerves, often leads to ulceration and subsequent limb amputation if not treated early. A new diagnostic marker of bacterial infections is procalcitonin. C-reactive protein, Interleukin1β, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α as proinflammatory parameters increased in Diabetic foot infection. We evaluated above parameters in patients with diabetic foot infections in different grades. A total of 130 diabetic patients were enrolled in this case control study between June 2011 and March 2012 in Rizgary, Emergency and Hawler Teaching Hospitals, 90 of them with diabetic foot lesion as a patient group. 40 without foot lesion, as a patient control and 20 individuals as healthy control. Assessment of above parameters in sera of study groups and also bacteriological tests (bacterial isolation and identification) were done. Serum procalcitonin levels significantly increased in patients with diabetic foot with higher Wagner grades (III, IV and V) (0.28 ± 0.04, 0.30 ± 0.07 and 0.60 ± 0.11) respectively (Pfoot ulcer based on Wagner classification system was also associated with circulating levels of C-reactive protein, Interleukin1β, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (G III, IV and V) (5.36 ± 0.70, 6.38 ± 0.65, and 9.13 ± 0.88), (1.21 ± 0.08, 1.56 ± 0.16 and 2.02 ± 0.07), (23.02 ± 2.98, 36.32 ± 5.75 and 43.36 ± 6.16), and (215.39 ± 16.8, 259.21 ± 40.7 and 398.45 ± 33.4) respectively (Pdiabetic foot patients may be a procalcitonin especially in those with higher Wagner grades and with polymicrobial infection.

  12. ANALYSIS OF ANKLE ALIGNMENT ABNORMALITIES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PEDIATRIC FLEXIBLE FLAT FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ajai Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of paediatric flat feet are flexible and asymptomatic; less than 0.1% of all flat feet are rigid. If these can be diagnosed and managed early, then various complications can be prevented and they will remain asymptomatic. This study was conducted to analyse the ankle rotational mal-alignments in the natural course of flexible flat foot in children. Seventy-six patients of flexible flat foot and one hundred controls were included in this study. The height of foot arches was judged clinically by inspecting the height of the medial arch and by measuring the arch index on weight-bearing podograms. Tibial torsion and bimalleolar angle were assessed in all subjects. Tibial torsion was assessed in the first twenty subjects (ten cases and ten controls both by clinical methods (foot-thigh angle and CT. As no statistical difference in the two methods was observed, tibial torsion was measured by clinical methods only in the remaining subjects. Bimalleolar angle was measured on weight-bearing podograms in all subjects. For a minimum of two years, cases were followed up regularly with a standard conservative protocol and the height of the arches observed. Majority of cases of flexible flat foot were found to have increased tibial torsion and increased foot-bimalleolar angle (high talar spin. The severity of collapse of the medial arch and the response to conservative treatment was found to correlate with these rotational mal-alignments of the ankle. Ankle rotational mal-alignments were seen to make these flexible flat foot deformities more complex and less responsive to conservative treatment.

  13. Lessons from dynamic cadaver and invasive bone pin studies: do we know how the foot really moves during gait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nester Christopher J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper provides a summary of a Keynote lecture delivered at the 2009 Australasian Podiatry Conference. The aim of the paper is to review recent research that has adopted dynamic cadaver and invasive kinematics research approaches to better understand foot and ankle kinematics during gait. It is not intended to systematically cover all literature related to foot and ankle kinematics (such as research using surface mounted markers. Since the paper is based on a keynote presentation its focuses on the authors own experiences and work in the main, drawing on the work of others where appropriate Methods Two approaches to the problem of accessing and measuring the kinematics of individual anatomical structures in the foot have been taken, (i static and dynamic cadaver models, and (ii invasive in-vivo research. Cadaver models offer the advantage that there is complete access to all the tissues of the foot, but the cadaver must be manipulated and loaded in a manner which replicates how the foot would have performed when in-vivo. The key value of invasive in-vivo foot kinematics research is the validity of the description of foot kinematics, but the key difficulty is how generalisable this data is to the wider population. Results Through these techniques a great deal has been learnt. We better understand the valuable contribution mid and forefoot joints make to foot biomechanics, and how the ankle and subtalar joints can have almost comparable roles. Variation between people in foot kinematics is high and normal. This includes variation in how specific joints move and how combinations of joints move. The foot continues to demonstrate its flexibility in enabling us to get from A to B via a large number of different kinematic solutions. Conclusion Rather than continue to apply a poorly founded model of foot type whose basis is to make all feet meet criteria for the mechanical 'ideal' or 'normal' foot, we should embrace variation

  14. The influence of a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on walking in poliomyelitis subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Moradi, Alireza; Samadian, Mohammad; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Hutchins, Stephen W; Mardani, Mohammad A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, the anatomical knee joint is locked in extension when walking with a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine differences of the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis compared to a locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis in kinematic data and temporospatial parameters during ambulation. Quasi-experimental design. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n = 7) volunteered for this study and undertook gait analysis with both the powered and the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Three trials per orthosis were collected while each subject walked along a 6-m walkway using a calibrated six-camera three-dimensional video-based motion analysis system. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis resulted in a significant reduction in both walking speed and step length (both 18%), but a significant increase in stance phase percentage compared to walking with the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Cadence was not significantly different between the two test conditions (p = 0.751). There was significantly higher knee flexion during swing phase and increased hip hiking when using the powered orthosis. The new powered orthosis permitted improved knee joint kinematic for knee-ankle-foot orthosis users while providing knee support in stance and active knee motion in swing in the gait cycle. Therefore, the new powered orthosis provided more natural knee flexion during swing for orthosis users compared to the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. This orthosis has the potential to improve knee joint kinematics and gait pattern in poliomyelitis subjects during walking activities. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  15. Heel-toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, John A; Horsch, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    It is important to understand the factors that influence the impact force observed during running, since the impact force is likely to be related to overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact force during running when participants were instructed to use different foot strike patterns: obvious heel strike (Obvious-HS), subtle heel strike (Subtle-HS), midfoot strike (Mid-FS), and fore foot strike (Fore-FS) patterns. Participants ( n  = 10, 25 ± 5.7 years, 70.2 ± 12.1 kg, 174.6 ± 7.2 cm) completed four foot strike patterns while running over ground: Obvious-HS, Subtle-HS, Mid-FS, and Fore-FS. Speed was controlled between conditions (random order). Vertical ground reaction forces were recorded (1000 Hz) along with the impact force, peak force, and stance time for analysis. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare each variable across foot strike instructions, with post hoc comparisons contrasting Obvious-HS to each of the other conditions. Impact force was influenced by foot strike instructions, with Obvious-HS being greater than Subtle-HS and Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The peak force was not influenced by foot strike instructions ( p  > 0.05); stance time was longer during Obvious-HS than during Mid-FS or Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.

  16. COMPARISON OF FOOT TAPING VERSUS CUSTOM-MADE MEDIAL ARCH SUPPORT ON PRONATED FLATFOOT IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vadivelan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flatfoot may exist as an isolated pathology or as part of a larger clinical entity. These entities include generalized ligamentous laxity, neurologic and muscular abnormalities, genetic conditions, collagen disorders and structural disorder. Flat foot is found to be associated with pronated foot. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of foot taping versus custom-made medial arch support on pronated flatfoot in school going children. Methods: 60 students out of 130, aged 10 to 12 years were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria and divided into three groups from two different higher secondary schools at Srikalahasti, in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. Group-A received custom-made medial arch support and foot strengthening exercises, Group-B received kinesio taping and foot strengthening exercises , Group-C received foot strengthening exercises for 4 weeks. The values of navicular drop test were taken after 4 weeks of study. The pre and post-test values were compared and results were tabulated. Results: All three groups showed significant improvement in navicular drop separately. No significant difference was found in the post-test values of group-A, group-B, group-C (p>0.05. However, the reduction of navicular drop was slightly more in group-B subjects treated with kinesio tape and foot strengthening exercises when compared with other two interventions. Conclusion: The study concluded that foot taping, custom-made medial arch support and foot strengthening exercises were found to be effective on pronated flatfoot in school going children aged 10 to 12 years.

  17. Foot strike patterns and hind limb joint angles during running in Hadza hunter-gatherers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Pontzer

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Unlike other habitually barefoot populations which prefer FFS while running, Hadza men preferred MFS, and Hadza women and juveniles preferred RFS. Sex and age differences in foot strike behavior among Hadza adults may reflect differences in running experience, with men learning to prefer MFS as they accumulate more running experience.

  18. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  19. Functionally different pads on the same foot allow control of attachment: stick insects have load-sensitive "heel" pads for friction and shear-sensitive "toe" pads for adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Labonte

    Full Text Available Stick insects (Carausius morosus have two distinct types of attachment pad per leg, tarsal "heel" pads (euplantulae and a pre-tarsal "toe" pad (arolium. Here we show that these two pad types are specialised for fundamentally different functions. When standing upright, stick insects rested on their proximal euplantulae, while arolia were the only pads in surface contact when hanging upside down. Single-pad force measurements showed that the adhesion of euplantulae was extremely small, but friction forces strongly increased with normal load and coefficients of friction were [Formula: see text] 1. The pre-tarsal arolium, in contrast, generated adhesion that strongly increased with pulling forces, allowing adhesion to be activated and deactivated by shear forces, which can be produced actively, or passively as a result of the insects' sprawled posture. The shear-sensitivity of the arolium was present even when corrected for contact area, and was independent of normal preloads covering nearly an order of magnitude. Attachment of both heel and toe pads is thus activated partly by the forces that arise passively in the situations in which they are used by the insects, ensuring safe attachment. Our results suggest that stick insect euplantulae are specialised "friction pads" that produce traction when pressed against the substrate, while arolia are "true" adhesive pads that stick to the substrate when activated by pulling forces.

  20. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  1. A methodological framework for detecting ulcers' risk in diabetic foot subjects by combining gait analysis, a new musculoskeletal foot model and a foot finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Alessandra; Guiotto, Annamaria; Malaquias, Tiago; Spolaor, Fabiola; Sinigaglia, Giacomo; Cobelli, Claudio; Jonkers, Ilse; Sawacha, Zimi

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the most debilitating complications of diabetes and may lead to plantar ulcers. In the last decade, gait analysis, musculoskeletal modelling (MSM) and finite element modelling (FEM) have shown their ability to contribute to diabetic foot prevention and suggested that the origin of the plantar ulcers is in deeper tissue layers rather than on the plantar surface. Hence the aim of the current work is to develop a methodology that improves FEM-derived foot internal stresses prediction, for diabetic foot prevention applications. A 3D foot FEM was combined with MSM derived force to predict the sites of excessive internal stresses on the foot. In vivo gait analysis data, and an MRI scan of a foot from a healthy subject were acquired and used to develop a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) foot MSM and a 3D subject-specific foot FEM. Ankle kinematics were applied as boundary conditions to the FEM together with: 1. only Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs); 2. OpenSim derived extrinsic muscles forces estimated with a standard OpenSim MSM; 3. extrinsic muscle forces derived through the (6 DOF) foot MSM; 4. intrinsic and extrinsic muscles forces derived through the 6 DOF foot MSM. For model validation purposes, simulated peak pressures were extracted and compared with those measured experimentally. The importance of foot muscles in controlling plantar pressure distribution and internal stresses is confirmed by the improved accuracy in the estimation of the peak pressures obtained with the inclusion of intrinsic and extrinsic muscle forces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Research Paper: Effect of Custom-Molded Insole With New Technique on Pain and Function in Females With Flexible Flat Foot: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Bahramian

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion According to our findings, there was a significant difference in pain and function in patients with a flat foot through medial heel skive technique. Therefore, it seems that the insoles can be an effective prescription for subjects with a flat foot.

  3. Compressed air massage hastens healing of the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, M; Desai, Y; Gregory, M A

    2008-02-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers remains a problem. A treatment modality that uses compressed air massage has been developed as a supplement to standard surgical and medical treatment. Compressed air massage is thought to improve local tissue oxygenation around ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of compressed air massage influences the rate of healing of diabetic ulcers. Sixty consecutive patients with diabetes, admitted to one hospital for urgent surgical management of diabetic foot ulcers, were randomized into two groups. Both groups received standard medical and surgical management of their diabetes and ulcer. In addition, one group received 15-20 min of compressed air massage, at 1 bar pressure, daily, for 5 days a week, to the foot and the tissue around the ulcer. Healing time was calculated as the time from admission to the time of re-epithelialization. Fifty-seven patients completed the trial; 28 received compressed air massage. There was no difference in the mean age, Wagner score, ulcer size, pulse status, or peripheral sensation in the two groups. The time to healing in the compressed air massage group was significantly reduced: 58.1 +/- 22.3 days (95% confidence interval: 49.5-66.6) versus 82.7 +/- 30.7 days (95% confidence interval: 70.0-94.3) (P = 0.001). No adverse effects in response to compressed air massage were noted. The addition of compressed air massage to standard medical and surgical management of diabetic ulcers appears to enhance ulcer healing. Further studies with this new treatment modality are warranted.

  4. Relationship between running speed and initial foot contact patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed initial foot contact patterns (IFCP) in a large group of distance runners and the effect of speed on the IFCP. We determined the strike index to classify the runners in IFCP groups, at four speeds (3.2, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.2 m·s), by measuring center of pressure (COP) with a 2-m plantar pressure plate. Such a system allows a direct localization of the COP on the plantar footprint and has a low threshold value (2.7 N·cm), resulting in more accurate COP data at low ground reaction forces than when obtained from force plate. The IFCP distribution evolves from mostly initial rearfoot contact (IRFC) (82%) at 3.2 m·s to more anterior foot contacts with an approximately equal distribution of IRFC (46%) and initial midfoot or forefoot contact (54%) at 6.2 m·s. Approximately 44% of the IRFC runners showed atypical COP patterns with a fast anterior displacement of the COP along the lateral shoe margin. Apart from the different COP patterns, these atypical IRFC were also characterized by a significantly higher instantaneous vertical loading rate than the typical IRFC patterns. The IFCP distribution changes were due to intraindividual alterations in IFCP at higher speeds. That is, 45% of the runners made one or even two "transitions" toward a more anterior IFCP (and 3% shows some other type of transition between initial foot contact styles as speed increases). However, 52% of the runners remained with the same IFCP.

  5. Control of a Supernumerary Robotic Hand by Foot: An Experimental Study in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Elahe; Burdet, Etienne; Bouri, Mohamed; Bleuler, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    In the operational theater, the surgical team could highly benefit from a robotic supplementary hand under the surgeon's full control. The surgeon may so become more autonomous; this may reduce communication errors with the assistants and take over difficult tasks such as holding tools without tremor. In this paper, we therefore examine the possibility to control a third robotic hand with one foot's movements. Three experiments in virtual reality were designed to assess the feasibility of this control strategy, the learning curve of the subjects in different tasks and the coordination of foot movements with the two natural hands. Results show that the limbs are moved simultaneously, in parallel rather than serially. Participants' performance improved within a few minutes of practice without any specific difficulty to complete the tasks. Subjective assessment by the subjects indicated that controlling a third hand by foot has been easy and required only negligible physical and mental efforts. The sense of ownership was reported to improve through the experiments. The mental burden was not directly related to the level of motion required by a task, but depended on the type of activity and practice. The most difficult task was moving two hands and foot in opposite directions. These results suggest that a combination of practice and appropriate tasks can enhance the learning process for controlling a robotic hand by foot.

  6. Efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing diabetic foot osteomyelitis in the presence of ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Miki; Armstrong, David G; Armsrong, David G; Terashi, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been recognized as the most accurate imaging modality for the detection of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. However, how accurately MRI displays the extent of diabetic foot osteomyelitis in the presence of ischemia is still unclear. We retrospectively compared the preoperative MRI findings with the results of histopathologic examinations of resected bones and studied the efficacy of MRI in the diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis of different etiologies. A total 104 bones from 18 foot ulcers in 16 diabetic patients (10 men and 6 women; age range 42 to 84 years) treated by surgical intervention from 2008 to 2012 was examined. In 8 neuropathic ulcers, 29 bones were accurately diagnosed in detail using MRI, even those with severe soft tissue infection. Of 75 bones in 10 ischemic ulcers, only 7 bones evaluated by MRI after revascularization were diagnosed accurately; the other 68 could not be diagnosed because of unclear or equivocal MRI findings. On histopathologic examination, all the bones were found to be infected through the bone cortex by the surrounding infected soft tissue, not directly by articulation. Overall, preoperative MRI is effective in the diagnosis of neuropathic ulcers, but less so of ischemic ones. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between foot strike pattern, running speed, and footwear condition in recreational distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; Wong, Rodney Y L; Chung, Tim K W; Choi, R T; Leung, Wendy W Y; Shek, Diana H Y

    2017-06-01

    Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89.6% of them landed with rearfoot strike (RFS). Only 6.9 and 3.5% landed with midfoot and forefoot, respectively. A significant shift towards non-RFS was observed in our cohort, when compared with previously reported data. When speed increased by 1 m/s, the odds of having forefoot strike and midfoot strike relative to RFS increased by 2.3 times and 2.6 times, respectively. Runners were 9.2 times more likely to run with a forefoot strike in minimalists compared to regular running shoes, although 70% of runners in minimalists continued to use a RFS. These findings suggest that foot strike pattern may differ across running conditions and runners should consider these factors in order to mitigate potential injury.

  8. Control of a Supernumerary Robotic Hand by Foot: An Experimental Study in Virtual Reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Abdi

    Full Text Available In the operational theater, the surgical team could highly benefit from a robotic supplementary hand under the surgeon's full control. The surgeon may so become more autonomous; this may reduce communication errors with the assistants and take over difficult tasks such as holding tools without tremor. In this paper, we therefore examine the possibility to control a third robotic hand with one foot's movements. Three experiments in virtual reality were designed to assess the feasibility of this control strategy, the learning curve of the subjects in different tasks and the coordination of foot movements with the two natural hands. Results show that the limbs are moved simultaneously, in parallel rather than serially. Participants' performance improved within a few minutes of practice without any specific difficulty to complete the tasks. Subjective assessment by the subjects indicated that controlling a third hand by foot has been easy and required only negligible physical and mental efforts. The sense of ownership was reported to improve through the experiments. The mental burden was not directly related to the level of motion required by a task, but depended on the type of activity and practice. The most difficult task was moving two hands and foot in opposite directions. These results suggest that a combination of practice and appropriate tasks can enhance the learning process for controlling a robotic hand by foot.

  9. Flowtron foot-pumps for prevention of venous thromboembolism in total hip and knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto, Rocco P; Koh, Chuan K

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical prophylaxis with foot-pumps provides an interesting alternative to chemical agents in the prevention of venous thomboembolism following major orthopaedic surgery procedures. The aim of this prospective study was to assess efficacy and safety of the Flowtron(®) foot-pumps system following total hip and knee replacement. The foot pumps were used as main tool for prevention of thromboembolic events, in most cases in association with a variety of chemicals. The primary endpoint of the study was to assess the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after total hip and knee replacement. The secondary endpoints included postoperative bleeding, swelling, bruising and wound ooze. 424 consecutive patients were included in the study. Symptomatic deep vein thrombosis was detected in 7 patients (1.6%). All symptomatic deep vein thromboses were detected after discharge before the six week follow-up clinic. Five non-fatal pulmonary embolisms occurred (1.2%). Only one patient presented a major wound bleeding (0.2%). The mean difference of swelling of thigh pre-versus postoperatively was only 22.8 mm. In conclusion, thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip and knee replacement using Flowtron(®) foot-pumps as main prevention tool of an individualised protocol appears effective and safe. This is the first clinical report related to this popular brand of foot pumps.

  10. COMPARING 3D FOOT SHAPE MODELS BETWEEN TAIWANESE AND JAPANESE FEMALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Kouchi, Makiko; Mochimaru, Masaaki; Wang, Mao-Jiun

    2015-06-01

    This study compares foot shape and foot dimensions between Taiwanese and Japanese females. One hundred Taiwanese and 100 Japanese female 3D foot scanning data were used for comparison. To avoid the allometry effect, data from 23 Taiwanese and 19 Japanese with foot length between 233 to 237 mm were used for shape comparison. Homologous models created for the right feet of the 42 subjects were analyzed by Multidimensional Scaling. The results showed that there were significant differences in the forefoot shape between the two groups, and Taiwanese females had slightly wider feet with straighter big toe than Japanese females. The results of body and foot dimension comparison indicated that Taiwanese females were taller, heavier and had larger feet than Japanese females, while Japanese females had significantly larger toe 1 angle. Since some Taiwanese shoemakers adopt the Japanese shoe sizing system for making shoes, appropriateness of the shoe sizing system was also discussed. The present results provide very useful information for improving shoe last design and footwear fit for Taiwanese females.

  11. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait. Key pointsFootstrike pattern changes should be individually considered and implemented based on individual histories/abilitiesForefoot strike patterns increase external dorsiflexion momentsRearfoot strike patterns increase external knee flexion momentsRecreational shod runners are able to mimic habitual mechanics of different foot strike patterns.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF A FOOT ORTHOTIC ON LOWER EXTREMITY TRANSVERSE PLANE KINEMATICS IN COLLEGIATE FEMALE ATHLETES WITH PES PLANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Carcia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries in female athletes remain prevalent. Athletes with excessive foot pronation have been identified to be at greater risk for non-contact ACL injury. Excessive foot pronation has been linked to increased medial tibial rotation. Increased medial tibial rotation heightens ACL strain and has been observed at or near the time of ACL injury. Foot orthotics have been shown to decrease medial tibial rotation during walking and running tasks. The effect of a foot orthotic on activities that simulate a non-contact ACL injury mechanism (i.e. landing however is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether a foot orthotic was capable of altering transverse plane lower extremity kinematics in female athletes during landing. Twenty uninjured collegiate female athletes participating in the sports of basketball, soccer or volleyball with pes planus volunteered. Utilizing a repeated measures counterbalanced design, subjects completed two landing tasks with and without a foot orthotic using standardized footwear. The prefabricated orthotic had a rigid shell and a 6 extrinsic rear-foot varus post. Dependent measures included initial contact angle, peak angle, excursion and time to peak angle for both the tibia and femur. Statistical analysis suggested that the selected foot orthosis had little influence over lower extremity transverse plane kinematics. Several factors including: the limitation of a static measure to predict dynamic movement, inter-subject variability and the physical characteristics of the orthotic device likely account for the results. Future research should examine the influence of different types of foot orthotics not only on lower extremity kinematics but also tibiofemoral kinetics

  13. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  14. The VSPA Foot: A Quasi-Passive Ankle-Foot Prosthesis With Continuously Variable Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Max K; Rouse, Elliott J

    2017-12-01

    Most commercially available prosthetic feet do not exhibit a biomimetic torque-angle relationship, and are unable to modulate their mechanics to assist with other mobility tasks, such as stairs and ramps. In this paper, we present a quasi-passive ankle-foot prosthesis with a customizable torque-angle curve and an ability to quickly modulate ankle stiffness between tasks. The customizable torque-angle curve is obtained with a cam-based transmission and a fiberglass leaf spring. To achieve variable stiffness, the leaf spring's support conditions can be actively modulated by a small motor, shifting the torque-angle curve to be more or less stiff. We introduce the design, characterize the available torque-angle curves, and present kinematics from a transtibial amputee subject performing level-ground walking, stair ascent/descent, and ramp ascent/descent. The subject exhibited a more normative range of motion on stairs and ramps at lower stiffness levels, and preferred different stiffness levels for each task. Paired with an appropriate intent recognition system, our novel ankle prosthesis could improve gait biomechanics during walking and many other mobility tasks.

  15. Cost of diabetic foot in France, Spain, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchero, Huidi; Kangambega, Pauline; Lin, Lucien; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Brunet-Houdard, Solenne; Briatte, Christine; Retali, Gerald Reparate; Rusch, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Cost estimates for diabetic foot are available for developed countries based on cost data for different years. This study aimed to provide a comparison of the cost of diabetic foot in E5 (France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom) and its characteristics across different conditions. PubMed, Central and Embase databases were searched in February 2017 for English language publications. Bibliographies of relevant papers were also searched manually. Reviews and research papers from E5 regions reporting on cost of diabetic foot were included. Reported cost was converted to equivalent 2016 $ for comparison purposes. All the costs presented are mean cost per patient per year in 2016 $. Nine studies were included in the analysis. The total cost of amputation ranged from $ 15,046 in 2001 to $ 38,621 in 2005. The direct cost of amputation ranged from $ 13,842 in 2001 to $ 83,728 during 2005-2009. Indirect cost of amputation was more uniform, ranging from between $ 1,043 to $ 1,442. The direct cost of gangrene ranged from $ 3,352 in 2003 to $ 8,818 in Germany. Although, for the same year, 2003, the cost for Spain was almost double that for Germany. The total cost of an uninfected ulcer was $ 6,174 in 2002, but increased to $ 14,441 in 2005; for an infected ulcer the cost increased from $ 2,637 to $ 2,957. The different countries showed variations in the components used to calculate the cost of diabetic foot. The E5 incurs a heavy cost from diabetic foot and its complications. There is an unmet need for the identification of cost-cutting strategies, as diabetic foot costs more than major cardiac diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2014-01-23

    The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days. The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case). The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments.

  17. Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem

    2014-01-23

    Background The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Methods Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days. Results The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case). Conclusion The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments.

  18. Resource utilisation and costs associated with the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Prospective data from the Eurodiale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompers, L.; Huijberts, M.; Schaper, N.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of the present study was to investigate resource utilisation and associated costs in patients with diabetic foot ulcers and to analyse differences in resource utilisation between individuals with or without peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and/or infection. Methods Data....... In view of the magnitude of the costs associated with in-hospital stay, reducing the number and duration of hospital admissions seems an attractive option to decrease costs in diabetic foot disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  19. An observational study of foot lifts asymmetry during obstacle avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjawal Singh Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific information regarding obstacle-clearance strategies used by community-dwelling young and elderly is scant in the literature, and physical barriers encountered in real-life situations have not been used in most of the studies. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine foot lift asymmetry during obstacle avoidance in young and elderly subjects. Settings and Design: This was an observational study. Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly and 30 young individuals were taken for the study. All the subjects were evaluated using different scales and foot lift asymmetry was measured on a walkway using three obstacles of different heights. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD value of the asymmetric index of the young was 3.25±0.28 and the mean and SD value of the asymmetric index of the elderly was 3.53±0.47. The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population. Conclusion: The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population, though it is not clinically significant.

  20. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welck, M J; Hayes, T; Pastides, P; Khan, W; Rudge, B

    2017-08-01

    Stress fractures occur as a result of microscopic injuries sustained when bone is subjected to repeated submaximal stresses. Overtime, with repeated cycles of loading, accumulation of such injuries can lead to macro-structural failure and frank fracture. There are numerous stress fractures about the foot and ankle of which a trauma and orthopaedic surgeon should be aware. These include: metatarsal, tibia, calcaneus, navicular, fibula, talus, medial malleolus, sesamoid, cuneiform and cuboid. Awareness of these fractures is important as the diagnosis is frequently missed and appropriate treatment delayed. Late identification can be associated with protracted pain and disability, and may predispose to non-union and therefore necessitate operative intervention. This article outlines the epidemiology and risk factors, aetiology, presentation and management of the range of stress fractures in the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recurrent Admissions for Diabetic Foot Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang CL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Patients who undergo recurrent admissions for the same diabetic foot problems represent a difficult subgroup to treat. From July 2007 to June 2008, there were 38 such patients who were admitted recurrently. Eighteen patients (47% were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgical treatment. Eighteen patients (47% received treatment as necessary but were still readmitted for recurrent infection at the same wound site. Assessment of patients’ compliance to outpatient treatment was found to be generally lacking. As a significant proportion were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgery, a trained counselor may be suitable in counselling patients for debridement or amputation surgery.

  2. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Multi-Functional Foot in Athletic Movement: Extraordinary Feats by Our Extraordinary Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The unique architecture of the foot system provides a sensitive, multi-tensional method of communicating with the surrounding environment. Within the premise of the paper, we discuss three themes: complexity, degeneracy and bio-tensegrity. Complex structures within the foot allow the human movement system to negotiate strategies for dynamic movement during athletic endeavours. We discuss such complex structures with particular attention to properties of a bio-tensegrity system. Degeneracy within the foot structure offers a distinctive solution to the problems posed by differing terrains and uneven surfaces allowing lower extremity structures to overcome perturbation as and when it occurs. This extraordinary structure offers a significant contribution to bipedalism through presenting a robust base of support and as such, should be given more consideration when designing athletic development programmes.

  4. Seismic bearing capacity of strip footings on rock masses using the Hoek–Brown failure criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Keshavarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bearing capacity of strip footings on rock masses has been studied in the seismic case. The stress characteristics or slip line method was used for analysis. The problem was analyzed in the plane strain condition using the Hoek–Brown failure criterion. First, the equilibrium equations along the stress characteristics were obtained and the rock failure criterion was applied. Then, the equations were solved using the finite difference method. A computer code has been provided for analysis. Given the footing and rock parameters, the code can calculate the stress characteristics network and obtain the stress distribution under the footing. The seismic effects have been applied as the horizontal and vertical pseudo-static coefficients. The results of this paper are very close to those of the other studies. The seismic bearing capacity of weightless rock masses can be obtained using the proposed equations and graphs without calculating the whole stress characteristics network.

  5. Temporal changes and risk factors for foot-pad dermatitis in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr; Jensen, Henrik Bang; Ambrosen, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    Foot-pad dermatitis is a major welfare concern of broilers caused by ammonia irritation from the bedding material. In Denmark, an action plan to control the condition was implemented in 2002 with monitoring through a foot scoring system at slaughter and with predefined limits that trigger sanctions....... The database had a record for each flock and variables containing information on both flock foot-pad scores and a range of management factors. We observed a dramatic decline in flock lesion scores between the years 2002 and 2005 followed by a minimal decline hereafter. Mean flock lesion scores differed between...... abattoirs, and subsequent analysis was performed in a mixed effect model where abattoir was considered a random effect. The analysis showed that flock lesion scores increased when the litter quality was evaluated as poor during the on-site antemortem evaluation. Other significant risk factors were winter...

  6. The management of diabetic foot ulcers in Danish hospitals is not optimal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Jansen, Rasmus Bo

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The diabetic foot is a complicated health issue which ideally involves several different specialists to ensure the most effective treatment. The Danish Health and Medicines Authority recently published a national guideline to address the implementation of multidisciplinary teams......) were mostly orthopaedic surgeons. A classification system of the diabetic foot was rarely or never used, and eight respondents (42%) reported having a multidisciplinary team in accordance with the national guidelines. 73% of the respondents performed some form of surgical intervention on diabetic feet......, mainly minor procedures. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that several areas of treatment practices relating to the diabetic foot had potential for improvement as they did not adhere to national Danish guidelines. A follow-up survey, allowing time for local implementation, seems warranted....

  7. Keel-bone damage and foot injuries in commercial laying hens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2016-01-01

    . There was no difference between barn and organic production systems in the risk of having keel-bone fractures and foot injuries, except that barn hens were more likely to have foot-pad lesions than organic hens(32 weeks: 16.1 vs 3.1%). Hens in multi-tiered systems were more likely to have keel-bone fractures compared...... to hens in single-tiered systems (62 weeks: 11.6 vs 4.9 %). Of the four hybrids, Lohmann Brown Lite had a higher risk of keel-bone fractures, whereas bumble feet were found more frequently in Lohmann LSL. Keel-bone damage and foot injuries are less common in Danish non-cage systems compared to most...

  8. Management of foot and ankle injuries in pediatric and adolescent athletes: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill LE

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Laura E Gill,1,2 Kevin E Klingele,1,2 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: In this review, we focus on the treatment of injuries to the foot and ankle in the adolescent athlete. While many injuries in the adolescent foot and ankle are similar to or overlap with their counterparts in the adult population, the anatomy of the adolescent ankle, especially the presence of growth plates, results in different injury patterns in many cases and calls for specific management approaches. We discuss the unique anatomy of the pediatric patient as well as the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of common injuries in the young athlete. Keywords: foot, ankle, lower extremity, pediatric athlete, growth plate, Lisfranc injury 

  9. Which prosthetic foot to prescribe?

    OpenAIRE

    De Asha, AR; Barnett, CT; Struchkov, V; Buckley, JG

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: \\ud Clinicians typically use findings from cohort studies to objectively inform judgements regarding the potential (dis)advantages of prescribing a new prosthetic device. However, before finalising prescription a clinician will typically ask a patient to 'try out' a change of prosthetic device while the patient is at the clinic. Observed differences in gait when using the new device should be the result of the device’s mechanical function, but could also conceivably be due to pa...

  10. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-01-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described

  11. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  12. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-07-11

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.

  13. Conservative management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Soliman, M; Egun, A; Rajbhandari, S M

    2013-09-01

    In this retrospective study, 130 patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis were analysed. 66.9% of these healed with antibiotic treatment alone and 13.9% needed amputation, of which 1.5% were major. Presence of MRSA was associated with adverse outcome (53.3% vs 21.1%, p=0.04) which was defined as death, amputation and failure to heal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  15. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required

  16. Chamber transport of ''foot'' pulses for heavy-ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.

    2002-02-20

    Indirect-drive targets for heavy-ion fusion must initially be heated by ''foot'' pulses that precede the main heating pulses by tens of nanoseconds. These pulses typically have a lower energy and perveance than the main pulses, and the fusion-chamber environment is different from that seen by later pulses. The preliminary particle-in-cell simulations of foot pulses here examine the sensitivity of the beam focusing to ion-beam perveance, background-gas density, and pre-neutralization by a plasma near the chamber entry port.

  17. Optical measurements of microvascular circulatory function in the foot for detection of peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, G.; Chekh, V.; Burge, M.; Barriga, E. S.; Luan, S.; Heintz, P.; Edwards, A.; McGrew, E.; Soliz, P.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to quantify functional signals in the microvascular circulation of the plantar. Our device is based on thermal and spectral technologies that can be easily adopted in clinical and tele-screening settings. Eightytwo thousand amputations are performed annually on diabetics in the US. The cost of foot disorder diagnosis and management are estimated at $10.9 billion dollars annually. Our experiments on normal controls and diabetics assess the temperature recovery time characteristics due to cold provocation to the bottom of the foot (plantar). A difference in the nature of the recovery time between normal controls and diabetics was observed.

  18. Characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains circulating in Turkey during 1996-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlak, Ü.; Özyörük, F.; Knowles, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Two genotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A were identified as the cause of disease outbreaks in Turkey during 1996-2004, while serotype O strains, identified during the same period, seem to represent an evolutionary continuum, and Asia1 strains were only rarely identified. The data...... genotypes. It is suggested that further studies to reveal the nature of the difference in epidemiological dynamics of type A and type O strains might lead to an understanding of the measures required to control foot-and-mouth disease in islands of persistent circulation....

  19. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  20. Diabetic foot infection treatment and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria G; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-04-01

    Foot infections in diabetic patients are a common, complex and costly problem. They are potentially adverse with progression to deeper spaces and tissues and are associated with severe complications. The management of diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires a prompt and systematic approach to achieve more successful outcomes and to ultimately avoid amputations. This study reviews a multi-step treatment for DFIs. Between September 2010 and September 2012, a total of about 37 patients were consulted for DFI. The treatment algorithm included four steps, that is, several types of debridement according to the type of wound, the application of negative pressure therapy (NPT), other advanced dressings, a targeted antibiotic therapy local or systemic as the case may, and, if necessary, reconstructive surgery. This treatment protocol showed excellent outcomes, allowing us to avoid amputation in most difficult cases. Only about 8% of patients require amputation. This treatment protocol and a multidisciplinary approach with a specialised team produced excellent results in the treatment of DFI and in the management of diabetic foot in general, allowing us to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and also to ensure cost savings. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A large extraskeletal osteochondroma of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estil, Jose Carlos C; Yeo, Eui-Dong; Kim, Hak Jun; Cho, Won Tae; Lee, Jeong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondromas are very common benign tumors composed of cartilage and bone. They are usually found at the end of the growth plate of long bones, most often at the area of the joints, and are contiguous with the medullary cavity. Extraskeletal osteochondromas, the same as their namesake, are composed of cartilage and bone. However, unlike typical osteochondromas, extraskeletal osteochondromas are not contiguous with bone, as their name implies. They usually arise from the synovial tissue and tendon sheaths. Although rare, extraskeletal osteochondromas have been reported to occur within the knee and around the hip; however, they are more commonly reported to occur in the hands and feet. When found in the hands or feet, these new growths are often very small and only occasionally symptomatic. We present the case of a 49-year-old female who had a slow-growing mass of 4 years' duration, located on the plantar aspect of her left foot. The mass was slowly becoming more palpable as it increased in size and was progressively causing pain and discomfort during ambulation. Imaging studies revealed an ossified mass bearing no connection to any other structure on the plantar aspect of her foot. An excision biopsy was performed, and the easily dissectible mass, although much larger than its usual presentation, proved to be an extraskeletal osteochondroma. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.

  3. Effects of prosthetic foot forefoot flexibility on oxygen cost and subjective preference rankings of unilateral transtibial prosthesis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klodd, Elizabeth; Hansen, Andrew; Fatone, Stefania; Edwards, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The investigators conducted a double-blind randomized crossover study to determine the effects of prosthetic foot forefoot flexibility on oxygen cost and subjective preference rankings of 13 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. Five experimental feet were fabricated for use in the study: F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5. F1 was most flexible, F5 was least flexible, and F3 was designed to conform to a biomimetic ankle-foot roll-over shape. The experimental feet were modeled after the Shape&Roll prosthetic foot (originally produced by Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; now in public domain) but had different numbers of saw cuts within the forefoot members, allowing more or less flexibility during walking. Participants walked at the same comfortable, freely selected speed on the treadmill for 7 min with each foot while energy expenditure was measured. No significant difference was found in oxygen cost (mL O(2)/kg/m) between the different feet (p = 0.17), and the order of use was also not significant (p = 0.94). However, the preference ranking was significantly affected by the flexibility of the feet (p = 0.002), with the most flexible foot (F1) ranking significantly poorer than feet F3 (p = 0.003) and F4 (p = 0.004). Users may prefer prosthetic feet that match the flexibility of an intact ankle-foot system, even though we did not detect an energetic benefit at freely selected speeds.

  4. Plantar pressures are higher in cases with diabetic foot ulcers compared to controls despite a longer stance phase duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu E; Crowther, Robert G; Lazzarini, Peter A; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Wearing, Scott; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-09-15

    Current international guidelines advocate achieving at least a 30 % reduction in maximum plantar pressure to reduce the risk of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. However, whether plantar pressures differ in cases with foot ulcers to controls without ulcers is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess if plantar pressures were higher in patients with active plantar diabetic foot ulcers (cases) compared to patients with diabetes without a foot ulcer history (diabetes controls) and people without diabetes or a foot ulcer history (healthy controls). Twenty-one cases with diabetic foot ulcers, 69 diabetes controls and 56 healthy controls were recruited for this case-control study. Plantar pressures at ten sites on both feet and stance phase duration were measured using a pre-established protocol. Primary outcomes were mean peak plantar pressure, pressure-time integral and stance phase duration. Non-parametric analyses were used with Holm's correction to correct for multiple testing. Binary logistic regression models were used to adjust outcomes for age, sex and body mass index. Median differences with 95 % confidence intervals and Cohen's d values (standardised mean difference) were reported for all significant outcomes. The majority of ulcers were located on the plantar surface of the hallux and toes. When adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, the mean peak plantar pressure and pressure-time integral of toes and the mid-foot were significantly higher in cases compared to diabetes and healthy controls (p diabetic foot ulcers despite having a longer stance phase duration which would be expected to lower plantar pressure. Whether plantar pressure changes can predict ulcer healing should be the focus of future research. These results highlight the importance of offloading feet during active ulceration in addition to before ulceration.

  5. Anatomical masking of pressure footprints based on the Oxford Foot Model: validation and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudia; Stebbins, Julie A

    2017-03-01

    Plantar pressure analysis is widely used in the assessment of foot function. In order to assess regional loading, a mask is applied to the footprint to sub-divide it into regions of interest (ROIs). The most common masking method is based on geometric features of the footprint (GM). Footprint masking based on anatomical landmarks of the foot has been implemented more recently, and involves the integration of a 3D motion capture system, plantar pressure measurement device, and a multi-segment foot model. However, thorough validation of anatomical masking (AM) using pathological footprints has not yet been presented. In the present study, an AM method based on the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) was compared to an equivalent GM. Pressure footprints from 20 young healthy subjects (HG) and 20 patients with clubfoot (CF) were anatomically divided into 5 ROIs using a subset of the OFM markers. The same foot regions were also identified by using a standard GM method. Comparisons of intra-subject coefficient of variation (CV) showed that the OFM-based AM was at least as reliable as the GM for all investigated pressure parameters in all foot regions. Clinical relevance of AM was investigated by comparing footprints from HG and CF groups. Contact time, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area proved to be sensitive parameters that were able to distinguish HG and CF groups, using both AM and GM methods However, the AM method revealed statistically significant differences between groups in 75% of measured variables, compared to 62% using a standard GM method, indicating that the AM method is more sensitive for revealing differences between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the influence of jogging on the shape of female foot arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslon, Agata; Golec, Joanna; Szczygiel, Elzbieta; Czechowska, Dorota; Golec, Boguslaw

    2017-12-23

    Both walking and its faster, running, consist of cyclical subsequent phases of swing and support; however, they differ in their time proportions as well as magnitude of acting forces. There is a lack of studies concerning the long-term consequences of repeated jogging cycles on the function of feet and, above all, on their permanent impact on the shape of foot arches. The objective of this study was to answer the question whether regular jogging changes the shape of the transverse and medial longitudinal arches of the feet. The research material consisted of 96 women with an average age of 26.57, and included 50 actively jogging women, and 46 of non-joggers. The study was performed with the use of EMED-SF force platform. The plantar surface of the foot was divided into 10 regions according to Cavanagh, for which peak pressure and contact time were established. Two indicators were defined: metatarsal bone pressure distribution pattern acc. to Kantali, and longitudinal arch index acc. to Cavanagh. The data obtained revealed more frequent occurrence of the greatest pressure under the centrally located metatarsal heads (lack of functional foot transverse arch) among the female joggers, compared with the non-joggers. Moreover, the findings indicate the higher frequency of medial longitudinal foot arch flattening among female runners, with a great deal of consistency between both feet, whereas results for the control group show asymmetrical medial arch shapes with right foot propensity to normal arch shape and left foot tendency for excessive arch. The observed differences in feet arch shapes between female joggers and non-joggers indicate the influence of jogging on feet functional adaptations.

  7. Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nix Sheree E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus (HV is a very common deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that often requires surgical correction. However, the association between structural HV deformity and related foot pain and disability is unclear. Furthermore, no previous studies have investigated concerns about appearance and difficulty with footwear in a population with HV not seeking surgical correction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate foot pain, functional limitation, concern about appearance and difficulty with footwear in otherwise healthy adults with HV compared to controls. Methods Thirty volunteers with HV (radiographic HV angle >15 degrees and 30 matched controls were recruited for this study (50 women, 10 men; mean age 44.4 years, range 20 to 76 years. Differences between groups were examined for self-reported foot pain and disability, satisfaction with appearance, footwear difficulty, and pressure-pain threshold at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Functional measures included balance tests, walking performance, and hallux muscle strength (abduction and plantarflexion. Mean differences (MD and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results All self-report measures showed that HV was associated with higher levels of foot pain and disability and significant concerns about appearance and footwear (p Conclusions These findings show that HV negatively impacts on self-reported foot pain and function, and concerns about foot appearance and footwear in otherwise healthy adults. There was also evidence of impaired hallux muscle strength and increased postural sway in HV subjects compared to controls, although general physical functioning and participation in physical activity were not adversely affected.

  8. Number of flocks on the same litter and carcase condemnations due to cellulitis, arthritis and contact foot-pad dermatitis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, D B; Broom, D M; McManus, C M P; Torres, C; Bernal, F E M

    2010-10-01

    1. This study was conducted to verify the impact of different kinds of material and the number of times of litter reuse on the incidence of chicken pathologies. Approximately 4·5 million broilers from conventional Brazilian farms were evaluated in the abattoir for cellulitis, arthritis and contact foot-pad dermatitis. 2. Four different kinds of litter material, Brachiaria grass, corncob, sawdust and rice shell, were used. Brachiaria grass litter showed the highest incidence of contact foot-pad dermatitis. Corncob litter also showed some negative effects on foot quality. Broilers raised on rice shell litter showed good results in terms of the incidence of contact foot-pad dermatitis. The best results were obtained with sawdust litter, because the incidence of cellulitis and arthritis were the lowest and the incidence of contact foot-pad dermatitis was also very low.

  9. The ambidextrous potential in soccer, and the trainability of the non-preferred foot of young elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koertz, Rune; Andersen, T. Bull

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: Participants were 23 male elite soccer players, 13-16 years of age. They trained 6 times a week. The participants, who were randomly divided into a training group (N.=12) and a control group (N.=11), completed a pre and post test, which for each player consisted of 16 shots with their non......AIM: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if players and coaches should focus more on the non-preferred foot. The hypothesis of this study is that a small amount of training focusing on the non-preferred foot will improve the performance of the non-preferred foot for young elite players......-preferred foot towards a goal corner in a soccer goal. Velocity and accuracy were measured. The training intervention for the training group consisted of 7-13 training sessions. RESULTS: The result showed only few statistic significant differences (P

  10. The prevalence of diabetic foot disease in the Waikato region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, C; McClintock, J; Lawrenson, R

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of diabetic foot disease by utilising the retinal eye screening register in the Waikato region of New Zealand. Understanding both the prevalence and the degree of foot disease across the general diabetes population will help to determine what podiatry services are required for people with diabetes. 2192 people aged 15years and over, who attended the Waikato Regional Diabetes Service mobile retinal photo screening service for the six-month period between May and November 2014, consented to a foot screen including testing for sensation and pedal pulses. A digital image was taken of the dorsal and plantar aspect of each foot for review by a registered Podiatrist. Thirteen percent of the study sample was identified as having a high-risk foot including active foot complications. 65% were categorised as low risk and a further 22% at moderate risk of diabetic foot disease. Factors identified as significant included age, type of diabetes, duration of diabetes, and smoking. These factors placed people at greater risk of diabetic foot disease. A significant number of people with diabetes are at risk of diabetic foot disease. This study has highlighted the need for targeted podiatry services to address diabetic foot disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Wound bed preparation for ischemic diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxin; Lv, Lei; Guan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the effect of allograft skin on wound angiogenesis and wound bed preparation of ischemic diabetic foot ulcer. A total of 60 cases of patients with diabetic foot ulcer were randomly divided into the experimental group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 30). After debridement, in the experimental group, allograft skin was used to cover the wound while in the control group, vaseline and gauze was used to cover the wound. The wound was opened and dressed at 3, 5, 7, 14 days after operation and the growth condition of the granulation tissue was observed and recorded. The wound bed preparation time of the experimental group was 14.37 ± 1.06 days, compared with the control group 25.99 ± 4.03 days, there was statistically significant difference (t = 14.78, P cure time of the experimental group was 32 ± 1.93 days and this time was significantly shortened than the control group 39.73 ± 2.55 days (t = 12.521, P ulcer and shorten the wound bed preparation time and treatment cycle.

  12. Quality of life of people with diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martins Lima Neto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: evaluate the quality of life of people with diabetic foot and its association with age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted with people with diabetic foot seen in the vascular clinic of a municipal hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, lifestyle and evaluation of quality of life SF-36 questionnaires were used. Results: sample was consisted of 48 people. The majority was elderly (58.4%, female (56.3%, non-smoker (93.7%, non-alcoholic (83.4%, with recurrence of ulcers (50.0%, with present secretion (54.2% and absent fetid odor (81.3%. Regarding quality of life, the best result was in the domain vitality and the worse, in the domain physical aspects. All domains, except the vitality, had a score below 50 in the measurement of quality of life. There was no significant difference in the comparison of quality of life between age groups and gender. Conclusion: participants presented domains of quality of life that tend to a poorer health status.

  13. Efficacy of foot orthoses for the treatment of plantar heel pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasenberg, Nadine; Riel, Henrik; Rathleff, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plantar heel pain (PHP) is common. Foot orthoses are often applied as treatment for PHP, even though there is little evidence to support this. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different orthoses on pain, function and self-reported recovery in patients with PHP and compare them...

  14. Bearing Capacity of Footings on Thin Layer of Sand on Soft Cohesive Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, J.; Sørensen, Carsten S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper contains the results of some numerical calculations performed with the aim to determine the bearing capacities of footings placed on a thin layer of sand underlain by soft cohesive soil. During the last 30-35 years different analytical and empirical calculation methods for this situation...... prepared model tests made in laboratories....

  15. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  16. [Experience with the Hind Foot Relaxation Boot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, Hans; Borrmann, Michael; Walter, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to report our experience with hindfoot fractures using our specially developed boot, with a follow-up of 557 cases. This boot works like the well-known Allgöwer-Röck ortheses (ARO), but is a hybrid between a boot and an orthesis. It allows full weightbearing without using crutches and completely protects an acutely operated hind foot fracture, hind foot arthrodesis or a hind foot fracture which is suitable for conservative treatment. In its first generation, this boot was custom made and used in 408 cases, from March 1999 to February 2011. This study was performed exclusively at the Department of Traumatology and Reconstructive Surgery in the University Centre of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, since 2013 at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden (since 2013). The new improved second generation of this boot has been used in 149 patients between March 2011 and February 2016. This model is lighter and safer, due to an aluminium U-profile which is produced in one piece and interposed and fixed with 4 screws into the sole of the boot. The ground reaction forces are transported to the tibial head by this U-profile, to which the dorsal acryl shell for the calf of the Röck system is fixed with 2 screws on both sides, including the free ventral patellar shell. This is closed individually by two quick fastener buckles. This modular system of the second generation boot is now available for all patients in Dresden. These new boots have replaced the use of a wheel-chair for 3 months and are especially useful in bilateral calcaneus fractures - which occur in about 18% of all cases. In these new boots, the whole sole of the boot is in contact with the ground, rather than a surface of 9 × 3 cm as in the Allgöwer-Röck ortheses. As a result, these boots are considered to be superior to the ARO because standing and walking without crutches is much more easier - even for elderly patients. In contrast to

  17. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  18. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  19. Foot Placement Characteristics and Plantar Pressure Distribution Patterns during Stepping on Ground in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sylos-Labini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stepping on ground can be evoked in human neonates, though it is rather irregular and stereotyped heel-to-toe roll-over pattern is lacking. Such investigations can provide insights into the role of contact- or load-related proprioceptive feedback during early development of locomotion. However, the detailed characteristics of foot placements and their association with motor patterns are still incompletely documented. We elicited stepping in 33 neonates supported on a table. Unilateral limb kinematics, bilateral plantar pressure distribution and EMG activity from up to 11 ipsilateral leg muscles were recorded. Foot placement characteristics in neonates showed a wide variation. In ~25% of steps, the swinging foot stepped onto the contralateral foot due to generally small step width. In the remaining steps with separate foot placements, the stance phase could start with forefoot (28%, midfoot (47%, or heel (25% touchdowns. Despite forefoot or heel initial contacts, the kinematic and loading patterns markedly differed relatively to toe-walking or adult-like two-peaked vertical force profile. Furthermore, while the general stepping parameters (cycle duration, step length, range of motion of proximal joints were similar, the initial foot contact was consistently associated with specific center-of-pressure excursion, range of motion in the ankle joint, and the center-of-activity of extensor muscles (being shifted by ~5% of cycle toward the end of stance in the “heel” relative to “forefoot” condition. In sum, we found a variety of footfall patterns in conjunction with associated changes in motor patterns. These findings suggest the potential contribution of load-related proprioceptive feedback and/or the expression of variations in the locomotor program already during early manifestations of stepping on ground in human babies.

  20. Risk factors of foot ulceration in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bañuelos-Barrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identify the risk factors for foot ulceration in patients with diabetes type 2 (DM2 who attended a primary care center in the city of Colima (Mexico. Methodology. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted during 2012 with the participation of 87 patients with DM2 from both sexes and older than 30 years of age. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical variables were measured. The study inquired about prior evaluation of the feet and prior education on diabetes by the healthcare team. Results. The mean age was 59 years and 70% were women. The average number of years since diagnosis was nine years; only 35% had good glycemia control; 66% engage in exercise; 51% wear open shoes; none had temperature differences in the feet; 82% had some type of dermatological abnormality; 50% had deformities in their feet. A total of 24% had been diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy and another 11% had peripheral vascular disease. Sixty percent of all the patients had risk of foot ulceration. Only 23% of the participants had had previous foot exams. One of every three diabetic patients had received education about the disease. Conclusion. An important proportion of the patients had risk of foot ulceration, contrary to the insufficient percentage of individuals with previous inspection and education about foot care. For nursing, it is an area of opportunity in this level of care to improve the inspection and education on diabetes, specifically on foot care, mainly in those patients with a prolonged evolution of the disease, deficient glycemia control, and risk of ulceration.

  1. Effect of Achilles tendon loading on plantar fascia tension in the standing foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming; An, Kai-Nan

    2006-02-01

    The plantar fascia, which is one of the major arch-supporting structures of the human foot, sustains high tensions during weight-bearing. A positive correlation between Achilles tendon loading and plantar fascia tension has been reported. Excessive stretching and tightness of the Achilles tendon are thought to be the risk factors of plantar fasciitis but their biomechanical effects on the plantar fascia have not been fully addressed. A three-dimensional finite element model of the human foot and ankle, incorporating geometrical and material nonlinearity, was employed to investigate the loading response of the plantar fascia in the standing foot with different magnitudes of Achilles tendon loading. With the total ground reaction forces of one foot maintained at 350 N to represent half body weight, an increase in Achilles tendon load from (0-700 N) resulted in a general increase in total force and peak plantar pressure at the forefoot of up to about 250%. There was a lateral and anterior shift of the centre of pressure and a reduction in the arch height with an increasing Achilles tendon load as a result of the plantar flexion moment on the calcaneus. From the finite element predictions of simulated balanced standing, Achilles tendon forces of 75% of the total weight on the foot (350 N) were found to provide the closest match of the measured centre of pressure of the subject during balanced standing. Both the weight on the foot and Achilles tendon loading resulted in an increase in tension of the plantar fascia with the latter showing a two-times larger straining effect. Increasing tension on the Achilles tendon is coupled with an increasing strain on the plantar fascia. Overstretching of the Achilles tendon resulting from intense muscle contraction and passive stretching of tight Achilles tendon are plausible mechanical factors for overstraining of the plantar fascia.

  2. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  3. Metronome rate and walking foot contact time in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Ruth; Plax, Michael

    2012-02-01

    It is assumed that when people walk guided by an audible constant rate, they match foot contact to the external pace. The purpose of this preliminary study was to test that assumption by examining the temporal relationship between audible signals generated by a metronome and foot contact time during gait. Ten healthy young women were tested in walking repetitions guided by metronome rates of 60, 110, and 150 beats/min. Metronome beats and foot contact times were collected in real time. The findings indicated that foot contact was not fully synchronized with the auditory signals; the shortest time interval between the metronome beat and foot contact time was at the prescribed rate of 60 beats/min., while the longest interval was at the rate of 150 beats/min. The correlation between left and right foot contact times was highest with the slowest rate and lowest with the fastest rate.

  4. Painful Lytic Lesions of the Foot : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vaishya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lytic lesions in the bones of foot raises a number of diagnostic possibilities ranging from infection, inflammatory pathology to neoplastic conditions. Although the radiological picture is not pathognomonic of any pathology, clinical history and histopathological examination can help to clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of multiple lytic lesions of the foot and discuss possible differential diagnoses. The patient was diagnosed as a case of madura foot and the lesions responded to surgical debridement and anti-fungal treatment with a good functional outcome. Madura foot is an uncommon, chronic granulomatous fungal or bacterial infection with a predilection in people who walk barefoot. Although known for a specific geographical distribution, madura foot should be kept as a possible diagnosis in patients presenting with lytic lesions of the foot due to population emigration across the world.

  5. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  6. Genetics of club foot in Maori and Pacific people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C.; Stott, N; Port, R. V.; Nicol, R.

    2000-01-01

    The role of major gene and multifactorial inheritance in the aetiology of club foot in the New Zealand Polynesian population was studied using 287 New Zealand Maori and Pacific club foot families. The club foot family data were analysed by complex segregation analysis under the mixed model using the computer program POINTER. This analysis shows that the best genetic model for club foot in this population is a single dominant gene with a penetrance of 33% and a predicted gene frequency of 0.9%. These data provide a scientific foundation for molecular studies in the Maori and Polynesian population to identify putative club foot genes.


Keywords: club foot; New Zealand Maori; complex segregation analysis PMID:10978359

  7. Development of gait segmentation methods for wearable foot pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, S; De Rossi, S M M; Donati, M; Reberšek, P; Novak, D; Vitiello, N; Lenzi, T; Podobnik, J; Munih, M; Carrozza, M C

    2012-01-01

    We present an automated segmentation method based on the analysis of plantar pressure signals recorded from two synchronized wireless foot insoles. Given the strict limits on computational power and power consumption typical of wearable electronic components, our aim is to investigate the capability of a Hidden Markov Model machine-learning method, to detect gait phases with different levels of complexity in the processing of the wearable pressure sensors signals. Therefore three different datasets are developed: raw voltage values, calibrated sensor signals and a calibrated estimation of total ground reaction force and position of the plantar center of pressure. The method is tested on a pool of 5 healthy subjects, through a leave-one-out cross validation. The results show high classification performances achieved using estimated biomechanical variables, being on average the 96%. Calibrated signals and raw voltage values show higher delays and dispersions in phase transition detection, suggesting a lower reliability for online applications.

  8. Weight transfer analysis in adults with hemiplegia using ankle foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Karen J; Yarossi, Mathew

    2011-03-01

    Identifying and understanding the changes in transfer of momentum that are directly affected by orthotic intervention are significant factors related to the improvement of mobility in individuals with hemiplegia. The purpose of this investigation was to use a novel analysis technique to objectively measure weight transfer during double support (DS) in healthy individuals and individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke with and without an ankle foot orthosis. Prospective, Repeated measures, case-controlled trial. Participants included 25 adults with stroke-related hemiplegia >6 months using a prescribed ankle foot orthosis and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Main outcome measures included the weight transfer point timing (WTP, %DS), maximum total force timing (MTF, %DS), timing difference between WTP and MTF (MTF-WTP, %DS) and the linearity of loading (LOL, R(2)) during the DS phase of the gait cycle. The WTP and LOL were significantly different between conditions with and without the ankle foot orthosis for the affected and unaffected limb in post-stroke individuals, p ≤ 0.01. The MTF and difference in timing between MTF-WTP were significantly different during affected limb loading with and without the ankle foot orthosis in the stroke group, p ≤ 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively. MTF, MTF-WTP and LOL were significantly different between individuals with stroke (during affected limb loading) and healthy controls (during right limb loading). This research established a systematic method for analysing weight transfer during walking to evaluate the effect of an ankle foot orthosis on loading during double support in hemiplegic gait. This novel method can be used to elucidate biomechanical mechanisms behind orthosis-mediated changes in gait patterns and quantify functional mobility outcomes in rehabilitation. This novel approach to orthotic assessment will provide the clinician with needed objective evidence to select the most effective orthotic

  9. Are we telling the diabetic patients adequately about foot care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Jadoon, R.J.; Farooq, U.; Alam, M.A.; Qureshi, A.; Shah, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects more than 285 million people worldwide. The prevalence is expected to rise to 439 million by the year 2030. Diabetic foot ulcers precede 84 percentage of non-traumatic amputations in diabetics. One lower limb is lost every 30 seconds around the world because of diabetic foot ulceration. Apart from being lengthy, the treatment of diabetic foot is also very expensive. There is very limited emphasis on foot care in diabetic patients. Even in developed countries patients feel that they do not have adequate knowledge about foot care. This study was conducted to find out how much information is imparted by doctors to diabetic patients about foot care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in admitted patients of the Department of Medicine, DHQ Hospital, Abbottabad from May 2014 to June 2015. 139 diabetic patients more than 25 years of age were included by non-probability consecutive sampling. Results: The mean age was 57.17 ( percentage 11.1) years. 35.3 percentage of patients were male and 64.7 percentage were female. The mean duration of diabetes in patients was 8.3 (±6) years. Only 36.7 percentage of patients said that their doctor told them about foot care. Less than 40 percentage of patients knew that they should daily inspect their feet, wash them with gentle warm water, and dry them afterwards. Only 25.2 percentage of the participants knew how to manage corns or calluses on feet. 66.5 percentage of patients knew that they should not walk bare foot. Overall, 63 percentage of our patients had less than 50 percentage knowledge of the 11 points regarding foot care that the investigators asked them. Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are the one of the costliest, most disabling and disheartening complication of diabetes mellitus. Doctors are not properly telling diabetic patients about foot care. There is a deficiency of knowledge among the diabetic patients regarding foot care. (author)

  10. Effects of mid-foot contact area ratio on lower body kinetics/kinematics in sagittal plane during stair descent in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkyu; Hong, Yoon No Gregory; Shin, Choongsoo S

    2016-07-01

    The mid-foot contact area relative to the total foot contact area can facilitate foot arch structure evaluation. A stair descent motion consistently provides initial fore-foot contact and utilizes the foot arch more actively for energy absorption. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle and knee joint angle, moment, and work in sagittal plane during stair descending between low and high Mid-Foot-Contact-Area (MFCA) ratio group. The twenty-two female subjects were tested and classified into two groups (high MFCA and low MFCA) using their static MFCA ratios. The ground reaction force (GRF) and kinematics of ankle and knee joints were measured while stair descending. During the period between initial contact and the first peak in vertical GRF (early absorption phase), ankle negative work for the low MFCA ratio group was 33% higher than that for the high MFCA ratio group (pcontact and peak dorsiflexion angle (early absorption phase+late absorption phase). The peak ankle dorsiflexion angle was smaller in the low MFCA ratio group (p<0.05). Our results suggest that strategy of energy absorption at the ankle and foot differs depending upon foot arch types classified by MFCA. The low MFCA ratio group seemed to absorb more impact energy using strain in the planar fascia during early absorption phase, whereas the high MFCA ratio group absorbed more impact energy using increased dorsiflexion during late absorption phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Stress distribution of the foot during mid-stance to push-off in barefoot gait: a 3-D finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W P; Tang, F T; Ju, C W

    2001-08-01

    To quantify stress distribution of the foot during mid-stance to push-off in barefoot gait using 3-D finite element analysis. To simulate the foot structure and facilitate later consideration of footwear. Finite element model was generated and loading condition simulating barefoot gait during mid-stance to push-off was used to quantify the stress distributions. A computational model can provide overall stress distributions of the foot subject to various loading conditions. A preliminary 3-D finite element foot model was generated based on the computed tomography data of a male subject and the bone and soft tissue structures were modeled. Analysis was performed for loading condition simulating barefoot gait during mid-stance to push-off. The peak plantar pressure ranged from 374 to 1003 kPa and the peak von Mises stress in the bone ranged from 2.12 to 6.91 MPa at different instants. The plantar pressure patterns were similar to measurement result from previous literature. The present study provides a preliminary computational model that is capable of estimating the overall plantar pressure and bone stress distributions. It can also provide quantitative analysis for normal and pathological foot motion. This model can identify areas of increased pressure and correlate the pressure with foot pathology. Potential applications can be found in the study of foot deformities, footwear, surgical interventions. It may assist pre-treatment planning, design of pedorthotic appliances, and predict the treatment effect of foot orthosis.

  13. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  14. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  15. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A FOOT VALVE BY USING ANSYS®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar KARAOĞLU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, main components of a foot valve, being produced by casting, were optimized for minimum weight. The study was focused on the minimization of casting costs by reducing the volumes of two main parts of the foot valve. ANSYS® finite elements package was used in the study. In the optimization stage, parametrical dimensions were determined according to manufacturer's design criteria and related standards. Final design of the foot valve was completed by using the calculated values of optimum dimensions of the main components. Design optimization procedure gave about 8.5% of weight reductions in the main foot valve components.

  16. Changes in Foot Shape after Long-Distance Running

    OpenAIRE

    Fukano, Mako; Iso, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in foot shape during long-distance running may lead to alteration in shoe fit. However, little information is available on changes in foot shape following long-distance running. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in foot shape in experienced runners after a single long-distance run. Data from the right feet of 21 subjects were obtained using a foot scanner before and after running 35 km on an asphalt road. After the run, the dorsal height, navicular height, and arch heigh...

  17. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  18. Clinical workflow for personalized foot pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, M; Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Champion, E; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Foot pressure ulcers are a common complication of diabetes because of patient's lack of sensitivity due to neuropathy. Deep pressure ulcers appear internally when pressures applied on the foot create high internal strains nearby bony structures. Monitoring tissue strains in persons with diabetes is therefore important for an efficient prevention. We propose to use personalized biomechanical foot models to assess strains within the foot and to determine the risk of ulcer formation. Our workflow generates a foot model adapted to a patient's morphology by deforming an atlas model to conform it to the contours of segmented medical images of the patient's foot. Our biomechanical model is composed of rigid bodies for the bones, joined by ligaments and muscles, and a finite element mesh representing the soft tissues. Using our registration algorithm to conform three datasets, three new patient models were created. After applying a pressure load below these foot models, the Von Mises equivalent strains and "cluster volumes" (i.e. volumes of contiguous elements with strains above a given threshold) were measured within eight functionally meaningful foot regions. The results show the variability of both location and strain values among the three considered patients. This study also confirms that the anatomy of the foot has an influence on the risk of pressure ulcer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The value of debridement and Vacuum-Assisted Closure (V.A.C.) Therapy in diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneroth, Magnus; van Houtum, William H

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers includes a number of different regimes such as glycaemic control, re-vascularization, surgical, local wound treatment, offloading and other non-surgical treatments. Although considered the standard of care, the scientific evidence behind the various debridements used is scarce. This presentation will focus on debridement and V.A.C. Therapy, two treatments widely used in patients with diabetes and foot ulcers. A review of existing literature on these treatments in diabetic foot ulcers, with focus on description of the various types of debridements used, the principles behind negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using the V.A.C. Therapy system and level of evidence. Five randomized controlled trials (RCT) of debridement were identified; three assessed the effectiveness of a hydrogel as a debridement method, one evaluated surgical debridement and one evaluated larval therapy. Pooling the three hydrogel RCTs suggested that hydrogels are significantly more effective than gauze or standard care in healing diabetic foot ulcers. Surgical debridement and larval therapy showed no significant benefit. Other debridement methods such as enzyme preparations or polysaccharide beads have not been evaluated in RCTs of people with diabetes. More than 300 articles have been published on negative pressure wound therapy, including several small RCTs and a larger multi-centre RCT of diabetic foot ulcers. Negative pressure wound therapy seems to be a safe and effective treatment for complex diabetic foot wounds, and could lead to a higher proportion of healed wounds, faster healing rates, and potentially fewer re-amputations than standard care. Although debridement of the ulcer is considered a prerequisite for healing of diabetic foot ulcers, the grade of evidence is quite low. This may be due to a lack of studies rather than lack of effect. Negative pressure wound therapy seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of some diabetic foot ulcers

  20. Diabetic foot syndrome: Immune-inflammatory features as possible cardiovascular markers in diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), as defined by the World Health Organization, is an “ulceration of the foot (distally from the ankle and including the ankle) associated with neuropathy and different grades of ischemia and infection”. Pathogenic events able to cause diabetic foot ulcers are multifactorial. Among the commonest causes of this pathogenic pathway it’s possible to consider peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, abnormal foot pressures, abnormal joint mobility, trauma, peripheral artery disease. Several studies reported how diabetic patients show a higher mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes and in particular these studies under filled how cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is 2-4 times higher among patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. This higher degree of cardiovascular morbidity has been explained as due to the observed higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factor, of asymptomatic findings of cardiovascular diseases, and of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot complications. In diabetes a fundamental pathogenic pathway of most of vascular complications has been reported as linked to a complex interplay of inflammatory, metabolic and procoagulant variables. These pathogenetic aspects have a direct interplay with an insulin resistance, subsequent obesity, diabetes, hypertension, prothrombotic state and blood lipid disorder. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects as reported by Tuttolomondo et al confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the a “adipo-vascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. This “adipo-vascular axis” in patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported as characterized