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Sample records for rig deepwater horizon

  1. Deepwater Horizon - Baseline Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and the Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) was initiated to determine the extent of...

  2. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately

  3. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked

  4. Deepwater Horizon Seafood Safety Oracle Database (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico. In response to this spill, the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated a data collection...

  5. The Development of Long-Term Adverse Health Effects in Oil Spill Cleanup Workers of the Deepwater Horizon Offshore Drilling Rig Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Mark A; Reddy, G Kesava

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term adverse health effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Gulf oil spill exposure in workers who participated in its cleanup work. Medical charts of both the oil spill exposed and unexposed subjects were reviewed. The changes in the white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels, as well as their pulmonary and cardiac functions were evaluated. Medical records from 88 subjects (oil spill cleanup workers, n  = 44 and unexposed, n  = 44) were reviewed during initial and 7 years follow up visits after the disaster occurred. Compared with the unexposed subjects, oil spill exposed subjects had significantly reduced platelet counts (×10 3 /µL) at their initial (254.1 ± 46.7 versus 289.7 ± 63.7, P  = 0.000) and follow-up (242.9 ± 55.6 versus 278.4 ± 67.6, P  = 0.000) visits compared with the unexposed subjects (254.6 ± 51.9 versus 289.7 ± 63.7, P  = 0.008). The hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were increased significantly both at their initial and follow-up visits in the oil spill exposed subjects compared to the unexposed subjects. Similarly, the oil spill exposed subjects had significantly increased ALP, AST, and ALT levels at their initial and follow-up visits compared with those of the unexposed subjects. Illness symptoms that were reported during their initial visit still persisted at their 7-year follow-up visit. Notably, at their 7-year follow-up visit, most of the oil spill exposed subjects had also developed chronic rhinosinusitis and reactive airway dysfunction syndrome as new symptoms that were not reported during their initial visit. Additionally, more abnormalities in pulmonary and cardiac functions were also seen in the oil spill exposed subjects. This long-term follow-up study demonstrates that those people involved

  6. Deepwater Horizon Seafood Safety Response - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Seafood Safety Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood from the...

  7. Sediment Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  8. Air Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  9. Waste Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  10. Air Monitoring Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  11. Surface Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  12. Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  13. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, O.U.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-06-15

    On April 20, 2010, a catastrophic eruption of methane caused the Deepwater Horizon exploratory drill rig drilling the Macondo Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) to explode. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecendeted for several reasons: the volume of oil released; the spill duration; the well depth; the distance from the shore-line (77 km or about 50 miles); the type of oil (light crude); and the injection of dispersant directly at the wellhead. This study clearly demonstrated that there was a profound and significant response by certain members of the in situ microbial community in the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular putative hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria appeared to bloom in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, even though the temperature at these depths is never >5 C. As the plume aged the shifts in the microbial community on a temporal scale suggested that different, yet metabolically important members of the community were able to respond to a myriad of plume constituents, e.g. shifting from propane/ethane to alkanes and finally to methane. Thus, the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the plume by Bacteria was a highly significant process in the natural attenuation of many compounds released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  14. Fate of dispersants associated with the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Kido Soule, Melissa C; Valentine, David L; Boysen, Angela K; Longnecker, Krista; Redmond, Molly C

    2011-02-15

    Response actions to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill included the injection of ∼771,000 gallons (2,900,000 L) of chemical dispersant into the flow of oil near the seafloor. Prior to this incident, no deepwater applications of dispersant had been conducted, and thus no data exist on the environmental fate of dispersants in deepwater. We used ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to identify and quantify one key ingredient of the dispersant, the anionic surfactant DOSS (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate), in the Gulf of Mexico deepwater during active flow and again after flow had ceased. Here we show that DOSS was sequestered in deepwater hydrocarbon plumes at 1000-1200 m water depth and did not intermingle with surface dispersant applications. Further, its concentration distribution was consistent with conservative transport and dilution at depth and it persisted up to 300 km from the well, 64 days after deepwater dispersant applications ceased. We conclude that DOSS was selectively associated with the oil and gas phases in the deepwater plume, yet underwent negligible, or slow, rates of biodegradation in the affected waters. These results provide important constraints on accurate modeling of the deepwater plume and critical geochemical contexts for future toxicological studies.

  15. Submesoscale dispersion in the vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon spill

    OpenAIRE

    Poje, Andrew C.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Lipphardt, Bruce L.; Haus, Brian K.; Ryan, Edward H.; Haza, Angelique C.; Jacobs, Gregg A.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Olascoaga, Maria Josefina; Novelli, Guillaume; Griffa, Annalisa; Beron-Vera, Francisco J.; Chen, Shuyi S.; Coelho, Emanuel; Hogan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable forecasts for the dispersion of oceanic contamination are important for coastal ecosystems, society and the economy as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 and the Fukushima nuclear plant incident in the Pacific Ocean in 2011. Accurate prediction of pollutant pathways and concentrations at the ocean surface requires understanding ocean dynamics over a broad range of spatial scales. Fundamental questions concerning the structure of the velocity fi...

  16. British Petroleum's Deepwater Horizon Accident and the Thinking, Engaged Workforce - 13265

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigot, William L. [Fluor Corporation, Technical Support Services (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On April 20, 2010, hydrocarbons escaped from the Macondo well into Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in fire and multiple explosions. 11 people on the rig died. The billion dollar Deepwater Horizon sank. 4.9 M gallons of product flowed from the well for 87 days creating an environmental nightmare for communities bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. BP established a $20 B reserve to pay for damages. Investigations and legal culpability continue to this day. In September 2010, the Institute for Nuclear Power Operators (INPO) issued Significant Operating Experience Report (SOER) 10-2, Engaged, Thinking Organizations. The industry had experienced 11 events, 9 in US commercial nuclear utilities, and 2 international, that had disturbing trends. The underlying causes highlighted by INPO were inadequate recognition of risk, weaknesses in application of significant operating experience, tolerance of equipment and personnel problems, and a significant drift in standards. While the noted INPO problems and the Deepwater Horizon event appear to have nothing in common, they do exhibit similarities in a drift away from expected behavior on the part of front line workers and their supervisors. At the same time, hidden hazards are accumulating in the environment leading to error intolerant conditions. Without a good understanding of this concept, many organizations tend to focus on the person who 'touched it last', while missing the deeper organizational factors that led that individual to think that what they were doing was correct. An understanding of this failure model is important in reconstruction of events and crafting effective corrective actions. It is much more important, however, for leaders in high hazard industries to recognize when they are approaching error intolerant conditions and take steps immediately to add safety margin. (authors)

  17. British Petroleum's Deepwater Horizon Accident and the Thinking, Engaged Workforce - 13265

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigot, William L.

    2013-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, hydrocarbons escaped from the Macondo well into Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in fire and multiple explosions. 11 people on the rig died. The billion dollar Deepwater Horizon sank. 4.9 M gallons of product flowed from the well for 87 days creating an environmental nightmare for communities bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. BP established a $20 B reserve to pay for damages. Investigations and legal culpability continue to this day. In September 2010, the Institute for Nuclear Power Operators (INPO) issued Significant Operating Experience Report (SOER) 10-2, Engaged, Thinking Organizations. The industry had experienced 11 events, 9 in US commercial nuclear utilities, and 2 international, that had disturbing trends. The underlying causes highlighted by INPO were inadequate recognition of risk, weaknesses in application of significant operating experience, tolerance of equipment and personnel problems, and a significant drift in standards. While the noted INPO problems and the Deepwater Horizon event appear to have nothing in common, they do exhibit similarities in a drift away from expected behavior on the part of front line workers and their supervisors. At the same time, hidden hazards are accumulating in the environment leading to error intolerant conditions. Without a good understanding of this concept, many organizations tend to focus on the person who 'touched it last', while missing the deeper organizational factors that led that individual to think that what they were doing was correct. An understanding of this failure model is important in reconstruction of events and crafting effective corrective actions. It is much more important, however, for leaders in high hazard industries to recognize when they are approaching error intolerant conditions and take steps immediately to add safety margin. (authors)

  18. Methane Flux to the Atmosphere from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Kessler, J. D.; Garcia Tigreros, F.; Chan, E. W.; Du, M.

    2010-12-01

    The unfortunate blowout at the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig on April 20, which killed 11 people, was releasing oil and methane at an average rate of 58,000 barrels per day into the deep ocean, until it was recently capped resulting in a total of 4.9 million barrels released (National Incident Command Report, 2010). The methane component of the emission was estimated at 40-60%. As part of a NSF funded RAPID award, the sea-to-air flux of methane from the blowout at the Deepwater Horizon was measured on board the R/V Cape Hatteras from June 11-20 with substantial spatial and temporal resolution over the course of seven days in June 2010. Air and water concentrations were analyzed continuously from a flowing air line and a continuously flowing seawater equilibrator using cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRDS) and a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results indicate a low flux of methane to the atmosphere (0.024 μmol m^{-2} d^{-1}) with atmospheric and seawater equilibrium mixing ratios averaging 1.86 ppm and 2.85 ppm, respectively within the survey area. Most of the methane emitted from the wellhead was not emitted to the atmosphere. It dissolved into the water column at depth.

  19. 75 FR 29397 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling By the authority vested in... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the ``Commission''). Sec. 2. Membership. (a) The... impact of, oil spills associated with offshore drilling, taking into consideration the environmental...

  20. Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill entered Louisiana bays in mid-2010. • Oil was used minimally (<1%) in diets of mussels and barnacles. • Also, oil did not enhance planktonic respiration rates. • Use of oil carbon was relatively small in these productive estuarine food webs. - Abstract: Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, −27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and −1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems

  1. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... have been, or are subsequently relocated to the Gulf to respond to the Deepwater Horizon event should.... PHMSA-2010-0175] Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil... 194. In light of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which has resulted in the...

  2. Crisis strategies in BP's Deepwater Horizon response : An image repair and situational crisis communication study

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon crisis in 2010 was one the largest catastrophes in the history of the oil industry. BP was sued over the disaster, and lost several billion dollars. This study examines the crisis response strategies and/or image repair strategies, which can be found in BP's press releases following the Deepwater Horizon crisis. In particular, the study looks closer at what established crisis communication strategies could be discerned in the material, and how they are used discursive...

  3. Science in support of the Deepwater Horizon response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubchenco, Jane; McNutt, Marcia K.; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Murawski, Steven A.; Kennedy, David M.; Anastas, Paul T.; Chu, Steven; Hunter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the Special Feature presents the context for science during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response, summarizes how scientific knowledge was integrated across disciplines and statutory responsibilities, identifies areas where scientific information was accurate and where it was not, and considers lessons learned and recommendations for future research and response. Scientific information was integrated within and across federal and state agencies, with input from nongovernmental scientists, across a diverse portfolio of needs—stopping the flow of oil, estimating the amount of oil, capturing and recovering the oil, tracking and forecasting surface oil, protecting coastal and oceanic wildlife and habitat, managing fisheries, and protecting the safety of seafood. Disciplines involved included atmospheric, oceanographic, biogeochemical, ecological, health, biological, and chemical sciences, physics, geology, and mechanical and chemical engineering. Platforms ranged from satellites and planes to ships, buoys, gliders, and remotely operated vehicles to laboratories and computer simulations. The unprecedented response effort depended directly on intense and extensive scientific and engineering data, information, and advice. Many valuable lessons were learned that should be applied to future events.

  4. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Ecogenomics of the Deep-Sea Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The explosion on April 20, 2010 at the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, resulted in oil and gas rising to the surface and the oil coming ashore in many parts of the Gulf, it also resulted in the dispersment of an immense oil plume 4,000 feet below the surface of the water. Despite spanning more than 600 feet in the water column and extending more than 10 miles from the wellhead, the dispersed oil plume was gone within weeks after the wellhead was capped - degraded and diluted to undetectable levels. Furthermore, this degradation took place without significant oxygen depletion. Ecogenomics enabled discovery of new and unclassified species of oil-eating bacteria that apparently lives in the deep Gulf where oil seeps are common. Using 16s microarrays, functional gene arrays, clone libraries, lipid analysis and a variety of hydrocarbon and micronutrient analyses we were able to characterize the oil degraders. Metagenomic sequence data was obtained for the deep-water samples using the Illumina platform. In addition, single cells were sorted and sequenced for the some of the most dominant bacteria that were represented in the oil plume; namely uncultivated representatives of Colwellia and Oceanospirillum. In addition, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments using uncontaminated water collected from The Gulf at the depth of the oil plume to which we added oil and COREXIT. These samples were characterized by 454 pyrotag. The results provide information about the key players and processes involved in degradation of oil, with and without COREXIT, in different impacted environments in The Gulf of Mexico. We are also extending these studies to explore dozens of deep sediment samples that were also collected after the oil spill around the wellhead. This data suggests that a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation of oil plumes exists in the deep-sea and other environs in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Deep impact : destruction and sinking of Deepwater Horizon a blow to offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In the weeks following the blowout in British Petroleum's (BP) Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, the implications for the industry spread quickly, impacting operations around the world. When the Deepwater Horizon exploded, killing 11 crew members, the immediate impact of the blowout resulted in at least 5,000 barrels per day of oil leaking out of the wellbore. This article discussed the impacts of the oil blowout from the well and the response from BP, rig owner Transocean Ltd., and Haliburton. As of mid-May, 2010, several attempts to plug the well were unsuccessful. Solutions that attempted to block the well from leaking were presented, including several low-tech solutions to attack the two main sources of oil which were the failed blowout preventer and the crumpled up riser resting on the sea floor. The article noted that as a last solution the well could be intersected with a relief well that could block the flow at depth. This option could take two or three months to reach the required depth. The article then discussed the costs of the oil spill to BP, fisheries, the tourism industry, and other hard-hit sectors. It was concluded that similar to the spill caused by the Exxon Valdez in Alaska 21 years ago, the Gulf disaster will affect the image of the industry for years to come. 5 figs.

  6. TESTING THE GENERALIZATION EFFICIENCY OF OIL SLICK CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM USING MULTIPLE SAR DATA FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ozkan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

  7. Marsh canopy structure changes and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Marsh canopy structure was mapped yearly from 2009 to 2012 in the Barataria Bay, Louisiana coastal region that was impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Based on the previously demonstrated capability of NASA's UAVSAR polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image data to map Spartina alterniflora marsh canopy structure, structure maps combining the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD, orientation) were constructed for yearly intervals that were directly relatable to the 2010 LAI-LAD classification. The yearly LAI-LAD and LAI difference maps were used to investigate causes for the previously revealed dramatic change in marsh structure from prespill (2009) to postspill (2010, spill cessation), and the occurrence of structure features that exhibited abnormal spatial and temporal patterns. Water level and salinity records showed that freshwater releases used to keep the oil offshore did not cause the rapid growth from 2009 to 2010 in marsh surrounding the inner Bay. Photointerpretation of optical image data determined that interior marsh patches exhibiting rapid change were caused by burns and burn recovery, and that the pattern of 2010 to 2011 LAI decreases in backshore marsh and extending along some tidal channels into the interior marsh were not associated with burns. Instead, the majority of 2010 to 2011 shoreline features aligned with vectors displaying the severity of 2010 shoreline oiling from the DWH spill. Although the association is not conclusive of a causal oil impact, the coexistent pattern is a significant discovery. PolSAR marsh structure mapping provided a unique perspective of marsh biophysical status that enhanced detection of change and monitoring of trends important to management effectiveness.

  8. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Montagna

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  9. How bioavailable is highly weathered Deepwater Horizon oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, J.; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Reddy, C. M.; Aeppli, C.; Swarthout, B.

    2016-02-01

    Oiled sand patties continue to be deposited on northern Gulf of Mexico beaches five years after the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill. It is known that during the first 18 months post-spill, sand patties from DwH were chemically transformed, both biotically and abiotically, from wellhead release to beach deposition. However, the chemically transformed oil, which appears to become more polar over time, is not well understood in regards to its biodegradation potential. Biodegradation exerts a large control on the fate of spilled oil, representing a major conduit for its removal from the environment. To assess the bioavailability of this weathered oil, sand patties were collected from intertidal and supratidal zones of beaches in Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi in July 2015. Microbial biomarkers of the viable community, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), were detected on all samples collected. The PLFA distributions (mostly saturated and branched structures) and abundances (2 - 9 x 1013 cells/g sand patty) were similar across sampling locations. The positive correlation between PLFA abundance and surface area to volume ratios of sand patties indicates that microbes are preferentially inhabiting outside surfaces of the patties. We will present data on the radiocarbon (14C) content of PLFA to assess carbon (C) sources assimilated by microbes. 14C of PLFA is a powerful tool for assessing C sources assimilated in this setting. Oil has no 14C (Δ14C= -1000‰) while modern organic matter has relatively abundant 14C (Δ14C= 0‰). Fingerprinting analysis of biomarker ratios using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography will be presented to ascertain if oil originated from DwH. The extent of the chemical transformation of the oil into more polar compounds will also be measured using thin layer chromatography. Results of this investigation aim to determine the bioavailability and ultimate fate of oiled sand patties that continue to wash ashore on Gulf of Mexico

  10. Deepwater Horizon: Experience the Events That Led to This Accident, Follow the Investigation as They Uncover the Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannerman, T.

    2016-01-01

    With the Key themes of leadership, culture, reputation and risk, process safety and the human and organizational factors inside partnership and joint ventures, this session run by AKT immerses you into the situation on board the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico on the day of the disaster 20 April 2010. The sequence of events are acted out and then we follow the investigation as they uncover negligence, poor regulation, inadequate maintenance, and catastrophic decision making and what the US authorities called “a reckless disregard for safety”. This session will show how this type of workshop event has been used in different organizations, and the actors run the session to show how the facts of the disaster can be used to enhance knowledge of managers and senior leaders of factors that can trigger a major event. (author)

  11. Deepwater Horizon - Estimating surface oil volume distribution in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, B.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Leifer, I.

    2011-12-01

    Spill responders to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill required both the relative spatial distribution and total oil volume of the surface oil. The former was needed on a daily basis to plan and direct local surface recovery and treatment operations. The latter was needed less frequently to provide information for strategic response planning. Unfortunately, the standard spill observation methods were inadequate for an oil spill this size, and new, experimental, methods, were not ready to meet the operational demands of near real-time results. Traditional surface oil estimation tools for large spills include satellite-based sensors to define the spatial extent (but not thickness) of the oil, complemented with trained observers in small aircraft, sometimes supplemented by active or passive remote sensing equipment, to determine surface percent coverage of the 'thick' part of the slick, where the vast majority of the surface oil exists. These tools were also applied to DWH in the early days of the spill but the shear size of the spill prevented synoptic information of the surface slick through the use small aircraft. Also, satellite images of the spill, while large in number, varied considerably in image quality, requiring skilled interpretation of them to identify oil and eliminate false positives. Qualified staff to perform this task were soon in short supply. However, large spills are often events that overcome organizational inertia to the use of new technology. Two prime examples in DWH were the application of hyper-spectral scans from a high-altitude aircraft and more traditional fixed-wing aircraft using multi-spectral scans processed by use of a neural network to determine, respectively, absolute or relative oil thickness. But, with new technology, come new challenges. The hyper-spectral instrument required special viewing conditions that were not present on a daily basis and analysis infrastructure to process the data that was not available at the command

  12. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  13. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  14. 75 FR 39518 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting... Spill and Offshore Drilling, (75 FR 37783). This document makes several corrections to that notice. FOR...

  15. Indicators used to monitor subsurface oil during the Deepwater Horizon Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest accidental marine spill in the history of the petroleum industry. The spill was also unprecedented due to the extreme depth of the wellhead leak within the ocean, posing unique challenges to the monitoring efforts, w...

  16. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations of the Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent...

  17. Metagenomics reveals sediment microbial community response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Scott, Nicole M.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the spring of 2010 resulted in an input of similar to 4.1 million barrels of oil to the Gulf of Mexico; >22% of this oil is unaccounted for, with unknown environmental consequences. Here we investigated the impact of oil deposition on microbial communities...

  18. Floating oil-covered debris from Deepwater Horizon: identification and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Catherine A; Lemkau, Karin L; Nelson, Robert K; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel; Graham, William M; Linn, Laura J

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material in the Gulf of Mexico surface waters and along coastal beaches shortly after the explosion of Deepwater Horizon sparked debate about its origin and the oil covering it. We show that the unknown pieces of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material collected in the Gulf of Mexico were pieces of the riser pipe buoyancy module of Deepwater Horizon. Biomarker ratios confirmed that the oil had originated from the Macondo oil well and had undergone significant weathering. Using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s records of the oil spill trajectory at the sea surface, we show that the honeycomb material preceded the front edge of the uncertainty of the oil slick trajectory by several kilometers. We conclude that the observation of debris fields deriving from damaged marine materials may be incorporated into emergency response efforts and forecasting of coastal impacts during future offshore oil spills, and ground truthing predicative models. (letter)

  19. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater horizon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Phoebe Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Chen, Huan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Podgorski, David C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Future Fuels Institute, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); McKenna, Amy M. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Tarr, Matthew A., E-mail: mtarr@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Sunlight oxygenates petroleum. - Highlights: • Oxidation seen in water-soluble oil fraction after exposure to simulated sunlight. • Oxygen addition occurred across a wide range of carbon number and DBE. • Oil compounds were susceptible to addition of multiple oxygens to each molecule. • Results provide understanding of fate of oil on water after exposure to sunlight. - Abstract: In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid–liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O{sub 5}), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O{sub 2}). Higher-order oxygen classes (O{sub 5}–O{sub 9}) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N{sub 1}) concurrent with an increased abundance of N{sub 1}O{sub x} classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher

  20. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas?organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH cont...

  1. Bivariate Left-Censored Bayesian Model for Predicting Exposure: Preliminary Analysis of Worker Exposure during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Caroline; Banerjee, Sudipto; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Stenzel, Mark R; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron; Engel, Lawrence S; Kwok, Richard K; Stewart, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig caught fire and exploded, releasing almost 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over the ensuing 3 months. Thousands of oil spill workers participated in the spill response and clean-up efforts. The GuLF STUDY being conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is an epidemiological study to investigate potential adverse health effects among these oil spill clean-up workers. Many volatile chemicals were released from the oil into the air, including total hydrocarbons (THC), which is a composite of the volatile components of oil including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and hexane (BTEXH). Our goal is to estimate exposure levels to these toxic chemicals for groups of oil spill workers in the study (hereafter called exposure groups, EGs) with likely comparable exposure distributions. A large number of air measurements were collected, but many EGs are characterized by datasets with a large percentage of censored measurements (below the analytic methods' limits of detection) and/or a limited number of measurements. We use THC for which there was less censoring to develop predictive linear models for specific BTEXH air exposures with higher degrees of censoring. We present a novel Bayesian hierarchical linear model that allows us to predict, for different EGs simultaneously, exposure levels of a second chemical while accounting for censoring in both THC and the chemical of interest. We illustrate the methodology by estimating exposure levels for several EGs on the Development Driller III, a rig vessel charged with drilling one of the relief wells. The model provided credible estimates in this example for geometric means, arithmetic means, variances, correlations, and regression coefficients for each group. This approach should be considered when estimating exposures in situations when multiple chemicals are correlated and have varying degrees of censoring. © The Author 2017

  2. Photo-induced toxicity in early life stage fiddler crab (Uca longisignalis) following exposure to Deepwater Horizon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damare, Leigh M; Bridges, Kristin N; Alloy, Matthew M; Curran, Thomas E; Soulen, Brianne K; Forth, Heather P; Lay, Claire R; Morris, Jeffrey M; Stoeckel, James A; Roberts, Aaron P

    2018-05-01

    The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig led to the release of millions of barrels of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil in aquatic ecosystems exerts toxicity through multiple mechanisms, including photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure with UV radiation. The timing and location of the spill coincided with both fiddler crab reproduction and peak yearly UV intensities, putting early life stage fiddler crabs at risk of injury due to photo-induced toxicity. The present study assessed sensitivity of fiddler crab larvae to photo-induced toxicity during co-exposure to a range of environmentally relevant dilutions of high-energy water accommodated fractions of DWH oil, and either dark recovery period (duration: 17-h) in between. Survival was significantly decreased in treatments the presence of >10% UV and relatively low concentrations of oil. Results of the present study indicate fiddler crab larvae are sensitive to photo-induced toxicity in the presence of DWH oil. These results are of concern, as fiddler crabs play an important role as ecosystem engineers, modulating sediment biogeochemical processes via burrowing action. Furthermore, they occupy an important place in the food web in the Gulf of Mexico.

  3. δ(13)C and δ(15)N in deep-living fishes and shrimps after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Rizzo, Ester; Torres, Joseph J; Ross, Steve W; Romero, Isabel; Watson, Kathleen; Goddard, Ethan; Hollander, David

    2015-05-15

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drill-rig produced a surface oil layer, dispersed micro-droplets throughout the water column, and sub-surface plumes. We measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in mesopelagic fishes and shrimps in the vicinity of DWH collected prior to, six weeks after, and one year after the oil spill (2007, 2010 and 2011). In 2010, the year of the oil spill, a small but significant depletion of δ(13)C was found in two mesopelagic fishes (Gonostoma elongatum and Chauliodus sloani) and one shrimp (Systellaspis debilis); a significant δ(15)N enrichment was identified in the same shrimp and in three fish species (G. elongatum, Ceratoscopelus warmingii, and Lepidophanes guentheri). The δ(15)N change did not suggest a change of trophic level, but did indicate a change in diet. The data suggest that carbon from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was incorporated into the mesopelagic food web of the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, David; Howard, John

    2012-07-18

    The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18.

  5. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    OpenAIRE

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J.; Guthrie, George D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ ...

  6. Mapping and Visualization of The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Pichardo, E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellites are man-made objects hovering around the Earth's orbit and are essential for Earth observation, i.e. the monitoring and gathering of data about the Earth's vital systems. Environmental Satellites are used for atmospheric research, weather forecasting, and warning as well as monitoring extreme weather events. These satellites are categorized into Geosynchronous and Low Earth (Polar) orbiting satellites. Visualizing satellite data is critical to understand the Earth's systems and changes to our environment. The objective of this research is to examine satellite-based remotely sensed data that needs to be processed and rendered in the form of maps or other forms of visualization to understand and interpret the satellites' observations to monitor the status, changes and evolution of the mega-disaster Deepwater Horizon Spill that occurred on April 20, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. In this project, we will use an array of tools and programs such as Python, CSPP and Linux. Also, we will use data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): Polar-Orbiting Satellites Terra Earth Observing System AM-1 (EOS AM-1), and Aqua EOS PM-1 to investigate the mega-disaster. Each of these satellites carry a variety of instruments, and we will use the data obtained from the remote sensor Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Ultimately, this study shows the importance of mapping and visualizing data such as satellite data (MODIS) to understand the extents of environmental impacts disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon Oil spill.

  7. Assessment of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impact on Gulf coast microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina eLamendella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental concerns of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the ecological impact of the oil that reached shorelines of the Gulf Coast. Here we investigated the impact of the oil on the microbial composition in beach samples collected in June 2010 along a heavily impacted shoreline near Grand Isle, Louisiana. Successional changes in the microbial community structure due to the oil contamination were determined by deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Metatranscriptomics was used to determine expression of functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation processes. In addition, potential hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were obtained in culture. The 16S data revealed that highly contaminated samples had higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Successional changes in these classes were observed over time, during which the oil was partially degraded. The metatranscriptome data revealed that PAH, n-alkane, and toluene degradation genes were expressed in the contaminated samples, with high homology to genes from Alteromonadales, Rhodobacterales, and Pseudomonales. Notably, Marinobacter (Gammaproteobacteria had the highest representation of expressed genes in the samples. A Marinobacter isolated from this beach was shown to have potential for transformation of hydrocarbons in incubation experiments with oil obtained from the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252 well; collected during the Deepwater Horizon spill. The combined data revealed a response of the beach microbial community to oil contaminants, including prevalence of Bacteria endowed with the functional capacity to degrade oil.

  8. Longer-Term Mental and Behavioral Health Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Cross Hansel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental health issues are a significant concern after technological disasters such as the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill; however, there is limited knowledge about the long-term effects of oil spills. The study was part of a larger research effort to improve understanding of the mental and behavioral health effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill. Data were collected immediately following the spill and the same individuals were resampled again after the second anniversary (n = 314. The results show that mental health symptoms of depression, serious mental illness and posttraumatic stress have not statistically decreased, and anxiety symptoms were statistically equivalent to immediate symptoms. Results also showed that the greatest effect on anxiety is related to the extent of disruption to participants’ lives, work, family, and social engagement. This study supports lessons learned following the Exxon Valdez spill suggesting that mental health effects are long term and recovery is slow. Elevated symptoms indicate the continued need for mental health services, especially for individuals with high levels of disruption resulting in increased anxiety. Findings also suggest that the longer-term recovery trajectories following the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill do not fall within traditional disaster recovery timelines.

  9. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G.

    2011-01-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  10. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G. [BP - Gulf Coast Restoration (United States)], email: michael.cortez@bp.com

    2011-07-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  11. Applications of science and engineering to quantify and control the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Chu, Steven; Lubchenco, Jane; Hunter, Tom; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Murawski, Steven A.; Kennedy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented engagement of scientists from government, academia, and industry enabled multiple unanticipated and unique problems to be addressed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. During the months between the initial blowout on April 20, 2010, and the final well kill on September 19, 2010, researchers prepared options, analyses of tradeoffs, assessments, and calculations of uncertainties associated with the flow rate of the well, well shut in, killing the well, and determination of the location of oil released into the environment. This information was used in near real time by the National Incident Commander and other government decision-makers. It increased transparency into BP’s proposed actions and gave the government confidence that, at each stage proposed, courses of action had been thoroughly vetted to reduce risk to human life and the environment and improve chances of success.

  12. Application of MODFLOW for oil reservoir simulation during the Deepwater Horizon Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Macondo well was shut in on July 15, 2010, the shut-in pressure recovered to a level that indicated the possibility of oil leakage out of the well casing into the surrounding formation. Such a leak could initiate a hydraulic fracture that might eventually breach the seafloor, resulting in renewed and uncontrolled oil flow into the Gulf of Mexico. To help evaluate whether or not to reopen the well, a MODFLOW model was constructed within 24 h after shut in to analyze the shut-in pressure. The model showed that the shut-in pressure can be explained by a reasonable scenario in which the well did not leak after shut in. The rapid response provided a scientific analysis for the decision to keep the well shut, thus ending the oil spill resulting from the Deepwater Horizon blow out.

  13. Methane flux to the atmosphere from the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Hu, Lei; Kessler, John

    2011-01-01

    The sea-to-air flux of methane from the blowout at the Deepwater Horizon was measured with substantial spatial and temporal resolution over the course of seven days in June 2010. Air and water concentrations were analyzed continuously from a flowing air line and a continuously flowing seawater equilibrator using cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRDS) and a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results indicate a low flux of methane to the atmosphere (0.024 μmol m-2 d-1) with atmospheric and seawater equilibrium mixing ratios averaging 1.86 ppm and 2.85 ppm, respectively within the survey area. The oil leak, which was estimated to contain 30.2% methane by weight, was not a significant source of methane to the atmosphere during this study. Most of the methane emitted from the wellhead was dissolved in the deep ocean.

  14. NOAA Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill - Protecting Oceans, Coasts and Fisheries (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubchenco, J.

    2010-12-01

    As the nation’s leading scientific resource for oil spills, NOAA has been on the scene of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill from the start, providing coordinated scientific weather and biological response services to federal, state and local organizations. NOAA has mobilized experts from across the agency to help contain the spreading oil spill and protect the Gulf of Mexico’s many marine mammals, sea turtles, fish, shellfish and other endangered marine life. NOAA spill specialists advised the U.S. Coast Guard on cleanup options as well as advising all affected federal, state and local partners on sensitive marine resources at risk in this area of the Gulf of Mexico. As a major partner in the federal response to this incident, NOAA provided the necessary coastal and marine expertise required for sound, timely decision-making and helped protect the affected Gulf Coast communities and coastal marine environment and will continue to do so for ongoing restoration efforts.

  15. Microbial gene functions enriched in the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea oil plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; He, Z.; Voordeckers, J.; Zhou, A.; Lee, Y.-J.; Mason, O.U.; Dubinsky, E.; Chavarria, K.; Tom, L.; Fortney, J.; Lamendella, R.; Jansson, J.K.; D?haeseleer, P.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2011-06-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the deepest and largest offshore spill in U.S. history and its impacts on marine ecosystems are largely unknown. Here, we showed that the microbial community functional composition and structure were dramatically altered in a deep-sea oil plume resulting from the spill. A variety of metabolic genes involved in both aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in the plume compared to outside the plume, indicating a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation or natural attenuation in the deep-sea. Various other microbial functional genes relevant to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron cycling, metal resistance, and bacteriophage replication were also enriched in the plume. Together, these results suggest that the indigenous marine microbial communities could play a significant role in biodegradation of oil spills in deep-sea environments.

  16. Potential impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on large pelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Torres, Sarrah; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    2011-11-01

    Biogeographical analyses provide insights on how the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted large pelagic fishes. We georeferenced historical ichthyoplankton surveys and published literature to map the spawning and larval areas of bluefin tuna, swordfish, blue marlin and whale shark sightings in the Gulf of Mexico with daily satellite-derived images detecting surface oil. The oil spill covered critical areas used by large pelagic fishes. Surface oil was detected in 100% of the northernmost whale shark sightings, in 32.8 % of the bluefin tuna spawning area and 38 % of the blue marlin larval area. No surface oil was detected in the swordfish spawning and larval area. Our study likely underestimates the extend of the oil spill due to satellite sensors detecting only the upper euphotic zone and the use of dispersants altering crude oil density, but provides a previously unknown spatio-temporal analysis.

  17. Oil Characterization and Distribution in Florida Estuary Sediments Following the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mace G. Barron

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barrier islands of Northwest Florida were heavily oiled during the Deepwater Horizon spill, but less is known about the impacts to the shorelines of the associated estuaries. Shoreline sediment oiling was investigated at 18 sites within the Pensacola Bay, Florida system prior to impact, during peak oiling, and post-wellhead capping. Only two locations closest to the Gulf of Mexico had elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. These samples showed a clear weathered crude oil signature, pattern of depletion of C9 to C19 alkanes and C0 to C4 naphthalenes, and geochemical biomarker ratios in concordance with weathered Macondo crude oil. All other locations and sample times showed only trace petroleum contamination. The results of this study are consistent with available satellite imagery and visual shoreline survey data showing heavy shoreline oiling limited to sandy beaches near the entrance to Pensacola Bay and shorelines of Santa Rosa Island.

  18. Acquisition of airborne imagery in support of Deepwater Horizon oil spill recovery assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2012-09-01

    Remote sensing imagery was collected from a low flying aircraft along the near coastal waters of the Florida Panhandle and northern Gulf of Mexico and into Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, during March 2011. Imagery was acquired from an aircraft that simultaneously collected traditional photogrammetric film imagery, digital video, digital still images, and digital hyperspectral imagery. The original purpose of the project was to collect airborne imagery to support assessment of weathered oil in littoral areas influenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil and gas spill that occurred during the spring and summer of 2010. This paper describes the data acquired and presents information that demonstrates the utility of small spatial scale imagery to detect the presence of weathered oil along littoral areas in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Flight tracks and examples of imagery collected are presented and methods used to plan and acquire the imagery are described. Results suggest weathered oil in littoral areas after the spill was contained at the source.

  19. Toxicity of weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Forth, Heather; Takeshita, Ryan; Chesney, Edward J

    2018-02-01

    The BP-contracted Deepwater Horizon Macondo well blowout occurred on 20 April 2010 and lasted nearly three months. The well released millions of barrels of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico, causing extensive impacts on pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species. The bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) is an important zooplanktivore in the Gulf, serving as an ecological link between lower trophic levels and pelagic predatory fish species. Bay anchovy spawn from May through November in shallow inshore and estuarine waters throughout the Gulf. Because their buoyant embryos are a dominant part of the inshore ichthyoplankton throughout the summer, it is likely bay anchovy embryos encountered oil in coastal estuaries during the summer and fall of 2010. Bay anchovy embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations of two field-collected Deepwater Horizon oils as high-energy and low-energy water accommodated fractions (HEWAFs and LEWAFs, respectively) for 48h. The median lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) were lower in exposures with the more weathered oil (HEWAF, 1.48µg/L TPAH50; LEWAF, 1.58µg/L TPAH50) compared to the less weathered oil (HEWAF, 3.87µg/L TPAH50; LEWAF, 4.28µg/L TPAH50). To measure delayed mortality and life stage sensitivity between embryos and larvae, an additional 24h acute HEWAF exposure using the more weathered oil was run followed by a 24h grow-out period. Here the LC 50 was 9.71µg/L TPAH50 after the grow-out phase, suggesting a toxic effect of oil at the embryonic or hatching stage. We also found that exposures prepared with the more weathered Slick B oil produced lower LC 50 values compared to the exposures prepared with Slick A oil. Our results demonstrate that even relatively acute environmental exposure times can have a detrimental effect on bay anchovy embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crude Exploration: Portraying Industrial Disaster in Deepwater Horizon, a Film Directed By Peter Berg, 2016 Crude Exploration: Portraying Industrial Disaster in Deepwater Horizon, a Film Directed By Peter Berg, 2016 .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shane; Gawley, Tim

    2017-08-01

    The 2016 film Deepwater Horizon offers a rare portrayal of industrial disaster. It is novel as there are few film-based treatments of this issue. The film enables the public to learn about the disaster, the lives lost, and the stories of survival, but it also provides the opportunity to examine how industrial disaster and, by extension, occupational health and safety may be publicly framed and understood. This article presents an analysis of Deepwater Horizon. Four primary industrial disaster frames are identified in the film: profit maximization, technology and technology failure, managerial conflict, and worker portrayals. Each frame offers advantages and limitations for enhancing public understandings of industrial disaster. Missing from the film is the regulatory environment of the oil drilling industry, whose omission serves to potentially reproduce messages that privilege individualistic, isolated, views of industrial disasters and prioritize immediate over distal causes.

  1. Deepwater Horizon - baseline fisheries surveys conducted in the Gulf of Mexico from 1987-04-16 to 2010-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0150631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and the Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) was initiated to determine the extent of...

  2. Historical oceanographic data and climatologies in support of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event in the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0064867)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected as part of the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The climatological fields detailed...

  3. Diverse, rare microbial taxa responded to the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea hydrocarbon plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Sara; Grim, Sharon; Sogin, Mitchell; Bracco, Annalisa; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Joye, Samantha B

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil well blowout generated an enormous plume of dispersed hydrocarbons that substantially altered the Gulf of Mexico's deep-sea microbial community. A significant enrichment of distinct microbial populations was observed, yet, little is known about the abundance and richness of specific microbial ecotypes involved in gas, oil and dispersant biodegradation in the wake of oil spills. Here, we document a previously unrecognized diversity of closely related taxa affiliating with Cycloclasticus, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae and describe their spatio-temporal distribution in the Gulf's deepwater, in close proximity to the discharge site and at increasing distance from it, before, during and after the discharge. A highly sensitive, computational method (oligotyping) applied to a data set generated from 454-tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene V4-V6 regions, enabled the detection of population dynamics at the sub-operational taxonomic unit level (0.2% sequence similarity). The biogeochemical signature of the deep-sea samples was assessed via total cell counts, concentrations of short-chain alkanes (C1-C5), nutrients, (colored) dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, as well as methane oxidation rates. Statistical analysis elucidated environmental factors that shaped ecologically relevant dynamics of oligotypes, which likely represent distinct ecotypes. Major hydrocarbon degraders, adapted to the slow-diffusive natural hydrocarbon seepage in the Gulf of Mexico, appeared unable to cope with the conditions encountered during the DWH spill or were outcompeted. In contrast, diverse, rare taxa increased rapidly in abundance, underscoring the importance of specialized sub-populations and potential ecotypes during massive deep-sea oil discharges and perhaps other large-scale perturbations.

  4. From frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana: the impact of regulatory change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether adaptations to past disasters can impede adaptation to new disasters of a different type or intensity will be analyzed by examining the transition from frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana. In particular, the effects of changed regulatory structures from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are investigated. The article describes how the federal, state, and local governments adjust. In addition, it illustrates the shifting focus on the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. It wraps up with a discussion of the uncertainty that is pervasive in the case of the oil spill derived from changed regulations and the novelty of the disaster.

  5. Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J.; Alexander, C.R.; Cacela, Dave; Cunningham, Fred L.; Dean, Karen M.; Dorr, Brian S.; Ellis, Christine K.; Godard-Codding, Céline A.J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C.; Harr, Kendall E.; Healy, Katherine A.; Hooper, Michael J.; Horak, Katherine E.; Isanhart, John P.; Kennedy, Lisa V.; Link, Jane E.; Maggini, Ivan; Moye, John K.; Perez, Christina R.; Pritsos, Chris A.; Shriner, Susan A.; Trust, Kinberly A.; Tuttle, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 establishes liability for injuries to natural resources because of the release or threat of release of oil. Assessment of injury to natural resources resulting from an oil spill and development and implementation of a plan for the restoration, rehabilitation, replacement or acquisition of natural resources to compensate for those injuries is accomplished through the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process. The NRDA process began within a week of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on April 20, 2010. During the spill, more than 8500 dead and impaired birds representing at least 93 avian species were collected. In addition, there were more than 3500 birds observed to be visibly oiled. While information in the literature at the time helped to identify some of the effects of oil on birds, it was not sufficient to fully characterize the nature and extent of the injuries to the thousands of live oiled birds, or to quantify those injuries in terms of effects on bird viability. As a result, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed various assessment activities to inform NRDA injury determination and quantification analyses associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including avian toxicity studies. The goal of these studies was to evaluate the effects of oral exposure to 1–20 ml of artificially weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil kg bw-1 day-1 from one to 28 days or one to five applications of oil to 20% of the bird's surface area. It was thought that these exposure levels would not result in immediate or short-term mortality but might result in physiological effects that ultimately could affect avian survival, reproduction and health. These studies included oral dosing studies, an external dosing study, metabolic and flight performance studies and field-based flight studies. Results of these studies indicated changes in hematologic endpoints including formation of Heinz bodies and changes in cell counts

  6. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill: the trauma signature of an ecological disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Walsh, Lauren; Garfin, Dana Rose; Wilson, Fiona E; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon “British Petroleum (BP)” oil spill was a mega-disaster characterized as the petroleum industry’s largest-volume marine oil spill in history. Following a “wellhead blowout” that destroyed the drilling platform, 4.9 million barrels of petroleum flowed into the Gulf of Mexico over 87 days and the spill expanded to cover 68,000 square miles of sea surface. However, despite the expansive scope of the event, systematic surveys of affected coastal populations found only modest effects on mental health and substance abuse. An established trauma signature (TSIG) methodology was used to examine the psychological consequences in relation to exposure to the unique constellation of hazards associated with the spill. A hazard profile, a matrix of psychological stressors, and a “trauma signature” summary for the affected Gulf Coast population--in terms of exposure to hazard, loss, and change--were created specifically for this human-generated ecological disaster. Psychological risk characteristics of this event included: human causation featuring corporate culpability, large spill volume, protracted duration, coastal contamination from petroleum products, severe ecological damage, disruption of Gulf Coast industries and tourism, and extensive media coverage. The multiple impact effect was notable due to prior exposure of the region to Hurricane Katrina. These stressors were counterbalanced by the relative absence of other prominent risks for distress and psychopathology. Coastal residents did not experience significant onshore spill-related mortality or severe injury, shortages of survival needs, disruption of vital services (health care, schools, utilities, communications, and transportation), loss of homes, population displacement, destruction of the built environment, or loss of social supports. Initial acute economic losses were partially offset by large-sum BP payments for cleanup and recovery of the coastal economy. Not only did Gulf

  7. Salt Marsh Bacterial Communities before and after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annette Summers; Liu, Chang; Paterson, Audrey T; Anderson, Laurie C; Turner, R Eugene; Overton, Edward B

    2017-10-15

    Coastal salt marshes along the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline received varied types and amounts of weathered oil residues after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. At the time, predicting how marsh bacterial communities would respond and/or recover to oiling and other environmental stressors was difficult because baseline information on community composition and dynamics was generally unavailable. Here, we evaluated marsh vegetation, physicochemistry, flooding frequency, hydrocarbon chemistry, and subtidal sediment bacterial communities from 16S rRNA gene surveys at 11 sites in southern Louisiana before the oil spill and resampled the same marshes three to four times over 38 months after the spill. Calculated hydrocarbon biomarker indices indicated that oil replaced native natural organic matter (NOM) originating from Spartina alterniflora and marine phytoplankton in the marshes between May 2010 and September 2010. At all the studied marshes, the major class- and order-level shifts among the phyla Proteobacteria , Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , and Actinobacteria occurred within these first 4 months, but another community shift occurred at the time of peak oiling in 2011. Two years later, hydrocarbon levels decreased and bacterial communities became more diverse, being dominated by Alphaproteobacteria ( Rhizobiales ), Chloroflexi ( Dehalococcoidia ), and Planctomycetes Compositional changes through time could be explained by NOM source differences, perhaps due to vegetation changes, as well as marsh flooding and salinity excursions linked to freshwater diversions. These findings indicate that persistent hydrocarbon exposure alone did not explain long-term community shifts. IMPORTANCE Significant deterioration of coastal salt marshes in Louisiana has been linked to natural and anthropogenic stressors that can adversely affect how ecosystems function. Although microorganisms carry out and regulate most biogeochemical reactions, the diversity of bacterial

  8. Question of uncertainty : Transitioning from hurricanes to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainty is highlighted in the case of the oil spill. Hurricane is considered a known factor that people are used to and know how to handle. This uncertainty is primarily attributed to the magnitude of the spill. As the largest spill in the U.S., the long-term effects of the spill are difficult to assess. Uncertainty, however, has more to do with the novelty of the disaster and the accompanying regulatory change than the specific characteristics of this spill such as the size and longevity of the spill. The unfamiliarity with the Oil Pollution Act results in a lack of knowledge and uncertainty about local and state responses to the spill. The unpreparedness and unfamiliarity of this spill accompanied by different regulations underlie people's sense of uncertainty. This paper examines coastal Louisiana's shift from frequent hurricanes to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, particularly focusing on the effects of changed regulations from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act. It documents how the federal, state, and local governments adjust, and discusses the shifting emphasis to the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. One assumption is that people's established ways of behavior are commonly shaped by their previous experience of disasters, but this can paradoxically hinder their timely adaptation to new or different, high- impact environmental change. This leads to testing the hypothesis whether greater vulnerabilities result from adaptations to previous and well-known disasters. Results: The structural differences in regulations dictate the way governments and communities respond and adapt to the oil spill. The new set of regulations during the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill unlike the ones during hurricanes served as barriers to adaptation. Governments at federal, state, and local levels had difficulties adjusting to new rules and changed authorities, and they, in turn, generated uncertainty and

  9. Consumer Perceptions of Seafood Industries in the Wake of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    McKendree, Melissa G.S.; Ortega, David L.; Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Wang, H. Holly

    2013-01-01

    The impact of environmental disasters on consumers’ perceptions and preferences for specific food items has seldom been studied in the applied economics literature. Recent aquatic disasters, namely the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, have had profound impacts on fisheries serving US consumers and on agribusinesses within the aquaculture industry. This study explores consumer preferences using a nation-wide representative sample, and finds that twenty-nine p...

  10. Transport of Blue Crab Larvae in the Northern Gulf of Mexico During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-11

    the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. The DWH spill, the largest accidental marine oil spill in US history (Graham et al. 2011), started when the...DWH oil platform, situ- ated 80 km southeast of Venice , Louisiana, ex- ploded and sank on 20 April 2010. An estimated 4.0 million barrels of oil...al. (1980). Using this ffiM together with spawning and larval behavior parameters from the known natural history of blue crabs, we ran 24

  11. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on sea turtles could span the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Iturbe-Darkistade, Iñaky; Putman, Emily M; Richards, Paul M; Verley, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the extent that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill potentially affected oceanic-stage sea turtles from populations across the Atlantic. Within an ocean-circulation model, particles were backtracked from the Gulf of Mexico spill site to determine the probability of young turtles arriving in this area from major nesting beaches. The abundance of turtles in the vicinity of the oil spill was derived by forward-tracking particles from focal beaches and integrating population size, oceanic-stage duration and stage-specific survival rates. Simulations indicated that 321 401 (66 199-397 864) green (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) turtles were likely within the spill site. These predictions compared favourably with estimates from in-water observations recently made available to the public (though our initial predictions for Kemp's ridley were substantially lower than in-water estimates, better agreement was obtained with modifications to mimic behaviour of young Kemp's ridley turtles in the northern Gulf). Simulations predicted 75.2% (71.9-76.3%) of turtles came from Mexico, 14.8% (11-18%) from Costa Rica, 5.9% (4.8-7.9%) from countries in northern South America, 3.4% (2.4-3.5%) from the United States and 1.6% (0.6-2.0%) from West African countries. Thus, the spill's impacts may extend far beyond the current focus on the northern Gulf of Mexico. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  13. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill evaluated using an end-to-end ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Cameron H; Paris, Claire B; Perlin, Natalie; Dornberger, Lindsey N; Patterson, William F; Chancellor, Emily; Murawski, Steve; Hollander, David; Daly, Kendra; Romero, Isabel C; Coleman, Felicia; Perryman, Holly

    2018-01-01

    We use a spatially explicit biogeochemical end-to-end ecosystem model, Atlantis, to simulate impacts from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and subsequent recovery of fish guilds. Dose-response relationships with expected oil concentrations were utilized to estimate the impact on fish growth and mortality rates. We also examine the effects of fisheries closures and impacts on recruitment. We validate predictions of the model by comparing population trends and age structure before and after the oil spill with fisheries independent data. The model suggests that recruitment effects and fishery closures had little influence on biomass dynamics. However, at the assumed level of oil concentrations and toxicity, impacts on fish mortality and growth rates were large and commensurate with observations. Sensitivity analysis suggests the biomass of large reef fish decreased by 25% to 50% in areas most affected by the spill, and biomass of large demersal fish decreased even more, by 40% to 70%. Impacts on reef and demersal forage caused starvation mortality in predators and increased reliance on pelagic forage. Impacts on the food web translated effects of the spill far away from the oiled area. Effects on age structure suggest possible delayed impacts on fishery yields. Recovery of high-turnover populations generally is predicted to occur within 10 years, but some slower-growing populations may take 30+ years to fully recover.

  14. Oil release from Macondo well MC252 following the Deepwater Horizon accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stewart K

    2012-05-15

    Oil flow rates and cumulative discharge from the BP Macondo Prospect well in the Gulf of Mexico are calculated using a physically based model along with wellhead pressures measured at the blowout preventer (BOP) over the 86-day period following the Deepwater Horizon accident. Parameters appearing in the model are determined empirically from pressures measured during well shut-in and from pressures and flow rates measured the preceding day. This methodology rigorously accounts for ill-characterized evolution of the marine riser, installation and removal of collection caps, and any erosion at the wellhead. The calculated initial flow rate is 67,100 stock-tank barrels per day (stbd), which decays to 54,400 stbd just prior to installation of the capping stack and subsequent shut-in. The calculated cumulative discharge is 5.4 million stock-tank barrels, of which 4.6 million barrels entered the Gulf. Quantifiable uncertainties in these values are -9.3% and +7.5%, yielding a likely total discharge in the range from 4.9 to 5.8 million barrels. Minimum and maximum credible values of this discharge are 4.6 and 6.2 million barrels. Alternative calculations using the reservoir and sea-floor pressures indicate that any erosion within the BOP had little affect on cumulative discharge.

  15. Homing pigeons externally exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil change flight performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest in U.S. history, contaminating thousands of miles of coastal habitat and affecting the lives of many avian species. The Gulf of Mexico is a critical bird migration route area and migrants that were oiled but did not suffer mortality as a direct result of the spill faced unpredictable fates. This study utilized homing pigeons as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects a single low level external oiling event has on the flight performance and behavior of birds flying repeated 161 km flights. Data from GPS data loggers showed that lightly oiled pigeons changed their flight paths, increased their flight durations by 2.6 fold, increased their flight distances by 28 km and subsequently decreased their route efficiencies. Oiled birds also exhibited reduced rate of weight gain between flights. Our data suggest that contaminated birds surviving the oil spill may have experienced flight impairment and reduced refueling abilities, likely reducing overall migration speed. Our findings contribute new information on how oil spills affect avian species, as the effects of oil on the flight behavior of long distance free-flying birds have not been previously described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent impacts to the deep soft-bottom benthos one year after the Deepwater Horizon event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Paul A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    In fall 2010, several months after the Deepwater Horizon blowout was capped, zones of moderate and severe impacts to deep-sea, soft-bottom benthos were identified that together extended over an area of 172 km 2 . A subset of stations sampled in 2010 was resampled in May and June 2011, 10 to 11 months after the event, to determine whether the identified adverse effects were persisting. The design compared 20 stations from the combined moderate and severe impact zone to 12 stations in the reference zone that were sampled in both years. There were no statistically significant differences in contaminant concentrations between the impact and nonimpact zones from 2010 to 2011, which indicates contaminants persisted after 1 y. Whereas there were some signs of recovery in 2011 (particularly for the meiofauna abundance and diversity), there was evidence of persistent, statistically significant impacts to both macrofauna and meiofauna community structure. Macrofaunal taxa richness and diversity in 2011 were still 22.8% and 35.9% less, respectively, in the entire impact zone than in the surrounding nonimpact area, and meiofaunal richness was 28.5% less in the entire impact zone than in the surrounding area. The persistence of significant biodiversity losses and community structure change nearly 1 y after the wellhead was capped indicates that full recovery had yet to have occurred in 2011. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:342-351. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Simulation of Deepwater Horizon oil plume reveals substrate specialization within a complex community of hydrocarbon degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Dubinsky, Eric A; Probst, Alexander J; Wang, Jian; Sieber, Christian M K; Tom, Lauren M; Gardinali, Piero R; Banfield, Jillian F; Atlas, Ronald M; Andersen, Gary L

    2017-07-11

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident released an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 10 10 mol of natural gas into the Gulf of Mexico, forming deep-sea plumes of dispersed oil droplets and dissolved gases that were largely degraded by bacteria. During the course of this 3-mo disaster a series of different bacterial taxa were enriched in succession within deep plumes, but the metabolic capabilities of the different populations that controlled degradation rates of crude oil components are poorly understood. We experimentally reproduced dispersed plumes of fine oil droplets in Gulf of Mexico seawater and successfully replicated the enrichment and succession of the principal oil-degrading bacteria observed during the DWH event. We recovered near-complete genomes, whose phylogeny matched those of the principal biodegrading taxa observed in the field, including the DWH Oceanospirillales (now identified as a Bermanella species), multiple species of Colwellia , Cycloclasticus , and other members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Rhodobacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis, combined with hydrocarbon compositional analysis and species abundance data, revealed substrate specialization that explained the successional pattern of oil-degrading bacteria. The fastest-growing bacteria used short-chain alkanes. The analyses also uncovered potential cooperative and competitive relationships, even among close relatives. We conclude that patterns of microbial succession following deep ocean hydrocarbon blowouts are predictable and primarily driven by the availability of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons rather than natural gases.

  18. Tracing the incorporation of carbon into benthic foraminiferal calcite following the Deepwater Horizon event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Romero, Isabel C; Hollander, David J; Goddard, Ethan A; Brooks, Gregg R; Larson, Rebekka A

    2018-06-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in 2010, hydrocarbons were deposited on the continental slope in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico through marine oil snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that benthic foraminiferal δ 13 C would record this depositional event. From December 2010 to August 2014, a time-series of sediment cores was collected at two impacted sites and one control site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Short-lived radioisotopes ( 210 Pb and 234 Th) were employed to establish the pre-DWH, DWH, and post-DWH intervals. Benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp. and Uvigerina spp.) were isolated from these intervals for δ 13 C measurement. A modest (0.2-0.4‰), but persistent δ 13 C depletion in the DWH intervals of impacted sites was observed over a two-year period. This difference was significantly beyond the pre-DWH (background) variability and demonstrated that benthic foraminiferal calcite recorded the depositional event. The longevity of the depletion in the δ 13 C record suggested that benthic foraminifera may have recorded the change in organic matter caused by MOSSFA from 2010 to 2012. These findings have implications for assessing the subsurface spatial distribution of the DWH MOSSFA event. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Gulf of Mexico shelf hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabalais, Nancy N.; Smith, Leslie M.; Turner, R. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    The oil/water/dispersant mixture from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill was juxtaposed on the Louisiana continental shelf with the annual development of oxygen-depleted bottom waters. There was uncertainty whether the oil from the spill might worsen the extent or severity of the seasonal hypoxic area formation in 2010. The surface and bottom water hydrocarbons in May were elevated compared to in June and July, while the bottom-water dissolved oxygen concentrations were higher in May and June compared to in July. The degradation of oil in the water column or sediments was not known. The results of an empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis of the progression of hypoxia development in May, June and July 2010, and an analysis of conditions in July compared to a 27-year background database, indicated no difference in oxygen concentrations for May, June or July 2010, with or without oil data included, nor any difference in July 2010 compared to other years. The analysis instead indicated that, in all years compared, the hypoxic area increased with higher river discharge, higher nitrate-N load, an easterly (westward) wind and reduced wind speed. Although the analyses did not demonstrate that the oil spill affected, or did not affect, the size of the 2010 hypoxic zone, there was evidence that the 2010 hypoxia season did not differ from the long-term record.

  20. Where the oil from surface and subsurface plumes deposited during/after Deepwater Horizon oil spill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill released an estimated 4.9 million barrels (about 200 million gallons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico between April 20, 2010 and July 15, 2010. Though Valentine et al. has linked the elevated oil components in some sediments with the subsurface plume, the sites with fallout from the ocean surface plume has not been identified. This piece of information is critical not only for a comprehensive scientific understanding of the ecosystem response and fate of spill-related pollutants, but also for litigation purposes and future spill response and restoration planning. In this study we focus on testing the hypothesis that marine snow from the surface plume were deposited on the sea floor over a broad area. To do so, we use publicly available data generated as part of the ongoing Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process to assess the spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and deep-ocean sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitive hydrocarbon markers are used to differentiate hydrocarbons from surface plume, deep subsurface plume, and in-situ burning. Preliminary results suggest the overlapping but different falling sites of these plumes and the sedimentation process was controlled by various biological, chemical, and physical factors.

  1. Prolonged Financial Distress After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Predicts Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Holmes, Katherine; Glenn Morris, J; Grattan, Lynn M

    2018-03-13

    The economic impact of disasters is well known; however, the link between financial loss and behavioral health problems is unknown. Participants included 198 adults of ages 21 to 82, living within 10 miles of the Gulf Coast during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and were involved in the fishing, harvesting, seafood processing, or service/tourism industries. The functional impact of financial resource loss at 2.5 years post spill was measured using the 26-item Financial Life Events Checklist (FLEC). Individuals responded to financial distress by reducing social events and utility bills and changing food-shopping habits. The FLEC significantly predicted higher drug use (Drug Abuse Screening Test), alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), mood problems (Profile of Mood States), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II) (p values ≤ 0.05) 4.5 years after the spill. This preliminary study supports the notion that the functional impact of financial loss has a long-term impact on behavioral health after an oil spill.

  2. Determination and Quantification of metals in the shells of Crassostrea virginica after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill utilizing Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, D.; Patel, S.; Roopnarine, P.; Giarikos, D.; Anderson, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig explosion on April 20, 2010 resulted in the release of 685,000 tons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) over a period of three months. There were obvious immediate effects, but the long-term ramifications are still being studied. The primary constituent of crude oil is hydrocarbons with other organic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. There are also a number of trace metals with the most abundant frequently being iron, nickel, copper and vanadium. These do not degrade like organic materials. However, the exact composition varies among the production sites. The oil from the DWH rig was classified as light crude which is moderately volatile. Natural oil seeps occur in the environment, but the DWH spill represented an acute impact. Trace amounts of heavy metals are a normal part of the composition of marine organisms, but can be toxic in high concentrations. Bivalved molluscs bioaccumulate heavy metals in their tissues and shells, and are therefore often useful as monitors of environmental pollution. We thus used the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica to determine the impact of the spill by measuring the concentrations of metals in the shells utilizing flame emission atomic absorption spectrometry. We focused on the hypothesis that DWH spill exposure resulted in an increase in metal uptake into the shells. Specimens spanned the years 2010 to 2014 and ranged from Grand Isle, LA to Apalachicola Bay, Fl. Vanadium had the greatest concentration in the shells, and along with copper, cadmium, zinc and iron displayed an upward trend of increase from 2010 to 2013, with a decline in 2014. However there was unexpected variability, as the specimens from Apalachicola Bay, Fl had higher levels of vanadium when compared to those from Grand Isle, LA. Ongoing work includes an increase of sample sizes from the same geographic localities and time period.

  3. The Discovery of Deep Oil Plumes at the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Site (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, A. R.; Asper, V. L.; Highsmith, R. C.; Woolsey, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; McLetchie, K.; Gossett, A.; Lowe, M., III; Joung, D.; McKay, L.

    2010-12-01

    In May 2010, the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), a partnership of the University of Mississippi, the University of Southern Mississippi and NOAA, had a 17-day research cruise aboard the UNOLS vessel R/V Pelican scheduled. Two weeks before departure, the Deepwater Horizon oil platform burned and sank, resulting in an uncontrolled oil spill at a depth of ~1500 m at Mississippi Canyon Block 252. The initial mission plan to do AUV surveys of wrecks and hydrate outcrops in the northern Gulf of Mexico, some of them very close to the site of the accident, was abandoned in favor of responding to the still uncontrolled oil spill. The primary goals of the redefined cruise were to acquire baseline and early impact data for seafloor sediments and subsurface distribution of oil and gas hydrates as close as possible in time and space to the origin of the oil spill. Investigating an oil spill nearly a mile deep in the ocean presents special benthic sampling and subsurface oil detection challenges. NIUST’s AUV’s were unloaded from the ship and a large main winch installed to allow operation of a full ocean depth box corer for collecting sediment samples in water depths up to 2000 m. During the first five-day leg of the cruise, a total of 28 box cores were collected. The Pelican returned to port (Cocodrie, LA) to drop off sediment and water samples for immediate analyses, and to take on more sampling gear and supplies for the second leg of the cruise, including an Acrobat, a CDOM fluorometer, a Video Ray ROV, and a CO2 sensor in addition to the already installed CTD Rosette with O2 sensor and beam transmissometer. During Leg 2, CTD stations were plotted to cover the area surrounding the wreck site and at various water depths to map the subsurface water column structure and chemistry as baseline values for future investigations and especially to look for submerged oil and/or gas hydrates. Early in the water column sampling, a subsurface feature

  4. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J.; Guthrie, George D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ observations of the leaking well with a time-dependent flow rate model derived from pressure readings taken after the Macondo well was shut in for the well integrity test. Model simulations also proved valuable for predicting the effect of partial deployment of the blowout preventer rams on flow rate. Taken together, the scientific analyses support flow rates in the range of ~50,000–70,000 barrels/d, perhaps modestly decreasing over the duration of the oil spill, for a total release of ~5.0 million barrels of oil, not accounting for BP's collection effort. By quantifying the amount of oil at different locations (wellhead, ocean surface, and atmosphere), we conclude that just over 2 million barrels of oil (after accounting for containment) and all of the released methane remained in the deep sea. By better understanding the fate of the hydrocarbons, the total discharge can be partitioned into separate components that pose threats to deep sea vs. coastal ecosystems, allowing responders in future events to scale their actions accordingly.

  5. Effects of Deepwater Horizon Oil on the Movement and Survival of Marsh Periwinkle Snails (Littoraria irrorata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, T Ross; Hart, Michael A; Sweet, Lauren E; Bagheri, Hanna T J; Morris, Jeff; Stoeckel, James A; Roberts, Aaron P

    2017-08-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill resulted in the release of millions of barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico, and some marsh shorelines experienced heavy oiling including vegetation laid over under the weight of oil. Periwinkle snails (Littoraria irrorata) are a critical component of these impacted habitats, and population declines following oil spills, including DWH, have been documented. This study determined the effects of oil on marsh periwinkle movement and survivorship following exposure to oil. Snails were placed in chambers containing either unoiled or oiled laid over vegetation to represent a heavily impacted marsh habitat, with unoiled vertical structure at one end. In the first movement assay, snail movement to standing unoiled vegetation was significantly lower in oiled chambers (oil thickness ≈ 1 cm) compared to unoiled chambers, as the majority (∼75%) of snails in oiled habitats never reached standing unoiled vegetation after 72 h. In a second movement assay, there was no snail movement standing unoiled structure in chambers with oil thicknesses of 0.1 and 0.5 cm, while 73% of snails moved in unoiled chambers after 4h. A toxicity assay was then conducted by exposing snails to oil coated Spartina stems in chambers for periods up to 72 h, and mortality was monitored for 7 days post exposure. Snail survival decreased with increasing exposure time, and significant mortality (∼35%) was observed following an oil exposure of less than 24 h. Here, we have shown that oil impeded snail movement to clean habitat over a short distance and resulted in oil-exposure times that decreased survival. Taken together, along with declines documented by others in field surveys, these results suggest that marsh periwinkle snails may have been adversely affected following exposure to DWH oil.

  6. Impact of Deepwater Horizon Spill on food supply to deep-sea benthos communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Pamela; Mienis, Furu; Duineveld, Gerald; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Ross, Steve W.; Brooke, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems encompass unique and often fragile communities that are sensitive to a variety of anthropogenic and natural impacts. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, sampling efforts documented the acute impact of the spill on some deep-sea coral colonies. To investigate the impact of the DWH spill on quality and quantity of biomass delivered to the deep-sea, a suite of geochemical tracers (e.g., stable and radio-isotopes, lipid biomarkers, and compound specific isotopes) was measured from monthly sediment trap samples deployed near a high-density deep-coral site in the Viosca Knoll area of the north-central Gulf of Mexico prior to (Oct-2008 to Sept-2009) and after the spill (Oct-10 to Sept-11). Marine (e.g., autochthonous) sources of organic matter dominated the sediment traps in both years, however after the spill, there was a pronounced reduction in marinesourced OM, including a reduction in marine-sourced sterols and n-alkanes and a concomitant decrease in sediment trap organic carbon and pigment flux. Results from this study indicate a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea in 2010-2011, at least 6-18 months after the spill started. Whereas satellite observations indicate an initial increase in phytoplankton biomass, results from this sediment trap study define a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea community. In addition, a dilution from a low-14C carbon source (e.g., petrocarbon) was detected in the sediment trap samples after the spill, in conjunction with a change in the petrogenic composition. The data presented here fills a critical gap in our knowledge of biogeochemical processes and sub-acute impacts to the deep-sea that ensued after the 2010 DWH spill.

  7. Detection of Oil near Shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Garcia-Pineda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During any marine oil spill, floating oil slicks that reach shorelines threaten a wide array of coastal habitats. To assess the presence of oil near shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, we scanned the library of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery collected during the event to determine which images intersected shorelines and appeared to contain oil. In total, 715 SAR images taken during the DWH spill were analyzed and processed, with 188 of the images clearly showing oil. Of these, 156 SAR images showed oil within 10 km of the shoreline with appropriate weather conditions for the detection of oil on SAR data. We found detectable oil in SAR images within 10 km of the shoreline from west Louisiana to west Florida, including near beaches, marshes, and islands. The high number of SAR images collected in Barataria Bay, Louisiana in 2010 allowed for the creation of a nearshore oiling persistence map. This analysis shows that, in some areas inside Barataria Bay, floating oil was detected on as many as 29 different days in 2010. The nearshore areas with persistent floating oil corresponded well with areas where ground survey crews discovered heavy shoreline oiling. We conclude that satellite-based SAR imagery can detect oil slicks near shorelines, even in sheltered areas. These data can help assess potential shoreline oil exposure without requiring boats or aircraft. This method can be particularly helpful when shoreline assessment crews are hampered by difficult access or, in the case of DWH, a particularly large spatial and temporal spill extent.

  8. Hematological indices of injury to lightly oiled birds from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Jesse A.; Smith, Eric P.; Schoch, Nina; Paruk, James D.; Adams, Evan A.; Evers, David C.; Jodice, Patrick G. R.; Perkins, Christopher; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Hopkins, William A.

    2018-01-01

    Avian mortality events are common following large‐scale oil spills. However, the sublethal effects of oil on birds exposed to light external oiling are not clearly understood. We found that American oystercatchers (area of potential impact n = 42, reference n = 21), black skimmers (area of potential impact n = 121, reference n = 88), brown pelicans (area of potential impact n = 91, reference n = 48), and great egrets (area of potential impact n = 57, reference n = 47) captured between 20 June 2010 and 23 February 2011 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill experienced oxidative injury to erythrocytes, had decreased volume of circulating erythrocytes, and showed evidence of a regenerative hematological response in the form of increased reticulocytes compared with reference populations. Erythrocytic inclusions consistent with Heinz bodies were present almost exclusively in birds from sites impacted with oil, a finding pathognomonic for oxidative injury to erythrocytes. Average packed cell volumes were 4 to 19% lower and average reticulocyte counts were 27 to 40% higher in birds with visible external oil than birds from reference sites. These findings provide evidence that small amounts of external oil exposure are associated with hemolytic anemia. Furthermore, we found that some birds captured from the area impacted by the spill but with no visible oiling also had erythrocytic inclusion bodies, increased reticulocytes, and reduced packed cell volumes when compared with birds from reference sites. Thus, birds suffered hematologic injury despite no visible oil at the time of capture. Together, these findings suggest that adverse effects of oil spills on birds may be more widespread than estimates based on avian mortality or severe visible oiling.

  9. A decline in benthic foraminifera following the deepwater horizon event in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T; Romero, Isabel C; Brooks, Gregg R; Hastings, David W; Larson, Rebekka A; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from three sites (1000-1200 m water depth) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from December 2010 to June 2011 to assess changes in benthic foraminiferal density related to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event (April-July 2010, 1500 m water depth). Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (²¹⁰Pb, ²³⁴Th), organic geochemical assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sediment accumulation rate, contamination, and redox conditions with benthic foraminiferal density. Cores collected in December 2010 indicated a decline in density (80-93%). This decline was characterized by a decrease in benthic foraminiferal density and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rate (BFAR) in the surface 10 mm relative to the down-core mean in all benthic foraminifera, including the dominant genera (Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., and Cibicidoides spp.). Cores collected in February 2011 documented a site-specific response. There was evidence of a recovery in the benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR at the site closest to the wellhead (45 NM, NE). However, the site farther afield (60 NM, NE) recorded a continued decline in benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR down to near-zero values. This decline in benthic foraminiferal density occurred simultaneously with abrupt increases in sedimentary accumulation rates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, and changes in redox conditions. Persistent reducing conditions (as many as 10 months after the event) in the surface of these core records were a possible cause of the decline. Another possible cause was the increase (2-3 times background) in PAH's, which are known to cause benthic foraminifera mortality and inhibit reproduction. Records of benthic foraminiferal density coupled with short-lived radionuclide geochronology and organic geochemistry were effective in quantifying the benthic response and will continue to be a valuable tool in determining the long

  10. AUTOMATIC CALCULATION OF OIL SLICK AREA FROM MULTIPLE SAR ACQUISITIONS FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osmanoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band, Envisat ASAR (C-band and Alos-PALSAR (L-band sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  11. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on deep-sea coral-associated sediment communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Bourque, Jill R.; Cordes, Erik E.; Stamler, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Cold-water corals support distinct populations of infauna within surrounding sediments that provide vital ecosystem functions and services in the deep sea. Yet due to their sedentary existence, infauna are vulnerable to perturbation and contaminant exposure because they are unable to escape disturbance events. While multiple deep-sea coral habitats were injured by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, the extent of adverse effects on coral-associated sediment communities is unknown. In 2011, sediments were collected adjacent to several coral habitats located 6 to 183 km from the wellhead in order to quantify the extent of impact of the DWH spill on infaunal communities. Higher variance in macrofaunal abundance and diversity, and different community structure (higher multivariate dispersion) were associated with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations and contaminants at sites closest to the wellhead (MC294, MC297, and MC344), consistent with impacts from the spill. In contrast, variance in meiofaunal diversity was not significantly related to distance from the wellhead and no other community metric (e.g. density or multivariate dispersion) was correlated with contaminants or hydrocarbon concentrations. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) provided the best statistical explanation for observed macrofaunal community structure, while depth and presence of fine-grained mud best explained meiofaunal community patterns. Impacts associated with contaminants from the DWH spill resulted in a patchwork pattern of infaunal community composition, diversity, and abundance, highlighting the role of variability as an indicator of disturbance. These data represent a useful baseline for tracking post-spill recovery of these deep-sea communities.

  12. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia K; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J; Guthrie, George D; Hsieh, Paul A; Ryerson, Thomas B; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2012-12-11

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ observations of the leaking well with a time-dependent flow rate model derived from pressure readings taken after the Macondo well was shut in for the well integrity test. Model simulations also proved valuable for predicting the effect of partial deployment of the blowout preventer rams on flow rate. Taken together, the scientific analyses support flow rates in the range of ∼50,000-70,000 barrels/d, perhaps modestly decreasing over the duration of the oil spill, for a total release of ∼5.0 million barrels of oil, not accounting for BP's collection effort. By quantifying the amount of oil at different locations (wellhead, ocean surface, and atmosphere), we conclude that just over 2 million barrels of oil (after accounting for containment) and all of the released methane remained in the deep sea. By better understanding the fate of the hydrocarbons, the total discharge can be partitioned into separate components that pose threats to deep sea vs. coastal ecosystems, allowing responders in future events to scale their actions accordingly.

  13. Lessons learned while building the Deepwater Horizon Database: Toward improved data sharing in coastal science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thessen, Anne E.; McGinnis, Sean; North, Elizabeth W.

    2016-02-01

    Process studies and coupled-model validation efforts in geosciences often require integration of multiple data types across time and space. For example, improved prediction of hydrocarbon fate and transport is an important societal need which fundamentally relies upon synthesis of oceanography and hydrocarbon chemistry. Yet, there are no publically accessible databases which integrate these diverse data types in a georeferenced format, nor are there guidelines for developing such a database. The objective of this research was to analyze the process of building one such database to provide baseline information on data sources and data sharing and to document the challenges and solutions that arose during this major undertaking. The resulting Deepwater Horizon Database was approximately 2.4 GB in size and contained over 8 million georeferenced data points collected from industry, government databases, volunteer networks, and individual researchers. The major technical challenges that were overcome were reconciliation of terms, units, and quality flags which were necessary to effectively integrate the disparate data sets. Assembling this database required the development of relationships with individual researchers and data managers which often involved extensive e-mail contacts. The average number of emails exchanged per data set was 7.8. Of the 95 relevant data sets that were discovered, 38 (40%) were obtained, either in whole or in part. Over one third (36%) of the requests for data went unanswered. The majority of responses were received after the first request (64%) and within the first week of the first request (67%). Although fewer than half of the potentially relevant datasets were incorporated into the database, the level of sharing (40%) was high compared to some other disciplines where sharing can be as low as 10%. Our suggestions for building integrated databases include budgeting significant time for e-mail exchanges, being cognizant of the cost versus

  14. Simulating oil droplet dispersal from the Deepwater Horizon spill with a Lagrangian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Elizabeth W.; Schlag, Zachary; Adams, E. Eric; Sherwood, Christopher R.; He, Ruoying; Hyun, Hoon; Socolofsky, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical multiphase plume model, combined with time-varying flow and hydrographic fields generated by the 3-D South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico model (SABGOM) hydrodynamic model, were used as input to a Lagrangian transport model (LTRANS), to simulate transport of oil droplets dispersed at depth from the recent Deepwater Horizon MC 252 oil spill. The plume model predicts a stratification-dominated near field, in which small oil droplets detrain from the central plume containing faster rising large oil droplets and gas bubbles and become trapped by density stratification. Simulated intrusion (trap) heights of ∼ 310–370 m agree well with the midrange of conductivity-temperature-depth observations, though the simulated variation in trap height was lower than observed, presumably in part due to unresolved variability in source composition (percentage oil versus gas) and location (multiple leaks during first half of spill). Simulated droplet trajectories by the SABGOM-LTRANS modeling system showed that droplets with diameters between 10 and 50 μm formed a distinct subsurface plume, which was transported horizontally and remained in the subsurface for >1 month. In contrast, droplets with diameters ≥90 μm rose rapidly to the surface. Simulated trajectories of droplets ≤50 μm in diameter were found to be consistent with field observations of a southwest-tending subsurface plume in late June 2010 reported by Camilli et al. [2010]. Model results suggest that the subsurface plume looped around to the east, with potential subsurface oil transport to the northeast and southeast. Ongoing work is focusing on adding degradation processes to the model to constrain droplet dispersal.

  15. Measuring the Impact of the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Consumer Behavior: Evidence from a Natural Experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ashton Morgan; John C. Whitehead; William L. Huth; Gregory S. Martin; Richard Sjolander

    2013-01-01

    A natural experiment setting is exploited to develop a unique dataset of oyster consumer actual and anticipated behavior immediately prior to and following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Using data from a repeat sample of oyster consumers, a pre and post-spill revealed and stated preference model allows both a short and longer-term response to the spill to be investigated. Findings indicate that, as expected, the BP spill had a negative impact on oyster demand in terms of short-run actua...

  16. Krisekommunikation på dybt vand: En analyse af BP's håndtering af Deepwater Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Mærsk-Møller, Christian; Norrmann, Jeppe; Kühl, Alexander Heldbo

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to investigate BP’s crisis management through social media during and after the oil spill from Deepwater Horizon. The project aims to gain an insight into how BP has handled the crisis situation by using Facebook and YouTube. The project will provide an insight in the crisis strategies, that have been used because of the largest environmental disaster ever, and how the new medias such as Facebook and YouTube can be used in this context. A crisis situation leads to a weakenin...

  17. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Tzintzuni I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and

  18. Long Term Geoelectrical Monitoring of Deep-water Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the aftermath of the catastrophic Deep-water Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf Coast, opportunities exist to study the evolution of fresh crude oil contamination in beach sediments and marshes. Grand Terre 1 Island, off the coast of Grand Isle in southern Louisiana, is an uninhabited barrier island, heavily impacted by the DWH spill, and ideal for undisturbed long term monitoring of crude oil degradation processes. A 10 channel Syscal-Pro resistivity / IP instrument (IRIS Instruments, France) is the heart of the fully autonomous geoelectrical monitoring system; the system, which is housed in a weatherproof container, relies solely on solar power, is controlled by an energy efficient PC and can be accessed remotely via web tools. The monitoring scheme involves collecting bi-daily resistivity measurements from surface and shallow boreholes, ranging from January 2011 to the present; environmental parameters, such as T, are continuously recorded at several depths. During regular field trips we perform larger scale geophysical surveys, and geochemical measurements (pH, DO, T, fluid C) to support the continuous geophysical monitoring. The contaminated layer on site is a visually distinctive layer of crude oil, isolated by cleaner sands above and below which is identified by a clear and obvious resistive anomaly in preliminary surveys. Early results show a decrease in average of the resistance values of each dataset over time. Further processing of the data yields a linearly shaped resistive anomaly, which coincides with the location of the oil layer. The changes in subsurface resistivity appear to be focused within this anomaly. Time filtering of the data by the time that they were collected, morning or evening, reveals a diurnal variation. While both time frames follow the same overall trend, the measurements in the morning are slightly more resistive than those in the evening. This indicates that there are environmental factors, such as temperature, that need to be

  19. Radiocarbon evidence that carbon from the Deepwater Horizon spill entered the planktonic food web of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanton, J P; Wilson, R M; Mickle, A; Cherrier, J; Sarkodee-Adoo, J; Bosman, S; Graham, W M

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (Macondo) oil spill released large volumes of oil and gas of distinct carbon isotopic composition to the northern Gulf of Mexico, allowing Graham et al (2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 045301) to use stable carbon isotopes (δ 13 C) to infer the introduction of spilled oil into the planktonic food web. Surface ocean organic production and measured oil are separated by 5–7‰ in stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C) space, while in radiocarbon (Δ 14 C) space these two potential sources are separated by more than 1000‰. Thus radiocarbon isotopes provide a more sensitive tracer by which to infer possible introduction of Macondo oil into the food web. We measured Δ 14 C and δ 13 C in plankton collected from within 100 km of the spill site as well as in coastal and offshore DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon or ΣCO 2 ) to constrain surface production values. On average, plankton values were depleted in 14 C relative to surface DIC, and we found a significant linear correlation between Δ 14 C and δ 13 C in plankton. Cumulatively, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbon released from the Deepwater Horizon spill contributed to the offshore planktonic food web. Our results support the findings of Graham et al (2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 045301), but we infer that methane input may be important. (letter)

  20. Was the extreme and widespread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, S.M.; Hollander, D.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates

  1. Characterization of epibenthic and demersal megafauna at Mississippi Canyon 252 shortly after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Marla M; Benfield, Mark C

    2013-12-15

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill resulted in the release of a large quantity of oil and gas into the northern Gulf of Mexico from a bathypelagic source. Due to a lack of pre-spill quantitative data the baseline condition of the communities near the spill site is unknown. This makes it difficult to determine the impact of the spill on deepwater megafauna. Remotely operated vehicles were used to quantify megafauna at five study sites during August and September 2010:2000 m north, west, south, and east, and 500 m north of the Macondo well. Comparisons of animal abundances indicated that 2000 m-N and 2000 m-W had the greatest taxonomic richness and highest abundances while 2000 m-E had slightly lower values. In contrast 500 m-N and 2000 m-S had the lowest taxonomic richness and abundances. Our study also suggests that certain taxa were potentially more resistant or sensitive to the spill. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low level exposure to crude oil impacts avian flight performance: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill effect on migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-12-01

    In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history. The three month oil spill left tens of thousands of birds dead; however, the fate of tens of thousands of other migratory birds that were affected but did not immediately die is unknown. We used the homing pigeon as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects of a single external oiling event on the flight performance of birds. Data from GPS data loggers revealed that lightly oiled pigeons took significantly longer to return home and spent more time stopped en route than unoiled birds. This suggests that migratory birds affected by the oil spill could have experienced long term flight impairment and delayed arrival to breeding, wintering, or crucial stopover sites and subsequently suffered reductions in survival and reproductive success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Bethanie R; Reddy, Christopher M; Carmichael, Catherine A; Longnecker, Krista; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Camilli, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, and the fate of this oil within the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem remains to be fully understood. The goal of this study-conducted in mid-June of 2010, approximately two months after the oil spill began-was to understand the key role that microbes would play in the degradation of the oil in the offshore oligotrophic surface waters near the Deepwater Horizon site. As the utilization of organic carbon by bacteria in the surface waters of the Gulf had been previously shown to be phosphorus limited, we hypothesized that bacteria would be unable to rapidly utilize the oil released from the Macondo well. Although phosphate was scarce throughout the sampling region and microbes exhibited enzymatic signs of phosphate stress within the oil slick, microbial respiration within the slick was enhanced by approximately a factor of five. An incubation experiment to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates confirmed that a large fraction of this enhanced respiration was supported by hydrocarbon degradation. Extrapolating our observations to the entire area of the slick suggests that microbes had the potential to degrade a large fraction of the oil as it arrived at the surface from the well. These observations decidedly refuted our hypothesis. However, a concomitant increase in microbial abundance or biomass was not observed in the slick, suggesting that microbial growth was nutrient limited; incubations amended with nutrients showed rapid increases in cell number and biomass, which supported this conclusion. Our study shows that the dynamic microbial community of the Gulf of Mexico supported remarkable rates of oil respiration, despite a dearth of dissolved nutrients.

  4. Marine ecoregion and Deepwater Horizon oil spill affect recruitment and population structure of a salt marsh snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Steven C.; Zengel, Scott; Oehrig, Jacob; Alber, Merryl; Bishop, T. Dale; Deis, Donald R.; Devlin, Donna; Hughes, A. Randall; Hutchens, John J.; Kiehn, Whitney M.; McFarlin, Caroline R.; Montague, Clay L.; Powers, Sean P.; Proffitt, C. Edward; Rutherford, Nicolle; Stagg, Camille L.; Walters, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Marine species with planktonic larvae often have high spatial and temporal variation in recruitment that leads to subsequent variation in the ecology of benthic adults. Using a combination of published and unpublished data, we compared the population structure of the salt marsh snail, Littoraria irrorata, between the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf Coast of the United States to infer geographic differences in recruitment and to test the hypothesis that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill led to widespread recruitment failure of L. irrorata in Louisiana in 2010. Size-frequency distributions in both ecoregions were bimodal, with troughs in the distributions consistent with a transition from sub-adults to adults at ~13 mm in shell length as reported in the literature; however, adult snails reached larger sizes in the Gulf Coast. The ratio of sub-adults to adults was 1.5–2 times greater in the South Atlantic Bight than the Gulf Coast, consistent with higher recruitment rates in the South Atlantic Bight. Higher recruitment rates in the South Atlantic Bight could contribute to higher snail densities and reduced adult growth in this region. The ratio of sub-adults to adults in Louisiana was lower in 2011 than in previous years, and began to recover in 2012–2014, consistent with widespread recruitment failure in 2010, when large expanses of spilled oil were present in coastal waters. Our results reveal an important difference in the ecology of a key salt marsh invertebrate between the two ecoregions, and also suggest that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill may have caused widespread recruitment failure in this species and perhaps others with similar planktonic larval stages.

  5. Images of Gorgonian Corals in the Gulf of Mexico taken from 2010-11-03 to 2010-12-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0084636)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images of Gorgonian Corals were taken during two cruises in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event. The first cruise was aboard NOAA...

  6. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico on 2010-08-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico on 2010-08-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  7. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by AXBT's and AXCTD's from NOAA Aircraft from 20100508 to 20100724 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065723)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  8. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-17 to 2010-06-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-17 to 2010-06-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  9. Collection of scribe databases compiled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident in the Gulf of Mexico from 04/23/2010 to 11/08/2011 (NODC Accession 0086261)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scribe Database Collection includes 14 databases containing data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Event Response Phase. These databases are the work of...

  10. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by XBT's aboard the Walton Smith from 20100607 to 20100610 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  11. Biological and chemical data of oil-derived elements being assimilated by oysters due to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill collected in Alabama and Mississippi coastal waters (NODC Accession 0118498)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in oyster shell, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill....

  12. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  13. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by Gliders from 20100528 to 20100830 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  14. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by Floats from 20100524 to 20101206 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065725)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  15. Deepwater Horizon oil in Gulf of Mexico waters after 2 years: transformation into the dissolved organic matter pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S; Osburn, Christopher; Shields, Michael R; Yvon-Lewis, Shari; Young, Jordan; Guo, Laodong; Zhou, Zhengzhen

    2014-08-19

    Recent work has shown the presence of anomalous dissolved organic matter (DOM), with high optical yields, in deep waters 15 months after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Here, we continue to use the fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) technique coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling, measurements of bulk organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), oil indices, and other optical properties to examine the chemical evolution and transformation of oil components derived from the DWH in the water column of the GOM. Seawater samples were collected from the GOM during July 2012, 2 years after the oil spill. This study shows that, while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values have decreased since just after the DWH spill, they remain higher at some stations than typical deep-water values for the GOM. Moreover, we continue to observe fluorescent DOM components in deep waters, similar to those of degraded oil observed in lab and field experiments, which suggest that oil-related fluorescence signatures, as part of the DOM pool, have persisted for 2 years in the deep waters. This supports the notion that some oil-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) components could still be identified in deep waters after 2 years of degradation, which is further supported by the lower DIC and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) associated with greater amounts of these oil-derived components in deep waters, assuming microbial activity on DOM in the current water masses is only the controlling factor of DIC and pCO2 concentrations.

  16. Using Ramped Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Petroleum Hydrocarbons Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Bacosa, H. P.; Liu, J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In summer of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill polluted hundreds of miles of coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. A combination of human-mediated and natural weathering processes then altered the chemical composition (i.e. toxicity) of this spilled crude oil over time and space. One of the most important, yet challenging, aspects of oil spill science is to quantify these chemical changes in natural environments. In this study, we develop ramped pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to address this challenge. In this technique, 0.1mg of freeze-dried sample is pyrolyzed over a gradual temperature ramp (50-650°C). The eluded gas is cold-trapped over different thermal ranges (a.k.a. thermal slicing) and each range is individually analyzed via GC-MS, yielding quantifiable, compound-specific results. Py-GC-MS with thermal slicing has never been used for petroleum hydrocarbon analysis, but it has many advantages - it uses minimal sample, is time efficient and does not require sample preparation (minimizing compound loss and increasing the analytical window). During development of this method, we analyzed oiled sediments and tar collected on Grand Isle, Louisiana from 2010-2012. We quantified n-alkane (C10-C38), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hopane content and confirmed these results with traditional solvent extraction, silica gel fractionation and mass spectrometry. Overall, we found rapid depletion of n-alkanes and PAHs (>90% depletion) in all samples within one year of Deepwater Horizon. After this, n-alkanes were almost 100% depleted by 2012, while PAH degradation continued to a maximum total degradation of 99% and 98% in sediment and tar, respectively. This not only describes the fate of petroleum compounds in salt marshes and beach deposits over time, but also complements previous radiocarbon studies of the same samples showing different rates of degradation in different micro-environments. In addition, the results presented

  17. Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole

  18. A three year study of metal levels in skin biopsies of whales in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, James T F; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Xie, Hong; Walter, Ron; Boswell, Mikki; Zhu, Cairong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Perkins, Christopher; Wise, John Pierce

    2018-02-01

    In response to the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon and the massive release of oil that followed, we conducted three annual research voyages to investigate how the oil spill would impact the marine offshore environment. Most investigations into the ecological and toxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil crisis have mainly focused on the fate of the oil and dispersants, but few have considered the release of metals into the environment. From studies of previous oil spills, other marine oil industries, and analyses of oil compositions, it is evident that metals are frequently encountered. Several metals have been reported in the MC252 oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the nonessential metals aluminum, arsenic, chromium, nickel, and lead; genotoxic metals, such as these are able to damage DNA and can bioaccumulate in organisms resulting in persistent exposure. In the Gulf of Mexico, whales are the apex species; hence we collected skin biopsies from sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), and Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni). The results from our three-year study of monitoring metal levels in whale skin show (1) genotoxic metals at concentrations higher than global averages previously reported and (2) patterns for MC252-relevant metal concentrations decreasing with time from the oil spill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, Kai; McKay, Luke; Rhodes, Benjamin; Osburn, Christopher L; Dickson-Brown, Jennifer; Arnosti, Carol; Teske, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles) demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis) indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (β-glucosidase; peptidase), as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

  20. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Marine snow formation in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passow, U; Ziervogel, K; Asper, V; Diercks, A

    2012-01-01

    The large marine snow formation event observed in oil-contaminated surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) after the Deepwater Horizon accident possibly played a key role in the fate of the surface oil. We characterized the unusually large and mucus-rich marine snow that formed and conducted roller table experiments to investigate their formation mechanisms. Once marine snow lost its buoyancy, its sinking velocity, porosity and excess density were then similar to those of diatom or miscellaneous aggregates. The hydrated density of the component particles of the marine snow from the GoM was remarkably variable, suggesting a wide variety of component types. Our experiments suggest that the marine snow appearing at the surface after the oil spill was formed through the interaction of three mechanisms: (1) production of mucous webs through the activities of bacterial oil-degraders associated with the floating oil layer; (2) production of oily particulate matter through interactions of oil components with suspended matter and their coagulation; and (3) coagulation of phytoplankton with oil droplets incorporated into aggregates. Marine snow formed in some, but not all, experiments with water from the subsurface plume of dissolved hydrocarbons, emphasizing the complexity of the conditions leading to the formation of marine snow in oil-contaminated seawater at depth. (letter)

  2. Larval Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Sublethal Exposure to Weathered Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil: Developmental and Transcriptomic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Khursigara, Alex J; Magnuson, Jason; Hazard, E Starr; Hardiman, Gary; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Roberts, Aaron P; Schlenk, Daniel

    2017-09-05

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident resulted in extensive oiling of the pelagic zone and shoreline habitats of many commercially important fish species. Exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of oil from the spill causes developmental toxicity through cardiac defects in pelagic fish species. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of the oil on near-shore estuarine fish species such as red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Following exposure to a certified weathered slick oil (4.74 μg/L ∑PAH 50 ) from the DWH event, significant sublethal impacts were observed ranging from impaired nervous system development [average 17 and 22% reductions in brain and eye area at 48 h postfertilization (hpf), respectively] to abnormal cardiac morphology (100% incidence at 24, 48, and 72 hpf) in red drum larvae. Consistent with the phenotypic responses, significantly differentially expressed transcripts, enriched gene ontology, and altered functions and canonical pathways predicted adverse outcomes in nervous and cardiovascular systems, with more pronounced changes at later larval stages. Our study demonstrated that the WAF of weathered slick oil of DWH caused morphological abnormalities predicted by a suite of advanced bioinformatic tools in early developing red drum and also provided the basis for a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of crude oil toxicity in fish.

  3. Mitigating Litigating: An Examination of Psychosocial Impacts of Compensation Processes Associated with the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Liesel A; Gill, Duane A; Long, Michael A

    2018-01-31

    During the past four decades, a number of social science scholars have conceptualized technological disasters as a social problem. More specifically, research in this arena has identified individual and collective stress as a secondary trauma of processes intended to provide compensation and economic relief from disasters in general and, more specifically, technological disasters. Based on data from a 2013 household telephone survey of 1,216 residents of coastal Alabama, this article examines the relationship between psychosocial stress and compensation processes related to the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We examine involvement with claims, settlement, and litigation activities; vulnerability and exposure to the spill; ties to resources; resource loss and gain; perceptions of risk and recreancy; and intrusive stress and avoidance behaviors as measured by the impact of event scale. Regression analysis reveals that the strongest contributors to intrusive stress were being part of the compensation process, resource loss, concerns about air quality, and income. Although being involved with compensation processes was a significant predictor of avoidance behaviors, the strongest contributors to avoidance behaviors were resource loss, air quality concern, income, being male, minority status, and community attachment. Beliefs that the compensation process was as distressing as the oil spill also significantly contributed to intrusive stress and avoidance behaviors. This research represents a step toward filling a gap in empirical evidence regarding the extent to which protracted compensation processes exacerbate adverse psychosocial impacts of disasters and hinder community recovery. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Characterizing the variability of benthic foraminifera in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon event (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, P T; O'Malley, B J; Romero, I C; Martínez-Colón, M; Hastings, D W; Glabach, M A; Hladky, E M; Greco, A; Hollander, D J

    2017-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in 2010 subsurface hydrocarbon intrusions (1000-1300 m) and an order of magnitude increase in flocculent hydrocarbon deposition caused increased concentrations of hydrocarbons in continental slope sediments. This study sought to characterize the variability [density, Fisher's alpha (S), equitability (E), Shannon (H)] of benthic foraminifera following the DWH event. A series of sediment cores were collected at two sites in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from 2010 to 2012. At each site, three cores were utilized for benthic faunal analysis, organic geochemistry, and redox metal chemistry, respectively. The surface intervals (∼0-10 mm) of the sedimentary records collected in December 2010 at DSH08 and February 2011 at PCB06 were characterized by significant decreases in foraminiferal density, S, E, and H, relative to the down-core intervals as well as previous surveys. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis suggested that a 3-fold increase in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration in the surface interval, relative to the down-core interval, was the environmental driver of benthic foraminiferal variability. These records suggested that the benthic foraminiferal recovery time, following an event such as the DWH, was on the order of 1-2 years.

  5. Simulation of the landfall of the Deepwater Horizon oil on the shorelines of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C; Abdollahi-Nasab, Ali; Geng, Xiaolong; Galt, Jerry; Torlapati, Jagadish

    2014-08-19

    We conducted simulations of oil transport from the footprint of the Macondo Well on the water surface throughout the Gulf of Mexico, including deposition on the shorelines. We used the U.S. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME) and the same parameter values and input adopted by NOAA following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout. We found that the disappearance rate of oil off the water surface was most likely around 20% per day based on satellite-based observations of the disappearance rate of oil detected on the sea surface after the DWH wellhead was capped. The simulations and oil mass estimates suggest that the mass of oil that reached the shorelines was between 10,000 and 30,000 tons, with an expected value of 22,000 tons. More than 90% of the oil deposition occurred on the Louisiana shorelines, and it occurred in two batches. Simulations revealed that capping the well after 2 weeks would have resulted in only 30% of the total oil depositing on the shorelines, while capping after 3 weeks would have resulted in 60% deposition. Additional delay in capping after 3 weeks would have averted little additional shoreline oiling over the ensuing 4 weeks.

  6. Dietary intake of Deepwater Horizon oil-injected live food fish by double-crested cormorants resulted in oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, Karen L; Perez, Cristina R; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Dean, Karen M; Cacela, Dave; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Cunningham, Fred; Bursian, Steven J; Link, Jane E; Shriner, Susan; Horak, Katherine; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history and exposing fish, birds, and marine mammals throughout the Gulf of Mexico to its toxicity. Fish eating waterbirds such as the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) were exposed to the oil both by direct contact with the oil and orally through preening and the ingestion of contaminated fish. This study investigated the effects of orally ingestedMC252 oil-contaminated live fish food by double-crested cormorants on oxidative stress. Total, reduced, and oxidized glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were assessed in the liver tissues of control and treated cormorants. The results suggest that ingestion of the oil-contaminated fish resulted in significant increase in oxidative stress in the liver tissues of these birds. The oil-induced increase in oxidative stress could have detrimental impacts on the bird's life-history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of behavioral parameters, hematological markers, liver and kidney functions in rodents exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil and Corexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sindhu; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Majrashi, Mohammed; Morgan, Marlee; Prabhakar Clement, T; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2018-04-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill is the largest marine oil spill in US history. In the aftermath of the spill, the response efforts used a chemical dispersant, Corexit, to disperse the oil spill. The health impacts of crude oil and Corexit mixture to humans, mammals, fishes, and birds are mostly unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the in vivo effects of DWH oil, Corexit, and oil-Corexit mixture on the general behavior, hematological markers, and liver and kidney functions of rodents. C57 Bl6 mice were treated with DWH oil (80 mg/kg) and/or Corexit (95 mg/kg), and several hematological markers, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions were monitored. The results show that both DWH oil and Corexit altered the white blood cells and platelet counts. Moreover, they also impacted the lipid profile and induced toxic effects on the liver and kidney functions. The impacts were more pronounced when the mice were treated with a mixture of DWH-oil and Corexit. This study provides preliminary data to elucidate the potential toxicological effects of DWH oil, Corexit, and their mixtures on mammalian health. Residues from the DWH spill continue to remain trapped along various Gulf Coast beaches and therefore further studies are needed to fully understand their long-term impacts on coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Impacts to Ecological Services: Buried Oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Spill and Its Effect on Salt Marsh Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B. M.; White, J. R.; Delaune, R.

    2016-02-01

    In coastal Louisiana (LA), demands for ecosystem services are increasing while human activities continue to deteriorate coastal systems. On April 20, 2010, the largest offshore oil spill in United States history occurred in the Gulf of Mexico, known as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Approximately 795 million L of crude oil were released, consequently oiling 1,773 km of Gulf Coast shoreline. Four years later, oil from the spill was found buried in the soil and seeping at the salt marsh surface in Bay Jimmy, LA. Previous studies found that immediately following oil exposure, wetland soils have suppressed microbial activity. This study seeks to understand effects of the long-term presence of oil on soil microbes and associated impacts to wetland soil denitrification. Bulk soil and intact soil cores were collected four years after the DWH spill from a heavily impacted salt marsh and a proximal site deemed unoiled in Barataria Bay, LA. Oil present in the soil subsurface increased dry weight bulk density, and decreased moisture content. Potential denitrification (acetylene block) in the top 10 cm of soil was 38% lower for oiled samples versus unoiled controls. Areal nitrate reduction rates were significantly lower in oiled samples in an intact core flux experiment under environmentally relevant nitrate conditions (2mg/L NO3-N), P-value ecosystem service of water quality improvement. Future studies should investigate impacts of oil being rebroadcasted onto marshes as land erodes in the study area.

  9. Simulating surface oil transport during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Experiments with the BioCast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, Jason Keith; Smith, Travis A.; Ladner, Sherwin; Arnone, Robert A.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing nowcast/forecast software systems designed to combine satellite ocean color data streams with physical circulation models in order to produce prognostic fields of ocean surface materials. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico provided a test case for the Bio-Optical Forecasting (BioCast) system to rapidly combine the latest satellite imagery of the oil slick distribution with surface circulation fields in order to produce oil slick transport scenarios and forecasts. In one such sequence of experiments, MODIS satellite true color images were combined with high-resolution ocean circulation forecasts from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®) to produce 96-h oil transport simulations. These oil forecasts predicted a major oil slick landfall at Grand Isle, Louisiana, USA that was subsequently observed. A key driver of the landfall scenario was the development of a coastal buoyancy current associated with Mississippi River Delta freshwater outflow. In another series of experiments, longer-term regional circulation model results were combined with oil slick source/sink scenarios to simulate the observed containment of surface oil within the Gulf of Mexico. Both sets of experiments underscore the importance of identifying and simulating potential hydrodynamic conduits of surface oil transport. The addition of explicit sources and sinks of surface oil concentrations provides a framework for increasingly complex oil spill modeling efforts that extend beyond horizontal trajectory analysis.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Oxygenated PAH (OPAH) Air–Water Exchange during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water–air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m3 and 0.3 and 27 ng/m3, respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air–water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10 000 ng/m2/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m2/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air–water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-06

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology.

  12. The deepwater horizon oil spill coast guard cohort study: A cross-sectional study of acute respiratory health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Melannie; Engel, Lawrence S; Olaiya, Nathan; Wang, Li; Barrett, John; Weems, Laura; Schwartz, Erica G; Rusiecki, Jennifer A

    2018-04-01

    Over 8500 United States Coast Guard (USCG) personnel were deployed in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill; however, human respiratory effects as a result of spill-related exposures are relatively unknown. USCG personnel who responded to the DWH oil spill were queried via survey on exposures to crude oil and oil dispersant, and acute respiratory symptoms experienced during deployment. Adjusted log binomial regressions were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), investigating the associations between oil spill exposures and respiratory symptoms. 4855 USCG personnel completed the survey. More than half (54.6%) and almost one-fourth (22.0%) of responders were exposed to crude oil and oil dispersants, respectively. Coughing was the most prevalent symptom (19.4%), followed by shortness of breath (5.5%), and wheezing (3.6%). Adjusted analyses showed an exposure-response relationship between increasing deployment duration and likelihood of coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing in the pre-capping period. A similar pattern was observed in the post-capping period for coughing and wheezing. Adjusted analyses revealed increased PRs for coughing (PR=1.92), shortness of breath (PR=2.60), and wheezing (PR=2.68) for any oil exposure. Increasing frequency of inhalation of oil was associated with increased likelihood of all three respiratory symptoms. A similar pattern was observed for contact with oil dispersants for coughing and shortness of breath. The combination of both oil and oil dispersants presented associations that were much greater in magnitude than oil alone for coughing (PR=2.72), shortness of breath (PR=4.65), and wheezing (PR=5.06). Results from the present study suggested strong relationships between oil and oil dispersant exposures and acute respiratory symptoms among disaster responders. Future prospective studies will be needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling photosynthesis of Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill using Bayesian inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Biber, Patrick D; Peterson, Mark S; Gong Chongfeng

    2012-01-01

    To study the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on photosynthesis of coastal salt marsh plants in Mississippi, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) model based on field measurements collected from July 2010 to November 2011. We sampled three locations in Davis Bayou, Mississippi (30.375°N, 88.790°W) representative of a range of oil spill impacts. Measured photosynthesis was negative (respiration only) at the heavily oiled location in July 2010 only, and rates started to increase by August 2010. Photosynthesis at the medium oiling location was lower than at the control location in July 2010 and it continued to decrease in September 2010. During winter 2010–2011, the contrast between the control and the two impacted locations was not as obvious as in the growing season of 2010. Photosynthesis increased through spring 2011 at the three locations and decreased starting with October at the control location and a month earlier (September) at the impacted locations. Using the field data, we developed an HB model. The model simulations agreed well with the measured photosynthesis, capturing most of the variability of the measured data. On the basis of the posteriors of the parameters, we found that air temperature and photosynthetic active radiation positively influenced photosynthesis whereas the leaf stress level negatively affected photosynthesis. The photosynthesis rates at the heavily impacted location had recovered to the status of the control location about 140 days after the initial impact, while the impact at the medium impact location was never severe enough to make photosynthesis significantly lower than that at the control location over the study period. The uncertainty in modeling photosynthesis rates mainly came from the individual and micro-site scales, and to a lesser extent from the leaf scale. (letter)

  14. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ziervogel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (β-glucosidase; peptidase, as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

  15. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly 13C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  16. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Kappell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including PAHs, were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH

  17. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Romero

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000-1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC, aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs, and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1 sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material, and 2 advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead.

  18. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. PMID:29329313

  19. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation of intertidal nematodes in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannock, Pamela M; Sharma, Jyotsna; Bik, Holly M; Thomas, W Kelley; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2017-09-01

    Nematodes are an abundant and diverse interstitial component of sedimentary habitats that have been reported to serve as important bioindicators. Though the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster occurred 60 km offshore in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) at a depth of 1525 m, oil rose to the surface and washed ashore, subjecting large segments of coastline in the northern GOM to contamination. Previous metabarcoding work shows intertidal nematode communities were negatively affected by the oil spill. Here we examine the subsequent recovery of nematode community structure at five sites along the Alabama coast over a two-year period. The latter part of the study (July 2011-July 2012) also included an examination of nematode vertical distribution in intertidal sediments. Results showed nematode composition within this region was more influenced by sample locality than time and depth. The five sampling sites were characterized by distinct nematode assemblages that varied by sampling dates. Nematode diversity decreased four months after the oil spill but increased after one year, returning to previous levels at all sites except Bayfront Park (BP). There was no significant difference among nematode assemblages in reference to vertical distribution. Although the composition of nematode assemblages changed, the feeding guilds they represented were not significantly different even though some variation was noted. Data from morphological observations integrated with metabarcoding data indicated similar spatial variation in nematode distribution patterns, indicating the potential of using these faster approaches to examine overall disturbance impact trends within communities. Heterogeneity of microhabitats in the intertidal zone indicates that future sampling and fine-scale studies of nematodes are needed to examine such anthropogenic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Survey of Deepwater Horizon (DWH Oil-Degrading Bacteria from the Eastern Oyster Biome and its Surrounding Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eThomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident led to the release of an estimated 794,936,474 liters of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico over an 85 day period in 2010, resulting in the contamination of the Gulf of Mexico waters, sediments, permeable beach sands, coastal wetlands and marine life. This study examines the potential response of the Eastern oyster’s microbiome to hydrocarbon contamination and compares it with the bacterial community responses observed from the overlaying water column and the oyster bed sediments. For this purpose, microcosms seeded with DWH crude oil were established and inoculated separately with oyster tissue (OT, mantle fluid (MF, overlaying water column (WC and sediments (S collected from Apalachicola Bay, FL. Shifts in the microbial community structure in the amended microcosms was monitored over a 3-month period using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer region analysis (ARISA, which showed that the microbiome of the oyster tissue and mantle fluid were more similar to the sediment communities than those present in the overlaying water column. This pattern remained largely consistent, regardless of the concentration of crude oil or the enrichment period. Additionally, 72 oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from the microcosms containing OT, MF, WC and S and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequencing and compared by principal component analysis (PCA which clearly showed that the water column isolates were different to those identified from the sediment. Conversely, the oyster tissue and mantle fluid isolates clustered together; a strong indication that the oyster microbiome is uniquely structured relative to its surrounding environment. When selected isolates from the OT, MF, WC and S were assessed for their oil-degrading potential, we found that the DWH oil was biodegraded between 12%-42%, under the existing conditions.

  2. Single-cell genomics reveals features of a Colwellia species that was dominant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia eMason

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume developed resulting in a rapid succession of bacteria. Colwellia eventually supplanted Oceanospirillales, which dominated the plume early in the spill. These successional changes may have resulted, in part, from the changing composition and abundance of hydrocarbons over time. Colwellia abundance peaked when gaseous and simple aromatic hydrocarbons increased, yet the metabolic pathway used by Colwellia in hydrocarbon disposition is unknown. Here we used single-cell genomics to gain insights into the genome properties of a Colwellia enriched during the DWH deep-sea plume. A single amplified genome (SAG of a Colwellia cell isolated from a DWH plume, closely related (avg. 98% 16S rRNA gene similarity to other plume Colwellia, was sequenced and annotated. The SAG was similar to the sequenced isolate Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H (84% avg. nucleotide identity. Both had genes for denitrification, chemotaxis and motility, adaptations to cold environments, and a suite of nutrient acquisition genes. The Colwellia SAG may be capable of gaseous and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, which contrasts with a DWH plume Oceanospirillales SAG genome which encoded non-gaseous n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. The disparate hydrocarbon degradation pathways are consistent with hydrocarbons that were abundant at different times in the deep-sea plume; first, non-gaseous n-alkanes and cycloalkanes that could be degraded by Oceanospirillales, followed by gaseous, and simple aromatic hydrocarbons that may have been degraded by Colwellia. These insights into the genomic properties of a Colwellia species, which were supported by existing metagenomic sequence data from the plume and DWH contaminated sediments, help further our understanding of the successional changes in the dominant microbial players in the plume over the course of the DWH spill.

  3. Challenges and successes in developing a data sharing culture in the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf Research Program (GRP) was developed as part of legal settlements with the companies involved in the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster. The Federal Government asked the National Academy of Sciences to establish a new program to fund and conduct activities to enhance offshore energy system safety and protect human health and the environment in the Gulf of Mexico and other regions along the U.S. outer continental shelf. An important part of the program is a commitment to open data and data sharing among the variety of disciplines it funds. The DWH disaster produced a major influx of funding for the Gulf region and various groups and organizations are collaborating to ensure that the science being conducted via these funding streams is not duplicative. A number of data focused sub groups have formed and are working to leverage existing efforts to strengthen data sharing and collaboration in the region. For its part, the GRP is developing a data program that encourages researchers to share data openly while providing avenues for acknowledgement of data sharing and research collaborations. A main problem with collaborative data sharing is often not the technologies available but instead the human component. The "traditional" path for scientific research has not generally involved making data widely or readily available in a short time frame. It takes a lot of effort to challenge this norm and change the way researchers view data sharing and its value for them and the world at large. The GRP data program aims to build a community of researchers that not only share their data but who also help show the value of this practice to the greater scientific community. To this end, the GRP will support a variety of education and training opportunities to help develop a base of researchers more informed on issues related to open data and data sharing and working to leverage the technology and expertise of others to develop a culture of data sharing in the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Initial evaluations of a Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean ocean forecast system in the context of the Deepwater Horizon disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaron, Edward D.; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Cross, Scott L.; Harding, John M.; Bub, Frank L.; Wiggert, Jerry D.; Ko, Dong S.; Lau, Yee; Woodard, Katharine; Mooers, Christopher N. K.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill event in 2010, the Naval Oceanographic Office deployed a nowcast-forecast system covering the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent Caribbean Sea that was designated Americas Seas, or AMSEAS, which is documented in this manuscript. The DwH disaster provided a challenge to the application of available ocean-forecast capabilities, and also generated a historically large observational dataset. AMSEAS was evaluated by four complementary efforts, each with somewhat different aims and approaches: a university research consortium within an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) testbed; a petroleum industry consortium, the Gulf of Mexico 3-D Operational Ocean Forecast System Pilot Prediction Project (GOMEX-PPP); a British Petroleum (BP) funded project at the Northern Gulf Institute in response to the oil spill; and the Navy itself. Validation metrics are presented in these different projects for water temperature and salinity profiles, sea surface wind, sea surface temperature, sea surface height, and volume transport, for different forecast time scales. The validation found certain geographic and time biases/errors, and small but systematic improvements relative to earlier regional and global modeling efforts. On the basis of these positive AMSEAS validation studies, an oil spill transport simulation was conducted using archived AMSEAS nowcasts to examine transport into the estuaries east of the Mississippi River. This effort captured the influences of Hurricane Alex and a non-tropical cyclone off the Louisiana coast, both of which pushed oil into the western Mississippi Sound, illustrating the importance of the atmospheric influence on oil spills such as DwH.

  5. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The vast and persistent Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill challenged response capabilities, which required accurate, quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Although experienced observers are a spill response's mainstay, few trained observers and confounding factors including weather, oil emulsification, and scene illumination geometry present challenges. DWH spill and impact monitoring was aided by extensive airborne and spaceborne passive and active remote sensing.Oil slick thickness and oil-to-water emulsion ratios are key spill response parameters for containment/cleanup and were derived quantitatively for thick (> 0.1 mm) slicks from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data using a spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of near infrared spectral absorption features. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite, visible-spectrum broadband data of surface-slick modulation of sunglint reflection allowed extrapolation to the total slick. A multispectral expert system used a neural network approach to provide Rapid Response thickness class maps.Airborne and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides synoptic data under all-sky conditions; however, SAR generally cannot discriminate thick (> 100 μm) oil slicks from thin sheens (to 0.1 μm). The UAVSAR's (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR) significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial resolution allowed successful pattern discrimination related to a combination of oil slick thickness, fractional surface coverage, and emulsification.In situ burning and smoke plumes were studied with AVIRIS and corroborated spaceborne CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) observations of combustion aerosols. CALIPSO and bathymetry lidar data documented shallow subsurface oil, although ancillary data were required for confirmation.Airborne hyperspectral, thermal infrared data have nighttime and

  6. Snow on the Seafloor? Methods to Detect Carbohydrates in Deep-sea Sediments Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, S. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    A significant portion of the oil released from the Macondo well after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) explosion reached the seafloor (1,2). The transfer of buoyant hydrocarbons from the sea surface and subsurface plumes to depths >1500 m, however, is not well understood. A prominent role for sinking marine snow--small, composite particles composed largely of extracellular polymeric substances exuded by algae and bacteria--has been proposed. Snow particles, rich in carbohydrates, may have sorbed and physically entrained oil from the water column as they sank. Several lines of evidence support this scenario: abundant snow was observed 3-4 weeks after the oil spill (3); oil and dispersants can induce marine snow formation (4); and flocculent material covering deep-sea corals near the DwH site contained biomarkers consistent with Macondo oil (5). To investigate whether the chemically complex marine oil snow leaves a direct sedimentary record, we analyzed carbohydrates at high resolution (2 mm intervals) in sediment cores collected at 4 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico in 2013 using a modified phenol-sulfuric acid spectrophotometric method. We detected a sharp subsurface peak in carbohydrate concentrations near the Macondo well; we interpret this peak as post-DwH marine snow. Coeval carbohydrate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and hopane profiles suggest a clear link between marine snow and Macondo oil components, as documented in a 3-year time-series at one site, and enable preliminary conclusions about the delivery and fate of marine snow components in sediments. We also characterized carbohydrates near the wellhead using fluorescent lectin-binding analyses developed for applications in cell biology. Particle morphologies include collapse structures suggestive of a water column origin. Finally, we explore the extent to which polysaccharide residues detected with selective lectins can be used to determine the provenance of marine snow (e.g., bacterial v. algal

  7. Variations in organic carbon chemistry in the Gulf Coast and coastal marshes following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Orem, W. H.; Aiken, G.; Varonka, M. S.; Butler, K.; Kokaly, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    Record volumes of oil released from the Macondo well following the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil-drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico significantly impacted coastal marshes in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. Remote sensing and water sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the extent of impact. Water samples were collected offshore from near the spill site July 5-10, 2010 to characterize molecular organic carbon chemistry on unfiltered samples and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on filtered samples. Three field visits were conducted in July 7-10, August 12-14, and August 24-26, 2010, to collect samples from the soil-water interface in coastal marshes along lower Barataria Bay and the Bird's Foot Delta at the distal end of the Mississippi River Delta. Visible oil in the marsh was observed as thick coatings on vegetation and soil and as sheens at the water surface. Samples were extracted for hydrocarbons with dichloromethane, separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar compound classes using standard column techniques, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A significant amount of oil was observed "dissolved" in the water column with a hydrocarbon distribution resembling that of the surface oil slick. While oils maintained many of the more volatile lower molecular weight components near the spill site, these were mostly gone in the onshore Barataria Bay samples, leaving mostly higher molecular weight components. Dissolved organic carbon was characterized using concentration, fluorescence index (FI), specific ultratviolet absorbance (SUVA) and excitation/emission fluorescence (EEM). Offshore samples had distinctive EEMs patterns, SUVA and FI. With few exceptions, marsh samples had EEMs patterns more similar to previously extracted organic matter from the Mississippi River than to the offshore oil. In spite of visible oil sheen in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on

  8. The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on Enrichments of Hydrocarbon Degrading Microbes From the Gulf of Mexico Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietou, Angeliki; Chastain, Roger; Beulig, Felix; Scoma, Alberto; Hazen, Terry C; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest and deepest oil spills recorded. The wellhead was located at approximately 1500 m below the sea where low temperature and high pressure are key environmental characteristics. Using cells collected 4 months following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill at the Gulf of Mexico, we set up Macondo crude oil enrichments at wellhead temperature and different pressures to determine the effect of increasing depth/pressure to the in situ microbial community and their ability to degrade oil. We observed oil degradation under all pressure conditions tested [0.1, 15, and 30 megapascals (MPa)], although oil degradation profiles, cell numbers, and hydrocarbon degradation gene abundances indicated greatest activity at atmospheric pressure. Under all incubations the growth of psychrophilic bacteria was promoted. Bacteria closely related to Oleispira antarctica RB-8 dominated the communities at all pressures. At 30 MPa we observed a shift toward Photobacterium , a genus that includes piezophiles. Alphaproteobacterial members of the Sulfitobacter , previously associated with oil-degradation, were also highly abundant at 0.1 MPa. Our results suggest that pressure acts synergistically with low temperature to slow microbial growth and thus oil degradation in deep-sea environments.

  9. Oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event on...

  10. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  11. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  12. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084583)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  13. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  14. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  15. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard the Ridley Thomas in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084612)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ridley Thomas in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  16. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  17. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  18. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  19. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  20. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  1. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084576)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  2. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  3. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  4. Toxicity of oil and dispersant on the deep water gorgonian octocoral Swiftia exserta, with implications for the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frometa, Janessy; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Pisarski, Emily C; Etnoyer, Peter J

    2017-09-15

    Benthic surveys of mesophotic reefs in the Gulf of Mexico post Deepwater Horizon (DWH) showed that Swiftia exserta octocorals exhibited significantly more injury than in years before the spill. To determine the vulnerability of S. exserta to oil and dispersants, 96h toxicity assays of surrogate DWH oil water-accommodated fractions (WAF), Corexit® 9500 dispersant, and the combination of both (CEWAF) were conducted in the laboratory. Fragment mortality occurred within 48h for some fragments in the dispersant-alone and oil-dispersant treatments, while the WAF group remained relatively unaffected. The 96h LC 50 values were 70.27mg/L for Corexit-alone and 41.04mg/L for Corexit in CEWAF. This study provides new information on octocoral sensitivity to toxins, and indicates that combinations of oil and dispersants are more toxic to octocorals than exposure to oil alone. These results have important implications for the assessment of effects of the DWH spill on deep-water organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of enhanced gas chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for monitoring petroleum weathering and forensic source fingerprinting in samples impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Puspa L; Wong, Roberto L; Overton, Edward B

    2017-10-01

    Accurate characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons in complex and weathered oil residues is analytically challenging. This is primarily due to chemical compositional complexity of both the oil residues and environmental matrices, and the lack of instrumental selectivity due to co-elution of interferences with the target analytes. To overcome these analytical selectivity issues, we used an enhanced resolution gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode (GC/MS/MS-MRM) to eliminate interferences within the ion chromatograms of target analytes found in environmental samples. This new GC/MS/MS-MRM method was developed and used for forensic fingerprinting of deep-water and marsh sediment samples containing oily residues from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The results showed that the GC/MS/MS-MRM method increases selectivity, eliminates interferences, and provides more accurate quantitation and characterization of trace levels of alkyl-PAHs and biomarker compounds, from weathered oil residues in complex sample matrices. The higher selectivity of the new method, even at low detection limits, provides greater insights on isomer and homolog compositional patterns and the extent of oil weathering under various environmental conditions. The method also provides flat chromatographic baselines for accurate and unambiguous calculation of petroleum forensic biomarker compound ratios. Thus, this GC/MS/MS-MRM method can be a reliable analytical strategy for more accurate and selective trace level analyses in petroleum forensic studies, and for tacking continuous weathering of oil residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Was the extreme and wide-spread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Sophie M; Hollander, David J; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2015-11-15

    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates whether MOSSFA occurred in other large oil spills and identifies the main drivers of oil sedimentation. MOSSFA was found to have occurred during the IXTOC I blowout and possibly during the Santa Barbara blowout. Unfortunately, benthic effects were not sufficiently studied for the 52 spills we reviewed. However, based on the current understanding of drivers involved, we conclude that MOSSFA and related benthic contamination may be widespread. We suggest to collect and analyze sediment cores at specific spill locations, as improved understanding of the MOSSFA process will allow better informed spill responses in the future, taking into account possible massive oil sedimentation and smothering of (deep) benthic ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentrations of the genotoxic metals, chromium and nickel, in whales, tar balls, oil slicks, and released oil from the gulf of Mexico in the immediate aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil crisis: is genotoxic metal exposure part of the deepwater horizon legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, James T F; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Xie, Hong; Thompson, W Douglas; Perkins, Christopher; Falank, Carolyne; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis has largely focused on oil and dispersants while the threat of genotoxic metals in the oil has gone largely overlooked. Genotoxic metals, such as chromium and nickel, damage DNA and bioaccumulate in organisms, resulting in persistent exposures. We found chromium and nickel concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 8.46 ppm in crude oil from the riser, oil from slicks on surface waters and tar balls from Gulf of Mexico beaches. We found nickel concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 94.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 15.9 ± 3.5 ppm and chromium concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 73.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 12.8 ± 2.6 ppm in tissue collected from Gulf of Mexico whales in the wake of the crisis. Mean tissue concentrations were significantly higher than those found in whales collected around the world prior to the spill. Given the capacity of these metals to damage DNA, their presence in the oil, and their elevated concentrations in whales, we suggest that metal exposure is an important understudied concern for the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster.

  8. 75 FR 60800 - Discharge of Oil From Deepwater Horizon/Macondo Well, Gulf of Mexico; Intent To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 403.161, Fla. Statutes; the Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control Law, Miss. Code Ann. Sec... Horizon/Macondo Well, Gulf of Mexico; Intent To Conduct Restoration Planning ACTION: Notice of intent. [[Page 60801

  9. Chemical and physical oceanographic data collected from numerous vessels in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event and compiled for the Joint Analysis Group summary report: NOAA Technical Report NOS OR&R 27 (NODC Accession 0087872)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deepwater Horizon Joint Analysis Group (JAG) for Surface and Sub-Surface Oceanography, Oil and Dispersant Data was a working group with membership from federal...

  10. Ocean current data measured by the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) aboard the Discoverer Enterprise oil platform from May 23, 2010 to July 04, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (NODC Accession 0083684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean current data were collected by ADCP aboard the Discoverer Enterprise in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event on April 20,...

  11. Quality controlled water, sediment, tissue, and tar/oil chemistry analyses from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill event in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-04 to 2011-06, sourced from NOAA's Query Manager data management system (NODC Accession 0108924)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection includes 4 data files (one each for water, sediment, tissue, and tar/oil analyses) containing data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Event...

  12. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by CTD's and XBT's aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-18 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065729)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  13. Ocean current data measured by the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) aboard the Development Driller III from 2010-05-31 to 2010-07-04 in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (NODC Accession 0083634)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean current data were collected by ADCP aboard the Discoverer Enterprise in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event on April 20,...

  14. Community Resilience, Psychological Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms: An Examination of the Mississippi Gulf Coast 10 Years After Hurricane Katrina and 5 Years After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Blackmon, Bret J; Cochran, David M; Kar, Bandana; Rehner, Timothy A; Gunnell, Mauri Stubbs

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the role of community resilience and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in areas on the Mississippi Gulf Coast that have experienced multiple disasters. Survey administration took place in the spring of 2015 to a spatially stratified, random sample of households. This analysis included a total of 294 subjects who lived in 1 of the 3 counties of the Mississippi Gulf Coast at the time of both Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The survey included the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) scale, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). There was a significant inverse relationship between psychological resilience and depressive symptoms and a significant positive relationship between community resilience and psychological resilience. The results also revealed that community resilience was indirectly related to depressive symptoms through the mediating variable of psychological resilience. These findings highlight the importance of psychological resilience in long-term disaster recovery and imply that long-term recovery efforts should address factors associated with both psychological and community resilience to improve mental health outcomes. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:241-248).

  15. Fingerprinting Deepwater Horizon Oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico using biomarkers and Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, P. L.; Overton, E. B.; Maiti, K.; Wong, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Petroleum biomarkers such as hopanes, steranes, and triaromatic steroids are more persistent than alkanes and aromatic compounds. Thus, they are often used to track spilled oil in the environments and as a proxy for weathering processes. The present study utilizes water samples, suspended and sinking particles, and seafloor sediments collected during 2011-2013 from various locations of the northern Gulf of Mexico with wide range of contaminated oil for Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil fingerprinting. The MC252 source oil along with the samples collected in this study were analyzed using a gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode and the results were compared with results from commonly used GC/MS selective ion monitoring (SIM) method. The results indicate that the MRM method separates interfering ions from interfering compounds and can be a powerful analytical strategy for a reliable identification and determination of trace levels of biomarkers in complex matrices. Source indicators such as the MRM fragment ion chromatograms of the biomarkers and their diagnostic ratios in samples were compared with the MC252 source oil. The preliminary results show that the biomarkers were below detection limits in dissolved samples. However, in few particulate and seafloor sediment samples, primarily from the immediate vicinity of the Macondo wellhead, contained their patterns. The results also illustrate that these biomarker compounds have been weathered within 1-3 years following the oil spill, and their DWH oil signature in some of these samples reflects this weathering.

  16. Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC): Developing a Data Sharing Culture in the Wake of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, L. M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico, BP committed $500 million (USD) for a research program that investigates the impacts of oil, dispersed oil, and dispersant on the environment and to develop strategies for response to future disasters. This research program, the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI), is mandated to make all the data produced available to the public. To fulfill this goal, GoMRI developed the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC). GRIIDC is the vehicle by which GoMRI is addressing the data and information needs of this large and varied community of more than 3,000 scientists. The mission of GRIIDC is to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem. As part of its effort to encourage data sharing among scientists interested in oil-spill related research in the Gulf of Mexico GRIIDC provides tools to researchers to facilitate all aspects of the data management process, from developing data management plans, to creating robust metadata records, to ensuring the data is made discoverable by the public. GRIIDC also provides a service to ensure that GoMRI funded publications have any associated data linked and available. This cradle to grave approach to data management has been extremely effective in developing data management practices that will ensure better data stewardship and preservation of all the data created in the GoMRI research program.

  17. Constraining the Spatial Extent of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation Following the Deepwater Horizon Event Using an Excess 210Pb Flux Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, P T; Brooks, G R; Larson, R A; Holmes, C W; O'Malley, B J; Hollander, D J

    2017-06-06

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in 2010, there were several lines of evidence indicating the presence of marine oil snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA). A significant amount of marine oil snow formed in the water column of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM), settled rapidly, and ultimately accumulated in the sediments of the nGoM. This study utilized a commonly used radioisotope tracer (excess 210 Pb, 210 Pb xs ) from 32 sediment cores collected from 2010 to 2013 to characterize the spatial extent of MOSSFA on the seafloor. Relative to pre-DWH conditions, an increase in 210 Pb xs flux occurred in two distinct regions: (1) in the western portion of the study area on an east-northeast to west-southwest axis, stretching 230 km southwest and 140 km northeast of the DWH wellhead, and (2) in the eastern portion of the study area on a 70 km northeast to southwest axis near the DeSoto Canyon. The total sedimentary spatial extent of MOSSFA, as calculated by increased 210 Pb xs flux after 2010, ranged from 12 805 to 35 425 km 2 . 210 Pb xs flux provides a valuable tool for documenting the spatial extent of MOSSFA following DWH and will continue to aid in the determination of advective transport and ultimate depocenters of MOSSFA material.

  18. Identifying oil/marine snow associations in mesocosm simulations of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event using solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Patrick G; Obeid, Wassim; Wozniak, Andrew S; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Santschi, Peter H; Quigg, Antonietta

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill stimulated the release of marine snow made up of dead/living plankton/bacteria and their exopolymeric polysaccharide substances (EPS), termed marine oil snow (MOS), promoting rapid removal of oil from the water column into sediments near the well site. Mesocosm simulations showed that Macondo surrogate oil readily associates with the marine snow. Quantitative solid-state 13 C NMR readily distinguishes this oil from naturally formed marine snow and reveals that adding the dispersant Corexit enhances the amount of oil associated with the MOS, thus contributing to rapid removal from the water column. Solvent extraction of MOS removes the oil-derived compounds for analysis by one and two-dimensional GC/MS and evaluation of potential transformations they undergo when associated with the EPS. The results reveal that the oil associated with EPS is subjected to rapid transformation, in a matter of days, presumably by bacteria and fungi associated with EPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomarkers of Aryl-hydrocarbon Receptor Activity in Gulf Killifish (Fundulus grandis) From Northern Gulf of Mexico Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Rice, Charles D; Barrois, Lester F; Galvez, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, shorelines throughout the Barataria Basin of the northern Gulf of Mexico in Louisiana were heavily oiled for months with Macondo-252 oil, potentially impacting estuarine species. The Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) has been identified as a sentinel species for the study of site-specific effects of crude oil contamination on biological function. In November and December 2010, 4-5 months after the Macondo well was plugged and new oil was no longer spilling into the Gulf waters, Gulf killifish were collected across the Barataria Basin from 14 sites with varying degrees of oiling. Fish collected from oiled sites exhibited biological indications of exposure to oil, including increase in cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA transcript and protein abundances in liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry revealed increases in gill, head kidney, and intestinal CYP1A protein at heavily oiled sites. Intestinal CYP1A protein was a sensitive indicator of exposure, indicating that intestinal tissue plays a key role in biotransformation of AHR ligands and that ingestion is a probable route of exposure, warranting additional consideration in future studies.

  20. Anomalously High Recruitment of the 2010 Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) Year Class: Evidence of Indirect Effects from the Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jeffrey W; Geiger, Harold J; Haney, J Christopher; Voss, Christine M; Vozzo, Maria L; Guillory, Vincent; Peterson, Charles H

    2017-07-01

    Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) exhibited unprecedented juvenile recruitment in 2010 during the year of the Deepwater Horizon well blowout, exceeding the prior 39-year mean by more than four standard deviations near the Mississippi River. Abundance of that cohort remained exceptionally high for two subsequent years as recruits moved into older age classes. Such changes in this dominant forage fish population can be most parsimoniously explained as consequences of release from predation. Contact with crude oil induced high mortality of piscivorous seabirds, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), waders, and other fish-eating marsh birds, all of which are substantial consumers of Gulf menhaden. Diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River to protect coastal marshes from oiling depressed salinities, impairing access to juvenile Gulf menhaden by aquatic predators that avoid low-salinity estuarine waters. These releases from predation led to an increase of Gulf menhaden biomass in 2011 to 2.4 million t, or more than twice the average biomass of 1.1 million t for the decade prior to 2010. Biomass increases of this magnitude in a major forage fish species suggest additional trophically linked effects at the population-, trophic-level and ecosystem scales, reflecting an heretofore little appreciated indirect effect that may be associated with major oil spills in highly productive marine waters.

  1. Contaminant levels in Gulf of Mexico reef fish after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as measured by a fishermen-led testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Gohlke, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    The BP oil disaster posed a significant threat to the U.S. seafood industry. Invertebrates (shrimp, oyster, crab) and other nearshore species comprised the majority of postspill testing by federal and state agencies. Deeper water finfish were sampled less frequently, despite population ranges that overlapped with affected waters. We report on a voluntary testing program with Gulf of Mexico commercial fishermen to ensure the safety of their catch. Seven species of reef fish were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, several metals, and a constituent of Corexit 9500A and 9527A dispersants. Only two of 92 samples had detectable levels of benzo(a)pyrene-equivalents (a combined measure of carcinogenic potency across 7 different PAHs), which were still below federal safety thresholds. PAH ratios for these samples suggest pyrogenic (not petrogenic) contamination - indicating potential sources other than Deepwater Horizon. Metals were largely absent (cadmium, lead) or consistent with levels previously reported (mercury, arsenic). One notable exception was tilefish, which showed mercury concentrations lower than expected. We did not detect dispersant in any of our samples, indicating that it was not present in these species during the study period. Our findings suggest minimal risk to public health from these seafoods as a result of the disaster; however, the most contaminated areas were not sampled through this program.

  2. Interannual variability of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities of the NW Gulf of Mexico in relationship to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, Diana L.; Soto, Luis A.; Estradas-Romero, Alejandro; Botello, Alfonso V.

    2017-01-01

    A 3-year research program was undertaken to assess potential environmental disturbance caused by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to the soft-bottom macrobenthic communities within Mexican waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Community properties and temporal/spatial variability were analyzed besides toxicant parameters such as hydrocarbons and trace-metals. Overall infaunal density increased, taxa proportion changed, and small-size opportunistic organisms prevailed throughout the study. Annual abundance-biomass comparison (ABC) curves revealed progressive stress scenarios from moderate to severe. Concentrations of vanadium, nickel, cobalt, PAHs and AHs increased gradually over time. However, low correlations between benthic density and biogeochemical variables were determined. Initially, sedimentary properties were the main drivers of benthic community structure; subsequently, nickel, vanadium and PAHs, indicative of anthropogenic effect, were highlighted. Interannual variability in the macroinfauna was attributed to the synergy of several environmental factors. Undoubtedly, compounds derived from fossil fuels had a significant disturbance role, but their source remains uncertain. - Highlights: • Mexican waters of the NW GoM were monitored during and after the DWH oil spill. • Interannual changes in macrobenthic communities structure were detected. • Interannual variability was observed in the sedimentary conditions. • ABC curves revealed a progressive increase in the degree of environmental stress. • An increasing trend in trace-metals and oil-related hydrocarbons was detected.

  3. Development of a total hydrocarbon ordinal job-exposure matrix for workers responding to the Deepwater Horizon disaster: The GuLF STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia A; Stenzel, Mark R; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto; Huynh, Tran B; Groth, Caroline P; Kwok, Richard K; Blair, Aaron; Engel, Lawrence S; Sandler, Dale P

    2018-05-01

    The GuLF STUDY is a cohort study investigating the health of workers who responded to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The objective of this effort was to develop an ordinal job-exposure matrix (JEM) of airborne total hydrocarbons (THC), dispersants, and particulates to estimate study participants' exposures. Information was collected on participants' spill-related tasks. A JEM of exposure groups (EGs) was developed from tasks and THC air measurements taken during and after the spill using relevant exposure determinants. THC arithmetic means were developed for the EGs, assigned ordinal values, and linked to the participants using determinants from the questionnaire. Different approaches were taken for combining exposures across EGs. EGs for dispersants and particulates were based on questionnaire responses. Considerable differences in THC exposure levels were found among EGs. Based on the maximum THC level participants experienced across any job held, ∼14% of the subjects were identified in the highest exposure category. Approximately 10% of the cohort was exposed to dispersants or particulates. Considerable exposure differences were found across the various EGs, facilitating investigation of exposure-response relationships. The JEM is flexible to allow for different assumptions about several possibly relevant exposure metrics.

  4. δ13C and d15N in the endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys kempii after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Kimberly J.; López-Castro, Melania C.; Shaver, Donna J.; Iseton, Claire; Hart, Kristen M.; Hooper, Michael J.; Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon explosion in April 2010 and subsequent oil spill released 3.19 × 106 barrels (5.07 × 108 L) of MC252 crude oil into important foraging areas of the endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys kempii (Lk) in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). We measured δ13C and δ15N in scute biopsy samples from 33 Lk nesting in Texas during 2010–-12. Of these, 27 were equipped with satellite transmitters and were tracked to traditional foraging areas in the northern GoM after the spill. Differences in δ13C between the oldest and newest scute layers from 2010 nesters were not significantly different, but δ13C in the newest layers from 2011 and 2012 nesters was significantly lower compared to 2010. δ15N differences were not statistically significant. Collectively, the stable isotope and tracking data indicate that the lower δ13C values reflect the incorporation of oil rather than changes in diet or foraging area. Discriminant analysis indicated that 51.5% of the turtles sampled had isotope signatures indicating oil exposure. Growth of the Lk population slowed in the years following the spill. The involvement of oil exposure in recent population trends is unknown, but long-term effects may not be evident for many years. Our results indicate that C isotope signatures in scutes may be useful biomarkers of sea turtle exposure to oil.

  5. Novel transcriptome assembly and comparative toxicity pathway analysis in mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos and larvae exposed to Deepwater Horizon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Mager, Edward M.; Grosell, Martin; Hazard, E. Starr; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The impacts of Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil on morphology and function during embryonic development have been documented for a number of fish species, including the economically and ecologically important pelagic species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). However, further investigations on molecular events and pathways responsible for developmental toxicity have been largely restricted due to the limited molecular data available for this species. We sought to establish the de novo transcriptomic database from the embryos and larvae of mahi-mahi exposed to water accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) of two DWH oil types (weathered and source oil), in an effort to advance our understanding of the molecular aspects involved during specific toxicity responses. By high throughput sequencing (HTS), we obtained the first de novo transcriptome of mahi-mahi, with 60,842 assembled transcripts and 30,518 BLAST hits. Among them, 2,345 genes were significantly regulated in 96hpf larvae after exposure to weathered oil. With comparative analysis to a reference-transcriptome-guided approach on gene ontology and tox-pathways, we confirmed the novel approach effective for exploring tox-pathways in non-model species, and also identified a list of co-expressed genes as potential biomarkers which will provide information for the construction of an Adverse Outcome Pathway which could be useful in Ecological Risk Assessments.

  6. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [University of California (United States); Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg [US Geology Survey (United States); Jones, Cathleen [California Institute of Technology (United States); Svejkovsky, Jan [Ocean Imaging Corporation (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  7. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg; Jones, Cathleen; Svejkovsky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  8. Near-Inertial Surface Currents and their influence on Surface Dispersion in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico near the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, M.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.; Howden, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The continental shelf along the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is transected by the critical latitude (30°N) for inertial motions. At this latitude the inertial period is 24 hours and diurnal surface current oscillations can amplify due to resonance with diurnal wind and tidal forcing. Tidal amplitudes are relatively small in this region although K1 tidal currents can be strong over the shelf west of the DeSoto Canyon where the K1 tide propagates onshore as a Sverdrup wave. Other sources of diurnal motions include internal tidal currents, Poincaré waves, and basin resonance. It is therefore very difficult to separate inertial wind-driven motions from other diurnal motions. Spatiotemporal surface currents were measured using hourly 6 km resolution HF radar data collected in June 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and July 2012 during the Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD). Surface currents were also measured using GLAD GPS-tracked drifters. NDBC buoy wind data were used to determine wind-forcing, and OSU Tidal Inversion Software (OTIS) were used to predict tidal currents. The relative spatiotemporal influence of diurnal wind and tidal forcing on diurnal surface current oscillations is determined through a series of comparative analyses: phase and amplitude of bandpassed timeseries, wavelet analyses, wind-driven inertial oscillation calculations, and tidal current predictions. The wind-driven inertial ocean response is calculated by applying a simple "slab" model where wind-forcing is allowed to excite a layer of low-density water riding over high density water. The spatial variance of diurnal motions are found to be correlated with satellite turbidity imagery indicating that stratification influences the sea surface inertial response to wind-forcing. Surface dispersion is found to be minimized in regions of high diurnal variance suggesting that mean surface transport is restricted in regions of inertial motions associated with stratification.

  9. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM cetacean unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay, Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003 and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003. In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths.

  10. Mutagenicity and oxidative damage induced by an organic extract of the particulate emissions from a simulation of the deepwater horizon surface oil burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarini, David M; Warren, Sarah H; Lavrich, Katelyn; Flen, Alexis; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Greenwell, Dale; Preston, William; Schmid, Judith E; Linak, William P; Hays, Michael D; Samet, James M; Gullett, Brian K

    2017-04-01

    Emissions from oil fires associated with the "Deepwater Horizon" explosion and oil discharge that began on April 20, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed chemically to only a limited extent at the time but were shown to induce oxidative damage in vitro and in mice. To extend this work, we burned oil floating on sea water and performed extensive chemical analyses of the emissions (Gullett et al., Marine Pollut Bull, in press, ). Here, we examine the ability of a dichloromethane extract of the particulate material with an aerodynamic size ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) from those emissions to induce oxidative damage in human lung cells in vitro and mutagenicity in 6 strains of Salmonella. The extract had a percentage of extractable organic material (EOM) of 7.0% and increased expression of the heme oxygenase (HMOX1) gene in BEAS-2B cells after exposure for 4 hr at 20 µg of EOM/ml. However, the extract did not alter mitochondrial respiration rate as measured by extracellular flux analysis. The extract was most mutagenic in TA100 +S9, indicative of a role for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), reflective of the high concentrations of PAHs in the emissions (1 g/kg of oil consumed). The extract had a mutagenicity emission factor of 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10 5 revertants/megajoule thermal in TA98 +S9, which was greater than that of diesel exhaust and within an order of magnitude of open burning of wood and plastic. Thus, organics from PM 2.5 of burning oil can induce oxidative responses in human airway epithelial cells and are highly mutagenic. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:162-171, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Martin

    Full Text Available The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107. This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.

  12. Ciliated protists from the nepheloid layer and water column of sites affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Tominack, Sarah; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic marine protists have been well documented from shallow marine benthic habitats but remain understudied in deeper habitats on continental shelves and slopes, particularly in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM). This region was affected by a deep water oil well failure (BP-Deepwater Horizon, 2010). The combination of a lack of information on deep sea microbenthic communities and the potential for benthic microbial petroleum mineralization prompted this investigation. Water column and nepheloid layer samples were obtained via Niskin bottles and a multicorer respectively at stations across the NEGOM to: (1) determine whether nepheloid and water column communities are distinct and (2) assess benthic species richness relative to sediment PAH contamination. Phylum specific 18S rRNA gene amplification was used to construct clone libraries of ciliate assemblages. BLAST searches in the NCBI database indicated that a majority (~75%) of the clone sequences corresponded (94-100% similarity) with listed, yet unclassified sequences. Several putative species were common at most site locations and depths. Many known benthic ciliates, such as Uronychia transfuga, Uronychia setigera, and Spirotrachelostyla tani, were common in the nepheloid layer samples and not recovered in water column samples. Ciliated protist species richness increased with PAH levels found in surface sediments, suggesting a positive microbial response to petroleum enrichment of the benthos. The presence of previously unknown microbenthic communites in the nephaloid layer over oceanic clay-silt muds alters our view of microbial processes in the deep sea and merits investigation of the microbial processes and rates of microbial mineralization and biomass production important to global biogeochemistry.

  13. Metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikole Elizabeth Kimes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine subsurface environments, such as deep-sea sediments, house abundant and diverse microbial communities that are believed to influence large-scale geochemical processes. These processes include the biotransformation and mineralization of numerous petroleum constituents. Thus, microbial communities in the Gulf of Mexico are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic bioremediation of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill. While hydrocarbon contamination is known to enrich for aerobic, oil-degrading bacteria in deep-seawater habitats, relatively little is known about the response of communities in deep-sea sediments, where low oxygen levels may hinder such a response. Here, we examined the hypothesis that increased hydrocarbon exposure results in an altered sediment microbial community structure that reflects the prospects for oil biodegradation under the prevailing conditions. We explore this hypothesis using metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediment samples following the DWH oil spill. The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site. Metabolite profiling also revealed a greater number of putative metabolites in sediments surrounding the blowout zone relative to a background site located 127 km away. The mass spectral analysis of the putative metabolites revealed that alkylsuccinates remained below detection levels, but a homologous series of benzylsuccinates (with carbon chain lengths from 5 to 10 could be detected. Our findings suggest that increased exposure to hydrocarbons enriches for Deltaproteobacteria, which are known to be capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. We also provide evidence for an active microbial community metabolizing aromatic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the

  14. A survey of alterations in microbial community diversity in marine sediments in response to oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial community genomic DNA was extracted from sediment samples collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) coast. These samples had a high probability of being impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling site. The hypothesis for this project was that presence of M-1 oil in coastal sediments would significantly alter the diversity within the microbial communities associated with the impacted sediments. To determine if community-level changes did or did not occur following exposure to M-1 oil, microbial community-diversity fingerprints were generated and compared. Specific sequences within the community's genomic DNA were first amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer set that provides possible resolution to the species level. A second nested PCR that was performed on the primary PCR products using a primer set on which a GC-clamp was attached to one of the primers. These nested PCR products were separated using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) that resolves the nested PCR products based on sequence dissimilarities (or similarities), forming a genomic fingerprint of the microbial diversity within the respective samples. Sediment samples with similar fingerprints were grouped and compared to oil-fingerprint data from Rosenbauer and others (2010). The microbial community fingerprints grouped closely when identifying those sites that had been impacted by M-1 oil (N=12) and/or some mixture of M-1 and other oil (N=4), based upon the oil fingerprints. This report represents some of the first information on naturally occurring microbial communities in sediment from shorelines along the NGOM coast. These communities contain microbes capable of degrading oil and related hydrocarbons, making this information relevant to response and recovery of the NGOM from the DWH incident.

  15. Oil Spill Disasters Detection and Monitoring by RST Analysis of Optical Satellite Radiances: the Case of Deepwater Horizon Platform in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, N.; Grimaldi, S. C.; Coviello, I.; Faruolo, M.; Lacava, T.; Tramutoli, V.

    2010-12-01

    term of sensitivity (to the presence even of thin/old oil films) and reliability (up to zero occurrence of false alarms), mainly due to the RST invariance regardless of local and environmental conditions. Exploiting its complete independence on the specific satellite platform, RST approach has been successfully exported to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra and Aqua satellites. In this paper, results obtained applying the proposed methodology to the recent oil spill disaster of Deepwater Horizon Platform in the gulf of Mexico, that discharged over 5 million barrels (550 million litres) in the ocean, will be shown. A dense temporal series of RST-based oil spill maps, obtained by using MODIS TIR records, are commented, emphasizing and discussing main peculiarities and specific characteristics of this event. Preliminary findings, possible residual limits and future perspectives will be also presented and discussed.

  16. A multiple endpoint analysis of the effects of chronic exposure to sediment contaminated with Deepwater Horizon oil on juvenile Southern flounder and their associated microbiomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Krasnec, Michelle; Takeshita, Ryan; Ryan, Caitlin N.; Griffitt, Kimberly J.; Lay, Claire; Mayer, Gregory D.; Bayha, Keith M.; Hawkins, William E.; Lipton, Ian; Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Juvenile southern flounder were exposed to sediment mixed with different amount of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill. • The exposure was performed for 32 days, with growth and survival assessed throughout. • After the termination of the experiment, the survivors were examined at multiple endpoints, including histopathology and microbiome analysis. • The results indicated that the flounder were adversely affected at each endpoint examined. • Growth and survival were significantly reduced. • Histopathology found effects on gills and livers of exposed fish. • The microbiomes of the exposed fish were significantly altered by the exposure to sediment-associated oil in both gills and intestines. - Abstract: Exposure to oiled sediments can negatively impact the health of fish species. Here, we examine the effects of chronic exposure of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, to a sediment-oil mixture. Oil:sediment mixtures are persistent over time and can become bioavailable following sediment perturbation or resuspension. Juvenile flounder were exposed for 32 days under controlled laboratory conditions to five concentrations of naturally weathered Macondo MC252 oil mixed into uncontaminated, field-collected sediments. The percent composition of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the weathered oil did not change after mixing with the sediment. Spiked exposure sediments contained 0.04–395 mg/kg tPAH50 (sum of 50 individual PAH concentration measurements). Mortality increased with both exposure duration and concentration of sediment-associated PAHs, and flounder exposed to concentrations above 8 mg/kg tPAH50 showed significantly reduced growth over the course of the experiment. Evident histopathologic changes were observed in liver and gill tissues of fish exposed to more than 8 mg/kg tPAH50. All fish at these concentrations showed hepatic intravascular congestion, macrovesicular hepatic vacoulation

  17. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  18. A multiple endpoint analysis of the effects of chronic exposure to sediment contaminated with Deepwater Horizon oil on juvenile Southern flounder and their associated microbiomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Peterson, Nancy J., E-mail: nancy.brown-peterson@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Krasnec, Michelle, E-mail: MKrasnec@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Takeshita, Ryan, E-mail: RTakeshita@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Ryan, Caitlin N., E-mail: Caitlin.ryan@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Griffitt, Kimberly J., E-mail: kim.griffitt@gmail.com [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Lay, Claire, E-mail: claymsc@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Bayha, Keith M., E-mail: kmbayha@gmail.com [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Hawkins, William E., E-mail: william.hawkins@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Lipton, Ian, E-mail: ianlipton@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Morris, Jeffrey, E-mail: JMorrisMSCanyon252@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Juvenile southern flounder were exposed to sediment mixed with different amount of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill. • The exposure was performed for 32 days, with growth and survival assessed throughout. • After the termination of the experiment, the survivors were examined at multiple endpoints, including histopathology and microbiome analysis. • The results indicated that the flounder were adversely affected at each endpoint examined. • Growth and survival were significantly reduced. • Histopathology found effects on gills and livers of exposed fish. • The microbiomes of the exposed fish were significantly altered by the exposure to sediment-associated oil in both gills and intestines. - Abstract: Exposure to oiled sediments can negatively impact the health of fish species. Here, we examine the effects of chronic exposure of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, to a sediment-oil mixture. Oil:sediment mixtures are persistent over time and can become bioavailable following sediment perturbation or resuspension. Juvenile flounder were exposed for 32 days under controlled laboratory conditions to five concentrations of naturally weathered Macondo MC252 oil mixed into uncontaminated, field-collected sediments. The percent composition of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the weathered oil did not change after mixing with the sediment. Spiked exposure sediments contained 0.04–395 mg/kg tPAH50 (sum of 50 individual PAH concentration measurements). Mortality increased with both exposure duration and concentration of sediment-associated PAHs, and flounder exposed to concentrations above 8 mg/kg tPAH50 showed significantly reduced growth over the course of the experiment. Evident histopathologic changes were observed in liver and gill tissues of fish exposed to more than 8 mg/kg tPAH50. All fish at these concentrations showed hepatic intravascular congestion, macrovesicular hepatic vacoulation

  19. Rig supervisors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordt, D.P.; Stone, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper helps prepare the inexperienced rig supervisor to manage a drilling operation. It outlines operational-knowledge requirements and optimization concepts for improving drilling performance and lowering drilling costs. It gives guidelines on safety and environmental responsibilities, and provides recommendations on work tools, leadership, and communication

  20. Experimental microcosm study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon MC-252 oil on the geochemistry and microbiology of Gulf Coast sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, R. J.; Bej, A.; Raulerson, A.; Rentschler, E. K.

    2011-12-01

    Microcosm experiments were conducted to examine the impact of oil contamination on Gulf Coast sediment geochemistry and microbial population dynamics. Coastal sediment and seawater were collected from a salt marsh at Bayou la Batre, Alabama, which was not severely impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon accident of April 2010. Sediment/seawater microcosms were set up in glass jars combusted for 5 hours at 450 degrees C. Non-sterile microcosms spiked with 500 ppm of MC-252 oil were sacrificed in duplicate at various time intervals over a 14 day period to establish a data time series. Sterile controls with and without oil and a non-sterile control without oil were sacrificed in duplicate at 14 days for comparison with the time-series experiments. Solid and aqueous phases were separated by centrifugation and prepared for analysis. Sediment mineralogy was determined using X-ray diffraction and acid-extractable sediment chemistry determined using EPA Method 3051A and ICP-OES analysis. The aqueous phase chemistry was analyzed by ICP-OES and ion chromatography. The mineralogy of the salt marsh sediment is predominantly quartz, but includes reactive phases such as clays (smectite, illite), feldspar, and iron oxide. Iron-bearing clays and iron oxides can serve as electron acceptors for the growth of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. Microwave digestions of the microcosm substrate samples were performed in triplicate and show no significant variation in major element chemistry over the course of the two week experiment, suggesting that observed temporal trends in aqueous geochemistry may be due to ion exchange processes, rather than mineral dissolution reactions. Microcosm substrate trace element data which indicate possible differences with time are being analyzed for statistical significance. Analysis of aqueous solution geochemistry reveals several interesting temporal trends. Iron and manganese were released to solution after 2 days, suggesting the presence of facultative

  1. Drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiopa, A A; Yegorov, E K

    1981-01-04

    A drilling rig is proposed which contains a tower, lifter in the form of n infinite chain, and mobile rotator with holding device connected to the chain, and pipe holder. In order to accelerate the auxiliary operations to move the drilling string and unloaded rotator, the rotator is equipped with a clamp with means for transverse connection of it to both branches of the chain, while the pipe holders equipped with a clamp with means of connecting it to one of the branches of the chain.

  2. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappold, K.

    1995-01-01

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction

  3. Historic Shipwrecks as Ecosystem Monitoring Platforms in the Wake of Deepwater Horizon? Results of the Gulf of Mexico Shipwreck Corrosion, Hydrocarbon Exposure, Microbiology, and Archaeology (GOM-SCHEMA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, M.; Hamdan, L. J.; Salerno, J. L.; McGown, C.; Blackwell, C. A.; Church, R.; Warren, D.; Horrell, C.; Jordan, B.; Moore, J.

    2016-02-01

    Historic shipwrecks and other archaeological sites are protected by a well-established body of historic preservation laws intended to preserve these sensitive, non-renewable resources. While the cultural, historical, and archaeological value of historic shipwrecks is unequivocal, their function and value as ecosystem monitoring platforms following a major environmental disaster is becoming apparent. Shipwrecks have been found in previous studies to serve as artificial reefs and hotspots of biodiversity, essentially providing the basis for an intact ecosystem. This is especially true in the deepwater marine environment where natural hard-bottom is sparse. Micro- and macro-infaunal diversity on shipwrecks and their sensitivity to environmental change demonstrates the suitability of these platforms for monitoring ecosystem impact and recovery. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and partners initiated a multidisciplinary study to examine spill effects on shipwrecks and their associated microbial communities. To assess these impacts and to perform comparative analyses, the team collected microbiological, geochemical, and archaeological data at wooden- and metal-hulled shipwrecks within and outside of the subsurface spill-impacted area. Microbial community biodiversity informs us of micro-scale changes while 3D laser and sonar data reveal macro-scale changes. A multidisciplinary approach informs us of the roles microorganisms have in shipwreck degradation and corrosion as well as their response to ecosystem impacts. Results of the study identified multiple lines of evidence that sites were impacted by exposure to spill-related contaminants. Future multidisciplinary studies at these sites, as part of a long-term monitoring program, should inform on ecosystem recovery.

  4. Rig it right! Maya animation rigging concepts

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hailey, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Rigging a character can be a complicated undertaking. Move from a bi-pedal character to a quad- or poly-pedal and, well, things just got real. Where do you begin? Unlike all of those button-pushing manuals out there, Rig it Right! breaks down rigging so that you can achieve a fundamental understanding of the concept, allowing you to rig more intuitively in your own work. Veteran animation professor Tina O'Hailey will get you up and rigging in a matter of hours with step-by-step tutorials covering multiple animation control types, connection methods, interactive skinning, Blend

  5. BP « Deepwater Horizon » du Golfe du Mexique à l’Afrique : un tournant pour l’industrie pétrolière ? BP “Deepwater Horizon” from the Gulf of Mexico to Africa : a turning point for the Oil Industry ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraud Magrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L’explosion de la plateforme BP Deepwater Horizon du 20 avril 2010 constitue une des plus graves pollutions pétrolières de l’histoire. Sa localisation dans les eaux du premier consommateur mondial, et l’implication d’une des compagnies les plus avancées en matière de responsabilité sociale d’entreprise, sont révélatrices des enjeux actuels de la gestion environnementale des risques pétroliers. Alors que les gisements les plus accessibles sont exploités par des sociétés nationales, les compagnies internationales satisfont l’inextinguible demande en pétrole du système mondial en explorant des situations extrêmes, comme les eaux très profondes. Cela s’accompagne de risques croissants. La catastrophe de BP nous montre le danger de considérer un risque infime comme une absence de risque : l’exemption de planification d’urgence explique la longue durée et l’ampleur de la fuite. Elle rappelle aussi que les impacts du pétrole ne sont bien connus qu’à la surface et le long des côtes : or, cette fuite en eaux profondes causera des dommages écologiques graves dans les zones pélagiques. Cet événement changera les règles du jeu de la régulation environnementale pétrolière dans les zones sensibles. Nous donnons un aperçu des évolutions qu’il pourrait favoriser en Afrique, notamment en Mauritanie. Il reste à savoir si l’augmentation des coûts qui en résultera contribuera à accélérer la transition énergétique mondiale hors de la dépendance des hydrocarbures.On Thursday the 20th april 2010, the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform operated by BP in the Gulf of Mexico starts what can be considered one of the major oil spills in the world history. Taking place in the national waters of the world’s first oil consumer and affecting one of the more advanced oil major in Corporate Social Responsibility, this accident may turn out to be a land mark for environmental management in the

  6. The art of rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Biddlecombe, George

    1990-01-01

    The best manual ever produced on rigging a sailing ship, based on extensively revised and updated 1848 edition prepared by Biddlecombe, Master in the Royal Navy. Complete definition of terms, on-shore operations, process of rigging ships, reeving the running rigging and bending sails, rigging brigs, yachts and small vessels, more. 17 plates.

  7. What Really Rigs Up RIG-I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2016-01-01

    RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene 1) is an archetypal member of the cytoplasmic DEAD-box dsRNA helicase family (RIG-I-like receptors or RLRs), the members of which play essential roles in the innate immune response of the metazoan cell. RIG-I functions as a pattern recognition receptor that detects nonself RNA as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). However, the exact molecular nature of the viral RNAs that act as a RIG-I ligand has remained a mystery and a matter of debate. In this article, we offer a critical review of the actual viral RNAs that act as PAMPs to activate RIG-I, as seen from the perspective of a virologist, including a recent report that the viral Leader-read-through transcript is a novel and effective RIG-I ligand. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Understanding Rig Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Petter Osmundsen; Knut Einar Rosendahl; Terje Skjerpen

    2013-01-01

    We examine the largest cost component in offshore development projects, drilling rates, which have been high over the last years. To our knowledge, rig rates have not been analysed empirically before in the economic literature. By econometric analysis we examine the effects on Gulf of Mexico rig rates of gas and oil prices, rig capacity utilization, contract length and lead time, and rig specific characteristics. Having access to a unique data set containing contract information, we are able ...

  9. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  10. Isolated Horizon, Killing Horizon and Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Date, G.

    2001-01-01

    We consider space-times which in addition to admitting an isolated horizon also admit Killing horizons with or without an event horizon. We show that an isolated horizon is a Killing horizon provided either (1) it admits a stationary neighbourhood or (2) it admits a neighbourhood with two independent, commuting Killing vectors. A Killing horizon is always an isolated horizon. For the case when an event horizon is definable, all conceivable relative locations of isolated horizon and event hori...

  11. The deepwater Gulf of Mexico : promises delivered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary review of deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) oil production was presented for the years 1989 to 1998. Trends and prospects in deepwater GOM production and leasing were assessed. Promises and forecasts made in the early 1990s were compared with what actually happened since then. Forecasts in the early 1990s promised deeper, faster and cheaper developments in the deepwater Gulf. Results of the comparison showed that the prognosticators were correct on all three counts. Regarding the future of the Gulf, one can be justified in being optimistic in so far as more experience, robust economics, more and cheaper rigs can be taken as reliable indicators of optimism. In contrast, there are certain negatives to consider, such as low commodity prices, budget constraints, lease expirations, technical challenges and increased competition. . 12 figs

  12. Deep Water Horizon (HB1006, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monitor and measure the biological, chemical, and physical environment in the area of the oil spill from the deep water horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. A wide...

  13. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater...

  14. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Arctic in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068955)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Arctic in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-14 in response to the Deepwater...

  15. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the WEATHERBIRD II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-27 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the WEATHERBIRD II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-27 in response to the Deepwater...

  16. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill PSA (:24)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 24 second PSA from Dr. Regina Benjamin, U.S. Surgeon General, encourages people to get help if they are feeling sad, angry, depressed, or stressed as a result of the Gulf oil spill. It was recorded so that localities can add their own "For more information" at the end, as appropriate.

  17. Determination of the anionic surfactant di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate in water samples collected from Gulf of Mexico coastal waters before and after landfall of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, May to October, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Furlong, Edward T.; McCoy, Jeff W.; Kanagy, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    On April 22, 2010, the explosion on and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform resulted in the release of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least 4.4 million barrels had been released into the Gulf of Mexico through July 15, 2010, 10 to 29 percent of which was chemically dispersed, primarily using two dispersant formulations. Initially, the dispersant Corexit 9527 was used, and when existing stocks of that formulation were exhausted, Corexit 9500 was used. Over 1.8 million gallons of the two dispersants were applied in the first 3 months after the spill. This report presents the development of an analytical method to analyze one of the primary surfactant components of both Corexit formulations, di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the preliminary results, and the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) from samples collected from various points on the Gulf Coast between Texas and Florida. Seventy water samples and 8 field QC samples were collected before the predicted landfall of oil (pre-landfall) on the Gulf Coast, and 51 water samples and 10 field QC samples after the oil made landfall (post-landfall). Samples were collected in Teflon(Registered) bottles and stored at -20(degrees)C until analysis. Extraction of whole-water samples used sorption onto a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter to isolate DOSS, with subsequent 50 percent methanol/water elution of the combined dissolved and particulate DOSS fractions. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify DOSS by the isotope dilution method, using a custom-synthesized 13C4-DOSS labeled standard. Because of the ubiquitous presence of DOSS in laboratory reagent water, a chromatographic column was installed in the LC/MS/MS between the system pumps and the sample injector that separated this ambient background DOSS contamination from the sample DOSS, minimizing one source of blank contamination

  18. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater...

  19. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater...

  20. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater...

  1. A rigged market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mobile rig market remains a unique sector of the global upstream oil and gas industry. Big oil is continuing to emerge blinking from the darkness of its recent cash-starved existence to bask in the glory of a resurgent oil price. But the rig sector is once again lagging behind the pace being set by operators as they open up their wallets for new or delayed exploration and production projects. This paper gives statistics on worldwide count and contracts

  2. Drilling rig mast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, E.S.; Barashkov, V.A.; Lebedev, A.I.; Panin, N.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-01-07

    A drilling rig mast is proposed that contains a portal with a carrier shaft hinged to it and struts with stays. In order to decrease the time expended in the assembly and dessembly of the drilling rig, the portal is constructed from mobile and immobile parts that are connected together by a ball pivot; the immobile section of the portal has a T-shaped recess for directing the mobile section.

  3. The mobile rig industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsen, J.K.

    1992-08-01

    This study is part of the project ''A competitive Norway'', based on the theories and methods presented in the book ''The competitive advantage of nations'', by Michael E. Porter. The rig market may be segmented according to the type of service, the geographical market and the type of equipment. The focus of the report is exploration and appraisal drilling using jackup rigs and semi-submersible rigs in the Northwestern European market. Market shares of Norwegian, other European and US suppliers in the jackup and semi-submerisible market segments on the Norwegian continental shelf and the entire Northwestern market are presented. The main driving force behind the rig demand is the price of oil, but technological trends and changes in relative importance of the various geographical markets are also important. The industry is fairly fragmented on the supplier side, while the oil companies as customers have substantial bargaining power. There are high exit barriers because of the high capital intensity of the business. Combined with a highly volatile demand, this forces the industry through cycles of low capacity utilization and depressed rig day rates. 8 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Essays on bid rigging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seres, Gyula

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating prices in auctions raises antitrust concerns. Collusion lowers the revenue of the auctioneer and creates information rents. Bid rigging is a prevalent phenomenon and the affected market is enormous. Public procurement amounts to between 10 and 25 percent of national GDP in

  5. Advancing rig design: latest rig technologies improving efficiency and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenaway, R.

    1997-12-01

    Recent advances in drilling rig technologies that improve the ways for finding oil and natural gas, and are also solving some safety and transportation problems, have been reviewed. The coiled tubing drilling rig developed by joint venture TransOcean Ensign Drilling Technology was one of the innovations described. It is able to run a three-and-a-quarter inch coiled tubing, the only system capable of doing this in a land-based application. Tesco Corporation`s new casing drilling rig, which is expected to lower the cost of moving the rig, and Brinkerhoff Drilling`s new generation modular (NGM)-rig, claimed to be the most mobile rig in North America, are other new developments worthy of note. Tesco`s casing drilling rig has the potential to reduce drilling costs by as much as 30 to 40 per cent, while the NGM-rig could reduce rig mobilization time by 50 to 80 per cent, and the number of wells drilled by the same rig could increase by 20 per cent, due to the NGM-rig`s versatility and flexibility.

  6. Robotics Test Rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurmans, P.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental Accelerator Driven System XT-ADS is being developed within the European 6th framework programme EUROTRANS using the MYRRHA DRAFT-2 as starting point. The aim for the XT-ADS is to demonstrate the feasibility of the ADS concept at reasonable power levels and to serve as a high performance, multi-purpose experimental irradiation device. One of the fundamental design options that has been taken is to do all maintenance and in-service inspection and repair duties by remote handling. Outside the XT-ADS vessel in a controlled though radio-active environment, remote handling concepts as those already in use at e.g. the Joint European Torus (JET) can be used. Extrapolation to remote handling inside the lead-bismuth eutectic filled main vessel of the XT-ADS is in principle feasible as was shown in a 2003 study performed by Oxford Technologies ltd for the case of MYRRHA. Nevertheless, it is clear that all critical remote handling components need to be qualified for use in liquid LBE. Thus, as a first step, a proof of principle (POP) experimental test rig is require. The principal goal of this work is to identify the critical technological issues that must be resolved to allow operation of remote handling manipulators inside the LBE filled main vessel of the XT-ADS and to propose a concept design and specification catalogue for a proof of principle test rig that is able to experimentally verify the main aspects of manipulator design

  7. Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This standard is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. It quotes or paraphrases the US OSHA and ANSI requirements. It also encompasses, under one cover,hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI, and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the complex, diversified, critical, and often hazardous hoisting and rigging work found with the DOE complex.

  8. A drilling rig tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, A.A.; Barashkov, V.A.; Bulgakov, E.S.; Kuldoshin, I.P.; Lebedev, A.I.; Papin, N.M.; Rebrik, B.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-05-23

    Presentation is made of a drilling rig tower, comprising a gantry, a support shaft with a bracing strut and drawings out, and turn buckles. In order to increase the reliability of the tower in operation, to decrease the over all dimensions in a transport position, and to decrease the amount of time taken to transfer the tower from an operational position into a transportable one, and vice versa, the tower is equipped with a rotary frame made in the form of a triangular prism, whose lateral edges are connected by hinges: the first one with the lower part of the support shaft, the second with the gantry, and the third one to the upper part of the support shaft by means of the drawings out. The large boundary of the rotary frame is connected by a hinge to the support shaft by means of a bracing strut, which is equipped with a slide block connected to it by a hinge, and the rotary frame has a guide for the slide block reinforced to it on the large boundary. Besides this, the lateral edge of the rotary frame is connected to the gantry by means of turn buckles.

  9. Large-scale deposition of weathered oil in the Gulf of Mexico following a deep-water oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Diercks, Arne-R; Schwing, Patrick; Muller-Karger, Frank; Murawski, Steven; Hollander, David J

    2017-09-01

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig in 2010 released an unprecedented amount of oil at depth (1,500 m) into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Sedimentary geochemical data from an extensive area (∼194,000 km 2 ) was used to characterize the amount, chemical signature, distribution, and extent of the DWH oil deposited on the seafloor in 2010-2011 from coastal to deep-sea areas in the GoM. The analysis of numerous hydrocarbon compounds (N = 158) and sediment cores (N = 2,613) suggests that, 1.9 ± 0.9 × 10 4 metric tons of hydrocarbons (>C9 saturated and aromatic fractions) were deposited in 56% of the studied area, containing 21± 10% (up to 47%) of the total amount of oil discharged and not recovered from the DWH spill. Examination of the spatial trends and chemical diagnostic ratios indicate large deposition of weathered DWH oil in coastal and deep-sea areas and negligible deposition on the continental shelf (behaving as a transition zone in the northern GoM). The large-scale analysis of deposited hydrocarbons following the DWH spill helps understanding the possible long-term fate of the released oil in 2010, including sedimentary transformation processes, redistribution of deposited hydrocarbons, and persistence in the environment as recycled petrocarbon. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Equipment available for automating rig operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNair, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Several manufacturers are producing automated rig equipment, from complete systems to individual functions for existing drilling rigs. Significant improvements in well site time, costs of operations, and improved drilling performance have led drilling contractors to install this equipment on their rigs. This paper details some of the equipment available for automating rigs

  11. Experimental rigs for MHD studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, N.; Jayakumar, R.; Iyer, D.R.; Dixit, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    An MHD experimental rig is a miniature MHD installation consisting of basic equipments necessary for specific investigations. Some of the experimental rigs used in the investigations being carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India) are dealt with. The experiments included diagnostics and evaluation of materials in seeded combustion plasmas and argon plasmas. The design specifications, schematics and some of the results of the investigations are also mentioned. (author)

  12. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  13. Rig`s electricity to power top drive drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liderth, D.

    1996-05-01

    Permanent magnet brushless electric motors to supply torque to more space-efficient top drive drilling assemblies was the solution designed by Kaman Electromagnetic Corporation, working hand-in-hand with Calgary-based Tesco Drilling Technology, to remedy problems created by the bulkiness of standard hydraulic top drive systems. The biggest advantage of using electric over hydraulic top drive systems is the ability to tap into the rig`s existing power source, which lowers both cost and effort. A better power to weight ratio and reduced maintenance requirements are other desirable advantages.

  14. Stringy horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Kutasov, David [EFI and Department of Physics, University of Chicago,5640 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-06-11

    We argue that classical (α{sup ′}) effects qualitatively modify the structure of Euclidean black hole horizons in string theory. While low energy modes experience the geometry familiar from general relativity, high energy ones see a rather different geometry, in which the Euclidean horizon can be penetrated by an amount that grows with the radial momentum of the probe. We discuss this in the exactly solvable SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) black hole, where it is a manifestation of the black hole/Sine-Liouville duality.

  15. Saving money on rig refurbishments through foreign trade zones or duty-drawback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.J. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The recent boom in day rates for rigs capable of drilling in deep water and harsh environments has created a frenzy of rig refurbishment activity in shipyards located in US Gulf states. In most instances, the destination for the rigs upon completion is the US Outer Continental Shelf (USOCS) in the Gulf of Mexico. The problem faced by contractors/operators planning to use US shipyards is that this circumstance has caused difficulty in shielding rigs and their foreign-sourced components from US Customs duties. Under US Customs law, a bona fide exportation requires severance from US commerce and joining to the commerce of some foreign country or, in the case of a vessel supply, a qualifying international voyage. The USOCS does not qualify as an exportation, nor do movements to drilling sites located on it qualify as an international voyage. Described here are two possible solutions to this economic dilemma and an example of how the foreign trade zone solution was applied by Global marine in its plans for upgrading some of its semisubmersible drilling rigs for deepwater USOCS work

  16. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine

  17. PNNL Hoisting and Rigging Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynie, Todd O.; Fullmer, Michael W.

    2008-12-29

    This manual describes the safe and cost effective operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair requirements for cranes, hoists, fork trucks, slings, rigging hardware, and hoisting equipment. It is intended to be a user's guide to requirements, codes, laws, regulations, standards, and practices that apply to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its subcontractors.

  18. Replacement team of mining drilling rigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hamodi, Hussan; Lundberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a practical model to calculate the optimal replacement time (ORT) of drilling rigs used in underground mining. As a case study, cost data for drilling rig were collected over four years from a Swedish mine. The cost data include acquisition, operating, maintenance and downtime costs when using a redundant rig. A discount rate is used to determine the value of these costs over time. The study develops an optimisation model to identify the ORT of a mining drilling rig which ...

  19. Rigged Hilbert spaces for chaotic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchanecki, Z.; Antoniou, I.; Bandtlow, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of rigging for the Koopman operators of the Renyi and the baker maps. We show that the rigged Hilbert space for the Renyi maps has some of the properties of a strict inductive limit and give a detailed description of the rigged Hilbert space for the baker maps. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Hoisting and rigging manual: Uncontrolled document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-05-01

    This document is a draft copy of a Hoisting and Rigging Manual for the Department of Energy. The manual is divided into ten chapters. The chapter titles follow: terminology and definitions; operator training and qualification; overhead and gantry cranes; mobile cranes; forklift trucks; hoists; hooks; wire rope, slings, and rigging accessories; construction hoisting and rigging equipment requirements; references.

  1. Lessons on corporate "sustainability" disclosure from Deepwater Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    The BP oil spill highlighted shortcomings of current financial and sustainability reporting standards and practice. "Integrated reporting" aims to combine financial and social/environmental information into a single annual corporate report. But without more stringent standards, integrated reports would neglect substantial risks and, as BP's sustainability reports demonstrate, create false impressions of good practice.To be of value, integration must: 1. Require timely disclosure of enforcement notices, orders and allegations issued by regulators. 2. Require disclosure of credible scientific reports and concerns indicative of potentially catastrophic risks of a company's products and activities, regardless of scientific uncertainty. 3. Require review and disclosures of a firm's safety culture. 4. Require disclosure of any facts or circumstances needed to ensure that the management's self-portrait of its sustainability strategies, goals and progress is not materially misleading.In conducting its misleading reporting, BP largely followed Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. GRI is soliciting input, beginning in summer 2011, on how to revise those guidelines. Since GRI may prove a leading source for sustainability disclosure rules in integrating reporting, lessons learned from the BP experience must be applied to the next GRI revisions.

  2. Submesoscale Dispersion in the Vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    dental oil spill into marine waters in history with some 4.4 million barrels released into the DeSoto Canyon of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from...signal contamination from high-frequency motions (29), gridded altimeter-derived sea level anomalies only resolve the largest submesoscale motions. Long...Coriolis parameter, η(x, t) is sea surface height anomaly from AVISO, and φ(x, t) is such that v(x, t) is nondivergent in the interior and its normal

  3. The Winfrith horizontal impact rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.

    1985-12-01

    The Horizontal Impact Rig has been designed to allow studies of the impact of radioactive material transport containers and their associated transport vehicles and impact limiters, using large scale models, and to allow physically large missiles to be projected for studying the impact behaviour of metal and concrete structures. It provides an adequately rigid support structure for impact experiments with targets of large dimensions. Details of its design, instrumentation, performance prediction and construction are given. (U.K.)

  4. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-26 to 2010-09-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-26 to 2010-09-03 in response to the Deepwater...

  5. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-05-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-05-13 in response to the Deepwater...

  6. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31 in response to the Deepwater...

  7. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater...

  8. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-27 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-27 in response to the Deepwater...

  9. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-12 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-12 in response to the Deepwater...

  10. The Winfrith 9MW heat transfer rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obertelli, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Winfrith 9MW Rig is used for studying heat transfer and flow resistance in a variety of test sections at system pressures up to 68 bar. The basic rig and its instrumentation are discussed together with the characteristics of the test section design. The rig has been used in studies involving the full scale simulation of Steam Generating Heavy Water (SGHW) fuel assemblies and the paper discusses the measurements made in this type of study. (author)

  11. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees from...

  13. One big rig, two valuable functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-11-01

    A hybrid coil tubing and conventional workover rig, tailor-made for conditions on Alaska's remote North Slope is described. The dual function rig, owned by BP Exploration, towers 142 feet above the barren Arctic tundra, and weighs between 1.5 and 2 million pounds, rests on eight enormous wheels that stand 11.5 feet tall and 3.5 feet wide, and is supported by 64 smaller tires in between. The rig includes the hybrid coiled tubing rig and a conventional workover rig; it exerts less than 100 pounds per square inch of pressure on the tender Arctic surface as it moves forward at a top speed of two miles per hour. It is considered by its developers as the next-step change in providing cost-effective access to reserves in the large, mature and remote oilfields such as those of Alaska's Prudhoe Bay. The rig is the product of cooperation between Schlumberger expertise in coiled tubing drilling and Nordic-Calista's know-how of jointed pipe operations and operating rigs in an Arctic environment. It is the first time in Prudhoe Bay, and probably in the world, that a coiled tubing unit was installed on a rig to do coiled-tubing sidetracks, i.e to drill a secondary wellbore away from the original wellbore. Since the first unit was commissioned in 1996, the rig has drilled 280 wells. Rig No. 2, much improved and commissioned in 2002, drilled about 30 wells to date. Unlike Rig No, 1, Rig No. 2 can change reels without a crane, and it has a hydraulic pipe skate that moves jointed pipe to and from the rig floor without human aid. The expectation is that using this rig it will be possible to do micro-hole exploration drilling on the North Slope (i.e. drilling a small surface hole with jointed pipe and then switch to coiled tubing), substantially cutting the cost of exploration.

  14. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  15. 40th annual Reed rig census

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitts, R.L.; Stokes, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that declines characterize the 1992 rig census-in the number of available drilling rigs, in the number of active rigs, in rig utilization rate, in the number of rig owners and in industry optimism. The number of rotary rigs available for U.S. drilling fell by 255 units (11.3%) during the past 12 months, an attrition rate almost four times greater than in 1991. But despite the high attrition, only 59.7% of remaining rigs were working during the time the census was taken. Results of the 1992 census bring emphasis to an industry trend that became apparent in early 1991. The major oil companies, and many independents, continued their exodus form the U.S., and the remaining independents, which were hurt by low natural gas prices and unfavorable tax treatment of intangible drilling costs, were not able to pick u the drilling slack. Consequently, the past year has been disastrous for many U.S. drilling contractors, and the outlook for this industry segment remains bleak

  16. Advanced control strategies for a drill rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.; Hiller, M.; Fink, B.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of tunnels is usually undertaken using a combination of blasting and drilling to achieve rock excavation. Easy handling and high accuracy, and thus greater efficiency, in drilling rigs is an essential ingredient of successful competition in the market place. This article describes a cartesian control concept used for a twin boom drill rig. This simplifies the handling of a drilling boom, reduces the duration of a working cycle and increases security. A remote control system has been added to the drill rig to support the operator working in complicated environments. (UK)

  17. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  18. Barbabos Deep-Water Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Stentoft, N.

    1988-01-01

    Deep-water sponges dredged up in two locations off the west coast of Barbados are systematically described. A total of 69 species is recorded, among which 16 are new to science, viz. Pachymatisma geodiformis, Asteropus syringiferus, Cinachyra arenosa, Theonella atlantica. Corallistes paratypus,

  19. 39th annual Reed rig census

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowhurst, M.E.; Fitts, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on cutbacks in U.S. exploration and development drilling during the first half of 1991 which squeezed most of the optimism out of the drilling industry. Just how rough the year has been is underscored by the results of this year's rig census. The number of rotary rigs available for U.S. drilling declined by only 69 units (3%) during the past 12 months. But despite those withdrawals from competition, only 66% of the remaining rigs were working at the time the census was taken. Results of the 1991 census contrasted sharply with the stability and optimism that seemed apparent a year ago when 72% of the available rig fleet met the census definition of active. At that time, the mini-boom in horizontal drilling coupled with tax-credit- driven gas drilling led to a relatively high rig utilization rate and suggested that rig supply and demand might be close to an economically acceptable balance. However, it quickly became apparent in early 1991 that industry optimism was unjustified. Horizontal drilling began to drop and the lowest natural gas prices in 12 years triggered rapid declines in gas drilling. Although oil prices have been relatively stable and above $18 per bbl since January 1989, most major operators have concluded that a better return on investment can be had outside the U.S. and have drastically cut their domestic drilling budgets. These factors, combined with softened energy demand from the worldwide recession, further slowed U.S. drilling. The long awaited balance between rig supply and demand has seemingly slipped away. The 1991 Reed rig census describes an industry facing several more rough years. Details of this year's census include: The available U.S. fleet now stands at 2,251 rigs, down by 69 from the 2,320-unit total in 1990, and the lowest since 1976. Rigs meeting the census definition of active numbered 1,485, down 192 (11.4%) from the 1,677 active rigs counted a year earlier

  20. Learning Inverse Rig Mappings by Nonlinear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Daniel; Saito, Jun; Komura, Taku

    2017-03-01

    We present a framework to design inverse rig-functions-functions that map low level representations of a character's pose such as joint positions or surface geometry to the representation used by animators called the animation rig. Animators design scenes using an animation rig, a framework widely adopted in animation production which allows animators to design character poses and geometry via intuitive parameters and interfaces. Yet most state-of-the-art computer animation techniques control characters through raw, low level representations such as joint angles, joint positions, or vertex coordinates. This difference often stops the adoption of state-of-the-art techniques in animation production. Our framework solves this issue by learning a mapping between the low level representations of the pose and the animation rig. We use nonlinear regression techniques, learning from example animation sequences designed by the animators. When new motions are provided in the skeleton space, the learned mapping is used to estimate the rig controls that reproduce such a motion. We introduce two nonlinear functions for producing such a mapping: Gaussian process regression and feedforward neural networks. The appropriate solution depends on the nature of the rig and the amount of data available for training. We show our framework applied to various examples including articulated biped characters, quadruped characters, facial animation rigs, and deformable characters. With our system, animators have the freedom to apply any motion synthesis algorithm to arbitrary rigging and animation pipelines for immediate editing. This greatly improves the productivity of 3D animation, while retaining the flexibility and creativity of artistic input.

  1. {open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, B.

    1996-01-01

    New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

  2. All eyes on the deepwater prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of the opportunity of deepwater oil on the production growth ambitions of oil companies. Details are given of the trend towards the spending of less money, drilling fewer wells, and developing fewer new fields by the larger oil companies to obtain the best available profit. The greening of oil with the growing awareness of environmental concerns and fuel efficiency aspects is considered. The global potential for deepwater oil production, the threat to deepwater economics of market pressures, and the dominant position of large companies in deepwater activities are discussed. (UK)

  3. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  4. Mechanics of apparent horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.

    1992-01-01

    An equation for the variation in the surface area of an apparent horizon is derived which has the same form as the thermodynamic relation TdS=dQ. For a stationary vacuum black hole, the expression corresponding to a temperature equals the temperature of the event horizon. Also, if the black hole is perturbed infinitesimally by weak matter and gravitational fields, the area variation of the apparent horizon asymptotically approaches the Hartle-Hawking result for the event horizon. These results support the idea that a local version of black-hole thermodynamics in nonstationary systems can be constructed for apparent horizons

  5. Computer gaming comes to service rig training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2007-05-15

    This article addressed the challenge of providing service rig workers with a good understanding of the tasks and risks involved in the job before they even step out into the field. The product, SimuLynx was presented. SimuLynx is based on video and gaming technology to immerse the user in the service rig work environment with other crew members. The user tries to perform the different steps of a junior floorhand's job while a coach gives directions. The article discussed how the system works. For example, when faced with a task, the user chooses from several options. The coach informs the virtual junior floorhand if the decision was right or wrong. He will also give warnings and let the user realize the consequences of a wrong action. The benefits of the system were also presented. For example, instead of 30 days of on-the-job training, an employee may only need several days after going through the program. Other benefits that were reviewed included reduced accident risk-levels for new workers; higher rig efficiency; and, lower training costs. In addition, a potential recruit can decide if the job is right for him before signing up for an expensive course or starting off with a service rig company. As well, the rig company can decide if someone is suitable before hiring that person. 3 figs.

  6. A constructive presentation of rigged Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeghini, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    We construct a rigged Hilbert space for the square integrable functions on the line L2(R) adding to the generators of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra a new discrete operator, related to the degree of the Hermite polynomials. All together, continuous and discrete operators, constitute the generators of the projective algebra io(2). L 2 (R) and the vector space of the line R are shown to be isomorphic representations of such an algebra and, as both these representations are irreducible, all operators defined on the rigged Hilbert spaces L 2 (R) or R are shown to belong to the universal enveloping algebra of io(2). The procedure can be extended to orthogonal and pseudo-orthogonal spaces of arbitrary dimension by tensorialization.Circumventing all formal problems the paper proposes a kind of toy model, well defined from a mathematical point of view, of rigged Hilbert spaces where, in contrast with the Hilbert spaces, operators with different cardinality are allowed. (paper)

  7. Study in flow rig by using radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widatalla, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    Application of radioisotope technology have proved itself to be effective techniques for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process in petrochemical industry In this study gamma scanning technique has been employed for better understanding of malfunctions by using the flow rig system. The scanning were carried out using 9 9mT C gamma radiation source with activity of 1 mCi and quantity of 5 ml to measure the flow rate for the water flow rig The experiment was repeated by reducing the data interval time to get more precise result. The investigations were also carried out using 5 ml of 9 9mT C with activity of 0.3 mCi for measuring the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) inside the flow rig tank which enables calculating the effective volume for the operating tank and its dead volume. The results proved that the technique is sensitive, reliable and can be adopted to investigate industrial reactors. (Author)

  8. Examples of plasma horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the plasma horizon, defined as the boundary of the region in which an infinitely thin plasma can be supported against Coulomb attraction by a magnetic field, shows that the argument of selective accretion does not rule out the existence of charged black holes embedded in a conducting plasma. A detailed account of the covariant definition of plasma horizon is given and some examples of plasma horizons are presented. 7 references

  9. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2003-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2002 through September, 2003. At the end of the second technical progress report, the ConocoPhillips opportunities to apply subsea processing in the Gulf of Mexico had been exhausted, and an alternative site was identified in Norway. This was a non-ConocoPhillips operated field, and the subsea processing was proposed as a phased development approach with 2-phase separation at the field, and then gas and liquids exported via pipeline to remote platform locations for processing. Although the unrisked economics were quite favorable, the risked economic evaluation compelled the operator to develop the field with the more conventional and proven Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) option. Work on the subsea processing was suspended at this time. Discussions with DOE regarding two other step-change deepwater technologies ensued. One was an effort to develop a light-weight, high pressure composite production riser. A field demonstration of the design would then be performed by deploying a limited number of composite joints in a Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The other was to begin the process of taking drilling with casing technology to the deepwater. This is called, ''close-tolerance liner drilling''. It was agreed that both technologies should be pursued, and the work began. During this reporting period, the initial production riser design had been completed and preliminary test sample components were being fabricated. Regarding the liner drilling, the sub-contractors were selected, the design basis was agreed and designs progressed towards meeting a projected first quarter, 2004 onshore test program.

  10. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2004-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2003 through September, 2004. At the end of the last technical progress report, the subsea processing aspects of the work program had been dropped due to the lack of commercial opportunity within ConocoPhillips, and the program had been redirected towards two other promising deepwater technologies: the development and demonstration of a composite production riser, and the development and testing of a close-tolerance liner drilling system. This report focuses on these two technologies.

  11. LWR primary coolant pipe rupture test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitoshi, Shyoji

    1978-01-01

    The rupture test rig for primary coolant pipes is constructed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to verify the reliability of the primary coolant pipes for both PWRs and BWRs. The planned test items consisted of reaction force test, restraint test, whip test, jet test and continuous release test. A pressure vessel of about 4 m 3 volume, a circulating pump, a pressurizer, a heater, an air cooler and the related instrumentation and control system are included in this test rig. The coolant test condition is 160 kg/cm 2 g, 325 deg C for PWR test, and 70 kg/cm 2 g, saturated water and steam for BWR test, 100 ton of test load for the ruptured pipe bore of 8B Schedule 160, and 20 lit/min. discharge during 20 h for continuous release of coolant. The maximum pit internal pressure was estimated for various pipe diameters and time under the PWR and BWR conditions. The spark rupturing device was adopted for the rupture mechanics in this test rig. The computer PANAFACOM U-300 is used for the data processing. This test rig is expected to operate in 1978 effectively for the improvement of reliability of LWR primary coolant pipes. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Deep water challenges for drilling rig design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M [Transocean Sedco Forex, Houston, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Drilling rigs designed for deep water must meet specific design considerations for harsh environments. The early lessons for rig design came from experiences in the North Sea. Rig efficiency and safety considerations must include structural integrity, isolated/redundant ballast controls, triple redundant DP systems, enclosed heated work spaces, and automated equipment such as bridge cranes, pipe handling gear, offline capabilities, subsea tree handling, and computerized drill floors. All components must be designed to harmonize man and machine. Some challenges which are unique to Eastern Canada include frequent storms and fog, cold temperature, icebergs, rig ice, and difficult logistics. This power point presentation described station keeping and mooring issues in terms of dynamic positioning issues. The environmental influence on riser management during forced disconnects was also described. Design issues for connected deep water risers must insure elastic stability, and control deflected shape. The design must also keep stresses within acceptable limits. Codes and standards for stress limits, flex joints and tension were also presented. tabs., figs.

  13. Customization creates more efficient, cleaner rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2002-08-01

    Technological advances in drilling equipment are essential to improving efficiency in the oilpatch; getting the technological upper hand on the competition is no less important for drilling equipment manufacturers than for actors in other sectors of the industry. While off-the-shelf uniformity that reduces unit cost has been the trend in fabricating field gas compression modules, custom manufacturing has become very popular in the rig manufacturing sector. Examples from Crown Energy Technologies and Tesco Corporation, both of Calgary, Aecon Industrial's Edmonton operations, PCL Industrial Construction Ltd of Nisku, and Toromont Process Systems of Houston and Calgary are described to illustrate the widespread demand for customized drilling rigs, including the growing preference for electric drives. Top drive systems, as opposed to rotary drives also have become very popular; six out of ten rigs are sold with electric top drives today compared with fewer than 10 rigs a decade ago. At the same time, Tesco has recently signed a deal with Conoco Inc to construct three revolutionary drilling rigs using Tesco's proprietary Casing Drilling Technology, which uses standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe, allowing operators to simultaneously drill, case and evaluate oil and gas wells. Aecon and PCL Industrial Construction have had much demand for customized spools and modules particularly from the oil sands industry, while Toromont Process Systems is also expanding its Calgary facilities to meet the demand for its dual gas compression equipment used by power stations for gas compression and co-generation, natural gas refrigeration and specialty gas processing.

  14. Endurance test of DUPIC irradiation test rig-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J.S; Yang, M.S.; Lee, C.Y.; Ryu, J.S.; Jeon, H.G

    2001-04-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for DUPIC Irradiation Test Rig-003 which was design and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop and vibration test results, it is verified that DUPIC Irradiation Test Rig-003 satisfied the limit conditions of HANARO. And, remarkable wear is not observed in DUPIC Irradiation Test Rig-003 during 40 endurance test days.

  15. VMware horizon view essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop administrator or an end user of a computing project team looking to speed up to the latest VMware Horizon View solution, then this book is perfect for you. It is your ideal companion to deploy a solution to centrally manage and virtualize your desktop estate using Horizon View 6.0.

  16. Revisiting event horizon finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael I; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Event horizons are the defining physical features of black hole spacetimes, and are of considerable interest in studying black hole dynamics. Here, we reconsider three techniques to find event horizons in numerical spacetimes: integrating geodesics, integrating a surface, and integrating a level-set of surfaces over a volume. We implement the first two techniques and find that straightforward integration of geodesics backward in time is most robust. We find that the exponential rate of approach of a null surface towards the event horizon of a spinning black hole equals the surface gravity of the black hole. In head-on mergers we are able to track quasi-normal ringing of the merged black hole through seven oscillations, covering a dynamic range of about 10 5 . Both at late times (when the final black hole has settled down) and at early times (before the merger), the apparent horizon is found to be an excellent approximation of the event horizon. In the head-on binary black hole merger, only some of the future null generators of the horizon are found to start from past null infinity; the others approach the event horizons of the individual black holes at times far before merger.

  17. Jet Exit Rig Six Component Force Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Wolter, John; Woike, Mark; Booth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A new six axis air balance was delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This air balance has an axial force capability of 800 pounds, primary airflow of 10 pounds per second, and a secondary airflow of 3 pounds per second. Its primary use was for the NASA Glenn Jet Exit Rig, a wind tunnel model used to test both low-speed, and high-speed nozzle concepts in a wind tunnel. This report outlines the installation of the balance in the Jet Exit Rig, and the results from an ASME calibration nozzle with an exit area of 8 square-inches. The results demonstrated the stability of the force balance for axial measurements and the repeatability of measurements better than 0.20 percent.

  18. Deepwater development - the metocean challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, C.

    1998-01-01

    As the focus of the offshore industry moves increasingly towards deepwater, attention is concentrating more and more on life-cycle field development costs. Key elements are reducing development lead times, equipment standardisation and efficient use of scarce resources. An essential precursor is a clear definition of the metocean environment. Without it, engineering design may be unnecessarily conservative or inadequate. Either way the consequences will be expensive. It is the metocean challenge to help bring down costs, while maintaining adequate safety levels by providing the necessary answers, but most important of all, to do this in sufficient time to be in step with the engineering requirements at each stage of a planned development. (author)

  19. Computers make rig life extension an option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The worldwide semisubmersible drilling rig fleet is approaching retirement. But replacement is not an attractive option even though dayrates are reaching record highs. In 1991, Schlumberger Sedco Forex managers decided that an alternative might exist if regulators and insurers could be convinced to extend rig life expectancy through restoration. Sedco Forex chose their No. 704 semisubmersible, an 18-year North Sea veteran, to test their process. The first step was to determine what required restoration, meaning fatigue life analysis of each weld on the huge vessel. If inspected, the task would be unacceptably time-consuming and of questionable accuracy. Instead a suite of computer programs modeled the stress seen by each weld, statistically estimated the sea states seen by the rig throughout its North Sea service and calibrated a beam-element model on which to run their computer simulations. The elastic stiffness of the structure and detailed stress analysis of each weld was performed with ANSYS, a commercially available finite-element analysis program. The use of computer codes to evaluate service life extension is described.

  20. Parity horizons in shape dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    I introduce the notion of a parity horizon, and show that many simple solutions of shape dynamics possess them. I show that the event horizons of the known asymptotically flat black hole solutions of shape dynamics are parity horizons and that this notion of parity implies that these horizons possess a notion of CPT invariance that can in some cases be extended to the solution as a whole. I present three new solutions of shape dynamics with parity horizons and find that not only do event horizons become parity horizons in shape dynamics, but observer-dependent horizons and Cauchy horizons do as well. The fact that Cauchy horizons become (singular) parity horizons suggests a general chronology protection mechanism in shape dynamics that prevents the formation of closed timelike curves. (paper)

  1. Injecting rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) into wounds only: A significant saving of lives and costly RIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Wilde, Henry

    2017-04-03

    An increasing number of dog bite victims were being presented to public hospitals in Himachal Pradesh in 2014 amidst virtual non availability of any rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Only a small quantity of equine rabies immunoglobulin (eRIG) was available from the government owned Central Research Institute (CRI) Kasauli. This available eRIG was used in 269 patients as an emergency response and only for local infiltration of severe bite wounds by suspected rabid dogs. This was followed by rabies vaccination, using the WHO approved intra-dermal Thai Red Cross Society vaccination schedule. A subgroup of 26 patients were later identified who had been severely bitten by laboratory confirmed rabid dogs. They were followed for more than one year and all were found to be alive.

  2. Deepwater Ports in US waters as of August 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deepwater Port Licensing Program is the application process designed to promote the construction of LNG and oil deepwater ports. This license system was...

  3. Endurance test on IR rig for RI production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Youn, Y. J.; Han, H. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ryu, J. S.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for IR rig for RI production which were desigened and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate through the IR rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 3.12 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the IR rig ranges from 13 to 17 Hz. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for the IR rig is less than 30 μm, and the maximum displacement is less than 110μm. These experimental results show that the design criteria of IR rig meet the HANARO limit conditions. Endurance test results show that the appreciable fretting wear for the IR rig does not occur, however tiny trace of wear between contact points is observed

  4. 75 FR 80056 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... was closed due to the Deepwater Horizon Event were selected for inclusion. These include the following... Prevention (CDC). Background and Brief Description On April 20, 2010, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig... livelihoods of persons residing in the Gulf coastal communities were affected by this event due to loss of...

  5. Resonances, scattering theory and rigged Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parravicini, G.; Gorini, V.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of decaying states and resonances is examined within the framework of scattering theory in a rigged Hilbert space formalism. The stationary free, in, and out eigenvectors of formal scattering theory, which have a rigorous setting in rigged Hilbert space, are considered to be analytic functions of the energy eigenvalue. The value of these analytic functions at any point of regularity, real or complex, is an eigenvector with eigenvalue equal to the position of the point. The poles of the eigenvector families give origin to other eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian; the singularities of the out eigenvector family are the same as those of the continued S matrix, so that resonances are seen as eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian with eigenvalue equal to their location in the complex energy plane. Cauchy theorem then provides for expansions in terms of complete sets of eigenvectors with complex eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian. Applying such expansions to the survival amplitude of a decaying state, one finds that resonances give discrete contributions with purely exponential time behavior; the background is of course present, but explicitly separated. The resolvent of the Hamiltonian, restricted to the nuclear space appearing in the rigged Hilbert space, can be continued across the absolutely continuous spectrum; the singularities of the continuation are the same as those of the out eigenvectors. The free, in and out eigenvectors with complex eigenvalues and those corresponding to resonances can be approximated by physical vectors in the Hilbert space, as plane waves can. The need for having some further physical information in addition to the specification of the total Hamiltonian is apparent in the proposed framework. The formalism is applied to the Lee-Friedrichs model. 48 references

  6. Innovative technology for a cost-effective land rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehra, S.; Bryce, T.

    1996-05-01

    Sedco Forex has recently completed a new land drilling rig, currently deployed in Gabon, that integrates well construction activities with multiskilling to create cost savings across the board in drilling operations. Historically, operators have produced a comprehensive tender package specifying strictly the type and size of individual rig components and the number of personnel required to drill. In this case, the drilling contractor provides a fit-for-purpose rig, consistent with field location, well profile, operator`s priorities, and local constraints.

  7. Innovative technology for a cost-effective land rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, S.; Bryce, T.

    1996-01-01

    Sedco Forex has recently completed a new land drilling rig, currently deployed in Gabon, that integrates well construction activities with multiskilling to create cost savings across the board in drilling operations. Historically, operators have produced a comprehensive tender package specifying strictly the type and size of individual rig components and the number of personnel required to drill. In this case, the drilling contractor provides a fit-for-purpose rig, consistent with field location, well profile, operator's priorities, and local constraints

  8. Unstable quantum states and rigged Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, V.; Parravicini, G.

    1978-10-01

    Rigged Hilbert space techniques are applied to the quantum mechanical treatment of unstable states in nonrelativistic scattering theory. A method is discussed which is based on representations of decay amplitudes in terms of expansions over complete sets of generalized eigenvectors of the interacting Hamiltonian, corresponding to complex eigenvalues. These expansions contain both a discrete and a continuum contribution. The former corresponds to eigenvalues located at the second sheet poles of the S matrix, and yields the exponential terms in the survival amplitude. The latter arises from generalized eigenvectors associated to complex eigenvalues on background contours in the complex plane, and gives the corrections to the exponential law. 27 references

  9. Hydraulic lifter for an underwater drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garan' ko, Yu L

    1981-01-15

    A hydraulic lifter is suggested for an underwater drilling rig. It includes a base, hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes connected to the clamp holder and hydraulic distributor. In order to simplify the design of the device, the base is made with a hollow chamber connected to the rod cavities and through the hydraulic distributor to the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes. The hydraulic distributor is connected to the hydrosphere through the supply valve with control in time or by remote control. The base is equipped with reverse valves whose outlets are on the support surface of the base.

  10. The role of the rigged Hilbert space in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Rafael de la

    2005-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that, when a continuous spectrum is present, the natural mathematical setting for quantum mechanics is the rigged Hilbert space rather than just the Hilbert space. In particular, Dirac's braket formalism is fully implemented by the rigged Hilbert space rather than just by the Hilbert space. In this paper, we provide a pedestrian introduction to the role the rigged Hilbert space plays in quantum mechanics, by way of a simple, exactly solvable example. The procedure will be constructive and based on a recent publication. We also provide a thorough discussion on the physical significance of the rigged Hilbert space

  11. A new generation drilling rig: hydraulically powered and computer controlled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, M.; Angman, P.; Oveson, D. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB, (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Development, testing and operation of a new generation of hydraulically powered and computer controlled drilling rig that incorporates a number of features that enhance functionality and productivity, is described. The rig features modular construction, a large heated common drilling machinery room, permanently-mounted draw works which, along with the permanently installed top drive, significantly reduces rig-up/rig-down time. Also featured are closed and open hydraulic systems and a unique hydraulic distribution manifold. All functions are controlled through a programmable logic controller (PLC), providing almost unlimited interlocks and calculations to increase rig safety and efficiency. Simplified diagnostic routines, remote monitoring and troubleshooting are also part of the system. To date, two rigs are in operation. Performance of both rigs has been rated as `very good`. Little or no operational problems have been experienced; downtime has averaged 0.61 per cent since August 1998 when the the first of the two rigs went into operation. The most important future application for this rig is for use with the casing drilling process which eliminates the need for drill pipe and tripping. It also reduces the drilling time lost due to unscheduled events such as reaming, fishing and taking kicks while tripping. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  12. Eigenfunction expansions and scattering theory in rigged Hilbert spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cubillo, F [Dpt. de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid. Facultad de Ciencias, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: fgcubill@am.uva.es

    2008-08-15

    The work reviews some mathematical aspects of spectral properties, eigenfunction expansions and scattering theory in rigged Hilbert spaces, laying emphasis on Lippmann-Schwinger equations and Schroedinger operators.

  13. Field Demonstraton of Existing Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Perry; Samih Batarseh; Sheriff Gowelly; Thomas Hayes

    2006-05-09

    The performance of an advanced Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) has been measured in the field during the drilling of 25 test wells in the Niobrara formation of Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado. The coiled tubing (CT) rig designed, built and operated by Advanced Drilling Technologies (ADT), was documented in its performance by GTI staff in the course of drilling wells ranging in depth from 500 to nearly 3,000 feet. Access to well sites in the Niobrara for documenting CT rig performance was provided by Rosewood Resources of Arlington, VA. The ADT CT rig was selected for field performance evaluation because it is one of the most advanced commercial CT rig designs that demonstrate a high degree of process integration and ease of set-up and operation. Employing an information collection protocol, data was collected from the ADT CT rig during 25 drilling events that encompassed a wide range of depths and drilling conditions in the Niobrara. Information collected included time-function data, selected parametric information indicating CT rig operational conditions, staffing levels, and field observations of the CT rig in each phase of operation, from rig up to rig down. The data obtained in this field evaluation indicates that the ADT CT rig exhibited excellent performance in the drilling and completion of more than 25 wells in the Niobrara under varied drilling depths and formation conditions. In the majority of the 25 project well drilling events, ROP values ranged between 300 and 620 feet per hour. For all but the lowest 2 wells, ROP values averaged approximately 400 feet per hour, representing an excellent drilling capability. Most wells of depths between 500 and 2,000 feet were drilled at a total functional rig time of less than 16 hours; for wells as deep at 2,500 to 3,000 feet, the total rig time for the CT unit is usually well under one day. About 40-55 percent of the functional rig time is divided evenly between drilling and casing/cementing. The balance of

  14. VMware Horizon Workspace essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter; Lindberg, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This book uses a step-by-step approach to teach you how to design, deploy, and manage a Horizon Workspace based on real world experience. Written in an easy-to-follow style, this book explains the terminology in a clear and concise manner. Each feature is explained starting at a high level and then drilling down into the technical detail, using diagrams and screenshots.This book is perfect for IT administrators who want to deploy a solution to centrally manage access to corporate applications, data, and virtual desktops using Horizon Workspace. You need to have some experience in delivering BY

  15. Mastering VMware Horizon 6

    CERN Document Server

    Oven, Peter von

    2015-01-01

    If you are working as a desktop admin, part of a EUC team, an architect, or a consultant on a desktop virtualization project and you are looking to use VMware's Horizon solution, this book is for you. This book will demonstrate the new capabilities of Horizon 6. You should have experience in desktop management using Windows and Microsoft Office, and be familiar with Active Directory, SQL, Windows Remote Desktop Session Hosting, and VMware vSphere infrastructure (ESXi and vCenter Server) technology.

  16. Bootstrap, universality and horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chi-Ming [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704 (United States); Lin, Ying-Hsuan [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-13

    We present a closed form expression for the semiclassical OPE coefficients that are universal for all 2D CFTs with a “weak” light spectrum, by taking the semiclassical limit of the fusion kernel. We match this with a properly regularized and normalized bulk action evaluated on a geometry with three conical defects, analytically continued in the deficit angles beyond the range for which a metric with positive signature exists. The analytically continued geometry has a codimension-one coordinate singularity surrounding the heaviest conical defect. This singularity becomes a horizon after Wick rotating to Lorentzian signature, suggesting a connection between universality and the existence of a horizon.

  17. Gulf of Mexico deep-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The deepwater Gulf of Mexico, an emerging basin with 20 BBOE resource potential, was discussed. Technologies are advancing and development options are increasing within the Gulf of Mexico deepwater environment. Deepwater offers significant rate potentials leading to strong cash flows. The projected steep rate of resources captured in the next five years show that there is a short window of opportunity to establish a business position. The major production variables are development costs and cycle time. There is a definite market for Gulf of Mexico products because U.S. energy demand is expected to outstrip U.S. supply. Present infrastructure is capable of moving large volumes of gas into major U.S. markets, but with the large number of projects currently underway, especially in the United States, supply could exceed capacity. 1 tab., 16 figs

  18. BP Spill Sampling and Monitoring Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset analyzes waste from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response, providing opportunity to query data sets by metadata...

  19. BP Spill Sampling Data April-September 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides all of the sampling data from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response. The data were collected between...

  20. BP Spill Monitoring Data April-September 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides all of the monitoring data from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response. The data were collected between...

  1. BP Spill Sampling and Monitoring Data April-September 2010 - Data Download Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset analyzes waste from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response, providing opportunity to query data sets by metadata...

  2. The spatial relation between the event horizon and trapping horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Alex B

    2010-01-01

    The relation between event horizons and trapping horizons is investigated in a number of different situations with emphasis on their role in thermodynamics. A notion of constant change is introduced that in certain situations allows the location of the event horizon to be found locally. When the black hole is accreting matter the difference in area between the two different horizons can be many orders of magnitude larger than the Planck area. When the black hole is evaporating, the difference is small on the Planck scale. A model is introduced that shows how trapping horizons can be expected to appear outside the event horizon before the black hole starts to evaporate. Finally, a modified definition is introduced to invariantly define the location of the trapping horizon under a conformal transformation. In this case the trapping horizon is not always a marginally outer trapped surface.

  3. Optimal investment horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, I.; Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.

    2002-06-01

    In stochastic finance, one traditionally considers the return as a competitive measure of an asset, i.e., the profit generated by that asset after some fixed time span Δt, say one week or one year. This measures how well (or how bad) the asset performs over that given period of time. It has been established that the distribution of returns exhibits ``fat tails'' indicating that large returns occur more frequently than what is expected from standard Gaussian stochastic processes [1-3]. Instead of estimating this ``fat tail'' distribution of returns, we propose here an alternative approach, which is outlined by addressing the following question: What is the smallest time interval needed for an asset to cross a fixed return level of say 10%? For a particular asset, we refer to this time as the investment horizon and the corresponding distribution as the investment horizon distribution. This latter distribution complements that of returns and provides new and possibly crucial information for portfolio design and risk-management, as well as for pricing of more exotic options. By considering historical financial data, exemplified by the Dow Jones Industrial Average, we obtain a novel set of probability distributions for the investment horizons which can be used to estimate the optimal investment horizon for a stock or a future contract.

  4. Instability of enclosed horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  5. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  6. Gulf of Mexico rig activity up, international lags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappold, K.

    1994-01-01

    Demand for jack up and semisubmersible rigs has improved in the Gulf of Mexico following a decline in activity earlier this year. International drilling activity, however, has shown slight declines in several regions. Relatively firm natural gas prices have helped buoy rig activity in North America. Rig day rates have not followed suit, mainly because of the influx of rigs from weaker international markets. Day rates in the US may not increase until international activity picks up and the world-wide drilling market tightens. Oil prices have hit almost $20/bbl, mainly because of the recent oil worker' strike in Nigeria and good demand. Natural gas prices in the US have hovered around $2.00/MMBTU, and many industry analysts expect gas prices to remain strong over the next few years. This paper gives data on drilling rig counts and crude oil and gas prices in the Gulf of Mexico and onshore

  7. Ergonomic exposure on a drilling rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Jensen, Chris

    . In a relatively old study on American drilling rigs it was indicated that lower back problems was a frequent cause of absence (Clemmer et al. 1991). Most of the incidents causing lower back injuries were associated with heavy lifting or pushing/pulling objects by roustabouts, floorhands, derrickmen and welders......, but for some of the most frequent problems, such as musculoskeletal problems, it is difficult to determine whether the causes are work‐related or not. As manual handling (lifting, pushing, etc.) in awkward body postures increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders, it should be expected that work......‐related health problems contribute to sickness absence in the offshore industry, if these working postures are common. However, also work‐related psychosocial factors, personal factors and other factors may contribute to the development of lower back disorders, which often have a multifactorial background...

  8. Advisory expert system for test rig operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielczynski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The advisory expert system MAESTRO (Modular Advisory Expert System for Test Rig Operator) has been designed to guide the operator of large experimental installation during start-up, steady state and shut down. The installation is located in the research reactor MARIA in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk, Poland. The system acquires and analyses on line signals from installation and performs two tasks in real time: leading the operator and monitoring of the installation (including signal validation). Systems tasks, architecture and knowledge representation concepts are described. The system is based on expert systems techniques what makes in phases of continuous change of process parameters and it has been achieved by special knowledge representation allowing its dynamical modification. (author). 147 refs, 42 figs, 5 tab

  9. Investigating Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms for Oil Rigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized, both in industry and academia, that clear strategies in knowledge transfer positively influence the success of a firm. A firm should support the transfer of knowledge by standardizing communication channels within and across departments, based upon personalization......, codification or a combination of these two strategies. The characteristics of the business influence the choice of communication channels used for knowledge transfer. This paper presents a case study exploring the transfer of knowledge within and across projects, specifically the transfer of service knowledge...... in the case of complex machinery. The strategies used for knowledge transfer were analysed and compared with the expected transfer mechanisms, similarities and differences were investigated and are described. A family of four identical rigs for offshore drilling was the selected case. The transfer...

  10. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asdonk, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.asdonk@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Motz, Inga; Werner, Nikos [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Coch, Christoph; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  11. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asdonk, Tobias; Motz, Inga; Werner, Nikos; Coch, Christoph; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther; Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. ► RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. ► EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 μg of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5′end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  12. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes

  13. Tractor accelerated test on test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experimental tests performed to validate a tractor prototype before its production, need a substantial financial and time commitment. The tests could be reduced using accelerated tests able to reproduce on the structural part of the tractor, the same damage produced on the tractor during real life in a reduced time. These tests were usually performed reproducing a particular harsh condition a defined number of times, as for example using a bumpy road on track to carry out the test in any weather condition. Using these procedures the loads applied on the tractor structure are different with respect to those obtained during the real use, with the risk to apply loads hard to find in reality. Recently it has been demonstrated how, using the methodologies designed for cars, it is possible to also expedite the structural tests for tractors. In particular, automotive proving grounds were recently successfully used with tractors to perform accelerated structural tests able to reproduce the real use of the machine with an acceleration factor higher than that obtained with the traditional methods. However, the acceleration factor obtained with a tractor on proving grounds is in any case reduced due to the reduced speed of the tractors with respect to cars. In this context, the goal of the paper is to show the development of a methodology to perform an accelerated structural test on a medium power tractor using a 4 post test rig. In particular, several proving ground testing conditions have been performed to measure the loads on the tractor. The loads obtained were then edited to remove the not damaging portion of signals, and finally the loads obtained were reproduced in a 4 post test rig. The methodology proposed could be a valid alternative to the use of a proving ground to reproduce accelerated structural tests on tractors.

  14. Mechanical Characteristics of Some Deepwater Floater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhen-Zhe; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an initial study of the mechanical characteristics of some deepwater floater designs for offshore wind turbines. Three different concepts (NREL TLP, Dutch Trifloater, and Japanese SPAR) are summarized, based on data from the available studies. A 5 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine...

  15. Locating the Gribov horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose

    2018-02-01

    We explore whether a tree-level expression for the gluon two-point function, supposed to express effects of an horizon term introduced to eliminate the Gribov ambiguity, is consistent with the propagator obtained in simulations of lattice-regularised quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In doing so, we insist that the gluon two-point function obey constraints that ensure a minimal level of consistency with parton-like behaviour at ultraviolet momenta. In consequence, we are led to a position which supports a conjecture that the gluon mass and horizon scale are equivalent emergent massscales, each with a value of roughly 0.5 GeV; and wherefrom it appears plausible that the dynamical generation of a running gluon mass may alone be sufficient to remove the Gribov ambiguity.

  16. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    for a joint horizon scanning system (HSS).  We propose to create a central “horizon scanning unit” to perform the joint HS activities (a newly established unit, an existing HS unit, or a third party commissioned and financed by the collaborating countries). The unit will be responsible for the identification...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...... will collect country-specific information, liaise between the central HS unit and country-specific clinical and other experts, coordinate the national prioritization process (to select products for early assessment), and communicate the output of the HSS to national decision makers.  The outputs of the joint...

  17. Locating the Gribov horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose

    2018-02-01

    We explore whether a tree-level expression for the gluon two-point function, supposed to express effects of an horizon term introduced to eliminate the Gribov ambiguity, is consistent with the propagator obtained in simulations of lattice-regularized quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In doing so, we insist that the gluon two-point function obey constraints that ensure a minimal level of consistency with parton-like behavior on the ultraviolet domain. In consequence, we are led to a position which supports a conjecture that the gluon mass and horizon scale are equivalent emergent mass-scales, each with a value of roughly 0.5 GeV; and wherefrom it appears plausible that the dynamical generation of a running gluon mass may alone be sufficient to remove the Gribov ambiguity.

  18. Horizon 2020 in sight

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Every tenth member of the CERN personnel participates in an EU-funded project – a strong indication of CERN’s successful relations with the European Commission (EC), coordinated by the CERN EU projects office. The EC director in charge of preparing “Horizon 2020”, the new EU funding programme for research and innovation (2014-2020), will be giving a presentation at CERN on 8 May. He will reveal more about what the new programme has in store.   “It’s a very interesting time in the development of Horizon 2020, which is focusing the attention of all research communities in Europe,” explains Svetlomir Stavrev, head of the EU projects office. “After a long public consultation and drafting process, the Horizon 2020 proposal documents are now being reviewed by the European Parliament and Council.” CERN already participated in the consultation, making good use of the opportunity to contribute to the shaping of wh...

  19. A power recirculating test rig for ball screw endurance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giberti Hermes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual design of an innovative test rig for endurance tests of ball screws is presented in this paper. The test rig layout is based on the power recirculating principle and it also allows to overtake the main critical issues of the ball screw endurance tests. Among these there are the high power required to make the test, the lengthy duration of the same and the high loads between the screw and the frame that holds it. The article describes the test rig designed scheme, the kinematic expedients to be adopted in order to obtain the required performance and functionality and the sizing procedure to choose the actuation system.

  20. Spacetimes foliated by Killing horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Tomasz; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Jezierski, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    It seems to be expected that a horizon of a quasi-local type, such as a Killing or an isolated horizon, by analogy with a globally defined event horizon, should be unique in some open neighbourhood in the spacetime, provided the vacuum Einstein or the Einstein-Maxwell equations are satisfied. The aim of our paper is to verify whether that intuition is correct. If one can extend a so-called Kundt metric, in such a way that its null, shear-free surfaces have spherical spacetime sections, the resulting spacetime is foliated by so-called non-expanding horizons. The obstacle is Kundt's constraint induced at the surfaces by the Einstein or the Einstein-Maxwell equations, and the requirement that a solution be globally defined on the sphere. We derived a transformation (reflection) that creates a solution to Kundt's constraint out of data defining an extremal isolated horizon. Using that transformation, we derived a class of exact solutions to the Einstein or Einstein-Maxwell equations of very special properties. Each spacetime we construct is foliated by a family of the Killing horizons. Moreover, it admits another, transversal Killing horizon. The intrinsic and extrinsic geometries of the transversal Killing horizon coincide with the one defined on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr-Newman solution. However, the Killing horizon in our example admits yet another Killing vector tangent to and null at it. The geometries of the leaves are given by the reflection

  1. Technical specification for IR rig manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Hyon Soo; Cho, W. K.; Kim, S. D.; Park, U. J.; Hong, S. B.; Yoo, K. M

    2000-10-01

    IR Rig is one of the equipments are required in HANARO core for a radioisotope target. The various conditions like high radiation, high heat, rapid flow and vibration may cause swelling, Brittleness and acceleration of corrosion in HANARO core. These specific problems can be prevented and the safety of such equipment are prerequisite as well as durableness and surveillance. Therefore, the selection of material has to be made on the basis of small cross-section area, low energy emission by the gamma ray due to the absorption of neutron and short half life. The body is consist of aluminum and Inconel-750 was used for the internal spring(coil) which is known to be durable. The whole production process including the purchase of accessory, mechanical processing, welding and assembly was carried out according to the standard procedure to meet the requirement. A design, manufacture, utilization of reactor core and the other relevant uses were fit to class ''T'' to certify the whole process as general. And design, fabrication, analytical test, materials and accessory were carried out based on the ASME, ASTM, ANSI, AWS, JIS and KS standard.

  2. VMware Horizon Mirage essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Von Oven, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a practical, step-by-step approach to teach you how to build a successful infrastructure.This book is perfect for desktop administrators who want to deploy a solution to centrally manage their endpoint images across their entire estate using VMware Horizon Mirage. You need to have some experience in desktop image management using Microsoft Windows operating systems and Windows applications, as well as be familiar with Active Directory, SQL, IIS, and general server infrastructure relating to supporting end users.

  3. Horizons of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Horizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and Unseen is the fourth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, highly esteemed astrophysicist Joseph Silk explores the vast mysteries and speculations of the field of cosmology in a way that balances an accessible style for the general reader and enough technical detail for advanced students and professionals. Indeed, while the p

  4. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  5. ROLLER RIG TESTING AT THE CZECH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kalivoda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although the advancements in computer simulation technology have paved way to provide very reliable simulation results, track tests still play an essential role during the process of development and homologation of any railway vehicle. On the other hand, track tests depend on weather conditions, are difficult to organize and are not suitable for testing vehicles in critical situations. On a roller rig, the tested vehicle is longitudinally fixed and a track is replaced by rotating rollers. Such device offer testing of railway vehicle running dynamics in safe and stable laboratory environment. The purpose of an article is to investigate and describe roller rig testing at the Czech technical university in Prague (CTU. Methodology. In the paper it is shown the history of development of the scaled CTU roller rig from the earlier stages until the current projects for which the CTU roller rig is utilized for. The current design of the experimental bogie, roller rig, sensors instrumentation and types of experiments conducted at the CTU roller rig are described in more detail. Findings. Although the differences in vehicle behaviour on a track and a scaled model on a roller rig are not negligible, scaled roller rig experiments are found as a relatively inexpensive way for verification and demonstration of computer simulations results. They are especially useful for verification of multibody system simulations (MBS of entirely new running gear concepts. Originality. The CTU roller rig is currently used for the experiments with active controlled wheelset guidance. According to simulations results published in many papers such systems offer, in principle, better performance compared to conventional passive vehicles. However, utilization and testing of active controlled wheelset guidance on vehicles is still rare. CTU roller rig serves as a tool to verify computer simulations and demonstrate benefits of active wheelset guidance. Practical value

  6. Installation Capacity Assessment of Damaged Deepwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide exploration and development of subsea and deepwater reservoirs has laid down some new and old engineering challenges to the offshore pipeline industry. This requires large D/t pipelines to be installed at water depths in the vicinity of up to 2700m. The deepwater collapse and buckle propagation event is almost unavoidable as the pipe wall thickness cannot be always determined from the codes and standards due to the limit state criteria. These codes also do not consider any fabrication imperfections and sustained damages emanating from transportation and handling. The objective of this paper is to present the Finite Element Analysis (FEA of dented pipes with D/t ratio more than 45, which is outside the applicability of current design codes, and to investigate the effects on installation capacity of these various damage sizes in terms of collapse and buckle propagation.

  7. TITAN - a 9 MW, 179 bar pressurised water rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogford, D.J.; Lee, D.H.

    1987-02-01

    The report describes the TITAN rig built at Winfrith for thermal hydraulic experiments with water at up to 179 bar pressure. A power supply of 9 MW is available. The report describes three typical experiments that show the versatility of the rig. The first is a 25 rod pressurized water reactor fuel bundle critical heat flux experiment, the second is a parallel channel evaporator test and the third is a model jet pump test. (author)

  8. Statistikeren skiftede spor som 49-årig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Sune; Rootzén, Helle

    2010-01-01

    En uddannelse til coach har ændret Helle Rototzens liv. Som 49-årig forlod hun et forskerliv på deltid til fordel for en karriere som DTU's eneste kvindelige institutdirektør.......En uddannelse til coach har ændret Helle Rototzens liv. Som 49-årig forlod hun et forskerliv på deltid til fordel for en karriere som DTU's eneste kvindelige institutdirektør....

  9. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico: high prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present and future role of the deepwater Gulf of Mexico to meeting natural gas requirements of the United States are reviewed.The steady increase in U.S. demand, outpacing U.S.supply for over 10 years and the increasing reliance by the USA on Canadian exports is demonstrated in conjunction with the '30 Tcf Challenge'. Regarding the Gulf of Mexico specifically, it is estimated that to meet expectations, production there needs to grow to 22 Bcfpd by 2020, especially the deepwater pools which have a potential of 80 to 140 Tcf over the next 50 years. These pools already produce as much oil as the shelf region, but only 25 per cent as much gas. To produce the expected 7 to 12 Bcfpd oil production must reach 4 million barrel of oil per day, which involves cycle time, new technologies and cost challenges. Much of the new technology needed is related to cutting costs and while good progress is being made, it is argued that further gains could occur if international technology were applied in the Gulf. The rate of success in exploration has also improved, with over one billion barrels of deepwater discoveries per year over the last four years. Cycle times have also improved, although the impact of cycle time in the deeper water regions is cause for some concern. The overall assessment is that to get the gas, one has to get the oil first, meaning that deepwater success is more dependent on oil prices than on gas prices. Nevertheless, the need for developing and applying new technologies remains paramount, including the application of existing foreign technologies that have proven successful elsewhere. It is equally important to demonstrate a high level of environmental stewardship, and to continue focusing on cycle time, including access to prospective acreage, a well-trained workforce, and reasonable regulatory and permitting requirements

  10. 21. century drilling rigs -- Tesco introduces new modular design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-10-01

    Development of a modular, hydraulic, self-elevating drilling rig, dubbed the `21. century drilling rig` was announced by the Tesco Corporation. The rig equipment is housed in 8 by 20 by 8.5 feet high sea containers that can be handled by a 20-ton oilfield picker. These containers, weighing about 15,000 to 20,000 pounds on average, eliminate the need for heavy and bulky standard oilfield skid buildings, besides avoiding costly over-width and over-weight permits. The containers can be easily shipped around the world at a fraction of the cost of shipping standard oilfield skid buildings. Time for shipping on land is comparable to conventional rigs, but with the added advantage of smaller and lighter loads, promising fewer transportation problems during spring breakup. Tesco also designed and built an 85-foot long, triple-axle, 24-wheel catwalk trailer to transport the top drive, drawworks and double telescoping mast as one unit. Another novel characteristic of this unit is that the hydraulic system is capable of selectable distribution of power to the main functions such as the top drive, drawworks, or mud pump, similar to the electric SCR rig. The rig also features a computerized control system managed by programmable logic controllers. The split crown and split block to facilitate wireline work, are other innovative features worthy of note.

  11. Stringy horizons II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Kutasov, David [EFI and Department of Physics, University of Chicago,5640 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-10-28

    We show that the spectrum of normalizable states on a Euclidean SL(2, R)/U(1) black hole exhibits a duality between oscillator states and wound strings. This duality generalizes the identification between a normalizable mode of dilaton gravity on the cigar and a mode of the tachyon with winding number one around the Euclidean time circle, which plays an important role in the FZZ correspondence. It implies that normalizable states on a large Euclidean black hole have support at widely separated scales. In particular, localized states that are extended over the cap of the cigar (the Euclidian analog of the black hole atmosphere) have a component that is localized near the tip of the cigar (the analog of the stretched horizon). As a consequence of this duality, the states exhibit a transition as a function of radial excitation level. From the perspective of a low energy probe, low lying states are naturally thought of as oscillator states in the black hole atmosphere, while at large excitation level they are naturally described as wound strings. As the excitation level increases, the size of the states first decreases and then increases. This behavior is expected to be a general feature of black hole horizons in string theory.

  12. Near horizon structure of extremal vanishing horizon black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadeghian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the near horizon structure of Extremal Vanishing Horizon (EVH black holes, extremal black holes with vanishing horizon area with a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We construct the most general near horizon EVH and near-EVH ansatz for the metric and other fields, like dilaton and gauge fields which may be present in the theory. We prove that (1 the near horizon EVH geometry for generic gravity theory in generic dimension has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace; (2 if the matter fields of the theory satisfy strong energy condition either this 3d part is AdS3, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a d−3 dimensional part; (3 these results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS3 part is replaced with BTZ geometry. We present some specific near horizon EVH geometries in 3, 4 and 5 dimensions for which there is a classification. We also briefly discuss implications of these generic results for generic (gauged supergravity theories and also for the thermodynamics of near-EVH black holes and the EVH/CFT proposal.

  13. Combined Effects of Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil and Environmental Stressors on Fundulus grandis Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Maria L; Jones, Elizabeth R; Klinkhamer, Christopher; Mahapatra, Cecon T; Serafin, Jennifer; Bosker, Thijs; Perkins, Christopher; Griffitt, Robert J; De Guise, Sylvain; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2018-04-16

    In this study, we examined how sensitivity to oil changes in combination with environmental stressors in Fundulus grandis embryos. We exposed embryos (< 24 hours post fertilization) to a range of High Energy Water Accommodated Fraction (HEWAF) concentrations (0-50 ppb total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) made from Macondo oil in conjunction with various environmental conditions (temperature: 20, 30°C; salinity: 3, 7, 30 practical salinity units (PSU); DO: 2, 6 mg/L). Endpoints included mortality, hatching rates, and expression of cytochrome p450 1a and 1c (cyp1a, cyp1c) in hatched larvae. There was 100% mortality for all fish under the 2 ppm dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes. For the 6 mg/L DO treatments, mortality and mean lethal time were generally higher in the 30°C treatments versus the 20°C treatments. Oil increased mortality in fish exposed to the highest concentration in the 20-3-6 (°C-PSU-mg/L), 25-7-6, and 30-30-6 conditions. Hatching was driven by environmental conditions, with oil exposure only having a significant impact on hatching in the 25-7-6 and 30-30-6 groups at the highest HEWAF exposure. Expression of cyp1a was upregulated in most treatment groups versus the controls, with cyp1c expression exhibiting a similar pattern. These data suggest interactive effects among temperature, salinity, and PAHs, highlighting a need to further assess the effects of oil exposure under various environmental conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 33431 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Pensacola, Florida. ADDRESSES: Submitting Comments: You may submit scoping comments on the PEIS by any of... of Alabama; State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection and Fish and Wildlife... wetlands; protect shorelines and reduce erosion; restore barrier islands and beaches; restore submerged...

  15. 75 FR 37783 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Drilling AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY... and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory..., any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The Commission is composed of seven...

  16. 75 FR 56526 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Drilling AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY... and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory..., any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The Commission is composed of seven...

  17. 75 FR 60097 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Drilling AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY... and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The...

  18. 75 FR 69652 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Drilling AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY... and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The...

  19. 75 FR 47584 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Drilling AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY... and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory... with offshore drilling in the future. The Commission is composed of seven members appointed by the...

  20. 75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Drilling AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY... and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory... to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the...

  1. Faraway, so close: the stakes of Deepwater horizon oil spill seen from France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioch, S.; Hay, H.; Levrel, H.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the NRDA (Natural Resource Damage Assessment) that was devised by the American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in 1996 to deal with the issue of compensating environmental damage. NRDA provides a clear framework for the different sides (victims, responsible persons...) involved in redressing environmental damage. The key element of this procedure is to impose remedial actions to be taken for recovering the initial state of the environment rather than to pay direct financial compensation. The European directive on the environmental accountability has been inspired by NRDA. (A.C.)

  2. Metabolic and spatio-taxonomic response of uncultivated seafloor bacteria following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, K. M.; Piceno, Y. M.; Hu, P.; Tom, L. M.; Mason, O. U.; Andersen, G. L.; Jansson, J. K.; Gilbert, J. A.

    2017-08-04

    The release of 700 million liters of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a few months in 2010 produced dramatic changes in the microbial ecology of the water and sediment. Here, we reconstructed the genomes of 57 widespread uncultivated bacteria from post-spill deep-sea sediments, and recovered their gene expression pattern across the seafloor. These genomes comprised a common collection of bacteria that were enriched in heavily affected sediments around the wellhead. Although rare in distal sediments, some members were still detectable at sites up to 60 km away. Many of these genomes exhibited phylogenetic clustering indicative of common trait selection by the environment, and within half we identified 264 genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation. Alkane degradation ability was near ubiquitous among candidate hydrocarbon degraders, whereas just three harbored elaborate gene inventories for the degradation of alkanes and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Differential gene expression profiles revealed a spill-promoted microbial sulfur cycle alongside gene upregulation associated with PAH degradation. Gene expression associated with alkane degradation was widespread, although active alkane degrader identities changed along the pollution gradient. Analyses suggest that a broad metabolic capacity to respond to oil inputs exists across a large array of usually rare indigenous deep-sea bacteria.

  3. 78 FR 26319 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Proposal of Future Early Restoration Projects and Environmental Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... selected and implemented in accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), the Framework Agreement... oil spill under the Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA; 33 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.). Pursuant to OPA, federal and... cost of this project is approximately $3.5 million. Sea Rim State Park Amenities (Jefferson County...

  4. Distinct bacterial communities in surficial seafloor sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons discharged during the 2010 Macondo oil spill became associated with and sank to the seafloor as marine snow flocs. This sedimentation pulse induced the development of distinct bacterial communities. Between May 2010 and July 2011, full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated bacterial community succession in oil-polluted sediment samples near the wellhead area. Libraries from early May 2010, before the sedimentation event, served as the baseline control. Freshly deposited oil-derived marine snow was collected on the surface of sediment cores in September 2010, and was characterized by abundantly detected members of the marine Roseobacter cluster within the Alphaproteobacteria. Samples collected in mid-October 2010 closest to the wellhead contained members of the sulfate-reducing, anaerobic bacterial families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria, suggesting that the oil-derived sedimentation pulse triggered bacterial oxygen consumption and created patchy anaerobic microniches that favored sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylotypes of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genus Cycloclasticus, previously found both in surface oil slicks and the deep hydrocarbon plume, were also found in oil-derived marine snow flocs sedimenting on the seafloor in September 2010, and in surficial sediments collected in October and November 2010, but not in any of the control samples. Due to the relative recalcitrance and stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds, Cycloclasticus represents the most persistent microbial marker of seafloor hydrocarbon deposition that we could identify in this dataset. The bacterial imprint of the DWH oil spill had diminished in late November 2010, when the bacterial communities in oil-impacted sediment samples collected near the Macondo wellhead began to resemble their pre-spill counterparts and spatial controls. Samples collected in summer of 2011 did not show a consistent bacterial community signature, suggesting that the bacterial community was no longer shaped by the DWH fallout of oil-derived marine snow, but instead by location-specific and seasonal factors.

  5. 77 FR 23741 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... (Phase I ERP/EA) describing the first eight restoration projects selected by the Trustees to commence the... notice is to inform the public of the availability of the Phase I ERP/EA. ADDRESSES: Obtaining Documents: You may download the Phase I ERP/EA and the Framework Agreement at http://www.gulfspillrestoration...

  6. 77 FR 66626 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ....doi.gov/deepwaterhorizon . You may also review hard copies of the DERP/ER at any of the public... other things, protecting bird nesting habitat with symbolic fencing and signs and reducing the presence...

  7. 78 FR 8184 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase II Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... the Framework Agreement at http://www.doi.gov/deepwaterhorizon . You may also review hard copies of... will, among other things, protect bird-nesting habitat with symbolic fencing and signs and reduce the...

  8. Confronting Space Debris: Strategies and Warnings from Comparable Examples Including Deepwater Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    they require a well-designed, proven infrastructure to admin- ister them (Raufer and Feldman, 1987). Most important, they require 100 percent buy -in...do not have a daily reminder of the problem’s effects. By contrast, the com- munity that surrounds a polluting factory is likely able to see the...Jessica, “Detergent-Like Chemicals Turn Oil Into Microbe Snacks (Update1),” Bloomberg Businessweek, May 5, 2010. As of September 12, 2010: http

  9. 75 FR 37712 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Purpose A major feature of the National Response System under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act... relocate response resources from current locations to the Gulf of Mexico, this rule directly assists in the urgently needed immediate relocation of nationwide oil spill response resources to the Gulf of Mexico to...

  10. Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD): Surface Dispersion Characteristics Near the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgokmen, Tamay; Poje, Andrew; Lipphardt, Bruce, Jr.; Haza, Angelique; Haus, Brian; Jacobs, Gregg; Reniers, Ad; Olascoaga, Josefina; Ryan, Edward; Novelli, Guillaume; Kirwan, Albert, Jr.; Griffa, Annalisa; Chen, Shuyi; Hogan, Pat

    2013-04-01

    Initial dispersion, residence time, and advective pathway results obtained from the nearly simultaneous deployment of some 300 surface drifters in the vicinity of the DwH oil spill in the DeSoto Canyon are reported. The goal of the GLAD experiment was to characterize, with unprecedented statistical significance, multi-point and multi-scale dispersion properties of the flow in the region of the DwH spill site including demarcation of the advective pathways between the Canyon and larger-scale flow features in the Gulf. Both the absolute and relative dispersion of surface drifters was quite slow for those drifters initialized within the Missippippi River Outflow. For the initial time period considered, drifter motion was characterized by large amplitude inertial motions, overall strong topographic control, and significant indications of interior control by frontal dynamics on 1-5 km scales. Very limited exchange, either across-shelf or with nearby mesoscale features, was observed and residence times in the Canyon typically exceeded one week with many drifters remaining there for more than 21 days.

  11. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Dispersant Data for BP Spil/Deepwater Horizon - August 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  12. Coral communities as indicators of ecosystem-level impacts of the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles R.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Cordes, Erik E.; Baums, Iliana B.; White, Helen K.; Bourque, Jill R.

    2014-01-01

    The Macondo oil spill released massive quantities of oil and gas from a depth of 1500 meters. Although a buoyant plume carried released hydrocarbons to the sea surface, as much as half stayed in the water column and much of that in the deep sea. After the hydrocarbons reached the surface, weathering processes, burning, and the use of a dispersant caused hydrocarbon-rich marine snow to sink into the deep sea. As a result, this spill had a greater potential to affect deep-sea communities than had any previous spill. Here, we review the literature on impacts on deep-sea communities from the Macondo blowout and provide additional data on sediment hydrocarbon loads and the impacts on sediment infauna in areas with coral communities around the Macondo well. We review the literature on the genetic connectivity of deep-sea species in the Gulf of Mexico and discuss the potential for wider effects on deep Gulf coral communities.

  13. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of major Federal and multi-stake holder research efforts in response to the DWH spill, including laboratory oil dispersant testing, estimation of oil release rates and oil fate calculations, subsea monitoring, and post-spill assessments. Impacts from shoreline oiling, wil...

  14. Cauchy horizons in Gowdy spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, Piotr T; Lake, Kayll

    2004-01-01

    We analyse exhaustively the structure of non-degenerate Cauchy horizons in Gowdy spacetimes, and we establish existence of a large class of non-polarized Gowdy spacetimes with such horizons. Our results here, together with the deep new results of Ringstroem, establish strong cosmic censorship in (toroidal) Gowdy spacetimes

  15. Innovation gets to the bottom of Brazil's deepwater challenge; Lifting deepwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Cargotec makes access to Brazil's deep waters possible with innovative offshore technology such as MacGregor ultra-deepwater lifting system, which replaces heavy steel wire with multi-component fibre rope that weights nothing in water. (Author)

  16. Viral Pseudo Enzymes Activate RIG-I via Deamidation to Evade Cytokine Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shanping; Zhao, Jun; Song, Shanshan; He, Xiaojing; Minassian, Arlet; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Junjie; Brulois, Kevin; Wang, Yuqi; Cabo, Jackson; Zandi, Ebrahim; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U; Zhang, Xuewu; Feng, Pinghui

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY RIG-I is a pattern recognition receptor that senses viral RNA and is crucial for host innate immune defense. Here we describe a mechanism of RIG-I activation through amidotransferase-mediated deamidation. We show that viral homologues of phosphoribosylformyglycinamide synthase (PFAS), although lacking intrinsic enzyme activity, recruit cellular PFAS to deamidate and activate RIG-I. Accordingly, depletion and biochemical inhibition of PFAS impair RIG-I deamidation and concomitant activation. Purified PFAS and viral homologue thereof deamidate RIG-I in vitro. Ultimately, herpesvirus hijacks activated RIG-I to avoid antiviral cytokine production; loss of RIG-I or inhibition of RIG-I deamidation results in elevated cytokine production. Together, these findings demonstrate a surprising mechanism of RIG-I activation that is mediated by an enzyme. PMID:25752576

  17. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-10-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Recent changes in the deep-water fish populations of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, James W.

    1957-01-01

    The deep-water fish fauna of Lake Michigan consisted of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota maculosa), seven species of chubs or deep-water ciscoes (Leucichthys spp.), and the deep-water sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis). Other species occupied the deep-water zone but were not typically part of the fauna.

  19. Professional development of new rig supervisors a must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordt, D.P.; Stone, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that because the number of drilling personnel has dropped dramatically over the last decade, many operators now face a shortage of competent rig supervisors. To be effective, the rig supervisor must develop a knowledge of drilling operations, apply optimization techniques to improve drilling performance, demand safe work practices, and protect the environment. Petroleum engineering degree programs and industry training programs can teach the rig supervisor specific technical and management skills; however, traditionally, the supervisor trainee shadows an experienced company man to learn how to direct a drilling operation. The success of this method depends not only on the skills and learning capabilities of the trainee but also on the trainer's time, motivation, knowledge, and ability to teach the skills necessary to direct drilling activities

  20. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional

  1. BURNER RIG TESTING OF A500 C/SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-17

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2018-0071 BURNER RIG TESTING OF A500® C /SiC Larry P. Zawada Universal Technology Corporation Jennifer Pierce UDRI...TITLE AND SUBTITLE BURNER RIG TESTING OF A500® C /SiC 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6...test program characterized the durability behavior of A500® C /SiC ceramic matrix composite material at room and elevated temperature. Specimens were

  2. Three theorems on near horizon extremal vanishing horizon geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available EVH black holes are Extremal black holes with Vanishing Horizon area, where vanishing of horizon area is a result of having a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We prove three theorems regarding near horizon geometry of EVH black hole solutions to generic Einstein gravity theories in diverse dimensions. These generic gravity theories are Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton-Λ theories, and gauged or ungauged supergravity theories with U(1 Maxwell fields. Our three theorems are: (1 The near horizon geometry of any EVH black hole has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace. (2 If the energy momentum tensor of the theory satisfies strong energy condition either this 3d part is an AdS3, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a d−3 dimensional part. (3 These results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS3 part is replaced with BTZ geometry.

  3. Deepwater drilling; Jakten paa de store dyp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Recent technological development has made it possible to drill for oil and gas at the impressive depth of 3000 metres. An increasing part of the world's oil and gas discoveries are made in deep or ultra deep waters. Ultra deep waters are those exceeding 1500 metres. Since drilling at more than 500 metres started at the end of the 1970s, 32 discoveries of about 500 million barrels of extractable oil or gas have been made. These finds amount to almost 60 thousand millions barrels of oil equivalents. Most of the effort has been made in the coasts between Brazil, West Africa and the Gulf of Mexico. Deepwater projects have been a field of priority for Norwegian oil companies in their search for international commissions. It is frequently time-consuming, expensive and technologically challenging to drill at great depths. The article describes the Atlantis concept, which may reduce the complexities and costs of deepwater activities. This involves making an artificial sea bottom, which in the form of an air-filled buoy is anchored at a depth of 200 - 300 metres. Production wells or exploration wells and risers are extended from the real bottom to the artificial one.

  4. Killing Horizons as Equipotential Hypersurfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Smolić, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    In this note we present a new proof that Killing horizons are equipotential hypersurfaces for the electric and the magnetic scalar potential, that makes no use of gravitational field equations or the assumption about the existence of bifurcation surface.

  5. Argentina's YPF outlines plan for sale of rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that state owned Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) has unveiled the schedule it plans to follow to privatize oil and gas contract drilling in Argentine. YPF proposes to exit the drilling business by selling state owned drilling rigs, drill pipe, and accessories in a series of auctions beginning next month and lasting through first quarter 1993. YPF intends to open bids Dec. 16 for a completion unit and 30 drilling rigs, several working under contract. Bids will be opened during first quarter 1993 for new and used YPF drill pipe and collars, spare equipment and accessories, and an inventory of fishing tools said to be one of the largest in South America. Winners are to be notified immediately after each auction. YPF plans to hand over by Feb. 1, 1993, the rigs sold in December. Companies buying YPF drilling assets in first quarter 1993, the rigs sold in December. Companies buying YPF drilling assets in first quarter 1993 are to assume ownership by Mar. 24, 1993

  6. Index method for analyzing cost effectiveness of drilling rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batura, N P; Bocharov, V V

    1978-01-01

    The method for a complete analysis of the factors determining cost effectiveness of a drilling rig fleet is examined. The system of calculating production indexes from statistical reports is relatively simple and is not difficult to use for production organizations. The analytical results may be used to develop actual measures used to increase cost effectiveness of drilling operations.

  7. Test Rig for Valves of Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe Haals; Bech, Michael Møller

    2017-01-01

    A test rig for the valves of digital displacement machines has been developed at Aalborg University. It is composed of a commercial radial piston machine, which has been modified to facilitate Digital Displacement operation for a single piston. Prototype valves have been optimized, designed and m...

  8. Collisions damage assessment of ships and jack-up rigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shengming; Pedersen, P. Terndrup; Ocakli, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Ship collision with offshore installations is one of the key concerns in design and assess of platforms performance and safety. This paper presents an analysis on collision energy and structural damage in ship and offshore platform collisions for various collision scenarios. The platform or rig...

  9. AUV Applications for Deepwater Exploration and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawsom, Ila

    2003-07-01

    A great deal of AUV technology development has taken place in the last 20 years, and vehicles have been built and proven in some of the most challenging environments. Much of this development has been for military and environmental monitoring purposes. BP pursued the development of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology for deepwater seabed survey work from 1997. There was a need to obtain better data due to increased seabed complexity, preserve the integrity of the seabed and deliver large programs at a faster pace. En 2001 the first commercial survey was carried out using this technology, and since then many deepwater surveys have been carried out using AUV systems. The result has been faster, less expensive surveys and higher quality data. The AUV was able to offer a solution to deep water acquisition problems as the vehicles actively work to stay on the proposed survey lines - compensating for near sea floor currents, and automatically maintaining a fixed altitude to the seabed thus producing more even datasets, allowing easier processing and analysis of sonar and profiler images. All with much reduced support vessel costs. The focus has since turned to AUV application for underwater inspection and intervention within BP The view had always been that survey vehicles would lead to inspection and eventually intervention-capable autonomous vehicles, and this needled to be explored in more detail. In 2002 BP used the CandC Technologies Hugin 3000 vehicle to survey a pipeline in deepwater Gulf of Mexico - the first time an AUV had been used for pipeline inspection. The success of this survey has allowed an assessment of how closely actual pipe behaviour follows that predicted by design analysis, and has also demonstrated the potential of AUVs to offer a lower cost solution to pipeline inspection and integrity monitoring throughout the field life. A detailed study into the technologies required to perform a range of underwater inspection and intervention

  10. DMPD: MDA5/RIG-I and virus recognition. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18272355 MDA5/RIG-I and virus recognition. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Curr Opin Immunol. ...2008 Feb;20(1):17-22. Epub 2008 Feb 12. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show MDA5/RIG-I and virus recognition.... PubmedID 18272355 Title MDA5/RIG-I and virus recognition. Authors Takeuchi O, Akira S. Publication Curr Opi

  11. Electrodynamics of the event horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, B.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of the electrodynamics of the event horizon of a Kerr black hole. It is demonstrated that the event horizon behaves quite generally as an asymptotic vacuum infinity for axisymmetric, charge-neutral, accreting electromagnetic sources. This is in contrast with the general notion that the event horizon can be treated as an imperfect conductive membrane with a surface impedance of 4π/c. The conductive-membrane model has been incorporated into the more sophisticated membrane paradigm of Thorne, Price, and Macdonald by supplementing the model with the full equations of general relativity. In certain situations (in particular those of astrophysical interest), the conductive-membrane interpretation forms the appropriate set of pictures and images in the membrane paradigm. In this paper we reevaluate the specific gedanken experiments that were originally used to motivate the paradigm. We find that great care must be exercised if the detailed interaction of a black hole's external gravitational field with a magnetized plasma is modeled by the electrodynamics of the conductive horizon membrane. For ingoing flows of plasma or electromagnetic waves (when the hole is passively accepting information), the interpretation of the horizon as a vacuum infinity is equivalent to an imperfect conductor with a surface impedance of 4π/c (the impedance of the vacuum). In situations when an imperfect conductor should radiate information (such as a Faraday wheel) the event horizon cannot, since it is an infinity. The event horizon does not behave quite generally as an imperfect conductor, but has electrodynamic properties unique to itself

  12. DEEPWATER AND NEARSHORE FOOD WEB CHARACTERIZATIONS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the difficulty associated with sampling deep aquatic systems, food web relationships among deepwater fauna are often poorly known. We are characterizing nearshore versus offshore habitats in the Great Lakes and investigating food web linkages among profundal, pelagic, and ...

  13. Deepwater Nitrogen Fixation: Who's Doing it, Where, and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J. P.; Weber, S.; Vogts, A.; Voss, M.; Saxton, M.; Joye, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen availability frequently limits marine primary production and N2-fixation plays an important role in supporting biological production in surface waters of many oligotrophic regions. Although subsurface waters typically contain high concentrations of nitrate and other nutrients, measurements from a variety of oceanic settings show measurable, and at times high rates of N2-fixation in deep, dark waters below the mixed layer. We have explored the distribution of N2-fixation throughout the water column of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during a series of cruises beginning shortly after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010 and continuing at roughly annual intervals. These cruises allowed us to sample oligotrophic waters across a range of depths, and to explore the connections between the C and N cycles mediated by release of oil and gas (petrocarbon) from natural seeps as well as anthropogenic sources (e.g., the DWH). We used stable isotope abundances (15N and 13C) in particles and zooplankton in combination with experimental measurements of N2-fixation and CH4 assimilation to assess the contribution of oil- and gas-derived C to the pelagic food web, and the impact of CH4 releases on the pelagic C and N cycles. Our isotopic measurements document the movement of petrocarbon into the pelagic food web, and our experiments revealed that high rates of N2-fixation were widespread in deep water immediately after the DWH incident, and restricted to the vicinity of natural seeps in subsequent years. Unfortunately, these approaches provided no insight into the organisms actually responsible for N2-fixation and CH4-assimilation. We used nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (nanoSIMS) to image the organisms responsible for these processes, and molecular approaches to explore the diversity of methanotrophs and diazotrophs present in the system. The ability to resolve isotopic distributions on the scale of individual cells is a critical part of bridging the gap between

  14. The laboratory test rig with miniature jet engine to research aviation fuels combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine (MiniJETRig – Miniature Jet Engine Test Rig, that was built in the Air Force Institute of Technology. The test rig has been developed for research and development works aimed at modelling and investigating processes and phenomena occurring in full scale jet engines. In the article construction of a test rig is described, with a brief discussion on the functionality of each of its main components. Additionally examples of measurement results obtained during the realization of the initial tests have been included, presenting the capabilities of the test rig.

  15. Moving Horizon Estimation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    successful and applied methodology beyond PID-control for control of industrial processes. The main contribution of this thesis is introduction and definition of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem for solution of numerical problems arising in moving horizon estimation and control...... problems. Chapter 1 motivates moving horizon estimation and control as a paradigm for control of industrial processes. It introduces the extended linear quadratic control problem and discusses its central role in moving horizon estimation and control. Introduction, application and efficient solution....... It provides an algorithm for computation of the maximal output admissible set for linear model predictive control. Appendix D provides results concerning linear regression. Appendix E discuss prediction error methods for identification of linear models tailored for model predictive control....

  16. Plasmonic Horizon in Gold Nanosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Cynthia; Sivun, Dmitry; Ziegler, Johannes; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter; Hrelescu, Calin; Klar, Thomas A

    2018-02-14

    An electromagnetic wave impinging on a gold nanosponge coherently excites many electromagnetic hot-spots inside the nanosponge, yielding a polarization-dependent scattering spectrum. In contrast, a hole, recombining with an electron, can locally excite plasmonic hot-spots only within a horizon given by the lifetime of localized plasmons and the speed carrying the information that a plasmon has been created. This horizon is about 57 nm, decreasing with increasing size of the nanosponge. Consequently, photoluminescence from large gold nanosponges appears unpolarized.

  17. Electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC).

  18. The electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC). (author)

  19. TECHNICAL FEATURES OF RIGGED YACHT BY CATEGORIES AND CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Yeroshkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is directed on the deeply meaningful scientific study and structural analysis of the technical features of the rigged world modern yachts to pass sailing regattas in different navigation areas. The complete classification of sailing boats in it’s world classes was done for olympic, international, national regattas. It was done the technical indicators of yachting racing classes. The economic analysis material selection sails for yachts are directed of different types of races. In it’s scientific article is made economic calculation of operating cost of the boat and it was done the analysis of cost saving yachts in european / ukrainian marinas.Key words: yachting, rigged yacht, racing, classes of yachts. JEL: L 92

  20. Test Rig Design and Presentation for a Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of a hydraulic yaw system for multi MWturbines is presented and the concept explained. As part of the development of the new concept a full scale test rig for a 5 MW wind turbine has been designed and constructed. The test rig is presented along with its unique design...... features. The design process is outlined to give insight in the design criteria driving the design. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the FAST aero elastic design software. The concepts are based...... on a 5 MW offshore turbine. After the system presentation, measurement results are presented to verify the behavior of the system. The loads to the system are applied by torque controlled electrical servo drives, which can add a load of up to 3 MNm to the system. This gives an exact picture of the system...

  1. AHP 47: A RIG RGAD PO VISITS LHA SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pad ma skyid པདྨ་སྐྱིད།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My name is Pad ma skyid. I was born in 1981 in Pan yag Community, 'Bo spa Township, Pad ma County, Mgo log Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province. I have eight siblings. Growing up in a black yak-hair tent, we spent our days playing with lambs, foals, and calves. We told all sorts of stories when everyone was in bed - stories about King Ge sar, ghosts, marriages, and tricksters. It was a time for my whole family to relax and share. I heard many A rig rgad po stories from my parents, siblings, and guests. A rig rgad po became part of my childhood. These stories bring back many beautiful memories. ...

  2. Neighborhoods of isolated horizons and their stationarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, Jerzy; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    A distinguished (invariant) Bondi-like coordinate system is defined in the spacetime neighborhood of a non-expanding horizon of arbitrary dimension via geometry invariants of the horizon. With its use, the radial expansion of a spacetime metric about the horizon is provided and the free data needed to specify it up to a given order are determined in spacetime dimension 4. For the case of an electro-vacuum horizon in four-dimensional spacetime, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a Killing field at its neighborhood are identified as differential conditions for the horizon data and data for the null surface transversal to the horizon. (paper)

  3. Testing of elastomer seals using small-size rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeks, C.W.E.; Dunford, B.; Barnfield, J.H.; Gray, I.L.S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the use of small size seal leakage test rigs to demonstrate the compliance of full size container seals against the IAEA Transport Regulation's limits for activity release for normal transport and accident conditions. The detailed requirements of the regulations are discussed and it is concluded that an appropriate test programme to meet these requirements using only small size test rigs, can normally be set up and carried out on a relatively short time scale. It is important that any small test rigs should be designed to represent the relevant features of the seal arrangement and the overall test programme should cover all of the conditions, specified by the regulations, for the type, classification and contents of the container under consideration. The parameters of elastomer O-rings, which affect their sealing ability, are considered and those which are amenable to small scale testing or have to be modelled at full size are identified. Generally, the seals used in leakage tests have to be modelled with a full size cross-section but can have a reduced peripheral length. (Author)

  4. This immortal coil? New CT rigs duel against singles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creighton, J.

    1998-12-01

    New competition to conventional single rigs that have changed little in the last four decades face new competition from next-generation coiled tubing (CT) units which have multi-function capabilities, ranging from driving onto leases, drilling and setting surface case to cementing. Several of these new units are ready to challenge the conventional single rigs. Their ability to perform at high penetration rates (up to twice what single rigs can do) is expected to significantly cut drill time, with corresponding cost savings for both contractors and operators. Serval Corporation and Fleet Coiled Services are just two of the drilling service companies that have launched new shallow grass roots coiled tubing drilling units recently, gambling that the new technology will win over conventional methods hands down. Some major companies, like Fracmaster Ltd. and NOWSCO Well Service Ltd., have targeted the re-entry and horizontal markets, a much more difficult technical challenge, sinking billions of dollars of research and development money into advancing the most technically difficult applications of coil technology.

  5. Flow Rate Measurement in Multiphase Flow Rig: Radiotracer and Conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrul Hizam Yusoff; Noraishah Othman; Nurliyana Abdullah; Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos; Rasif Mohd Zain; Roslan Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Applications of radiotracer technology are prevalent throughout oil refineries worldwide, and this industry is one of the main users and beneficiaries of the technology. Radioactive tracers have been used to a great extent in many applications i.e. flow rate measurement, RTD, plant integrity evaluation and enhancing oil production in oil fields. Chemical and petrochemical plants are generally continuously operating and technically complex where the radiotracer techniques are very competitive and largely applied for troubleshooting inspection and process analysis. Flow rate measurement is a typical application of radiotracers. For flow measurements, tracer data are important, rather than the RTD models. Research is going on in refining the existing methods for single phase flow measurement, and in developing new methods for multiphase flow without sampling. The tracer techniques for single phase flow measurements are recognized as ISO standards. This paper presents technical aspect of laboratory experiments, which have been carried out using Molybdenum-99 - Mo99 (radiotracer) to study and determine the flow rate of liquid in multiphase flow rig. The multiphase flow rig consists of 58.7 m long and 20 cm diameter pipeline that can accommodate about 0.296 m 3 of liquid. Tap water was used as liquid flow in pipeline and conventional flow meters were also installed at the flow rig. The flow rate results; radiotracer and conventional flow meter were compared. The total count method was applied for radiotracer technique and showed the comparable results with conventional flow meter. (author)

  6. Event horizon and scalar potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duruisseau, J.P.; Tonnelat, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of a scalar potential with a more general scheme than General Relativity eliminates the event horizon. Among possible solutions, the Schwarzschild one represents a singular case. A study of the geodesic properties of the matching with an approximated interior solution are given. A new definition of the gravitational mass and chi function is deduced. (author)

  7. New Horizons in Education, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the May and November 2000 issues of "New Horizons in Education," with articles in English and Chinese. The May issue includes the following articles: "A Key to Successful Environmental Education: Teacher Trainees' Attitude, Behaviour, and Knowledge" (Kevin Chung Wai Lui, Eric Po Keung Tsang, Sing Lai…

  8. Killing horizons as equipotential hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolić, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    In this note we present a new proof that Killing horizons are equipotential hypersurfaces for the electric and the magnetic scalar potential, which makes no use of gravitational field equations or the assumption about the existence of a bifurcation surface. (note)

  9. Cosmological and black hole apparent horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This book overviews the extensive literature on apparent cosmological and black hole horizons. In theoretical gravity, dynamical situations such as gravitational collapse, black hole evaporation, and black holes interacting with non-trivial environments, as well as the attempts to model gravitational waves occurring in highly dynamical astrophysical processes, require that the concept of event horizon be generalized. Inequivalent notions of horizon abound in the technical literature and are discussed in this manuscript. The book begins with a quick review of basic material in the first one and a half chapters, establishing a unified notation. Chapter 2 reminds the reader of the basic tools used in the analysis of horizons and reviews the various definitions of horizons appearing in the literature. Cosmological horizons are the playground in which one should take baby steps in understanding horizon physics. Chapter 3 analyzes cosmological horizons, their proposed thermodynamics, and several coordinate systems....

  10. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

    2018-05-01

    We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and "quintessence horizon" for the black holes surrounded by quintessence). Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  11. Hawking radiation from quasilocal dynamical horizons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-06

    Jan 6, 2016 ... Abstract. In completely local settings, we establish that a dynamically evolving spherically symmetric black hole horizon can be assigned a Hawking temperature and with the emission of flux, radius of the horizon shrinks.

  12. Pricing Liquidity Risk with Heterogeneous Investment Horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beber, Alessandro; Driessen, Joost; Neuberger, A.; Tuijp, P

    We develop an asset pricing model with stochastic transaction costs and investors with heterogeneous horizons. Depending on their horizon, investors hold different sets of assets in equilibrium. This generates segmentation and spillover effects for expected returns, where the liquidity (risk)

  13. New Horizons for Hydrogen: Producing Hydrogen from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    Recent events have reminded us of the critical need to transition from crude oil, coal, and natural gas toward sustainable and domestic sources of energy. One reason is we need to strengthen our economy. In 2008 we saw the price of oil reach a record $93 per barrel. With higher oil prices, growing demand for gasoline, and increasing oil imports, an average of $235 billion per year, has left the United States economy to pay for foreign oil since 2005, or $1.2 trillion between 2005 and 2009. From a consumer perspective, this trend is seen with an average gasoline price of $2.50 per gallon since 2005, compared to an average of $1.60 between 1990 and 2004 (after adjusting for inflation). In addition to economic impacts, continued reliance on fossil fuels increases greenhouse gas emissions that may cause climate change, health impacts from air pollution, and the risk of disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Energy efficiency in the form of more efficient vehicles and buildings can help to reduce some of these impacts. However, over the long term we must shift from fossil resources to sustainable and renewable energy sources.

  14. Strategies for restoration of deep-water coral ecosystems based on a global survey of oil and gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, E. E.; Jones, D.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry is one of the most active agents of the global industrialization of the deep sea. The wide array of impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the need for a systematic review of existing regulations both in US waters and internationally. Within different exclusive economic zones, there are a wide variety of regulations regarding the survey of deep-water areas prior to leasing and the acceptable set-back distances from vulnerable marine ecosystems once they are discovered. There are also varying mitigation strategies for accidental release of oil and gas, including active monitoring systems, temporary closings of oil and gas production, and marine protected areas. The majority of these regulations are based on previous studies of typical impacts from oil and gas drilling, rather than accidental releases. However, the probability of an accident from standard operations increases significantly with depth. The Oil & Gas working group of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative is an international partnership of scientists, managers, non-governmental organizations, and industry professionals whose goal is to review existing regulations for the oil & gas industry and produce a best practices document to advise both developed and developing nations on their regulatory structure as energy development moves into deeper waters.

  15. RIG-I self-oligomerization is either dispensable or very transient for signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Louber

    Full Text Available Effective host defence against viruses depends on the rapid triggering of innate immunity through the induction of a type I interferon (IFN response. To this end, microbe-associated molecular patterns are detected by dedicated receptors. Among them, the RIG-I-like receptors RIG-I and MDA5 activate IFN gene expression upon sensing viral RNA in the cytoplasm. While MDA5 forms long filaments in vitro upon activation, RIG-I is believed to oligomerize after RNA binding in order to transduce a signal. Here, we show that in vitro binding of synthetic RNA mimicking that of Mononegavirales (Ebola, rabies and measles viruses leader sequences to purified RIG-I does not induce RIG-I oligomerization. Furthermore, in cells devoid of endogenous functional RIG-I-like receptors, after activation of exogenous Flag-RIG-I by a 62-mer-5'ppp-dsRNA or by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, a dsRNA analogue, or by measles virus infection, anti-Flag immunoprecipitation and specific elution with Flag peptide indicated a monomeric form of RIG-I. Accordingly, when using the Gaussia Luciferase-Based Protein Complementation Assay (PCA, a more sensitive in cellula assay, no RIG-I oligomerization could be detected upon RNA stimulation. Altogether our data indicate that the need for self-oligomerization of RIG-I for signal transduction is either dispensable or very transient.

  16. Event horizon image within black hole shadow

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Nazarova, N. O.

    2018-01-01

    The external border of the black hole shadow is washed out by radiation from matter plunging into black hole and approaching the event horizon. This effect will crucially influence the results of future observations by the Event Horizon Telescope. We show that gravitational lensing of the luminous matter plunging into black hole provides the event horizon visualization within black hole shadow. The lensed image of the event horizon is formed by the last highly red-shifted photons emitted by t...

  17. Horizon Detection In The Visible Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    processing units, to the software-based models in [7] and [8]. B. DEFINING THE HORIZON The horizon, according to the Oxford English Dictionary , is “the...Ed. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1978. [10] “horizon,” Oxford English Dictionary Online, 2016.[Online]. Available: http

  18. 78 FR 54298 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application August 27, 2013. AGENCY... Management (USA) LLC (``Horizons'') and Horizons ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). Summary of Application... of the Trust will be the Horizons Active Global Dividend ETF (the ``Initial Fund''), which will seek...

  19. Tunneling from the past horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Subeom; Yeom, Dong-han

    2018-04-01

    We investigate a tunneling and emission process of a thin-shell from a Schwarzschild black hole, where the shell was initially located beyond the Einstein-Rosen bridge and finally appears at the right side of the Penrose diagram. In order to obtain such a solution, we should assume that the areal radius of the black hole horizon increases after the tunneling. Hence, there is a parameter range such that the tunneling rate is exponentially enhanced, rather than suppressed. We may have two interpretations regarding this. First, such a tunneling process from the past horizon is improbable by physical reasons; second, such a tunneling is possible in principle, but in order to obtain a stable Einstein-Rosen bridge, one needs to restrict the parameter spaces. If such a process is allowed, this can be a nonperturbative contribution to Einstein-Rosen bridges as well as eternal black holes.

  20. A study of natural circulation cooling using a flow visualization rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.C.; Ferch, R.L.; Omar, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A flow visualization rig has been built at Monserco Limited to provide visual insight into the thermalhydraulic phenomena which occur during single phase and two phase thermosyphoning in a figure-of-eight heat transport loop. Tests performed with the rig have provided design information for the scaling and instrumentation of a high pressure rig being investigated for simulating CANDU reactor conditions during natural circulation cooling. A videotape was produced, for viewing at this presentation, to show important thermalhydraulic features of the thermosyphoning process. The rig is a standard figure-of-eight loop with two steam generators and three heated channels per pass. An elevated surge tank open to atmosphere was used for pressure control. Two variable speed pumps provided forced circulation for warming up the rig, and for establishing the desired initial conditions for testing. Test rig power could be varied between 0 and 15 kW

  1. Losing Information Outside the Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir D. Mathur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Suppose we allow a system to fall freely from infinity to a point near (but not beyond the horizon of a black hole. We note that in a sense the information in the system is already lost to an observer at infinity. Once the system is too close to the horizon it does not have enough energy to send its information back because the information carrying quanta would get redshifted to a point where they get confused with Hawking radiation. If one attempts to turn the infalling system around and bring it back to infinity for observation then it will experience Unruh radiation from the required acceleration. This radiation can excite the bits in the system carrying the information, thus reducing the fidelity of this information. We find the radius where the information is essentially lost in this way, noting that this radius depends on the energy gap (and coupling of the system. We look for some universality by using the highly degenerate BPS ground states of a quantum gravity theory (string theory as our information storage device. For such systems one finds that the critical distance to the horizon set by Unruh radiation is the geometric mean of the black hole radius and the radius of the extremal hole with quantum numbers of the BPS bound state. Overall, the results suggest that information in gravity theories should be regarded not as a quantity contained in a system, but in terms of how much of this information is accessible to another observer.

  2. Operating experience of a sodium rig following the ingress of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, A C; Mehew, R D; Robertson, C M [UKAEA, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1980-05-01

    The experience of operating the Small Water Leak Rig at Dounreay in the two years following the ingress into the sodium of silicone oil from the pump is reported. The carbon penetration into the rig pipework has been monitored and has been found to agree with a diffusion model. The predictions based on this model have enabled an operating strategy to be determined to allow continued operation of the rig. (author)

  3. Operating experience of a sodium rig following the ingress of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.C.; Mehew, R.D.; Robertson, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    The experience of operating the Small Water Leak Rig at Dounreay in the two years following the ingress into the sodium of silicone oil from the pump is reported. The carbon penetration into the rig pipework has been monitored and has been found to agree with a diffusion model. The predictions based on this model have enabled an operating strategy to be determined to allow continued operation of the rig. (author)

  4. Slant rigs offer big payoffs in shallow drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Edwards, B.

    1992-01-01

    Slant hole drilling technology can result in considerable savings over conventionally drilled deviated holes because mud motors and deviation control with measurement while drilling tools are usually unnecessary. The benefits of using slant hole rigs for development drilling improve after the bit walk tendencies and the correct bottom hole assemblies have been determined for a particular area. This article discusses three recent drilling operations that successfully used slant drilling technology on land-based projects: drilling for heavy oil in Alberta, drilling for gas in Alberta, and drilling a river crossing for a gas pipeline in British Columbia. These examples demonstrate the flexibility of slant drilling technology

  5. Match Rigging and the Career Concerns of Referees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severgnini, Battista; Boeri, Tito

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on career concerns and corruption by drawing on extensive information on the performance of referees and records from Calciopoli, a judicial inquiry carried out in 2006 on corruption in the Italian football league. Unlike previous studies, we can analyse...... in detail the assignment of the referees to the most important matches, which is an important step in their career. Moreover, we can relate this choice to the performance of referees in previous matches and the evaluations they received in this context. We find that referees involved in match rigging were...

  6. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and “quintessence horizon” for the black holes surrounded by quintessence. Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  7. Conformal Killing horizons and their thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alex B.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2018-05-01

    Certain dynamical black hole solutions can be mapped to static spacetimes by conformal metric transformations. This mapping provides a physical link between the conformal Killing horizon of the dynamical black hole and the Killing horizon of the static spacetime. Using the Vaidya spacetime as an example, we show how this conformal relation can be used to derive thermodynamic properties of such dynamical black holes. Although these horizons are defined quasi-locally and can be located by local experiments, they are distinct from other popular notions of quasi-local horizons such as apparent horizons. Thus in the dynamical Vaidya spacetime describing constant accretion of null dust, the conformal Killing horizon, which is null by construction, is the natural horizon to describe the black hole.

  8. The development of fuel pins and material specimens mixed loading irradiation test rig in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The development of the fuel-material hybrid rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamatsu, Yasuko; Someya, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    In the experimental fast reactor Joyo, there were many tests using the irradiation rigs that it was possible to be set irradiation conditions for each compartment independently. In case of no alternative fuel element to irradiate after unloading the irradiated compartments, the irradiation test was restarted with the dummy compartment which the fuel elements was not mounted. If the material specimens are mounted in this space, it is possible to use the irradiation space effectively. For these reasons, the irradiation rig (hybrid rig) is developed that is consolidated with material specimens compartment and fuel elements compartment. Fuel elements and material specimens differ greatly with heat generation, so that the most important issue in developing of hybrid rig is being able to distribute appropriately the coolant flow which satisfies irradiation conditions. The following is described by this report. (1) It was confirmed that the flow distribution of loading the same irradiation rig with the compartment from which a flow demand differs could be satisfied. (2) It was confirmed that temperature setting range of hybrid rig could be equivalent to that of irradiation condition. (3) By standardizing the coolant entrance structure of the compartment lower part, the prospect which can perform easily recombination of the compartment from which a type differs between irradiation rigs was acquired. (author)

  9. Lapland longspur mortality at an oil well drilling rig site, Laramie County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pedro; Dickerson, Kimberly K.; Lindstrom, Jim; Meteyer, Carol U.; Darrah, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred fifty-one Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) carcasses were recovered around an oil well drilling rig in Laramie County, Wyoming, USA, on December 13–14, 2010, apparent victims of a winter storm and “light entrapment” from the lights on the drilling rig during foggy conditions. We found Lapland longspur carcasses distributed around the drilling rig from 33 m to 171 m. Investigators did not find evidence of bird carcasses on the drilling rig deck or equipment immediately adjacent to the drilling rig. We ruled out chemical toxins and disease as a cause of mortality. Weather conditions, the circular depositional pattern of carcasses around the drilling rig, and bird necropsy results led investigators to conclude that the Lapland longspur mortality was the result of the migrating birds entering the area illuminated by the drilling rig lights in freezing fog and the birds repeatedly circling the drilling rig until they fell to the ground in exhaustion and dying from subsequent trauma. Further research is needed to understand how to most effectively adjust lighting of onshore drilling rigs to reduce the potential for avian light entrapment. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Development and operation of the Above Dome Inspection Rig (ADIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.P.; Moorby, J.

    1984-01-01

    Hinkley Point 'B' is developing its remote inspection equipment in order to be able to inspect reactor internals adequately without manned vessel entry. The Above Dome Inspection Rig has been built to allow a number of inspection systems to be introduced and operated within the reactor. The ability to introduce, use and remove inspection equipment without the necessity to lift the rig from the reactor is a vital feature in the speed achieved in completing inspections quickly. Television was selected for the A.D.M. because it has significant advantages in terms of operational convenience. However the quality of image obtained in terms of information available compares unfavourably with photography. The sharpness of a photographic image is largely dictated by the chemical structure of the emulsion, whereas video is limited by the picture line structure and bandwidth. The need for a photographic system for in reactor use is therefore essential for high definition inspection requirements. The first inspection system that has been developed for the ADIR is the Telefilm camera. It consists of a Hasselblad photographic camera using an Insight television camera looking through its viewfinder. The characteristics of television and photography have been combined. (author)

  11. Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttrer, G.W. [Geothermal Management Company, Inc., Frisco, CO (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

  12. Minimal disturbance : Ensign's ADR-1000-CT rig aimed at CBM market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    2005-01-01

    Ensign Resource Services Group Inc. has recently designed a light, mobile rig aimed at Western Canada's coalbed methane (CBM) market. With a 1000 metre depth rating, the automated ADR-1000-CT rig can drill with either jointed pipe or 3 and a half-inch coil. Tractor units are used to move the rig to avoid the extra traffic generated by third-party trucks. The rig's self-levelling capability creates less environmental disturbance. Each component works on sites with as much as 2 metres difference in elevation, which reduces the need for earth-moving equipment. As drilling moves closer to farms and acreages, minimal environmental disturbance is crucial to the CBM industry. The rig won a 2005 Alberta government award for innovations in workplace health and safety as the design eliminates many of the tasks where injuries occur on conventional rigs. On conventional rigs, drill-strings are suspended from a travelling block which is suspended from the crown of a large, heavy derrick. With the ADR, hydraulic cylinders bear the weight of the drill string, and the derrick serves mainly to guide the top drive. When drilling only with jointed pipe, the coiled-tubing reel is a separate load so that drilling crews don't have to transport it around on programs requiring only jointed pipe. If coil is needed, the reel can be trucked to the site and plugged in to the rest of the rig. Tubing is expected to last 3 times as long as on a regular coiled-tubing rig, as the reel is positioned directly over the rotary table. The rigs have been used for various drilling projects and have performed satisfactorily with high penetration rates due to their large mud pumps. It was concluded that the ADR-1000-CT rig's hydraulic self-levelling capability and agility are helpful features when drilling in a minimal disturbance environment. 3 figs

  13. Deepwater extended well testing in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribbs, M.E. Jr.; Voss, J.D.; DeCarlo, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines deepwater Gulf of Mexico well testing and the need for extended well testing from the oil company's perspective. Well test objectives together with possible facility arrangements are examined as they integrate with the DeepStar project's modular field development facility arrangement

  14. GB 388 -- An independent's approach to deepwater development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincow, R.M.; Whittenburg, L.A.; Pickard, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    As the oil industry moves toward greater water depths in search of viable investment opportunities, cost effective, fast track development schemes must be cultivated to overcome the economic obstacles inherent to deepwater field development. While every deepwater development is different and each presents its own unique problems, the dilemma of justifying the costs, minimizing the lead time to first revenue and minimizing the associated risk are common to all projects. The Garden Banks 388 project has successfully utilized the project management concepts, and methodologies presented in this paper to develop a relatively low cost, low risk, fast track approach to deepwater development in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper describes the production system concept, management style and philosophy which have been employed to develop Garden Banks 388. The paper also discusses why the Floating Production System is considered the best alternative for this particular application. Many of the ideas and strategies used in this project can be applied to any project, whether it be deepwater or more conventional types of projects

  15. 77 FR 63300 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ...-deepwater architecture and technology to the Secretary of Energy and provide comments and recommendations... business. Individuals who would like to attend must RSVP by email at: [email protected] no later... your request for an oral statement at least three business days prior to the meeting, and reasonable...

  16. 77 FR 10487 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... development and implementation of programs related to ultra-deepwater architecture and technology to the... Committee will lead the meeting for the orderly conduct of business. Individuals who would like to attend... telephone number listed above. You must make your request for an oral statement at least three business days...

  17. 76 FR 16621 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... implementation of programs related to ultra-deepwater architecture and technology to the Secretary of Energy and... orderly conduct of business. If you would like to file a written statement with the Committee, you may do.... You must make your request for an oral statement at least two business days prior to the meeting, and...

  18. 77 FR 53191 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Secretary of Energy on development and implementation of programs related to ultra-deepwater architecture... Chairman of the Committee will lead the meeting for the orderly conduct of business. If you would like to... three business days prior to the meeting, and reasonable provisions will be made to include all who wish...

  19. 77 FR 5246 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... development and implementation of programs related to ultra-deepwater architecture and technology to the... least three business days prior to the meeting, and reasonable provisions will be made to include all... meeting to facilitate the orderly conduct of business. Public comment will follow the three-minute rule...

  20. 76 FR 13606 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... programs related to ultra-deepwater architecture and technology to the Secretary of Energy and provide... conduct of business. If you would like to file a written statement with the Committee, you may do so... must make your request for an oral statement at least two business days prior to the meeting, and...

  1. 78 FR 70931 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... ultra-deepwater architecture and technology to the Secretary of Energy and provide comments and... business. Individuals who would like to attend must RSVP to [email protected] no later than 5:00 p... an oral statement at least three business days prior to the meeting, and reasonable provisions will...

  2. 78 FR 58292 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...-deepwater architecture and technology to the Secretary of Energy and provide comments and recommendations... the orderly conduct of business. Individuals who would like to attend must RSVP by email to: Ultra... number listed above. You must make your request for an oral statement at least three business days prior...

  3. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  4. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Littlewood, David John; Seleson, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    A notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with vari- able horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties un- changed. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under homogeneous deformation. These artifacts de- pend on the second derivative of horizon and can be reduced by use of a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress . Bodies with piece- wise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a technique called a splice between the regions. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  5. Holography beyond the horizon and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, Thomas S.; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the description of the region behind the event horizon in rotating black holes in the AdS conformal field theory correspondence, using the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole as a concrete example. We extend a technique introduced by Kraus, Ooguri, and Shenker, based on analytically continuing amplitudes defined in a Euclidean space, to include rotation. In the rotating case, boundary amplitudes again have two different bulk descriptions, involving either integration only over the regions outside the black holes' event horizon, or integration over this region and the region between the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon (inner horizon). We argue that generally, the holographic map will relate the field theory to the region bounded by the Cauchy horizons in spacetime. We also argue that these results suggest that the holographic description of black holes will satisfy strong cosmic censorship

  6. Black hole versus cosmological horizon entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Tamara M; Davies, P C W; Lineweaver, Charles H

    2003-01-01

    The generalized second law of thermodynamics states that entropy always increases when all event horizons are attributed with an entropy proportional to their area. We test the generalized second law by investigating the change in entropy when dust, radiation and black holes cross a cosmological event horizon. We generalize for flat, open and closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes by using numerical calculations to determine the cosmological horizon evolution. In most cases, the loss of entropy from within the cosmological horizon is more than balanced by an increase in cosmological event horizon entropy, maintaining the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics. However, an intriguing set of open universe models shows an apparent entropy decrease when black holes disappear over the cosmological event horizon. We anticipate that this apparent violation of the generalized second law will disappear when solutions are available for black holes embedded in arbitrary backgrounds

  7. Bycatch in 36 and 40 mm PA Turkish twin rigged beam trawl codends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Turkish twin rigged beam trawl which has two identical nets rigged side by side on the same beam targets mainly the Parapenaeus longirostris, although some bycatch fish species have also become target species. Thus, landings of the shrimp beam trawling fleet also include some commercially valuable fishes.

  8. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways

  9. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis.

  10. Computer aided extractor design for the RIG 10 high intensity ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzer, F.; Haeuser, J.; Eppel, D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses recent progress of the rf-ion source RIG 10, and describes a computer code for the simulation of the ion trajectories. The RIG 10 is designed for current densities of some 300 mA/cm 2 , and will be used for the production of neutral. (orig.)

  11. Rig automation: where it's been and where it's going

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, R.

    1982-06-01

    For over 30 years dreamers, tinkerers and engineers have attempted to automate various drilling functions. Now this effort is paying off, and a partially automated rig is no longer a curiosity. Fully automated and computerized rigs are on the way. For the contractor this means higher productivity, but more maintenance and training responsibilities.

  12. A reciprocating pin-on-plate test-rig for studying friction materials for holding brakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Drago, Nicola; Klit, Peder

    2014-01-01

    -on-plate test-rig for studying the evolution of wear by monitoring the pin height reduction using Eddy-current proximity sensors is presented. Moreover, a new mechanism for recording the friction force is suggested. Apart from the design of the test-rig, friction force and wear rate measurements for two...

  13. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear. (orig.)

  14. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovnev, Alexey [Saint Petersburg State University, High Energy Physics Department, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear. (orig.)

  15. Cartan invariants and event horizon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.; Chavy-Waddy, P. C.; Coley, A. A.; Forget, A.; Gregoris, D.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; McNutt, D. D.

    2018-04-01

    We show that it is possible to locate the event horizon of a black hole (in arbitrary dimensions) by the zeros of certain Cartan invariants. This approach accounts for the recent results on the detection of stationary horizons using scalar polynomial curvature invariants, and improves upon them since the proposed method is computationally less expensive. As an application, we produce Cartan invariants that locate the event horizons for various exact four-dimensional and five-dimensional stationary, asymptotically flat (or (anti) de Sitter), black hole solutions and compare the Cartan invariants with the corresponding scalar curvature invariants that detect the event horizon.

  16. Challenges associated with pre-border management of biofouling on oil rigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2010-11-01

    The potential for oil rigs to transport diverse, reef-like communities around the globe makes them high risk vectors for the inadvertent spread of non-indigenous species (NIS). This paper describes two case studies where a suite of pre-border management approaches was applied to semi-submersible drilling rigs. In the first case study, a drilling rig was defouled in-water prior to departure from New Zealand to Australia. Risk mitigation measures were successful in reducing biosecurity risks to the recipient region, but they resulted in the unintentional introduction of the non-indigenous brown mussel (Perna perna) to New Zealand when the rig was defouled in-water by divers. In the second case study, lessons learned from this high-profile incursion resulted in a more structured approach to pre-border management, and this serves as a useful template for future rig transfers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The economics and related factors involved in the replacement of land drilling rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the construction cost of a medium depth land rig made from all NEW components and the resulting effect on drilling contractor economics. This evaluation will include an inventory of the proposed NEW rig, with a comparison of the costs of a similar rig built in 1981-1982, and a similar rig built from existing UNUSED equipment in manufacturer's current inventory. The paper discusses the problems encountered in obtaining quotations for NEW equipment from manufacturers, the current attitudes of equipment manufacturers, the potential for problems from the use of existing UNUSED equipment in manufacturers inventory, and finally the possible effect on the day rates needed to justify the construction of NEW land rigs. Probable reasons for the attitudes of the manufacturing industry and alternatives for the drilling contractor will be reviewed

  18. Numerical simulation of the RF ion source RIG-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzt, T.

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional model for the numerical simulation of the inductively coupled radio-frequency (RF) ion source RIG-10 is presented. Due to the ambipolar characteristics of a discharge operating with hydrogen gas, the model consists of an equation for the space charge imbalance, Poisson's equation for the self-consistent presheath potential and the ion momentum transport equation. For a relatively broad range of operation and design parameters, the model allows the reproduction and prediction of the RF discharge behaviour in a systematic way and, hence, computes the 2D distribution of the ion current density within the source. By implementing relevant discharge physics, the model can provide an appropriate tool for ion source design with respect to an application in the field of neutral beam injection. (author)

  19. Going deep : new generation of giant rigs extends drillers' reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverty Wilson, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Eirik Roude, an offshore super rig, arrived in Halifax Harbour from Florida in the summer 2001 for a retrofit before it is sent to work in the rugged environment offshore of Nova Scotia. The drilling platform is a joint venture between PanCanadian Petroleum and Ocean Rig. Is is the most technologically advanced and sophisticated deep water drilling platform in the world and can operate in 3,000 metre deep water for 365 days of the year. It is a fifth-generation semi-submersible rig. It floats on long legs that lower the centre of gravity below surface turbulence to provide a stable work platform even during Atlantic storms. The 110 metre long rig has three mud systems that store 593 cubic metres in mud pits, 1,260 cubic metres in pontoons, and can carry 26,140 barrels of fuel oil, 4,070 barrels of potable water and 13,210 barrels of drilling water. PanCanadian has provided $2 million to the Nova Scotia Community College to teach an appropriate curriculum for the required workforce. It is expected that 120 local workers will be recruited. PanCanadian plans to drill 3 or 4 offshore wells annually for the next 5 years. It is estimated that 700-800 workers will be on site at the peak of the retrofit. In addition, Marathon Oil has contracted the Smedvig-owned West Navion for Nova Scotia work. This vessel is designed to work in depths of up to 2,500 metres and can be upgraded to reach 3,000 metres. Its' dual handling capacity makes it suitable to do drilling and well completion simultaneously, thereby reducing the halts in operations and increasing the drilling efficiency. East Coast governments and trade associations are also committed to make the most of the offshore oil and gas revival, including the development of a petrochemical market. Their goal is to build a world class energy sector while protecting the environment and optimizing the financial, economic and social benefits to Nova Scotians. The Nova Scotia Benefits program requires that oil companies

  20. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  1. Westinghouse says cartel rigged U.S. uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    On Oct. 15, 1976, Westinghouse filed a complaint in Federal court in Chicago charging that 29 U.S. and foreign uranium producers damaged Westinghouse by illegally rigging the uranium market; they also link the Atomic Industrial Forum to the U.S. activities of this cartel. Background information is presented for the charge, which has become the focal point of Westinghouse's defense against the uranium supply breach of contract suits filed against the firm by 27 electric utilities (3 filed in county court in Pittsburgh, 24 jointly in Federal court in Virginia). Westinghouse attorneys say that most of the evidence they have shows the existence of a cartel in the past, but they hope to show it is still operating in the U.S

  2. Exergetic analysis of autonomous power complex for drilling rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V. A.; Karabuta, V. S.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the issue of increasing the energy efficiency of power equipment of the drilling rig. At present diverse types of power plants are used in power supply systems. When designing and choosing a power plant, one of the main criteria is its energy efficiency. The main indicator in this case is the effective efficiency factor calculated by the method of thermal balances. In the article, it is suggested to use the exergy method to determine energy efficiency, which allows to perform estimations of the thermodynamic perfection degree of the system by the example of a gas turbine plant: relative estimation (exergetic efficiency factor) and an absolute estimation. An exergetic analysis of the gas turbine plant operating in a simple scheme was carried out using the program WaterSteamPro. Exergy losses in equipment elements are calculated.

  3. Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics (DITA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannella, F; Olivieri, E; Caldwell, D G; Scalise, L; Memeo, M

    2013-01-01

    Research on tactile sensitivity has been conducted since the last century and many devices have been proposed to study in detail this sense through experimental tests. The sense of touch is essential in every-day life of human beings, but it can also play a fundamental role for the assessment of some neurological disabilities and pathologies. In fact, the level of tactile perception can provide information on the health state of the nervous system. In this paper, authors propose the design and development of a novel test apparatus, named DITA (Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics), aiming to provide the measurement of the tactile sensitivity trough the determination of the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) curve of a subject. The paper reports the solution adopted for the system design and the results obtained on the set of experiments carried out on volunteers

  4. Field Engineers' Scheduling at Oil Rigs: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Usmani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil exploration and production operations face a number of challenges. Professional planners have to design solutions for various practical problems or issues. However, the time consumed is often very extensive because of the large number of possible solutions. Further, the matter of choosing the best solution remains. The present paper investigates a problem related to leading companies in the energy and chemical manufacturing sector of the oil and gas industry. Each company’s field engineers are expensive and valuable assets. Therefore, an optimized roster is rather important. In the present paper, the objective is to design a field engineers’ schedule which would be both feasible and satisfying towards the various demands of rigs, with minimum operational cost to the company. An efficient and quick optimization technique is presented to schedule the shifts of field engineers.

  5. Development and Initial Testing of the Tiltrotor Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Sheikman, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) is a new, large-scale proprotor test system, developed jointly with the U.S. Army and Air Force, to develop a new, large-scale proprotor test system for the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC). The TTR is designed to test advanced proprotors up to 26 feet in diameter at speeds up to 300 knots, and even larger rotors at lower airspeeds. This combination of size and speed is unprecedented and is necessary for research into 21st-century tiltrotors and other advanced rotorcraft concepts. The TTR will provide critical data for validation of state-of-the-art design and analysis tools.

  6. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  7. Optical geometry across the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (Jonsson and Westman 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to (a finite four-volume) of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework

  8. Substantial Fatigue Similarity of a New Small-Scale Test Rig to Actual Wheel-Rail System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Petrov, R.H.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Sietsma, J.; Wu, J.

    2014-01-01

    The substantial similarity of fatigue mechanism in a new test rig for rolling contact fatigue (RCF) has been investigated. A new reduced-scale test rig is designed to perform controlled RCF tests in wheel-rail materials. The fatigue mechanism of the rig is evaluated in this study using a combined

  9. Competition, Time Horizon and Corporate Social Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Smid, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper develops and tests a conceptual framework on the relationships between competition, time horizon and corporate social performance (CSP). We hypothesize that more intense competition discourages CSP by lowering the time horizon of companies. We test the hypothesis on a sample of

  10. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Museum Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This "2015 Horizon…

  11. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  12. QTL analysis of internode elongation in response to gibberellin in deepwater rice

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yuma; Kitaoka, Takuya; Noda, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is a plant hormone that has important roles in numerous plant developmental phases. Rice plants known as deepwater rice respond to flooding by elongating their internodes to avoid anoxia. Previous studies reported that GA is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified QTLs regulating internode elongation in response to deepwater conditions. However, the interaction between internode elongation and regulators of GA s...

  13. RIG-I antiviral signaling drives interleukin-23 production and psoriasis-like skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Lou, Fangzhou; Yin, Qianqian; Gao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yang; Bai, Jing; Xu, Zhenyao; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Cai, Wei; Ke, Fang; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Hong; Wang, Gang; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Hongxin; Wang, Zhugang; Ginhoux, Florent; Lu, Chuanjian; Su, Bing; Wang, Honglin

    2017-05-01

    Retinoic acid inducible-gene I (RIG-I) functions as one of the major sensors of RNA viruses. DDX58 , which encodes the RIG-I protein, has been newly identified as a susceptibility gene in psoriasis. Here, we show that the activation of RIG-I by 5'ppp-dsRNA, its synthetic ligand, directly causes the production of IL-23 and triggers psoriasis-like skin disease in mice. Repeated injections of IL-23 to the ears failed to induce IL-23 production and a full psoriasis-like skin phenotype, in either germ-free or RIG-I-deficient mice. RIG-I is also critical for a full development of skin inflammation in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model. Furthermore, RIG-I-mediated endogenous IL-23 production was mainly confined to the CD11c + dendritic cells (DCs) via nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, and stimulated RIG-I expression in an auto-regulatory feedback loop. Thus, our data suggest that the dysregulation in the antiviral immune responses of hosts through the innate pattern recognition receptors may trigger the skin inflammatory conditions in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. Duck RIG-I CARD Domain Induces the Chicken IFN-β by Activating NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene I- (RIG-I- like receptors (RLRs have recently been identified as cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA. RIG-I, a member of RLRs family, plays an important role in innate immunity. Although previous investigations have proved that RIG-I is absent in chickens, it remains largely unknown whether the chicken can respond to RIG-I ligand. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vectors encoding duRIG-I full length (duck RIG-I, containing all domains, duRIG-I N-terminal (containing the two caspase activation and recruitment domain, CARDs, and duRIG-I C-terminal (containing helicase and regulatory domains labeled with 6*His tags were constructed successfully and detected by western blotting. Luciferase reporter assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA detected the duRIG-I significantly activated NF-κB and induced the expression of IFN-β when polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C], synthetic double-stranded RNA challenges chicken embryonic fibroblasts cells (DF1 cells, while the duRIG-I was inactive in the absence of poly[I:C]. Further analysis revealed that the CARDs (duRIG-I-N induced IFN-β production regardless of the presence of poly[I:C], while the CARD-lacking duRIG-I (duRIG-I-C was not capable of activating downstream signals. These results indicate that duRIG-I CARD domain plays an important role in the induction of IFN-β and provide a basis for further studying the function of RIG-I in avian innate immunity.

  15. Effects of COREXIT (registered trademark) EC9500A on Bacteria from a Beach Oiled by the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    reached the beach mid-day on the previous day. During sampling, small brown pea -sized floating drop - lets of oil were observed in the water within...economical method for measuring bacterial protein synthesis rates in seawater using 3H-leucine. Mar Microb Food Webs 6:107–114 US EPA (U.S

  16. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - June 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  17. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    development and operationalization of new spill response remote sensing tools must precede the next major oil spill. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...Environment 124 (2012) 185–209 sensing oil spill impacts, and 5) a final discussion. Each section presents background, available remote sensing tools , and...cialized DaVinci command-line software (Clark et al., 2003) then mapped oil slick volume (Clark et al., 2010) in each AVIRIS pixel by identifying the

  18. Gulf of Mexico Air Quality: CALIPSO Support for Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Relating to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Myngoc T.; Lapointe, Stephen; Jennings, Brittney; Zoumplis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an oil platform belonging to BP exploded and leaked a huge volume of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to control the spread of the oil, BP applied dispersants such as Corexit and conducted in-situ burnings of the oil. This catastrophe created a complex chain of events that affected not only the fragile water and land ecosystems, but the humans who breathe the air every day. Thousands of people were exposed to fumes associated with oil vapors from the spill, burning of the oil, and the toxic mixture of dispersants. While aiding in clean-up efforts, local fishermen were directly exposure to fumes when working on the Gulf. A notable amount of Gulf Coast residents were also exposed to the oil fumes as seasonal southeasterly winds blew vapors toward land. The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) found in oil vapors include: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide and particulate matter (PM). Increases in water temperature and sunlight due to the summer season allow for these VOCs and PM to evaporate into the air more rapidly. Aside from the VOCs found in oil vapors, the dispersant being used to break up the oil is highly toxic and is thought to be even more toxic than the oil itself (EPA website, 2010). To protect human health, the environment, and to make informed policy decisions relevant to the spill, the EPA Region 6 has continuously monitored the affected areas carefully for levels of pollutants in the outdoor air that are associated with petroleum products and the burning of oil along the coast. In an effort to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States, the EPA has been working with local, state, and federal response partners. Air quality measurements were collected by the EPA at five active monitoring systems stationed along the coast.

  19. 78 FR 73555 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early Restoration Plan and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS). The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS considers programmatic... programmatic restoration alternatives. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS evaluates these restoration alternatives... the Framework Agreement. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS also evaluates the environmental consequences of...

  20. Four Years of Chemical Measurements from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Define the Deep Sea Sediment footprint and Subsequent Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, P.

    2016-02-01

    Chemical data acquired during and after the DWHOS showed that several mechanisms were responsible for transport of oil from the water column to the sediments in the deep sea off the continental shelf. Three primary pathways were identified:Sorption onto and sinking of drilling mud particles during "Top Kill" response activity, highly scattered deposition of residuesfrom in situ burns, and deposition of oil combined with microbial organic matter from diffuse oil plumes ("marine snow"). Data collected during 2010, 2011 and 2014 were used to define the oil footprint and estimate time to recovery. More than 1200 stations were sampled. Of these, 27 stations were visited all three years, providing a time series from which recovery rates were calculated using the loss of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) over time fit to first order kinetics. Results showed that the footprint of the oil was limited to the area around the wellhead and in patches to the southwest. Mostsamples had returned to background levels by 2015, with some exceptions close to the wellhead. Deposition to the northeast (DeSoto Canyon) was minor as evidenced by the absence of oil in sediments in that area. Samples with the longest recovery times were within 2 nautical miles of the wellhead, and often contained drilling mud, as shown by olefin signatures on the GC/FID chromatogram. Detailed chemistry data evaluation and chemical fingerprinting provided evidence that oil was being degraded in situ.

  1. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - August 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  2. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - July 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  3. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - May 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  4. 75 FR 26091 - Safety Zone; Riser for DEEPWATER HORIZON at Mississippi Canyon 252 Outer Continental Shelf MODU...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... personnel involved in oil pollution response efforts. Placing a safety zone around the riser will... the water's surface and subsurface. DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective in the CFR on May 11...

  5. Explicating ethical corporate marketing. Insights from the BP deepwater horizon catastrophe: The ethical brand that exploded and then imploded

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, JMT; Powell, SM; Greyser, SA

    2011-01-01

    This is the author's final version of the article. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-0902-1. Copyright @ Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Ethical corporate marketing—as an organisational-wide philosophy—transcends the domains of corporate social responsibility, business ethics, stakeholder theory and corporate marketing. This being said, ethical corporate marketing represents a logical development vis-a-vis the nascent domain ...

  6. Deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon plays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The geologic setting in the deep-water (depths greater than 1,500 feet) Gulf of Mexico is very favorable for the existence of large, commercial hydrocarbon accumulations. These areas have active salt tectonics that create abundant traps, underlying mature Mesozoic source rocks that can be observed expelling oil and gas to the ocean surface, and good quality reservoirs provided by turbidite sand deposits. Despite the limited amount of drilling in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico, 11 deep-water accumulations have been discovered which, when developed, will rank in the top 100 largest fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Proved field discoveries (those with announced development plans) have added over 1 billion barrels of oil equivalent to Gulf of Mexico reserves, and unproved field discoveries may add to additional billion barrels of oil equivalent. The Minerals Management Service, United States Department of the Interior, has completed a gulf-wide review of over 1,086 oil and gas fields and placed every pay sand in each field into a hydrocarbon play (plays are defined by chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraph, structure, and production). Seven productive hydrocarbon plays were identified in the deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico. Regional maps illustrate the productive limits of each play. In addition, field data, dry holes, and wells with sub-economic pay were added to define the facies and structural limits for each play. Areas for exploration potential are identified for each hydrocarbon play. A type field for each play is chosen to demonstrate the play's characteristics

  7. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  8. Wythenshawe boiler rig. Thirty years of support to the UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Andy; Woolsey, Ian S.; Moore, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Wythenshawe Boiler Rig in Manchester, UK, recently celebrated thirty years of operation in support of the UK nuclear power industry. The Boiler Rig, owned by EDF Energy and operated on EDF Energy's behalf by Serco plc, is a full scale once-through boiler test facility for the investigation of chemistry and corrosion related topics. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the Boiler Rig together with some of the technical highlights from its thirty years of operation, many of which have relevance to power plant operations beyond those plants for which the work was performed. (orig.)

  9. Endurance test for IR rig for RI production assembly (test procedure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2000-08-01

    This test procedure details the test loop, test method, and test procedure for pressure drop, vibration and endurance test of IR Rig for RI production. From the pressure drop test, the hydraulic design requirements of the capsule are verified. HANARO limit condition is checked and the compatibility with HANARO core is verified. From flow induced vibration test vibration frequency and displacement are investigated. The wear of IR Rig is investigated through endurance test, and these data are used to evaluate the expected wear at maximum resident time of the IR Rig for RI production

  10. Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR, can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese are essential for type I interferon (IFN synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., “dead end” hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2 (ZB07, Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801 strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs, strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-β, Mx, and PKR mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2 mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral

  11. Freon Rig design for performing to heat transfer experiments for nuclear reactors fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, L.F.V.

    1981-01-01

    The main features of a Freon Rig design for performing to heat transfer experiments for PWR and BWR fuel bundles, are presented. The project is based on a Freon Rig pressurized at 30 bar with a flow rate up to 80 m 3 /h. The maximum power fed to test sections is of about 420 KW D.C. The rig was designed to use scaling techniques wich would enable a fluid of low latente heat to be used in place of water, thereby reducing the cost of testes. (Author) [pt

  12. Symmetries of cosmological Cauchy horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.; Isenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    We consider analytic vacuum and electrovacuum spacetimes which contain a compact null hypersurface ruled by closed null generators. We prove that each such spacetime has a non-trivial Killing symmetry. We distinguish two classes of null surfaces, degenerate and non-degenerate ones, characterized by the zero or non-zero value of a constant analogous to the ''surface gravity'' of stationary black holes. We show that the non-degenerate null surfaces are always Cauchy heizons across which the Killing fields change from spacelike (in the globally hyperbolic regions) to timelike (in the acausal, analytic extensions). For the special case of a null surface diffeomorphic to T 3 we characterize the degenerate vacuum solutions completely. These consists of an infinite dimensional family of ''plane wave'' spacetimes which are entirely foliated by compact null surfaces. Previous work by one of us has shown that, when one dimensional Killing symmetries are allowed, then infinite dimensional families of non-degenerate, vacuum solutions exist. We recall these results for the case of Cauchy horizons diffeomorphic to T 3 and prove the generality of the previously constructed non-degenerate solutions. We briefly discuss the possibility of removing the assumptions of closed generators and analyticity and proving an appropriate generalization of our main results. Such a generalization would provide strong support for the cosmic censorship conjecture by showing that causality violating, cosmological solutions of Einstein's equations are essentially an artefact of symmetry. (orig.)

  13. Dynamical symmetry enhancement near IIA horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, University; Gutowski, J.; Kayani, University; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-01-01

    We show that smooth type IIA Killing horizons with compact spatial sections preserve an even number of supersymmetries, and that the symmetry algebra of horizons with non-trivial fluxes includes an sl(2,ℝ) subalgebra. This confirms the conjecture of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)104 for type IIA horizons. As an intermediate step in the proof, we also demonstrate new Lichnerowicz type theorems for spin bundle connections whose holonomy is contained in a general linear group.

  14. Across-horizon scattering and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, V. A.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2018-06-01

    We address the question whether or not two electrically charged elementary particles can Coulomb scatter if one of these particles is inside the Schwarzschild black-hole horizon and the other outside. It can be shown that the quantum process is consistent with the local energy–momentum conservation law. This result implies that across-horizon scattering is a physical effect, relevant to astrophysical black holes. We propose a Gedankenexperiment which uses the quantum scattering process to transfer information from inside the black-hole horizon to outside.

  15. Horizon quantum mechanics of rotating black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Roberto [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, I.S. FLAG, Bologna (Italy); Giugno, Andrea [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Munich (Germany); Giusti, Andrea [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, I.S. FLAG, Bologna (Italy); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Munich (Germany); Micu, Octavian [Institute of Space Science, Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-23, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-05-15

    The horizon quantum mechanics is an approach that was previously introduced in order to analyze the gravitational radius of spherically symmetric systems and compute the probability that a given quantum state is a black hole. In this work, we first extend the formalism to general space-times with asymptotic (ADM) mass and angular momentum. We then apply the extended horizon quantum mechanics to a harmonic model of rotating corpuscular black holes. We find that simple configurations of this model naturally suppress the appearance of the inner horizon and seem to disfavor extremal (macroscopic) geometries. (orig.)

  16. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, Steven

    2006-01-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy

  17. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlip, Steven [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy.

  18. Tropospheric radiowave propagation beyond the horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Du Castel, François

    1966-01-01

    Tropospheric Radiowave Propagation Beyond the Horizon deals with developments concerning the tropospheric propagation of ultra-short radio waves beyond the horizon, with emphasis on the relationship between the theoretical and the experimental. Topics covered include the general conditions of propagation in the troposphere; general characteristics of propagation beyond the horizon; and attenuation in propagation. This volume is comprised of six chapters and begins with a brief historical look at the various stages that have brought the technique of transhorizon links to its state of developmen

  19. Stretched horizons, quasiparticles, and quasinormal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose that stretched horizons can be described in terms of a gas of noninteracting quasiparticles. The quasiparticles are unstable, with a lifetime set by the imaginary part of the lowest quasinormal mode frequency. If the horizon arises from an AdS-CFT style duality the quasiparticles are also the effective low-energy degrees of freedom of the finite-temperature CFT. We analyze a large class of models including Schwarzschild black holes, nonextremal Dp-branes, the rotating BTZ black hole and de Sitter space, and we comment on degenerate horizons. The quasiparticle description makes manifest the relationship between entropy and area

  20. Implementing VMware Horizon View 5.2

    CERN Document Server

    Ventresco, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial covering all components of the View Horizon suite in detail, to ensure that you can utilize all features of the platform, and discover all of the possible ways that it can be used within your own environment.If you are a newcomer in system administration, and you wish to implement a small to midsized Horizon View environment, then this book is for you. It will also benefit individuals who wish to administrate and manage Horizon View more efficiently or are studying for the VCP5-DT.

  1. Articulated elevator links for top drive drill rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, I.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes for a drill rig having a derrick, a drive head assembly suspended in the derrick having a drive stem for connection to and for rotating a string of drill pipe, an improved means for connecting a stand of the drill pipe to the drive stem, comprising in combination: a pair of upper link sections, each pivotally suspended from the drive head assembly and having a lower end; a pair of lower link sections, each having an upper end pivotally connected to one of the lower ends of the upper link sections and each having a lower end; a set of elevators mounted to lower ends of the lower link sections for clamping about the stand of drill pipe; upper lifting means connected between the upper link sections and the drive head assembly for pivoting the upper link sections relative to the drive head assembly; and lowering lifting means connected between the upper and lower link sections for pivoting the lower link sections relative to the upper link sections for lifting the elevators upward relative to the drive head assembly to engage the stand of drill pipe with the drive stem. The patent also describes a method for connecting a stand of the drill pipe to the drive stem.

  2. 'RIG'- surgical gamma probe for early breast cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinjkar, P.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Kumar, Umesh; Pendharkar, A.S.; Choudhary, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, which if detected in early stage can be effectively treated and cured. Early detection is carried out by collecting a sentinel lymph node (SLN) and testing it for cancer. The surgical gamma probe is a hand-held device used in the localization of SLN. It enables the localization of the active node. Isotope Applications Division, BARC has developed indigenously a RIG Surgical Gamma Probe in consultation with the doctors from Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi. The system consists of microcomputer-based gamma counting system that displays the number of pulses detected by the probe in counts per second and has an audible signal in direct correlation with the count density. The detector probe is based on the scintillation detector housed in a stainless steel housing with lead collimator. The physical parameters are a high sensitivity of 5000 cps/MBq at probe tip with good spatial resolution. The performance of this probe was clinically evaluated on the basis of spatial resolution and accuracy to detect the active node. (author)

  3. Endoscopic PIV measurements in a low pressure turbine rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegalj, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Department of Gas Turbines and Aerospace Propulsion

    2009-10-15

    Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) is a useful way to acquire information about the flow in turbomachinery. Several premises have to be fulfilled to achieve high-quality data, for example, optical access, low vibrations and low reflections. However, not all test facilities comply with these requirements. If there is no optical access to the test area, measurements cannot be performed. The use of borescopic optics is a possible solution to this issue, as the access required is very small. Several different techniques can be used to measure the three components of the velocity vector, one of which is Stereo-PIV. These techniques require either large optical access from several viewing angles or highly complex setups. Orthogonal light sheet orientations in combination with borescopic optics using Planar-PIV can deliver sufficient information about the flow. This study will show the feasibility of such an approach in an enclosed test area, such as the interblade space in a Low-Pressure-Turbine-Rig. The results from PIV will be compared with data collected with conventional techniques, such as the Five-Hole-Probe and the 2-component Hot-Wire-Anemometry. An analysis of time- and phase-averaged data will be performed. (orig.)

  4. Core Cutting Test with Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.

  5. Negative Role of RIG-I Serine 8 Phosphorylation in the Regulatin of Interferon-beta Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Nistal-Villan; M Gack; G Martinez-Delgado; N Maharaj; K Inn; H Yang; R Wang; A Aggarwal; J Jung; A Garcia-Sastre

    2011-12-31

    RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) and TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25) have emerged as key regulatory factors to induce interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses to limit viral replication. Upon recognition of viral RNA, TRIM25 E3 ligase binds the first caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of RIG-I and subsequently induces lysine 172 ubiquitination of the second CARD of RIG-I, which is essential for the interaction with downstream MAVS/IPS-1/CARDIF/VISA and, thereby, IFN-beta mRNA production. Although ubiquitination has emerged as a major factor involved in RIG-I activation, the potential contribution of other post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, to the regulation of RIG-I activity has not been addressed. Here, we report the identification of serine 8 phosphorylation at the first CARD of RIG-I as a negative regulatory mechanism of RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production. Immunoblot analysis with a phosphospecific antibody showed that RIG-I serine 8 phosphorylation steady-state levels were decreased upon stimulation of cells with IFN-beta or virus infection. Substitution of serine 8 in the CARD RIG-I functional domain with phosphomimetic aspartate or glutamate results in decreased TRIM25 binding, RIG-I ubiquitination, MAVS binding, and downstream signaling. Finally, sequence comparison reveals that only primate species carry serine 8, whereas other animal species carry an asparagine, indicating that serine 8 phosphorylation may represent a primate-specific regulation of RIG-I activation. Collectively, these data suggest that the phosphorylation of RIG-I serine 8 operates as a negative switch of RIG-I activation by suppressing TRIM25 interaction, further underscoring the importance of RIG-I and TRIM25 connection in type I IFN signal transduction.

  6. Lophelia II 2009: Deepwater Program: Exploration and Research of Northern Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Natural and Artificial Hard Bottom Habitats with Emphasis on Coral Communities: Reefs, Rigs and Wrecks on NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown between 20090819 and 20090912

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  7. Lophelia II 2009: Deepwater Program: Exploration and Research of Northern Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Natural and Artificial Hard Bottom Habitats with Emphasis on Coral Communities: Reefs, Rigs and Wrecks on NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown between 20090819 and 20090912

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise used the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Jason II to: explore 4-6 new sites for the occurrence of deep water coral reefs; made collections of Lophelia...

  8. Improving mixing efficiency in a closed circuit water flow rig for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... pulse velocity method, indicating that the flow meters functioned correctly. The modified rig with scaled-up mixing techniques could serve as platform for training in evaluating mixing vessels and flow meters in industrial process plants.

  9. Stochastic programming of drilling rigs supplies; Programacao estocastica de suprimentos de sondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Bruno Ferreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this work is to use techniques of stochastic programming to reduce logistic costs regarding offshore drilling rigs. This theme is of great interest to Brazilian oil industry since there is an increasing number of wells that need to be perforated so that Brazilian oil production can reach its expected growth over the next ten years (PETROBRAS in particular has an ambitious strategy in this respect). Proper treatment of the uncertainties involved in the deliveries of supplies to offshore drilling rigs is essential, namely, these uncertainties need to be included in the models used in logistic models. Delays in the deliveries of products such as chemicals, perforation fluids and tubes may force drilling rigs to stop their operations what highly increases costs. The daily hiring rates of drilling rigs represent the highest cost in the perforation and completion of a well. (author)

  10. Intra-abdominal recurrence of colorectal cancer detected by radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardi, A.; Workman, M.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G.; Nieroda, C.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1986, 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have undergone second-look radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system). The primary tumor was located in the right and transverse colon in 11 patients, left and sigmoid colon in 16, and rectum in five. The carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated in 30 patients (94%); all patients underwent a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis. The overall sensitivity of the computed tomographic scan was 41% (abdomen other than liver, 27%; liver, 58%; and pelvis, 22%). The RIGS system identified recurrent tumor in 81% of the patients. The most common site of metastasis was the liver (41%), independent of the primary location. Local/regional recurrences alone accounted for 40% of all recurrences. In six patients (18%), recurrent tumor was found only with the RIGS system. The RIGS system is more dependable in localizing clinically obscure metastases than other methods, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing remains the most accurate preoperative method to indicate suspected recurrences

  11. The evaluation of secondary system oxygen-scavenging chemicals using a water-circulating rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.W. [Nuclear Dept., HMS Sultan (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the efficiency, mode of action and possible by-products of chemical dosing agents, e.g. oxygen scavengers, a circulating water rig was constructed. The rig uses a demineralized water supply as a source of make-up water to fill a recirculating loop of approx. 10 litres volume. The rig pipework is made of polythene with standard off-the shelf pipe fittings and connectors. The following parameters can be measured within the rig: pH and conductivity measured by in-line monitor, dissolved oxygen level, temperature. The system has already been used for some preliminary testing. The following oxygen scavengers have been used for tests: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine (DEHA), Hydroquinone, hydrazine hydrate and anhydrous sodium sulfite. (authors)

  12. Development of a low cost test rig for standalone WECS subject to electrical faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himani; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a contribution to the development of low-cost wind turbine (WT) test rig for stator fault diagnosis of wind turbine generator is proposed. The test rig is developed using a 2.5kW, 1750 RPM DC motor coupled to a 1.5kW, 1500 RPM self-excited induction generator interfaced with a WT mathematical model in LabVIEW. The performance of the test rig is benchmarked with already proven wind turbine test rigs. In order to detect the stator faults using non-stationary signals in self-excited induction generator, an online fault diagnostic technique of DWT-based multi-resolution analysis is proposed. It has been experimentally proven that for varying wind conditions wavelet decomposition allows good differentiation between faulty and healthy conditions leading to an effective diagnostic procedure for wind turbine condition monitoring. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The evaluation of secondary system oxygen-scavenging chemicals using a water-circulating rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the efficiency, mode of action and possible by-products of chemical dosing agents, e.g. oxygen scavengers, a circulating water rig was constructed. The rig uses a demineralized water supply as a source of make-up water to fill a recirculating loop of approx. 10 litres volume. The rig pipework is made of polythene with standard off-the shelf pipe fittings and connectors. The following parameters can be measured within the rig: pH and conductivity measured by in-line monitor, dissolved oxygen level, temperature. The system has already been used for some preliminary testing. The following oxygen scavengers have been used for tests: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine (DEHA), Hydroquinone, hydrazine hydrate and anhydrous sodium sulfite. (authors)

  14. 33 CFR 149.321 - How many ring life buoys must be on each deepwater port?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many ring life buoys must be on each deepwater port? 149.321 Section 149.321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.321 How many ring life buoys must be...

  15. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... announce they have received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the...

  16. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port facility that would be located approximately 16.2...

  17. Horizon Entropy from Quantum Gravity Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2016-05-27

    We construct condensate states encoding the continuum spherically symmetric quantum geometry of a horizon in full quantum gravity, i.e., without any classical symmetry reduction, in the group field theory formalism. Tracing over the bulk degrees of freedom, we show how the resulting reduced density matrix manifestly exhibits a holographic behavior. We derive a complete orthonormal basis of eigenstates for the reduced density matrix of the horizon and use it to compute the horizon entanglement entropy. By imposing consistency with the horizon boundary conditions and semiclassical thermodynamical properties, we recover the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for any value of the Immirzi parameter. Our analysis supports the equivalence between the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy interpretation and the Boltzmann (statistical) one.

  18. Nonlinear optics of fibre event horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Karen E; Erkintalo, Miro; Xu, Yiqing; Broderick, Neil G R; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry; Murdoch, Stuart G

    2014-09-17

    The nonlinear interaction of light in an optical fibre can mimic the physics at an event horizon. This analogue arises when a weak probe wave is unable to pass through an intense soliton, despite propagating at a different velocity. To date, these dynamics have been described in the time domain in terms of a soliton-induced refractive index barrier that modifies the velocity of the probe. Here we complete the physical description of fibre-optic event horizons by presenting a full frequency-domain description in terms of cascaded four-wave mixing between discrete single-frequency fields, and experimentally demonstrate signature frequency shifts using continuous wave lasers. Our description is confirmed by the remarkable agreement with experiments performed in the continuum limit, reached using ultrafast lasers. We anticipate that clarifying the description of fibre event horizons will significantly impact on the description of horizon dynamics and soliton interactions in photonics and other systems.

  19. RIG-1 expression is associated with sexual malfunctions of female type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hajebrahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D suffer from the malfunctions of the sexual behaviors, and several mechanisms have been proposed to describe these disorders. The innate immunity may be involved in the malfunctions of T2D patients. Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5 and retinoic acid (RA-inducible gene 1 (RIG-1, as the innate immunity receptors, are the responsible molecules for the activation of some intracellular signaling pathways and the induction of inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to examine the molecules which may participate in the induction/stimulation of sexual malfunctions in the female T2D patients. Methods: Sexual functions were evaluated in 41 female T2D patients using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique was used to quantify MDA5 and RIG-1 mRNA levels. Results: Results showed that increased RIG-1 mRNA levels were significantly associated with the bad orgasm in the female T2D patients compared to the female patients with good orgasm. Expression of RIG-1 and MDA5 levels were not associated with other sexual functions’ criteria. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that bad orgasm is associated with the increased RIG-1 expression. Consequently, the correlation between inflammation and bad orgasm in a RIG-1 dependent manner is suggested.

  20. Speeding up : new Atlas Copco rig meant to cut non-drilling time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2009-06-15

    Automation has significantly reduced the time needed to drill shallow to medium-depth wells. The time it takes for a drill to reach the production zone is decreasing because newly developed hydraulic systems are able to maintain a constant pace. However, a great deal of time is still consumed by demobilization, transportation and setting up to drill the next well. Atlas Copco Drilling Solutions, a Swedish-based global maker of industrial equipment such as mining and mineral exploration rigs, designed a new Predator drilling system that consists of a mobile rig, a substructure and a pipe-handling skate. The Predator drilling system reduces non-drilling time and the associated costs. This article described the design of this new drilling system with particular reference to how it combines the mobile rig, the substructure and the pipe-handling skate into a three-load package. In order to reduce rig weight and improve mobility, the system is designed so that the table, master bushing, hydraulic slips and iron roughneck are part of the substructure that travel together. The rig has a working hook load capacity of 200,000 pounds, translating into a nominal depth capacity of 8,000 to 10,000 feet. The article also described the mounting of the rig, maneuverability, hydraulic control, and pipe-handling safety. Its various components were also described. 1 ref., 1 fig.