Ten Brink, Antonia F.; Matthijs Biesbroek, J.; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29880977X; Oort, Quirien; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Nijboer, Tanja C W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832421
Cancellation tasks are widely used for diagnosis of lateralized attentional deficits in stroke patients. A disorganized fashion of target cancellation has been hypothesized to reflect disturbed spatial exploration. In the current study we aimed to examine which lesion locations result in
Garcia-Fernandez, Juan; Garcia-Molina, Alberto; Aparicio-Lopez, Celeste; Sanchez-Carrion, Rocío; Ensenat, Antònia; Pena-Casanova, Jordi; Roig-Rovira, Teresa
Tham and Tegner proposed the Baking Tray Task (BTT) as a fast simple assessment test for detecting spatial negligence. However, very few studies have examined its validity as a diagnostic test. To analyse the diagnostic validity of the BTT by measuring its specificity and sensitivity in a sample of subjects with right hemisphere strokes. Forty-eight patients with right hemisphere vascular lesions were distributed in two groups (negligence group, n = 35; non-negligence group, n = 13) according to the scores obtained in a battery of visuospatial examination tests. The participants' performance on the BTT was compared with that of a healthy control group (n = 12). The results showed a high level of sensitivity of the BTT, but low specificity. The performance on the BTT of eight of the 13 members of the non-negligence group was suggestive of negligence. The BTT has proved to be a sensitive test for the detection of spatial negligence. Yet, based on its low specificity, its use alone as a single diagnostic test is not recommended.
Borod, J C; Andelman, F; Obler, L K; Tweedy, J R; Welkowitz, J
This study examines the contribution of the lexical/verbal channel to emotional processing in 16 right brain-damaged (RBD), 16 left brain-damaged (LBD) and 16 normal control (NC) right-handed adults. Emotional lexical perception tasks were developed; analogous nonemotional tasks were created to control for cognitive and linguistic factors. The three subject groups were matched for gender, age and education. The brain-damaged groups were similar with respect to cerebrovascular etiology, months post-onset, sensory-motor status and lesion location. Parallel emotional and nonemotional tasks included word identification, sentence identification and word discrimination. For both word tasks, RBDs were significantly more impaired than LBDs and NCs in the emotional condition. For all three tasks, RBDs showed a significantly greater performance discrepancy between emotional and nonemotional conditions than did LBDs or NCs. Results were not affected by the valence (i.e. positive/negative) of the stimuli. These findings suggest a dominant role for the right hemisphere in the perception of lexically-based emotional stimuli.
at days 14 and 28 in the areas of neglect, ADL, and balance. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in the number of falls. Conclusion: Neglect, ADL, and balance among UN patients with right hemispheric stroke can be improved through the participation of primary caregivers in VR. Trained informal caregivers were recommended to provide VR guidance and supervision to patients who suffer from UN. Keywords: neglect, vestibular rehabilitation, falls, balance, caregiver
Full Text Available Measures of performance on the Trail Making Test (TMT are among the most popular neuropsychological assessment techniques. Completion time on TMT-A is considered to provide a measure of processing speed, whereas completion time on TMT-B is considered to constitute a behavioral measure of the ability to shift between cognitive sets (cognitive flexibility, commonly attributed to the frontal lobes. However, empirical evidence linking performance on the TMT-B to localized frontal lesions is mostly lacking. Here, we examined the association of frontal lesions following stroke with TMT-B performance measures (i.e., completion time and completion accuracy measures using voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping, with a focus on right hemispheric frontal lobe lesions. Our results suggest that the number of errors, but not completion time on the TMT-B, is associated with right hemispheric frontal lesions. This finding contradicts common clinical practice—the use of completion time on the TMT-B to measure cognitive flexibility, and it underscores the need for additional research on the association between cognitive flexibility and the frontal lobes. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether our observation is specific for right frontal lesions.
Buchmann, Ilka; Randerath, Jennifer
Frequently left brain damage (LBD) leads to limb apraxia, a disorder that can affect tool-use. Despite its impact on daily life, classical tests examining the pantomime of tool-use and imitation of gestures are seldom applied in clinical practice. The study's aim was to present a diagnostic approach which appears more strongly related to actions in daily life in order to sensitize applicants and patients about the relevance of the disorder before patients are discharged. Two tests were introduced that evaluate actual tool selection and tool-object-application: the Novel Tools (NTT) and the Familiar Tools (FTT) Test (parts of the DILA-S: Diagnostic Instrument for Limb Apraxia - Short Version). Normative data in healthy subjects (N = 82) was collected. Then the tests were applied in stroke patients with unilateral left brain damage (LBD: N = 33), a control right brain damage group (RBD: N = 20) as well as healthy age and gender matched controls (CL: N = 28, and CR, N = 18). The tests showed appropriate interrater-reliability and internal consistency as well as concurrent and divergent validity. To examine criterion validity based on the well-known left lateralization of limb apraxia, group comparisons were run. As expected, the LBD group demonstrated a high prevalence of tool-use apraxia (NTT: 36.4%, FTT: 48.5%) ranging from mild to severe impairment and scored worse than their control group (CL). A few RBD patients did demonstrate impairments in tool-use (NTT: 15%, FTT: 15%). On a group level they did not differ from their healthy controls (CR). Further, it was demonstrated that the selection and application of familiar and novel tools can be impaired selectively. Our study results suggest that real tool-use tests evaluating tool selection and tool application should be considered for standard diagnosis of limb apraxia in left as well as right brain damaged patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng
The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter
Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E
The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter
Full Text Available Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP is a major complication of stroke. We sought to determine associations between infarction of specific brain regions and HAP.215 consecutive acute stroke patients with HAP (2003-2009 were carefully matched with 215 non-pneumonia controls by gender, then NIHSS, then age. Admission imaging and binary masks of infarction were registered to MNI-152 space. Regional atlas and voxel-based log-odds were calculated to assess the relationship between infarct location and the likelihood of HAP. An independently validated penalized conditional logistic regression model was used to identify HAP associated imaging regions.The HAP and control patients were well matched by gender (100%, age (95% within 5-years, NIHSS (98% within 1-point, infarct size, dysphagia, and six other clinical variables. Right hemispheric infarcts were more frequent in patients with HAP versus controls (43.3% vs. 34.0%, p = 0.054, whereas left hemispheric infarcts were more frequent in controls (56.7% vs. 44.7%, p = 0.012; there was no significant difference between groups in the rate of brainstem strokes (p = 1.0. Of the 10 most infarcted regions, only right insular cortex volume was different in HAP versus controls (20 vs. 12 ml, p = 0.02. In univariate analyses, the highest log-odds regions for pneumonia were right hemisphere, cerebellum, and brainstem. The best performing multivariate model selected 7 brain regions of infarction and 2 infarct volume-based variables independently associated with HAP.HAP is associated with right hemispheric peri-insular stroke. These associations may be related to autonomic modulation of immune mechanisms, supporting recent hypotheses of stroke mediated immune suppression.
Full Text Available Right brain damages can manifest deficits of communicative skills, which sometimes cause an important inability.The communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage are distinct from those in aphasia and may affect discursive, lexico-semantic, pragmatic, and prosodic components of communication. It is calculated that this troubles affect almost a 50% of this patients.However, these impairments have essentially been studied separately and their possible coexistence in a same individual is still unknown. Moreover, the clinical profiles of communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage, including their correlation with underlying cognitive deficits, are still unreported. The goal of this article is to offer an overview of the verbal communication deficits that can be found in right-hemisphere-damaged individuals. These deficits can interfere, at different levels, with prosody, the semantic processing of words and discourse and pragmatic abilities. In spite of the incapability that they produce, communicational impairments in right brain damaged are usually neglected. Probably, the sub-diagnostic is due to the lack of an appropriate classification or to the absent of adequate assessment tools. In fact, patients with right brain damages might present harsh communicational deficits but perform correctly on aphasia tests because the last ones are not designed to detect this kind of deficit but left brain damaged impairments. Increasing our knowledge about the role of the right-hemisphere in verbal communication will have major theoretical and clinical impacts; it could facilitate the diagnosis of right brain patients in the clinical circle and it will help to lay the foundations to elaborate methods and strategies of intervention.
Poole, Janet L; Sadek, Joseph; Haaland, Kathleen Y
Poole JL, Sadek J, Haaland KY. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke. To examine 1-handed shoe tying performance and whether cognitive deficits more associated with left or right hemisphere damage differentially affect it after unilateral stroke. Observational cohort comparing ipsilesional shoe tying, spatial and language skills, and limb praxis. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Not applicable. Volunteer right-handed sample of adults with left or right hemisphere damage and healthy demographically matched adults. The number of correct trials and the total time to complete 10 trials tying a shoe using the 1-handed method. Both stroke groups had fewer correct trials and were significantly slower tying the shoe than the control group. Spatial skills predicted accuracy and speed after right hemisphere damage. After left hemisphere damage, accuracy was predicted by spatial skills and limb praxis, while speed was predicted by limb praxis only. Ipsilesional shoe tying is similarly impaired after left or right hemisphere damage, but for different reasons. Spatial deficits had a greater influence after right hemisphere damage, and limb apraxia had a greater influence after left hemisphere damage. Language deficits did not affect performance, indicating that aphasia does not preclude using this therapy approach. These results suggest that rehabilitation professionals should consider assessment of limb apraxia and ipsilesional skill training in the performance of everyday tasks.
Hewetson, Ronelle; Cornwell, Petrea; Shum, David
Rehabilitation positively influences return to activities and social roles in people with aphasia. The cognitive-communication disorder (CCD) found following a right hemisphere stroke has been less extensively researched with rehabilitation access and outcomes yet to be determined. To document rehabilitation access and outcomes for people with CCD post-stroke; and compare outcomes based on presence (viz CCD; aphasia) or absence of communication impairment. A retrospective chart audit was completed for patients with first onset unilateral stroke, with a hospital length of stay (LOS) of at least two days and a communication assessment by a speech pathologist. Data extracted included presence and severity of communication impairment, access to and LOS in a rehabilitation unit, and functional outcome measures recorded at rehabilitation discharge. The majority of the 115 patients who met inclusion criteria were living independently (n = 112, 97.4%) at the time of stroke. CCD (66%) was diagnosed with similar frequency to aphasia (68%). The presence of communication impairment did not result in significant differences in rehabilitation LOS and discharge destination when compared to hemispheric strokes without communication impairment. Severity of CCD was an independent predictor of functional gain by rehabilitation discharge. People with CCD require comparable access to rehabilitation as people with aphasia, and severity of CCD should be considered in determining rehabilitation LOS. A large number of people are discharged with ongoing CCD which warrants exploration of potential participation restrictions created by the communication impairment.
Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig
Verbal stimuli often induce right-hemispheric activation in patients with aphasia after left-hemispheric stroke. This right-hemispheric activation is commonly attributed to functional reorganization within the language system. Yet previous evidence suggests that functional activation in right-hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required subjects to decide whether a stimulus is natural or man-made; the phonologic decision required a decision on whether a stimulus contains two or three syllables. Compared to phonologic or semantic decision, nonlinguistic perceptual decisions resulted in a stronger right-hemispheric activation. Specifically, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may, in some instances, be driven by a "nonlinguistic perceptual processing" mode that focuses on nonlinguistic word features. This raises the possibility that stronger activation of right inferior frontal areas during language tasks in aphasic patients with left-hemispheric stroke may at least partially reflect increased attentional focus on nonlinguistic perceptual aspects of language. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yang, Nicole Yh; Fong, Kenneth Nk; Li-Tsang, Cecilia Wp; Zhou, D
To compare the effects of rTMS combined with sensory cueing, rTMS alone, and conventional rehabilitation on unilateral neglect, hemiplegic arm functions and performance of activities of daily living. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. A convalescent hospital. Sixty inpatients with left unilateral neglect after stroke. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups: rTMS combined with sensory cueing, rTMS, and conventional rehabilitation alone. rTMS at 1 Hz was applied over P5 of the contralesional hemisphere while vibration cueing was emitted using a wristwatch device on the hemiplegic arm, five days per week for two weeks. The first two groups received the same dosage of conventional rehabilitation on top of their experimental interventions. Blinded assessments were administered at baseline, 2 weeks postintervention, and 6 weeks follow-up. Neglect and arm motor performance. Both rTMS combined with sensory cueing (99.6±33.0) and rTMS alone (88.2±28.7) significantly reduced unilateral neglect than conventional rehabilitation (72.7±33.1) when measured using the conventional subtests of the Behavioural Inattention Test, but the combination was better than rTMS alone. Hemiplegic arm functions and activities of daily living improved in all patients across the three groups but no significant differences were found between the groups. The combination of inhibitory P5-rTMS with sensory cueing was better than either rTMS or conventional rehabilitation alone in producing a stronger and long-lasting improvement in unilateral neglect, but the improvement was not associated with improved arm function or independence in activities of daily living.
Full Text Available Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere strokes at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space and has previously been shown to be improved by a number of motivational influences, including listening to preferred music and numerical sequence completion. Here we examined whether playing musical sequences on chime bars – an instrument with a horizontal alignment – would bring about clinically significant improvement in chronic neglect.Two left neglect patients completed an intervention comprising four weekly 30-minute music sessions involving playing scales and familiar melodies on chime bars from right to left. Two cancellation tests (Mesulam shape, BIT star, the line bisection test, and the neglect subtest from the computerised TAP (Test for Attentional Performance battery were administered three times during a preliminary baseline phase, before and after each music session during the rehabilitation phase to investigate short-term effects, as well as one week after the last intervention session to investigate whether any effects would persist.Both patients demonstrated significant short-term and longer-lasting improvements on the Mesulam shape cancellation test. One patient also showed longer-lasting effects on the BIT star cancellation test and scored in the normal range one week after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that active music-making may help neglect patients attend more to their affected side.
Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to assess the association between thrombolysis and length of hospital stay after right hemisphere (RH infarct, and to identify which cognitive functions were predictive of discharge. Methods The study group consisted of 75 acute RH patients. Thirty-three patients had thrombolysis. Neuropsychologicalexaminations were performed within 11 days of stroke onset. The cognitive predictors were visual neglect, visual memory, visual search and reasoning and visuoconstructive abilities. The outcome variable was time from stroke to discharge to home. Results Thrombolysis emerged as a statistically significant predictor of discharge time in patients with moderate/severe stroke (NIHSS ≥5. In the total series of patients and in patients with mild stroke (NIHSS <5, thrombolysiswas not significantly associated with discharge time. Milder visuoconstructive defects shortened the hospital stay of the whole patient group and of patients with moderate/severe stroke. In all patient groups, independence in activitiesof daily living (ADL was a significant single predictor of a shorter hospital stay. The best combination of predictors for discharge was independence in ADL in the total series of patients and in patients with mild stroke, and thrombolysis and independence in ADL in patients with moderate/severe stroke. Conclusions Thrombolytic treatment was a significant predictor of earlier discharge to home in patients with moderate/severe RH infarct, while cognitive functions had less predictive power.
Gillespie, David C; Bowen, Audrey; Foster, Jonathan K
Comparing current with estimated premorbid performance helps identify acquired cognitive deficits after brain injury. Tests of reading pronunciation, often used to measure premorbid ability, are inappropriate for stroke patients with motor speech problems. The Spot-the-Word Test (STWT), a measure of lexical decision, offers an alternative approach for estimating premorbid capacity in those with speech problems. However, little is known about the STWT's reliability. In the present study, a consecutive sample of right-hemisphere stroke (RHS) patients (n = 56) completed the STWT at 4 and 16 weeks poststroke. A control group, individually matched to the patients for age and initial STWT score, also completed the STWT on two occasions. More than 80% of patients had STWT scores at retest within 2 scaled score points of their initial score, suggesting that the STWT is a reliable measure for most individuals with RHS. However, RHS patients had significantly greater score change than controls. Limits of agreement analysis revealed that approximately 1 in 7 patients obtained abnormally large STWT score improvements at retest. It is concluded that although the STWT is a useful assessment tool for stroke clinicians, this instrument may significantly underestimate premorbid level of ability in approximately 14% of stroke patients.
Lange, G; Waked, W; Kirshblum, S; DeLuca, J
To examine how organizational strategy at encoding influences visual memory performance in stroke patients. Case control study. Postacute rehabilitation hospital. Stroke patients with right hemisphere damage (n = 20) versus left hemisphere damage (n = 15), and stroke patients with cortical damage (n = 11) versus subcortical damage (n = 19). Organizational strategy scores, recall performance on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF). Results demonstrated significantly greater organizational impairment and less accurate copy performance (i.e., encoding of visuospatial information on the ROCF) in the right compared to the left hemisphere group, and in the cortical relative to the subcortical group. Organizational strategy and copy accuracy scores were significantly related to each other. The absolute amount of immediate and delayed recall was significantly associated with poor organizational strategy scores. However, relative to the amount of visual information originally encoded, memory performances did not differ between groups. These findings suggest that visual memory impairments after stroke may be caused by a lack of organizational strategy affecting information encoding, rather than an impairment in memory storage or retrieval.
Full Text Available The role of the right hemisphere (RH in recovery from aphasia is incompletely understood. The present study quantified RH grey matter (GM volume in individuals with chronic stroke-induced aphasia and cognitively healthy people using voxel-based morphometry. We compared group differences in GM volume in the entire RH and in RH regions-of-interest. Given that lesion site is a critical source of heterogeneity associated with poststroke language ability, we used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM to examine the relation between lesion site and language performance in the aphasic participants. Finally, using results derived from the VLSM as a covariate, we evaluated the relation between GM volume in the RH and language ability across domains, including comprehension and production processes both at the word and sentence levels and across spoken and written modalities. Between-subject comparisons showed that GM volume in the RH SMA was reduced in the aphasic group compared to the healthy controls. We also found that, for the aphasic group, increased RH volume in the MTG and the SMA was associated with better language comprehension and production scores, respectively. These data suggest that the RH may support functions previously performed by LH regions and have important implications for understanding poststroke reorganization.
Huitema, RB; Mulder, T; Brouwer, WH; Dekker, R; Postema, K; Hof, A.L.
Objective: To gain insight into the relation between changes in gait patterns over time and functional recovery of walking ability in stroke patients. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation center of a university hospital in the Netherlands. Participants: Thirteen stroke patients
Dai, C-Y; Liu, W-M; Chen, S-W; Yang, C-A; Tung, Y-C; Chou, L-W; Lin, L-C
Anosognosia and neglect may coexist in stroke patients. Neglect patients often report poor quality of life (QOL), whereas patients suffering from other cognition disorders with poor insight report better QOL. This study investigates the relationship between anosognosia, neglect and QOL amongst stroke survivors. Stroke survivors who met the criteria were used as a sampling pool. Sixty stroke patients were observed in this study, amongst whom 20 patients with anosognosia and neglect (A+N+), 20 patients with neglect but not anosognosia (A-N+) and 20 patients with neither anosognosia nor neglect (A-N-) were selected from the sampling pool based on demographic characteristics matched with the A+N+ group. A questionnaire (SS-QOL) was used to collect the QOL perceived by the stroke survivors. The perceived QOL of the A+N+ group was significantly better than those of the other groups, including the subscales of self-care, mobility, work/productivity, upper extremity, mood, family role and social role. However, the A+N+ group had poor balance level and more fall incidents were reported. The A+N+ group perceived better QOL but had more falls and poorer balance than the other groups. Health providers should work with caregivers aggressively in preventing accidents. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.
Di Monaco, Marco; Schintu, Selene; Dotta, Manuela; Barba, Sonia; Tappero, Rosa; Gindri, Patrizia
To investigate the relationship between severity of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) and functional recovery in activities of daily living after a right-hemisphere stroke. Observational study. Rehabilitation hospital in Italy. We investigated 107 of 131 inpatients with right-hemisphere stroke who were consecutively admitted to our rehabilitation hospital. Not applicable. To assess USN severity, conventional and nonconventional Behavioral Inattention Tests (BITs) were performed at admission to inpatient rehabilitation at a median of 19 days after stroke occurrence. FIM was performed both on admission to and discharge from inpatient rehabilitation to assess functional autonomy. FIM efficiency (improvement of FIM score per day of stay length) and FIM effectiveness (proportion of potential improvement achieved) were calculated. Fifty-four (50.5%) of the 107 patients were affected by USN. In these 54 patients, both conventional and nonconventional BIT scores were significantly correlated with FIM scores assessed at discharge from rehabilitation: ρ values were .385 (P=.004) and .396 (P=.003), respectively. After adjustment for 7 potential confounders, including FIM scores before rehabilitation, we found a significant positive association between either conventional or nonconventional BIT scores and FIM scores after rehabilitation (r=.276, P=.047 and r=.296, P=.033, respectively), FIM efficiency (r=.315, P=.022 and r=.307, P=.025, respectively), and FIM effectiveness (r=.371, P=.006 and r=.306, P=.026, respectively). Data support the independent prognostic role of USN severity assessed at admission to inpatient rehabilitation after a right-hemisphere stroke. Models aimed at predicting the functional outcome in stroke survivors may benefit from inclusion of USN severity. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cazzoli, Dario; Hopfner, Simone; Preisig, Basil; Zito, Giuseppe; Vanbellingen, Tim; Jäger, Michael; Nef, Tobias; Mosimann, Urs; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M; Nyffeler, Thomas
An impairment of the spatial deployment of visual attention during exploration of static (i.e., motionless) stimuli is a common finding after an acute, right-hemispheric stroke. However, less is known about how these deficits: (a) are modulated through naturalistic motion (i.e., without directional, specific spatial features); and, (b) evolve in the subacute/chronic post-stroke phase. In the present study, we investigated free visual exploration in three patient groups with subacute/chronic right-hemispheric stroke and in healthy subjects. The first group included patients with left visual neglect and a left visual field defect (VFD), the second patients with a left VFD but no neglect, and the third patients without neglect or VFD. Eye movements were measured in all participants while they freely explored a traffic scene without (static condition) and with (dynamic condition) naturalistic motion, i.e., cars moving from the right or left. In the static condition, all patient groups showed similar deployment of visual exploration (i.e., as measured by the cumulative fixation duration) as compared to healthy subjects, suggesting that recovery processes took place, with normal spatial allocation of attention. However, the more demanding dynamic condition with moving cars elicited different re-distribution patterns of visual attention, quite similar to those typically observed in acute stroke. Neglect patients with VFD showed a significant decrease of visual exploration in the contralesional space, whereas patients with VFD but no neglect showed a significant increase of visual exploration in the contralesional space. No differences, as compared to healthy subjects, were found in patients without neglect or VFD. These results suggest that naturalistic motion, without directional, specific spatial features, may critically influence the spatial distribution of visual attention in subacute/chronic stroke patients. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zahra Sadat Ghoreishi
Full Text Available Crossed aphasia in dextral (CAD refers to aphasia occurring after right brain damage in dextral persons. CAD is a rare phenomenon in the world and there has not been any report of crossed aphasia in Persian, that is why we measured to report a Persian patient with crossed aphasia and this is a first report of incidence of CA in Persian. In this case report study, we offered a complete report of a 31-year-oldright handed man with right hemisphere lesion who experienced aphasia after his brain injury. We assessed the patient with Persian version of Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT, Test of Anomia and Apraxia. In addition, more than 100 utterances of connected speech were gathered and analyzed. According to the results of anomia and apraxia tests, he was at normal level in both of them, but he couldn’t get complete score in BAT, the worst score was achieved in making sentence subtest of BAT. He also had deficits in the syntactic comprehension, grammaticality judgments, lexical decision, verbal fluency and reading comprehension subtests of BAT. Linguistic analysis of his connected speech indicated low speech rate and deficit in using prepositions, compound nouns and verbs. The results confirmed the existence of aphasia and incoherent and non-cohesive speech. The reason of the latter could be deficit in using complex sentences and discourse marker (grammatical problems and circumlocution, deficit in topic maintenance , using pronoun ambiguouslyand selecting inappropriate words for convey meaning (pragmatic problems related to right hemisphere problem .In sum, this patient showed combination of aphasia, agrammatism, and right hemisphere damage( pragmatic deficit together.
Krieg, Sandro M.; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Foerschler, Annette; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian
Objectives Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Experimental design Fifteen patients with lesions of left-sided language-eloquent brain areas and 50 healthy and purely right-handed participants underwent bilateral rTMS language mapping via an object-naming task. All patients were proven to have left-sided language function during awake surgery. The rTMS-induced language errors were categorized into 6 different error types. The error ratio (induced errors/number of stimulations) was determined for each brain region on both hemispheres. A hemispheric dominance ratio was then defined for each region as the quotient of the error ratio (left/right) of the corresponding area of both hemispheres (ratio >1 = left dominant; ratio dominant). Results Patients with language-eloquent lesions showed a statistically significantly lower ratio than healthy participants concerning “all errors” and “all errors without hesitations”, which indicates a higher participation of the right hemisphere in language function. Yet, there was no cortical region with pronounced difference in language dominance compared to the whole hemisphere. Conclusions This is the first study that shows by means of an anatomically accurate virtual lesion model that a shift of language function to the non-dominant hemisphere can occur. PMID:24069410
Krieg, Sandro M; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Foerschler, Annette; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian
Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Fifteen patients with lesions of left-sided language-eloquent brain areas and 50 healthy and purely right-handed participants underwent bilateral rTMS language mapping via an object-naming task. All patients were proven to have left-sided language function during awake surgery. The rTMS-induced language errors were categorized into 6 different error types. The error ratio (induced errors/number of stimulations) was determined for each brain region on both hemispheres. A hemispheric dominance ratio was then defined for each region as the quotient of the error ratio (left/right) of the corresponding area of both hemispheres (ratio >1 = left dominant; ratio right dominant). Patients with language-eloquent lesions showed a statistically significantly lower ratio than healthy participants concerning "all errors" and "all errors without hesitations", which indicates a higher participation of the right hemisphere in language function. Yet, there was no cortical region with pronounced difference in language dominance compared to the whole hemisphere. This is the first study that shows by means of an anatomically accurate virtual lesion model that a shift of language function to the non-dominant hemisphere can occur.
Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco
Jealousy sits high atop of a list comprised of the most human emotional experiences, although its nature, rationale, and origin are poorly understood. In the past decade, a series of neurological case reports and neuroimaging findings have been particularly helpful in piecing together jealousy's puzzle. In order to understand and quantify the neurological factors that might be important in jealousy, we reviewed the current literature in this specific field. We made an electronic search, and examined all literature with at least an English abstract, through Mars 2010. The search identified a total of 20 neurological patients, who experienced jealousy in relation with a neurological disorder; and 22 healthy individuals, who experienced jealousy under experimental neuroimaging settings. Most of the clinical cases of reported jealousy after a stroke had delusional-type jealousy. Right hemispheric stroke was the most frequently reported neurological disorder in these patients, although there was a wide range of more diffuse neurological disorders that may be reported to be associated with different other types of jealousy. This is in line with recent neuroimaging data on false beliefs, moral judgments, and intention [mis]understanding. Together the present findings provide physicians and psychologists with a potential for high impact in understanding the neural mechanisms and treatment of jealousy. By combining findings from case reports and neuroimaging data, the present article allows for a novel and unique perspective, and explores new directions into the neurological jealous mind.
Full Text Available One in two survivors experience impairment in touch sensation after stroke. The nature of this impairment is likely associated with changes associated with the functional somatosensory network of the brain; however few studies have examined this. In particular, the impact of lesioned hemisphere has not been investigated. We examined resting state functional connectivity in 28 stroke survivors, 14 with left hemisphere and 14 with right hemisphere lesion, and 14 healthy controls. Contra-lesional hands showed significantly decreased touch discrimination. Whole brain functional connectivity (FC data was extracted from four seed regions, i.e. primary (S1 and secondary (S2 somatosensory cortices in both hemispheres. Whole brain FC maps and Laterality Indices (LI were calculated for subgroups. Inter-hemispheric FC was greater in healthy controls compared to the combined stroke cohort from the left S1 seed and bilateral S2 seeds. The left lesion subgroup showed decreased FC, relative to controls, from left ipsi-lesional S1 to contra-lesional S1 and to distributed temporal, occipital and parietal regions. In comparison, the right lesion group showed decreased connectivity from contra-lesional left S1 and bilateral S2 to ipsi-lesional parietal operculum (S2, and to occipital and temporal regions. The right lesion group also showed increased intra-hemispheric FC from ipsi-lesional right S1 to inferior parietal regions compared to controls. In comparison to the left lesion group, those with right lesion showed greater intra-hemispheric connectivity from left S1 to left parietal and occipital regions and from right S1 to right angular and parietal regions. Laterality Indices were significantly greater for stroke subgroups relative to matched controls for contra-lesional S1 (left lesion group and contra-lesional S2 (both groups. We provide evidence of altered functional connectivity within the somatosensory network, across both hemispheres, and to other
Goodin, Peter; Lamp, Gemma; Vidyasagar, Rishma; McArdle, David; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Carey, Leeanne M
One in two survivors experience impairment in touch sensation after stroke. The nature of this impairment is likely associated with changes associated with the functional somatosensory network of the brain; however few studies have examined this. In particular, the impact of lesioned hemisphere has not been investigated. We examined resting state functional connectivity in 28 stroke survivors, 14 with left hemisphere and 14 with right hemisphere lesion, and 14 healthy controls. Contra-lesional hands showed significantly decreased touch discrimination. Whole brain functional connectivity (FC) data was extracted from four seed regions, i.e. primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices in both hemispheres. Whole brain FC maps and Laterality Indices (LI) were calculated for subgroups. Inter-hemispheric FC was greater in healthy controls compared to the combined stroke cohort from the left S1 seed and bilateral S2 seeds. The left lesion subgroup showed decreased FC, relative to controls, from left ipsi-lesional S1 to contra-lesional S1 and to distributed temporal, occipital and parietal regions. In comparison, the right lesion group showed decreased connectivity from contra-lesional left S1 and bilateral S2 to ipsi-lesional parietal operculum (S2), and to occipital and temporal regions. The right lesion group also showed increased intra-hemispheric FC from ipsi-lesional right S1 to inferior parietal regions compared to controls. In comparison to the left lesion group, those with right lesion showed greater intra-hemispheric connectivity from left S1 to left parietal and occipital regions and from right S1 to right angular and parietal regions. Laterality Indices were significantly greater for stroke subgroups relative to matched controls for contra-lesional S1 (left lesion group) and contra-lesional S2 (both groups). We provide evidence of altered functional connectivity within the somatosensory network, across both hemispheres, and to other networks in stroke
Teki, Sundeep; Barnes, Gareth R; Penny, William D; Iverson, Paul; Woodhead, Zoe V J; Griffiths, Timothy D; Leff, Alexander P
In this study, we used magnetoencephalography and a mismatch paradigm to investigate speech processing in stroke patients with auditory comprehension deficits and age-matched control subjects. We probed connectivity within and between the two temporal lobes in response to phonemic (different word) and acoustic (same word) oddballs using dynamic causal modelling. We found stronger modulation of self-connections as a function of phonemic differences for control subjects versus aphasics in left primary auditory cortex and bilateral superior temporal gyrus. The patients showed stronger modulation of connections from right primary auditory cortex to right superior temporal gyrus (feed-forward) and from left primary auditory cortex to right primary auditory cortex (interhemispheric). This differential connectivity can be explained on the basis of a predictive coding theory which suggests increased prediction error and decreased sensitivity to phonemic boundaries in the aphasics' speech network in both hemispheres. Within the aphasics, we also found behavioural correlates with connection strengths: a negative correlation between phonemic perception and an inter-hemispheric connection (left superior temporal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus), and positive correlation between semantic performance and a feedback connection (right superior temporal gyrus to right primary auditory cortex). Our results suggest that aphasics with impaired speech comprehension have less veridical speech representations in both temporal lobes, and rely more on the right hemisphere auditory regions, particularly right superior temporal gyrus, for processing speech. Despite this presumed compensatory shift in network connectivity, the patients remain significantly impaired.
Perez, Gina S; McCaslin, Justin; Shamim, Sadat
We report a right-handed 19-year-old girl who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) lateralized to the right hemisphere with simultaneous new-onset left hemispheric seizures. RCVS, typically more diffuse, was lateralized to one of the cerebral hemispheres.
Snow, Jacqueline C; Mattingley, Jason B
Patients with right hemisphere (RH) lesions often display a spatial bias in attention towards the ipsilesional hemifield. The behavioural manifestations of this spatial bias are typically interpreted as reflecting increased or enhanced attention for stimuli within the 'intact' ipsilesional field, and impaired attentional functioning within the contralesional field. In the healthy brain, goal-driven and stimulus-driven attentional processes interact to determine which stimuli should be prioritized for selection. Although unilateral brain damage increases the relative attentional salience of stimuli within the ipsilesional field, it might also cause problems in filtering or attenuating task-irrelevant information. We examined whether goal-driven attention modulates the processing of ipsilesional and contralesional information in 6 patients with unilateral brain damage following RH stroke (5 male, 1 female; mean age 60.8 years) and a group of age and sex-matched controls. We used a flanker task in which participants made speeded judgements on a central target item (a coloured letter). On each trial the target was flanked by a coloured letter in the left and right hemifields. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to judge either the identity or the colour of the central target and to ignore the flankers. The flanker on one side could be congruent, incongruent or neutral with respect to the target, on either the letter or the colour dimension, whereas the flanker on the other side was always neutral on both dimensions. Healthy controls showed significant interference from incongruent flankers on either side. Crucially, however, this effect only occurred for the task-relevant dimension [F(2,10) = 24.60; P attention leads to unselective prioritization of all feature-based attributes of stimuli appearing within the ipsilesional hemifield, whether or not they are relevant to performance. Attentional selection for ipsilesional stimuli in disorders such as spatial
Shiozawa, Pedro; da Silva, Mailu Enokibara; Cordeiro, Quirino
We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient with major depressive disorder for the last 6 months. The patient had been diagnosed with dyslexia during childhood and was left-handed. The intervention protocol consisted in 10 consecutive daily transcranial direct current stimulation sessions. However, after 5 days of stimulation, the patient presented with intensification of depressive symptoms and panic attacks. It was hypothetized that the intensification of symptoms may have been due to stimulation protocol itself. Considering the patient was left-handed and presented comorbidity with dyslexia, there was a plausible hypothesis of right hemispheric dominance. This was corroborated by the Edinburgh Handedness Scale. In fact, dyslexic patients present right hemisphere dominance more frequently. The patient also presented a single photon emission computed tomography with a hypoperfusion area over the left posterior parietal lobe. After the patients agreement, a 10-day experimental repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation low-frequency protocol over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was started to inhibit the area, which was hypothetically hyperactivated following the rationale of right dominance. The patient presented amelioration of depressive and anxious symptoms. Given the hemispheric reversal we show in the present case study, however, it seems that therapies that are beneficial to right-handers could be detrimental to left-handers.
Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Passarini, Laura; Butterworth, Brian; Rolma, Giuseppe; Burgio, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco; Meneghello, Francesca; Shallice, Tim; Semenza, Carlo
Transcoding numerals containing zero is more problematic than transcoding numbers formed by non-zero digits. However, it is currently unknown whether this is due to zeros requiring brain areas other than those traditionally associated with number representation. Here we hypothesize that transcoding zeros entails visuo-spatial and integrative processes typically associated with the right hemisphere. The investigation involved 22 right-brain-damaged patients and 20 healthy controls who completed tests of reading and writing Arabic numbers. As expected, the most significant deficit among patients involved a failure to cope with zeros. Moreover, a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis showed that the most common zero-errors were maximally associated to the right insula which was previously related to sensorimotor integration, attention, and response selection, yet for the first time linked to transcoding processes. Error categories involving other digits corresponded to the so-called Neglect errors, which however, constituted only about 10% of the total reading and 3% of the writing mistakes made by the patients. We argue that damage to the right hemisphere impairs the mechanism of parsing, and the ability to set-up empty-slot structures required for processing zeros in complex numbers; moreover, we suggest that the brain areas located in proximity to the right insula play a role in the integration of the information resulting from the temporary application of transcoding procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hulou, M Maher; Cote, David J; Olubiyi, Olutayo I; Smith, Timothy R; Chiocca, E Antonio; Johnson, Mark D
We report the indications and outcomes of awake right hemispheric brain surgery, as well as a rare patient with crossed aphasia. Awake craniotomies are often performed to protect eloquent cortex. We reviewed the medical records for 35 of 96 patients, in detail, who had awake right hemisphere brain operations. Intraoperative cortical mapping of motor and/or language function was performed in 29 of the 35 patients. A preoperative speech impairment and left hand dominance were the main indicators for awake right-sided craniotomies in patients with right hemisphere lesions. Four patients with lesion proximity to eloquent areas underwent awake craniotomies without cortical mapping. In addition, one patient had a broncho-pulmonary fistula, and another had a recent major cardiac procedure that precluded awake surgery. An eloquent cortex representation was identified in 14 patients (48.3%). Postoperatively, seven of 17 patients (41.1%) who presented with weakness, experienced improvements in their motor functions, 11 of 16 (68.7%) with seizures became seizure-free, and seven of nine (77.7%) with moderate to severe headaches and one of two with a visual field deficit improved significantly. There were also improvements in speech and language functions in all patients who presented with speech difficulties. A right sided awake craniotomy is an excellent option for left handed patients, or those with right sided cortical lesions that result in preoperative speech impairments. When combined with intraoperative cortical mapping, both speech and motor function can be well preserved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
J.D. Meerwaldt (Johannes David (Jan))
textabstractThis thesis describes a clinical study of disturbances of spatial perception. Chapter I gives a short review of hemispheric asymmetry. For a long time the right hemisphere was regarded as the minor hemisphere, of which substantial regions were thought to have no specific function.
Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen
Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…
Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill
Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...
Cutica, Ilaria; Bucciarelli, Monica; Bara, Bruno G.
The aim of the present study is to compare the pragmatic ability of right- and left-hemisphere-damaged patients excluding the possible interference of linguistic deficits. To this aim, we study extralinguistic communication, that is communication performed only through gestures. The Cognitive Pragmatics Theory provides the theoretical framework:…
Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, Jozsef; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.
Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed…
Manolova, T.; Naydenov, K.; Manchev, I.; Manchev, L.
A case of combined vascular abnormalities is presented- an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery and arterio-venous malformation temporooccipitally on the right, clinically presented by an ischemic brain stroke in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral artery. Treatment included - hypo-tensive drugs, antiplatelet (antiaggregants) agents and vasodilators, which lead to significant improvement of the general and focal neurological symptoms. Neurosurgical intervention is been discussed, in order to remove the vascular malformation and to prevent future vascular events. Key words: Aneurysm. Arteriovenous Malformation. Ischemic Stroke
Bromberger, Bianca; Sternschein, Rebecca; Widick, Page; Smith, William; Chatterjee, Anjan
Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes of art are likely to be disrupted by damage to different regions of the brain. Twenty participants with right hemisphere damage were given the Assessment of Art Attributes, which is designed to quantify judgments of descriptive attributes of visual art. Each participant rated 24 paintings on 6 conceptual attributes (depictive accuracy, abstractness, emotion, symbolism, realism, and animacy) and 6 perceptual attributes (depth, color temperature, color saturation, balance, stroke, and simplicity) and their interest in and preference for these paintings. Deviation scores were obtained for each brain-damaged participant for each attribute based on correlations with group average ratings from 30 age-matched healthy participants. Right hemisphere damage affected participants' judgments of abstractness, accuracy, and stroke quality. Damage to areas within different parts of the frontal parietal and lateral temporal cortices produced deviation in judgments in four of six conceptual attributes (abstractness, symbolism, realism, and animacy). Of the formal attributes, only depth was affected by inferior prefrontal damage. No areas of brain damage were associated with deviations in interestingness or preference judgments. The perception of conceptual and formal attributes in artwork may in part dissociate from each other and from evaluative judgments. More generally, this approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative approaches to the neuropsychology of art.
Full Text Available Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping (VLSM methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes of art are likely to be disrupted by damage to different regions of the brain. Twenty participants with right hemisphere damage were given the Assessment of Art Attributes (AAA, which is designed to quantify judgments of descriptive attributes of visual art. Each participant rated 24 paintings on 6 conceptual attributes (depictive accuracy, abstractness, emotion, symbolism, realism, and animacy and 6 perceptual attributes (depth, color temperature, color saturation, balance, stroke, and simplicity and their interest in and preference for these paintings. Deviation scores were obtained for each brain-damaged participant for each attribute based on correlations with group average ratings from 30 age-matched healthy participants. Right hemisphere damage affected participants' judgments of abstractness, accuracy, and stroke quality. Damage to areas within different parts of the frontal parietal and lateral temporal cortices produced deviation in judgments in four of six conceptual attributes (abstractness, symbolism, realism and animacy. Of the formal attributes, only depth was affected by inferior prefrontal damage. No areas of brain damage were associated with deviations in interestingness or preference judgments. The perception of conceptual and formal attributes in artwork may in part dissociate from each other and from evaluative judgments. More generally, this approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative approaches to the neuropsychology of
Turkeltaub, Peter E
Aphasia is a common consequence of left hemisphere stroke and causes a disabling loss of language and communication ability. Current treatments for aphasia are inadequate, leaving a majority of aphasia sufferers with ongoing communication difficulties for the rest of their lives. In the past decade, two forms of noninvasive brain stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, have emerged as promising new treatments for aphasia. The most common brain stimulation protocols attempt to inhibit the intact right hemisphere based on the hypothesis that maladaptive activity in the right hemisphere limits language recovery in the left. There is now sufficient evidence to demonstrate that this approach, at least for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, improves specific language abilities in aphasia. However, the biological mechanisms that produce these behavioral improvements remain poorly understood. Taken in the context of the larger neurobiological literature on aphasia recovery, the role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery remains unclear. Additional research is needed to understand biological mechanisms of recovery, in order to optimize brain stimulation treatments for aphasia. This article summarizes the current evidence on noninvasive brain stimulation methods for aphasia and the neuroscientific considerations surrounding treatments using right hemisphere inhibition. Suggestions are provided for further investigation and for clinicians whose patients ask about brain stimulation treatments for aphasia.
Ries, Stephanie K.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Knight, Robert T.
Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes—lexical activation and lexical selection—and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation. PMID:26766393
Gurin, Lindsey; Blum, Sonja
Delusions are beliefs that remain fixed despite evidence that they are incorrect. Although the precise neural mechanism of delusional belief remains to be elucidated, there is a predominance of right-hemisphere lesions among patients with delusional syndromes accompanied by structural pathology, suggesting that right-hemisphere lesions, or networks with key nodes in the right hemisphere, may be playing a role. The authors discuss the potential theoretical basis and empiric support for a specific right-hemisphere role in delusion production, drawing on its roles in pragmatic communication; perceptual integration; attentional surveillance and anomaly/novelty detection; and belief updating.
Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig
-hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made...... perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required......, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may...
Tivarus, Madalina E.; Starling, Sarah J.; Newport, Elissa L.; Langfitt, John T.
To determine the areas involved in reorganization of language to the right hemisphere after early left hemisphere injury, we compared fMRI activation patterns during four production and comprehension tasks in post-surgical epilepsy patients with either left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) speech dominance (determined by Wada testing) and healthy…
Pisella, L; Alahyane, N; Blangero, A; Thery, F; Blanc, S; Pelisson, D
We review evidence showing a right-hemispheric dominance for visuo-spatial processing and representation in humans. Accordingly, visual disorganization symptoms (intuitively related to remapping impairments) are observed in both neglect and constructional apraxia. More specifically, we review findings from the intervening saccade paradigm in humans--and present additional original data--which suggest a specific role of the asymmetrical network at the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the right hemisphere in visual remapping: following damage to the right dorsal posterior parietal cortex (PPC) as well as part of the corpus callosum connecting the PPC to the frontal lobes, patient OK in a double-step saccadic task exhibited an impairment when the second saccade had to be directed rightward. This singular and lateralized deficit cannot result solely from the patient's cortical lesion and, therefore, we propose that it is due to his callosal lesion that may specifically interrupt the interhemispheric transfer of information necessary to execute accurate rightward saccades towards a remapped target location. This suggests a specialized right-hemispheric network for visuo-spatial remapping that subsequently transfers target location information to downstream planning regions, which are symmetrically organized.
Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill
Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... statistically to lesion location and size measured by MRI. Visual processing speed was impaired in the contralesional hemifield for most patients, but typically preserved ipsilesionally, even after large cortico-subcortical lesions. When bilateral deficits in processing speed occurred, they were related...... to damage in the right middle frontal gyrus or leukoaraiosis. The storage capacity of VSTM was also normal for most patients, but deficits were found after severe leukoaraiosis or large strokes extending deep into white matter. Thus, the study demonstrated the importance of white-matter connectivity...
Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD, focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients (12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+, 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-, and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.
Van Kessel, M.E.; Van Nes, I.J.W.; Brouwer, W.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Fasotti, L
Asymmetry in performance and an association with non-lateralized attention are often mentioned as two important aspects of the clinical manifestation of visuospatial neglect. Both these aspects were investigated in 21 left (LH) and 24 right hemisphere (RH) stroke patients and in 20 healthy subjects.
Klimiec, Elzbieta; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Pasinska, Paulina; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Szyper, Aleksandra; Pera, Joanna; Slowik, Agnieszka; Dziedzic, Tomasz
Neuropsychiatric symptoms can be interrelated to delirium. We aimed to investigate an association between pre-stroke neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of delirium in stroke patients. We included 606 patients (median age: 73, 53% female) with stroke or transient ischemic attack admitted within 48 hours from symptoms onset. We assessed delirium on a daily basis during the first 7 days of hospitalization. To make diagnosis of delirium we used DSM-5 criteria. We used Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring within 4 weeks prior to stroke. We diagnosed delirium in 28.2% of patients. On univariate analysis, higher score of pre-stroke depression (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.04-2.40, P = 0.03), apathy (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.44-3.45, P delirium. On multivariate analysis adjusted for age, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, stroke severity, right hemisphere lesion, pre-stroke cognitive decline, pre-stroke disability and infections, higher apathy score (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.17-3.50, P = 0.01), but no other neuropsychiatric symptoms, remained independent predictor of delirium. We conclude that pre-stroke apathy symptoms are associated with increased risk of delirium in stroke patients.
Diaz, Michele T.; Eppes, Anna
Although the left hemisphere is critical for language, clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging research suggest that the right hemisphere also contributes to language comprehension. In particular, research has suggested that figurative language may be one type of language that preferentially engages right hemisphere regions. However, there is disagreement about whether these regions within the right hemisphere are sensitive to figurative language per se or to other factors that co-vary with figurativeness. In this article, we will review the neuroimaging literature on figurative language processing, focusing on metaphors, within the context of several theoretical perspectives that have been proposed about hemispheric function in language. Then we will examine three factors that may influence right hemisphere engagement: novelty, task difficulty, and context. We propose that factors that increase integration demands drive right hemisphere involvement in language processing, and that such recruitment is not limited to figurative language. PMID:29643825
Shaqiri, Albulena; Anderson, Britt
In this experiment we studied statistical learning, inter-trial priming, and visual attention. We assessed healthy controls and right brain damaged (RBD) patients with and without neglect, on a simple visual discrimination task designed to measure priming effects and probability learning. All participants showed a preserved priming effect for item…
A. A. Lukshina
Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on meningiomas and their psychopathological manifestations that occupy a central position in the clinical picture in almost every 5 patients with these tumors. The authors provide a clinical and psychopathological analysis of a female patient with multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere: a giant meningioma in the posterior third of the falx, a large meningioma in the temporal region, and three small meningiomas in the frontal and parietal regions. The disease started as headache; however, psychopathological symptoms remained missed by physicians, such as emotional lability; personality changes leading to family dissension; lower criticism; spatial orientation problems; hypomnesia; left-sided visual inattention,occurred in parallel. Surgical treatment was performed by stages: the two largest meningiomas were removed at an 11-day interval, which presented a means of observing psychopathological changes after each operation. It is concluded that greater attention should be given to the psychopathological manifestations of the disease, which is important to make a primary diagnosis and to define further treatment policy.
Kim, Yong Mi; Chun, Min Ho; Yun, Gi Jeong; Song, Young Jin; Young, Han Eun
Objective To investigate the effect of virtual reality training on unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients. Method Twenty-four stroke patients (14 males and 10 females, mean age=64.7) who had unilateral spatial neglect as a result of right hemisphere stroke were recruited. All patients were randomly assigned to either the virtual reality (VR) group (n=12) or the control group (n=12). The VR group received VR training, which stimulated the left side of their bodies. The control group rec...
Zaidel, Dahlia W
The research studies of complete commissurotomy patients (split-brain) in Roger W. Sperry's psychobiology laboratory at Caltech, Pasadena, galvanized the scientific and intellectual world in the 1960s and 1970s. The findings had an important and enduring impact on brain research in countless areas. Interest in hemispheric specialization in particular was sparked by these studies and paved the way for countless discoveries. Right hemisphere specialization for visuospatial functions and facial processing was confirmed with these patients. The further unraveling of right-hemisphere cognition, the "mute" hemisphere, was a major goal in Sperry's laboratory, and much factual knowledge was learned that was not known previously. However, the linking of art and creativity with the right hemisphere was a nonempirically based inference made not by Sperry's lab but rather by others wishing to "assign" functional hemisphericity. The general assumption was that "art" is anchored in spatial cognition, that it is a nonverbal activity requiring imagery and thus must be controlled by the right, nonlanguage hemisphere. To this day, robust evidence that the right specializes in art expression or art perception is yet to be shown, if for no other reason than that art is not a single, unitary form of expression or cognition. The conjectured right hemisphere-art link turned into a popular story that filtered back into science, shaped future research of brain and art, and overlooked other avenues for insights. This chapter traces and explores this background. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sato, Wataru; Aoki, Satoshi
Right hemispheric dominance in unconscious emotional processing has been suggested, but remains controversial. This issue was investigated using the subliminal affective priming paradigm combined with unilateral visual presentation in 40 normal subjects. In either left or right visual fields, angry facial expressions, happy facial expressions, or…
Wallez, Catherine; Vauclair, Jacques
Asymmetries of emotional facial expressions in humans offer reliable indexes to infer brain lateralization and mostly revealed right hemisphere dominance. Studies concerned with oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates largely showed a left-sided asymmetry in chimpanzees, marmosets and macaques. The presence of asymmetrical oro-facial…
Full Text Available Ictal asystole is frequently underrecognized despite being a potentially lethal condition. We report two cases of ictal asystole with right hemispheric onset. These cases are unique since previous literature reports that seizures associated with bradyarrhythmias typically arise from left hemispheric foci. These cases further underscore the importance of clinical vigilance and the need of an enhanced diagnostic biomarker.
Blake, Margaret Lehman
Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…
Tudor, Lorraine; Sikirić, Predrag; Tudor, Katarina Ivana; Cambi-Sapunar, Liana; Radonić, Vedran; Tudor, Mario; Buca, Ante; Carija, Robert
The experience with cortical localization (BA 44, 45, 22) of language (Broca, Wernicke and others) in the left hemisphere has been repeatedly tested over the last 150 years and is now generally accepted. A single case report with autopsy findings (Leborgne, Tan tan), has enabled to localize the seat of spoken language in the left third frontal convolution. As music and language have a lot in common and even share the same hearing system, it is logical to try to localize the cognitive centers for music too. The disabling neurological disease illness of Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), a French impressionist composer, is not the right example to localize music center as that of Broca's language center, but it demonstrates the role of the right hemisphere in music production. In the last five years of his life, Ravel suffered from an unknown disease that affected the left hemisphere causing aphasia, apraxia, alexia, agraphia and amusia. It was the reason why Ravel could not compose during the last years of his life. In contrast to Ravel, Shebalin and Britten continued writing music works of their own although aphasic after having sustained two strokes to the left hemisphere. While lacking clinical cases with selective ablative brain lesions, research into the music localization can be done using modern imaging technologies such as fMRI and PET. Exercising music (professionally) develops analytical process in the left hemisphere whereas other individuals process music in their right hemisphere. There is right ear (left hemisphere) predominance in musicians and vice versa in musical amateurs. Music lateralization towards the right hemisphere is seen in women and in inattentive listeners. It can be subject to cultural influence, so the Japanese process their traditional popular music in the left hemisphere, whereas Westerners process the same music in the right hemisphere. Music and language are processed separately; they are localized in homologous regions of the opposite
Friston, Karl J.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Garrido, Marta I.
Detecting the location of salient sounds in the environment rests on the brain's ability to use differences in sounds arriving at both ears. Functional neuroimaging studies in humans indicate that the left and right auditory hemispaces are coded asymmetrically, with a rightward attentional bias that reflects spatial attention in vision. Neuropsychological observations in patients with spatial neglect have led to the formulation of two competing models: the orientation bias and right-hemisphere dominance models. The orientation bias model posits a symmetrical mapping between one side of the sensorium and the contralateral hemisphere, with mutual inhibition of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The right-hemisphere dominance model introduces a functional asymmetry in the brain's coding of space: the left hemisphere represents the right side, whereas the right hemisphere represents both sides of the sensorium. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling of effective connectivity and Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between these alternative network architectures, based on human electroencephalographic data acquired during an auditory location oddball paradigm. Our results support a hemispheric asymmetry in a frontoparietal network that conforms to the right-hemisphere dominance model. We show that, within this frontoparietal network, forward connectivity increases selectively in the hemisphere contralateral to the side of sensory stimulation. We interpret this finding in light of hierarchical predictive coding as a selective increase in attentional gain, which is mediated by feedforward connections that carry precision-weighted prediction errors during perceptual inference. This finding supports the disconnection hypothesis of unilateral neglect and has implications for theories of its etiology. PMID:24695717
Sperber, Christoph; Karnath, Hans-Otto
Knowledge of the typical lesion topography and volumetry is important for clinical stroke diagnosis as well as for anatomo-behavioral lesion mapping analyses. Here we used modern lesion analysis techniques to examine the naturally occurring lesion patterns caused by ischemic and by hemorrhagic infarcts in a large, representative acute stroke patient sample. Acute MR and CT imaging of 439 consecutively admitted right-hemispheric stroke patients from a well-defined catchment area suffering from ischemia (n = 367) or hemorrhage (n = 72) were normalized and mapped in reference to stereotaxic anatomical atlases. For ischemic infarcts, highest frequencies of stroke were observed in the insula, putamen, operculum and superior temporal cortex, as well as the inferior and superior occipito-frontal fascicles, superior longitudinal fascicle, uncinate fascicle, and the acoustic radiation. The maximum overlay of hemorrhages was located more posteriorly and more medially, involving posterior areas of the insula, Heschl's gyrus, and putamen. Lesion size was largest in frontal and anterior areas and lowest in subcortical and posterior areas. The large and unbiased sample of stroke patients used in the present study accumulated the different sub-patterns to identify the global topographic and volumetric pattern of right hemisphere stroke in humans.
Full Text Available Qualitative communication disorders belong to the key symptoms of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD. The severity of the symptoms of communication disorders varies depending on the type of PDD, from the lack of functional speech to overdeveloped verbal competencies measured by standardized scales. In Asperger’s syndrome (AS, observed language abnormalities include: pragmatics (application of language in social context, semantics (identifying different meanings of the same word and prosody (rhythm, intonation and modulation of speech. In the case of AS, the difference between formal language skills, i.e. within morphological, phonological and syntactic functions, and semantic and pragmatic deficits is clearly noticeable and distinctive. This situation arouses some questions about neurobiological conditions of these deficits. The language functions are among the first functions for which locations in the brain have been established. Traditionally they have been ascribed to some regions in the left hemisphere; they undergo lateralization and are accomplished owing to the activity of the primary, secondary and tertiary regions of associative cortex. However, there is also quite a lot of evidence suggesting that the right hemisphere plays an important role in communication processes, especially in some aspects of pragmatics and discourse. The analysis of communication deficits observed in patients with acquired right hemisphere damages and patients with AS as well as abnormal patterns of hemispheric asymmetry in this group of patients, suggest that the right hemisphere is involved in aetiology of PDD.
Ian J. Kirk
Full Text Available Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions.
Waldie, Karen E; Haigh, Charlotte E; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Buckley, Jude; Kirk, Ian J
Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords) during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions.
Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt; Danckert, James
We recently proposed that the right hemisphere plays a crucial role in the processes underlying mental model building and updating. Here, we review the evidence we and others have garnered to support this novel account of right hemisphere function. We begin by presenting evidence from patient work that suggests a critical role for the right hemisphere in the ability to learn from the statistics in the environment (model building) and adapt to environmental change (model updating). We then provide a review of neuroimaging research that highlights a network of brain regions involved in mental model updating. Next, we outline specific roles for particular regions within the network such that the anterior insula is purported to maintain the current model of the environment, the medial prefrontal cortex determines when to explore new or alternative models, and the inferior parietal lobule represents salient and surprising information with respect to the current model. We conclude by proposing some future directions that address some of the outstanding questions in the field of mental model building and updating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies (ESS) 2006, and to examine to what extent the ESS have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death...... comprising 61 questions based on the ESS and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: Organization...... of stroke services, Management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and Secondary prevention. RESULTS: Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hours after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start...
Turner, Margaret A; Andrewes, David G
This study investigated whether increasing positive mood improved interpersonal attitudes and relieved depression in depressed stroke patients despite levels of cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Depressed stroke (n = 30) and rheumatic/orthopaedic controls (n = 30) were compared on the effect of verbal and nonverbal positive and neutral mood induction on mood state, interpersonal attitudes, psychological distress and related cognitive and emotional processing deficits. Compared with the neutral mood induction condition, the positive mood induction significantly improved mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress, irrespective of cognitive and emotional processing deficits. The nonverbal material was effective for all patients but was more marked for the left hemisphere stroke group. There was no obvious influence of humour appreciation despite reduced understanding in the right hemisphere stroke group. Although the effect is likely to be short-lived, these results support the trial of positive mood induction within therapy programmes to relieve depression.
Yoon, Ji Hye; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, HyangHee
We investigated how changes in the writing of 14 Korean stroke patients reflect the unique features of the Korean writing system. The Korean writing system, Han-geul, has both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive characteristics. In the visuospatial construction of a syllable, the component consonant(s) and vowel(s) must be arranged from top-to-bottom and/or left-to-right within the form of a square. This syllabic organization, unique to Korean writing, may distinguish dysgraphia in Korean patients from the disorder in other languages, and reveal the effects of stroke on visuospatial/constructive abilities. We compared 2 groups of patients affected by stroke, 1 group with left hemisphere (LH) lesions and the other with right hemisphere (RH) lesions. We instructed them to write from a dictation of 90 monosyllabic stimuli, each presented with a real word cue. Patients had to repeat a target syllable and a word cue, and then to write the target syllable only. Patients with LH and RH lesions produced qualitatively different error patterns. While the LH lesion group produced primarily linguistic errors, visuospatial/constructive errors predominated in the group with RH lesions. With regard to language-specific features, these Korean patients with RH lesions produced diverse visuospatial/constructive errors not commonly observed in dysgraphia of the English language. Language-specific writing errors by Korean stroke patients reflect the unique characteristics of Korean writing, which include the arrangement of strokes and graphemes within a square syllabic form by dimensional and spatial rules. These findings support the notion that the Korean writing system possesses a language-specific nature with both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive processes. Distinctive patterns of dysgraphia in the Korean language also suggest interactivity between linguistic and visuospatial/constructive levels of processing. This study is noteworthy for its systematic description of
Longo, Matthew R; Trippier, Sarah; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Lourenco, Stella F
Traditionally, the right cerebral hemisphere has been considered to be specialized for spatial attention and orienting. A large body of research has demonstrated dissociable representations of the near space immediately surrounding the body and the more distance far space. In this study, we investigated whether right hemisphere activations commonly reported for tasks involving spatial attention (such as the line bisection and landmark tasks) are specific to stimuli presented in near space. In separate blocks of trials, participants judged either whether a vertical transector was to the left or right of the centre of a line (landmark task) or whether the line was red or blue (colour task). Stimuli were seen from four distances (30, 60, 90, 120 cm). We used EEG to measure an ERP component (the 'line-bisection effect') specific to the direction of spatial attention (i.e., landmark minus colour). Consistent with previous results, spatial attention produced a right-lateralized negativity over occipito-parietal channels. The magnitude of this negativity was inversely related to viewing distance, being largest in near space and reduced in far space. These results suggest that the right occipito-temporal cortex may be specialized not just for the orientation of spatial attention generally, but specifically for orienting attention in the near space immediately surrounding the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lomlomdjian, Carolina; Múnera, Claudia P; Low, Daniel M; Terpiluk, Verónica; Solís, Patricia; Abusamra, Valeria; Kochen, Silvia
Discourse skills - in which the right hemisphere has an important role - enables verbal communication by selecting contextually relevant information and integrating it coherently to infer the correct meaning. However, language research in epilepsy has focused on single word analysis related mainly to left hemisphere processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate discourse abilities in patients with right lateralized medial temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) by comparing their performance to that of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE). 74 pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients were evaluated: 34 with RTLE and 40 with LTLE. Subjects underwent a battery of tests that measure comprehension and production of conversational and narrative discourse. Disease related variables and general neuropsychological data were evaluated. The RTLE group presented deficits in interictal conversational and narrative discourse, with a disintegrated speech, lack of categorization and misinterpretation of social meaning. LTLE group, on the other hand, showed a tendency to lower performance in logical-temporal sequencing. RTLE patients showed discourse deficits which have been described in right hemisphere damaged patients due to other etiologies. Medial and anterior temporal lobe structures appear to link semantic, world knowledge, and social cognition associated areas to construct a contextually related coherent meaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Dichgans, Martin; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Kolodny, Edwin; Kropp, Peter; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Rothwell, Peter M; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt
Family history of stroke is an established risk factor for stroke. We evaluated whether family history of stroke predisposed to certain stroke subtypes and whether it differed by sex in young patients with stroke. We used data from the Stroke in Fabry Patients study, a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young patients (aged stroke in whom cardiovascular risk factors and family history of stroke were obtained and detailed stroke subtyping was performed. A family history of stroke was present in 1578 of 4232 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients (37.3%). Female patients more often had a history of stroke in the maternal lineage (P=0.027) than in the paternal lineage. There was no association with stroke subtype according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment nor with the presence of white matter disease on brain imaging. Patients with dissection less frequently reported a family history of stroke (30.4% versus 36.3%; P=0.018). Patients with a parental history of stroke more commonly had siblings with stroke (3.6% versus 2.6%; P=0.047). Although present in about a third of patients, a family history of stroke is not specifically related to stroke pathogenic subtypes in patients with young stroke. Young women with stroke more often report stroke in the maternal lineage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Timothy T. Brown
Full Text Available Individuals with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI show abnormal spoken language occurring alongside normal nonverbal abilities. Behaviorally, people with SLI exhibit diverse profiles of impairment involving phonological, grammatical, syntactic, and semantic aspects of language. In this study, we used a multimodal neuroimaging technique called anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG to measure the dynamic functional brain organization of an adolescent with SLI. Using single-subject statistical maps of cortical activity, we compared this patient to a sibling and to a cohort of typically developing subjects during the performance of tasks designed to evoke semantic representations of concrete objects. Localized, real-time patterns of brain activity within the language impaired patient showed marked differences from the typical functional organization, with significant engagement of right hemisphere heteromodal cortical regions generally homotopic to the left hemisphere areas that usually show the greatest activity for such tasks. Functional neuroanatomical differences were evident at early sensoriperceptual processing stages and continued through later cognitive stages, observed specifically at latencies typically associated with semantic encoding operations. Our findings show with real-time temporal specificity evidence for an atypical right hemisphere specialization for the representation of concrete entities, independent of verbal motor demands. More broadly, our results demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of using aMEG to characterize individual patient differences in the dynamic functional organization of the brain.
Tanaka, Satoshi; Seki, Keiko; Hanakawa, Takashi; Harada, Madoka; Sugawara, Sho K; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Katsumi; Honda, Manabu
The abacus, a traditional physical calculation device, is still widely used in Asian countries. Previous behavioral work has shown that skilled abacus users perform rapid and precise mental arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, which is based on visual imagery. However, its neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report the case of a patient who was a good abacus user, but transiently lost her "mental abacus" and superior arithmetic performance after a stroke owing to a right hemispheric lesion including the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were conducted 6 and 13 months after her stroke. In the mental calculation task, her brain activity was shifted from the language-related areas, including Broca's area and the left dorsolateral prefrontal and IPLs, to the visuospatial-related brain areas including the left superior parietal lobule (SPL), according to the recovery of her arithmetic abilities. In the digit memory task, activities in the bilateral SPL, and right visual association cortex were also observed after recovery. The shift of brain activities was consistent with her subjective report that she was able to shift the calculation strategy from linguistic to visuospatial as her mental abacus became stable again. In a behavioral experiment using an interference paradigm, a visual presentation of an abacus picture, but not a human face picture, interfered with the performance of her digit memory, confirming her use of the mental abacus after recovery. This is the first case report on the impairment of the mental abacus by a brain lesion and on recovery-related brain activity. We named this rare case "abacus-based acalculia." Together with previous neuroimaging studies, the present result suggests an important role for the PMd and parietal cortex in the superior arithmetic ability of abacus users.
Full Text Available Stroke is one of the major problems in medical and healthcare that can cause severe disability and death of patients especially for older population. Rehabilitation plays an important role in stroke therapy. However, most of the rehabilitative exercises are monotonous and tiring for the patients. For a particular time, they can easily get bored in doing these exercises. The role of patient’s motivation in rehabilitation is vital. Motivation and rehabilitative outcomes are strongly related. Digital games promise to help stroke patients to feel motivated and more engaged in rehabilitative training through motivational gameplay. Most of the commercial games available in the market are not well-designed for stroke patients and their motivational needs in rehabilitation. This study aims at understanding the motivational requirements of stroke patients in doing rehabilitative exercises and living in a post-stroke life. Based on the findings from the literature review, we report factors that can influence the stroke patients’ level of motivation such as social functioning, patient-therapist relationship, goal-setting, and music. These findings are insightful and useful for ideating and designing interactive motivation-driven games for stroke patients. The motivational factors of stroke patients in rehabilitation may help the game designers to design motivation-driven game contexts, contents, and gameplay. Moreover, these findings may also help healthcare professionals who concern stroke patient’s motivation in rehabilitative context. In this paper, we reported our Virtual Nursing Home (VNH concept and the games that we are currently developing and re-designing. Based on this literature review, we will present and test out the ideas how we can integrate these motivational factors in our future game design, development, and enhancement.
Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis
Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fiebach, Christian J; Friederici, Angela D
Behavioral, patient, and electrophysiological studies have been taken as support for the assumption that processing of abstract words is confined to the left hemisphere, whereas concrete words are processed also by right-hemispheric brain areas. These are thought to provide additional information from an imaginal representational system, as postulated in the dual-coding theory of memory and cognition. Here we report new event-related fMRI data on the processing of concrete and abstract words in a lexical decision task. While abstract words activated a subregion of the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) more strongly than concrete words, specific activity for concrete words was observed in the left basal temporal cortex. These data as well as data from other neuroimaging studies reviewed here are not compatible with the assumption of a specific right-hemispheric involvement for concrete words. The combined findings rather suggest a revised view of the neuroanatomical bases of the imaginal representational system assumed in the dual-coding theory, at least with respect to word recognition.
Yeh, Zai-Ting; Tsai, Chung-Fen
Impaired social function has been described in patients following stroke. The present study was designed to explore the degree of impairment in the ability to infer mental states in others, or cognitive and affective theory of mind, and empathy, in patients with stroke. A total of 34 patients with stroke were compared to 40 control subjects on tasks testing verbal and non-verbal theory of mind and empathy. Results indicated that patients with stroke were significantly impaired in both cognitive and affective theory of mind, even controlling for basic cognitive function and emotional processing. The patients with right stroke had poorer performance than those with left stroke on the cognitive component of non-verbal theory of mind. On the subscale of cognitive empathy, the right stroke group had poorer performance on perspective-taking than the control group. The right hemisphere may play an important role in decoding non-verbal cues to infer others' minds as well as the processing of empathy, especially the ability of perspective-taking. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Hamilton, Jackie; Radlak, Bogna; Morris, Paul G; Phillips, Louise H
Cognitive deficits following stroke are well documented, but less is known about problems with social skills such as understanding others' thoughts and feelings. This study investigated the effect of stroke on a visual-affective measure of social understanding: the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET). The aims were to investigate whether right hemisphere stroke was particularly detrimental to this aspect of Theory of Mind (ToM), and investigate the relationship between ToM ability and executive function following stroke. Performance of stroke patients (right hemisphere stroke, n = 15; left hemisphere stroke, n = 15) was compared to that of controls (n = 40) matched for age, years of education, and IQ on tasks measuring ToM and executive functioning. Right hemisphere stroke was associated with impaired ToM ability, but left hemisphere stroke was not. There was no effect of stroke on a matched non-ToM control task. High correlations were found between performance on the RMET and some measures of executive functioning in participants with right hemisphere stroke only. Further analyses suggested that deficits in executive functioning could not statistically explain all of the difficulties shown by stroke participants on the RMET. A reduction in the ability to attribute mental states to others following right hemisphere stroke may adversely affect psychosocial functioning, disrupt interpersonal relationships, and lead to reduced quality of life. The clinical importance of these findings, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dong, Yi; Cao, Wenjie; Cheng, Xin; Fang, Kun; Zhang, Xiaolong; Gu, Yuxiang; Leng, Bing; Dong, Qiang
Intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial thrombectomy are now the standard therapies for patients with acute ischemic stroke. In-house strokes have often been overlooked even at stroke centers and there is no consensus on how they should be managed. Perioperative stroke happens rather frequently but treatment protocol is lacking, In China, the issue of in-house strokes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to explore the current management of in-house stroke and identify the common risk factors associated with perioperative strokes. Altogether, 51,841 patients were admitted to a tertiary hospital in Shanghai and the records of those who had a neurological consult for stroke were reviewed. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, in-hospital complications and operations, and management plans were prospectively studied. Routine laboratory test results and risk factors of these patients were analyzed by multiple logistic regression model. From January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, over 1800 patients had neurological consultations. Among these patients, 37 had an in-house stroke and 20 had more severe stroke during the postoperative period. Compared to in-house stroke patients without a procedure or operation, leukocytosis and elevated fasting glucose levels were more common in perioperative strokes. In multiple logistic regression model, perioperative strokes were more likely related to large vessel occlusion. Patients with perioperative strokes had different risk factors and severity from other in-house strokes. For these patients, obtaining a neurological consultation prior to surgery may be appropriate in order to evaluate the risk of perioperative stroke. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Abasova, G B; Tyksanbaeva, G U; Orazalieva, D B; Kasymova, S K
Research of efficiency and safety of Vasonat has been carried out. 31 patients aged 46-75 years who had had hemispheric athero- thrombotic or hemodynamic schemic stroke with moderate severity and being treated in 2-5-month of early rehabilitation period have been observed. The control group of patients received placebo. Results of the study, 4 weeks treatment using Vasonat in the dosage of 500 mg/day have shown positive effect on common signs of the disease by decreasing headache intensity, dizziness, a nausea, and on focal neurological symptoms by decreasing hemiparesis degree; psychoemotional and mnestic activity (main memory and attention) improved as well. It was more distinct in patients with localization of the stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain. It was also noted more rapid improvement of motion function and quality of life of patients.
Blake, Margaret Lehman; Frymark, Tobi; Venedictov, Rebecca
Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the research evidence related to the treatment of individuals with right hemisphere communication disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature using key words related to right hemisphere brain damage and communication treatment was conducted in 27 databases (e.g.,…
Gold, B T; Kertesz, A
Extensive testing of a patient, GP, who encountered large-scale destruction of left-hemisphere (LH) language regions was undertaken in order to address several issues concerning the ability of nonperisylvian areas to extract meaning from printed words. Testing revealed recognition of superordinate boundaries of animals, tools, vegetables, fruit, clothes, and furniture. GP was able to distinguish proper names from other nouns and from nonwords. GP was also able to differentiate words representing living things from those denoting nonliving things. The extent of LH infarct resulting in a global impairment to phonological and syntactic processing suggests LH specificity for these functions but considerable right-hemisphere (RH) participation in visual lexicosemantic processing. The relative preservation of visual lexicosemantic abilities despite severe impairment to all aspects of phonological coding demonstrates the importance of the direct route to the meaning of single printed words.
Full Text Available Background : Stroke is one of the most common causes of disabilities and death all over the world. The mortality rate of stroke is predicted to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Nutrition is an effective strategy in prevention and management of stroke. This study assessed the relationship between various protein types and stroke risk. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in a University hospital. The data regarding consumption of usual food intake of 69 cases (46 men and 23 women and 60 controls (30 men and 30 women was collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The mean consumption of red and white meat and vegetable and processed proteins consumption were compared between two groups. Results: The percent of total of daily protein intake were lower in patients with stroke in both sexes (25.92% vs 30.55% in men and 30.7% vs 31.14% in women. Conclusion: Lower protein consumption may be observed in patients with stroke patients in both sex.
Victoria Louise Barbour
Full Text Available Background. Fatigue after stroke is common and distressing to patients. Aims. Our aims were to explore patients' perceptions of post-stroke fatigue, including the causes of fatigue and the factors that alleviate fatigue, in a mixed methods study. Results. We interviewed 15 patients who had had a stroke and were inpatients on stroke rehabilitation wards. A substantial proportion of patients reported that their fatigue started at the time of their stroke. Various different factors were reported to improve fatigue, including exercise, good sleep, rehabilitation and rest. Fatigue influences patients' sense of “control” after their stroke. Conclusion. Our results are consistent with the possibility that poststroke fatigue might be triggered by factors that occur at the time of the stroke (e.g., the stroke lesion itself, or admission to hospital and then exacerbated by poor sleep and boredom. These factors should be considered when developing complex interventions to improve post-stroke fatigue.
Lidzba, Karen; de Haan, Bianca; Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Staudt, Martin
Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI. 16/17 patients demonstrated reorganized language production, while 7/19 patients had reorganized language comprehension. Lesions to the insular cortex and the temporo-parietal junction (predominantly supramarginal gyrus) were significantly more common in patients in whom both, language production and comprehension were reorganized. These areas belong to the dorsal stream of the language network, participating in the auditory-motor integration of language. Our data suggest that the integrity of this stream might be crucial for a normal left-lateralized language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kim, Yong Mi; Chun, Min Ho; Yun, Gi Jeong; Song, Young Jin; Young, Han Eun
To investigate the effect of virtual reality training on unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients. Twenty-four stroke patients (14 males and 10 females, mean age=64.7) who had unilateral spatial neglect as a result of right hemisphere stroke were recruited. All patients were randomly assigned to either the virtual reality (VR) group (n=12) or the control group (n=12). The VR group received VR training, which stimulated the left side of their bodies. The control group received conventional neglect therapy such as visual scanning training. Both groups received therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days per week for three weeks. Outcome measurements included star cancellation test, line bisection test, Catherine Bergego scale (CBS), and the Korean version of modified Barthel index (K-MBI). These measurements were taken before and after treatment. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and initial values between the two groups. The changes in star cancellation test results and CBS in the VR group were significantly higher than those of the control group after treatment. The changes in line bisection test score and the K-MBI in the VR group were not statistically significant. This study suggests that virtual reality training may be a beneficial therapeutic technique on unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients.
Amaducci, L; Grassi, E; Boller, F
The problem of finding correspondence between a particular neuronal organization and a specific function of the human brain remains a central question of neuroscience. It is sometimes thought that language and music are two sides of the same intellectual coin, but research on brain-damaged patients has shown that the loss of verbal functions (aphasia) is not necessarily accompanied by a loss of musical abilities (amusia). Amusia without aphasia has also been described. This double dissociation indicates functional autonomy in these mental processes. Yet verbal and musical impairments often occur together. The global picture that emerges from studies of music and its neural substrate is by no means clear and much depends on which subjects and which aspect of musical abilities are investigated. An illustration of these concepts is provided by the case of the French composer Maurice Ravel, who suffered from a progressive cerebral disease of uncertain aetiology, with prominent involvement of the left hemisphere. As a result, Ravel experienced aphasia and apraxia and became unable to compose. The available facts favour a clinical diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), with the possibility of an overlap with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). In view of Ravel's clinical history, we propose that two of his final compositions, the Bolero and the Concerto for the Left Hand, include certain patterns characteristic of right-hemisphere musical abilities and may show the influence of disease on the creative process.
McCluskey, Gavin; Wade, Carrie; McKee, Jacqueline; McCarron, Peter; McVerry, Ferghal; McCarron, Mark O
Little is known of the impact of stroke laterality on the management process and outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Consecutive patients admitted to a general hospital over 1 year with supratentorial AIS were eligible for inclusion in the study. Baseline characteristics and risk factors, delays in hospital admission, imaging, intrahospital transfer to an acute stoke unit, stroke severity and classification, length of hospital admission, as well as 10-year mortality were measured and compared among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. There were 141 patients (77 men, 64 women; median age 73 [interquartile range 63-79] years), There were 71 patients with left hemisphere AIS and 70 with right hemisphere AIS. Delays to hospital admission from stroke onset to neuroimaging were similar among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. Delay in transfer to an acute stroke unit (ASU) following hospital admission was on average 14 hours more for right hemisphere compared to left hemisphere AIS patients (P = .01). Laterality was not associated with any difference in 10-year survival. Patients with mild and nondominant AIS merit particular attention to minimize their intrahospital transfer time to an ASU. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tetteroo, D.; Willems, L.; Markopoulos, P.; Fred, A.; Gamboa, H.; Elias, D.
The use of technology in stroke rehabilitation is increasingly common. An important aspect in stroke rehabilitation is feedback towards the patient, but research on how such feedback should be designed in stroke rehabilitation technology is scarce. Therefore, in this paper we describe an exploratory
Buse Rahime Hasırcı
Full Text Available Stroke which is a common complication in Human immumodeficiency virus type 1 positive patients is seen between 1% and 5% in clinical series. Vasculopathy and atherogenesis in HIV are the main pathologic mechanisms of stroke. We report a 63 year old man with sudden onset of a right hemiplegia and who was diagnosed as HIV-related stroke.
Komaba, Yuichi; Kitamura, Shin; Terashi, Akiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional relation between the thalamus and other cortical regions in patients with thalamic stroke from the view of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) using positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty patients with thalamic stroke (right lesion=8, left lesion=12) and 7 normal controls were studied. Five patients were diagnosed as having thalamic infarction, and 15 (patients were diagnosed) as having thalamic hemorrhage by X-CT and/or MRI scan. Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen were measured by PET using C 15 O 2 and 15 O 2 steady state inhalation technique. In the left thalamic stroke group, CMRO 2 was significantly decreased in the left cingulate, superior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, medial occipital, and thalamic regions, compared with the normal control group. In the right thalamic stroke group, CMRO 2 was decreased in the left cingulate, medial occipital, right hippocampal, thalamic, and the bilateral cerebellar regions, compared with the normal control group. In the left thalamic stroke group, CBF was decreased significantly in the left cingulate, middle temporal, hippocampal, thalamic, and right cerebellar regions, compared with the normal control group. In the right thalamic stroke group, CBF was significantly decreased in the right hippocampal, thalamic and left cerebellar regions compared with the normal control group. These results indicate that CBF and CMRO 2 decrease in some distant regions from thalamic lesions, perhaps due to a disconnection of neuronal fiber. Especially in the left thalamic stroke group, CMRO 2 was decreased in the ipsilateral temporal regions. This result suggests that there are more intimate functional fiber connections between the thalamus and temporal cortex in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere. (author)
Lucia Iracema Zanotto de Mendonça
Full Text Available Transcranial brain stimulation (TS techniques have been investigated for use in the rehabilitation of post-stroke aphasia. According to previous reports, functional recovery by the left hemisphere improves recovery from aphasia, when compared with right hemisphere participation. TS has been applied to stimulate the activity of the left hemisphere or to inhibit homotopic areas in the right hemisphere. Various factors can interfere with the brain's response to TS, including the size and location of the lesion, the time elapsed since the causal event, and individual differences in the hemispheric language dominance pattern. The following questions are discussed in the present article: [a] Is inhibition of the right hemisphere truly beneficial?; [b] Is the transference of the language network to the left hemisphere truly desirable in all patients?; [c] Is the use of TS during the post-stroke subacute phase truly appropriate? Different patterns of neuroplasticity must occur in post-stroke aphasia.
Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A
The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.
Inatomi, Y; Nakajima, M; Yonehara, T; Ando, Y
To investigate clinical characteristics of ipsilateral hemiparesis in ischemic stroke patients. Patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively examined. Ipsilateral hemiparesis was defined as hemiparesis ipsilateral to recent stroke lesions. Patients with ipsilateral hemiparesis were examined with functional neuroimaging studies including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional MRI. Of 8360 patients, ipsilateral hemiparesis was detected in 14 patients (0.17%, mean age 71±6 years, eight men). Lesions responsible for the recent strokes were located in the frontal cortex in three patients, corona radiata in seven, internal capsule in one, and pons in three. These lesions were located along the typical route of the corticospinal tract in all but one patient. Thirteen patients also had a past history of stroke contralateral to the recent lesions; 12 of these had motor deficits contralateral to past stroke lesions. During TMS, ipsilateral magnetic evoked potentials were evoked in two of seven patients and contralateral potentials were evoked in all seven. Functional MRI activated cerebral hemispheres ipsilaterally in eight of nine patients and contralaterally in all nine. Most patients with ipsilateral hemiparesis had a past history of stroke contralateral to the recent one, resulting in motor deficits contralateral to the earlier lesions. Moreover, functional neuroimaging findings indicated an active crossed corticospinal tract in all of the examined patients. Both findings suggest the contribution of the uncrossed corticospinal tract contralateral to stroke lesions as a post-stroke compensatory motor system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Okada, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi
Recent findings suggest a right hemispheric dominance in gaze-triggered shifts of attention. The aim of this study was to clarify the dominant hemisphere in the gaze processing that mediates attentional shift. A target localization task, with preceding non-predicative gaze cues presented to each visual field, was undertaken by 44 healthy subjects,…
Castro-Schilo, Laura; Kee, Daniel W.
The present study examined relationships between emotional intelligence, measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and right hemisphere dominance for a free vision chimeric face test. A sample of 122 ethnically diverse college students participated and completed online versions of the forenamed tests. A hierarchical…
Barnes, Scott; Armstrong, Elizabeth
Despite the well documented pragmatic deficits that can arise subsequent to Right Hemisphere Brain Damage (RHBD), few researchers have directly studied everyday conversations involving people with RHBD. In recent years, researchers have begun applying Conversation Analysis (CA) to the everyday talk of people with aphasia. This research programme…
Weed, Ethan; McGregor, William; Nielsen, Jorgen Feldbaek; Roepstorff, Andreas; Frith, Uta
Why do people with right hemisphere damage (RHD) have difficulty with pragmatics and communication? One hypothesis has been that pragmatic impairment in RHD is the result of an underlying impairment in Theory of Mind (ToM): the ability to infer the mental states of others. In previous studies evaluating ToM abilities in people with RHD,…
Scharp, Victoria L.; Tompkins, Connie A.
Purpose: This study examined the functioning of a central comprehension mechanism, suppression, in adults with right-hemisphere damage (RHD) while they processed narratives that cued a shift in time frame. In normal language comprehension, mental activation of concepts from a prior time frame is suppressed. The (re)activation of information…
Blake, Margaret Lehman
Purpose: To describe the current treatment research for communication (prosodic, discourse, and pragmatic) deficits associated with right hemisphere brain damage and to provide suggestions for treatment selection given the paucity of evidence specifically for this population. Method: The discussion covers (a) clinical decision processes and…
Blake, Margaret Lehman
Purpose: Comprehension deficits associated with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) have been attributed to an inability to use context, but there is little direct evidence to support the claim. This study evaluated the effect of varying contextual bias on predictive inferencing by adults with RHD. Method: Fourteen adults with no brain damage…
Mashal, N.; Faust, M.
The present study used the signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left hemisphere (LH) to the distant semantic relations in novel metaphoric expressions. In two divided visual field experiments, sensitivity (d') and criterion ([beta]) were calculated for responses to different types…
Recent findings on the communicative functions of the left versus the right hemisphere of the brain may suggest that there is a distinction between the intentional use of symbols for the sending of specific messages or propositions (language, signing, pantomime) and spontaneous expressive behaviors that signal their meaning through a natural…
Chestnut, Caitilin; Haaland, Kathleen Y
To determine whether ipsilesional motor skills, which have been related to independent functioning, are present chronically after unilateral stroke and are more common in people with apraxia than in those without apraxia. Observational cohort comparing the performance of an able-bodied control group, stroke patients with left- or right-hemisphere damage matched for lesion volume, and left-hemisphere stroke patients with and without ideomotor limb apraxia. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Volunteer right-handed sample; stroke patients with left- or right-hemisphere damage about 4 years poststroke; a control group of demographically matched, able-bodied adults. Not applicable. Total time to perform the (1) Williams doors test and the (2) timed manual performance test (TMPT), which includes parts of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. Ipsilesional motor deficits were present after left- or right-hemisphere stroke when using both measures, but deficits were consistently more common in patients with limb apraxia only for the TMPT. These findings add to a growing literature that suggests that ipsilesional motor deficits may have a functional impact in unilateral stroke patients, especially in patients with ideomotor limb apraxia.
Lochy, Aliette; de Heering, Adélaïde; Rossion, Bruno
The developmental origins of human adults' right hemispheric specialization for face perception remain unclear. On the one hand, infant studies have shown a right hemispheric advantage for face perception. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the adult right hemispheric lateralization for face perception slowly emerges during childhood due to reading acquisition, which increases left lateralized posterior responses to competing written material (e.g., visual letters and words). Since methodological approaches used in infant and children typically differ when their face capabilities are explored, resolving this issue has been difficult. Here we tested 5-year-old preschoolers varying in their level of visual letter knowledge with the same fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradigm leading to strongly right lateralized electrophysiological occipito-temporal face-selective responses in 4- to 6-month-old infants (de Heering and Rossion, 2015). Children's face-selective response was quantitatively larger and differed in scalp topography from infants', but did not differ across hemispheres. There was a small positive correlation between preschoolers' letter knowledge and a non-normalized index of right hemispheric specialization for faces. These observations show that previous discrepant results in the literature reflect a genuine nonlinear development of the neural processes underlying face perception and are not merely due to methodological differences across age groups. We discuss several factors that could contribute to the adult right hemispheric lateralization for faces, such as myelination of the corpus callosum and reading acquisition. Our findings point to the value of FPVS coupled with electroencephalography to assess specialized face perception processes throughout development with the same methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose. Electrical Bioimpedance Cerebral Monitoring is assessment in real time of health of brain tissue through study of passive dielectric properties of brain. During the last two decades theory and technology have been developed in parallel with animal experiments aiming to confirm feasibility of using bioimpedance-based technology for prompt detection of brain damage. Here, for the first time, we show that electrical bioimpedance measurements for left and right hemispheres are significantly different in acute cases of unilateral stroke within 24 hours from onset. Methods. Electrical BIS measurements have been taken in healthy volunteers and patients suffering from acute stroke within 24 hours of onset. BIS measurements have been obtained using SFB7 bioimpedance spectrometer manufactured by Impedimed ltd. and 4-electrode method. Measurement electrodes, current, and voltage have been placed according to 10–20 EEG system obtaining mutual BIS measurements from 4 different channels situated in pairs symmetrically from the midsagittal line. Obtained BIS data has been analyzed, assessing for symmetries and differences regarding healthy control data. Results. 7 out of 10 patients for Side-2-Side comparisons and 8 out 10 for central/lateral comparison presented values outside the range defined by healthy control group. When combined only 1 of 10 patients exhibited values within the healthy range. Conclusions. If these initial observations are confirmed with more patients, we can foresee emerging of noninvasive monitoring technology for brain damage with the potential to lead to paradigm shift in treatment of brain stroke and traumatic brain damage.
Danelli, Laura; Cossu, Giuseppe; Berlingeri, Manuela; Bottini, Gabriella; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo
We studied the linguistic profile and neurolinguistic organization of a 14-year-old adolescent (EB) who underwent a left hemispherectomy at the age of 2.5 years. After initial aphasia, his language skills recovered within 2 years, with the exception of some word finding problems. Over the years, the neuropsychological assessments showed that EB's language was near-to-normal, with the exception of lexical competence, which lagged slightly behind for both auditory and written language. Moreover, EB's accuracy and speed in both reading and writing words and non-words were within the normal range, whereas difficulties emerged in reading loan words and in tasks with homophones. EB's functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) patterns for several linguistic and metalinguistic tasks were similar to those observed in the dominant hemisphere of controls, suggesting that his language network conforms to a left-like linguistic neural blueprint. However, a stronger frontal recruitment suggests that linguistic tasks are more demanding for him. Finally, no specific reading activation was found in EB's occipitotemporal region, a finding consistent with the surface dyslexia-like behavioral pattern of the patient. While a lone right hemisphere may not be sufficient to guarantee full blown linguistic competences after early hemispherectomy, EB's behavioral and fMRI patterns suggest that his lone right hemisphere followed a left-like blueprint of the linguistic network.
Hesse, Kerrick; Fulton, Rachael L; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Lees, Kennedy R
Adverse events (AE) in trial populations present a major burden to researchers and patients, yet most events are unrelated to investigational treatment. We aimed to develop a coherent list of expected AEs, whose incidence can be predicted by patient characteristics that will inform future trials and perhaps general poststroke care. We analyzed raw AE data from patients participating in acute ischemic stroke trials. We identified events that occurred with a lower 99% confidence bound greater than nil. Among these, we applied receiver operating characteristic principles to select the fewest types of events that together represented the greatest number of reports. Using ordinal logistic regression, we modeled the incidence of these events as a function of patient age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and multimorbidity status, defining Ppatients, reporting 21 217 AEs. Among 756 types of AEs, 132 accounted for 82.7%, of which 80% began within 10 days after stroke. Right hemisphere (odds ratio [OR], 1.67), increasing baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (OR, 1.11), multimorbidity status (OR, 1.09 per disease), patient age (OR, 1.01 per year), height (OR, 1.01 per centimeter), diastolic blood pressure (OR, 0.99 per mm Hg), and smoking (OR, 0.82) were independently associated with developing more AEs but together explained only 13% of the variation. A list of 132 expected AEs after acute ischemic stroke may be used to simplify interpretation and reporting of complications. AEs can be modestly predicted by patient characteristics, facilitating stratification of patients by risk for poststroke complications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P; Nakayama, H; Raaschou, H O; Olsen, T S
To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome. Seven hundred seventy six unselected, acute stroke patients who were admitted within seven days of stroke onset with unimpaired consciousness were included. If possible, the patients were assessed for manual and oral apraxia on acute admission. Neurologic stroke severity including aphasia was assessed with the Scandinavian Stroke Scale, and activities of daily living function was assessed with the Barthel Index. All patients completed their rehabilitation in the same large stroke unit. Six hundred eighteen patients could cooperate with the apraxia assessments. Manual apraxia was found in 7% of subjects (10% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; chi2 = 9.0; P = 0.003). Oral apraxia was found in 6% (9% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; chi2 = 5.4; P = 0.02). Both manual and oral apraxia were related to increasing stroke severity, and manual, but not oral, apraxia was associated with increasing age. There was no gender difference in frequency of apraxia. Patients with either type of apraxia had temporal lobe involvement more often than patients without. When analyzed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, neither manual nor oral apraxia had any independent influence on functional outcome. Apraxia is significantly less frequent in unselected patients with acute stroke than has previously been assumed and has no independent negative influence on functional outcome.
Ponsaing, Laura B; Iversen, Helle K; Jennum, Poul
a 19-37-month follow-up period. RESULTS: Of the 57 stroke and 6 TIA patients, 9 stroke patients died during follow-up. All nine had moderate or severe sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs). Binarily divided, the group with the highest apnea hypopnea index (AHI) had an almost 10-fold higher...... receive increased attention....
Zhao, Q; Zhou, Z; Xu, H; Fan, W; Han, L
Verbal insight problem solving means to break mental sets, to select the novel semantic information and to form novel, task-related associations. Although previous studies have identified the brain regions associated with these key processes, the interaction among these regions during insight is still unclear. In the present study, we explored the functional connectivity between the key regions during solving Chinese 'chengyu' riddles by using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that both insight and noninsight solutions activated the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, middle temporal gyri and hippocampi, and these regions constituted a frontal to temporal to hippocampal neural pathway. Compared with noninsight solution, insight solution had a stronger functional connectivity between the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere. Our study reveals the neural pathway of information processing during verbal insight problem solving, and supports the right-hemisphere advantage theory of insight. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Bruns, Eike; Kirov, Roumen; Verleger, Rolf
The present study explored the sleep mechanisms which may support awareness of hidden regularities. Before sleep, 53 participants learned implicitly a lateralized variant of the serial response-time task in order to localize sensorimotor encoding either in the left or right hemisphere and induce implicit regularity representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded at multiple electrodes during both task performance and sleep, searching for lateralized traces of the preceding activity during learning. Sleep EEG analysis focused on region-specific slow (9-12 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) sleep spindles during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Fast spindle activity at those motor regions that were activated during learning increased with the amount of postsleep awareness. Independently of side of learning, spindle activity at right frontal and fronto-central regions was involved: there, fast spindles increased with the transformation of sequence knowledge from implicit before sleep to explicit after sleep, and slow spindles correlated with individual abilities of gaining awareness. These local modulations of sleep spindles corresponded to regions with greater presleep activation in participants with postsleep explicit knowledge. Sleep spindle mechanisms are related to explicit awareness (1) by tracing the activation of motor cortical and right-hemisphere regions which had stronger involvement already during learning and (2) by recruitment of individually consolidated processing modules in the right hemisphere. The integration of different sleep spindle mechanisms with functional states during wake collectively supports the gain of awareness of previously experienced regularities, with a special role for the right hemisphere. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].
Chen, Mei-Ching; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung
To investigate whether listening to pleasant music improves visual attention to and awareness of contralesional stimuli in patients with unilateral neglect after stroke. A within-subject design was used with 19 participants with unilateral neglect following a right hemisphere stroke. Participants were tested in three conditions (pleasant music, unpleasant music and white noise) within 1 week. All musical pieces were chosen by the participants. In each condition, participants were asked to complete three sub-tests of the Behavioural Inattention Test (the Star Cancellation Test, the Line Bisection Test and the Picture Scanning test) and a visual exploration task with everyday scenes. Eye movements in the visual exploration task were recorded simultaneously. Mood and arousal induced by different auditory stimuli were assessed using visual analogue scales, heart rate and galvanic skin response. Compared with unpleasant music and white noise, participants rated their moods as more positive and arousal as higher with pleasant music, but also showed significant improvement on all tasks and eye movement data, except the Line Bisection Test. The findings suggest that pleasant music can improve visual attention in patients with unilateral neglect after stroke. Additional research using randomized controlled trials is required to validate these findings.
The application of SHERPA (Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach) in the development of compensatory cognitive rehabilitation strategies for stroke patients with left and right brain damage.
Hughes, Charmayne M L; Baber, Chris; Bienkiewicz, Marta; Worthington, Andrew; Hazell, Alexa; Hermsdörfer, Joachim
Approximately 33% of stroke patients have difficulty performing activities of daily living, often committing errors during the planning and execution of such activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the human error identification (HEI) technique SHERPA (Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach) to predict errors during the performance of daily activities in stroke patients with left and right hemisphere lesions. Using SHERPA we successfully predicted 36 of the 38 observed errors, with analysis indicating that the proportion of predicted and observed errors was similar for all sub-tasks and severity levels. HEI results were used to develop compensatory cognitive strategies that clinicians could employ to reduce or prevent errors from occurring. This study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of SHERPA in the design of cognitive rehabilitation strategies in stroke populations.
Faezeh Asadollahpour; Kowsar Baghban; Mojgan Asadi; Ehsan Naderifar; Maryam Dehghani
Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different kinds of swallowing disorder and it’s severity in patients after stroke. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 91 consecutive stroke patients were screened by the Northwestern Dysphagia Patient Check Sheet (NDPCS) and the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS). Results: Forty seven percent of those assessed demonstrated signs of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Mild dysphagia was seen in (10.98%) pat...
Haag, A; Preibisch, C; Sure, U; Knake, S; Heinze, S; Krakow, K; Rosenow, F; Hamer, H M
A 38-year-old, right-handed man with late-onset right frontal epilepsy due to a ganglioglioma and atypical right hemispheric language dominance is described. Language dominance was investigated with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD), and language localization with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During a word generation task, fTCD showed atypical right hemispheric language dominance, which was confirmed by fMRI using a semantic word comparison and a word stem completion task. This information helped to guide the resective procedure, which left the patient seizure-free and did not induce new deficits. Functional TCD appears to be a useful and reliable screening tool for determining hemispheric language dominance, even in patients with atypical language representation. Functional MRI may be used to confirm fTCD results and further localize eloquent cortex.
Full Text Available Stroke is a significant cause of long-term disability world-wide. The post-stroke disabilities are due to loss of locomotion, activity of daily living, cognition and communication skills. Rehabilitation is an integral part of medical management and continues longitudinally through acute care, post-acute care and community reintegration. The objectives of stroke rehabilitation are to maximize the functional independence, minimize the disabilities, reintegrate back into the home and community and improve the self-esteem of patient. A comprehensive stroke rehabilitation service should provide early assessment of impairments and disabilities, management and prevention of complications and well-organized rehabilitation program in both in-patient and out-patient settings. A multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary team approach is necessary to reduce the post-stroke disabilities. It has many members, including physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, orthotist, psychotherapists, social workers, vocational rehabilitation therapists, rehabilitation nurse, patients, families and other caregivers. Physicians caring for patients with stroke during rehabilitation must be aware of potential medical complications, as well as a number of special problems that may complicate recovery, including cognitive deficits, aphasia, dysphagia, urinary incontinence, shoulder pain, spasticity, falls and depression. Involvement of patient and caregivers in the rehabilitation process is essential. This article outlines the salient features of the early comprehensive rehabilitation after stroke.
Tuladhar, Anil Man; Snaphaan, Liselore; Shumskaya, Elena; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernandez, Guillén; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik
The pathophysiology of episodic memory dysfunction after infarction is not completely understood. It has been suggested that infarctions located anywhere in the brain can induce widespread effects causing disruption of functional networks of the cortical regions. The default mode network, which includes the medial temporal lobe, is a functional network that is associated with episodic memory processing. We investigated whether the default mode network activity is reduced in stroke patients compared to healthy control subjects in the resting state condition. We assessed the whole brain network properties during resting state functional MRI in 21 control subjects and 20 'first-ever' stroke patients. Patients were scanned 9-12 weeks after stroke onset. Stroke lesions were located in various parts of the brain. Independent component analyses were conducted to identify the default mode network and to compare the group differences of the default mode network. Furthermore, region-of-interest based analysis was performed to explore the functional connectivity between the regions of the default mode network. Stroke patients performed significantly worse than control subjects on the delayed recall score on California verbal learning test. We found decreased functional connectivity in the left medial temporal lobe, posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortical areas within the default mode network and reduced functional connectivity between these regions in stroke patients compared with controls. There were no significant volumetric differences between the groups. These results demonstrate that connectivity within the default mode network is reduced in 'first-ever' stroke patients compared to control subjects. This phenomenon might explain the occurrence of post-stroke cognitive dysfunction in stroke patients.
Full Text Available Not much is known about how well stroke patients are able to perform motor imagery (MI and which MI abilities are preserved after stroke. We therefore applied three different MI tasks (one mental chronometry task, one mental rotation task, and one EEG-based neurofeedback task to a sample of postacute stroke patients (n=20 and age-matched healthy controls (n=20 for addressing the following questions: First, which of the MI tasks indicate impairment in stroke patients and are impairments restricted to the paretic side? Second, is there a relationship between MI impairment and sensory loss or paresis severity? And third, do the results of the different MI tasks converge? Significant differences between the stroke and control groups were found in all three MI tasks. However, only the mental chronometry task and EEG analysis revealed paresis side-specific effects. Moreover, sensitivity loss contributed to a performance drop in the mental rotation task. The findings indicate that although MI abilities may be impaired after stroke, most patients retain their ability for MI EEG-based neurofeedback. Interestingly, performance in the different MI measures did not strongly correlate, neither in stroke patients nor in healthy controls. We conclude that one MI measure is not sufficient to fully assess an individual’s MI abilities.
Objective To test the association between the plasma glutamate levels during acute ischemic stroke andpost-stroke depression(PSD)initially.Methods Seventy-four ischemic stroke patients admitted to the hospital within the first day of stroke onset were evaluated at a follow-up of 2 weeks.The Beck Depression Inventory(BDI,21-item)and DSM-Ⅳcriteria was used to diagnose post-stroke depression(PSD)at 2 weeks after stroke.
McNeel Gordon Jantzen
Full Text Available Musicians have a more accurate temporal and tonal representation of auditory stimuli than their non-musician counterparts (Kraus & Chandrasekaran, 2010; Parbery-Clark, Skoe, & Kraus, 2009; Zendel & Alain, 2008; Musacchia, Sams, Skoe, & Kraus, 2007. Musicians who are adept at the production and perception of music are also more sensitive to key acoustic features of speech such as voice onset timing and pitch. Together, these data suggest that musical training may enhance the processing of acoustic information for speech sounds. In the current study, we sought to provide neural evidence that musicians process speech and music in a similar way. We hypothesized that for musicians, right hemisphere areas traditionally associated with music are also engaged for the processing of speech sounds. In contrast we predicted that in non-musicians processing of speech sounds would be localized to traditional left hemisphere language areas. Speech stimuli differing in voice onset time was presented using a dichotic listening paradigm. Subjects either indicated aural location for a specified speech sound or identified a specific speech sound from a directed aural location. Musical training effects and organization of acoustic features were reflected by activity in source generators of the P50. This included greater activation of right middle temporal gyrus (MTG and superior temporal gyrus (STG in musicians. The findings demonstrate recruitment of right hemisphere in musicians for discriminating speech sounds and a putative broadening of their language network. Musicians appear to have an increased sensitivity to acoustic features and enhanced selective attention to temporal features of speech that is facilitated by musical training and supported, in part, by right hemisphere homologues of established speech processing regions of the brain.
Elke De Witte
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Awake surgery in eloquent brain regions is performed to preserve language and other cognitive functions. Although in general, no major permanent cognitive deficits are found after awake brain surgery, clinically relevant impairments are detected and cognitive recovery takes longer than generally assumed (3 months (Santini et al., 2012; Satoer et al., 2014; Talacchi et al., 2012. However, as there is a lack of extensive cognitive follow-up data it is unknown when recovery takes place. In addition, the influence of critical language sites identified by direct electrical stimulation (DES and tumour variables (e.g. left/right tumour location, tumour grade on long-term cognitive findings remains unclear. METHODS: In this longitudinal study the short-term and long-term effects of awake surgery on cognition were investigated in 40 patients (29 patients with left and 11 with right hemisphere tumours. Language, memory, attentional, executive and visuospatial functions were assessed in the preoperative phase, at short-term follow-up (6 weeks postsurgery and at long-term follow-up (6 months postsurgery with a neuropsychological protocol. In addition, the effect of intraoperative critical language sites, left/right tumour location, hemispheric language dominance, extent of resection and adjuvant treatment on cognitive change was studied. RESULTS: Both pre- and postoperatively, the mean performance of the patients was worse (impairment = z-score below -2 than the performance of the normal population in the language domain, the memory domain, the attentional and executive domain (p .05. Awake surgery negatively affected language, attentional and executive functions but not memory and visuospatial functions. At 6 weeks postsurgery, performance on all language, attentional and executive tasks deteriorated (object/action naming, semantic/phonological fluency from DuLIP, Token test; Trail Making Test A & B, Stroop I, II, & III. At 6 months
Saeed, E.; Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Saeed, A.; Jadoon, R.J.
Background: Stroke is a common neurological disease that results in significant mortality and morbidity globally. Several risk factors have been identified for stroke among which hyperlipidaemia is one of the modifiable risk factors. Recent clinical trials have shown a reduction in ischemic stroke for patients taking lipid lowering medications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the frequency of hypercholesterolemia in patients of ischemic stroke in Hazara region. Method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Medical Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. Ninety patients of stroke confirmed as ischemic by CT scan brain were enrolled in the study after informed consent. The frequency of hypercholesterolemia in patients was recorded. Results: There were 55 (61.1 percentage) males. The mean age of patients was 64.4±11.5 years. The mean serum cholesterol in all patients was 4.16±1.1 mmol/l. The mean serum cholesterol of male patients was 4.3±1.2 mmol/l and 4.0±10.9 mmol/l in the case of females. Conclusions: Hypercholesterolemia could not be established as a major risk factor for stroke in our setup through this study that allude to the fact that other risk factors might be contributing more to the incidence of cerebrovascular accident in our population. (author)
Stein, Jeannette M
Changing how information is framed, such that the same critical information is cast in a positive or negative light, has a powerful impact on judgements and decision making. Research indicates that the influence of frames may be driven by participants' initial affective response and that the right hemisphere is sensitive to the emotional connotation of stimuli. While previous research tested the effects of hemispheric differences on framing effects by inducing asymmetrical activation, the current study explored how stable brain differences may account for differences in susceptibility to framing effects. Because mixed degree of handedness is associated with increased access to right hemisphere processes, mixed-handed participants were expected to be more susceptible to the effects of framing than strong-handed participants. Participants responded to the Asian disease problem and completed as assessment of handedness. Although mixed- and strong-handed participants were affected differently, the results were not consistent with the hypothesis. Mixed-handed participants conformed to risky choice framing effects when options were framed negatively and showed no effect of the positive frame. Strong-handed participants conformed to positively framed options and showed no effect of the negative frame. Possible explanations are discussed.
Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe; Fabricius, Charlotte
that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Eight patients with unilateral PCA strokes (four left hemisphere, four right hemisphere) were selected on the basis of lesion location, rather than the presence of any visual symptoms. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm......Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere, while attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. Commonly, such deficits are investigated in relation to specific syndromes like visual...... agnosia or pure alexia. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed and apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. In addition, the relationship between these attentional parameters and single word reading is investigated, as previous studies have suggested...
Price, C I; Curless, R H; Rodgers, H
Visual analogue scales (VAS) have been used for the subjective measurement of mood, pain, and health status after stroke. In this study we investigated how stroke-related impairments could alter the ability of subjects to answer accurately. Consent was obtained from 96 subjects with a clinical stroke (mean age, 72.5 years; 50 men) and 48 control subjects without cerebrovascular disease (mean age, 71.5 years; 29 men). Patients with reduced conscious level or severe dysphasia were excluded. Subjects were asked to rate the tightness that they could feel on the (unaffected) upper arm after 3 low-pressure inflations with a standard sphygmomanometer cuff, which followed a predetermined sequence (20 mm Hg, 40 mm Hg, 0 mm Hg). Immediately after each change, they rated the perceived tightness on 5 scales presented in a random order: 4-point rating scale (none, mild, moderate, severe), 0 to 10 numerical rating scale, mechanical VAS, horizontal VAS, and vertical VAS. Standard tests recorded deficits in language, cognition, and visuospatial awareness. Inability to complete scales with the correct pattern was associated with any stroke (P<0.001). There was a significant association between success using scales and milder clinical stroke subtype (P<0.01). Within the stroke group, logistic regression analysis identified significant associations (P<0.05) between impairments (cognitive and visuospatial) and inability to complete individual scales correctly. Many patients after a stroke are unable to successfully complete self-report measurement scales, including VAS.
Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.
Stella D. Bouziana
Full Text Available Stroke is a devastating event that carries a potential for long-term disability. Malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with stroke, and dysphagia contributes to malnutrition risk. During both the acute phase of stroke and rehabilitation, specific nutritional interventions in the context of a multidisciplinary team effort can enhance the recovery of neurocognitive function. Early identification and management of malnutrition with dietary modifications or specific therapeutic strategies to ensure adequate nutritional intake should receive more attention, since poor nutritional status appears to exacerbate brain damage and to contribute to adverse outcome. The main purpose of nutritional intervention should be the prevention or treatment of complications resulting from energy-protein deficit. This paper reviews the evaluation and management of malnutrition and the use of specialized nutrition support in patients with stroke. Emphasis is given to enteral tube and oral feeding and to strategies to wean from tube feeding.
Gorgoraptis, Nikos; Mah, Yee-Haur; Machner, Bjoern; Singh-Curry, Victoria; Malhotra, Paresh; Hadji-Michael, Maria; Cohen, David; Simister, Robert; Nair, Ajoy; Kulinskaya, Elena; Ward, Nick; Greenwood, Richard; Husain, Masud
Hemispatial neglect following right-hemisphere stroke is a common and disabling disorder, for which there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment. Dopamine agonists have been shown to play a role in selective attention and working memory, two core cognitive components of neglect. Here, we investigated whether the dopamine agonist rotigotine would have a beneficial effect on hemispatial neglect in stroke patients. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled ABA design was used, ...
Weed, Ethan; Fusaroli, Riccardo
No acoustic evidence from RHD for a right hemisphere role in prosody production: A meta-analysis. Ethan Weed and Riccardo Fusaroli (Aarhus University, Denmark) Poster : The right hemisphere (RH) is often thought to have a special role in prosody comprehension and production in general...... by regression analysis of funnel plots for F0 (z = 1.5937, p = 0.1110). Intensity did show evidence of publication bias (z = -4.1582, p role for the RH in prosody...
Full Text Available >Background: Stroke is a common neurological disorder that contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of medical admissions.Objectives: To review the types, risk factors, hemispheric involvement, and outcomes of admitted stroke patients in Kubwa General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria.Subjects and Methods: We carried out a retrospective study of patients who had a clinical diagnosis of stroke in Kubwa General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, between January 2013 and June 2015.Results: A total of 60 patients who had stroke were admitted during this period, accounting for 4.25% of medical admissions. Men and women accounted for 68.3% and 31.7%, respectively, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Their mean age was 54.9 ± 13.5 years while the median age was 52.5 years. The mean hospital stay for these patients was 8.4 ± 5.5 days. Ischemic stroke occurred more frequently (65% compared with hemorrhagic stroke (35%. Hypertension (65%, alcohol (25%, previous stroke (18.3%, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia (18.3% were the common identifiable risk factors for stroke. Ten patients (16.7% had two risk factors for stroke, whereas 8 patients (13.3% had three risk factors for stroke. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures on admission were 171.5 ± 41.6 mmHg and 103.3 ± 24.0 mmHg, respectively. The left hemisphere (53.3% was more often affected than the right hemisphere in these patients. Majority of the patients (48.3% were discharged following improvement while the case fatality was 11.7%.Conclusion: Stroke is not uncommon as a cause of medical admission in Kubwa General Hospital. Ischemic stroke occurred more commonly and the left hemisphere was more often involved compared with the right hemisphere. Hypertension was the most common risk factor for stroke in these patients.
Li, Xin; Wang, Qiang
Acupuncture is one of the most important parts of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used for more than 3000 years as prevention and treatment for various diseases in China as well as in adjacent regions, and is widely accepted in western countries in recent years. More and more clinical trials revealed that acupuncture shows positive effect in stroke, not only as a complementary and alternative medicine for poststroke rehabilitation but also as a preventive strategy which could induce cerebral ischemic tolerance, especially when combined with modern electrotherapy. Acupuncture has some unique characteristics, which include acupoint specificity and parameter-dependent effect. It also involves complicated mechanism to exert the beneficial effect on stroke. Series of clinical trials have shown that acupuncture primarily regulates the release of neurochemicals, hemorheology, cerebral microcirculation, metabolism, neuronal activity, and the function of specific brain region. Animal studies showed that the effects of acupuncture therapy on stroke were possibly via inhibition of postischemic inflammatory reaction, stimulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and influence on neural plasticity. Mechanisms for its preconditioning effect include activity enhancement of antioxidant, regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and inhibition of apoptosis. Although being controversial, acupuncture is a promising preventive and treatment strategy for stroke, but further high-quality clinical trials would be needed to provide more confirmative evidence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mostafa, Magdy A; El-Nabiel, Lobna M; Fahmy, Nagia Aly; Aref, Hany; Shreef, Edrees; Abd El-Tawab, Fathy; Abdulghany, Osama M
Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) is a crucial player in vascular homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. The present study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in Egyptian population. Also, we analyzed the ACE gene I/D polymorphism as a risk factor for small-vessel (SV) versus large-vessel (LV) disease. Sixty patients with ischemic stroke were included: 30 with SV disease and 30 with LV disease. In addition, a control group of 30 apparent healthy subjects were studied. Clinical assessment, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging brain, and genetic study using the polymerase chain reaction of ACE gene were done for all subjects. We found that the distribution of ACE gene polymorphism frequency was significantly different between the 3 groups. The DD genotype was far more common in stroke patients compared to controls. It was also significantly more common in each of the patient groups compared to controls but rather similar in the 2 patient groups with SV and LV diseases. We found that the ACE gene deletion/deletion genotype is common in Egyptian patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke but does not appear to be specific neither to SV nor to LV disease. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians acknowledge today that the contribution of both cerebral hemispheres is necessary to a full and adequate verbal communication. Indeed, it is estimated that at least 50% of right brain damaged individuals display impairments of prosodic, discourse, pragmatics and/or lexical semantics dimensions of communication. Since the 1990's, researchers have focused on the description and the assessment of these impairments and it is only recently that authors have shown interest in planning specific intervention approaches. However, therapists in rehabilitation settings still have very few available tools. This review of recent literature demonstrates that, even though theoretical knowledge needs further methodological investigation, intervention guidelines can be identified to target right hemisphere damage communication impairments in clinical practice. These principles can be incorporated by speech and language pathologists, in a structured intervention framework, aiming at fully addressing prosodic, discursive and pragmatic components of communication.
Jaqueline de Carvalho Rodrigues
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the strengths and difficulties in word and pseudoword writing in adults with left- and right-hemisphere strokes, and discuss the profiles of acquired dysgraphia in these individuals.METHODS: The profiles of six adults with acquired dysgraphia in left- or right-hemisphere strokes were investigated by comparing their performance on word and pseudoword writing tasks against that of neurologically healthy adults. A case series analysis was performed on the patients whose impairments on the task were indicative of acquired dysgraphia.RESULTS: Two patients were diagnosed with lexical dysgraphia (one with left hemisphere damage, and the other with right hemisphere damage, one with phonological dysgraphia, another patient with peripheral dysgraphia, one patient with mixed dysgraphia and the last with dysgraphia due to damage to the graphemic buffer. The latter patients all had left-hemisphere damage (LHD. The patterns of impairment observed in each patient were discussed based on the dual-route model of writing.CONCLUSION: The fact that most patients had LHD rather than right-hemisphere damage (RHD highlights the importance of the former structure for word processing. However, the fact that lexical dysgraphia was also diagnosed in a patient with RHD suggests that these individuals may develop writing impairments due to damage to the lexical route, leading to heavier reliance on phonological processing. Our results are of significant importance to the planning of writing interventions in neuropsychology.
Simon M McCrea
Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Intuition is the ability to understand immediately without conscious reasoning and is sometimes explained as a ‘gut feeling’ about the rightness or wrongness of a person, place, situation, temporal episode or object. In contrast, insight is the capacity to gain accurate and a deep understanding of a problem and it is often associated with movement beyond existing paradigms. Examples include Darwin, Einstein and Freud’s theories of natural selection, relativity, or the unconscious; respectively. Many cultures name these concepts and acknowledge their value, and insight is recognized as particularly characteristic of eminent achievements in the arts, sciences and politics. Considerable data suggests that these two concepts are more related than distinct, and that a more distributed intuitive network may feed into a predominately right hemispheric insight-based functional neuronal architecture. The preparation and incubation stages of insight may rely on the incorporation of domain-specific automatized expertise schema associated with intuition. In this manuscript the neural networks associated with intuition and insight are reviewed. Case studies of anomalous subjects with ability–achievement discrepancies are summarized. This theoretical review proposes the prospect that atypical localization of cognitive modules may enhance intuitive and insightful functions and thereby explain individual achievement beyond that expected by conventionally measured intelligence tests. A model and theory of intuition and insight’s neuroanatomical basis is proposed which could be used as a starting point for future research and better understanding of the nature of these two distinctly human and highly complex poorly understood abilities.Keywords: intuition, insight, nonverbal decoding, nonverbal sequencing
Lee, Sang-Ahm; Ko, Myung-Ah; Choi, Eun-Ju; Jeon, Ji-Ye; Ryu, Han Uk
Although it is known that epilepsy and spirituality are related, spirituality in epilepsy has received relatively little clinical and scientific attention. Therefore, we investigated which epilepsy-related factors are associated with high spirituality in Korean adults living with epilepsy. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two university hospitals in Korea. Spirituality was assessed using the 6-item Spirituality Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). The participants were categorized into high and low spirituality groups according to the median SSRS score. The presumptive seizure onset zone was determined based on the clinical semiology, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Of the 180 participants, 61.7% declared that they had a religious affiliation. The median SSRS score was 15 (interquartile range: 7, 22). The high spirituality subgroup consisted of 92 (51.1%) participants. In the univariate analyses, the high spirituality group was significantly associated with female sex (p<0.05), older age (p<0.01), longer epilepsy duration (p<0.05), polytherapy (p<0.05), complex partial seizure (p<0.05), levetiracetam or topiramate usage (p<0.05), and a right-lateralized seizure onset zone. The multiple logistic regression analysis identified right hemispheric lateralization as the only independent factor associated with high spirituality (odds ratio: 2.410, 95% confidence interval: 1.051-5.528, p<0.05). High spirituality may be associated with right hemispheric lateralization but not with the temporal localization of the seizure onset zone in Korean adults with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Lu; Wang, Ruihao; Song, Bo; Tan, Song; Gao, Yuan; Fang, Hui; Lu, Jie; Xu, Yuming
The association between atherogenic dyslipidemia and stroke recurrence remains unclear, and may be influenced by different subtypes of ischemic stroke. We aimed to investigate whether atherogenic dyslipidemia contributed to stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients and in those with certain subtypes of ischemic stroke. We conducted a prospective hospital-based study enrolling patients with acute ischemic stroke. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol dyslipidemia and stroke recurrence was analyzed by using multivariable Cox regression model. In the 510 ischemic stroke patients, 64 patients (12·5%) had atherogenic dyslipidemia, and 66 patients (12·9%) experienced stroke recurrence events within 24 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that stroke recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia than those without in all the stroke patients (20·3% vs. 11·9%; P = 0·048), and more evident in those of large-artery atherosclerosis subtype (31·0% vs. 14·1%; P = 0·014), but not in the other subtypes. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that atherogenic dyslipidemia was associated with higher stroke recurrence risk among stroke patients of large-artery atherosclerosis subtype (hazard ratio, 2·79; 95% confidence interval, 1·24-6·28), but not significant in all the stroke patients (hazard ratio, 1·69; 95% confidence interval, 0·85-3·37). Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with higher risk of stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients. Such association might be more pronounced in large-artery atherosclerosis subtype and needs further investigation to establish such relationship. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
Successful riddle solving requires recognition of the meaning of words, attention, concentration, memory, connectivity and analysis of riddle content, and sufficiently developed associative thinking. The aim of the study was to determine the ability to solve riddles in stroke patients who do or do not have speech and language disorders (SLDs), to determine the presence of SLDs in relation to the lesion localization, as well as to define the relationship between riddle-solving and functional impairment of a body side. The sample consisted of 88 patients. The data used included age, sex, educational level, time of stroke onset, presence of an SLD, lesion localization, and functional damage of the body side. The patients were presented with a task of solving 10 riddles. A significant SLD was present in 38.60% of the patients. Brain lesions were found distributed at 46 different brain sites. Patients with different lesion localization had different success in solving riddles. Patients with perisylvian cortex brain lesions, or patients with Wernicke and global aphasia, had the poorest results. The group with SLDs had an average success of solved riddles of 26.76% (p = 0.000). The group with right-sided functional impairments had average success of 37.14%, and the group with functional impairments of the left side of the body 56.88% (p = 0.002). Most patients with SLDs had a low ability of solving riddles. Most of the patients with left brain lesions and perisylvian cortex damage demonstrated lower ability in solving riddles in relation to patients with right hemisphere lesions.
Full Text Available Introduction. Successful riddle solving requires recognition of the meaning of words, attention, concentration, memory, connectivity and analysis of riddle content, and sufficiently developed associative thinking. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the ability to solve riddles in stroke patients who do or do not have speech and language disorders (SLDs, to determine the presence of SLDs in relation to the lesion localization, as well as to define the relationship between riddle-solving and functional impairment of a body side. Methods. The sample consisted of 88 patients. The data used included age, sex, educational level, time of stroke onset, presence of an SLD, lesion localization, and functional damage of the body side. The patients were presented with a task of solving 10 riddles. Results. A significant SLD was present in 38.60% of the patients. Brain lesions were found distributed at 46 different brain sites. Patients with different lesion localization had different success in solving riddles. Patients with perisylvian cortex brain lesions, or patients with Wernicke and global aphasia, had the poorest results. The group with SLDs had an average success of solved riddles of 26.76% (p = 0.000. The group with right-sided functional impairments had average success of 37.14%, and the group with functional impairments of the left side of the body 56.88% (p = 0.002. Conclusion. Most patients with SLDs had a low ability of solving riddles. Most of the patients with left brain lesions and perisylvian cortex damage demonstrated lower ability in solving riddles in relation to patients with right hemisphere lesions.
Mazaux, Jean-Michel; Lagadec, Tiphaine; de Sèze, Mathieu Panchoa; Zongo, Drissa; Asselineau, Julien; Douce, Emmanuelle; Trias, Joel; Delair, Marie-France; Darrigrand, Bénédicte
To study communication disability in stroke patients with aphasia. Prospective, multicentric cohort study of patients with aphasia, consecutively included after a first stroke, and examined 1 year later at home. Assessment included a stroke severity scale, the Barthel Index, the boston diagnostic aphasia examination, a communication questionnaire, and the aphasia depression rating scale. A total of 164 patients were included. Among the 100 survivors assessed at follow-up, 24% had severe aphasia, 12% moderate aphasia and 64% mild aphasia according to the Boston diagnostic aphasia examination severity score. Patients mainly reported difficulties in conversation with strangers and/or on abstract topics, using a phone, reading and writing administrative documents, dealing with money and outdoor communication activities. Communication was strongly related to aphasia severity. Age, gender, education level, residence status and type of stroke had no influence on communication activity. On multivariate analysis, severity of stroke and severity of aphasia on inclusion were found to account for 58% of variance and were independent predictors of the communication questionnaire score at follow-up. Documenting the most impaired communication skills may help to set priority goals for speech and language therapy in aphasia.
Lecoffre, Camille; de Peretti, Christine; Gabet, Amélie; Grimaud, Olivier; Woimant, France; Giroud, Maurice; Béjot, Yannick; Olié, Valérie
Stroke is the leading cause of death in women and the third leading cause in men in France. In young adults (ie, stroke was observed at a local scale between 1985 and 2011. After the implementation of the 2010 to 2014 National Stroke Action Plan, this study investigates national trends in patients hospitalized by stroke subtypes, in-hospital mortality, and stroke mortality between 2008 and 2014. Hospitalization data were extracted from the French national hospital discharge databases and mortality data from the French national medical causes of death database. Time trends were tested using a Poisson regression model. From 2008 to 2014, the age-standardized rates of patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke increased by 14.3% in patients hemorrhagic stroke was stable (+2.0%), irrespective of age and sex. The proportion of patients hospitalized in stroke units substantially increased. In-hospital mortality decreased by 17.1% in patients with ischemic stroke. From 2008 to 2013, stroke mortality decreased, except for women between 45 and 64 years old and for people aged ≥85 years. An increase in cardiovascular risk factors and improved stroke management may explain the increase in the rates of patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke. The decrease observed for in-hospital stroke mortality may be because of recent improvements in acute-phase management. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Suk Jae Kim
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hidden malignancy could be detected in patients with cryptogenic stroke without active cancer when they showed the distinctive characteristics of cancer-related stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Among 2,562 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, patients with cryptogenic stroke were analyzed and categorized into two groups according to the presence of active cancer: cryptogenic stroke with active cancer (cancer-related stroke, CA-stroke group and without active cancer (CR-stroke group. Patients with active lung cancer without stroke were also recruited for comparison purposes (CA-control. Clinical factors, lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI, and laboratory findings were analyzed among groups. A total of 348 patients with cryptogenic stroke were enrolled in this study. Among them, 71 (20.4% patients had active cancer at the time of stroke. The D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with CA-stroke than those with CR-stroke or CA-control (both p<0.001. Regarding lesion patterns, patients with CA-stroke mostly had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories, while more than 80% of patients with CR-stroke had single/multiple lesions in a single vascular territory (P<0.001. D-dimer levels (OR 1.11 per 1 µg/mL increase; 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P<0.001 and DWI lesion patterns (OR 7.13; 95% CI 3.42-14.87; P<0.001 were independently associated with CA-stroke. Workup for hidden malignancy was performed during hospitalization in 10 patients who showed elevated D-dimer levels and multiple infarcts involving multiple vascular territories but had no known cancer, and it revealed hidden malignancies in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with CA-stroke have distinctive D-dimer levels and lesion patterns. These characteristics can serve as clues to occult cancer in patients with cryptogenic stroke.
Yang, Hang; Zhao, Jing; Gaspar, Carl M; Chen, Wei; Tan, Yufei; Weng, Xuchu
Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have identified the involvement of the right posterior region in the processing of visual words. Interestingly, in contrast, ERP studies of the N170 typically demonstrate selectivity for words more strikingly over the left hemisphere. Why is right hemisphere selectivity for words during the N170 epoch typically not observed, despite the clear involvement of this region in word processing? One possibility is that amplitude differences measured on averaged ERPs in previous studies may have been obscured by variation in peak latency across trials. This study examined this possibility by using single-trial analysis. Results show that words evoked greater single-trial N170s than control stimuli in the right hemisphere. Additionally, we observed larger trial-to-trial variability on N170 peak latency for words as compared to control stimuli over the right hemisphere. Results demonstrate that, in contrast to much of the prior literature, the N170 can be selective to words over the right hemisphere. This discrepancy is explained in terms of variability in trial-to-trial peak latency for responses to words over the right hemisphere. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Rousseaux, Marc; Daveluy, Walter; Kozlowski, Odile
In stroke patients, it has been suggested that communication disorders could result from lexical and syntactic disorders in left hemisphere lesions and from pragmatics problems in right lesions. However, we have little information on patient behaviour in dyadic communication, especially in conversation. Here, we analyzed the various processes participating in communication difficulties at the rehabilitation phase (1-6 months) post-stroke, in order to define the main mechanisms of verbal and non-verbal communication (VC, NVC) disorders and their relationship with aphasic disorders. Sixty-three patients were recruited, who belonged to six groups, with left or right cortico-sub-cortical (L-CSC, R-CSC) or sub-cortical (L-SC, R-SC), frontal (Fro) or posterior fossa (PF) lesions. They were compared with an equivalent control group (gender, age, education level). We used the Lille Communication Test, which comprises three parts: participation to communication (greeting, attention, engagement), verbal communication (verbal comprehension, speech outflow, intelligibility, word production, syntax, verbal pragmatics and verbal feedback) and non-verbal communication (understanding gestures, affective expressivity, producing gestures, pragmatics and feedback). We also used the Functional Communication Profile and the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Decrease in participation was found in L-CSC, R-CSC and Fro patients. Verbal communication was essentially disrupted in L-SCS and L-SC groups, including by verbal pragmatic disorders, and to a lesser degree in frontal patients. Nonverbal communication was mainly affected in R-CSC patients, especially by pragmatic difficulties. L-CSC patients showed an increase in gesture production, compensating for aphasia. In conclusion, communication disorders were relatively complex and could not be summarised by syntactical and lexical difficulties in left stroke and pragmatic problems in right stroke. The former also showed severe
Duecker, Felix; Formisano, Elia; Sack, Alexander T
Lesion studies in neglect patients have inspired two competing models of spatial attention control, namely, Heilman's "hemispatial" theory and Kinsbourne's "opponent processor" model. Both assume a functional asymmetry between the two hemispheres but propose very different mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies have identified a bilateral dorsal frontoparietal network underlying voluntary shifts of spatial attention. However, lateralization of attentional processes within this network has not been consistently reported. In the current study, we aimed to provide direct evidence concerning the functional asymmetry of the right and left FEF during voluntary shifts of spatial attention. To this end, we applied fMRI-guided neuronavigation to disrupt individual FEF activation foci with a longer-lasting inhibitory patterned TMS protocol followed by a spatial cueing task. Our results indicate that right FEF stimulation impaired the ability of shifting spatial attention toward both hemifields, whereas the effects of left FEF stimulation were limited to the contralateral hemifield. These results provide strong direct evidence for right-hemispheric dominance in spatial attention within frontal cortex supporting Heilman's "hemispatial" theory. This complements previous TMS studies that generally conform to Kinsbourne's "opponent processor" model after disruption of parietal cortex, and we therefore propose that both theories are not mutually exclusive.
Lo Coco D
Full Text Available Daniele Lo Coco,1 Gianluca Lopez,1 Salvatore Corrao,2,31Neurology and Stroke Unit, 2Department of Internal Medicine, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital Trust ARNAS Civico, Di Cristina, Benfratelli, Palermo, 3Centre of Research for Effectiveness and Appropriateness in Medicine (C.R.E.A.M., Di.Bi.M.I.S., University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Abstract: We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the
Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J
The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
A. A. Kozyolkin
Full Text Available Acute cerebrovascular disease is a global medical and social problem of the modern angioneurology, occupying leading positions in the structure of morbidity and mortality among adult population of the world. Ischemic stroke – is one of the most common pathology. Today this disease took out the world pandemic. More than 16 million new cases of cerebral infarction recorded in the world each year and it “kills” about 7 million of people. About 111,953 cases of cerebral stroke were registered in 2013 in Ukraine. Cognitive impairment, t hat significantly disrupt daily activities and life of the patient, is one of the most significant post-stroke complications that have social, medical and biological significance. Aim. The purpose of this investigation was to study features and dynamics of cognitive impairments in patients with primary and recurrent cerebral hemispheric ischemic stroke (CHIS in the acute stage of the disease. Materials and methods. To achieve the aim, and the decision of tasks in the clinic of nervous diseases Zaporozhye State Medical University (supervisor - Doctor of Medicine, Professor Kozelkin A. based on the department of acute cerebrovascular disease were performed comparative, prospective cohort study, which included comprehensive clinical and paraclinical examinations of 41 patients (26 men and 15 women aged 45 to 85 years (mean age 66,4 ± 1,4 years with acute left-hemispheric (2 patients and right - hemispheric (39 patients CHIS . First up was a group of 28 patients (19 men and 9 women, mean age 65,6 ± 1,6 years, who suffered from primary CHIS. The second group consisted of 13 patients (7 men and 6 women, mean age 68,1 ± 2,5 years with recurrent CHIS. The groups were matched by age, sex, localization of the lesion and the initial level of neurological deficit. All patients underwent physical examination, neurological examination. Dynamic clinical neurological examination assessing the severity of stroke was conducted
Tutuarima, J. A.; van der Meulen, J. H.; de Haan, R. J.; van Straten, A.; Limburg, M.
Patients with stroke are at a high risk for falling. We assessed the fall incidence and risk factors for patients hospitalized as the result of an acute stroke. We studied a cohort of 720 stroke patients from 23 hospitals in The Netherlands. The data were abstracted from the medical and nursing
Oleg Ivanovich Vinogradov
Full Text Available The rate of cardiogenic embolism among all ischemic strokes is as high as 38%. Cardioembolic strokes are characterized by the higher magnitude of neurological deficit, the high risk of recurrent acute stroke, and a lethal outcome. This review deals with the etiopathogenesis of thrombus formation in the heart chambers, with current criteria for the verification of cardioembolic strokes, with the results of trials of new oral anticoagulants, and latest guidelines for antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke. Special focus is given to secondary stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation since it is atrial fibrillation that is the most common cause of cardioembolic stroke.
de Bode, Stella; Smets, Lieselotte; Mathern, Gary W; Dubinsky, Stanley
In this study, we explored the syntactic competence of the right hemisphere (RH) after left cerebral hemispherectomy, on the premise that it (syntactic competence) is known to be one of the most strongly left-lateralized language functions. As basic syntactic development for individuals in this subject pool has already been extensively explored, we focused instead on the investigation of complex syntactic constructions that are normally acquired later in childhood, i.e., between 7 and 9years of age. Grammatical competence in 10 participants who had undergone left cerebral hemispherectomy was compared to that of a group of normally developing children, with the two groups matched by the size of their vocabulary. The two tests we used for this research were created by the 1st language acquisition linguists and were designed to test sets of constructions categorized and differentiated by the order in which they are normally acquired and by the type of grammatical competence that they involve. We found that both groups followed the same developmental sequence of syntactic development with five (50%) postsurgical participants (all with prenatal etiologies) reaching nearly mature command of sentence grammar. Seizures negatively impacted performance on all tests. The isolated RH has the potential to support the complex grammatical categories that emerge relatively late in the normal acquisition of English by native speakers. Successful performance may be related to the timing of the initial insult and seizure control following hemispherectomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Okada, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Murai, Toshiya
The neural substrate for the processing of gaze remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to clarify which hemisphere dominantly processes and whether bilateral hemispheres cooperate with each other in gaze-triggered reflexive shift of attention. Twenty-eight normal subjects were tested. The non-predictive gaze cues were presented either in unilateral or bilateral visual fields. The subjects localized the target as soon as possible. Reaction times (RT) were shorter when gaze-cues were congruent toward than away from targets, whichever visual field they were presented in. RT were shorter in left than right visual field presentations. RT in mono-directional bilateral presentations were shorter than both of those in left and right presentations. When bi-directional bilateral cues were presented, RT were faster when valid cues were presented in the left than right visual fields. The right hemisphere appears to be dominant, and there is interhemispheric cooperation in gaze-triggered reflexive shift of attention. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Cutini, Simone; Szűcs, Dénes; Mead, Natasha; Huss, Martina; Goswami, Usha
Phase entrainment of neuronal oscillations is thought to play a central role in encoding speech. Children with developmental dyslexia show impaired phonological processing of speech, proposed theoretically to be related to atypical phase entrainment to slower temporal modulations in speech (dyslexia have found atypical phase entrainment in the delta band (~2Hz), some studies of adults with developmental dyslexia have shown impaired entrainment in the low gamma band (~35-50Hz). Meanwhile, studies of neurotypical adults suggest asymmetric temporal sensitivity in auditory cortex, with preferential processing of slower modulations by right auditory cortex, and faster modulations processed bilaterally. Here we compared neural entrainment to slow (2Hz) versus faster (40Hz) amplitude-modulated noise using fNIRS to study possible hemispheric asymmetry effects in children with developmental dyslexia. We predicted atypical right hemisphere responding to 2Hz modulations for the children with dyslexia in comparison to control children, but equivalent responding to 40Hz modulations in both hemispheres. Analyses of HbO concentration revealed a right-lateralised region focused on the supra-marginal gyrus that was more active in children with dyslexia than in control children for 2Hz stimulation. We discuss possible links to linguistic prosodic processing, and interpret the data with respect to a neural 'temporal sampling' framework for conceptualizing the phonological deficits that characterise children with developmental dyslexia across languages. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mason, Robert A; Williams, Diane L; Kana, Rajesh K; Minshew, Nancy; Just, Marcel Adam
The intersection of Theory of Mind (ToM) processing and complex narrative comprehension in high functioning autism was examined by comparing cortical activation during the reading of passages that required inferences based on either intentions, emotional states, or physical causality. Right hemisphere activation was substantially greater for all sentences in the autism group than in a matched control group suggesting decreased LH capacity in autism resulting in a spillover of processing to RH homologs. Moreover, the ToM network was disrupted. The autism group showed similar activation for all inference types in the right temporo-parietal component of the ToM network whereas the control participants selectively activated this network only when appropriate. The autism group had lower functional connectivity within the ToM network and also between the ToM and a left hemisphere language network. Furthermore, the within-network functional connectivity in autism was correlated with the size of the anterior portion of the corpus callosum.
Brambilla, Michela; Manenti, Rosa; Ferrari, Clarissa; Cotelli, Maria
Episodic memory is a cognitive function that appears more susceptible than others to the effects of aging. The main aim of this study is to investigate if the magnitude of functional hemispheric lateralization during episodic memory test was positively correlated with memory performance, proving the presence of a beneficial pattern of neural processing in high-performing older adults but not in low-performing participants. We have applied anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) or sham stimulation over left and right hemisphere in a group of young subjects and in high-performing and low-performing older participants during an experimental verbal episodic memory task. Remarkably, young individuals and high-performing older adults exhibited similar performances on episodic memory tasks and both groups showed symmetrical recruitment of left and right areas during memory retrieval. In contrast, low-performing older adults, who obtained lower scores on the memory tasks, demonstrated a greater engagement of the left hemisphere during verbal memory task. Furthermore, structural equation model was performed for analyzing the interrelations between the index of interhemispheric asymmetry and several neuropsychological domains. We found that the bilateral engagement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex regions had a direct correlation with memory and executive functions evaluated as latent constructs. These findings drew attention to brain maintenance hypothesis. The potential of neurostimulation in cognitive enhancement is particularly promising to prevent memory loss during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Janet H. Hsiao
Full Text Available Studies on face recognition have suggested a relationship between holistic processing and right hemisphere (RH lateralization. Thus, it has long been assumed that holistic processing is a property of RH processing. Nevertheless, recent studies showed reduced holistic processing and increased RH lateralization in Chinese character recognition expertise, suggesting that these two effects may be separate processes. Through computational modeling, in which we implement a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception that posits a low spatial frequency bias in the RH and a high spatial frequency bias in the left hemisphere (i.e. the Double Filtering by Frequency Theory, Ivry & Robertson, 1998, here we show that when the recognition task relies purely on featural information, holistic processing increases whereas RH lateralization decreases with increasing stimulus similarity, and there is a negative correlation between them. In contrast, when the recognition task relies purely on configural information, although holistic processing also increases whereas RH lateralization decreases with increasing stimulus similarity, there is no correlation between them. This result suggests that holistic processing and RH lateralization are separate processes that can be influenced differentially by task requirements.
Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Ranieri, Rebecca; Genduso, Valeria; Cavallotti, Simone; Castelnovo, Anna; Smeraldi, Enrico; Scarone, Silvio; D'Agostino, Armando
The story-like organization of dreams is characterized by a pervasive bizarreness of events and actions that resembles psychotic thought, and largely exceeds that observed in normal waking fantasies. Little is known about the neural correlates of the confabulatory narrative construction of dreams. In this study, dreams, fantasies elicited by ambiguous pictorial stimuli, and non-imaginative first- and third-person narratives from healthy participants were recorded, and were then studied for brain blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while listening to their own narrative reports and attempting a retrieval of the corresponding experience. In respect to non-bizarre reports of daytime activities, the script-driven recall of dreams and fantasies differentially activated a right hemisphere network including areas in the inferior frontal gyrus, and superior and middle temporal gyrus. Neural responses were significantly greater for fantasies than for dreams in all regions, and inversely proportional to the degree of bizarreness observed in narrative reports. The inferior frontal gyrus, superior and middle temporal gyrus have been implicated in the semantic activation, integration and selection needed to build a coherent story representation and to resolve semantic ambiguities; in deductive and inferential reasoning; in self- and other-perspective taking, theory of mind, moral and autobiographical reasoning. Their degree of activation could parallel the level of logical robustness or inconsistency experienced when integrating information and mental representations in the process of building fantasy and dream narratives. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
The present paper takes as its starting point Phil Bryden's long-standing interest in human attention and the role it can play in laterality effects. Past split-brain research has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the left hemisphere [e.g., Egly, R., Rafal, R. D., Driver, J., & Starreveld, Y. (1994). Covert orienting in the split brain reveals hemispheric specialization for object-based attention. Psychological Science, 5(6), 380-382]. The task used to isolate object-based attention in that previous work, however, has been found wanting [Vecera, S. P. (1994). Grouped locations and object-based attention: Comment on Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123(3), 316-320]; and indeed, subsequent research with healthy participants using a different task has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the opposite right hemisphere (RH) [Valsangkar-Smyth, M. A., Donovan, C. L., Sinnett, S., Dawson, M. R., & Kingstone, A. (2004). Hemispheric performance in object-based attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(1), 84-91]. The present study tested the same split-brain as Egly, Rafal, et al. (1994) but used the object-based attention task introduced by Valsangkar-Smyth et al. (2004). The results confirm that object-based attention is lateralized to the RH. They also suggest that subcortical interhemispheric competition may occur and be dominated by the RH.
Roorda, Leo D; Green, John R; Houwink, Annemieke; Bagley, Pam J; Smith, Jane; Molenaar, Ivo W; Geurts, Alexander C
To enable improved interpretation of the total score and faster scoring of the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) by studying item ordering or hierarchy and formulating start-and-stop rules in patients after stroke. Cohort study. Rehabilitation center in the Netherlands; stroke rehabilitation units and the community in the United Kingdom. Item hierarchy of the RMI was studied in an initial group of patients (n=620; mean age ± SD, 69.2±12.5y; 297 [48%] men; 304 [49%] left hemisphere lesion, and 269 [43%] right hemisphere lesion), and the adequacy of the item hierarchy-based start-and-stop rules was checked in a second group of patients (n=237; mean age ± SD, 60.0±11.3y; 139 [59%] men; 103 [44%] left hemisphere lesion, and 93 [39%] right hemisphere lesion) undergoing rehabilitation after stroke. Not applicable. Mokken scale analysis was used to investigate the fit of the double monotonicity model, indicating hierarchical item ordering. The percentages of patients with a difference between the RMI total score and the scores based on the start-and-stop rules were calculated to check the adequacy of these rules. The RMI had good fit of the double monotonicity model (coefficient H(T)=.87). The interpretation of the total score improved. Item hierarchy-based start-and-stop rules were formulated. The percentages of patients with a difference between the RMI total score and the score based on the recommended start-and-stop rules were 3% and 5%, respectively. Ten of the original 15 items had to be scored after applying the start-and-stop rules. Item hierarchy was established, enabling improved interpretation and faster scoring of the RMI. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... and Patient Resources Home » Patients & Families » About Stroke » Pediatric Stroke » Introduction Introduction What is a Stroke? Ischemic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pediatric Stroke Introduction Types of Stroke Diagnosis and Treatment ...
Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age as an ind...... and rehabilitation after stroke.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age...... as an independent predictor of short- and long-term outcome. METHODS: In the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study we recorded admission clinical characteristics in 1197 consecutive stroke patients. Patients were stratified according to age groups on admission. Follow-up was performed at a mean of 7 years after...
Leys, D; Englund, E; Del Ser, T
or white matter lesions or leukoencephalopathy or leukoaraiosis' and 'stroke or cerebral infarct or cerebral hemorrhage or cerebrovascular disease or transient ischemic attack (TIA)'. WMC, as defined radiologically, are present in up to 44% of patients with stroke or TIA and in 50% of patients...... of death or dependency, recurrent stroke of any type, cerebral bleeding under anticoagulation, myocardial infarction, and poststroke dementia. WMC in stroke patients are often associated with small-vessel disease and lead to a higher risk of death, and poor cardiac and neurological outcome. However......White matter changes (WMC), detected by imaging techniques, are frequent in stroke patients. The aim of the study was to determine how WMC relate to stroke subtypes and to stroke outcome. We made a systematic Medline search for articles appearing with two of the following key words: either 'WMC...
Pérennou, Dominic Alain; Amblard, Bernard; Laassel, El Mostafa; Benaim, Charles; Hérisson, Christian; Pélissier, Jacques
To investigate whether pusher behavior (ie, a tendency among stroke patients with spatial deficits to actively push away from the nonparalyzed side and to resist any attempt to hold a more upright posture) affects only the trunk, for which gravitational feedback is given by somesthetic information, or the head as well, whose gravitational information is mainly given by the vestibular system (without vision). Description and measurement of clinical features. Rehabilitation center research laboratory. Eight healthy subjects age matched to 14 patients with left hemiplegia resulting from right-hemisphere stroke (3 pushers showing a severe spatial neglect, 11 without pusher behavior). All participants were asked to actively maintain an erect posture while sitting for 8 seconds on a rocking, laterally unstable platform. The task was performed with (in light) and without (in darkness) vision. The number of trials needed to succeed in the task was monitored. In successful trials, head, shoulders, thoracolumbar spine, and pelvis orientation in roll were measured by means of an automated, optical television image processor. Compared with other patients and healthy subjects, the 3 pushers missed many more trials and displayed a contralesional tilt of the pelvis but kept a correct head orientation. This tilt was especially pronounced without vision. Spatial neglect was a key factor, explaining 56% of patients' misorientation behavior with vision and 61% without vision. This pilot kinematic analysis shows that pusher behavior does not result from disrupted processing of vestibular information (eg, caused by a lesion involving the vestibular cortex); rather, it results from a high-order disruption in the processing of somesthetic information originating in the left hemibody, which could be graviceptive neglect (extinction). This disruption leads pushers to actively adjust their body posture to a subjective vertical biased to the side opposite the cerebral lesion. Copyright 2002
Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Sundseth, Antje; Thommessen, Bente; Rønning, Ole Morten
Public campaigns focus primarily on stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge, but patients who correctly recognize stroke symptoms do not necessarily know the reason for urgent hospitalization. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge on stroke risk factors, symptoms and treatment options among acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients. This prospective study included patients admitted to the stroke unit at the Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Norway. Patients with previous cerebrovascular disease, patients receiving thrombolytic treatment and patients who were not able to answer the questions in the questionnaire were excluded. Patients were asked two closed-ended questions: "Do you believe that stroke is a serious disorder?" and "Do you believe that time is of importance for stroke treatment?". In addition, patients were asked three open-ended questions where they were asked to list as many stroke risk factors, stroke symptoms and stroke treatment options as they could. A total of 173 patients were included, of whom 158 (91.3%) confirmed that they regarded stroke as a serious disorder and 148 patients (85.5%) considered time being of importance. In all, 102 patients (59.0%) could not name any treatment option. Forty-one patients (23.7%) named one or more adequate treatment options, and they were younger ( p options, which may contribute to reduce prehospital delay and onset-to-treatment-time.
Boeskov, Birgitte; Carver, Line Tornehøj; von Essen-Leise, Anders
BACKGROUND: Stroke is an important cause of severe disability and impaired motor function. Treatment modalities that improve motor function in patients with stroke are needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of kinesthetic taping of the anterior thigh and knee on maximal...... be a valuable adjunct in physical therapy and rehabilitation of patients with stroke....
Visser-Meily, Anne; Post, Marcel; Gorter, Jan Willem; Berlekom, Steven Berdenis V.; van den Bos, Trudi; Lindeman, Eline
To highlight the importance of the spouse in stroke rehabilitation. Stroke not only affects the patients, but also their families, but rehabilitation practice is still primarily focused on the patient only. Analysis of the position of the spouse and possible consequences of stroke for the spouse,
Murugasu, G Dr.
Under the Quality and Continuing Care Directorate (QCCD) in stroke care Cavan General Hospital was identified as a hospital that received a large number of stroke and TIA patients. A programme was established to improve services to this population.
Fournaise, Anders; Skov, Jane; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Leppin, Anja
Clinical risk stratification models, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc, are used to assess stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. No study has yet investigated whether and to which extent these patients have a realistic perception of their personal stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association between AF patients' stroke risk perception and clinical stroke risk. In an observational cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 178 AF patients with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 8.3) in stable anticoagulant treatment (65% treatment duration >12 months). Clinical stroke risk was scored through the CHA2DS2-VASc, and patients rated their perceived personal stroke risk on a 7-point Likert scale. There was no significant association between clinical stroke risk assessment and patients' stroke risk perception (rho = .025; P = .741). Approximately 60% of the high-risk patients had an unrealistic perception of their own stroke risk, and there was no significant increase in risk perception from those with a lower compared with a higher risk factor load (χ(2) = .010; P = .522). Considering possible negative implications in terms of lack of motivation for lifestyle behavior change and adequate adherence to the treatment and monitoring of vitamin K antagonist, the apparent underestimation of risk by large subgroups warrants attention and needs further investigation with regard to possible behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith-Conway Erin R
Full Text Available Abstract Background During normal semantic processing, the left hemisphere (LH is suggested to restrict right hemisphere (RH performance via interhemispheric suppression. However, a lesion in the LH or the use of concurrent tasks to overload the LH's attentional resource balance has been reported to result in RH disinhibition with subsequent improvements in RH performance. The current study examines variations in RH semantic processing in the context of unilateral LH lesions and the manipulation of the interhemispheric processing resource balance, in order to explore the relevance of RH disinhibition to hemispheric contributions to semantic processing following a unilateral LH lesion. Methods RH disinhibition was examined for nine participants with a single LH lesion and 13 matched controls using the dual task paradigm. Hemispheric performance on a divided visual field lexical decision semantic priming task was compared over three verbal memory load conditions, of zero-, two- and six-words. Related stimuli consisted of categorically related, associatively related, and categorically and associatively related prime-target pairs. Response time and accuracy data were recorded and analyzed using linear mixed model analysis, and planned contrasts were performed to compare priming effects in both visual fields, for each of the memory load conditions. Results Control participants exhibited significant bilateral visual field priming for all related conditions (p Conclusions The results from the control group are consistent with suggestions of an age related hemispheric asymmetry reduction and indicate that in healthy aging compensatory bilateral activation may reduce the impact of inhibition. In comparison, the results for the LHD group indicate that following a LH lesion RH semantic processing can be manipulated and enhanced by the introduction of a verbal memory task designed to engage LH resources and allow disinhibition of RH processing.
Sedov A. S.
Full Text Available Background. Concepts of movement and action are not completely synonymous, but what distinguishes one from the other? Movement may be defined as stimulus- driven motor acts, while action implies realization of a specific motor goal, essential for cognitively driven behavior. Although recent clinical and neuroimaging studies have revealed some areas of the brain that mediate cognitive aspects of human motor behavior, the identification of the basic neural circuit underlying the interaction between cognitive and motor functions remains a challenge for neurophysiology and psychology. Objective. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate elementary cognitive aspects of human motor behavior. Design. Twenty healthy right-handed volunteers were asked to perform stimulus-driven and goal-directed movements by clenching the right hand into a fist (7 times. The cognitive component lay in anticipation of simple stimuli signals. In order to disentangle the purely motor component of stimulus-driven movements, we used the event-related (ER paradigm. FMRI was performed on a 3 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Verio MR-scanner with 32-channel head coil. Results. We have shown differences in the localization of brain activity depending on the involvement of cognitive functions. These differences testify to the role of the cerebellum and the right hemisphere in motor cognition. In particular, our results suggest that right associative cortical areas, together with the right posterolateral cerebellum (Crus I and lobule VI and basal ganglia, de ne cognitive control of motor activity, promoting a shift from a stimulus-driven to a goal-directed mode. Conclusion. These results, along with recent data from research on cerebro-cerebellar circuitry, redefine the scope of tasks for exploring the contribution of the cerebellum to diverse aspects of human motor behavior and cognition.
Tompkins, Connie A.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud; Blake, Margaret Lehman; Baumgaertner, Annette; Jayaram, Nandini
ourse comprehensionEvidence conflicts as to whether adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) generate inferences during text comprehension. M. Beeman (1993) reported that adults with RHD fail to activate the lexical-semantic bases of routine bridging inferences, which are necessary for comprehension. But other evidence indicates that adults…
Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liu, Jui-Chen; Chen, Ping-Kun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang
A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychi...
Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, Else Marie; Husted, Steen
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...... focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery...... improvement for serum proteins, and 22 % of the patients were malnourished 6 months after stroke. Udgivelsesdato: null-null...
Zhu, Wei; Gao, Yufeng; Wan, Jieru; Lan, Xi; Han, Xiaoning; Zhu, Shanshan; Zang, Weidong; Chen, Xuemei; Ziai, Wendy; Hanley, Daniel F; Russo, Scott J; Jorge, Ricardo E; Wang, Jian
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a detrimental type of stroke. Mouse models of ICH, induced by collagenase or blood infusion, commonly target striatum, but not other brain sites such as ventricular system, cortex, and hippocampus. Few studies have systemically investigated brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits that develop in animal models of ICH in these areas of the right hemisphere. Therefore, we evaluated the brain damage and neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with right hemispheric ICH in ventricle, cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. The ICH model was induced by autologous whole blood or collagenase VII-S (0.075 units in 0.5 µl saline) injection. At different time points after ICH induction, mice were assessed for brain tissue damage and neurobehavioral deficits. Sham control mice were used for comparison. We found that ICH location influenced features of brain damage, microglia/macrophage activation, and behavioral deficits. Furthermore, the 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system was most sensitive for evaluating locomotor abnormalities in all four models, especially on days 1, 3, and 7 post-ICH. The wire-hanging test was useful for evaluating locomotor abnormalities in models of striatal, intraventricular, and cortical ICH. The cylinder test identified locomotor abnormalities only in the striatal ICH model. The novel object recognition test was effective for evaluating recognition memory dysfunction in all models except for striatal ICH. The tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test were effective for evaluating emotional abnormality in all four models but did not correlate with severity of brain damage. These results will help to inform future preclinical studies of ICH outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohr, Bettina; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Harrington, Karen; Evans, Samuel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann
The role of the two hemispheres in the neurorehabilitation of language is still under dispute. This study explored the changes in language-evoked brain activation over a 2-week treatment interval with intensive constraint induced aphasia therapy (CIAT), which is also called intensive language action therapy (ILAT). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain activation in perilesional left hemispheric and in homotopic right hemispheric areas during passive listening to high and low-ambiguity sentences and non-speech control stimuli in chronic non-fluent aphasia patients. All patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements of language functions after therapy. In an event-related fMRI experiment, a significant increase of BOLD signal was manifest in right inferior frontal and temporal areas. This activation increase was stronger for highly ambiguous sentences than for unambiguous ones. These results suggest that the known language improvements brought about by intensive constraint-induced language action therapy at least in part relies on circuits within the right-hemispheric homologs of left-perisylvian language areas, which are most strongly activated in the processing of semantically complex language. PMID:25452721
Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K
Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed...... and apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects...
Shulman, Gordon L.; Pope, Daniel L. W.; Astafiev, Serguei V.; McAvoy, Mark P.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Corbetta, Maurizio
Spatial selective attention is widely considered to be right hemisphere dominant. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, however, have reported bilateral blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in dorsal fronto-parietal regions during anticipatory shifts of attention to a location (Kastner et al., 1999; Corbetta et al., 2000; Hopfinger et al., 2000). Right-lateralized activity has mainly been reported in ventral fronto-parietal regions for shifts of attention to an unattended target stimulus (Arrington et al., 2000; Corbetta et al., 2000). However, clear conclusions cannot be drawn from these studies because hemispheric asymmetries were not assessed using direct voxel-wise comparisons of activity in left and right hemispheres. Here, we used this technique to measure hemispheric asymmetries during shifts of spatial attention evoked by a peripheral cue stimulus and during target detection at the cued location. Stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention in both visual fields evoked right-hemisphere dominant activity in temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). Target detection at the attended location produced a more widespread right hemisphere dominance in frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex, including the TPJ region asymmetrically activated during shifts of spatial attention. However, hemispheric asymmetries were not observed during either shifts of attention or target detection in the dorsal fronto-parietal regions (anterior precuneus, medial intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields) that showed the most robust activations for shifts of attention. Therefore, right hemisphere dominance during stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention and target detection reflects asymmetries in cortical regions that are largely distinct from the dorsal fronto-parietal network involved in the control of selective attention. PMID:20219998
Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Jobard, Gael; Hay, Julien; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Mellet, Emmanuel
The objective of this study was to validate a line bisection judgement (LBJ) task for use in investigating the lateralized cerebral bases of spatial attention in a sample of 51 right-handed healthy participants. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the participants performed a LBJ task that was compared to a visuomotor control task during which the participants made similar saccadic and motoric responses. Cerebral lateralization was determined using a voxel-based functional asymmetry analysis and a hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI) computed from fMRI contrast images. Behavioural attentional deviation biases were assessed during the LBJ task and a "paper and pencil" symbol cancellation task (SCT). Individual visuospatial skills were also evaluated. The results showed that both the LBJ and SCT tasks elicited leftward spatial biases in healthy subjects, although the biases were not correlated, which indicated their independence. Neuroimaging results showed that the LBJ task elicited a right hemispheric lateralization, with rightward asymmetries found in a large posterior occipito-parietal area, the posterior calcarine sulcus (V1p) and the temporo-occipital junction (TOJ) and in the inferior frontal gyrus, the anterior insula and the superior medial frontal gyrus. The comparison of the LBJ asymmetry map to the lesion map of neglect patients who suffer line bisection deviation demonstrated maximum overlap in a network that included the middle occipital gyrus (MOG), the TOJ, the anterior insula and the inferior frontal region, likely subtending spatial LBJ bias. Finally, the LBJ task-related cerebral lateralization was specifically correlated with the LBJ spatial bias but not with the SCT bias or with the visuospatial skills of the participants. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the LBJ task is adequate for investigating spatial lateralization in healthy subjects and is suitable for determining the factors underlying the
Conclusion: We conclude that, apart from risk factors and stroke subtypes, the functional outcomes observed in the two groups differed. Early identification of these differences with good management may help to improve the clinical outcomes in younger stroke patients.
Matano, A; Iosa, M; Guariglia, C; Pizzamiglio, L; Paolucci, S
Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) after stroke is associated to severe disability and to a poor rehabilitation outcome. However it is still unclear if a reduction of USN after a specific neurophsycological treatment could also favor the functional recovery. The first aim of this study was to determine if low responders to neuropsychological treatment of unilateral spatial neglect may have a worse functional prognosis for activities of daily living. The second aim was to investigate which variables can predict a low response to neuropsychological treatment. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation hospital in Italy. Two hundred inpatients with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke were screened in this observational study. Inclusion criteria were: patients in subacute phase of first ischemic stroke in right hemisphere. Exclusion criteria were: presence of previous and/or other disabling pathologies, medical conditions contraindicating physical therapy. Data of 73 patients who performed neurorehabilitation and visual scanning training for reducing USN were analysed, while the remaining others were excluded for at least one of the following reasons: hemorrhagic lesions, presence of other chronic disabling pathologies, contraindications for therapy. USN was evaluated using: Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. According to the aim of the study, forward binary logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the effects of different factors on functional recovery. Three factors were identified as predictors of low effectiveness in terms of BI-score: older age (odds ratio OR=9.882, P=0.002), severity of disease at admission (OR=12.594, P=0.002) and being low responders to neuropsychological treatment (OR=3.847, P=0.027). Further, the initial barrage score (OR=3.313, P=0.027) and the initial BI-score (OR=3.252, P=0
Krarup, L-H; Sandset, E C; Sandset, P M
Krarup L-H, Sandset EC, Sandset PM, Berge E. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. Acta Neurol Scand: 2011: 124: 40-44. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background - Patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation are at in......Krarup L-H, Sandset EC, Sandset PM, Berge E. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. Acta Neurol Scand: 2011: 124: 40-44. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background - Patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation.......96), and the combined endpoint of stroke progression, recurrent stroke, and death (D-dimer: 991 ng/ml vs 970 ng/ml, P = 0.91). Multivariable analyses did not alter the results. Conclusion - D-dimer and other markers of hemostatic activation were not associated with stroke progression, recurrent stroke, or death...
Background: High blood pressure is often said to be associated with poor outcome in stroke. However, there remains some uncertainly about the relationship of blood pressure to mortality in stroke. Objective: This study seeks to determine the influence of admission blood pressure on early mortality of stroke patients at the ...
Background: Assessment of treatment efficacy through outcomes evaluation is an established practice in stroke rehabilitation. The evaluation of motor recovery is a cornerstone of the assessment of patients with stroke; and an integral component of stroke rehabilitation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ...
Fang, Jing; Yan, Weihong; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Li, Wei; Cheng, Qi
To observe the time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival (time-to-hospital) in acute ischemic stroke patients and analyze its putatively associated factors. During the period from November 1, 2006 to August 31, 2008, patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted consecutively to the Department of Neurology, Ninth Hospital, Shanghai, were enrolled in the study. Information of the patients was registered including the time-to-hospital, demographic data, history of stroke, season at attack, neurological symptom at onset, etc. Characteristics of the patients were analyzed and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the time-to-hospital. There were 536 patients in the study, 290 (54.1%) males and 246 (45.9%) females. The median time-to-hospital was 8h (ranged from 0.1 to 300 h) for all patients. Within 3h after the onset of stroke, 162 patients (30.2%) arrived at our hospital; and within 6h, 278 patients (51.9%). Patients with a history of stroke, unconsciousness at onset, or a high NIHSS score at admission had significantly less time-to-hospital. The time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival was importance of seeking immediate medical help after stroke onset of patients and their relatives could significantly influence their actions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brynningsen, Peter Krogh; Husted, Steen; Damsgaard, Else Marie Skjøde
focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery......INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have......, length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months...
Nikolai Anatolyevich Shamalov
Full Text Available The main tasks of prehospital medical care are to make a correct diagnosis of stroke and to minimize patient transportation delays. Stroke is a medical emergency so all patients with suspected stroke must be admitted by a first arrived ambulance team to a specialized neurology unit for stroke patients. Most rapidly transporting the patient to hospital, as well as reducing the time of examination to verify the pattern of stroke are a guarantee of successful thrombolytic therapy that is the most effective treatment for ischemic stroke. Substantially reducing the time of in-hospital transfers (the so-called door-to-needle time allows stroke patients to be directly admitted to the around the clock computed tomography room, without being sent to the admission unit. Prehospital stroke treatment policy (basic therapy is to correct the body’s vital functions and to maintain respiration, hemodynamics, and water-electrolyte balance and it can be performed without neuroimaging verification of the pattern of stroke. The application of current organizational, methodical, and educational approaches is useful in improving the quality of medical care for stroke patients, in enhancing the continuity between prehospital and hospital cares, and in promoting new effective technologies in stroke therapy.
Timpert, David C; Weiss, Peter H; Vossel, Simone; Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R
Theories of lateralized cognitive functions propose a dominance of the left hemisphere for motor control and of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Accordingly, spatial attention deficits (e.g., neglect) are more frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke, whereas apraxia is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Clinical reports of spatial attentional deficits after left hemisphere (LH) stroke also exist, but are often neglected. By applying parallel analysis (PA) and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to data from a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of 74 LH stroke patients, we here systematically investigate the relationship between spatial inattention and apraxia and their neural bases. PA revealed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits loaded on one common component, while deficits in attention tests were explained by another independent component. Statistical lesion analyses with the individual component scores showed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits were significantly associated with lesions of the left superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF). Data suggest that in LH stroke spatial attention deficits dissociate from apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits. These findings contribute to models of lateralised cognitive functions in the human brain. Moreover, our findings strongly suggest that LH stroke patients should be assessed systematically for spatial attention deficits so that these can be included in their rehabilitation regime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ganz, Peter; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Established risk factors do not fully identify patients at risk for recurrent stroke. The SPARCL trial (Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels) evaluated the effect of atorvastatin on stroke risk in patients with a recent stroke or transient ischemic...
Huber, Roman; Grittner, Ulrike; Weidemann, Frank; Thijs, Vincent; Tanislav, Christian; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Wolf, Markus; Hennerici, Michael G; McCabe, Dominick J H; Putaala, Jukaa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Kessler, Christoph; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Martus, Peter; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is disproportionately prevalent in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Without alternative explanations, it is frequently considered to be causative. A detailed stratification of these patients may improve the identification of incidental PFO. We investigated the PFO prevalence in 3497 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 55 years in the prospective multicenter SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients 1) using the ASCO classification. Patients without an obvious cause for transient ischemic attack/stroke (ASCO 0) were divided into subgroups with and without vascular risk factors (ASCO 0+ and 0-). In addition, we looked for PFO-related magnetic resonance imaging lesion patterns. PFO was identified in 25% of patients. Twenty percent of patients with a definite or probable cause of transient ischemic attack/stroke (≥1 grade 1 or 2 ASCO criterion; n=1769) had a PFO compared with 29% of cryptogenic stroke patients (ASCO 0 and 3; n=1728; Pstrokes revealed a PFO in 24% of 978 ASCO 3 patients (n.s. versus ASCO 1 and 2) and a higher prevalence of 36% in 750 ASCO 0 cases (Pstroke patients demonstrate a heterogeneous PFO prevalence. Even in case of less conclusive diseases like nonstenotic arteriosclerosis, patients should preferentially be considered to have a non-PFO-mediated stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
L. B. Zavaliy
cognitive function in patients who had experienced a stroke,. The drug does not significantly improve the neurological status of patients after a stroke, but it reduces the risk of the stroke development in the next 10 years. Thus, we analyzed mechanisms of medical substances action and data of experimental and clinical studies, including ones after thrombolytic therapy and with inclusion of drugs for primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. The reasonability and effectiveness of prescribing a combination of drugs of different pharmacological groups affecting brain metabolism remains controversial, since the excessive drug treatment may have complications. The safety of metabolic therapy is in doubt, and some of authors views presented confirm the need for additional large independent studies.
Tyler, Lorraine K.; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.
The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to b...
Parikh, Neal S; Cool, Joséphine; Karas, Maria G; Boehme, Amelia K; Kamel, Hooman
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have advanced the management of end-stage heart failure. However, these devices are associated with hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications, including stroke. We assessed the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke after VAD placement. Using administrative claims data from acute care hospitals in California, Florida, and New York from 2005 to 2013, we identified patients who underwent VAD placement, defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 37.66. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were identified by previously validated coding algorithms. We used survival statistics to determine the incidence rates and Cox proportional hazard analyses to examine the associations. Among 1813 patients, we identified 201 ischemic strokes and 116 hemorrhagic strokes during 3.4 (±2.0) years of follow-up after implantation of a VAD. The incidence of stroke was 8.7% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7-9.7). The annual incidence of ischemic stroke (5.5%; 95% CI, 4.8-6.4) was nearly double that of hemorrhagic stroke (3.1%; 95% CI, 2.6-3.8). Women faced a higher hazard of stroke than men (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1), particularly hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.4). Stroke was strongly associated with subsequent in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio, 6.1; 95% CI, 4.6-7.9). The incidence of stroke after VAD implantation was 8.7% per year, and incident stroke was strongly associated with subsequent in-hospital mortality. Notably, ischemic stroke occurred at nearly twice the rate of hemorrhagic stroke. Women seemed to face a higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke than men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available A large and growing body of work, conducted in both brain-intact and brain-damaged populations, has used the free viewing chimeric face test as a measure of hemispheric dominance for the extraction of emotional information from faces. These studies generally show that normal right-handed individuals tend to perceive chimeric faces as more emotional if the emotional expression is presented on the half of the face to the viewer’s left (left hemiface. However, the mechanisms underlying this lateralized bias remain unclear. Here, we examine the extent to which this bias is driven by right hemisphere processing advantages versus default scanning biases in a unique way -- by changing task demands. In particular, we compare the original task with one in which right-hemisphere-biased processing cannot provide a decision advantage. Our behavioral and eye-movement data are inconsistent with the predictions of a default scanning bias account and support the idea that the left hemiface bias found in the chimeric face test is largely due to strategic use of right hemisphere processing mechanisms.
Pierfilippo De Sanctis
Full Text Available That language processing is primarily a function of the left hemisphere has led to the supposition that auditory temporal discrimination is particularly well-tuned in the left hemisphere, since speech discrimination is thought to rely heavily on the registration of temporal transitions. However, physiological data have not consistently supported this view. Rather, functional imaging studies often show equally strong, if not stronger, contributions from the right hemisphere during temporal processing tasks, suggesting a more complex underlying neural substrate. The mismatch negativity (MMN component of the human auditory evoked-potential (AEP provides a sensitive metric of duration processing in human auditory cortex and lateralization of MMN can be readily assayed when sufficiently dense electrode arrays are employed. Here, the sensitivity of the left and right auditory cortex for temporal processing was measured by recording the MMN to small duration deviants presented to either the left or right ear. We found that duration deviants differing by just 15% (i.e. rare 115 ms tones presented in a stream of 100 ms tones elicited a significant MMN for tones presented to the left ear (biasing the right hemisphere. However, deviants presented to the right ear elicited no detectable MMN for this separation. Further, participants detected significantly more duration deviants and committed fewer false alarms for tones presented to the left ear during a subsequent psychophysical testing session. In contrast to the prevalent model, these results point to equivalent if not greater right hemisphere contributions to temporal processing of small duration changes.
Blini, Elvio; Romeo, Zaira; Spironelli, Chiara; Pitteri, Marco; Meneghello, Francesca; Bonato, Mario; Zorzi, Marco
Unilateral Spatial Neglect, the most dramatic manifestation of contralesional space unawareness, is a highly heterogeneous syndrome. The presence of neglect is related to core spatially lateralized deficits, but its severity is also modulated by several domain-general factors (such as alertness or sustained attention) and by task demands. We previously showed that a computer-based dual-task paradigm exploiting both lateralized and non-lateralized factors (i.e., attentional load/multitasking) better captures this complex scenario and exacerbates deficits for the contralesional space after right hemisphere damage. Here we asked whether multitasking would reveal contralesional spatial disorders in chronic left-hemisphere damaged (LHD) stroke patients, a population in which impaired spatial processing is thought to be uncommon. Ten consecutive LHD patients with no signs of right-sided neglect at standard neuropsychological testing performed a computerized spatial monitoring task with and without concurrent secondary tasks (i.e., multitasking). Severe contralesional (right) space unawareness emerged in most patients under attentional load in both the visual and auditory modalities. Multitasking affected the detection of contralesional stimuli both when presented concurrently with an ipsilesional one (i.e., extinction for bilateral targets) and when presented in isolation (i.e., left neglect for right-sided targets). No spatial bias emerged in a control group of healthy elderly participants, who performed at ceiling, as well as in a second control group composed of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment. We conclude that the pathological spatial asymmetry in LHD patients cannot be attributed to a global reduction of cognitive resources but it is the consequence of unilateral brain damage. Clinical and theoretical implications of the load-dependent lack of awareness for contralesional hemispace following LHD are discussed. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wang, Qiongzhang; Zhao, Kai; Cai, Yan; Tu, Xinjie; Liu, Yuntao; He, Jincai
Diabetes mellitus is associated with post-stroke cognitive impairment. To the best of our knowledge, no study has explored the relationship between prediabetes and post-stroke cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between prediabetes and cognitive impairment in ischaemic stroke patients at 1 month. Two hundred one acute ischaemic stroke patients were consecutively recruited within the first 24 h after admission and were followed up for 1 month. Patients were divided into a diabetes mellitus group, prediabetes group and non-diabetes mellitus group by fasting glucose levels, 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and glycosylated haemoglobin levels at admission. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination at 1 month after stroke. The prediabetes group had a higher risk of post-stroke cognitive impairment than the non-diabetes group (35.7% vs. 18.1%, χ 2 = 4.252, P = .039). In logistical analyses, prediabetes was associated with post-stroke cognitive impairment after adjusting for potential confounding factors (odds ratio 3.062, 95% confidence interval 1.130-8.299, P = .028). Our findings show that prediabetes is associated with post-stroke cognitive impairment and may predict its development at 1 month post-stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ellis, Graham; Mant, Jonathan; Langhorne, Peter; Dennis, Martin; Winner, Simon
Many patients experience depression, social isolation and anxiety post stroke. These are associated with a poorer outcome. Ameliorating these problems may improve patient wellbeing. To evaluate the impact of a healthcare worker or volunteer whose multi-dimensional roles have been grouped under the title 'stroke liaison worker'. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (searched February 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009) and four other databases. We performed a cited reference search, searched conference proceedings and trials registers, checked reference lists and contacted authors and trial investigators. Randomised controlled trials investigating the impact of a stroke liaison worker versus usual care. We invited trialists to participate in a review of individual patient data. Primary outcomes for patients were subjective health status and extended activities of daily living. Primary outcomes for carers were subjective health status including measures of carer strain. We included 16 trials involving 4759 participants. Analysis did not show a significant overall difference for subjective health status (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.11 to 0.04, P = 0.34) or extended activities of daily living (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.11, P = 0.22). There was no overall significant effect for the outcome of carer subjective health status (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.14, P = 0.37). Patients with mild to moderate disability (Barthel 15 to 19) had a significant reduction in dependence (odds ratio (OR) 0.62, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.87, P = 0.006). This would equate to 10 fewer dependent patients (95% CI 17 fewer to 4 fewer) for every 100 patients seen by the stroke liaison worker. Similar results were seen for the outcome of death or dependence for the subgroup with Barthel 15 to 19 (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.81, P
Hasan, Zeki N; Al-Shimmery, Ehsan K; Taha, Mufeed A
To clinically assess neurogenic dysphagia, and to correlate its presence with demographic features, different stroke risk factors, anatomical arterial territorial stroke types, and pathological stroke types. Seventy-two stroke inpatients were studied between July 2007 and February 2008, at the Departments of Medicine and Neurology at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, and Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq. All patients were assessed using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability score (MASA), Modified Rankin Scale, and the Stroke Risk Scorecard. All patients were reassessed after one month. There were 40 males and 32 females. Sixty-eight patients had ischemic stroke, and 4 had primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). According to the MASA score, 55% of anterior circulation stroke (ACS) cases were associated with dysphasia, and 91% of lateral medullary syndrome cases were associated with dysphagia. Fifty-six percent of ACS dysphagic cases improved within the first month. Forty percent of dysphagic patients died in the one month follow up period, and in most, death was caused by aspiration pneumonia. We observed no significant differences regarding demographic features of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be an indicator of the severity of stroke causing higher mortality and morbidity in affected patients. It was not related to the stroke risk factors and the type of stroke. It is essential from a prognostic point of view to assess swallowing, and to treat its complications early.
Sun, Yan; Lee, Sze Haur; Heng, Bee Hoon; Chin, Vivien S
Stroke is the 4th leading cause of death and 1st leading cause of disability in Singapore. However the information on long-term post stroke outcomes for Singaporean patients was limited. This study aimed to investigate the post stroke outcomes of 5-year survival and rehospitalization due to stroke recurrence for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients in Singapore. The outcomes were stratified by age, ethnic group, gender and stroke types. The causes of death and stroke recurrence were also explored in the study. A multi-site retrospective cohort study. Patients admitted for stroke at any of the three hospitals in the National Healthcare Group of Singapore were included in the study. All study patients were followed up to 5 years. Kaplan-Meier was applied to study the time to first event, death or rehospitalization due to stroke recurrence. Cox proportional hazard model was applied to study the time to death with adjustment for stroke type, age, sex, ethnic group, and admission year. Cumulative incidence model with competing risk was applied for comparing the risks of rehospitalization due to stroke recurrence with death as the competing risk. Totally 12,559 stroke patients were included in the study. Among them, 59.3% survived for 5 years; 18.4% were rehospitalized due to stroke recurrence in 5 years. The risk of stroke recurrence and mortality increased with age in all stroke types. Gender, ethnic group and admitting year were not significantly associated with the risk of mortality or stroke recurrence in hemorrhagic stroke. Male or Malay patient had higher risk of stroke recurrence and mortality in ischemic stroke. Hemorrhagic stroke had higher early mortality while ischemic stroke had higher recurrence and late mortality. The top cause of death among died stroke patients was cerebrovascular diseases, followed by pneumonia and ischemic heart diseases. The recurrent stroke was most likely to be the same type as the initial stroke among rehospitalized stroke
Wagle, Jørgen; Farner, Lasse; Flekkøy, Kjell; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir; Sandvik, Leiv; Fure, Brynjar; Stensrød, Brynhild; Engedal, Knut
To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2-3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13 months later with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as outcome measure. Three predictive models were built using linear regression analyses: a biological model (sociodemographics, apolipoprotein E genotype, prestroke vascular factors, lesion characteristics and neurological stroke-related impairment); a functional model (pre- and early post-stroke cognitive functioning, personal and instrumental activities of daily living, ADL, and depressive symptoms), and a combined model (including significant variables, with p value Stroke Scale; β = 0.402, p stroke cognitive functioning (Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status, RBANS; β = -0.248, p = 0.001) and prestroke personal ADL (Barthel Index; β = -0.217, p = 0.002). Further linear regression analyses of which RBANS indexes and subtests best predicted long-term functional outcome showed that Coding (β = -0.484, p stroke cognitive functioning as measured by the RBANS is a significant and independent predictor of long-term functional post-stroke outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang
Abstract Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke. We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts. The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03–1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15–1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07–1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.18) for men and women, respectively. This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further. PMID:28272195
Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Svendsen, M L
OBJECTIVES: The impact of ischemic stroke subtype on clinical outcome in patients treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is sparsely examined. We studied the association between stroke subtype and clinical outcome in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-evaluated patients...... patients were more likely to achieve early neurological improvement and favorable outcome compared with LVD stroke following MRI-based IV-tPA treatment. This finding may reflect a difference in the effect of IV-tPA among stroke subtypes....
Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Kalra, Guneet; Jaison, Ashish; Deepak, Sukhbinder Singh; Shamsher, Shivali; Singh, Yashpal; Abraham, George
The knowledge of warning symptoms and risk factors for stroke has not been studied among patients with stroke in developing countries. We aimed to assess the knowledge of stroke among patients with stroke and their relatives. Prospective tertiary referral hospital-based study in Northwest India. Trained nurses and medical interns interviewed patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack and their relatives about their knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used. Of the 147 subjects interviewed, 102 (69%) were patients and 45 (31%) were relatives. There were 99 (67%) men and 48 (33%) women and the mean age was 59.7+/-14.1 years. Sixty-two percent of respondents recognized paralysis of one side as a warning symptom and 54% recognized hypertension as a risk factor for stroke. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher education was associated with the knowledge of correct organ involvement in stroke (OR 2.6, CI 1.1- 6.1, P =0.02), whereas younger age (OR 2.7, CI 1.1-7.0, P =0.04) and higher education (OR 4.1, CI 1.5-10.9, P =0.005) correlated with a better knowledge regarding warning symptoms of stroke. In this study cohort, in general, there is lack of awareness of major warning symptoms, risk factors, organ involvement and self-recognition of stroke. However younger age and education status were associated with better knowledge. There is an urgent need for awareness programs about stroke in this study cohort.
Ewa Trzmielewska; Marta Jurdziak
Hypertension is present in about 77% of patients with a first episode of stroke. Unlike the established benefit of lowering blood pressure for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, the management of hypertension in patients with acute stroke remains controversial. ABPM is a diagnostic tool that has been proposed as a method of obtaining a more reliable assessment of patients’ blood pressure in comparison with OBPM. ABPM provides precise information about the BP values during the dai...
Schneider, Melissa A
There is a growing body of evidence linking vitamin D to more than only bone health. Researchers are discovering connections between low vitamin D levels and increased stroke risk, higher mortality, and poorer outcomes after stroke. Nurses need to be aware of ongoing research regarding vitamin D and include information about this important vitamin with patient education, especially for older patients admitted with stroke symptoms or risks.
Paluy, Yulia; Gilbert, Aubrey L.; Baldo, Juliana V.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Ivry, Richard B.
Patients with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) brain injury due to stroke were tested on a speeded, color discrimination task in which two factors were manipulated: (1) the categorical relationship between the target and the distracters and (2) the visual field in which the target was presented. Similar to controls, the RH patients…
Asaithambi, Ganesh; Castle, Amy L; Sperl, Michael A; Ravichandran, Jayashree; Gupta, Aditi; Ho, Bridget M; Hanson, Sandra K
The safety and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) to stroke patients via telestroke (TS) is similar to those presenting to stroke centers. Little is known on the accuracy of TS diagnosis among those receiving IVT. We sought to compare the rate of patients receiving IVT with diagnosis of ischemic stroke as opposed to stroke mimic (SM) in our TS network to those who presented to our comprehensive stroke center (CSC). Consecutive patients receiving IVT between August 2014 and June 2015 were identified at our CSC and TS network. We compared rates of SM, post-IVT symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), in-hospital mortality, and discharge destination. We evaluated 131 receiving IVT were included in the analysis. Rates of SM receiving IVT were similar (CSC 12% versus 7% TS, p=0.33). Four stroke patients experienced sICH or in-hospital mortality; neither were found among SM patients. Discharge destination was similar between stroke and SM patients (p=0.9). SM patients had higher diagnoses of migraine (p=0.05) and psychiatric illness (p<0.01). The accuracy of diagnosing stroke in IVT-eligible patients evaluated via TS is similar to evaluations at our CSC. Continued efforts should be made to minimize exposure of SM patients to IVT in both settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Belardinelli, Paolo; Laer, Leonard; Ortiz, Erick; Braun, Christoph; Gharabaghi, Alireza
Motor recovery in severely impaired stroke patients is often very limited. To refine therapeutic interventions for regaining motor control in this patient group, the functionally relevant mechanisms of neuronal plasticity need to be detected. Cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) may provide physiological and topographic insights to achieve this goal. Synchronizing limb movements to motor-related brain activation is hypothesized to reestablish cortico-motor control indexed by CMC. In the present study, right-handed, chronic stroke patients with right-hemispheric lesions and left hand paralysis participated in a four-week training for their left upper extremity. A brain-robot interface turned event-related beta-band desynchronization of the lesioned sensorimotor cortex during kinesthetic motor-imagery into the opening of the paralyzed hand by a robotic orthosis. Simultaneous MEG/EMG recordings and individual models from MRIs were used for CMC detection and source reconstruction of cortico-muscular connectivity to the affected finger extensors before and after the training program. The upper extremity-FMA of the patients improved significantly from 16.23 ± 6.79 to 19.52 ± 7.91 (p = 0.0015). All patients showed significantly increased CMC in the beta frequency-band, with a distributed, bi-hemispheric pattern and considerable inter-individual variability. The location of CMC changes was not correlated to the severity of the motor impairment, the motor improvement or the lesion volume. Group analysis of the cortical overlap revealed a common feature in all patients following the intervention: a significantly increased level of ipsilesional premotor CMC that extended from the superior to the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, along with a confined area of increased CMC in the contralesional premotor cortex. In conclusion, functionally relevant modulations of CMC can be detected in patients with long-term, severe motor deficits after a brain-robot assisted
Full Text Available Background and purposeThe blood–brain barrier (BBB not only provides a physical obstruction but also recruits and activates neutrophils in cases of infection. Hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke reportedly induces the disruption of the BBB. However, few studies have reported a correlation between the incidence of meningitis in patients with a history of stroke. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with a history of stroke may be more vulnerable to meningitis.MethodsStroke and age-matched comparison (n = 29,436 and 87,951, respectively cohorts were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database (2000–2011. Correlations between the two cohorts were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression model, Kaplan–Meier curve, and log-rank tests.ResultsThe incidence of meningitis was higher in the stroke cohort compared to that in the comparison cohort [hazard ratio (HR, 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI, 2.23–3.74, p < 0.001]. After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the estimated HR in the stroke cohort was 2.55-fold higher than that in the comparison cohort (CI, 1.94–3.37; p < 0.001. Notably, patients who had experienced hemorrhagic stroke had a higher incidence rate of meningitis than those with a history of ischemic stroke, except for patients older than 75 years (incidence rates in hemorrhagic/ischemic stroke patients, 3.14/1.48 in patients younger than 45 years, 1.52/0.41 in 45- to 64-year group, 1.15/0.90 in 65- to 74-year group, 0.74/0.93 in patients older than 75 years. Moreover, stroke patients who had undergone head surgery had the highest meningitis risk (adjusted HR, 8.66; 95% CI, 5.55–13.5; p < 0.001 followed by stroke patients who had not undergone head surgery (adjusted HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.57–2.82; p < 0.001.ConclusionOur results indicated that stroke patients have higher risks of meningitis. Compromised BBB integrity in stroke patients may lead to increased
V. Je. Azarenko
Full Text Available The main task of the general practitioner is managing patients with the effects of ischemic stroke. The improvement of patients adherence to treatment in a significant way contributes to successful secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Adherence to treatment can be determined through various questionnaires, including Morissky-Green. Currently, the adherence to a long-term drug therapy remains insufficient.
Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Susan
An efficient innovative Brain-Computer-Interface system that empowers chronic stroke patients to control an artificial activation of their lower limb muscle through task specific motor intent has been tested in the past. In the current study it was applied to acute stroke patients. The system...
Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen
Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulati...
Wetmore, James B; Phadnis, Milind A; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Shireman, Theresa I; Rigler, Sally K; Mahnken, Jonathan D
Stroke is common in patients undergoing long-term dialysis, but the implications for mortality after stroke in these patients are not fully understood. A large cohort of dually-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) patients initiating dialysis from 2000 to 2005 and surviving the first 90 days was constructed. Medicare claims were used to ascertain ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes occurring after 90-day survival. A semi-Markov model with additive hazard extension was generated to estimate the association between stroke and mortality, to calculate years of life lost after a stroke, and to determine whether race was associated with differential survival after stroke. The cohort consisted of 69,371 individuals representing >112,000 person-years of follow-up. Mean age±SD was 60.8±15.5 years. There were 21.1 (99% confidence interval [99% CI], 20.0 to 22.3) ischemic strokes and 4.7 (99% CI, 4.2 to 5.3) hemorrhagic strokes after cohort entry per 1000 patient-years. At 30 days, mortality was 17.9% for ischemic stroke and 53.4% for hemorrhagic stroke. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) depended on time since entry into the cohort; for patients who experienced a stroke at 1 year after cohort entry, for example, the AHR of hemorrhagic stroke for mortality was 25.4 (99% CI, 22.4 to 28.4) at 1 week, 9.9 (99% CI, 8.4 to 11.6) at 3 months, 5.9 (99% CI, 5.0 to 7.0) at 6 months, and 1.8 (99% CI, 1.5 to 2.1) at 24 months. The corresponding AHRs for ischemic stroke were 11.7 (99% CI, 10.2 to 13.1) at 1 week, 6.6 (99% CI, 6.4 to 6.7) at 3 months, and 4.7 (99% CI, 4.5 to 4.9) at 6 months, remaining significantly >1.0 even at 48 months. Median months of life lost were 40.7 for hemorrhagic stroke and 34.6 for ischemic stroke. For both stroke types, mortality did not differ by race. Dialysis recipients have high mortality after a stroke with corresponding decrements in remaining years of life. Poststroke mortality does not differ by race. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Tistad, Malin; Koch, Lena von
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceived needs for health services by persons with stroke within the first year after rehabilitation, and associations between perceived impact of stroke, involvement in decisions regarding care/treatment, and having health services needs met. METHOD: Data...... was collected, through a mail survey, from patients with stroke who were admitted to a university hospital in 2012 and had received rehabilitation after discharge from the stroke unit. The rehabilitation lasted an average of 2 to 4.6 months. The Stroke Survivor Needs Survey Questionnaire was used to assess....... CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of involving patients in making decisions on stroke rehabilitation, as it appears to be associated with meeting their health services needs....
Rastatter, M; Dell, C W; McGuire, R A; Loren, C
Previous studies investigating hemispheric organization for processing concrete and abstract nouns have provided conflicting results. Using manual reaction time tasks some studies have shown that the right hemisphere is capable of analyzing concrete words but not abstract. Others, however, have inferred that the left hemisphere is the sole analyzer of both types of lexicon. The present study tested these issues further by measuring vocal reaction times of normal subjects to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract items. Results were consistent with a model of functional localization which suggests that the minor hemisphere is capable of differentially processing both types of lexicon in the presence of a dominant left hemisphere.
Khealani, B.A.; Syed, N.A.; Maken, S.; Mapari, U.U.; Hameed, B.; Ali, S.; Qureshi, R.; Akhter, N.; Hassan, A.; Sonawalla, A.B.; Baig, S.M.; Wasay, M.
Objective: To identify the factors that predispose to ischemic versus hemorrhagic stroke in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: All the hypertensive patients, who were registered in AKUH acute stroke outcome data base, over a period of 22 months, were identified and from this cohort the patients with first ever stroke were selected. The data regarding demographics, stroke type (ischemic vs. hemorrhagic), pre-existing medical problems, laboratory and radiological investigations was recorded and analyzed. Results: Five hundred and nineteen patients with either ischemic stroke or parenchymal hemorrhage were registered over a period of 22 months. Three hundred and forty-eight patients (67%) had hypertension and of these, 250 had first ever stroke at the time of admission. Presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 3.76; Cl:1.67-8.46) and ischemic heart disease (OR: 6.97; Cl:1.57-30.98) were found to be independent predictors of ischemic strokes. Conclusion: Presence of diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease predict ischemic stroke in a patient with hypertension. (author)
Anna Flávia Ferraz Barros Baroni
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Stroke is a frequent cause of dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a tertiary care hospital the prevalence of swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients, to analyze factors associated with the dysfunction and to relate swallowing dysfunction to mortality 3 months after the stroke. METHODS: Clinical evaluation of deglutition was performed in 212 consecutive patients with a medical and radiologic diagnosis of stroke. The occurrence of death was determined 3 months after the stroke. RESULTS: It was observed that 63% of the patients had swallowing dysfunction. The variables gender and specific location of the lesion were not associated with the presence or absence of swallowing dysfunction. The patients with swallowing dysfunction had more frequently a previous stroke, had a stroke in the left hemisphere, motor and/or sensitivity alterations, difficulty in oral comprehension, alteration of oral expression, alteration of the level of consciousness, complications such as fever and pneumonia, high indexes on the Rankin scale, and low indexes on the Barthel scale. These patients had a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing evaluation should be done in all patients with stroke, since swallowing dysfunction is associated with complications and an increased risk of death.
Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.
Mishra, N K; Ahmed, N; Davalos, A
BACKGROUND: Patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and prior stroke (PS) were excluded from European approval of alteplase in stroke. We examined the influence of DM and PS on the outcomes of patients who received thrombolytic therapy (T; data from Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis......,986), or concomitant DM and PS (OR 1.23 [0.996-1.52], p = 0.05, n = 1,136), all CMH p treatment (tissue...
Gaber, Tarek A-Z K; Parsons, Faye; Gautam, Vidushi
Several tests are available for aphasia screening following stroke. However, some of them have shortcomings such as need of specialist knowledge, low sensitivity and/or specificity and lengthy administration time. Our study aims to evaluate the language component of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination--Revised (ACE-R) as a screening tool for aphasia in stroke patients. The language component of ACE-R was administered to consecutive patients admitted to a post-acute stroke unit. Patients who were medically unstable or had a significant history of sensory impairment or mental health issues were excluded. The test was administered by two junior doctors with basic training in ACE-R administration. Patients recruited were also assessed by an experienced speech and language therapist (SLT). The results of the two assessments were documented by a different member of the team and the SLT results were used as the benchmark to calculate the ACE-R language component sensitivity and specificity. Fifty-nine participants were recruited and 27 of them were women. The mean age was 72 (SD 11.9). Thirty-four participants had left and 11 right hemisphere stroke. Fourteen had bilateral affection. Six participants were left handed. A cut-off value of 22/26 of ACE-R language component showed 100% specificity and 83.1% sensitivity, while a cut-off value of 16/26 had 88.2% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Our results suggest that the language component of ACE-R has a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity compared with other screening tests used in strokes. It is easy to administer and free to use. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.
Balaban, Birol; Tok, Fatih; Yavuz, Ferdi; Yaşar, Evren; Alaca, Rıdvan
Although important data on the prognosis and rehabilitation outcome in stroke patients have been reported, data on functional recovery according to stroke subtypes are limited. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke-the most common subtype of ischemic stroke. The records of stroke patients that underwent the rehabilitation program at our brain injury rehabilitation service between January 2007 and December 2008 were reviewed, and those with MCA stroke were included in the study. Patient demographic and clinical data, and Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores at admission and discharge were collected. The study included 80 MCA stroke patients with a mean age of 63.54 years. FIM and BI scores improved significantly post rehabilitation (Prehabilitation had similar outcomes as those that had >1 month of inpatient rehabilitation (P>0.05). Length of time after stroke onset was not correlated with BI or FIM scores at admission. Regardless of initial functional status, prediction of discharge functional status was misleading. Physiatrists should keep in mind that functional improvement does not always increase with duration of inpatient therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adeoye, Opeolu; Jauch, Edward C
Management of arterial hypertension in the hyperacute period immediately after stroke ictus remains controversial. Extremes of blood pressure (BP) are associated with poor outcomes in all stroke subtypes. Severely hypertensive patients likely benefit from modest BP reductions, but aggressive BP reduction may worsen outcome. Although little evidence is currently available to definitively establish guideline recommendations for optimal BP goals at stroke presentation, recently published research is shedding some light on how to approach management of BP after stroke. Antihypertensive treatment should probably be deferred in ischemic stroke patients except in cases of severe hypertension or when thrombolytic therapy is warranted and the patient's BP is above acceptable levels. Hypertensive hemorrhagic stroke patients may benefit from modest BP reductions. Relative hypotension causing regional hypoperfusion is an increasingly understood concept immediately following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, emphasizing the need for careful titration of appropriate medications to minimize fluctuations in BP for treated patients. Ongoing trials will improve our current knowledge regarding BP management after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Gong, Liang; Wang, JiHua; Feng, Lei; Wang, MeiHong; Li, Xiu; Hu, JiaYun; Wang, Kai
Occipital stroke patients mainly showed cortical blindness and unilateral vision loss; memory is generally reserved. Recent reports from neuroimaging show the occipital lobe may be involved in the processing of implicit memory (IM), especially the perception type of IM processing. In this study, we explored the explicit memory (EM) and IM damage in occipital lobe stroke patients. A total of 25 occipital strokes and 29 years of age, educational level equivalent healthy controls (HCs), evaluated by using immediate recall, delayed recall, recognition for EM tasks, picture identification, and category exemplar generation for IM tasks. There was no significant difference between occipital stroke patients and HCs in EM tasks and category exemplar generation task. In the picture identification task, occipital lobe stroke group score was poorer than HC group, the results were statistically significant, but in the pictures identify rate, occipital stroke patients and normal control group had no significant difference. The occipital stroke patients may have IM damage, primarily damage the perception type of IM priming effects, which was unrelated with their cortical blindness. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al-Khaled, Mohamed; Matthis, Christine; Binder, Andreas; Mudter, Jonas; Schattschneider, Joern; Pulkowski, Ulrich; Strohmaier, Tim; Niehoff, Torsten; Zybur, Roland; Eggers, Juergen; Valdueza, Jose M; Royl, Georg
Dysphagia is associated with poor outcome in stroke patients. Studies investigating the association of dysphagia and early dysphagia screening (EDS) with outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are rare. The aims of our study are to investigate the association of dysphagia and EDS within 24 h with stroke-related pneumonia and outcomes. Over a 4.5-year period (starting November 2007), all consecutive AIS patients from 15 hospitals in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, were prospectively evaluated. The primary outcomes were stroke-related pneumonia during hospitalization, mortality, and disability measured on the modified Rankin Scale ≥2-5, in which 2 indicates an independence/slight disability to 5 severe disability. Of 12,276 patients (mean age 73 ± 13; 49% women), 9,164 patients (74%) underwent dysphagia screening; of these patients, 55, 39, 4.7, and 1.5% of patients had been screened for dysphagia within 3, 3 to 72 h following admission. Patients who underwent dysphagia screening were likely to be older, more affected on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and to have higher rates of neurological symptoms and risk factors than patients who were not screened. A total of 3,083 patients (25.1%; 95% CI 24.4-25.8) had dysphagia. The frequency of dysphagia was higher in patients who had undergone dysphagia screening than in those who had not (30 vs. 11.1%; p dysphagia had a higher rate of pneumonia than those without dysphagia (29.7 vs. 3.7%; p dysphagia was associated with increased risk of stroke-related pneumonia (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.8-4.2; p dysphagia was independently correlated with an increase in mortality (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.4-4.2; p Dysphagia exposes stroke patients to a higher risk of pneumonia, disability, and death, whereas an EDS seems to be associated with reduced risk of stroke-related pneumonia and disability. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sayed Ali Mousavi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine the distribution and severity of extracranial carotid arterial atherosclerosis in Iranian patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: 328 patients with ischemic stroke were included in this study. Doppler ultrasound was used for evaluation of atherosclerosis in extracranial carotid arteries. The NASCET criteria were used to measure carotid stenosis. RESULTS: Ninety of 328 patients (27.4% were found to have atherosclerotic plaques; 40 of these patients were women and 50 were men. Sixty-eight patients (20.7% had artery stenosis <50%, 13 patients (3.95% had 50-70 % artery stenosis and 6 (1.8% had >70% artery stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Extracranial atherosclerosis is not rare in Iranian patients with ischemic stroke, but most carotid artery lesions were plaques with <50% stenosis. KEY WORDS: Atherosclerosis, ischemic stroke, carotid stenosis.
Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; van de Nes, J.C.M.; Cup, E.H.C.; van den Ende, C.H.M.
Background and Purpose - Occupational therapy (OT) is an important aspect of stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to determine from the available literature whether OT interventions improve outcome for stroke patients. Methods - An extensive search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED,
Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur
The objective was to identify the predictors of length of stay--the impact of age, comorbidity, and stroke subtype--on the outcome of geriatric stroke patients. One hundred and seventy stroke patients (129 first-ever ischemic, 25 hemorrhagic, and 16 ischemic second strokes) were included in the study. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project…
Lassen, N A; Larsen, B
of cortical activity seen during various language functions, emphasizing the practically symmetrical involvement in both hemispheres. A case of auditive agnosia (with complete cortical word deafness but preserved pure tone thresholds) is presented. The patient's normal speech constitutes evidence...
Brunner-Frandsen, Nicole; Dammann Andersen, Andreas; Ashournia, Hamoun
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac dysrhythmia, with a lifetime risk of 25%, and it is a well-known independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Over the last 15 years, efforts have been made to initiate relevant treatment in patients with AF. A retrospective study...... was set up to clarify whether this effort has resulted in a decreased proportion of patients with known AF experiencing an ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patients admitted to the Department of Neurology, Vejle Hospital, Denmark, with ischemic stroke from January 1997 to December 2012 were included in the study....... RESULTS: A total of 4134 patients were included in the study. Overall, the yearly proportion of patients with known AF varied between 9% and 18%. No significant change was observed (P = .511). The proportion of patients with known AF treated with anticoagulants at the time of the stroke and the proportion...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT One in six patients admitted for stroke was previously demented. These patients have less access to appropriate stroke care, although little is known about their optimal management. Objective To determine how pre-stroke cognitive impairment can be detected, its mechanism, and influence on outcome and management. Methods Literature search. Results (i A systematic approach with the Informant Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the Elderly is recommended; (ii Pre-stroke cognitive impairment may be due to brain lesions of vascular, degenerative, or mixed origin; (iii Patients with pre-stroke dementia, have worse outcomes, more seizures, delirium, and depression, and higher mortality rates; they often need to be institutionalised after their stroke; (iv Although the safety profile of treatment is not as good as that of cognitively normal patients, the risk:benefit ratio is in favour of treating these patients like others. Conclusion Patients with cognitive impairment who develop a stroke have worse outcomes, but should be treated like others.
Vidal, Ana C; Banca, Paula; Pascoal, Augusto G; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Sargento-Freitas, João; Gouveia, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel
Background Understanding of interhemispheric interactions in stroke patients during motor control is an important clinical neuroscience quest that may provide important clues for neurorehabilitation. In stroke patients bilateral overactivation in both hemispheres has been interpreted as a poor prognostic indicator of functional recovery. In contrast, ipsilesional patterns have been linked with better motor outcomes. Aim We investigated the pathophysiology of hemispheric interactions during limb movement without and with contralateral restraint, to mimic the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy. We used neuroimaging to probe brain activity with such a movement-dependent interhemispheric modulation paradigm. Methods We used a functional magnetic resonance imaging block design during which the plegic/paretic upper limb was recruited/mobilized to perform unilateral arm elevation, as a function of presence versus absence of contralateral limb restriction (n = 20, with balanced left/right lesion sites). Results Analysis of 10 right hemispheric stroke participants yielded bilateral sensorimotor cortex activation in all movement phases in contrast with the unilateral dominance seen in the 10 left hemispheric stroke participants. Superimposition of contralateral restriction led to a prominent shift from activation to deactivation response patterns, in particular in cortical and basal ganglia motor areas in right hemispheric stroke. Left hemispheric stroke was, in general, characterized by reduced activation patterns, even in the absence of restriction, which induced additional cortical silencing. Conclusion The observed hemispheric-dependent activation/deactivation shifts is novel and these pathophysiological observations suggest short-term neuroplasticity that may be useful for hemisphere-tailored neurorehabilitation.
Wu, Andy J; Burgard, Emily; Radel, Jeff
Stroke-induced paresis commands much attention during rehabilitation; other stroke-related consequences receive less consideration. Apraxia is a stroke disorder that may have important implications for rehabilitation and recovery. To investigate association of apraxia with stroke rehabilitation outcomes during inpatient rehabilitation. This cohort study compared patients with and without apraxia after a first left hemispheric stroke. All study patients received standard of care. Clinical measures were the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) administered upon admission and at discharge. Length of stay was also documented. Florida Apraxia Battery subtests were used to classify patients with apraxia. Fifteen patients were included in this study, 10 of whom had apraxia. Data analysis revealed that patients with apraxia exhibited improvement from admission to discharge in clinical measures; however, admission FIM score was significantly lower compared to patients without apraxia. There was no statistically significant difference between groups on FMA score, length of stay, or amount of change on clinical measures. This study of acute patients found those with apraxia to be significantly less independent upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation compared to patients without apraxia. Although both groups improved a similar amount during rehabilitation, patients with apraxia discharged at a level of independence comparable to patients without apraxia upon admission. Such disparity in independence is of concern, and apraxia as a factor in stroke rehabilitation and recovery deserves further attention.
Nesbitt, Julian; Moxham, Sian; Ramadurai, Gopinath; Williams, Lucy
Stroke patients can experience a variety of pain. Many stroke patients have co-morbidities such as osteoporosis, arthritis or diabetes causing diabetic neuropathy. As well as pain from other long term conditions, stroke patients can experience central post-stroke pain, headaches, and musculoskeletal issues such as hypertonia, contractures, spasticity, and subluxations. These stroke patients can also have communication difficulties in the form of expressive dysphasia and/or global aphasia. Communication difficulties can result in these patients not expressing their pain and therefore not having it assessed, leading to inadequate pain relief that could impact their rehabilitation and recovery. By implementing an observational measurement of pain such as the Abbey pain scale, patients with communication difficulties can have their pain assessed and recorded. Initially 30% of patients on the acute stroke ward did not have their pain assessed and adequately recorded and 15% of patients had inadequate pain relief. The patient was assessed if they were in pain and therefore not receiving adequate pain relief by measuring their pain on the Abbey pain scale. After introducing the Abbey pain scale and creating a nurse advocate, an improvement was shown such that only 5% of patients did not have their pain recorded and all had adequate pain relief.
Putilina, M V
The review is devoted to the current state of the problem of early rehabilitation of stroke patients. The rate of primary disability in patients after stroke is 3.2 per 10000 population but only 20% of previously working patients return to work. Early rehabilitation is treatment actions during a period following stroke. Adequate treatment during this period may decrease the extent of brain damage and improve disease outcome. The complexity of rehabilitation consists in using several complementary pharmacological and non-pharmacological rehabilitation measures. Appearance of new techniques of rehabilitation treatment aimed at neuroplasticity stimulation increases treatment potential of rehabilitative technologies.
Pahus, Sidse Høst; Hansen, Anette Tarp; Hvas, Anne-Mette
The possible significance of thrombophilia in ischemic stroke remains controversial. We aimed to study inherited and acquired thrombophilias as risk factors for ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and amaurosis fugax in young patients. We included patients aged 18 to 50 years with ischemic stroke, TIA or amaurosis fugax referred to thrombophilia investigation at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2012 (N=685). Clinical information was obtained from the Danish Stroke Registry and medical records. Thrombophilia investigation results were obtained from the laboratory information system. Absolute thrombophilia prevalences and associated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were reported for ischemic stroke (N=377) and TIA or amaurosis fugax (N=308). Thrombophilia prevalences for the general population were obtained from published data. No strong associations were found between thrombophilia and ischemic stroke, but patients with persistent presence of lupus anticoagulant (3%) had an OR at 2.66 (95% CI 0.84-9.15) for ischemic stroke. A significantly higher risk of TIA/amaurosis fugax was found for factor V Leiden heterozygote (12%) (OR: 1.99 (95% CI 1.14-3.28)). No other inherited or acquired thrombophilia was associated with ischemic stroke, TIA or amaurosis fugax. In young patients, thrombophilia did not infer an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Only factor V Leiden heterozygote patients had an increased risk of TIA/amaurosis fugax, and persistent presence of lupus anticoagulant was likely associated with ischemic stroke. We suggest the testing restricted to investigation of persistent presence of lupus anticoagulant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Bo Ryun; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Lee Suk; Park, Ji Young
Objective To investigate the effect of virtual reality on the recovery of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Method Twenty-eight patients (11 males and 17 females, mean age 64.2) with cognitive impairment following stroke were recruited for this study. All patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the virtual reality (VR) group (n=15) or the control group (n=13). The VR group received both virtual reality training and computer-based cognitive rehabilitation, whereas the cont...
Batcho, Sèbiyo Charles; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Thonnard, Jean-Louis
Objective: To determine whether regular brisk walking can promote functional recovery in community-dwelling stroke patients. Patients: A total of 44 chronic stroke patients, recruited in Belgium and Benin, respectively European high-income and African low-income countries. Methods: This longitudinal, single-cohort, observational study with 1 intervention period and 4 time-points of assessments (2 baseline, 1 post-intervention and 1 follow-up) was structured in 3 periods: pre-intervention peri...
Verleger, Rolf; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Friedrich, Monique; Sedlmeier, Peter; Kompf, Detlef
In patients with the callosal type of anarchic-hand syndrome, the left hand often does not act as intended and counteracts the right hand. Reports are scarce about the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. We report the case G.H. who developed the syndrome after infarction of the left arteria pericallosa. It has been suggested that the…
Yang, Xiaomeng; Li, Shuya; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Jiang, Yong; Li, Zixiao; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is reported to be a less frequent cause of ischemic stroke in China than in Europe and North America, but it is not clear whether this is due to underestimation. Our aim was to define the true frequency of AF-associated stroke, to determine the yield of 6-day Holter ECG to detect AF in Chinese stroke patients, and to elucidate predictors of newly detected AF. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter cohort study of 6-day Holter monitoring within 7 days after stroke onset at 20 sites in China between 2013 and 2015. Independent predictors of newly-detected AF were determined by multivariate analysis. Among 1511 patients with ischemic stroke and TIA (mean age 63 years, 33.1% women), 305 (20.2%) had either previously known (196, 13.0%) or AF newly-detected by electrocardiography (53, 3.5%) or by 6-day Holter monitoring (56/1262, 4.4%). A history of heart failure (OR = 4.70, 95%CI, 1.64-13.5), advanced age (OR = 1.06, 95%CI, 1.04-1.09), NIHSS at admission (OR = 1.06, 95%CI, 1.02-1.10), blood high density lipoprotein (HDL) (OR = 1.52, 95%CI, 1.09-2.13), together with blood triglycerides (OR = 0.64, 95%CI, 0.45-0.91) were independently associated with newly-detected AF. Contrary to previous reports, AF-associated stroke is frequent (20%) in China if systemically sought. Prolonged noninvasive cardiac rhythm monitoring importantly increases AF detection in patients with recent ischemic stroke and TIA in China. Advanced age, history of heart failure, and higher admission NIHSS and higher level of HDL were independent indicators of newly-detected AF. NCT02156765 (June 5, 2014).
Koopmanschap Marc A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients. This paper discusses patient costs after stroke and compares costs between regular and stroke service care. Methods Costs were calculated within the framework of the evaluation of three experiments with stroke services in the Netherlands. Cost calculations are base on medical consumption data and actual costs. Results 598 patients were consecutively admitted to hospital after stroke. The average total costs of care per patient for the 6 month follow-up are estimated at €16,000. Costs are dominated by institutional and accommodation costs. Patients who die after stroke incur less costs. For patients that survive the acute phase, the most important determinants of costs are disability status and having a partner – as they influence patients' stroke careers. These determinants also interact. The most efficient stroke service experiment was most successful in co-ordinating patient flow from hospital to (nursing home, through capacity planning and efficient discharge procedures. In this region the costs of stroke service care are the same as for regular stroke care. The other experiments suffered from waiting lists for nursing homes and home care, leading to "blocked beds" in hospitals and nursing homes and higher costs of care. Costs of co-ordination are estimated at about 3% of total costs of care. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that by organising care for stroke patients in a stroke service, better health effects can be achieved with the same budget. In addition, it provides insight in need, predisposing and enabling factors that determine costs of care after stroke.
Isono, Naofumi; Imamura, Yuki; Ohmura, Keiko; Ueda, Norihide; Kawabata, Shinji; Furuse, Motomasa; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko
For stroke patients, intensive nutritional management is an important and effective component of inpatient rehabilitation. Accordingly, acute care hospitals must detect and prevent malnutrition at an early stage. Blood transthyretin levels are widely used as a nutritional monitoring index in critically ill patients. Here, we had analyzed the relationship between the transthyretin levels during the acute phase and Functional Independence Measure in stroke patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation. We investigated 117 patients who were admitted to our hospital with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke from February 2013 to October 2015 and subsequently transferred to convalescent hospitals after receiving acute treatment. Transthyretin concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points as follows: at admission, and 5 and 10 days after admission. After categorizing patients into 3 groups according to the minimum transthyretin level, we analyzed the association between transthyretin and Functional Independence Measure. In our patients, transthyretin levels decreased during the first 5 days after admission and recovered slightly during the subsequent 5 days. Notably, Functional Independence Measure efficiency was significantly associated with the decrease in transthyretin levels during the 5 days after admission. Patients with lower transthyretin levels had poorer Functional Independence Measure outcomes and tended not to be discharged to their own homes. A minimal transthyretin concentration (stroke patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation. In particular, an early decrease in transthyretin levels suggests restricted rehabilitation efficiency. Accordingly, transthyretin levels should be monitored in acute stroke patients to indicate mid-term rehabilitation prospects. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; van Uden, Inge W M; Tuladhar, Anil M; Maaijwee, Noortje A M; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Kessels, Roy P C
Memory impairment after stroke in young adults is poorly understood. In elderly stroke survivors memory impairments and the concomitant loss of hippocampal volume are usually explained by coexisting neurodegenerative disease (e.g., amyloid pathology) in interaction with stroke. However, neurodegenerative disease, such as amyloid pathology, is generally absent at young age. Accumulating evidence suggests that infarction itself may cause secondary neurodegeneration in remote areas. Therefore, we investigated the relation between long-term memory performance and hippocampal volume in young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. We studied all consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our academic hospital center between 1980 and 2010. Episodic memory of 173 patients was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Rey Complex Figure and compared with 87 stroke-free controls. Hippocampal volume was determined using FSL-FIRST, with manual correction. On average 10 years after stroke, patients had smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volumes compared with controls after left-hemispheric stroke (5.4%) and right-hemispheric stroke (7.7%), with most apparent memory dysfunctioning after left-hemispheric stroke. A larger hemispheric stroke was associated with a smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volume (b=-0.003, Pstroke (b=-0.028 ml, P=0.002) and right-hemispheric stroke (b=-0.015 ml, P=0.03). Our results suggest that infarction is associated with remote injury to the hippocampus, which may lower or expedite the threshold for cognitive impairment or even dementia later in life. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
O'Connell, Clare; Cassidy, Aoife; O'Neill, Desmond; Moss, Hilary
There has been an increasing interest in the arts in health care, with a suggestion that the arts and aesthetics can augment patient outcomes in stroke and other illnesses. Designing such programmes requires better knowledge of the artistic, aesthetic, and cultural pursuits of people affected by stroke. The aim of this study was to obtain the insights of this group about the profile of art and aesthetic activities in their lives and the influence of stroke on these aspects. Patients attending a stroke service were administered questions adapted from the Irish Arts Council's 2006 questionnaire on participation in aesthetics and cultural pursuits. Information was also collected on stroke type and present functional and cognitive status. Thirty-eight patients were interviewed. Of these, 20 were inpatients in hospital at the time of the interview and 18 were interviewed in an outpatient setting. Popular activities included mainstream cinema, listening to music, dancing, attending plays or musicals, and being outdoors. Many patients ceased these activities after their stroke, mostly because of health issues and inaccessibility. Most of the patients valued the importance of the arts in the health-care setting. This study gives a perspective for the first time on the aesthetic and cultural pursuits of stroke patients before their stroke. It portrays a wide variety of cultural and leisure activities and the cessation of these poststroke. It revealed the restrictions patients felt on gaining access to leisure pursuits both while in hospital and following discharge. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pluta, A; Ulatowska, H; Gawron, N; Sobanska, M; Lojek, E
The present study aims at elucidating the impact of stroke on psychosocial functioning of stroke survivors. Data were investigated using interpretative thematic analysis of illness stories produced by 29 patients. Eight themes emerged from the data: Medical Information; Interpersonal Changes; Cognitive, Physical and Emotional Functioning; Strategies of Coping; Social Support; and Information Irrelevant to the Question. The most frequent organization of the themes followed the course of medical intervention and rehabilitation. Narrations of individual patients varied in terms of the presence of particular themes, the amount of information on each topic and organization. The results suggest that the analysis of non-guided illness narratives can be effectively used to identify the thematic areas important to individual stroke patients. The thematic content analysis of stroke stories can allow health professionals to better understand the patient's state of knowledge related to illness as well as his or her socio-psychological functioning which may be useful in the course of planning further assessment and rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Experience of illness and life changes following stroke should be recognized as central to the provision of targeted rehabilitation. To understand the subjective perspective a content analysis of the content narrative is recommended. Our study highlights seven general thematic categories that may be regarded as key. The categories may be useful for clinicians to help individuals to clarify their main concerns following a stroke.
Michelle L.A. Nelson
Full Text Available Stroke care presents unique challenges for clinicians, as most strokes occur in the context of other medical diagnoses. An assessment of capacity for implementing “best practice” stroke care found clinicians reporting a strong need for training specific to patient/system complexity and multimorbidity. With mounting patient complexity, there is pressure to implement new models of healthcare delivery for both quality and financial sustainability. Policy makers and administrators are turning to clinical practice guidelines to support decision-making and resource allocation. Stroke rehabilitation programs across Canada are being transformed to better align with the Canadian Stroke Strategy’s Stroke Best Practice Recommendations. The recommendations provide a framework to facilitate the adoption of evidence-based best practices in stroke across the continuum of care. However, given the increasing and emerging complexity of patients with stroke in terms of multimorbidity, the evidence supporting clinical practice guidelines may not align with the current patient population. To evaluate this, electronic databases and gray literature will be searched, including published or unpublished studies of quantitative, qualitative or mixed-methods research designs. Team members will screen the literature and abstract the data. Results will present a numerical account of the amount, type, and distribution of the studies included and a thematic analysis and concept map of the results. This review represents the first attempt to map the available literature on stroke rehabilitation and multimorbidity, and identify gaps in the existing research. The results will be relevant for knowledge users concerned with stroke rehabilitation by expanding the understanding of the current evidence.
Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, Else Marie; Husted, Steen
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...... focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery...... and 6 months. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and serum concentrations of albumin and transferrin. Malnutrition was defined if the patients had 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables. RESULTS...
N.J.A. van Exel (Job); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen); W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer (Wilma)
textabstractBackground. Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients. This paper discusses
M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer (Wilma); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen); N.J.A. van Exel (Job)
textabstractBACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients.
knowledge of black patients diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes and stroke about the risk factors for stroke. Four groups made up of 33 subjects (hypertensive, diabetic, stroke and control group were interviewed using open-ended questions and a structured questionnaire. Qualitative coding, frequencies and proportions were used to determine their knowledge. Groups were compared with respect to percentage knowledge using the chi-square statistic at a 0.05 level of significance. Stress was mentioned as the most important risk factor in all groups. Although identification of stroke risk factors was inadequate, the diabetic group was found to be significantly better in identifying some of the risk factors (salt - p =0,05; sugar - p = 0,001; fat - p = 0,004; moderate smoking - p = 0,05; weight - p = 0,002
Rosenbaum, Talli; Vadas, Dor; Kalichman, Leonid
While the rehabilitation goals of post-stroke patients include improving quality of life and returning to functional activities, the extent to which sexual activity is addressed as part of the standard rehabilitation process is unknown. Moreover, the specific sexual concerns of stroke patients, including the effect of stroke on intimate relationships and sexuality of the partner, the ability to physically engage in sex, and the effect of psychological components such as role identity, depression, and anxiety on sexuality, all warrant examination by rehabilitation professionals. The aim of this study is to examine the existing literature on sexuality and stroke patients in order to better understand how the sexual lives of stroke patients and their partners are affected and to provide recommendations to rehabilitation professionals for addressing sexuality as part of treatment. Narrative review, PubMed, PEDro, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (inception-December 2012) were searched for the key words "stroke," "sexual dysfunction," "sexuality," "quality of life," and their combination. All relevant articles in English and secondary references were reviewed. We report the results of the literature review. Sexual dysfunction and decreased sexual satisfaction are common in the post-stroke population and are related to physical, psychosocial, and relational factors. However, they are not adequately addressed in post-stroke rehabilitation. As sexual function is an important component to quality of life and activities of daily living, physicians and rehabilitation specialists, including physical, occupational, and speech therapists, should receive training in addressing sexuality in the treatment of post-stroke patients. Sexologists and sex therapists should be an integral part of the rehabilitation team. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Davis, Chris; Kislyuk, Daniel; Kim, Jeesun; Sams, Mikko
We used whole-head magnetoencephalograpy (MEG) to record changes in neuromagnetic N100m responses generated in the left and right auditory cortex as a function of the match between visual and auditory speech signals. Stimuli were auditory-only (AO) and auditory-visual (AV) presentations of /pi/, /ti/ and /vi/. Three types of intensity matched auditory stimuli were used: intact speech (Normal), frequency band filtered speech (Band) and speech-shaped white noise (Noise). The behavioural task was to detect the /vi/ syllables which comprised 12% of stimuli. N100m responses were measured to averaged /pi/ and /ti/ stimuli. Behavioural data showed that identification of the stimuli was faster and more accurate for Normal than for Band stimuli, and for Band than for Noise stimuli. Reaction times were faster for AV than AO stimuli. MEG data showed that in the left hemisphere, N100m to both AO and AV stimuli was largest for the Normal, smaller for Band and smallest for Noise stimuli. In the right hemisphere, Normal and Band AO stimuli elicited N100m responses of quite similar amplitudes, but N100m amplitude to Noise was about half of that. There was a reduction in N100m for the AV compared to the AO conditions. The size of this reduction for each stimulus type was same in the left hemisphere but graded in the right (being largest to the Normal, smaller to the Band and smallest to the Noise stimuli). The N100m decrease for the Normal stimuli was significantly larger in the right than in the left hemisphere. We suggest that the effect of processing visual speech seen in the right hemisphere likely reflects suppression of the auditory response based on AV cues for place of articulation.
Hannes O Tiedt
Full Text Available The processing of faces relies on a specialized neural system comprising bilateral cortical structures with a dominance of the right hemisphere. However, due to inconsistencies of earlier findings as well as more recent results such functional lateralization has become a topic of discussion. In particular, studies employing behavioural tasks and electrophysiological methods indicate a dominance of the right hemisphere during face perception only in men whereas women exhibit symmetric and bilateral face processing. The aim of this study was to further investigate such sex differences in hemispheric processing of personally familiar and opposite-sex faces using whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG. We found a right-lateralized M170-component in occipito-temporal sensor clusters in men as opposed to a bilateral response in women. Furthermore, the same pattern was obtained in performing dipole localization and determining dipole strength in the M170-timewindow. These results suggest asymmetric involvement of face-responsive neural structures in men and allow to ascribe this asymmetry to the fusiform gyrus. This specifies findings from previous investigations employing event-related potentials (ERP and LORETA reconstruction methods yielding rather extended bilateral activations showing left asymmetry in women and right lateralization in men. We discuss our finding of an asymmetric fusiform activation pattern in men in terms of holistic face processing during face evaluation and sex differences with regard to visual strategies in general and interest for opposite faces in special. Taken together the pattern of hemispheric specialization observed here yields new insights into sex differences in face perception and entails further questions about interactions between biological sex, psychological gender and influences that might be stimulus-driven or task dependent.
Changes in regional cerebral blood flow in the right cortex homologous to left language areas are directly affected by left hemispheric damage in aphasic stroke patients: evaluation by Tc-ECD SPECT and novel analytic software.
Uruma, G; Kakuda, W; Abo, M
The objective of this study was to clarify the influence of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on rCBF in each region in the non-dominant hemisphere in post-stroke aphasic patients. The study subjects were 27 aphasic patients who suffered their first symptomatic stroke in the left hemisphere. In each subject, we measured rCBF by means of 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimmer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The SPECT images were analyzed by the statistical imaging analysis programs easy Z-score Imaging System (eZIS) and voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation (vbSEE). Segmented into Brodmann Area (BA) levels, Regions of Interest (ROIs) were set in language-relevant areas bilaterally, and changes in the relative rCBF as average negative and positive Z-values were computed fully automatically. To assess the relationship between rCBF changes of each ROIs in the left and right hemispheres, the Spearman ranked correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied. Globally, a negative and asymmetric influence of rCBF changes in the language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on the right hemisphere was found. The rCBF decrease in left BA22 significantly influenced the rCBF increase in right BA39, BA40, BA44 and BA45. The results suggested that the chronic increase in rCBF in the right language-relevant areas is due at least in part to reduction in the trancallosal inhibitory activity of the language-dominant left hemisphere caused by the stroke lesion itself and that these relationships are not always symmetric.
The majority of strokes are due to ischaemia. Risk factors include atrial fibrillation, hypertension and smoking. The incidence can be reduced by addressing these risk factors. This study examines the prevalence of risk factors and their treatment in a cohort of patients with ischaemic stroke registered on a Dublin stroke database.
Full Text Available Background. Previous evidence on factors and causes of readmissions associated with high-impact users of stroke is scanty. The aim of the study was to investigate common causes and pattern of short- and long-term readmissions stroke patients by conducting a systematic review of studies using hospital administrative data. Common risk factors associated with the change of readmission rate were also examined. Methods. The literature search was conducted from 15 February to 15 March 2016 using various databases, such as Medline, Embase, and Web of Science. Results. There were a total of 24 studies (n=2,126,617 included in the review. Only 4 studies assessed causes of readmissions in stroke patients with the follow-up duration from 30 days to 5 years. Common causes of readmissions in majority of the studies were recurrent stroke, infections, and cardiac conditions. Common patient-related risk factors associated with increased readmission rate were age and history of coronary heart disease, heart failure, renal disease, respiratory disease, peripheral arterial disease, and diabetes. Among stroke-related factors, length of stay of index stroke admission was associated with increased readmission rate, followed by bowel incontinence, feeding tube, and urinary catheter. Conclusion. Although risk factors and common causes of readmission were identified, none of the previous studies investigated causes and their sequence of readmissions among high-impact stroke users.
Devine, Michael J; Bentley, Paul; Jones, Brynmor; Hotton, Gary; Greenwood, Richard J; Jenkins, I Harri; Joyce, Eileen M; Malhotra, Paresh A
Psychotic symptoms have previously been reported following right hemisphere brain injury. We sought to identify the specific neuroanatomical basis of delusions following stroke by studying a series of patients with post-stroke psychosis. Lesion overlap analysis was conducted on three individuals with delusions following right hemisphere stroke. These cases were compared with a control group of patients with similar anatomical damage. The main outcome measures were presence of delusions and presence of behavioural susceptibility. The right inferior frontal gyrus and underlying white matter, including the superior longitudinal fasciculus and anterior corona radiata, were involved in all three cases. All three had a preexisting untreated psychiatric disorder. In contrast, only one of nine control cases with equivalent lesions had evidence of previous psychiatric disorder (p = 0.0182, Fisher's exact test), and this was being treated at the time of stroke. We provide clinical evidence from patients with structural brain lesions implicating damage to the right inferior frontal lobe in the generation of persistent psychosis following stroke. We suggest that preexisting psychiatric disease provided a behavioural susceptibility to develop delusions in these individuals.
Objective To investigate the perceived needs for health services by persons with stroke within the first year after rehabilitation, and associations between perceived impact of stroke, involvement in decisions regarding care/treatment, and having health services needs met. Method Data was collected, through a mail survey, from patients with stroke who were admitted to a university hospital in 2012 and had received rehabilitation after discharge from the stroke unit. The rehabilitation lasted an average of 2 to 4.6 months. The Stroke Survivor Needs Survey Questionnaire was used to assess the participants' perceptions of involvement in decisions on care or treatment and needs for health services in 11 problem areas: mobility, falls, incontinence, pain, fatigue, emotion, concentration, memory, speaking, reading, and sight. The perceived impact of stroke in eight areas was assessed using the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) 3.0. Eleven logistic regression models were created to explore associations between having health services needs met in each problem area respectively (dependent variable) and the independent variables. In all models the independent variables were: age, sex, SIS domain corresponding to the dependent variable, or stroke severity in cases when no corresponding SIS domain was identified, and involvement in decisions on care and treatment. Results The 63 participants who returned the questionnaires had a mean age of 72 years, 33 were male and 30 were female. Eighty percent had suffered a mild stroke. The number of participants who reported problems varied between 51 (80%, mobility) and 24 (38%, sight). Involvement in decisions on care and treatment was found to be associated with having health services needs met in six problem areas: falls, fatigue, emotion, memory, speaking, and reading. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of involving patients in making decisions on stroke rehabilitation, as it appears to be associated with meeting their health
Full Text Available Abstract Background The low rates of hypertension treatment and control, partly due to its unawareness, are the main causes of the high stroke incidence in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hypertension unawareness amongst patients with first-ever stroke and to detect factors associated with its unawareness. Methods We selected those diagnosed with hypertension from patients with first-ever stroke registered in the Nanjing Stroke Registry Program between 2004 and 2014. These hypertensives were divided as being aware or unaware of their hypertension by using a brief questionnaire conducted shortly after the stroke. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential factors associated with hypertension unawareness. Results Of the 5309 patients with first-ever stroke, 3732 (70.3 % were diagnosed with hypertension. Among which, 593 (15.9 % were unaware of their hypertension at the time of stroke onset. Lower-level of education (primary school or illiteracy and smoking were associated positively with hypertension unawareness; while advanced age, overweight, diabetes mellitus, heart diseases and family history of stroke were associated negatively with hypertension unawareness. Annual data analyzed indicated that the rate of hypertension awareness increased during the past 11 years (r = 0.613, P = 0.045 for trends. Conclusions A substantial proportion (15.9 % of Chinese patients with hypertension had not been aware of this covert risk until an overt stroke occurred. Hypertension unawareness was associated with lower educational levels and smoking, which address the importance of health education especially in these individuals.
Wang, J; Luo, B; Xie, Y; Hu, H-Y; Feng, L; Li, Z-N
This study was designed to assess the effect of particular tools on the nutritional status of patients with stroke risk factors; to analyze these risk factors; to construct an assessment table; and to enable nurses to conduct fast and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of patients with stroke. Various nutritional assessment tools were employed to assess the nutritional status of stroke patients [(Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, NRS2002); (mini nutritional assessment, MNA), (subjective global assessment SGA), (malnutrition universal screening, MUST); (body composition, BCA)]. The leading disease-related factors of cerebral apoplexy were observed in patients with malnutrition. And a statistical analysis was conducted. The significant risk factors of cerebral apoplexy in malnourished patients older than 70 years were swallowing dysfunctions, disturbance of consciousness and reliance or half-reliance on feeding practices. The significant risk factors of malnutrition in patients with cerebral apoplexy were the decline in upper limb muscle strength, decline in the performance of various activities, loss of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Disorders that affect the nutritional status of stroke patients can be used as evaluation tools, as described in the evaluation table. The clinical relevance of this study includes the following: to enable the clinical nursing staff to easily assess the patient's nutritional status in a timely manner; to improve compliance with nutritional evaluation; to provide clinical nutrition support to patients with stroke; and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of the clinical outcomes of patients with cerebral apoplexy.
Schure, Lidwien M.; van den Heuvel, Elisabeth T. P.; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; de Witte, Luc P.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a group support program and a home visiting program for family caregivers of stroke patients. It also examined the best fit between intervention variant and family caregiver and patient characteristics. van den
Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen
Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into “a training package”, based on the patient’s functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients. PMID:25133141
Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob
BACKGROUND: Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. METHODS: In this prospective controlled...... observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre....... Secondary endpoints included modified Rankin Scale at 3 months, 30-day and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were included; 265 with ground transport and 65 with helicopter, of which 87 (33%) and 22 (34%), received thrombolysis, respectively (p=0.88). Time from contact to triaging...
Leffert, Lisa R; Clancy, Caitlin R; Bateman, Brian T; Cox, Margueritte; Schulte, Phillip J; Smith, Eric E; Fonarow, Gregg C; Schwamm, Lee H; Kuklina, Elena V; George, Mary G
Hospitalizations for pregnancy-related stroke are rare but increasing. Hemorrhagic stroke (HS), ie, subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage, is more common than ischemic stroke in pregnant versus nonpregnant women, reflecting different phenotypes or risk factors. We compared stroke risk factors and outcomes in pregnant versus nonpregnant HS in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry. Using medical history or International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes, we identified 330 pregnant and 10 562 nonpregnant female patients aged 18 to 44 years with HS in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (2008-2014). Differences in patient and care characteristics were compared by χ(2) or Fisher exact test (categorical variables) or Wilcoxon rank-sum (continuous variables) tests. Conditional logistic regression assessed the association of pregnancy with outcomes conditional on categorical age and further adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. Pregnant versus nonpregnant HS patients were younger with fewer pre-existing stroke risk factors and medications. Pregnant versus nonpregnant subarachnoid hemorrhage patients were less impaired at arrival, and less than half met blood pressure criteria for severe preeclampsia. In-hospital mortality was lower in pregnant versus nonpregnant HS patients: adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for subarachnoid hemorrhage 0.17 (0.06-0.45) and intracerebral hemorrhage 0.57 (0.34-0.94). Pregnant subarachnoid hemorrhage patients also had a higher likelihood of home discharge (2.60 [1.67-4.06]) and independent ambulation at discharge (2.40 [1.56-3.70]). Pregnant HS patients are younger and have fewer risk factors than their nonpregnant counterparts, and risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality is lower. Our findings suggest possible differences in underlying disease pathophysiology and challenges to identifying at-risk patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
... doctor Preventing falls Stroke - discharge Swallowing problems Images Brain Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the left artery Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the right artery Stroke Brainstem function Cerebellum - function Circle of Willis Left cerebral hemisphere - ...
Zheng, J; Chen, X
Edaravone, a novel free-radical scavenger, has been shown to alleviate cerebral ischemic injury and protect against vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of edaravone in acute diabetic stroke patients remain undetermined. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to prospectively evaluate the effects of edaravone on acute diabetic stroke patients admitted to our hospital within 24 h of stroke onset. The edaravone group received edaravone (30 mg twice per day) diluted with 100 ml of saline combined with antiplatelet drug aspirin and atorvastatin for 14 days. The non-edaravone group was treated only with 100 ml of saline twice per day combined with aspirin and atorvastatin. Upon admission, and on days 7, 14 post-stroke onset, neurological deficits and activities of daily living were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Barthel Index (BI), respectively. The occurrence of hemorrhage transformation, pulmonary infection, progressive stroke and epilepsy was also evaluated on day 14 post-treatment. A total of 65 consecutive acute diabetic stroke patients were enrolled, of whom 35 were allocated to the edaravone group and 30 to the non-edaravone group. There was no significant group difference in baseline clinical characteristics, but mean NIHSS scores were lower (60 %), and BI scores were 1.7-fold higher, in edaravone-treated patients vs. controls on day 14. Furthermore, the incidence of hemorrhage transformation, pulmonary infection, progressive stroke and epilepsy was markedly reduced in the edaravone vs. non-edaravone group. Edaravone represents a promising neuroprotectant against cerebral ischemic injury in diabetic patients.
Cemile Handan Mısırlı
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was shown the differences in age, risk factors and treatment between women and men in stroke patients with atrial fibrillation METHODS: The stroke patients with atrial fibrillation who were hospitalized in our department at the last 2 years were seperated into 2 groups of aged above 75 and below 75, investigated with CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores and looked at the sex differences of women and men. RESULTS: Stroke ratio according to sex was statistically meaningful especially in women above the age of 75. Risc factors also were founded in elderly women and CHA2DS2VASc scores were higher in women than men so more anticoagulan treatment were begun. No differences were shown between sexes at lone atrial fibrillation and no treatment were begun. CONCLUSION: Women with atrial fibrillation had more risk factors, higher stroke rate and higher anticoagulation treatment.
Greve, Anders Møller; Dalsgaard, Morten; Bang, Casper N
, and poststroke survival a secondary outcome. Cox models treating AVR as a time-varying covariate were adjusted for atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, hypertension, age≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years and female sex (CHA2DS2-VASc......], 1.1-6.6), CHA2DS2-VASc score (HR 1.4 per unit; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), diastolic blood pressure (HR, 1.4 per 10 mm Hg; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), and AVR with concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.4-7.2, all P≤0.026) were independently associated with stroke. Incident stroke predicted...
Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie
The idea that creativity resides in the right cerebral hemisphere is persistent in popular science, but has been widely frowned upon by the scientific community due to little empirical support. Yet, creativity is believed to rely on the ability to combine remote concepts into novel and useful ideas, an ability which would depend on associative processing in the right hemisphere. Moreover, associative processing is modulated by dopamine, and asymmetries in dopamine functionality between hemispheres may imbalance the expression of their implemented cognitive functions. Here, by uniting these largely disconnected concepts, we hypothesize that relatively less dopamine function in the right hemisphere boosts creativity by releasing constraining effects of dopamine on remote associations. Indeed, participants with reduced neural responses in the dopaminergic system of the right hemisphere (estimated by functional MRI in a reward task with positive and negative feedback), displayed higher creativity (estimated by convergent and divergent tasks), and increased associative processing in the right hemisphere (estimated by a lateralized lexical decision task). Our findings offer unprecedented empirical support for a crucial and specific contribution of the right hemisphere to creativity. More importantly our study provides a comprehensive view on potential determinants of human creativity, namely dopamine-related activity and associative processing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Nayar, Meenakshi; Vanderstay, Roxana; Siegert, Richard J; Turner-Stokes, Lynne
The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM) is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS). We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010-2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation). For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge) was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907). All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p0.5). Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 pLHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 pLHS and RHS. This tool extends stroke outcome measurement beyond physical disability to include cognitive, communication and psychosocial function.
Vanni, Simone; Polidori, Gianluca; Pepe, Giuseppe; Chiarlone, Melisenda; Albani, Alberto; Pagnanelli, Adolfo; Grifoni, Stefano
The absence of a rapidly available and sensitive diagnostic test represents an important limitation in the triage of patients with suspected stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the triage accuracy of a novel test that measures blood-borne biomarkers (triage stroke panel, TSP) and to compare its accuracy with that of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS). Consecutive patients with suspected stroke presenting to the Emergency Departments of three Italian hospitals underwent triage by a trained nurse according to the CPSS and had blood drawn for TSP testing. The TSP simultaneously measures four markers (B-type natriuretic peptide, D-dimer, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and S100β) presenting a single composite result, the Multimarker Index (MMX). Stroke diagnosis was established by an expert committee blinded to MMX and CPSS results. There were 155 patients enrolled, 87 (56%) of whom had a final diagnosis of stroke. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for CPSS was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.84) and that of MMX was 0.74 (95% CI 0.66-0.82) (p = 0.285). Thus, both tests, when used alone, failed to recognize approximately 25% of strokes. The area under the ROC curve of the combination of the two tests (0.86, 95% CI 0.79-0.91) was significantly greater than that of either single test (p = 0.01 vs. CPSS and p vs. TSP). In an emergency care setting, a panel test using multiple biochemical markers showed triage accuracy similar to that of CPSS. Further studies are needed before biomarkers can be introduced in the clinical work-up of patients with suspected stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Danelciuc Francisc Tadeus
Full Text Available Coordinative capabilities develops under different formes, one of them being the capability of self balance, which have an important role în stance, gait and in performing the activities of daily living of the persons with stroke. This study aims to emphasize the advantages offered by an appropriate equipment properly used in stroke patients rehabilitation, both for balance assessment by electronic baropodometry and for its rehabilitation by using MBT devices.
Full Text Available Stroke is a global burden. It is not known whether patients who are most at risk of stroke (recurrent stroke or recurrent transient ischaemic attack have enough knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in this high-risk population. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of patients with recurrent stroke or recurrent TIA admitted to Srinagarind Hospital and Khon Kaen Hospital, Thailand. A total of 140 patients were included in the study (age 65.6±11.3 years [mean ± SD], 62 females. Using an open-ended questionnaire, nearly one-third of patients (31.4% could not name any risk factors for stroke. The most commonly recognized risk factors were hypertension (35%, dyslipidemia (28.6%, and diabetes (22.9%. Regarding stroke warning signs, the most commonly recognized warning signs were sudden unilateral weakness (61.4%, sudden trouble with speaking (25.7%, and sudden trouble with walking, loss of balance, or dizziness (21.4%. Nineteen patients (13.6% could not identify any warning signs. The results showed that knowledge of stroke obtained from open-ended questionnaires is still unsatisfactory. The healthcare provider should provide structured interventions to increase knowledge and awareness of stroke in these patients.
Kalichman, Leonid; Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Treger, Iuly
Purpose To evaluate the influence of patient's weight on rehabilitation outcomes in first-event stroke patients. Design Retrospective, observational comparative study. 102 first-time stroke male and female patients admitted to the 52-bed neurology rehabilitation department in a rehabilitation hospital were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), Functional Independence Measure (FIM) on admission and at discharge, as well as the delta-FIM (FIM on admission - FIM at discharge) were evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the FIM and the NIHSS scores between BMI groups (normal, overweight, moderate and severe obesity). Results A statistically significant negative correlation (rho = -0.20, p = 0.049) was found between FIM change and BMI, that remained significant after adjustments for age, sex and hospitalisation days. No difference was found between groups in FIM or NIHSS change between BMI groups. Conclusions In sub-acute post-stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in rehabilitation hospital, BMI was negatively associated with the improvement of functional parameters. Patients' BMI should be taken into consideration when predicting rehabilitation outcome for stroke patients. Further investigations are needed to identify the functional parameters affected by the patients' BMI. Implications for Rehabilitation In sub-acute post-stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in rehabilitation hospital, BMI was negatively associated with the improvement of functional parameters. Patients' BMI should be taken into consideration when predicting rehabilitation outcome for stroke patients. New rehabilitation strategies should be designed to improve the functional outcomes of rehabilitation of obese patients.
Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung
Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35–54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16–2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55–64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56–1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.
Joubert, J.; Van Gelder, A.L.; Pilloy, W.J.; Darazs, B.
The cardiac status of 102 consecutive black stroke patients entered to the Medunsa Stroke Databank was determined. Cardiological examination, echocardiography and a gated blood pool scan revealed structural and/or functional cardiac abnormalities in 73,6% of patients. Rheumatic heart disease was diagnosed in 15,6%, mitral valve prolapse in 5,8% and mitral annulus calcification in 4,9% of cases. 'Possible' cardiac sources of cerebral embolism were detected in 22,5% and 'definite' sources in 23,5% of patients. Hypertensive heart disease was diagnosed in 35,2% and cardiomyopathy in 13,7% of the study population. Ischaemic heart disease was present in 6,86%. Ultrasonography revealed ventricular bands in 29,4% of patients. The high incidence of structural cardiac abnormalities detected by non-invasive means is in keeping with recent studies in white stroke patients. 32 refs., 11 tabs., 2 figs
Liljehult, J; Christensen, Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study wa...... tool for identifying patients at risk of dying after acute stroke. Readily available physiological parameters are converted to a single score, which can guide both nurses and physicians in clinical decision making and resource allocation.......OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study...
Buratto, Luciano Grüdtner; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky
Previous research has attributed to the right hemisphere (RH) a key role in eliciting false memories to visual emotional stimuli. These results have been explained in terms of two right-hemisphere properties: (i) that emotional stimuli are preferentially processed in the RH and (ii) that visual stimuli are represented more coarsely in the RH. According to this account, false emotional memories are preferentially produced in the RH because emotional stimuli are both more strongly and more diffusely activated during encoding, leaving a memory trace that can be erroneously reactivated by similar but unstudied emotional items at test. If this right-hemisphere hypothesis is correct, then RH damage should result in a reduction in false memories to emotional stimuli relative to left-hemisphere lesions. To investigate this possibility, groups of right-brain-damaged (RBD, N=15), left-brain-damaged (LBD, N=15) and healthy (HC, N=30) participants took part in a recognition memory experiment with emotional (negative and positive) and non-emotional pictures. False memories were operationalized as incorrect responses to unstudied pictures that were similar to studied ones. Both RBD and LBD participants showed similar reductions in false memories for negative pictures relative to controls. For positive pictures, however, false memories were reduced only in RBD patients. The results provide only partial support for the right-hemisphere hypothesis and suggest that inter-hemispheric cooperation models may be necessary to fully account for false emotional memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ortigue, Stephanie; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Grafton, Scott T.
Background When we observe an individual performing a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) we get two types of information on the basis of how the motor act is done and the context: what the agent is doing (i.e. grasping) and the intention underlying it (i.e. grasping for drinking). Here we examined the temporal dynamics of the brain activations that follow the observation of a motor act and underlie the observer's capacity to understand what the agent is doing and why. Methodology/Principal Findings Volunteers were presented with two-frame video-clips. The first frame (T0) showed an object with or without context; the second frame (T1) showed a hand interacting with the object. The volunteers were instructed to understand the intention of the observed actions while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density 128-channel EEG system. Visual event-related potentials (VEPs) were recorded time-locked with the frame showing the hand-object interaction (T1). The data were analyzed by using electrical neuroimaging, which combines a cluster analysis performed on the group-averaged VEPs with the localization of the cortical sources that give rise to different spatio-temporal states of the global electrical field. Electrical neuroimaging results revealed four major steps: 1) bilateral posterior cortical activations; 2) a strong activation of the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices with almost a complete disappearance of activations in the right hemisphere; 3) a significant increase of the activations of the right temporo-parietal region with simultaneously co-active left hemispheric sources, and 4) a significant global decrease of cortical activity accompanied by the appearance of activation of the orbito-frontal cortex. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the early striking left hemisphere involvement is due to the activation of a lateralized action-observation/action execution network. The activation of this lateralized network mediates the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When we observe an individual performing a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup we get two types of information on the basis of how the motor act is done and the context: what the agent is doing (i.e. grasping and the intention underlying it (i.e. grasping for drinking. Here we examined the temporal dynamics of the brain activations that follow the observation of a motor act and underlie the observer's capacity to understand what the agent is doing and why. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Volunteers were presented with two-frame video-clips. The first frame (T0 showed an object with or without context; the second frame (T1 showed a hand interacting with the object. The volunteers were instructed to understand the intention of the observed actions while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density 128-channel EEG system. Visual event-related potentials (VEPs were recorded time-locked with the frame showing the hand-object interaction (T1. The data were analyzed by using electrical neuroimaging, which combines a cluster analysis performed on the group-averaged VEPs with the localization of the cortical sources that give rise to different spatio-temporal states of the global electrical field. Electrical neuroimaging results revealed four major steps: 1 bilateral posterior cortical activations; 2 a strong activation of the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices with almost a complete disappearance of activations in the right hemisphere; 3 a significant increase of the activations of the right temporo-parietal region with simultaneously co-active left hemispheric sources, and 4 a significant global decrease of cortical activity accompanied by the appearance of activation of the orbito-frontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the early striking left hemisphere involvement is due to the activation of a lateralized action-observation/action execution network. The activation of this lateralized network
Prigatano, George P
Kaufman's observation that the patients' reactions to their impairments and disabilities need to be addressed in stroke rehabilitation has been shown to be an accurate and perceptive statement. In this article, 3 levels of stroke rehabilitation are outlined, and the importance of focusing on the third level (the level of subjective experience) is emphasized. Identification of the patients' subjective experience allows one to understand what is most frustrating to them. After addressing those frustrations, patients are more eager to engage the rehabilitation process. Within the context of this rehabilitation process, helping patients clarify what their subjective or phenomenological state is as it relates to their stroke is crucial in having them not only engage the rehabilitation process, but ultimately find meaning in life in the face of their stroke. This can be a difficult task because patients often do not have the words to clarify what their inner psychological experiences are following a stroke. Helping to provide guidelines for this can result in a meaningful experience for both the patient and the therapists involved in their care.
Bernard, Florian; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Ter Minassian, Aram; Menei, Philippe
The nondominant hemisphere (usually the right) is responsible for primary cognitive functions such as visuospatial and social cognition. Awake surgery using direct electric stimulation for right cerebral tumor removal remains challenging because of the complexity of the functional anatomy and difficulties in adapting standard bedside tasks to awake surgery conditions. An understanding of semiology and anatomic bases, along with an analysis of the available cognitive tasks for visuospatial and social cognition per operative mapping allow neurosurgeons to better appreciate the functional anatomy of the right hemisphere and its relevance to tumor surgery. In this article, the first of a 2-part review, we discuss the anatomic and functional basis of right hemisphere function. Whereas part II of the review focuses primarily on semiology and surgical management of right-sided tumors under awake conditions, this article provides a comprehensive review of knowledge underpinning awake surgery on the right hemisphere. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arshad, Q; Siddiqui, S; Ramachandran, S; Goga, U; Bonsu, A; Patel, M; Roberts, R E; Nigmatullina, Y; Malhotra, P; Bronstein, A M
Right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial attention is characteristically observed in most right-handed individuals. This dominance has been attributed to both an anatomically larger right fronto-parietal network and the existence of asymmetric parietal interhemispheric connections. Previously it has been demonstrated that interhemispheric conflict, which induces left hemisphere inhibition, results in the modulation of both (i) the excitability of the early visual cortex (V1) and (ii) the brainstem-mediated vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) via top-down control mechanisms. However to date, it remains unknown whether the degree of an individual's right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial function can influence, (i) the baseline excitability of the visual cortex and (ii) the extent to which the right hemisphere can exert top-down modulation. We directly tested this by correlating line bisection error (or pseudoneglect), taken as a measure of right hemisphere dominance, with both (i) visual cortical excitability measured using phosphene perception elicited via single-pulse occipital trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and (ii) the degree of trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-mediated VOR suppression, following left hemisphere inhibition. We found that those individuals with greater right hemisphere dominance had a less excitable early visual cortex at baseline and demonstrated a greater degree of vestibular nystagmus suppression following left hemisphere cathodal tDCS. To conclude, our results provide the first demonstration that individual differences in right hemisphere dominance can directly predict both the baseline excitability of low-level brain structures and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over them. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Jesper K.; Atar, Dan; Mickley, Hans
the introduction of troponin in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, this marker has been measured in a number of other conditions as well. One of these conditions is acute ischemic stroke, causing diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. Because various electrocardiographic alterations have also been reported...... in these patients, it has been suggested that elevated troponin levels are somehow neurologically mediated, thus not caused by direct cardiac release. In conclusion, this review examines the available studies that systematically measured troponin in patients with acute ischemic stroke to properly interpret troponin...... elevations in these patients Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-15...
Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Iversen, Helle K
with a diagnosis of stroke and either no drug use or preindex use of psychotropic medication (n=49,968) and compared with control subjects (n=86,100) matched on age, gender, marital status and community location. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: All-cause mortality. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was higher in patients...... about psychotropic medication use was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality in relation to the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics in patients with stroke and matched controls. PARTICIPANTS: Patients...
Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J
After sensory loss, the deprived cortex can reorganize to process information from the remaining modalities, a phenomenon known as cross-modal reorganization. In blind people this cross-modal processing supports compensatory behavioural enhancements in the nondeprived modalities. Deaf people also show some compensatory visual enhancements, but a direct relationship between these abilities and cross-modally reorganized auditory cortex has only been established in an animal model, the congenitally deaf cat, and not in humans. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cortical thickness in the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus and sulcus, the middle temporal area MT+, and the calcarine sulcus, in early-deaf persons. We tested for a correlation between this measure and visual motion detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people show enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory region, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual motion detection thresholds. This same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as important for functional reorganization. The structure-behaviour correlation observed here demonstrates this area's involvement in compensatory vision and indicates an anatomical correlate, increased cortical thickness, of cross-modal plasticity.
Chung, Harry K S; Leung, Jacklyn C Y; Wong, Vienne M Y; Hsiao, Janet H
Holistic processing (HP) has long been considered a characteristic of right hemisphere (RH) processing. Indeed, holistic face processing is typically associated with left visual field (LVF)/RH processing advantages. Nevertheless, expert Chinese character recognition involves reduced HP and increased RH lateralization, presenting a counterexample. Recent modeling research suggests that RH processing may be associated with an increase or decrease in HP, depending on whether spacing or component information was used respectively. Since expert Chinese character recognition involves increasing sensitivity to components while deemphasizing spacing information, RH processing in experts may be associated with weaker HP than novices. Consistent with this hypothesis, in a divided visual field paradigm, novices exhibited HP only in the LVF/RH, whereas experts showed no HP in either visual field. This result suggests that the RH may flexibly switch between part-based and holistic representations, consistent with recent fMRI findings. The RH's advantage in global/low spatial frequency processing is suggested to be relative to the task relevant frequency range. Thus, its use of holistic and part-based representations may depend on how attention is allocated for task relevant information. This study provides the first behavioral evidence showing how type of information used for processing modulates perceptual representations in the RH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alijan Ahmadi Ahangar
Full Text Available Background: Stroke is the leading cause of serious long-term disability. In recent studies hyponatremia as a risk factor for stroke. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was to evaluate serum zinc level in serum sodium over the first 24 hours after the onset of stroke. Different intensities were determined on Stroke Scale NIH (National Institute of Health (mild 4-1 and (average moderate 15-5 and (moderate to severe 20-16 and (extreme severe 42- 21. Determination intensity of stroke after admission and discharge with Modified Rankin Scale and Barthel index. Blood serum concentrations of sodium 0.5 mL of venous blood were taken and sodium serum level was performed with Latex particle agglutination test in Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital. That normal range was defined 136-146 meq / L Findings: 125 patients were entered into this study; the prevalence of hyponatremia in female was 70% vs 60% in male. Of stroke patients included in this study 66% of them had hyponatremia and the frequency of hyponatremia in ischemic and hemorrhagic was 82% and 63%, respectively. Increase in hyponatremia with disability period of admission had statistically significant (10(12 mild vs 40(32 moderate, 32(25.6 severe, p=0.01 also with disability before discharge (24(19.2 mild, 26(20.8 moderate, 32(25.6 severe, p=0.03. Conclusions: Hyponatremia can effect on severity of the stroke and can be considered as a predictor of increased stroke severity and disability at admission and discharge.
Larsen, Torben; Olsen, T. Skyhøj; Sørensen, Jan
OBJECTIVES: A comprehensive and systematic assessment (HTA) of early home-supported discharge by a multidisciplinary team that plans, coordinates, and delivers care at home (EHSD) was undertaken and the results were compared with that of conventional rehabilitation at stroke units. METHODS......: A systematic literature search for randomized trials (RCTs) on "early supported discharge" was closed in April 2005. RCTs on EHSD without information on (i) death or institution at follow-up, (ii) change in Barthél Index, (iii) length of hospital stay, (iv) intensity of home rehabilitation, or (v) baseline...... are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: EHSD is evidenced as a dominant health intervention. However, financial barriers between municipalities and health authorities have to be overcome. For qualitative reasons, a learning path of implementation is recommended where one stroke unit in a region initiates EHSD...
Liu, Chi-Hung; Wu, Dean; Chin, Shy-Chyi; Fu, Ser-Chen; Wu, Tai-Cheng; Chang, Chien-Hung; Peng, Tsung-I; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Lee, Tsong-Hai
Clinical research of cervicocranial fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is rare in Asian populations. Our study reviewed Taiwanese ischemic stroke patients with cervicocranial FMD and compared them with previous reports. Between 2000 and 2011, we collected 19 consecutive cervicocranial FMD patients who received demographic registration, a blood test for excluding vasculitis, and comprehensive angiography. Cerebral ultrasound, vascular images and clinical outcomes (Barthel index, modified Rankin scale, recurrent stroke, or death) were monitored during follow-up. Of the 19 patients, 16 (84%) had carotid FMD, while 7 (37%) had vertebral FMD. Only 2 investigated patients (13%) had renal FMD and 1 (5%) had cerebral aneurysm. 14 (74%) presented acute arterial dissection. All patients received medical treatment and had neither recurrent stroke nor dissection during follow-up. In the literature review of 225 FMD patients, 3.6% had recurrent stroke during follow-up, and some reported surgical procedure or angioplasty could give a good clinical outcome in progressing ischemia irrelevant to the cause of stenosis. In Taiwanese cervicocranial FMD patients, arterial dissection was one of the most common clinical presentations. Most of our patients had isolated involvement of the cervicocranial artery and carried a favorable outcome under medical treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Klaassen, Bart; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Weusthof, Marcel H.H.; Hofs, D.H.W.; van Meulen, Fokke; Luinge, Hendrik J.; Lorussi, Frederico; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.
Currently, the changes of functional capacity and performance of stroke patients after returning home from a rehabilitation hospital is unknown for a physician, having no objective information about the intensity and quality of a patient's daily-life activities. Therefore, there is a need to develop
Kazuta, Toshinari; Takeda, Kotaro; Osu, Rieko; Tanaka, Satoshi; Oishi, Ayako; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Liu, Meigen
The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left temporoparietal area improved audioverbal memory performance in stroke patients. Twelve stroke patients with audioverbal memory impairment participated in a single-masked, crossover, and sham-controlled experiment. The anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation was applied during the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, which evaluates the ability to recall a list of 15 heard words over five trials. The number of correctly recalled words was compared between the anodal and sham conditions and the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation on serial position effect of the 15 words was also examined. The increase in the number of correctly recalled words from the first to the fifth trial was significantly greater in the anodal condition than in the sham condition (P transcranial direct current stimulation over the left temporoparietal area improved audioverbal memory performance and induced the primacy effect in stroke patients.
Barrett, Matthew; Snow, John Charles; Kirkland, Megan C; Kelly, Liam P; Gehue, Maria; Downer, Matthew B; McCarthy, Jason; Ploughman, Michelle
Background and Purpose Previous research suggests that patients receiving inpatient stroke rehabilitation are sedentary although there is little data to confirm this supposition within the Canadian healthcare system. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to observe two weeks of inpatient rehabilitation in a tertiary stroke center to determine patients' activity levels and sedentary time. Methods Heart rate (HR) and accelerometer data were measured using an Actiheart monitor for seven consecutive days, 24 h/day, on the second week and the last week of admission. Participants or their proxies completed a daily logbook. Metabolic equivalent (MET) values were calculated and time with MET rehabilitation, there was excessive sedentary time and therapy sessions were less frequent and of lower intensity than recommended levels. Conclusions In this sample of people attending inpatient stroke rehabilitation, institutional structure of rehabilitation rather than patient-related factors contributed to sedentary time.
Douiri, Abdel; Grace, Justin; Sarker, Shah-Jalal; Tilling, Kate; McKevitt, Christopher; Wolfe, Charles DA; Rudd, Anthony G
Background and aims Clinical predictive models for stroke recovery could offer the opportunity of targeted early intervention and more specific information for patients and carers. In this study, we developed and validated a patient-specific prognostic model for monitoring recovery after stroke and assessed its clinical utility. Methods Four hundred and ninety-five patients from the population-based South London Stroke Register were included in a substudy between 2002 and 2004. Activities of daily living were assessed using Barthel Index) at one, two, three, four, six, eight, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after stroke. Penalized linear mixed models were developed to predict patients' functional recovery trajectories. An external validation cohort included 1049 newly registered stroke patients between 2005 and 2011. Prediction errors on discrimination and calibration were assessed. The potential clinical utility was evaluated using prognostic accuracy measurements and decision curve analysis. Results Predictive recovery curves showed good accuracy, with root mean squared deviation of 3 Barthel Index points and a R 2 of 83% up to one year after stroke in the external cohort. The negative predictive values of the risk of poor recovery (Barthel Index <8) at three and 12 months were also excellent, 96% (95% CI [93.6-97.4]) and 93% [90.8-95.3], respectively, with a potential clinical utility measured by likelihood ratios (LR+:17 [10.8-26.8] at three months and LR+:11 [6.5-17.2] at 12 months). Decision curve analysis showed an increased clinical benefit, particularly at threshold probabilities of above 5% for predictive risk of poor outcomes. Conclusions A recovery curves tool seems to accurately predict progression of functional recovery in poststroke patients.
Weimar, Christian; Goertler, Michael; Röther, Joachim; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Darius, Harald; Nabavi, Darius Günther; Kim, In-Ha; Theobald, Karlheinz; Diener, Han-Christoph
Stratification of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke (IS) by risk of recurrent stroke can contribute to optimized secondary prevention. We therefore aimed to assess cardiovascular risk factor profiles of consecutive patients hospitalized with TIA/IS to stratify the risk of recurrent stroke according to the Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS) and of future cardiovascular events according to the ankle brachial index (ABI) as a marker of generalized atherosclerosis In this cross-sectional observational study, 85 neurological stroke units throughout Germany documented cardiovascular risk factor profiles of 10 consecutive TIA/IS patients on standardized questionnaires. Screening for PAD was done with Doppler ultrasonography to calculate the ABI. A total of 852 patients (57% men) with a mean age of 67+/-12.4 years were included of whom 82.9 % had IS. The median National Institutes of Health stroke sum score was 4 (TIA: 1). Arterial hypertension was reported in 71%, diabetes mellitus in 26%, clinical PAD in 10%, and an ABI or = 3 was observed in 58%, which in two previous retrospective analyses corresponded to a recurrent stroke risk of > or = 4%/year. The correlation between the ESRS and the ABI was low (r = 0.21). A high proportion of patients had asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease and a considerable risk of recurrent stroke according to the ABI and ESRS category. The prognostic accuracy as well as the potential benefit of various risk stratification scores in secondary stroke prevention require validation in a larger prospective study.
Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F.; Roos, Yvo B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.
The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), a randomized open-label masked endpoint trial, showed that preventive ceftriaxone did not improve functional outcome at 3 months in patients with acute stroke (adjusted common OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.82-1.09). Post-hoc analyses showed that among patients
Ersin Kasım Ulusoy
Full Text Available Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD is a hereditary disease. It is characterized by early-onset contractures, slowly progressive weakness, fatigue related to skapulo-humero-peroneal muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy which develops in adulthood and cardiac conduction system block. Cardiac involvement has a prognostic significance in patients with EDMD and even sudden cardiac death may be the first clinical presentation. In this article, an EDMD patient with ischemic stroke clinic who didn’t have regular cardiac follow-up was reported and the importance of the treatment of cardiac diseases which could play a role in ischemic stroke etiology and the implantation of pace-maker was mentioned.
Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen
Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…
Zock, E.; Kerkhoff, H.; Kleyweg, R. P.; van Bavel-Ta, T. B. V.; Scott, S.; Kruyt, N. D.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; van de Beek, D.
Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical
Full Text Available A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, as well as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour Ia Recherche et I’Enseignement en Neurosciences vascular dementia diagnostic criteria of post-stroke dementia. Results: 100 patients (99.0% were KEDP (kidney essence deficiency pattern, shèn jīng kuī xū zhèng, 腎精虧虛證, 83 patients were AHLYP (ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang pattern, gān yáng shàng kàng zhèng, 肝陽上亢證, 83 patients were QBDP (qi-blood deficiency pattern, qì xuè kuī xū zhèng, 氣血虧虛證, 81 patients were SBOCP (static blood obstructing the collaterals pattern, yū xuè zǔ luò zhèng, 瘀血阻絡證, 72 patients were BSTRP (bowels stagnation turbidity retention pattern, fǔ zhì zhuó liú zhèng, 腑滯濁留證, 50 patients were FHIEP (fire heat interior excess pattern, huǒ rè nèi sheng zhèng, 火熱內盛證, and 39 participants (38.6% were PTOOP (phlegm turbidity obstructing the orifices pattern, tán zhuó zǔ qiào zhèng, 痰濁阻竅證; one to 31 patients have at least 2 CMPs simultaneously. In conclusion, the most CMP is KEDP CMP in the post-stroke dementia patients, and one patient may have one or at least 2 CMPs simultaneously.
Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liu, Jui-Chen; Chen, Ping-Kun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang
A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, as well as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour Ia Recherche et I'Enseignement en Neurosciences vascular dementia diagnostic criteria of post-stroke dementia. 100 patients (99.0%) were KEDP (kidney essence deficiency pattern, shèn jīng kuī xū zhèng, ), 83 patients were AHLYP (ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang pattern, gān yáng shàng kàng zhèng, ), 83 patients were QBDP (qi-blood deficiency pattern, qì xuè kuī xū zhèng, ), 81 patients were SBOCP (static blood obstructing the collaterals pattern, yū xuè zǔ luò zhèng, ), 72 patients were BSTRP (bowels stagnation turbidity retention pattern, fǔ zhì zhuó liú zhèng, ), 50 patients were FHIEP (fire heat interior excess pattern, huǒ rè nèi sheng zhèng, ), and 39 participants (38.6%) were PTOOP (phlegm turbidity obstructing the orifices pattern, tán zhuó zǔ qiào zhèng, ); one to 31 patients have at least 2 CMPs simultaneously. In conclusion, the most CMP is KEDP CMP in the post-stroke dementia patients, and one patient may have one or at least 2 CMPs simultaneously.
Batcho, Charles Sèbiyo; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Thonnard, Jean-Louis
To determine whether regular brisk walking can promote functional recovery in community-dwelling stroke patients. A total of 44 chronic stroke patients, recruited in Belgium and Benin, respectively European high-income and African low-income countries. This longitudinal, single-cohort, observational study with 1 intervention period and 4 time-points of assessments (2 baseline, 1 post-intervention and 1 follow-up) was structured in 3 periods: pre-intervention period (1 month), intervention period (3 months) and follow-up period (3 month). Intervention consisted of a 3 times/week group-based brisk walking programme. Primary outcome measures were ACTIVLIM-Stroke questionnaire and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Secondary outcome measures were the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). All outcome measures were stable during the pre-intervention period (p ≥ 0.16). They all improved significantly after intervention (p ≤ 0.01), except the HADS (p = 0.058). However, during the follow-up period, SIAS (p = 0.002) and BBS (p = 0.001) decreased, while ACTIVLIM-Stroke, 6MWT and HADS showed no significant change (p ≥ 0.13). This study suggests regular brisk walking as an effective approach to promote functional recovery in chronic stroke survivors. However, further studies are required before generalizing these results to the whole stroke population.
Full Text Available Background: A pattern characterizing cognitive deficits in mild stroke could help in differential diagnosis and rehabilitation planning. Methods: Fifty patients with mild stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤2 at discharge aged >60 years were given the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and the Stroop test. Results: On HVLT-R, significant impairments were found in learning and recall, but not in delayed recall. The Stroop test revealed significant impairments in reading speed, but not in color-word interference. Using the MMSE, significant deficits were only found in the youngest age group. Conclusion: Elderly patients with mild stroke show deficits in verbal learning/recall and in reading speed, but not in the MMSE, delayed recall or color-word interference. The deficits are consistent with a mild-to-moderate brain dysfunction, with relative sparing of medial brain structures.
Sasaki, Nobuyuki; Abo, Masahiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cognitive function in patients having a local stroke within the thalamus or putamen. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Kohs Block Design Test (KBDT) were used to evaluate cognitive function. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed with 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer and analyzed with a 3-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest template. Subjects were divided into subgroups according to the total MMSE score (D [Dementia: 23 points or less] and N [Normal: 24 points or more]) and according to KBDT scores (B [Bad: less than IQ 70] and G [Good: IQ 70 or more]). The rCBF was decreased in the MMSE D subgroup, especially in patients with a left putamen lesion, and in the KBDT B subgroup, especially in patients with a left thalamus lesion. When the lesion was in the right hemisphere, no significant difference in rCBF was found between the MMSE D and N subgroups or between the KBDT B and G subgroups. SPECT is useful for clinical evaluation of cerebral vascular disease, especially in patients with left hemispheric lesions. Additional data and further detailed evaluations are needed. (author)
Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio
We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Landau, YE; Gross-Tsur, [No Value; Auerbach, JG; Van der Meere, J; Shalev, RS
We studied clinical aspects of attention in three groups: children with developmental right-hemisphere syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), children with ADHD only, and normal controls. The three groups (N = 54) were case-matched for age, sex, IQ, hand dominance, and
Willeit, Johann; Geley, Theresa; Schöch, Johannes; Rinner, Heinrich; Tür, Andreas; Kreuzer, Hans; Thiemann, Norbert; Knoflach, Michael; Toell, Thomas; Pechlaner, Raimund; Willeit, Karin; Klingler, Natalie; Praxmarer, Silvia; Baubin, Michael; Beck, Gertrud; Berek, Klaus; Dengg, Christian; Engelhardt, Klaus; Erlacher, Thomas; Fluckinger, Thomas; Grander, Wilhelm; Grossmann, Josef; Kathrein, Hermann; Kaiser, Norbert; Matosevic, Benjamin; Matzak, Heinrich; Mayr, Markus; Perfler, Robert; Poewe, Werner; Rauter, Alexandra; Schoenherr, Gudrun; Schoenherr, Hans-Robert; Schinnerl, Adolf; Spiss, Heinrich; Thurner, Theresa; Vergeiner, Gernot; Werner, Philipp; Wöll, Ewald; Willeit, Peter; Kiechl, Stefan
Intravenous thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke remains underused worldwide. We aimed to assess whether our statewide comprehensive stroke management programme would improve thrombolysis use and clinical outcome in patients. In 2008-09, we designed the Tyrol Stroke Pathway, which provided information campaigns for the public and standardised the entire treatment pathway from stroke onset to outpatient rehabilitation. It was commenced in Tyrol, Austria, as a long-term routine-care programme and aimed to include all patients with stroke in the survey area. We focused on thrombolysis use and outcome in the first full 4 years of implementation (2010-13). We enrolled 4947 (99%) of 4992 patients with ischaemic stroke who were admitted to hospitals in Tyrol; 675 (14%) of the enrollees were treated with alteplase. Thrombolysis administration in Tyrol increased after programme implementation, from 160 of 1238 patients (12·9%, 95% CI 11·1-14·9) in 2010 to 213 of 1266 patients (16·8%, 14·8-19·0) in 2013 (ptrend 2010-13stroke programmes, thrombolysis administration remained stable or declined between 2010 and 2013 (mean reduction 14·4%, 95% CI 10·9-17·9). Although the 3-month mortality was not affected by our programme (137 [13%] of 1060 patients in 2010 vs 143 [13%] of 1069 patients in 2013), 3-month functional outcome significantly improved (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 in 375 [40%] of 944 patients in 2010 vs 493 [53%] of 939 in 2013; score 0-2 in 531 [56%] patients in 2010 and 615 [65%] in 2013; ptrend 2010-13stroke management programme, thrombolysis administration increased and clinical outcome significantly improved, although mortality did not change. We hope that these results will guide health authorities and stroke physicians elsewhere when implementing similar programmes for patients with stroke. Reformpool of the Tyrolean Health Care Fund. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andreev, T.; Totsev, N.; Tzvetanov, P.
Since 1979 when Grodfrey Hounsfield and Allan Corman introduced the computed tomography new generations of CT were developed that improved the special resolution and time of acquisition. The role of neuro-imaging in the evaluation of acute stroke has changed dramatically in the past decade. Previously, neuro-imaging was used in this set-ting to provide anatomic imaging that indicated the presence or absence of acute cerebral ischemia and excluded lesions that produce symptoms or signs mimicking those of stroke, such as hemorrhage and neoplasms. More recently, the introduction of thrombolysis has changed the goals of neuro-imaging from providing solely anatomic information to providing physiologic information that could help to determine which patients might benefit from therapy. In particular, significant emphasis has been placed on the delineation of the ischemic penumbra, also called tissue at risk. Modem CT survey, consisting of three indissociable elements; noncontrast CT (NCT) of course, perfusion-CT (PCT) and CT-angiography (CTA), fulfill all the requirements for hyperacute stroke imaging. CTA can define the occlusion site, depict arterial dissection, grade collateral blood flow, and characterize atherosclerotic disease, whereas PCT accurately defines the infarct core and the ischemic penumbra. CT offers a number of practical advantages over other cerebral perfusion imaging methods, including its wide availability. Using PCT and CTA to define new individualized strategies for acute reperfusion will allow more acute stroke patients to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. Key words: Stroke. Penumbra. Computed Tomography. Perfusion-CT. CT Angiography. Outcome
Full Text Available Little is known about the prognosis of resistant hypertension (RH in Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of RH in Taiwanese patients with hypertension, and to ascertain whether patient characteristics influence the association of RH with adverse outcomes.Patients aged ≥45 years with hypertension were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical records of 111,986 patients were reviewed in this study, and 16,402 (14.6% patients were recognized as having RH (continuously concomitant use of ≥3 anti-hypertensive medications, including a diuretic, for ≥2 years. Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke [included both fatal and nonfatal events] in patients with RH and non-RH was analyzed. A total of 11,856 patients experienced MACE in the follow-up period (average 7.1±3.0 years. There was a higher proportion of females in the RH group, they were older than the non-RH (63.1 vs. 60.5 years patients, and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidities. Overall, patients with RH had higher risks of MACE (adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.09-1.26; p<0.001. Significantly elevated risks of stroke (10,211 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.08-1.27; p<0.001, especially ischemic stroke (6,235 events; adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI 1.20-1.48; p<0.001, but not all-cause mortality (4,594 events; adjusted HR 1.06; 95%CI 0.95-1.19; p = 0.312 or acute coronary syndrome (2,145 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.99-1.39; p = 0.070 were noted in patients with RH compared to those with non-RH. Subgroup analysis showed that RH increased the risks of stroke in female and elderly patients. However, no significant influence was noted in young or male patients.Patients with RH were associated with higher risks of MACE and stroke, especially ischemic stroke. The risks were greater in female and elderly patients than in male or young
Hung, Chen-Ying; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Long; Loh, El-Wui; Lin, Ching-Heng
Background Little is known about the prognosis of resistant hypertension (RH) in Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of RH in Taiwanese patients with hypertension, and to ascertain whether patient characteristics influence the association of RH with adverse outcomes. Methods and Results Patients aged ≥45 years with hypertension were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical records of 111,986 patients were reviewed in this study, and 16,402 (14.6%) patients were recognized as having RH (continuously concomitant use of ≥3 anti-hypertensive medications, including a diuretic, for ≥2 years). Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke [included both fatal and nonfatal events]) in patients with RH and non-RH was analyzed. A total of 11,856 patients experienced MACE in the follow-up period (average 7.1±3.0 years). There was a higher proportion of females in the RH group, they were older than the non-RH (63.1 vs. 60.5 years) patients, and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidities. Overall, patients with RH had higher risks of MACE (adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.09–1.26; p<0.001). Significantly elevated risks of stroke (10,211 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.08–1.27; p<0.001), especially ischemic stroke (6,235 events; adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI 1.20–1.48; p<0.001), but not all-cause mortality (4,594 events; adjusted HR 1.06; 95%CI 0.95–1.19; p = 0.312) or acute coronary syndrome (2,145 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.99–1.39; p = 0.070) were noted in patients with RH compared to those with non-RH. Subgroup analysis showed that RH increased the risks of stroke in female and elderly patients. However, no significant influence was noted in young or male patients. Conclusions Patients with RH were associated with higher risks of MACE and stroke, especially ischemic stroke. The risks were greater in female and
Lind, Jette; Struwe, Jytte Holm; Baernholdt, Marianne
In the developed world, stroke is the third leading cause of death (DSFA 2009) In Denmark there are 12400 new patients every year and 30000 - 40000 people living with long-term after stroke. This group consists mainly of people aged 80 years and older. When these patients have a stroke their biol......In the developed world, stroke is the third leading cause of death (DSFA 2009) In Denmark there are 12400 new patients every year and 30000 - 40000 people living with long-term after stroke. This group consists mainly of people aged 80 years and older. When these patients have a stroke...
Henriksson, Karin M; Farahmand, Bahman; Åsberg, Signild; Edvardsson, Nils; Terént, Andreas
Differences in risk factor profiles between patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke may have an impact on subsequent mortality. To explore cardiovascular disease risk factors, including the CHADS(2) score, with survival after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Between 2001 and 2005, 87 111 (83%) ischemic stroke, 12 497 (12%) hemorrhagic stroke, and 5435 (5%) patients with unspecified stroke were identified in the Swedish Stroke Register. Data on gender, age, and cardiovascular disease risk factors were linked to the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death Registers. Adjusted odds and hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Hemorrhagic stroke patients were younger than ischemic stroke patients. All cardiovascular disease risk factors studied, alone or combined in the CHADS(2) score, were associated with higher odds ratios for ischemic stroke vs. hemorrhagic stroke. Higher CHADS(2) scores and all studied risk factors except hypertension were associated with higher odds ratio for death by ischemic stroke than hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic stroke was associated with lower early mortality (within 30 days) vs. hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio = 0·28, confidence interval 0·27 to 0·29). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke had a higher risk of dying within the first 30 days after stroke, but the risk of death was similar in the two groups after one-month. Hypertension was the only cardiovascular disease risk factor associated with an increased mortality rate for hemorrhagic stroke as compared to ischemic stroke. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.
Parikh, Neal S; Merkler, Alexander E; Schneider, Yecheskel; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman
Liver disease is associated with both hemorrhagic and thrombotic processes, including an elevated risk of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to assess the relationship between liver disease and outcomes after stroke, as measured by discharge disposition. Using administrative claims data, we identified a cohort of patients hospitalized with stroke in California, Florida, and New York from 2005 to 2013. The predictor variable was liver disease. All diagnoses were defined using validated diagnosis codes. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the association between liver disease and worsening discharge disposition: home, nursing/rehabilitation facility, or death. Secondarily, multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the association between liver disease and in-hospital mortality. Models were adjusted for demographics, vascular risk factors, and comorbidities. We identified 121 428 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and 703 918 with ischemic stroke. Liver disease was documented in 13 584 patients (1.7%). Liver disease was associated with worse discharge disposition after both intracerebral hemorrhage (global odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.38) and ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.29). Similarly, liver disease was associated with in-hospital death after both intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.44) and ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.71). Liver disease was associated with worse hospital discharge disposition and in-hospital mortality after stroke, suggesting worse functional outcomes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
van Peppen, R.P.S.
The first aim of the thesis was to collect and review systematically, and to appraise critically the available evidence stemming from physiotherapy and physiotherapy-related studies in patients with stroke. It can be concluded that the application of physiotherapy improves performance to execute
van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Visser-Meily, Anne M. A.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Lindeman, Eline
Objective: To investigate the long-term effects on children of parental stroke, with respect to care-giving tasks, children's behavioural problems and stress, and to study the relationship between stress and child, patient and partner characteristics. Subjects: A total of 44 children (age range
Stojanović, Zlatan; Stojanović, Sanja Vukadinović
Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD) were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024). A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman's r = -0.297; p = 0.001). Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017). Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001). The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.
Vuksanović, Jasmina; Jelić, Milan B; Milanović, Sladjan D; Kačar, Katarina; Konstantinović, Ljubica; Filipović, Saša R
In chronic non-fluent aphasia patients, inhibition of the intact right hemisphere (RH), by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or similar methods, can induce improvement in language functions. The supposed mechanism behind this improvement is a release of preserved left hemisphere (LH) language networks from RH transcallosal inhibition. Direct stimulation of the damaged LH can sometimes bring similar results too. Therefore, we developed a novel treatment approach that combined direct LH (Broca's area (BA)) stimulation, by intermittent theta burst stimulation (TBS), with homologue RH area's inhibition, by continuous TBS. We present the results of application of 15 daily sessions of the described treatment approach in a right-handed patient with chronic post-stroke non-fluent aphasia. The intervention appeared to improve several language functions, but most notably propositional speech, semantic fluency, short-term verbal memory, and verbal learning. Bilateral TBS modulation of activation of the language-related areas of both hemispheres seems to be a feasible and promising way to induce recovery in chronic aphasic patients. Due to potentially cumulative physiological effects of bilateral stimulation, the improvements may be even greater than following unilateral interventions.
Radin, M; Schreiber, K; Cecchi, I
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The most common neurological manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is ischaemic stroke. Identifying patients with APS at high risk for developing any thrombotic event remains a major challenge. In this study, the aim was to identify predictive factors of ischaemic...... thrombosis and were receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA), with international normalized ratio target 2-3; one patient had a history of a previous arterial event receiving treatment with VKA target international normalized ratio 2-3 plus low dose aspirin; and one patient had a history of previous pregnancy...... morbidity receiving only low dose aspirin. Time in the therapeutic range for patients receiving VKA was 77.7% (SD 6.6%). Hypercholesterolaemia was significantly higher in patients with confirmed stroke compared to those without (P
Jones, Anna B; Farrall, Andrew J; Belin, Pascal; Pernet, Cyril R
As we listen to someone speaking, we extract both linguistic and non-linguistic information. Knowing how these two sets of information are processed in the brain is fundamental for the general understanding of social communication, speech recognition and therapy of language impairments. We investigated the pattern of performances in phoneme versus gender categorization in left and right hemisphere stroke patients, and found an anatomo-functional dissociation in the right frontal cortex, establishing a new syndrome in voice discrimination abilities. In addition, phoneme and gender performances were most often associated than dissociated in the left hemisphere patients, suggesting a common neural underpinnings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.
Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.
Nijmeijer, N.M.; Stegge, B.M. aan de; Zuidema, S.U.; Sips, H.J.W.; Brouwers, P.J.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of agreements within the Enschede Stroke Service to refer patients with a stroke from the stroke unit in the hospital to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. DESIGN: Prospective, partly retrospective. METHOD: All patients who were referred from the stroke
Full Text Available Objectives. Reports on young patients with ischemic stroke from Eastern Europe have been scarce. This study aimed to assess risk factors and etiology of first-ever and recurrent stroke among young Estonian patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged 18–54 years who were treated in our two hospitals from 2003 to 2012. Results. We identified 741 patients with first-ever stroke and 96 patients with recurrent stroke. Among first-time patients, men predominated in all age groups. The prevalence of well-documented risk factors in first-time stroke patients was 83% and in the recurrent group 91%. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension (53%, dyslipidemia (46%, and smoking (35%. Recurrent stroke patients had fewer less well-documented risk factors compared to first-time stroke patients (19.8 versus 30.0%, P=0.036. Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolic strokes (48% and large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was the cause in 8% among those aged <35 years. Compared to first-time strokes, recurrent ones were more frequently caused by LAA (14.3 versus 24.0%, P=0.01 and less often by other definite etiology (8.5 versus 1.0%, P=0.01. Conclusions. The prevalence of vascular risk factors among Estonian young stroke patients is high. Premature atherosclerosis is a cause in a substantial part of very young stroke patients.
Problem theory points to an a priori relation between six key problems of living, to which people have adapted through evolution. Children are guided through the problems one by one, learning to switch between them automatically and unawares. The first problem of raising hope of certainty (about the environment), is dealt with in the right hemisphere (RH). The second of raising hope of freedom (or power to control), is dealt with in the left hemisphere (LH). Here adventurousness and ignoring the goodness of outcomes potentially create recklessness. When uncertainty rises the RH activates a backup with an override that substitutes immobility, takes over sensory inputs, but allows obedience to parental commands, and a cut-out that stops new work on the freedom problem. Support for the use of the backup by infants is found in the immobility that precedes the crying in strange conditions, and in childhood EEGs. The hypothesis that the backup is active in deep hypnosis imposes accord on findings that appear contradictory. For example it accounts for why observations during deep hypnosis emphasize the activity of the RH, but observations of responsive people not under hypnosis emphasize the activity of the LH. The hypothesis that the backup is active in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is supported by (a) fMRI observations that could reflect the cut-out, in that part of the precuneus has low metabolism, (b) the recall of motionlessness at the time of the trauma, (c) an argument that playing dead as a defence against predators is illogical, (d) the ease of hypnosis. With dissociative identity disorder (DID), the theory is consistent with up to six alters that have executive control and one trauma identity state where childhood traumas are re-experienced. Support for the cut-out affecting the trauma identity state comes from suppression of part of the precuneus and other parts of the parietal lobe when the trauma identity state is salient and a general script about a
Luo, Yanhong; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Yanbo
Family support and patient satisfaction with treatment are crucial for aiding in the recovery from stroke. However, current validated stroke-specific questionnaires may not adequately capture the impact of these two variables on patients undergoing clinical trials of new drugs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a new stroke patient-reported outcome measure (Stroke-PROM) instrument for capturing more comprehensive effects of stroke on patients participating in clinical trials of new drugs. A conceptual framework and a pool of items for the preliminary Stroke-PROM were generated by consulting the relevant literature and other questionnaires created in China and other countries, and interviewing 20 patients and 4 experts to ensure that all germane parameters were included. During the first item-selection phase, classical test theory and item response theory were applied to an initial scale completed by 133 patients with stroke. During the item-revaluation phase, classical test theory and item response theory were used again, this time with 475 patients with stroke and 104 healthy participants. During the scale assessment phase, confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the final scale of the Stroke-PROM using the same study population as in the second item-selection phase. Reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility of the final scale were tested. The final scale of Stroke-PROM contained 46 items describing four domains (physiology, psychology, society and treatment). These four domains were subdivided into 10 subdomains. Cronbach's α coefficients for the four domains ranged from 0.861 to 0.908. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the final scale, and the model fit index satisfied the criterion. Differences in the Stroke-PROM mean scores were significant between patients with stroke and healthy participants in nine subdomains (P < 0.001), indicating that the scale showed good responsiveness. The Stroke
Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio
Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Functional brain imaging studies with aphasia patients have shown increased cortical activation in the right hemisphere language homologues, which hypothetically may represent a maladaptive strategy that interferes with aphasia recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the Broca’s homologues in combination with speech/language therapy improves naming in early-stroke aphasia patients. Methods. 26 right-handed aphasic patients in the early stage (up to 12 weeks of a first-ever left hemisphere ischemic stroke were randomized to receive speech and language therapy combined with real or sham rTMS. Prior to each 45-minute therapeutic session (15 sessions, 5 days a week, 30 minutes of 1-Hz rTMS was applied. Outcome measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after 3 weeks of experimental treatment and 15 weeks; posttreatment using the Computerized Picture Naming Test. Results. Although both groups significantly improved their naming abilities after treatment, no significant differences were noted between the rTMS and sham stimulation groups. The additional analyses have revealed that the rTMS subgroup with a lesion including the anterior part of language area showed greater improvement primarily in naming reaction time 15 weeks after completion of the therapeutic treatment. Improvement was also demonstrated in functional communication abilities. Conclusions. Inhibitory rTMS of the unaffected right inferior frontal gyrus area in combination with speech and language therapy cannot be assumed as an effective method for all poststroke aphasia patients. The treatment seems to be beneficial for patients with frontal language area damage, mostly in the distant time after finishing rTMS procedure.
Maria Bruna Pasticci
Full Text Available Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of neurologic symptoms. At the same time, miliary lung TB caused by multi-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed. Anti-TB therapy consisting of a combination of four drugs was administered. The patient improved and was discharged five weeks later. In conclusion, TBM and multiple underling pathologies including HIV infection, as well as other risk factors can lead to a greater risk of stroke. Moreover, drug interactions and their side effects add levels of complexity. TBM must be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV infected patients with stroke and TBM treatment needs be started as soon as possible before the onset of vasculopathy.
Yoo, Jeehyun; Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae; Kwon, Yong-Geol
To evaluate the cardiovascular response during head-out water immersion, underwater treadmill gait, and land treadmill gait in stroke patients. Ten stroke patients were recruited for underwater and land treadmill gait sessions. Each session was 40 minutes long; 5 minutes for standing rest on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, 20 minutes for treadmill walking in water or on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, and 5 minutes for standing rest on land. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during each session. In order to estimate the cardiovascular workload and myocardial oxygen demand, the rate pressure product (RPP) value was calculated by multiplying systolic BP (SBP) by HR. SBP, DBP, mean BP (mBP), and RPP decreased significantly after water immersion, but HR was unchanged. During underwater and land treadmill gait, SBP, mBP, DBP, RPP, and HR increased. However, the mean maximum increases in BP, HR and RPP of underwater treadmill walking were significantly lower than that of land treadmill walking. Stroke patients showed different cardiovascular responses during water immersion and underwater gait as opposed to standing and treadmill-walking on land. Water immersion and aquatic treadmill gait may reduce the workload of the cardiovascular system. This study suggested that underwater treadmill may be a safe and useful option for cardiovascular fitness and early ambulation in stroke rehabilitation.
Berge, Eivind; Stapf, Christian; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam
Background: The success of randomized-controlled stroke trials is dependent on the recruitment and retention of a sufficient number of patients, but fewer than half of all trials meet their target number of patients. Methods: We performed a search and review of the literature, and conducted...... a survey and workshop among 56 European stroke trialists, to identify barriers, suggest methods to improve recruitment and retention, and make a priority list of interventions that merit further evaluation. Results: The survey and workshop identified a number of barriers to patient recruitment...... and retention, from patients’ incapacity to consent, to handicaps that prevent patients from participation in trial-specific follow-up. Methods to improve recruitment and retention may include simple interventions with individual participants, funding of research networks, and reimbursement of new treatments...
Flávia de Andrade e Souza Mazuchi; Aline Bigongiari; Juliana Valente Francica; Patricia Martins Franciulli; Luis Mochizuki; Joseph Hamill; Ulysses Fernandes Ervilha
Abstract AIMS (Stroke patients often present sensory-motor alterations and less aerobic capacity. Joint position sense, which is crucial for balance and gait control, is also affected in stroke patients). To compare the effect of two exercise training protocols (walking in deep water and on a treadmill) on the knee position sense of stroke patients. METHODS This study was designed as a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve adults, who suffered a stroke at least one year prior to the ...
Kuhn, Christina D.; Asperud Thomsen, Johanne; Delfi, Tzvetelina
Abstract Recent findings have challenged the existence of category specific brain areas for perceptual processing of words and faces, suggesting the existence of a common network supporting the recognition of both. We examined the performance of patients with focal lesions in posterior cortical...... areas to investigate whether deficits in recognition of words and faces systematically co-occur as would be expected if both functions rely on a common cerebral network. Seven right-handed patients with unilateral brain damage following stroke in areas supplied by the posterior cerebral artery were...... included (four with right hemisphere damage, three with left, tested at least 1 year post stroke). We examined word and face recognition using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm using four different categories of stimuli: cropped faces, full faces, words, and cars. Reading speed and word length effects...
Petersen, A; Vangkilde, S; Fabricius, C; Iversen, H K; Delfi, T S; Starrfelt, R
Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere, while attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. Commonly, such deficits are investigated in relation to specific syndromes like visual agnosia or pure alexia. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed and apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. In addition, the relationship between these attentional parameters and single word reading is investigated, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Eight patients with unilateral PCA strokes (four left hemisphere, four right hemisphere) were selected on the basis of lesion location, rather than the presence of any visual symptoms. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific measurements of processing speed and apprehension span. All patients showed reductions in visual span contralateral to the lesion site, and four patients showed bilateral reductions in visual span despite unilateral lesions (2L; 2R). Six patients showed selective deficits in visual span, though processing speed was unaffected in the same field (ipsi- or contralesionally). Only patients with right hemifield reductions in visual span were impaired in reading, and this could follow either right or left lateralized stroke and was irrespective of visual field impairments. In conclusion, visual span may be affected bilaterally by unilateral PCA-lesions. Reductions in visual span may also be confined to one hemifield, and may be affected in spite of preserved visual processing speed. Furthermore, reduced span in the right visual field seems to be related to reading impairment in this group, regardless of lesion lateralization. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chung, Jae Ho; Kim, Jung Bin; Kim, Ji Hyun
Stroke is known to be associated with an increase in the risk for suicide. However, there are very few population-based studies investigating the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts between patients with stroke and population without stroke using nationwide survey data. Individual-level data were obtained from 228,735 participants (4560 with stroke and 224,175 without stroke) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patients with stroke and population without stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate the independent effects of the stroke on suicidal ideation and attempts. Stroke patients had more depressive mood (12.6 %) than population without stroke (5.7 %, p suicidal ideation (24.4 %) and attempts (1.3 %) than population without stroke (9.8 and 0.4 %, respectively; both p suicidal ideation (OR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.52-1.79) and suicidal attempts (OR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.21-2.22), adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic factors, and physical health and mental health factors. We found that stroke increased the risk for suicidal ideation and attempts, independent of other factors that are known to be associated with suicidality, suggesting that stroke per se may be an independent risk factor for suicidality.
Pendarvis, J F; Grinnell, R M
A multidisciplinary team affiliated with a large urban hospital is described and evaluated with respect to its effects on stroke patients. Twenty-six patients who had been referred to the team in a 7-month period were compared with a group of 32 patients who had not been referred to the team. Patients were evaluated on the basis of their scores on a functional health scale mailed to them 3 months after their discharge from the hospital. The results of this project indicate that patients seen by the team scored higher on functional health than those not seen by the team.
Full Text Available Introduction: Aphasia is a common manifestation of stroke and evaluation of relationships of aphasia and brain topography could lead to better understanding of cognitive neurophysiology. Methods: 100 stroke patients with aphasia admitted in Valie-Asr hospital, Khorasan since April 2003 were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Diagnosis of stroke and aphasia was made by a neurologist and topography of involved cerebrovascular territories confirmed by topographic maps of brain in CT scan. Results: Global, Broca and Wernicke subtypes of aphasia constituted 52%, 40% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Based on the usual nourishment of Broca and Wernicke areas by anterior and posterior cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery, 79% of Global, 47% of Broca and 50% of Wernicke aphasias had compatible infarct topography. The infarct topography in other cases was not congruent with the involved linguistic areas of their brain. Conclusion: Specific cerebrovascular topography for subtypes of aphasia in stroke patients was not found. The effects of cerebrovascular lesions on linguistic functions are not predictable by their topography in CT scan.
The role of neuro-imaging in the evaluation of acute stroke has changed dramatically in the past decade. Previously, neuro-imaging was used in this setting to provide anatomic imaging that indicated the presence or absence of acute cerebral ischemia and excluded lesions that produce symptoms or signs mimicking those of stroke, such as hemorrhage and neoplasms. More recently, the introduction of thrombolysis has changed the goals of neuro-imaging from providing solely anatomic information to providing physiologic information that could help to determine which patients might benefit from therapy. In particular, significant emphasis has been placed on the delineation of the ischemic penumbra, also called tissue at risk. Modern CT survey, consisting of three indissociable elements: noncontrast CT (NCT) of course, perfusion-CT (PCT) and CT-angiography (CTA), fulfill all the requirements for hyper-acute stroke imaging. CTA can define the occlusion site, depict arterial dissection, grade collateral blood flow, and characterize atherosclerotic disease, whereas PCT accurately delineates the infarct core and the ischemic penumbra. CT offers a number of practical advantages over other cerebral perfusion imaging methods, including its wide availability. Using PCT and CTA to define new individualized strategies for acute reperfusion will allow more acute stroke patients to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. (orig.)
Ostergaard, Kamilla; Hallas, Jesper; Bak, Søren
PURPOSE: Treatment with antiplatelet drugs is a key element of secondary stroke prevention. We investigated long-term antiplatelet drug use in stroke patients with a focus on non-persistence. METHODS: Population-based prescription register data were used to determine antiplatelet drug use...... the dosage of a previous prescription had run out, or within 180 days after discharge. Cox regression was used to identify risk factors for non-persistence. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 503 patients with ischaemic stroke discharged in 1999-2001. During follow-up (median 2.8 years, interquartile range 0......-persistent. Stroke severity was inversely associated with the risk of non-persistence [NIHSS score on admission 0-3 (reference); 4-6: hazard risk (HR) 0.87, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.61-1.25; 7+: HR 0.47, 95 % CI 0.29-0.74]. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term non-persistence with antiplatelet treatment was high and more...
Full Text Available The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS. We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010-2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation. For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907. All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p0.5. Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 p<0.001, while LHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 p<0.001. To conclude, the UK FIM+FAM has a three-factor structure in stroke, similar to the general neurorehabilitation population. It is responsive to change during in-patient rehabilitation, and distinguishes
Easton, J Donald; Lopes, Renato D; Bahit, M Cecilia
In the ARISTOTLE trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was reduced by apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of stroke. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy ...
Conclusion: There is a dose-dependent effect of rehabilitation on functional improvement of stroke patients for the first 6 months post-stroke, and earlier delivery of rehabilitation has lasting effects on the functional recovery of stroke patients up to 1 year.
Gauri Shankar Shrestha
Conclusion: This study reports the relationship between ocular–visual disorders and stroke. There should be a formal screening for visual problems in stroke patients in hospital and rehabilitation settings.
Chou, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Meng, Nai-Hsin; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Chou, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Ta-Liang; Liao, Chien-Chang
Patients with stroke had higher incidence of falls and hip fractures. However, the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-TBI mortality in patients with stroke was not well defined. Our study is to investigate the risk of TBI and post-TBI mortality in patients with stroke. Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 7622 patients with stroke and 30 488 participants without stroke aged 20 years and older as reference group. Data were collected on newly developed TBI after stroke with 5 to 8 years' follow-up during 2000 to 2008. Another nested cohort study including 7034 hospitalized patients with TBI was also conducted to analyze the contribution of stroke to post-TBI in-hospital mortality. Compared with the nonstroke cohort, the adjusted hazard ratio of TBI risk among patients with stroke was 2.80 (95% confidence interval = 2.58-3.04) during the follow-up period. Patients with stroke had higher mortality after TBI than those without stroke (10.2% vs 3.2%, P stroke (RR = 1.60), hemorrhagic stroke (RR = 1.68), high medical expenditure for stroke (RR = 1.80), epilepsy (RR = 1.79), neurosurgery (RR = 1.94), and hip fracture (RR = 2.11) were all associated with significantly higher post-TBI mortality among patients with stroke. Patients with stroke have an increased risk of TBI and in-hospital mortality after TBI. Various characteristics of stroke severity were all associated with higher post-TBI mortality. Special attention is needed to prevent TBI among these populations.
Barreto, Andrew D; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Hallevi, Hen; Morales, Miriam M; Abraham, Anitha T; Gonzales, Nicole R; Illoh, Kachi; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I
Approximately 25% of ischemic stroke patients awaken with their deficits. The last-seen-normal time is defined as the time the patient went to sleep, which places these patients outside the window for thrombolysis. The purpose of this study was to describe our center's experience with off-label, compassionate thrombolysis for wake-up stroke (WUS) patients. A retrospective review of our database identified 3 groups of ischemic stroke patients: (1) WUS treated with thrombolysis; (2) nontreated WUS; and (3) 0- to 3-hour intravenous tissue plasminogen activator-treated patients. Safety and clinical outcome measures were symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, excellent outcome (discharge modified Rankin score, 0-1), favorable outcome (modified Rankin score, 0-2), and mortality. Outcome measures were controlled for baseline NIHSS using logistic regression. Forty-six thrombolysed and 34 nonthrombolysed WUS patients were identified. Sixty-one percent (28/46) of the treated WUS patients underwent intravenous thrombolysis alone whereas 30% (14/46) were given only intra-arterial thrombolysis. Four patients received both intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis (9%). Two symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages occurred in treated WUS (4.3%). Controlling for NIHSS imbalance, treated WUS had higher rates of excellent (14% vs 6%; P=0.06) and favorable outcome (28% vs 13%; P=0.006), but higher mortality (15% vs 0%) compared to nontreated WUS. A second comparison controlling for baseline NIHSS between treated WUS and 174 intravenous tissue plasminogen activator patients treated within 3 hours of symptoms showed no significant differences in safety and clinical outcomes. Thrombolysis may be safe in WUS patients. Our center's experience supports considering a prospective, randomized trial to assess the safety and outcome of thrombolysis for this specific patient population.
Full Text Available Background: Stroke is among the major causes of short- and long-term disability. This study aimed to understand the caregivers (CGs stress in stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 201 CGs of stroke survivors. The variables tested were physical and mental health, social support, financial, and personal problems. CGs were divided into Group A (Barthel index [BI] 75 according to patient's BI, according to gender (male and female CG and relation; spouses (wife, husband, daughters, sons, daughter-in-law, grandchildren, and rest (father, mother, brother, sister, and in-laws. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version–21. Data were analyzed to determine which variables of the patient effects the CG stress. Results: Majority of the CGs (74.62% were females. 65% of CGs graded their burden as moderate to severe. 81% of CGs had left their work for caregiving. More than half of the CGs felt sleep disturbance and physical strain. Psychological instability and financial burdens were reported in 3/4th of CGs. Group A CGs faced more sleep, financial, health, and social life disturbance. Patient's bladder and bowel problems, shoulder pain, patients noncooperative attitude for medication administration, and physiotherapy were more upsetting for Group A CGs. Female CGs were subjected to more sleep disturbance, physical and psychological stress, faced more difficulty regarding the patient's bladder, bowel, personal hygiene needs, and physiotherapy. Female CGs felt less motivated in caregiving than male CGs. Wives and daughters-in-law experienced more burden. Time spent and burden perceived was more by female CGs (χ2 = 15.199, P = 0.002 than males (χ2 = 11.931, P = 0.018; wives and daughters than other relations (χ2 = 32.184, P = 0.000, (χ2 = 35.162, P = 0.019. Conclusion: Our study showed that caregiving burden was predominantly shouldered by females CGs. CGs faced physical, psychological, and socioeconomic
Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Obesity and low mobility are among the risk factors of stroke and cardiovascular diseases. A pilot double-center study evaluated frequency rate of obesity and low mobility in patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: This prospective clinical study was conducted on 100 consecutive stroke patients in Mackenzie hospital, Canada and 100 consecutive stroke patients in Ghaem hospital, Iran in 2007. The patients were age- and sex- matched. Diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made by stroke neurologists. Obesity and low mobility was detected based on the standard method in the two studied groups. Chi-Square and Fisher tests served for statistical analysis and P < 0.05 was declared as significant. RESULTS: 92 males and 108 females with ischemic stroke were investigated. Obesity was present in 26% of the Canadians and 21% of Iranian stroke patients, df = 1, P = 0.403. Low mobility was reported in 29% of Canadian and 5% of Iranian stroke patients, df = 1, P < 0.0001. The frequency rate of obesity was not significantly different in the two groups and in each gender separately (P > 0.05, while the difference was significant for low mobility, P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference in frequency rate of obesity between Canadian and Iranian stroke patients. However, low mobility is significantly more frequent in the old Canadian individuals with stroke. Keywords: Obesity, Stroke, Race.
Full Text Available Strokes in young patients may be the clinical expression of many complex and extremely rare diseases. Uncommon causes constitute less than 5% of all strokes, but are present in 30% of strokes in young patients. We report the case of a young woman whose ischemic stroke led to the diagnosis of a rare embolic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy, requiring a heart transplant.
Furlanis, Giovanni; Ajčević, Miloš; Stragapede, Lara; Lugnan, Carlo; Ridolfi, Mariana; Caruso, Paola; Naccarato, Marcello; Ukmar, Maja; Manganotti, Paolo
The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is the most adopted stroke patients' evaluation tool in emergency settings to assess the severity of stroke and to determine the patients' eligibility for specific treatments. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is crucial to identify salvageable tissue that can benefit from the reperfusion treatment. The aim of this study is to identify the relation between the NIHSS scores and the hypoperfused volumes evaluated by CTP in patients with hyperacute ischemic stroke. This retrospective study was conducted on 105 patients with ischemic stroke who underwent NIHSS assessment and CTP in the hyperacute phase. Hypoperfused volume was evaluated by CTP maps processed with semi-automatic algorithm. An analysis was conducted to determine the degree of correlation between the NIHSS scores and the ischemic lesion volumes and to investigate the relation between the anterior and the posterior circulation strokes, as well as between the right and the left hemispheric strokes. A significant correlation was found between ischemic volume and NIHSS score at baseline (r = .82; P correlation was identified in the anterior circulation stroke (r = .76; P correlated for the left and the right hemispheric strokes (r = .83 and .81; P correlation between the baseline NIHSS score and the ischemic volume estimated by CTP. We confirmed that NIHSS is a reliable predictor of perfusion deficits in acute ischemic stroke. CTP allows fast imaging assessment in the hyperacute phase. The results highlight the importance of these diagnostic tools in the assessment of stroke severity and in acute decision-making. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Of 231 stroke patients discharged from hospital, 34 patients (14.7%) had died when reviewed 6 months later. Of 195 survivors, 115 (58%) were independent and living in the community. The remaining 80 (42%) patients were dependent. The majority of dependent patients were in institutional care but 29 (36%) were residing in the community of whom a substantial number were not receiving physiotherapy, occupational therapy or day care. Patients who were dependent in nursing homes were less likely to have received physiotherapy (48% versus 70%) or occupational therapy (28% versus 60%) compared to disabled patients in hospital based extended nursing care. 45 patients (24%) had been re-admitted to hospital although only 48% of patients had been reviewed in hospital outpatients since discharge. 64% of patients were on anti-thrombotic treatment. This survey suggests that 6 months after hospital discharge, most stroke patients are still alive and living in the community. Many of the dependent survivors have ongoing unmet medical and rehabilitation needs.
Full Text Available Lisa Mellon,1 Frank Doyle,1 Daniela Rohde,1 David Williams,2 Anne Hickey1 1Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Geriatric and Stroke Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland Background: Patient delay in presenting to hospital with stroke symptoms remains one of the major barriers to thrombolysis treatment, leading to its suboptimal use internationally. Educational interventions such as mass media campaigns and community initiatives aim to reduce patient delays by promoting the signs and symptoms of a stroke, but no consistent evidence exists to show that such interventions result in appropriate behavioral responses to stroke symptoms. Methods: A systematic literature search and narrative synthesis were conducted to examine whether public educational interventions were successful in the reduction of patient delay to hospital presentation with stroke symptoms. Three databases, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, were searched to identify quantitative studies with measurable behavioral end points, including time to hospital presentation, thrombolysis rates, ambulance use, and emergency department (ED presentations with stroke. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria: one randomized controlled trial, two time series analyses, three controlled before and after studies, five uncontrolled before and after studies, two retrospective observational studies, and two prospective observational studies. Studies were heterogeneous in quality; thus, meta-analysis was not feasible. Thirteen studies examined prehospital delay, with ten studies reporting a significant reduction in delay times, with a varied magnitude of effect. Eight studies examined thrombolysis rates, with only three studies reporting a statistically significant increase in thrombolysis administration. Five studies examined ambulance usage, and four reported a statistically significant increase in ambulance
Zock, E; Kerkhoff, H; Kleyweg, R P; van Bavel-Ta, T B V; Scott, S; Kruyt, N D; Nederkoorn, P J; van de Beek, D
Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and onset-to-alarm time (OAT). In a sub-study of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), 161 acute stroke patients were prospectively included in 3 Dutch hospitals. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, recognition and interpretation of stroke symptoms. With in-depth interviews, response actions and reasons were explored. OAT was recorded and associations with socio-demographic, clinical parameters were assessed. Knowledge about stroke symptoms does not always result in correct recognition of own stroke symptoms, neither into correct interpretation of the situation and subsequent action. In our study population of 161 patients with acute stroke, median OAT was 30 min (interquartile range [IQR] 10-150 min). Recognition of one-sided weakness and/or sensory loss (p = 0.046) and adequate interpretation of the stroke situation (p = 0.003), stroke at daytime (p = 0.002), severe stroke (p = 0.003), calling the emergency telephone number (p = 0.004), and transport by ambulance (p = 0.040) were associated with shorter OAT. Help seeking behavior after acute stroke is a complex process. A shorter OAT after stroke is associated with correct recognition of one-sided weakness and/or sensory loss, adequate interpretation of the stroke situation by the patient and stroke characteristics and logistics of stroke care, but not by knowledge of stroke symptoms.
Pollock, A.; Hazelton, C.; Henderson, C.A.; Angilley, J.; Dhillon, B.; Langhorne, P.; Livingstone, K.; Munro, F.A.; Orr, H.; Rowe, F.J.; Shahani, U.
Background Eye movement disorders may affect over 70% of stroke patients. These eye movement disorders can result in difficulty maintaining the normal ocular position and difficulty moving the eyes appropriately. The resulting functional disabilities include a loss of depth perception, reduced hand-to-eye co-ordination, marked difficulties with near tasks and reading and reduced ability to scan the visual environment. They can also impact on the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy. There ...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.
Amaricai, Elena; Poenaru, Dan V
Stroke is a leading cause of disability and a major public health problem. To determine frequency and degree of post-stroke depression (PSD) and its impact on functioning in young and adult stroke patients in a rehabilitation unit. The study included 72 stroke patients (aged 29-59 years) who were attending rehabilitation. The patients were assessed for depressive symptoms by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and their functioning by using the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) and the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Forty-eight patients had different degrees of depression: borderline clinical depression (13.8%), moderate depression (34.7%), severe depression (15.2%) or extreme depression (2.9%). There were no significant differences of BDI scores in 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years groups. Statistically significant correlations were between BDI score and SIS score, between BDI score and ADL index, and between SIS score and ADL index in men, women and total study patients. More than half of the PSD patients had a moderate degree of depression. Significant correlations were noticed between depressive symptoms and functional status evaluated both by an instrument of assessing stroke impact upon general health and an instrument for assessing the everyday activities.
Gündoğdu, Aslı Aksoy; Kotan, Dilcan; Alemdar, Murat
Fabry disease (FD) is known as a rare cause of stroke. Recent studies suggested that FD is an underdiagnosed entity among young stroke patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency of FD in young cryptogenic stroke patients who lived in the City of Sakarya and to define the clinical features that help in recognizing patients with FD. Acute ischemic stroke patients aged 18-55 years who were admitted to our hospital between October 2013 and September 2016 were evaluated for inclusion. Patients with other recognized causes of stroke were excluded. The screening was performed for alpha-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) activity on dried blood spot, and DNA was sequenced for GLA mutation in patients with low plasma α-Gal A activity. Among the 484 acute ischemic stroke patients, 54 (24 male, 44.4%) young cryptogenic stroke patients were enrolled. The α-Gal A activity was detected as low in 3 patients. c.[680G > A] p.[R227Q] missense mutation was identified in 2 male patients. The frequency of FD was calculated as 3.7%. Our research is the first FD screening study in Turkish stroke patients. Our results underlined the importance of considering FD during the etiologic evaluation of young cryptogenic stroke patients as it is a rare but potentially treatable entity. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donnellan, C; Martins, A; Conlon, A; Coughlan, T; O'Neill, D; Collins, D R
Stroke patients' involvement in the rehabilitation process including decision making has made significant advances clinically over the past two decades. However, development of patient-focused interventions in stroke rehabilitation is a relatively under developed area of research. The aim of this study was to interpret the explanations that patients gave of their experience after stroke and how these may validate an already established patient-focused intervention framework - the Quest for quality and improved performance (QQUIP) (2006) that includes seven quality improvement goals. A random purposive sample of eight stroke patients was interviewed between 3 and 6 months following discharge. Patients' reports of their experience after stroke were obtained using in-dept semi-structured interviews and analysed using Qualitative Content Analysis. Explanations given by patients included both positive and negative reports of the stroke experience. Regardless of consequences as a result of physical, psychological and social impairments, there were other life style disruptions that were reported by all patients such as taking new medication and adverse effects of these, experiencing increasing fatigue, difficulties with social activities and situations and having to make changes in health behaviours and lifestyle. Some of the core themes that emerged reflected the aims of QQUIP improvement goals that include improving health literacy, clinical decision-making, self-care, patient safety, access to health advice, care experience and service development. Further recommendations based on the findings from this study would be to consider using the QQUIP framework for developing intervention studies in stroke rehabilitation care that are person-centred. This framework provides a template that is equipped to address some of the main concerns that people have following the experience of stroke and also focuses on improving quality of care.
Sep 3, 2013 ... Conclusion: Psychiatric disorders are often associated with stroke. Identifying and ... include post stroke depression (PSD), mania, Bipolar disorder, anxiety ..... diagnosis and therapy: Report of the WHO Task force on stroke ...
Khalil, Viviane; Li, Matthew; Hua, Qiantong Amanda
According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, stroke is the second leading cause of death in Australia. The clinical Guidelines for stroke management published by the National Stroke Foundation provide a series of evidence based recommendations to assist clinicians in the management of stroke patients. Appropriate management of patients admitted to stroke units reduces death and disability by 20 %. Moreover, a multidisciplinary team approach also improves patient outcomes. To retrospectively review the pharmacological management of ischaemic stroke patients in a metropolitan Australian hospital, and to compare adherence with the guidelines for stroke management with the national stroke foundation data with and without pharmacist intervention. A retrospective audit of medical records was undertaken of all patients admitted to a large teaching hospital with the diagnosis of stroke or cerebral infarction from January 2013 to May 2013. A total of 124 patients were included in the study. Most patients were discharged on appropriate pharmacological intervention for the prevention of secondary stroke: antihypertensive agents (71 %), lipid lowering agents (67 %) and antithrombotic (85 %) medications. The majority of the cohort was discharged on the appropriate evidence based medications for the management of secondary stroke. Further improvement may be achieved by pharmacist intervening as part of a multidisciplinary team.
Baptista, Miguel Viana; Ferreira, Susana; Pinho-E-Melo, Teresa; Carvalho, Marta; Cruz, Vítor T; Carmona, Cátia; Silva, Fernando A; Tuna, Assunção; Rodrigues, Miguel; Ferreira, Carla; Pinto, Ana A N; Leitão, André; Gabriel, João Paulo; Calado, Sofia; Oliveira, João Paulo; Ferro, José M
Fabry disease is an X-linked monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene. Recent data suggest that stroke in young adults may be associated with Fabry disease. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of this disorder among young adult patients with stroke in Portugal by GLA genotyping. During 1 year, all patients aged 18 to 55 years with first-ever stroke, who were admitted into any of 12 neurology hospital departments in Portugal, were prospectively enrolled (n=625). Ischemic stroke was classified according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Alpha-galactosidase activity was further assayed in all patients with GLA mutations. Four hundred ninety-three patients (mean age, 45.4 years; 61% male) underwent genetic analyses: 364 with ischemic stroke, 89 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 26 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 14 with cerebral venous thrombosis. Twelve patients had missense GLA mutations: 9 with ischemic stroke (p.R118C: n=4; p.D313Y: n=5), including 5 patients with an identified cause of stroke (cardiac embolism: n=2; small vessel disease: n=2; other cause: n=1), 2 with intracerebral hemorrhage (p.R118C: n=1; p.D313Y: n=1), and one with cerebral venous thrombosis (p.R118C: n=1). Leukocyte alpha-galactosidase activity was subnormal in the hemizygous males and subnormal or low-normal in the heterozygous females. Estimated prevalence of missense GLA mutations was 2.4% (95% CI, 1.3% to 4.1%). Despite a low diagnostic yield, screening for GLA mutations should probably be considered in different types of stroke. Restricting investigation to patients with cryptogenic stroke may underestimate the true prevalence of Fabry disease in young patients with stroke.
Kawada, Kei; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Koudai; Kadoguchi, Naoto; Yamamoto, Souichi; Morimoto, Masanori
Intravenous nicardipine is generally used to treat hypertension in acute stroke patients but is associated with frequent phlebitis. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of phlebitis in such patients. The incidence and risk factors of phlebitis were investigated in 358 acute stroke patients from July 2014 to June 2015. In total, 138 patients received intravenous nicardipine. Of 45 (12.6%) phlebitis patients in 358 acute stroke patients, 42 (93.3%) were administered nicardipine, which was significantly associated with phlebitis occurrence (P phlebitis of acute stroke patients in univariate analysis were intracerebral hemorrhage (P phlebitis is frequently observed in acute stroke patients and is significantly associated with administration of a maximum concentration of nicardipine greater than 130 µg/mL. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acute ischemic strokes arising from blockages of the major brain-supplying arteries put patients at risk for extensive brain injury. Left untreated, these major strokes produce significant disability and death. Fortunately, recent advances in stroke devices have improved clinical outcomes in such
Brady, Marian C; Clark, Alexander M; Dickson, Sylvia; Paton, Gillian; Barbour, Rosaline S
To explore the perceptions of people with stroke-related dysarthria in relation to the management and rehabilitation of dysarthria. Qualitative semi-structured interviews. Community setting Subjects: Twenty-four people with an acquired dysarthria as a result of a stroke in the previous three years. All were living at home at the time of the interview. None exhibited a co-existing impairment (for example, aphasia, apraxia or cognitive impairment) that might have contributed to their communicative experiences. Participants described the considerable efforts they made to maximize their communicative effectiveness prior to, and during, communicative interactions. Activities described included careful articulation and vocal projection as well as more inconspicuous strategies including pre-planning interactions, focused, effortful speech and word substitution. Communication was facilitated by a range of strategies including drafting, rehearsal, manoeuvring and ongoing monitoring and repair. Self-led speech rehabilitation activities were functionally based and often undertaken regularly. Some novel reading-aloud and speaking-aloud activities were described. The quantity and nature of inconspicuous, internalized, cognitive activities people with dysarthria engage in to maximize their communicative effectiveness should be considered in evaluating the impact of dysarthria following stroke. Focusing upon externally observable characteristics alone is insufficient. Challenging, functionally relevant, patient-focused activities, materials and targets are more likely to be perceived by the patient as relevant and worthwhile and are thus more likely to ensure adherence to recommended rehabilitation activities.
Raquel Calvão de Melo
Full Text Available The onset of bipolar disorder (BD secondary to a stroke event is a rare clinical entity. Although it may be related to specific regions of the brain, several other factors have been linked to its expression such as subcortical atrophy or chronic vascular burden. While precise locations and cerebral circuits involved in the bipolarity expression after stroke still need to be determined, their investigation represents an opportunity to study brain function and BD etiopathogenesis. We present a BD secondary to multiple subcortical biparietal lacunar infarctions, a lacunar infarction in left putamen and an ischemic lesion at the cerebral trunk evolving the right median portion, in a 65-year-old male patient who experienced manic, hypomanic, and depressive episodes, after 6, 10, and 16 months, respectively, of the cerebrovascular events.
Park, Jin; Yoo, Ingyu
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of gait parameters with fear of falling in stroke survivors. [Subjects] In total, 12 patients with stroke participated. [Methods] The subjects performed on a Biodex Gait Trainer 2 for 5 min to evaluate characteristic gait parameters. The kinematic gait parameters measured were gait speed, step cycle, step length, and time on each foot (step symmetry). All the subjects also completed a fall anxiety survey. [Results] Correlations between gait parameters and fear of falling scores were calculated. There was a moderate degree of correlation between fear of falling scores and the step cycle item of gait parameters. [Conclusions] According to our results, the step cycle gait parameter may be related to increased fall anxiety.
Jun Rong Tan
Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a multi-factorial disease where some patients present themselves with little or no risk factors. Blood microRNA expression profiles are becoming useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. We therefore investigated the blood microRNA profiles in young stroke patients who presented with minimal or absence of risk factors for stroke such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Blood microRNA profiles from these patients varied with stroke subtypes as well as different functional outcomes (based on modified Rankin Score. These microRNAs have been shown to target genes that are involved in stroke pathogenesis. The findings from our study suggest that molecular mechanisms in stroke pathogenesis involving low or no risk ischemic stroke patients could differ substantially from those with pre-existing risk factors.
Nunes, Maria Cristina de Alencar
Full Text Available Introduction: In the literature, the incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with cerebrovascular accident (AVE ranges 20-90%. Some studies correlate the location of a stroke with dysphagia, while others do not. Objective: To correlate brain injury with dysphagia in patients with stroke in relation to the type and location of stroke. Method: A prospective study conducted at the Hospital de Clinicas with 30 stroke patients: 18 women and 12 men. All patients underwent clinical evaluation and swallowing nasolaryngofibroscopy (FEES®, and were divided based on the location of the injury: cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, subcortical areas, and type: hemorrhagic or transient ischemic. Results: Of the 30 patients, 18 had ischemic stroke, 10 had hemorrhagic stroke, and 2 had transient stroke. Regarding the location, 10 lesions were in the cerebral cortex, 3 were in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, 3 were in the cerebral cortex and subcortical areas, and 3 were in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices and subcortical areas. Cerebral cortex and subcortical area ischemic strokes predominated in the clinical evaluation of dysphagia. In FEES®, decreased laryngeal sensitivity persisted following cerebral cortex and ischemic strokes. Waste in the pharyngeal recesses associated with epiglottic valleculae predominated in the piriform cortex in all lesion areas and in ischemic stroke. A patient with damage to the cerebral and cerebellar cortices from an ischemic stroke exhibited laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration of liquid and honey. Conclusion: Dysphagia was prevalent when a lesion was located in the cerebral cortex and was of the ischemic type.
E. A. Drozdova
Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is one of the main risk factor of ischemic stroke. Current problems of the management of patients with stroke due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation and secondary stroke prevention in these patients are considered. Data of own author’s observation for patients of this type during 6 months after discharge from the hospital are presented. The problems which patients faced with are analyzed. Comparative assessment of warfarin and dabigatran therapies is given.
Tanaka, Yasutaka; Ueno, Yuji; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Ryota; Hattori, Nobutaka; Urabe, Takao
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of embolic etiologies, patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). We performed transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination for consecutive stroke patients who had been diagnosed with APS (APS group) to detect potential embolic sources. APS was diagnosed based on the modified Sapporo criteria. The control stroke group comprised age- and sex-matched cryptogenic stroke patients undergoing TEE. We assessed and compared the clinical characteristics and TEE findings between stroke patients with APS and control stroke groups. Among 582 patients, nine patients (nine women; mean age, 50 ± 18 years) were classified into the APS group. In 137 patients undergoing TEE, 41 age-matched female stroke patients were recruited to the control stroke group. Prevalences of PFO and ASA were significantly higher in the APS group than in the control stroke group (89 vs. 41 %, p = 0.027; 67 vs. 20 %, p = 0.015, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that PFO (odds ratio (OR), 13.71; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.01-185.62; p = 0.049) and ASA (OR, 8.06; 95 % CI, 1.17-55.59; p = 0.034) were independently associated with the APS group. PFO and ASA were strongly associated with the APS group, and could thus represent potential embolic sources in ischemic stroke patients with APS.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence and burden of stroke in China is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about trends in mortality during stroke hospitalization. The objectives of this study were to assess trends of in-hospital mortality among patients with stroke and explore influence factors of in-hospital death after stroke in China. METHODS: 109 grade III class A hospitals were sampled by multistage stratified cluster sampling. All patients admitted to hospitals between 2007 and 2010 with a discharge diagnosis of stroke were included. Trends in in-hospital mortality among patients with stroke were assessed. Influence factors of in-hospital death after stroke were explored using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall stroke hospitalizations increased from 79,894 in 2007 to 85,475 in 2010, and in-hospital mortality of stroke decreased from 3.16% to 2.30% (P<0.0001. The percentage of severe patients increased while odds of mortality (2010 versus 2007 decreased regardless of stroke type: subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR 0.792, 95% CI = 0.636 to 0.987, intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 0.647, 95% CI = 0.591 to 0.708, and ischemic stroke (OR 0.588, 95% CI = 0.532 to 0.649. In multivariable analyses, older age, male, basic health insurance, multiple comorbidities and severity of disease were linked to higher odds of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality of stroke hospitalizations decreased likely reflecting advancements in stroke care and prevention. Decreasing of mortality with increasing of severe stroke patients indicated that we should pay more attention to rehabilitation and life quality of stroke patients. Specific individual and hospital-level characteristics may be targets for facilitating further declines.
Baier, Bernhard; Geber, Christian; Müller-Forell, Wiebke; Müller, Notger; Dieterich, Marianne; Karnath, Hans-Otto
Patients with anosognosia for visual field defect (AVFD) fail to recognize consciously their visual field defect. There is still unclarity whether specific neural correlates are associated with AVFD. We studied AVFD in 54 patients with acute stroke and a visual field defect. Nineteen percent of this unselected sample showed AVFD. By using modern voxelwise lesion-behaviour mapping techniques we found an association between AVFD and parts of the lingual gyrus, the cuneus as well as the posterior cingulate and corpus callosum. Damage to these regions appears to induce unawareness of visual field defects and thus may play a significant role for conscious visual perception.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after
Larsen, Torben; Olsen, T. Skyhøj; Sørensen, Jan
: A systematic literature search for randomized trials (RCTs) on "early supported discharge" was closed in April 2005. RCTs on EHSD without information on (i) death or institution at follow-up, (ii) change in Barthél Index, (iii) length of hospital stay, (iv) intensity of home rehabilitation, or (v) baseline...... data are excluded. Seven RCTs on EHSD with 1,108 patients followed 3-12 months after discharge are selected for statistical meta-analysis of outcomes. The costs are calculated as a function of the average number of home training sessions. Economic evaluation is organized as a test of dominance (both...... of death is not significant. Length of stay is significantly reduced by 10 days (CI, 2.6-18 days). All outcomes have a nonsignificant positive covariance. The median number of home sessions is eleven, and the average cost per EHSD is 1,340 USD. The "action mechanism" and financial barriers to EHSD...
Kim, Bo Ryun; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Lee Suk; Park, Ji Young
To investigate the effect of virtual reality on the recovery of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Twenty-eight patients (11 males and 17 females, mean age 64.2) with cognitive impairment following stroke were recruited for this study. All patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the virtual reality (VR) group (n=15) or the control group (n=13). The VR group received both virtual reality training and computer-based cognitive rehabilitation, whereas the control group received only computer-based cognitive rehabilitation. To measure, activity of daily living cognitive and motor functions, the following assessment tools were used: computerized neuropsychological test and the Tower of London (TOL) test for cognitive function assessment, Korean-Modified Barthel index (K-MBI) for functional status evaluation, and the motricity index (MI) for motor function assessment. All recruited patients underwent these evaluations before rehabilitation and four weeks after rehabilitation. The VR group showed significant improvement in the K-MMSE, visual and auditory continuous performance tests (CPT), forward digit span test (DST), forward and backward visual span tests (VST), visual and verbal learning tests, TOL, K-MBI, and MI scores, while the control group showed significant improvement in the K-MMSE, forward DST, visual and verbal learning tests, trail-making test-type A, TOL, K-MBI, and MI scores after rehabilitation. The changes in the visual CPT and backward VST in the VR group after rehabilitation were significantly higher than those in the control group. Our findings suggest that virtual reality training combined with computer-based cognitive rehabilitation may be of additional benefit for treating cognitive impairment in stroke patients.
Makomela, N M
By means of a multispiral computer and magnetic resonance tomography 211 patients with an ischemic stroke, 109 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, 41 patients with an arterial hypertensia, 43 patients with aneurism, 58 patients with discirculation encephalopathy, 125 patients with ischemic illness of heart, practically healthy 62 have been observed. The author found high frequency of pathological deformations of carotid and vertebral arteries of not closed arterial circle, calcification of the pineal body and vascular plexus of lateral ventricles. cysts of maxillary sinuses of patients with stroke in comparison with patients at risk of the development of stroke and practically healthy subjects.
Bentsen, Line; Christensen, Louisa; Christensen, Anders
. METHODS: The analysis was based on consecutive patients admitted within 6 hours after stroke onset and discharged with ischemic stroke, surviving at least 3 months after ictus. To prevent bias, the analysis was based on a registry from before implementation of tissue plasminogen activator treatment; all...... of age or older presented with significantly more severe strokes than younger patients, median Scandinavian Stroke Scale score 39 vs 42 (P = .003). Median mRS score before stroke was significantly higher in patients aged 80 years or older (P ictus (P...
Celinder, Dora; Peoples, Hanne
INTRODUCTION: Commercial virtual reality games have been used as adjunct therapy for stroke rehabilitation, mainly after patients have been discharged. The aim of this study was to explore stroke patients' experiences with Wii Sports® as a supplement to conventional occupational therapy in a cont......INTRODUCTION: Commercial virtual reality games have been used as adjunct therapy for stroke rehabilitation, mainly after patients have been discharged. The aim of this study was to explore stroke patients' experiences with Wii Sports® as a supplement to conventional occupational therapy...... therapy services may benefit patient rehabilitation directly or provide motivation for alternative leisure activities....
Jauch, Edward C; Saver, Jeffrey L; Adams, Harold P; Bruno, Askiel; Connors, J J Buddy; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Khatri, Pooja; McMullan, Paul W; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Scott, Phillip A; Summers, Debbie R; Wang, David Z; Wintermark, Max; Yonas, Howard
The authors present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators responsible for the care of acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 48 hours from stroke onset. These guidelines supersede the prior 2007 guidelines and 2009 updates. Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Stroke Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the stroke literature with emphasis on publications since the prior guidelines, and drafted recommendations in accordance with the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Level of Evidence grading algorithm. The goal of these guidelines is to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care and detail aspects of stroke care from patient recognition; emergency medical services activation, transport, and triage; through the initial hours in the emergency department and stroke unit. The guideline discusses early stroke evaluation and general medical care, as well as ischemic stroke, specific interventions such as reperfusion strategies, and general physiological optimization for cerebral resuscitation. Because many of the recommendations are based on limited data, additional research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke remains urgently needed.
Pollock, Alex; Hazelton, Christine; Henderson, Clair A; Angilley, Jayne; Dhillon, Baljean; Langhorne, Peter; Livingstone, Katrina; Munro, Frank A; Orr, Heather; Rowe, Fiona J; Shahani, Uma
review authors independently screened abstracts, extracted data and appraised trials. We undertook an assessment of methodological quality for allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessors, method of dealing with missing data, and other potential sources of bias. Thirteen studies (344 randomised participants, 285 of whom were participants with stroke) met the inclusion criteria for this review. However, only six of these studies compared the effect of an intervention with a placebo, control or no treatment group and were included in comparisons within this review. Four studies compared the effect of scanning (compensatory) training with a control or placebo intervention. Meta-analysis demonstrated that scanning training is more effective than control or placebo at improving reading ability (three studies, 129 participants; mean difference (MD) 3.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 5.59) and visual scanning (three studies, 129 participants; MD 18.84, 95% CI 12.01 to 25.66) but that scanning may not improve visual field outcomes (two studies, 110 participants; MD -0.70, 95% CI -2.28 to 0.88). There were insufficient data to enable generalised conclusions to be made about the effectiveness of scanning training relative to control or placebo for the primary outcome of activities of daily living (one study, 33 participants). Only one study (19 participants) compared the effect of a restitutive intervention with a control or placebo intervention and only one study (39 participants) compared the effect of a substitutive intervention with a control or placebo intervention. There is limited evidence which supports the use of compensatory scanning training for patients with visual field defects (and possibly co-existing visual neglect) to improve scanning and reading outcomes. There is insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion about the impact of compensatory scanning training on functional activities of daily living. There is insufficient evidence to reach
Croquelois, A; Bogousslavsky, J
Background Secondary prevention of stroke has been shown to dramatically reduce recurrence and has been described as suboptimal. Objective To analyse patients' awareness and knowledge about cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRF) and their influence on CVRF control. Methods Patients (n = 164) who were attending a stroke outpatient clinic for the first time after hospital discharge (3 months) for a first stroke were asked to answer a short questionnaire including questions on awareness and knowledge of CVRF, visits to a CVRF specialist, number of visits to a general practitioner, adherence to drug treatments, cigarette smoking and cessation. Results CVRF were spontaneously mentioned as relevant for their stroke by only13% of patients. A specialist was visited by only one‐third of the patients and a general practitioner was not visited at all by 27% of the patients since their stroke. Awareness was inversely correlated with older age and good recovery. More than half of the patients had high blood pressure (≥140 mmHg for systolic and ≥90 mmHg for diastolic values) at the time of follow‐up. These high values were correlated with poor awareness. Appropriate secondary stroke prevention measures were not received by one‐fourth of the patients; this was also correlated with poor awareness. Conclusions CVRF control is not optimal and is at least partially related to patients' awareness and knowledge and suboptimal medical follow‐up. Older patients and patients with excellent recovery are at particular risk for poor awareness and CVRF control. PMID:16549417
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke patients' care in hospital tends to be poorly organised, with poor communication and a lack of information being frequent sources of complaint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a patient-held record (PHR would result in greater patient satisfaction and better care planning for stroke patients. Methods A time series control (6 months - intervention (8 months - control (6 months was used among London teaching hospital general medical and geriatric medicine inpatient wards. All stroke patients admitted to the wards during the intervention phase received a PHR and were instructed in its use. Demographic, stroke severity, social factors and outcomes were collected from all stroke patients during all phases of the study. Results Of 252 stroke patients aged 46 to 98 years entered into the study, by six months after admission 118 (46.8% had died. PHR and control group patients were well matched in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and pre-stroke ability. At six months after admission, 119 (97% patients responded to the questionnaire. Just over half (56%, 13 of intervention group patients recalled receiving a PHR. Of those patients, 59% reported reading the PHR, 27% had lost their PHR, and two-thirds said they had difficulties encouraging staff to write in the PHR. Half felt that possession of the PHR was more trouble than it was worth. PHR group patients were more satisfied with the recovery they had made (79% vs. 59%, p=0.04, but felt less able to talk to staff about their problems (61% vs. 82%, p=0.02. PHR group patients reported receiving fewer explanations about their condition (18% vs. 33%, p=0.12 and treatment (26% vs. 45%, p=0.07, and were more afraid of asking doctors questions (21% vs. 4%, p=0.01 than controls. PHR group patients were no better prepared for hospital discharge than control group patients, and both groups were ill-informed about services and benefits that might have helped
Renna, Rosaria; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Della Marca, Giacomo; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Morosetti, Roberta; Frisullo, Giovanni; Rossi, Elena; De Stefano, Valerio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo
Approximately 10%-14% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. To investigate risk factors and etiologies of strokes of young adults admitted to the "stroke unit" of Policlinico "Gemelli" of Rome from December 2005 to January 2013. In all, 150 consecutive patients younger than 50 years diagnosed with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Clinical evaluation consisted of a complete neurologic examination and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Diagnostic workup consisted of anamnesis, extensive laboratory, radiologic, and cardiologic examination. Stroke etiologies were classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Patients' mean age was 41 ± 8.0 years. The most common risk factors were dyslipidemia (52.7%), smoking (47.3%), hypertension (39.3%), and patent foramen ovale (PFO, 32.8%). Large-artery atherosclerosis was diagnosed as the cause of stroke in 17 patients (11.3%). Cardioembolism was presumed in 36 patients (24%), most of them presented a PFO at transesophageal echocardiography. Small-vessel occlusion was diagnosed in 12 patients (8%); all of them were hypertensive and most of them presented additional risk factors. Forty-one patients (27.3%) presented a stroke of other determined etiology and 44 (29.3%) presented a stroke of undetermined etiology. The 3-year survival was 96.8% and recurrent strokes occurred in only 3 cases. Traditional vascular risk factors are also very common in young adults with ischemic stroke, but such factors increase the susceptibility to stroke dependent to other causes as atherosclerosis and small-artery occlusion represent less than 20% of cases. Prognosis quoadvitam is good, being characterized by low mortality and recurrence rate. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boutet, Claire, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Rouffiange-Leclair, Laure, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Garnier, Pierre, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Quenet, Sara, E-mail: email@example.com [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Delsart, Daphné, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Therapeutic Medicine, CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, Saint-Etienne (France); Inserm, CIE3, F-42055 Saint-Etienne (France); Varvat, Jérôme, E-mail: email@example.com [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Epinat, Magali, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Schneider, Fabien, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Antoine, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, INSERM U1028 – CNRS UMR5292 (France); EA 4338, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); and others
Purpose: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain feature in cryptogenic stroke patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO), cryptogenic stroke patients without PFO and patients with cardioembolic stroke. Materials and methods: The ethics committee required neither institutional review board approval nor informed patient consent for retrospective analyses of the patients’ medical records and imaging data. The patients’ medical files were retrospectively reviewed in accordance with human subject research protocols. Ninety-two patients under 60 years of age were included: 15 with cardioembolic stroke, 32 with cryptogenic stroke with PFO and 45 with cryptogenic stroke without PFO. Diffusion-weighted imaging of brain MRI was performed by a radiologist blinded to clinical data. Univariate, Fischer's exact test for qualitative data and non-parametric Wilcoxon test for quantitative data were used. Results: There was no statistically significant difference found between MRI features of patients with PFO and those with cardioembolic stroke (p < .05). Patients without PFO present more corticosubcortical single lesions (p < .05) than patients with PFO. Patients with PFO have more often subcortical single lesions larger than 15 mm, involvement of posterior cerebral arterial territory and intracranial occlusion (p < .05) than patients with cryptogenic stroke without PFO. Conclusion: Our study suggests a cardioembolic mechanism in ischemic stroke with PFO.
Elyas, Salim; Shore, Angela C; Kingwell, Hayley; Keenan, Samantha; Boxall, Leigh; Stewart, Jane; James, Martin A; Strain, William David
Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and minor strokes are important risk factors for recurrent strokes. Current stroke risk prediction scores such as ABCD2, although widely used, lack optimal sensitivity and specificity. Elevated urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mortality. We explored the role of microalbuminuria (using albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) in predicting recurrence risk in patients with TIA and minor stroke. Urinary ACR was measured on a spot sample in 150 patients attending a daily stroke clinic with TIA or minor stroke. Patients were followed up at day 7, 30, and 90 to determine recurrent stroke, cardiovascular events, or death. Eligible patients had a carotid ultrasound Doppler investigation. High-risk patients were defined as those who had an event within 90 days or had >50% internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Fourteen (9.8%) recurrent events were reported by day 90 including two deaths. Fifteen patients had severe ICA stenosis. In total, 26 patients were identified as high risk. These patients had a higher frequency of previous stroke or hypercholesterolemia compared to low-risk patients (P = 0.04). ACR was higher in high-risk patients (3.4 [95% CI 2.2-5.2] vs. 1.7 [1.5-2.1] mg/mmol, P = 0.004), independent of age, sex, blood pressure, diabetes, and previous stroke. An ACR greater than 1.5 mg/mmol predicted high-risk patients (Cox proportional hazard ratio 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-9.5, P = 0.01). After TIA or minor stroke, a higher ACR predicted recurrent events and significant ICA stenosis. Incorporation of urinary ACR from a spot sample in the acute setting could improve risk stratification in patients with TIA and minor stroke.
Mazzaro, Nazarena; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Grey, Michael James
We investigated the contribution of afferent feedback to the soleus (SOL) muscle activity during the stance phase of walking in patients with spastic stroke. A total of 24 patients with hemiparetic spastic stroke and age-matched healthy volunteers participated in the study. A robotic actuator...... by the Ashworth score. These results indicate that although the stretch reflex response is facilitated during spastic gait, the contribution of afferent feedback to the ongoing locomotor SOL activity is depressed in patients with spastic stroke....
Pandey, Aparna; Saxena, Kiran; Verma, Meena; Bharosay, Anuradha
Background: A study to investigate the level of the neurobiochemical marker, Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE), at the time of admission and its correlation with the blood sugar level in ischemic stroke patients. Patients and Methods: We investigated 90 patients with complete stroke who were admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Department of Neurology at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences. NSE was measured with commercially available quantitative ′sandwich′ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assa...
Karaman, Bedriye; Selph, James; Burdine, Joselyn; Graham, Cole Blease; Sen, Souvik
Patient candidacy for acute stroke intervention, is currently assessed using brain computed tomography angiography (CTA) evidence of significant stenosis/occlusion (SSO) with a high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (>6). This study examined the association between CTA without significant stenosis/occlusion (NSSO) and lower NIHSS (≤ 6) with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and other good clinical outcomes at discharge. Patients presenting TIA, modified Rankin Score [mRS] ≤ 1, and home as the discharge disposition. Eighty-five patients received both an NIHSS at presentation and a CTA at 4.2 ± 2.2 hours from stroke symptom onset. Patients with NSSO on CTA as well as those with NIHSS≤6 had better outcomes at discharge (pTIA (pTIA. Addition of NIHSS ≤ 6 to NSSO on CTA proved to be a stronger independent predictor of TIA (Adjusted OR 18.7 95% CI: 3.5-98.9, p=0.001).
Gonzalez, Alejandro; Mayol, Antonio; Martinez, Eva; Gonzalez-Marcos, Jose R.; Gil-Peralta, Alberto
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of thrombus extraction using a microsnare in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). This was a prospective, observational, cohort study in which consecutive patients with AIS (<6 hours of ischemia for anterior circulation and <24 hours for posterior circulation) who had been previously excluded from intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thrombolysis were included and followed-up for 3 months. Mechanical embolectomy with a microsnare of 2-4 mm was undertaken as the first treatment. Low-dose intraarterial thrombolysis or angioplasty was used if needed. TIMI grade and modified Rankin stroke scale (mRSS) score were used to evaluate vessel recanalization and clinical efficacy, respectively. Nine patients (mean age 55 years, range 17-69 years) were included. Their basal mean NIHSS score was 16 (range 12-24). In seven out of the nine patients (77.8%) the clot was removed, giving a TIMI grade of 3 in four patients and TIMI grade 2 in three patients. Occlusion sites were: middle cerebral artery (four), basilar artery (two) and anterior cerebral artery plus middle cerebral artery (one). The mean time for recanalization from the start of the procedure was 50 min (range 50-75 min). At 3 months, the mRSS score was 0 in two patients and 3-4 in three patients (two patients died). According to our results, the microsnare is a safe procedure for mechanical thrombectomy with a good recanalization rate. Further studies are required to determine the role of the microsnare in the treatment of AIS. (orig.)
Manzar, A.; Iftikhar, R.; Qadir, A.
Objective: To determine the frequency and association of Interatrial block in hospitalized patients with Ischemic Stroke. Study Design: A case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of medicine, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from 1 January 2009 to 30 December 2009. Methodology: It included 64 patients, 32 cases of diagnosed ischemic stroke and 32 patients were taken as controls not suffering from ischemic stroke or ischemic heart disease. ECG findings of both selected groups were evaluated for presence or absence of interatrial block. Results: Out of 32 ischemic stroke patients, 14 (43.85%) were found to have interatrial block on electrocardiogram (ECG). Whereas only 6 (18.80%) controls were found to have interatrial block on ECG. Odds ratio was 1.66. Conclusion: Interatrial block is more frequent in ischemic stroke patients and may represent a risk factor for such stroke. (author)
Tariq, M.; Ishtiaq, S.; Zulfiqar, S.O.
Objective: To determine the difference in the frequency of middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic strokes between left and right cerebral hemispheres in the adult patients admitted to the Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: MH Rawalpindi from 01 Dec 2013 to 30 Mar 2014. Patients and Methods: Seventy eight adult patients admitted to MH Rawalpindi with neurologic deficits consistent with MCA strokes and having no evidence of intracerebral haemorrhage on Computed Tomographic (CT) scan of brain. Descriptive Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 78 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study; 35 (45 percent) patients had right MCA stroke while 43 (55 percent) had left MCA stroke. Conclusion: Left MCA ischemic strokes are more common than right MCA ischemic strokes. (author)
Høeg Vinther, Kristina; Tveskov, Claus; Möller, Sören
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Runs of premature atrial complexes (PACs) are common in stroke patients and perceived to be clinically insignificant, but their prognostic significance is unclear. This study investigated the association between runs of PACs in ischemic stroke patients and the risk...... of recurrent ischemic strokes/transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or death. METHODS: The study included consecutive patients admitted with an ischemic stroke from August 2008 to April 2011. Patients with known and newly detected atrial fibrillation were excluded. Runs of PACs were defined as 3 or more PACs...... lasting less than 30 seconds during 48 hours of continuous inpatient cardiac telemetry. The patients were followed for 4 years or until death, whichever came first. They were stratified according to stroke severity. The combined primary endpoint was a recurrent ischemic stroke/TIA or death. RESULTS...
Full Text Available Hasan Kara,1 Selim Degirmenci,1 Aysegul Bayir,1 Ahmet Ak,1 Murat Akinci,1 Ali Dogru,1 Fikret Akyurek,2 Seyit Ali Kayis3 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; 3Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between the red blood cell distribution width (RDW and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores in patients who had acute ischemic stroke. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study included 88 patients who have had acute ischemic stroke and a control group of 40 patients who were evaluated in the Emergency Department for disorders other than acute ischemic stroke. All subjects had RDW determined, and stroke patients had scoring with the GCS, CNS, and NIHSS scores. The GCS, CNS, and NIHSS scores of the patients were rated as mild, moderate, or severe and compared with RDW. Results: Stroke patients had significantly higher median RDW than control subjects. The median RDW values were significantly elevated in patients who had more severe rather than milder strokes rated with all three scoring systems (GCS, CNS, and NIHSS. The median RDW values were significantly elevated for patients who had moderate rather than mild strokes rated by GCS and CNS and for patients who had severe rather than mild strokes rated by NIHSS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.760 (95% confidence interval, 0.676–0.844. Separation of stroke patients and control groups was optimal with RDW 14% (sensitivity, 71.6%; specificity, 67.5%; accuracy, 70.3%. Conclusion: In stroke patients who have symptoms <24 hours, the RDW may be useful in predicting the severity and functional outcomes of the stroke
İnci Şule Özer
Full Text Available Objective: Stroke in people aged less than 45 years is less frequent than in older patients, but has major impacts on both the individual and society. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic subtypes of acute ischemic stroke in the young. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the hospital records of 619 patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and November 2014. Acute ischemic stroke in the young was defined as patients aged 45 years and under. Demographic data, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores at admission and detailed investigations aimed at determining etiologic cause were recorded. Etiologic stroke subtypes were determined using the automated Causative Classification System. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS scores were recorded in the follow-up. Results: There were 32 (5.2% young patients with acute ischemic stroke. The rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and coronary artery disease were significantly lower in young patients compared with patients aged more than 45 years (p<0.05. The mean NIHSS score at admission and hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p=0.006, p=0.043. Cardioaortic embolism was the most common etiologic stroke subtype in both groups. Other causes were significantly more frequent in the young acute ischemic stroke group compared with the older patients. The median follow-up mRS was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p<0.001. Conclusion: Young patients with ischemic stroke have different risk factors, stroke etiology, stroke severity and prognosis compared with patients older than 45 years with the same condition
Full Text Available Abstract Background A modified version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS was created with some changes in the description of the items and clarifications in the manual (e.g. much help was defined as support from 2 persons. The aim of this validation study was to assess intrarater and interrater reliability using this modified version of PASS, at a stroke unit, for patients in the acute phase after their first event of stroke. Methods In the intrarater reliability study 114 patients and in the interrater reliability study 15 patients were examined twice with the test within one to 24 hours in the first week after stroke. Spearman's rank correlation, Kappa coefficients, Percentage Agreement and the newer rank-invariant methods; Relative Position, Relative Concentration and Relative rank Variance were used for the statistical analysis. Results For the intrarater reliability Spearman's rank correlations were 0.88-0.98 and k were 0.70-0.93 for the individual items. Small, statistically significant, differences were found for two items regarding Relative Position and for one item regarding Relative Concentration. There was no Relative rank Variance for any single item. For the interrater reliability, Spearman's rank correlations were 0.77-0.99 for individual items. For some items there was a possible, even if not proved, reliability problem regarding Relative Position and Relative Concentration. There was no Relative rank Variance for the single items, except for a small Relative rank Variance for one item. Conclusions The high intrarater and interrater reliability shown for the modified Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, the Swedish version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, with traditional and newer statistical analyses, particularly for assessments performed by the same rater, support the use of the Swedish version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, in the acute stage after stroke both
Telma Alteniza Leandro
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying the prevalence of Stress urinary incontinence (SUI, Urge urinary incontinence (UUI, Functional urinary incontinence (FUI, Overflow urinary incontinence (OUI and Reflex urinary incontinence (RUI nursing diagnoses and their defining characteristics in stroke patients. METHOD A cross-sectional study with 156 patients treated in a neurological clinic. Data were collected through interviews and forwarded to nurses for diagnostic inference. RESULTS 92.3% of the patients had at least one of the studied diagnoses; OUI showed the highest prevalence (72.4%, followed by FUI (53.2%, RUI (50.0%, UUI (41.0% and SUI (37.8%. Overdistended bladder and reports of inability to reach the toilet in time to avoid urine loss were the most prevalent defining characteristics. A statistically significant association of the defining characteristics with the studied diagnosis was verified. CONCLUSION The five incontinence diagnoses were identified in the evaluated patients, with different prevalence.
Yelnik, A-P; Schnitzler, A; Pradat-Diehl, P; Sengler, J; Devailly, J-P; Dehail, P; D'anjou, M-C; Rode, G
This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These documents describe the needs for a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. Stroke patients are divided into four categories according to the severity of the impairments, each one being treated according to the same six parameters according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO), while taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence the needs of these patients. 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective To explore the relation between metabolic syndrome (MetS and cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke. Methods Ninety-four cases of first ischemic stroke patients were divided into stroke without MetS group (n = 54 and stroke with MetS group (n = 40 according to the diagnostic criteria for MetS defined by Metabolic Syndrome Researching Group of Chinese Diabetes Society. All patients underwent Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Clock Drawing Test (CDT, animal Verbal Fluency Test (aVFT, Trial Making Test-A (TMT-A at 2 weeks and 3 months after stroke to evaluate mental state such as verbal learning memory, and executive, attentional and visuospatial abilities. The incidence and development of cognitive impairment were also assessed. Results At 2 weeks and 3 months after stroke, the incidence of cognitive impairment were 24.47% (23/94 and 22.34% (21/94, respectively, and in the cognitive impairment patients the incidence of non-dementia were 21.28% (20/94 and 19.15% (18/94, while the incidence of dementia were 3.19% (3/94 and 3.19% (3/94, respectively. The incidence of cognitive impairment was higher in the stroke patients with MetS than the stroke patients without MetS, 37.50% (15/40 vs 14.81% (8/54 (Z = 2.500, P = 0.012 at 2 weeks after stroke and 35.00% (14/40 vs 12.96% (7/54 (Z = 2.513, P = 0.012 at 3 months after stroke. In the scores of MMSE, delay recall and CDT of the stroke patients with MetS were all lower than those without MetS at 2 weeks after stroke and at 3 months after stroke (P < 0.05, for all. The stroke patients with MetS had more cognition deterioration than the stroke patients without MetS at 3 months after stroke, the difference was significant (Z = 2.134, P = 0.033. Conclusion MetS can increase the incidence of cognitive impairment, especially non-dementia cognitive impairment in post ischemic stroke. Executive dysfunction and hypomnesis are often seen. The development of cognitive impairment in stroke patients
Yanina R. Timasheva
Full Text Available Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke, and genetic factors contribute to its development. Inflammation has been hypothesized to be the key link between blood pressure elevation and stroke. We performed an analysis of the association between inflammatory mediator gene polymorphisms and the incidence of stroke in patients with essential hypertension (EH. The study group consisted of 625 individuals (296 patients with noncomplicated EH, 71 hypertensive patients with ischemic stroke, and 258 control subjects. Both patients and controls were ethnic Tatars originating from the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russian Federation. The analysis has shown that the risk of ischemic stroke was associated with the CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphism. Our results indicate that among patients with EH, the heterozygous genotype carriers had a higher risk of stroke (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.01-2.92, whereas the CXCR2*C/C genotype was protective against stroke (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.83. As shown by the gene-gene interaction analysis, the CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphism was also present in all genotype/allele combinations associated with the risk of stroke. Genetic patterns associated with stroke also included polymorphisms in the CCL2, CCL18, CX3CR1, CCR5, and CXCL8(IL8 genes, although no association between these loci and stroke was detected by individual analysis.
Pickrell, M.; Bongers, B.; van den Hoven, E.
Stroke patient motivation can fluctuate during rehabilitation due to a range of factors. This study reports on qualitative research, consisting of observations of stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation and interviews with patients about the changes in motivation they identified during their time
Langhorne, Peter; Taylor, Gillian; Murray, Gordon; Dennis, Martin; Anderson, Craig; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Dey, Paola; Indredavik, Bent; Mayo, Nancy; Power, Michael; Rodgers, Helen; Ronning, Ole Morten; Rudd, Anthony; Suwanwela, Nijasri; Widen-Holmqvist, Lotta; Wolfe, Charles
Stroke patients conventionally undergo a substantial part of their rehabilitation in hospital. Services have been developed that offer patients early discharge from hospital with rehabilitation at home (early supported discharge [ESD]). We have assessed the effects and costs of such services. We did a meta-analysis of data from individual patients who took part in randomised trials that recruited patients with stroke in hospital to receive either conventional care or any ESD service intervention that provided rehabilitation and support in a community setting with the aim of shortening the duration of hospital care. The primary outcome was death or dependency at the end of scheduled follow-up. Outcome data were available for 11 trials (1597 patients). ESD services were mostly provided by specialist multidisciplinary teams to a selected group (median 41%) of stroke patients admitted to hospital. There was a reduced risk of death or dependency equivalent to six (95% CI one to ten) fewer adverse outcomes for every 100 patients receiving an ESD service (p=0.02). The hospital stay was 8 days shorter for patients assigned ESD services than for those assigned conventional care (pstroke patients with mild to moderate disability. Appropriately resourced ESD services provided for a selected group of stroke patients can reduce long-term dependency and admission to institutional care as well as shortening hospital stays.
S. Yu. Martsevich
Full Text Available Aim. To provide final data on the three-year period of the inclusion of patients; to give most accurate "portrait" of patients hospitalized with a brain stroke within the framework of the LIS-2 register (Lyubertsy study of mortality in patients after stroke.Material and methods. All patients (n=960 admitted to the Lyubertsy district hospital №2 with stroke for the period from 01.2009 to 12.2011 were included into the study.Results. Men accounted for 37.5%, women - 62.5%, mean age was 71.1±9.8 years. The history of hypertension was present in 833 patients (86.8%, atrial fibrillation in 252 (26.8% patients, 199 (20.7% patients had previously undergone stroke. In-hospital mortality was 21.6% (207 patients had died; mean age 72.9±9.8 years. Low frequency of the antihypertensive therapy (34.5%, lipid-lowering therapy (0.7%, antiplatelet agents (5.7%, anticoagulation therapy prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation was detected.Conclusion. Insufficient assignment of drugs with a proven effect on the prognosis in patients with risk factors prior to the development of the reference stroke draws attention. High incidence of recurrent strokes indicates an underactive secondary prevention.
Dankbaar, Jan W; Kerckhoffs, Kelly G P; Horsch, Alexander D; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K
Leptomeningeal collaterals improve outcome in stroke patients. There is great individual variability in their extent. Internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis may lead to more extensive recruitment of leptomeningeal collaterals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of pre-existing ICA stenosis with leptomeningeal collateral filling visualized with computed tomography perfusion (CTP). From a prospective acute ischemic stroke cohort, patients were included with an M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and absent ipsilateral, extracranial ICA occlusion. ICA stenosis was determined on admission CT angiography (CTA). Leptomeningeal collaterals were graded as good (>50%) or poor (≤50%) collateral filling in the affected MCA territory on CTP-derived vessel images of the admission scan. The association between ipsilateral ICA stenosis ≥70% and extent of collateral filling was analyzed using logistic regression. In a multivariable analysis the odds ratio (OR) of ICA stenosis ≥70% was adjusted for complete circle of Willis, gender and age. We included 188 patients in our analyses, 50 (26.6%) patients were classified as having poor collateral filling and 138 (73.4%) as good. Of the patients 4 with poor collateral filling had an ICA stenosis ≥70% and 14 with good collateral filling. Unadjusted and adjusted ORs of ICA stenosis ≥70% for good collateral filling were 1.30 (0.41-4.15) and 2.67 (0.81-8.77), respectively. Patients with poor collateral filling had a significantly worse outcome (90-day modified Rankin scale 3-6; 80% versus 52%, p = 0.001). No association was found between pre-existing ICA stenosis and extent of CTP derived collateral filling in patients with an M1 occlusion.
Asimakopoulou, Koula G.; Skinner, T. Chas; Spimpolo, Jennifer
and rated their mood about these risks using a self-report measure. Using an objective risk calculator, they were then told their actual risk of CHD and stroke and their mood was re-assessed. Results: Patients' estimates of their risk of CHD/stroke were grossly inflated. A negative relationship between...... disease risk and mood was also seen where higher risk of actual and perceived CHD/stroke was related to worse mood. A positive relationship between mood and extent of perceptual error was further observed; the more inaccurate patients' perceptions of CHD/stroke risk were, the better their mood. Mood......Objective: We examined the accuracy of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients' risk estimates of developing coronary heart disease (CHD)/having a stroke as a consequence of diabetes and their mood about these risks. Methods: Patients reported their perceived risks of developing CHD/having a stroke...
Leker, Ronen R; Hur, Tamir Ben; Gomori, John M; Paniri, R; Eichel, Roni; Cohen, Jose E
Acute vertigo may be secondary to stroke or to non-ischemic causes. Accurate identification of vertigo secondary to ischemia may lead to appropriate timely intervention that can minimize stroke-related damage and can help in tailoring the most appropriate individual therapy for affected patients. Diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) is very accurate for diagnosing stroke and we therefore aimed to test whether it can aid in making a correct diagnosis of vertigo secondary to stroke. All patients presenting with vertigo in which the diagnosis of stroke was considered underwent DWI only MRI. Data regarding the symptoms and neurological deficits, vascular risk factors, imaging findings, and outcomes was accrued. Patients with stroke on DWI were compared with those without ischemia. Between June 2010 and August 2011, 28 patients fulfilling the entry criteria were identified with a mean age of 62·2±12·8 (60% male). The final diagnosis was stroke in 11 patients (39%). Patients with stroke did not differ from those without stroke in their risk factor profile. However, patients with stroke more often tended to present with vertigo accompanied by other neurological symptoms (73% versus 12% respectively, P = 0·001). After adjusting for age and the presence of diabetes, the presence of multiple symptoms remained the only variable that was associated with a positive DWI scan (odds ratio: 30: 95% confidence interval: 2·6-349). Most patients with stroke had very mild strokes with a median admission NIHSS score of 3 and DWI lesion volumes >2 cm were found in only three patients. Most stroke patients made a good recovery (modified Rankin score ≤2 in seven of nine patients with 90 day data). The most common diagnosis in patients without stroke was of vertigo of peripheral origin (14/17). DWI only MRI can be used to rapidly screen patients presenting with vertigo and suspected vertebrobasilar stroke. The occurrence of vertigo in combination with other focal neurological symptoms may
Full Text Available Background: A study to investigate the level of the neurobiochemical marker, Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE, at the time of admission and its correlation with the blood sugar level in ischemic stroke patients. Patients and Methods: We investigated 90 patients with complete stroke who were admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Department of Neurology at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences. NSE was measured with commercially available quantitative ′sandwich′ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits obtained from R and D Systems. Hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose concentration ≥ 7 mmol / L, and measured using the glucose oxidase method immediately. Results: Significantly increased NSE and lipid profile levels were found in ischemic stroke patients as compared to the control. Hyperglycemic ischemic stroke patients had increased levels of NSE, lipid profile, and National Institute of Health stroke scale scores (NIHSS score compared to normoglycemic ischemic stroke patients. In addition the serum NSE level of hyperglycemic stroke patients was also positively correlated with the blood sugar level (r = 0.734 P < 0.001. Conclusions: Hyperglycemia predicts an increased risk of poor outcome after ischemic stroke and it is reflected by a significantly increased level of Neuron-Specific Enolase.
Liu, Lu; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Wenjing; Yao, Li; Gao, Xin; Chandan, Shah; Lui, Su
Dysphagia is a common problem in stroke patients with unclear pathogenesis. Several recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies had been carried out to explore the cerebral functional changes in dysphagic stroke patients. The aim of this study was to analysis these imaging findings using a meta-analysis. We used seed-based d mapping (SDM) to conduct a meta-analysis for dysphagic stroke patients prior to any kind of special treatment for dysphagia. A systematic search was conducted for the relevant studies. SDM meta-analysis method was used to examine regions of increased and decreased functional activation between dysphagic stroke patients and healthy controls. Finally, six studies including 81 stroke patients with dysphagia and 78 healthy controls met the inclusion standards. When compared with healthy controls, stroke patients with dysphagia showed hyperactivation in left cingulate gyrus, left precentral gyrus and right posterior cingulate gyrus, and hypoactivation in right cuneus and left middle frontal gyrus. The hyperactivity of precentral gyrus is crucial in stroke patients with dysphagia and may be associated with the severity of stroke. Besides the motor areas, the default-mode network regions (DMN) and affective network regions (AN) circuits are also involved in dysphagia after stroke. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Grainger, Molly; DiFrancesco, Mark; Vannest, Jennifer; Holland, Scott K
The Simple View theory suggests that reading comprehension relies on automatic recognition of words combined with language comprehension. The goal of the current study was to examine the structural and functional connectivity in networks supporting reading comprehension and their relationship with language comprehension within 7-9 year old children using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and fMRI during a Sentence Picture Matching task. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values in the left and right Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus (ILF) and Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF), known language-related tracts, were correlated from DTI data with scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Passage Comprehension sub-test. Brodmann areas most proximal to white-matter regions with significant correlation to Passage Comprehension scores were chosen as Regions-of-Interest (ROIs) and used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis using the Sentence Picture Matching task. The correlation between percentile scores for the WJ-III Passage Comprehension subtest and the FA values in the right and left ILF and SLF indicated positive correlation in language-related ROIs, with greater distribution in the right hemisphere, which in turn showed strong connectivity in the fMRI data from the Sentence Picture Matching task. These results support the participation of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension and may provide physiologic support for a distinction between different types of reading comprehension deficits vs difficulties in technical reading.
Tong, Dao-Ming; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Tong-Hui
Background Septic encephalopathy (SE) is the most common acute encephalopathy in ICU; however, little attention has been focused on risk of SE in the course of acute stroke. Our aim is to investigate the early prediction and outcome of SE in stroke patients with nosocomial coma (NC). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an ICU of the tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2006 to December 2009. Ninety-four acute stroke patients with NC were grouped according to with...
Castañeda-Guarderas, Ana; Conocimiento y Evidencia (CONEVID), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Cirujano.; Beltrán-Ale, Guillermo; Conocimiento y Evidencia (CONEVID), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Cirujano.; Casma-Bustamante, Renzo; Conocimiento y Evidencia (CONEVID), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Cirujano.; Ruíz-Grosso, Paulo; Conocimiento y Evidencia (CONEVID), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Grupo de Trabajo en Salud Mental, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Cirujano.; Málaga, Germán; Conocimiento y Evidencia (CONEVID), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas (CRONICAS), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Internista, Magíster en Medicina.
We performed a descriptive study taking on account the characteristics of the registries of the patients hospitalized at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia between the years 2000 and 2009 with stroke as hospitalization diagnosis. 2225 records were obtained from patients older than 18, with stroke. According to ICD-10, 1071 had diagnosis of ischemic stroke, 554 were hemorrhagic, 183 were subarachnoid hemorrhage, 49 were ischemic plus hemorrhagic, 10 were transient ischemic attack (TIA)...
Fisse, Anna Lena; Kemmling, André; Teuber, Anja; Wersching, Heike; Young, Peter; Dittrich, Ralf; Ritter, Martin; Dziewas, Rainer; Minnerup, Jens
Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) are common in patients with ischemic stroke and are associated with poor outcome. SRBD after stroke were assumed to be a direct consequence of injury of specific central nervous system structures. However, whether specific locations of ischemic infarcts cause SRBD is yet unknown. We therefore investigated the association of ischemic lesion location with SRBD. Patients with acute ischemic stroke treated on our stroke unit were included in a prospective observational study. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and polygraphy in the acute phase after stroke. SRBD was defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥10. MRI were evaluated using standardized maps to depict voxel-wise probability distribution of infarction for patients with and without SRBD. Groups were compared using logistic regression analysis. Of 142 patients included, 86 (59%) had a SRBD. Age, body mass index and prevalence of arterial hypertension were significantly higher in patients with SRBD. There was no statistically significant association between any lesion location and SRBD. We found no association of lesion location and SRBD in stroke patients, whereas established risk factors for SRBD, known from general population, were significantly associated with SRBD. Given the high prevalence of SRBD in stroke patients, these findings suggest that cerebral ischemia facilitates the occurrence of SRBD in patients with pre-existing risk factors rather than causing it by damaging specific central nervous system structures. Our findings can be used to identify stroke patients who might benefit from polygraphy screening.
Full Text Available Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of stroke and antiplatelet agents exist for its treatment and prevention. Through the use of LC-MS based protein expression profiling, platelets from stroke patients were analyzed and then correlated with the proteomic analyses results in the context of this disease. This study was based on patients who post ischemic stroke were admitted to hospital and had venous blood drawn within 24 hrs of the incidence. Label-free protein expression analyses of the platelets' tryptic digest was performed in triplicate on a UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS system and ProteinLynx Global Server (v2.5, Waters was used for tandem mass data extraction. The peptide sequences were searched against the reviewed homo sapiens database (www.uniprot.org and the quantitation of protein variation was achieved through Progenesis LC-MS software (V4.0, Nonlinear Dynamics. These Label-free differential proteomics analysis of platelets ensured that 500 proteins were identified and 83 of these proteins were found to be statistically significant. The differentially expressed proteins are involved in various processes such as inflammatory response, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development and function and nucleic acid metabolism. The expressions of myeloperoxidase, arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase and histidine-rich glycoprotein are involved in cellular metabolic processes, crk-like protein and ras homolog gene family member A involved in cell signaling with vitronectin, thrombospondin 1, Integrin alpha 2b, and integrin beta 3 involved in cell adhesion. Apolipoprotein H, immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 and immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 are involved in structural, apolipoprotein A-I, and alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor is involved in transport, complement component 3 and clusterin is involved in immunity proteins as has been discussed. Our data provides
Dubuc, Véronique; Moore, David F; Gioia, Laura C; Saposnik, Gustavo; Selchen, Daniel; Lanthier, Sylvain
A German study diagnosed 4% of young cryptogenic ischemic stroke patients with Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A (α-GAL-A) gene resulting in an accumulation of glycosphingolipids. A lower prevalence was found in other geographic regions. To determine the prevalence of Fabry disease in a Canadian population of young cryptogenic ischemic stroke patients. Patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke at age 16-55 were retrospectively identified in our institutional stroke database and underwent a focused clinical evaluation. We sequenced the α-GAL-A gene and measured the levels of blood globotriaosylsphingosine in subjects with mutations of undetermined pathogenicity. Fabry disease was diagnosed in patients with pathogenic mutations or increased levels of blood globotriaosylsphingosine. Ninety-three of 100 study subjects had normal α-GAL-A gene polymorphisms. Seven had mutations of undetermined pathogenicity, including one with increased globotriaosylsphingosine (prevalence, 1%; 95% confidence interval, ischemic stroke presentation as the first clinical manifestation of Fabry disease. Both Fabry patients experienced recurrent ischemic stroke. Fabry disease accounts for a small proportion of young Canadians with cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Identification of Fabry biomarkers remains a research priority to delineate stroke patients disserving routine screening. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jing; Yu, Peng; Zeng, Ming; Gu, Xudong; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Mingyue
The aim of the study was to confirm whether paraffin therapy offer clinical value in the treatment of spasticity due to stroke. Fifty-two patients with spasticity in the upper limb were included. The patients were randomized into the experimental group with paraffin therapy (n = 27) and the control group with placebo therapy (n = 25). The outcome measures besides temperature examination were undertaken at time points of 0 (T0), 2 (T1) and 4 weeks (T2) following therapy treatment. The extent of spasticity was measured using Modified Ashworth Score (MAS) during passive movement at the shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger joints. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the hemiplegic upper limb pain and functional activity of the upper limb motor function was evaluated by Brunnstrom recovery stage. All adverse events were recorded. MAS decreased significantly in Exp group compared with Con group, at the time points of T1 and T2, both before and immediately after paraffin therapy. Paraffin treatment failed to show remarkable improvement in pain compared with placebo-treated patient at movement at any time point. But VAS in Exp exhibited a tendency to decrease over time in shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. With regard to the Brunnstrom score, patients in Exp showed significant improvement at the end of trial compared to the beginning. The values of temperature showed significant increment immediately after paraffin therapy at each time point in Exp group. Paraffin therapy may be a kind of noninvasive, promising method to reduce spasticity of stroke patients.
Gorgoraptis, Nikos; Mah, Yee-Haur; Machner, Bjoern; Singh-Curry, Victoria; Malhotra, Paresh; Hadji-Michael, Maria; Cohen, David; Simister, Robert; Nair, Ajoy; Kulinskaya, Elena; Ward, Nick; Greenwood, Richard; Husain, Masud
Hemispatial neglect following right-hemisphere stroke is a common and disabling disorder, for which there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment. Dopamine agonists have been shown to play a role in selective attention and working memory, two core cognitive components of neglect. Here, we investigated whether the dopamine agonist rotigotine would have a beneficial effect on hemispatial neglect in stroke patients. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled ABA design was used, in which each patient was assessed for 20 testing sessions, in three phases: pretreatment (Phase A1), on transdermal rotigotine for 7-11 days (Phase B) and post-treatment (Phase A2), with the exact duration of each phase randomized within limits. Outcome measures included performance on cancellation (visual search), line bisection, visual working memory, selective attention and sustained attention tasks, as well as measures of motor control. Sixteen right-hemisphere stroke patients were recruited, all of whom completed the trial. Performance on the Mesulam shape cancellation task improved significantly while on rotigotine, with the number of targets found on the left side increasing by 12.8% (P = 0.012) on treatment and spatial bias reducing by 8.1% (P = 0.016). This improvement in visual search was associated with an enhancement in selective attention but not on our measures of working memory or sustained attention. The positive effect of rotigotine on visual search was not associated with the degree of preservation of prefrontal cortex and occurred even in patients with significant prefrontal involvement. Rotigotine was not associated with any significant improvement in motor performance. This proof-of-concept study suggests a beneficial role of dopaminergic modulation on visual search and selective attention in patients with hemispatial neglect following stroke.
Westendorp, Willeke F.; Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Vermeij, Frederique; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.
Background Stroke is the main cause of disability in high income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce infections and improve outcome.
Ritarwan, K.; Batubara, C. A.; Dhanu, R.
Pneumonia is one of the most frequent medical complications of a stroke. Despite the well-documented association of a stroke associated infections with increased mortality and worse long-term outcome, on the other hand, the limited data available on independent predictors of pneumonia in acute stroke patients in an emergency unit. To determine the independentrelationship between pneumonia and Glasgow Coma Scale assessment on acute stroke patients. The cohort retrospective study observed 55 acute stroke patients who stayed in intensive care unit Adam Malik General Hospital from January until August 2017. Pneumonia was more frequent in patients with Ischemic stroke (OR 5.40; 95% CI: 1.28 – 6.40, p=0.003), higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (p=0.014) and lower Glasgow Coma Scale (p=0.0001). Analysis multivariate logistic regression identified NIHSS as an independent of predictors of pneumonia (95% CI : 1.047 – 1.326, p=0.001). Pneumonia was associated with severity and type of stroke and length of hospital stay. The severity of the deficits evaluated by the NIHSS was shown to be the only independent risk factor for pneumonia in acute stroke patients.
Eslinger, P J; Damasio, A R
The age and gender of a series of patients with different types of aphasia were analysed. Regardless of gender, patients with Broca and conduction aphasias were significantly younger than those with Wernicke and global aphasias. Considering the established cerebral localisation of each of those aphasia types, it appears that, with age, stroke in the territory of the middle cerebral artery will tend to either shift posteriorly (producing Wernicke aphasia) or occupy most of the middle cerebral artery territory (producing global aphasia). But in the absence of concurrent verification of the locus of lesion in each of the cases in our sample, a possible alternative hypothesis must be entertained: that there might be age-related changes in the neurophysiological mechanism subserving language, such that some types of aphasia would tend to be more prevalent with age, regardless of lesion location. PMID:7264683
Full Text Available Objectives: to check the consequences of poststroke dysphagia and to reflect on the nurse’s intervention in dysphagia rehabilitation. Methodology: it was performed a systematic literature review of the topic in question; research based on international databases EBSCOhost, LILACS, SciELO.We were able to identify some studies publications between 2006 and 2014. We intend to answer the guiding question: What are the consequences of dysphagia in the patient after stroke? » Results vs. Discussion: after a thorough analysis, we have selected 11 articles and found that the most frequent consequences of dysphagia are the pulmonary complications by saliva and/or food suction. The nurse specialist still has a barely visible role, but his/her interventions are critical in these patients rehabilitation. Conclusions: rehabilitation is essential to avoid the consequences of poststroke dysphagia. The rehabilitation process must go through a multidisciplinary team of which nurses are an integral and essential part.
Salinas, J. (Joel); Sprinkhuizen, S.M. (Sara M.); Ackerson, T. (Teri); Bernhardt, J. (Julie); Davie, C. (Charlie); George, M.G. (Mary G.); Gething, S. (Stephanie); Kelly, A.G. (Adam G.); Lindsay, P. (Patrice); Liu, L. (Liping); Martins, S.C.O. (Sheila C.O.); Morgan, L. (Louise); B. Norrving (Bo); Ribbers, G.M. (Gerard M.); Silver, F.L. (Frank L.); Smith, E.E. (Eric E.); Williams, L.S. (Linda S.); Schwamm, L.H. (Lee H.)
markdownabstract__BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:__ Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures
Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…
Donkervoort, M; Dekker, J; Stehmann-Saris, FC; Deelman, B. G.
The objective of the present study was to determine in a controlled study the efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia. A total of 113 left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia were randomly assigned to two treatment groups; (1) strategy training integrated
Donkervoort, M.; Dekker, J.; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Deelman, B.G.
The objective of the present study was to determine in a controlled study the efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia. A total of 113 left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia were randomly assigned to two treatment groups; (1) strategy training integrated
Tong, Dao-Ming; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Tong-Hui
Septic encephalopathy (SE) is the most common acute encephalopathy in ICU; however, little attention has been focused on risk of SE in the course of acute stroke. Our aim is to investigate the early prediction and outcome of SE in stroke patients with nosocomial coma (NC). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an ICU of the tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2006 to December 2009. Ninety-four acute stroke patients with NC were grouped according to with or without SE. Risk factors for patients with SE were compared with those without SE by univariate and multivariate analysis. Of 94 stroke patients with NC, 46 (49%) had NC with SE and 48 (51%) had NC without SE. The onset-to-NC time was significant later in stroke patients with SE than those without SE (P stroke patients with SE was higher than those without SE (76.1% vs. 45.8%, P = 0.003). High fever and severe SIRS are two early predictors of stroke patients with SE, and survival rates were worse in stroke patients with SE than those without SE.
Kammersgaard, L P; Rasmussen, B H; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig
Hypothermia reduces neuronal damage in animal stroke models. Whether hypothermia is neuroprotective in patients with acute stroke remains to be clarified. In this case-control study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia by a surface cooling method in awake patients...
Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J; Nakayama, H
Even patients with the most severe strokes sometimes experience a remarkably good recovery. We evaluated possible predictors of a good outcome to search for new therapeutic strategies.......Even patients with the most severe strokes sometimes experience a remarkably good recovery. We evaluated possible predictors of a good outcome to search for new therapeutic strategies....
Aries, M.J.H.; Elting, Jan Willem; Stewart, Roy E.; de Keyser, Jacques; Thien, Theo; Kremer, Berry P.; Vroomen, Patrick C. A. J.
Background: Blood pressure (BP) is one of the major vital parameters monitored in the stroke unit. The accuracy of indirect BP measurement is strongly influenced by the position of both patient and arm during the measurement. Acute stroke patients are often nursed in lateral decubitus positions. The
Wang, Linyu; Chao, Yangyun; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, David Z; Meng, Xia; Wang, Anxin; Wang, Yongjun; Xu, Yuming
We aimed to evaluate the management of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke in China. Data from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR) were used to identify patients who were admitted to 132 urban hospitals across China with TIA or minor stroke. Factors associated with delayed presentation to hospital were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze relationships between patient characteristics and time of presentation. Of the 7467 patients entered into the CNSR (1204 with TIA, 6263 with minor stroke), 780 patients (64·78%) with TIA and 3467 patients (55·36%) with minor stroke had delayed presentation to hospital (>24 hours). In both groups, factors associated with early presentation (≤24 hours) included transportation by ambulance and direct presentation to the emergency room. In patients with minor stroke, early presentation was associated with older age (65-80 years), motor and sensory symptoms, speech impairment, atrial fibrillation, previous TIA, and living in central or eastern China; and delayed presentation was associated with female sex, cognitive dysfunction, and diabetes. In patients with TIA, early presentation was associated with motor symptoms, and delayed presentation was associated with headache or vertigo. In China, many patients with TIA and minor stroke do not seek medical treatment immediately. Further education is needed to teach members of the public about the warning signs and symptoms of TIA and minor stroke, and encourage the use of ambulance transportation after TIA or stroke.
Maria Sheila G. Rocha
Full Text Available We ascertained whether a public health stroke unit reduces the length of hospitalization, the rate of inpatient fatality, and the mortality rate 30 days after the stroke. Methods We compared a cohort of stroke patients managed on a general neurology/medical ward with a similar cohort of stroke patients managed in a str oke unit. The in-patient fatality rates and 30-day mortality rates were analyzed. Results 729 patients were managed in the general ward and 344 were treated at a comprehensive stroke unit. The in-patient fatality rates were 14.7% for the general ward group and 6.9% for the stroke unit group (p<0.001. The overall mortality rate 30 days after stroke was 20.9% for general ward patients and 14.2% for stroke unit patients (p=0.005. Conclusions We observed reduced in-patient fatalities and 30-day mortality rates in patients managed in the stroke unit. There was no impact on the length of hospitalization.
Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Baird, Alison E.
Since acute stroke is now considered a potentially treatable medical emergency, a rapid and correct diagnosis must be made. The first step is to exclude hemorrhage, then to visualize any early ischemic changes, demonstrate the presence of hypoperfusion and locate the presence of a vascular underlying pathology as well as elucidate the presence of a potential penumbra (tissue at risk). Thanks to improvements and advances in both MR and CT technology, this can now be done in a number of ways. At the moment, CT is the most widely available and fast method for obtaining imaging of the brain and neck vessels of patients presenting with acute stroke. MRI can provide more precise information, although it remains slightly more time-consuming, but is, however, the method of choice for follow-up imaging. The main point is to take the one-stop-shopping approach where imaging of the vessels and brain is done from the aortic arch to the circle of Willis in one single session in order to have all the necessary information in the acute phase. (orig.)
activities of daily living and therefore also affect the patient’s quality of life. Stroke patients may regain function through intensive physical rehabilitation, but often they do not recover their original functional level. The incomplete recovery in some patients might be related to e.g. stroke severity...... to a significant increase in the number of stroke patients in need of rehabilitation. This will put further pressure on healthcare systems that are already short on resources. As a result of this, the amount of therapeutic supervision and support per stroke patient will most likely decrease, thereby affecting...... no need for human supervision. The requirements to such systems are highly dependent on the training environment and the physical and mental abilities of the stroke patient. Therefore, the ideal rehabilitation system should be highly versatile, but also low-cost. These systems may even be used to support...
Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Lee, Hsing-Feng; Tsai, Chih-Chun; Tsai, Chen-Chi
The impact of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) on the mortality of cirrhotic patients is unknown. To evaluate the morality risk of HS in cirrhotic patients, we used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to evaluate cirrhotic patients with HS who were discharged between 1 January and 31 December 2007. In total, there were 321 cirrhotic patients with HS. We randomly selected 3210 cirrhotic patients without HS as a comparison group. The 30 and 90 day mortality rates were 29.6% and 43.0% in the HS group, and 9.1% and 17.7% in the comparison group, respectively (pmortality in the HS group was 3.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.20-4.71, pmortality in the subarachnoid hemorrhage and other HS groups were 7.93 (95% CI 5.23-12.0, pmortality risk in cirrhotic patients, in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage can also increase the risk of mortality eight-fold. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Young stroke patients have a strong desire to return to the society, but few studies have been conducted on their rehabilitation training items, intensity, and prognosis. We analyzed clinical data of young and middle-aged/older stroke patients hospitalized in the Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, China Rehabilitation Research Center, Capital Medical University, China from February 2014 to May 2015. Results demonstrated that hemorrhagic stroke (59.6% was the primary stroke type found in the young group, while ischemic stroke (60.0% was the main type detected in the middle-aged/older group. Compared with older stroke patients, education level and incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia were higher in younger stroke patients, whereas, incidences of hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease were lower. The average length of hospital stay was longer in the young group than in the middle-aged/older group. The main risk factors observed in the young stroke patients were hypertension, drinking, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, previous history of stroke, and heart disease. The most accepted rehabilitation program consisted of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion. Average rehabilitation training time was 2.5 hours/day. Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale scores were increased at discharge. Six months after discharge, the degree of occupational and economic satisfaction declined, and there were no changes in family life satisfaction. The degrees of other life satisfaction (such as friendship improved. The degree of disability and functional status improved significantly in young stroke patients after professional rehabilitation, but the number of patients who returned to society within 6 months after stroke was still small.
Donkervoort, M.; Dekker, J.; Ende, E. van den; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Deelman, B.G.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of apraxia in patients with a first left hemisphere stroke. SUBJECTS: Left hemisphere stroke patients staying at an inpatient care unit of a rehabilitation centre or nursing home and receiving occupational therapy (n = 600). MEASURES: A short questionnaire on general patient characteristics and stroke-related aspects was completed by occupational therapists for every left hemisphere stroke patient they treated. A diagnosis of apraxia or nonapraxia was ...
Sj?lander, Maria; Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta
OBJECTIVES: Adherence to preventive drug treatment is a clinical problem and we hypothesised that patients' beliefs about medicines and stroke are associated with adherence. The objective was to examine associations between beliefs of patients with stroke about stroke and drug treatment and their adherence to drug treatment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. SETTING: Patients with stroke from 25 Swedish hospitals were included. MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaires were sent to 989 patient...
Sakharov, V Iu; Isanova, V A
Objective. To study the possibility of using the rehabilitative pneumatic suit "Atlant" in stroke outpatients. Material and methods. We studied 11 stroke patients who wore the pneumatic suit in the early rehabilitation period. A comparison group included 13 patients. The high effectiveness of complex treatment with using the suit "Atlant" was shown. The motor activity was improved in 71.4% of patients, the recovery of speech was found in 33.3% patients. Conclusion. Continuity of rehabilitation in outpatients with stroke promotes the recovery of functional activity, motor, cognitive and speech functions and positively impacts on the emotional state of the patient.
Studies of homocysteine in vascular disorders have yielded conflicting data. There are also differences based on various ethnicities and cultures. In this study, we have examined the homocysteine patterns in local stroke patients, so as to ascertain the homocysteine status in a sample of local population. Homocysteine-white matter hypodensities relationship in stroke is emerging, as an important aspect in stroke pathophysiology and is thought to have prognostic and therapeutic values. Methods: We included 150 stroke patients who were diagnosed as having clinical stroke on the basis of history; physical examination and CT (Computerized Tomography) scan of brain. These patients were recruited from neurology and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals of Lahore. The presence or absence of white matter hypodensities were diagnosed after consultation with a radiologist. Blood samples were collected from the same stroke patients. Results: We found a strong association between white matter hypodensities and total homocysteine in plasma of stroke patients p<0.001. Conclusion: Homocysteine is a risk factor for white matter hypodensities in stroke patients in our study. (author)
Irma Okta Wardhani
Full Text Available Stroke is a cerebrovascular disease, it is brain function disorders associated with the disease of the blood vessels that supply the brain. The impact of stroke is paralysis. Family support is things that are needed to be considered in the treatment of stroke patients. It is very involved in the compliance rehabilitation of patients to prevent the re-occurrence of stroke. Characteristics of stroke patients may also affect the compliance rehabilitation. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between stroke patients characteristics and family support to compliance rehabilitation at the Medical Rehabilitation Unit RSU Haji Surabaya. This research was an analytic observational research with cross sectional design. The subjects of this research are taken using total population technique. The independent variables in this research is family support. The dependent variable is compliance rehabilitation. The results of this research are presented in the form of frequency distributions and calculate the strength of the relationship with Phi coefficient. The result of this research shows that there is a strong relationship between family support and compliance rehabilitation (r=0.582. There are weak relationship between ages (r=-0,027, gender (r=0,092, level of education (r= -0,295, work (r=0,098, and marital status (r=0,319. The conclusion is family support may affect compliance rehabilitation of stroke patients. It is recommended for health workers to provide counseling to improve family support in curing stroke patients. Keywords: depression, family support, compliance rehabilitation
Jang, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Wook; Park, Kyoung Ha; Lee, Jae Woo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Korean language-specific dysgraphia and unilateral spatial neglect in 31 right brain stroke patients. All patients were tested for writing errors in spontaneous writing, dictation, and copying tests. The dysgraphia was classified into visuospatial omission, visuospatial destruction, syllabic tilting, stroke omission, stroke addition, and stroke tilting. Twenty-three (77.4%) of the 31 patients made dysgraphia and 18 (58.1%) demonstrated unilateral spatial neglect. The visuospatial omission was the most common dysgraphia followed by stroke addition and omission errors. The highest number of errors was made in the copying and the least was in the spontaneous writing test. Patients with unilateral spatial neglect made a significantly higher number of dysgraphia in the copying test than those without. We identified specific dysgraphia features such as a right side space omission and a vertical stroke addition in Korean right brain stroke patients. In conclusion, unilateral spatial neglect influences copy writing system of Korean language in patients with right brain stroke.
Wang, Hua; Camicia, Michelle; Terdiman, Joe; Hung, Yun-Yi; Sandel, M Elizabeth
To study the association of time to inpatient rehabilitation hospital (IRH) admission and functional outcomes of patients who have had a stroke. A retrospective cohort study. A regional IRH. Moderately (n = 614) and severely (n = 1294) impaired patients who had a stroke who were admitted to the facility between 2002 and 2006. Not applicable. Change in total, motor, and cognitive Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores between IRH admission and discharge. After controlling for patient demographics and initial medical conditions and functional status, shorter periods from stroke onset to IRH admission were significantly associated with greater functional gains for these patients during IRH hospitalization. Moderately impaired patients achieved a greater total FIM gain when admitted to an IRH within 21 days of stroke. Severely impaired patients showed a gradient relationship between time to IRH admission and total FIM gain, with significantly different functional gain if admitted to an IRH within 30 and 60 days after stroke diagnosis. Results of multiple regression analysis also showed that age, race/ethnicity, side of stroke, history of a previous stroke, functional measures at IRH admission, IRH length of stay, and selected medications were associated with total, motor, and cognitive FIM score changes. In addition, certain factors such as older age, diagnosis of a hemorrhagic stroke or a previous history of stroke, and initial functional status were associated with longer periods between diagnosis and admission to an IRH after the stroke occurred. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that earlier transfer to an IRH may lead to better functional improvement after stroke. However, certain factors such as age, race/ethnicity, initial medical conditions and functional status, and length of stay at an IRH contributed to functional gain. Factors affecting the time to IRH admission also were addressed. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine
Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to explore the incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM based on the long-term surveillance data in Zhejiang, China, during 2007 to 2013. Materials and Methods. During January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, a total of 327,268 T2DM and 307,984 stroke patients were registered on Diabetes and Stroke Surveillance System, respectively. Stroke subtypes were classified according to standard definitions of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes was calculated by standardized incidence ratio (SIRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs compared with general population. Results. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was significantly higher than in general population. Stroke risk was found significantly increased with an SIR of 3.87 (95% CI 3.76–3.99 and 3.38 (95% CI 3.27–3.48 in females and males, respectively. The excess risk of stroke was mainly attributable to the significantly higher risk of cerebral infarctions with the risk for T2DM being four times that for general population. Conclusions. The relationship between stroke and T2DM was strong, especially in female. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was up to 3-fold higher than in general population in Zhejiang province, especially the subtype of cerebral infarctions.
Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jinkwon; Song, Dongbeom; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hye Sun; Heo, Ji Hoe
We investigated the association of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) with long-term mortality in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) according to burden and distribution of CMBs. This was a retrospective, hospital-based, observational study. In total, 504 consecutive ischemic stroke patients with NVAF who underwent brain T2-weighted, gradient-recalled echo MRI were included. Data for the date and causes of death were based on the death certificates from the Korean National Statistical Office. We determined the association of the presence, burden, and distribution of CMBs with mortality from all-cause, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. CMBs were found in 30.7% of patients (155/504). During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, 176 patients (34.9%) died (ischemic stroke, 81; hemorrhagic stroke, 12; ischemic heart disease, 32). Patients with CMBs died more frequently than those without (41.9% vs 31.8%, p = 0.028). After adjusting for age, sex, and other significant variables, the presence of multiple (≥5) CMBs was as an independent predictor for all-cause (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.99) and ischemic stroke (HR: 3.39) mortality. Patients with strictly lobar CMBs had an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke mortality (HR: 5.91). The presence and burden of CMBs were associated with increased mortality in stroke patients with NVAF. Patients with lobar CMBs were at increased risk of death due to hemorrhagic stroke. The diagnosis of CMBs is of value in predicting long-term prognosis in stroke patients with NVAF. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.
Full Text Available The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks. None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality.
Huang Yongguang; Zeng Huiliang
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between clinical, imaging characters and prognosis in patients with epilepsy after stroke. Methods: In total 78 cases of post-stroke epilepsy were studied retrospectively out of 840 cases. Results: The incidence of post-stroke epilepsy was 9.29%. The early-stage epilepsy (less than 2 weeks) accounted for 61.54%. The major type of seizure were partial seizure and general tonic-clonic seizure. The incidence was higher in patients with cerebral hemorrhage or with lesions involving the cortex. Symptomatolytic medication was effective. Compared with non-epilepsy group, the mortality of epilepsy was higher. Conclusion: Post-stroke epilepsy is usually accompanied with cortical focus, which is more often seen in patients with cerebral hemorrhage than in patients with cerebral infarction. Post-stroke epilepsy responses well to the medication but indicates a poor prognosis
Nakagawa, Kazuma; Ito, Cherisse S; King, Sage L
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) with ischemic stroke have younger age of stroke onset compared with whites. However, ethnic differences in stroke subtypes in this population have been inadequately studied. Consecutive young adult patients (aged ≤55 years) who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke between 2006 and 2012 at a tertiary center in Honolulu were studied. Clinical characteristics and stroke subtypes based on pathophysiological TOAST classification (Trial of Org 10172) of NHOPI and Asians were compared with whites. A total of 427 consecutive young adult (mean age, 46.7±7.8 years) patients (NHOPI 45%, Asians 38%, and whites 17%) were studied. NHOPI had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prosthetic valve, higher body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, and lower high-density lipoprotein than whites (all PStroke subtype distribution was not different between the ethnic groups. Specifically, the prevalence of small-vessel disease was similar between NHOPI (26.6%), whites (28.4%), and Asians (24.8%). In the univariate analyses, the use of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator was lower among NHOPI (4.7%; P=0.01) and Asians (3.1%; P=0.002) than among whites (12.5%). In the multivariable model, NHOPI (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.98) and Asians (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.74) were less likely to be treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator than whites. NHOPI have greater cardiovascular risk factors than whites, but there were no differences in stroke subtypes between the ethnic groups. Furthermore, NHOPI and Asians may be less likely to be treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator than whites. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Stroke in the young has not been thoroughly investigated with most previous studies based on a small number of patients from single centers. Furthermore, recent reports indicate that Fabry disease may be a significant cause for young stroke. The primary aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of Fabry disease in young stroke patients, while the secondary aim was to describe patterns of stroke in young patients.
Chang, Won Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Il; Lee, Sam-Gyu; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Lim, Young Shil
Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the status of inpatient care for acute first-ever stroke at three general hospitals in Korea to provide basic data and useful information on the development of comprehensive and systematic rehabilitation care for stroke patients. Materials and Methods This study conducted a retrospective complete enumeration survey of all acute first-ever stroke patients admitted to three distinct general hospitals for 2 years by reviewing medical records. Both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were included. Survey items included demographic data, risk factors, stroke type, state of rehabilitation treatment, discharge destination, and functional status at discharge. Results A total of 2159 patients were reviewed. The mean age was 61.5±14.4 years and the ratio of males to females was 1.23:1. Proportion of ischemic stroke comprised 54.9% and hemorrhagic stroke 45.1%. Early hospital mortality rate was 8.1%. Among these patients, 27.9% received rehabilitation consultation and 22.9% underwent inpatient rehabilitation treatment. The mean period from admission to rehabilitation consultation was 14.5 days. Only 12.9% of patients were transferred to a rehabilitation department and the mean period from onset to transfer was 23.4 days. Improvements in functional status were observed in the patients who had received inpatient rehabilitation treatment after acute stroke management. Conclusion Our analysis revealed that a relatively small portion of patients who suffered from an acute first-ever stroke received rehabilitation consultation and inpatient rehabilitation treatment. Thus, applying standardized clinical practice guidelines for post-acute rehabilitation care is needed to provide more effective and efficient rehabilitation services to patients with stroke. PMID:25510773
Okazaki, Hideto; Beppu, Hidehiko; Mizutani, Kenmei; Okamoto, Sayaka; Sonoda, Shigeru
Predicting recovery from hemiparesis after stroke is important for rehabilitation. A few recent studies reported that the levels of some growth factors shortly after stroke were positively correlated with the clinical outcomes during the chronic phase. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the serum levels of growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I], and hepatocyte growth factor [HGF]) and improvement in hemiparesis in stroke patients who received rehabilitation in a postacute rehabilitation hospital. Subjects were 32 stroke patients (cerebral infarction: 21 and intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]: 11). We measured serum levels of VEGF, IGF-I, and HGF and 5 items of the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS) for hemiparesis on admission and at discharge. Age-matched healthy subjects (n=15) served as controls. Serum levels of VEGF and HGF in cerebral infarct patients on admission were higher than those in control subjects, and the serum levels of IGF-I in stroke patients were lower than those in controls. The level of HGF in ICH patients on admission was negatively correlated with gains in SIAS, and higher outliers in HGF concentration were correlated with lower gains in SIAS. Focusing on the extremely high levels of these factors may be a predictor of the low recovery from hemiparesis after stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lin, Jung-Chun; Lin, Chih-Chien; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Ying-Ju
Complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) include stroke, which is a cerebrovascular disturbance characterized by reduced blood flow in the brain, leading to death or physical disability. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in ancient China for the treatment of diabetes and stroke by supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation. This study aimed to investigate the frequencies and patterns of CHM treatment for stroke patients with T2D and the outcomes of long-term use in Taiwan. We identified 3079 stroke patients (ICD-9-CM: 430-438) with T2D. We allocated 618 stroke patients, matched for age, gender, and T2D-to-stroke duration, to both CHM and non-CHM groups. Chi-square test, conditional multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test were used in this study. The CHM group was characterized by more cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ulcer disease, hyperlipidemia, tobacco use, and higher income. The cumulative survival probability was higher in the CHM group (Pherbs, respectively. The use of CHM as adjunctive therapy may improve the overall survival (OS) of stroke patients with T2D. The list of the comprehensive herbal medicines that they used might be useful in future large-scale, randomized clinical investigations of agent effectiveness, safety, and potential interactions with conventional treatments in stroke patients with T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakase, Taizen; Moroi, Junta; Ishikawa, Tatsuya
Since non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were released for clinical use, many studies have investigated its effectiveness in stroke prevention. In this study, to determine whether or not there is a difference in outcome in secondary stroke prevention between warfarin and NOACs, patients with embolic stroke with newly prescribed anticoagulants were prospectively analyzed. Patients with acute ischemic stroke, who newly started anticoagulant therapy, were consecutively asked to participate in this study. Enrolled patients (76.3 ± 11.0 years old) were classified into warfarin (n = 48), dabigatran (n = 73), rivaroxaban (n = 49), and apixaban (n = 65). The outcome in 1 year was prospectively investigated at outpatient clinic or telephone interview. Recurrence of stroke and death was considered as the critical incidence. The prevalence of risk factors was not different among all medicines. Patients with dabigatran showed significantly younger onset age (P incident rates were 7.1%, 15.3%, 19.0%, and 29.7% for dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban, and warfarin, respectively. Dabigatran showed relatively better outcome compared with warfarin (P = .069) and rivaroxaban (P = .055). All patients on NOACs presented lower cumulative stroke recurrence compared with warfarin. Even in the situation of secondary stroke prevention, noninferiority of NOACs to warfarin might be demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smeeton, Nigel C; Corbin, David O C; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hambleton, Ian R; Rose, Angela M C; Fraser, Henry S; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wolfe, Charles D A
Little is known about the poststroke outcome in Caribbean populations. We investigated differences in the activities of daily living, level of social activities, living circumstances and survival for stroke patients in Barbados and London. Data were collected from the South London Stroke Register and the Barbados Register of Strokes for patients with a first-ever stroke registered between January 2001 and December 2004. The ability to perform activities of daily living was measured by the Barthel Index and level of social activities by the Frenchay Activities Index. Living circumstances were categorised into private household vs. institutional care. Death and dependency, activities of daily living and social activities were assessed at three-months, one- and two-years using logistic regression, adjusted for differences in demographic, socioeconomic and stroke severity characteristics. At three-months, a high level of social activities was more likely for the Barbados Register of Strokes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.29); there were no differences in activities of daily living; and Barbados Register of Strokes patients were less likely to be in institutional care (relative risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.79). Following adjustment, Barbados Register of Strokes patients had a higher risk of mortality at three-months (relative risk ratio 1.85; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.30), one-year (relative risk ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.09) and two-years (relative risk ratio 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.07). This difference was due to early poststroke deaths; for patients alive at four-weeks poststroke, survival thereafter was similar in both settings. In Barbados, there was evidence for a healthy survivor effect, and short-term social activity was greater than that in the South London Stroke Register. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2010 World Stroke Organization.
Skolarus, Lesli E; Burke, James F; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Meurer, William J; Adelman, Eric E; Kerber, Kevin A; Callaghan, Brian C; Lisabeth, Lynda D
Poststroke rehabilitation is associated with improved outcomes. Medicaid coverage of inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) admissions varies by state. We explored the role of state Medicaid IRF coverage on IRF utilization among patients with stroke. Working age ischemic stroke patients with Medicaid were identified from the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Medicaid coverage of IRFs (yes versus no) was ascertained. Primary outcome was discharge to IRF (versus other discharge destinations). We fit a logistic regression model that included patient demographics, Medicaid coverage, comorbidities, length of stay, tissue-type plasminogen activator use, state Medicaid IRF coverage, and the interaction between patient Medicaid status and state Medicaid IRF coverage while accounting for hospital clustering. Medicaid did not cover IRFs in 4 (TN, TX, SC, WV) of 42 states. The impact of State Medicaid IRF coverage was limited to Medicaid stroke patients (P for interaction stroke patients in states with Medicaid IRF coverage, Medicaid stroke patients hospitalized in states without Medicaid IRF coverage were less likely to be discharged to an IRF of 11.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.5%-14.7%) versus 19.5% (95% confidence interval, 18.3%-20.8%), Pstroke patients with Medicaid. Given the increasing stroke incidence among the working age and Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, careful attention to state Medicaid policy for poststroke rehabilitation and analysis of its effects on stroke outcome disparities are warranted. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Tsai, M-S; Chuang, P-Y; Huang, C-H; Shih, S-R; Chang, W-T; Chen, N-C; Yu, P-H; Cheng, H-J; Tang, C-H; Chen, W-J
An increased risk for ischaemic stroke has been reported in young hyperthyroidism patients independent of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, whether the use of antithyroid drugs in hyperthyroidism patients can reduce the occurrence of ischaemic stroke remains unclear. A total of 36,510 newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism patients during 2003-2006 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Each patient was individually tracked for 5 years from their index date (beginning the antithyroid drugs) to identify those who suffered from new episode of ischaemic stroke. Medication possession ratio (MPR) was used to represent the antithyroid drug compliance. The association between the MPR and the risk of stroke was examined. The stroke incidence rates for hyperthyroidism patients with age hyperthyroidism patients without AF, good antithyroid drugs compliance also reduced the incidence of stroke significantly (adjusted HR, range: 1.52-1.61; p = 0.02); but not in hyperthyroidism with AF. Hyperthyroidism patients with good antithyroid drug compliance had a lower risk of ischaemic stroke than patients with poor compliance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gökçal, Elif; Niftaliyev, Elvin; Asil, Talip
Analysis of stroke subtypes is important for making treatment decisions and prognostic evaluations. The TOAST classification system is most commonly used, but the CCS and ASCO classification systems might be more useful to identify stroke etiologies in young patients whose strokes have a wide range of different causes. In this manuscript, we aim to compare the differences in subtype classification between TOAST, CCS, and ASCO in young stroke patients. The TOAST, CCS, and ASCO classification schemes were applied to 151 patients with ischemic stroke aged 18-49 years old and the proportion of subtypes classified by each scheme was compared. For comparison, determined etiologies were defined as cases with evident and probable subtypes when using the CCS scheme and cases with grade 1 and 2 subtypes but no other grade 1 subtype when using the ASCO scheme. The McNemar test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess significance. By TOAST, 41.1% of patients' stroke etiology was classified as undetermined etiology, 19.2% as cardioembolic, 13.2% as large artery atherosclerosis, 11.3% as small vessel occlusion, and 15.2% as other causes. Compared with TOAST, both CCS and ASCO assigned fewer patients to the undetermined etiology group (30.5% p CCS and ASCO classification schemes in young stroke patients seems feasible, and using both schemes may result in fewer patients being classified as undetermined etiology. New studies with more patients and a prospective design are needed to explore this topic further.
Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Huang, Yung-Sung; Tung, Chien-Hsueh; Lee, Ching-Chih; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lin, Hon-Yi; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Tsai, Chih-Hsin
Increased risk of ischemic stroke has been validated for several cancers, but limited study evaluated this risk in cervical cancer patients. Our study aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic stroke in cervical cancer patients. The study analyzed data from the 2003 to 2008 National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. Totally, 893 cervical cancer patients after radiotherapy and 1786 appendectomy patients were eligible. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the risk of ischemic stroke. The 5-year cumulative risk of ischemic stroke was significantly higher for the cervical cancer group than for the control group (7.8% vs 5.1%; p <0.005). The risk of stroke was higher in younger (age <51 years) than in older (age ≥51 years) cervical cancer patients (HR = 2.73, p = 0.04; HR = 1.37, p = 0.07) and in patients with more than two comorbid risk factors (5 years cumulative stroke rate of two comorbidities: 15% compared to no comorbidities: 4%). These study demonstrated cervical cance