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Sample records for rift zone part

  1. Possible Different Rifting Mechanisms Between South and North Part of the Fenhe-Weihe Rift Zone Revealed by Shear Velocity Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, S.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As an active intraplate continental rift, FWR plays an important role in accommodating the trans-tension in the Trans North China Craton (TNCO). Velocity field derived from GPS measurements reveals that the northern part of FWR is still under extension in N105°E direction at a rate of 4±2 mm/yr [Shen et al., 2000]. Actually, the FWR has been the most seismically active region in NCC. Bouguer gravity profile and seismic sounding lines [Xu and Ma, 1992] revealed a 2-3 km uplift of Moho depth beneath Taiyuan basin and 5-6 km beneath the Southwestern rift zone, those geophysical observations give clues to the un-evenly upwelling of the asthenosphere beneath the rift system and the different rifting process of the FWR. Therefore, studying the extension process of FWR is meaningful to understanding the NCC geodynamics associated with rifting tectonism. Using vertical continuous waveforms recorded during 2014 from CEarray, we construct a reliable and detailed 3-D crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure of FWR, using a Bayesian Monte-Carlo method to jointly interpret teleseismic P-wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions [Shen et al., 2013]. In the upmost crust, FWR appear as awful low velocity anomaly zone (LVZ), while the Taihang and Lvliang mountain ranges are imaged as strong high velocity anomaly zones(HVZ). In the middle crust, the low velocity zones still keep their LVZ features Additionally, nearly the whole FWR appears as a linearly LVZ line separating Taihang Uplift and Lvliang Uplift, except beneath Shilingguan and Linshi blocks that separate the Xinxian, Taiyuan and Linfen Basins, consisting with the high seismicity there. The velocity of the lower crust beneath Taiyuan and Weihe Basin are relatively higher than the rest rift regions, we interpret them as the limited mafic underplating beneath the TNCO. From the lower crust to upper mantle, the Datong volcanic zone display robust low velocity features, though the lowest velocity

  2. Surface deformation in volcanic rift zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, D.D.; Delaney, P.T.; Duffield, W.A.; Endo, E.T.; Okamura, A.T.

    1983-01-01

    The principal conduits for magma transport within rift zones of basaltic volcanoes are steeply dipping dikes, some of which feed fissure eruptions. Elastic displacements accompanying a single dike emplacement elevate the flanks of the rift relative to a central depression. Concomitant normal faulting may transform the depression into a graben thus accentuating the topographic features of the rift. If eruption occurs the characteristic ridge-trough-ridge displacement profile changes to a single ridge, centered at the fissure, and the erupted lava alters the local topography. A well-developed rift zone owes its structure and topography to the integrated effects of many magmatic rifting events. To investigate this process we compute the elastic displacements and stresses in a homogeneous, two-dimensional half-space driven by a pressurized crack that may breach the surface. A derivative graphical method permits one to estimate the three geometric parameters of the dike (height, inclination, and depth-to-center) and the mechanical parameter (driving pressure/rock stiffness) from a smoothly varying displacement profile. Direct comparison of measured and theoretical profiles may be used to estimate these parameters even if inelastic deformation, notably normal faulting, creates discontinuities in the profile. Geological structures (open cracks, normal faults, buckles, and thrust faults) form because of stresses induced by dike emplacement and fissure eruption. Theoretical stress states associated with dilation of a pressurized crack are used to interpret the distribution and orientation of these structures and their role in rift formation. ?? 1983.

  3. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 2, A preliminary sample survey, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea geothermal subzones, Puna District, Hawaii island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.T.K.; Burtchard, G.C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a preliminary sample inventory and offers an initial evaluation of settlement and land-use patterns for the Geothermal Resources Subzones (GRS) area, located in Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The report is the second of a two part project dealing with archaeology of the Puna GRS area -- or more generally, the Kilauea East Rift Zone. In the first phase of the project, a long-term land-use model and inventory research design was developed for the GRS area and Puna District generally. That report is available under separate cover as Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone, Part I: Land-Use Model and Research Design. The present report gives results of a limited cultural resource survey built on research design recommendations. It offers a preliminary evaluation of modeled land-use expectations and offers recommendations for continuing research into Puna`s rich cultural heritage. The present survey was conducted under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy, and subcontracted to International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The purpose of the archaeological work is to contribute toward the preparation of an environmental impact statement by identifying cultural materials which could be impacted through completion of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  4. Concentration of strain in a marginal rift zone of the Japan backarc during post-rift compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Kato, N.; Abe, S.; Shiraishi, K.; Inaba, M.; Kurashimo, E.; Iwasaki, T.; Van Horne, A.; No, T.; Sato, T.; Kodaira, S.; Matsubara, M.; Takeda, T.; Abe, S.; Kodaira, C.

    2015-12-01

    Late Cenozoic deformation zones in Japan may be divided into two types: (1) arc-arc collision zones like those of Izu and the Hokkaido axial zone, and (2) reactivated back-arc marginal rift (BMR) systems. A BMR develops during a secondary rifting event that follows the opening of a back-arc basin. It forms close to the volcanic front and distant from the spreading center of the basin. In Japan, a BMR system developed along the Sea of Japan coast following the opening of the Japan Sea. The BMR appears to be the weakest, most deformable part of the arc back-arc system. When active rifting in the marginal basins ended, thermal subsidence, and then mechanical subsidence related to the onset of a compressional stress regime, allowed deposition of up to 5 km of post-rift, deep-marine to fluvial sedimentation. Continued compression produced fault-related folds in the post-rift sediments, in thin-skin style deformation. Shortening reached a maximum in the BMR system compared to other parts of the back-arc, suggesting that it is the weakest part of the entire system. We examined the structure of the BMR system using active source seismic investigation and earthquake tomography. The velocity structure beneath the marginal rift basin shows higher P-wave velocity in the upper mantle/lower crust which suggests significant mafic intrusion and thinning of the upper continental crust. The syn-rift mafic intrusive forms a convex shape, and the boundary between the pre-rift crust and the mafic intrusive dips outward. In the post-rift compressional stress regime, the boundary of the mafic body reactivated as a reverse fault, forming a large-scale wedge thrust and causing further subsidence of the rift basin. The driver of the intense shortening event along the Sea of Japan coast in SW Japan was the arrival of a buoyant young (15 Ma) Shikoku basin at the Nankai Trough. Subduction stalled and the backarc was compressed. As the buoyant basin cooled, subduction resumed, and the rate of

  5. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 1, Land-use model and research design, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea Geothermal Subzones, Puna District, Hawaii Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtchard, G.C.; Moblo, P. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The Puna Geothermal Resource Subzones (GRS) project area encompasses approximately 22,000 acres centered on the Kilauea East Rift Zone in Puna District, Hawaii Island. The area is divided into three subzones proposed for geothermal power development -- Kilauea Middle East Rift, Kamaili and Kapoho GRS. Throughout the time of human occupation, eruptive episodes along the rift have maintained a dynamic landscape. Periodic volcanic events, for example, have changed the coastline configuration, altered patterns of agriculturally suitable sediments, and created an assortment of periodically active, periodically quiescent, volcanic hazards. Because of the active character of the rift zone, then, the area`s occupants have always been obliged to organize their use of the landscape to accommodate a dynamic mosaic of lava flow types and ages. While the specific configuration of settlements and agricultural areas necessarily changed in response to volcanic events, it is possible to anticipate general patterns in the manner in which populations used the landscape through time. This research design offers a model that predicts the spatial results of long-term land-use patterns and relates them to the character of the archaeological record of that use. In essence, the environmental/land-use model developed here predicts that highest population levels, and hence the greatest abundance and complexity of identifiable prehistoric remains, tended to cluster near the coast at places that maximized access to productive fisheries and agricultural soils. With the possible exception of a few inland settlements, the density of archaeological remains expected to decrease with distance from the coastline. The pattern is generally supported in the regions existing ethnohistoric and archaeological record.

  6. Seismic Investigations of an Accommodation zone in the Northern Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, W. S.; Valdes, J.; Nedorub, O.; Phrampus, B.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Benage, M. C.; Litherland, M.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data acquired in the Rio Grande rift near Santa Fe, New Mexico, in 2009 and 2010 by the SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program imaged the La Bajada fault (LBF) and strata offset across the associated, perpendicular Budagher fault (BF). The LBF is a major basin-bounding normal fault, offset down to the west; the smaller BF is an extensional fault that breaks the hanging wall ramp of the LBF. We chose this area because it is in a structurally complex region of the rift, comprising a small sub-basin and plunging relay ramps, where north-trending, en echelon basin-bounding faults (including the LBF) transfer crustal extension laterally between the larger Española (to north) and Albuquerque rift basins. Our data help determine the precise location and geometry of the poorly exposed LBF, which, near the survey location, offsets the rift margin vertically about 3,000 m. When integrated with industry reflection data and other SAGE seismic, gravity, and magnetotelluric surveys, we are able to map differences in offset and extension laterally (especially southward) along the fault. We interpret only about 200 m of normal offset across the BF. Our continuing work helps define multiple structural elements, partly buried by syn-rift basin-filling sedimentary rocks, of a complex intra-rift accommodation zone. We are also able to discriminate pre-Eocene (Laramide) from post-Miocene (rift) structures. Our data help determine the amount of vertical offset of pre-rift strata across structural elements of the accommodation zone, and depth and geometry of basin fill. A goal is to infer the kinematic development of this margin of the rift, linkages among faults, growth history, and possible pre-rift structural controls. This information will be potentially useful for evaluation of resources, including oil and/or gas in pre-rift strata and ground water in Late Miocene to Holocene rift-filling units.

  7. Root zone of a continental rift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    melt are considered to account for the compositional range exhibited by the KIC igneous rocks. U/Pb SIMS geochronological data from zircon rims yield an emplacement age of 578 ± 9 Ma. The KIC is thus younger and more depleted than coeval mafic rocks found in the Seve Nappe, and is interpreted...... to represent a high-level magma plumbing system in a late-stage continental rift. The composition and volume of rift-related igneous rocks in the Seve Nappes are inconsistent with a mantle plume origin, but are thought to record progressive lithospheric thinning and increasing involvement of an asthenospheric......Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes...

  8. Local stresses, dyke arrest and surface deformation in volcanic edificesand rift zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Brenner

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies indicate that nearly all eruptions in volcanic edifices and rift zones are supplied with magma through fractures (dykes that are opened by magmatic overpressure. While (inferred dyke injections are frequent during unrest periods, volcanic eruptions are, in comparison, infrequent, suggesting that most dykes become arrested at certain depths in the crust, in agreement with field studies. The frequency of dyke arrest can be partly explained by the numerical models presented here which indicate that volcanic edifices and rift zones consisting of rocks of contrasting mechanical properties, such as soft pyroclastic layers and stiff lava flows, commonly develop local stress fields that encourage dyke arrest. During unrest, surface deformation studies are routinely used to infer the geometries of arrested dykes, and some models (using homogeneous, isotropic half-spaces infer large grabens to be induced by such dykes. Our results, however, show that the dyke-tip tensile stresses are normally much greater than the induced surface stresses, making it difficult to explain how a dyke can induce surface stresses in excess of the tensile (or shear strength while the same strength is not exceeded at the (arrested dyke tip. Also, arrested dyke tips in eroded or active rift zones are normally not associated with dyke-induced grabens or normal faults, and some dykes arrested within a few metres of the surface do not generate faults or grabens. The numerical models show that abrupt changes in Young's moduli(stiffnesses, layers with relatively high dyke-normal compressive stresses (stress barriers, and weak horizontal contacts may make the dyke-induced surface tensile stresses too small for significant fault or graben formation to occur in rift zones or volcanic edifices. Also, these small surface stresses may have no simple relation to the dyke geometry or the depth to its tip. Thus, for a layered crust with weak contacts, straightforward

  9. Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasman, M.; Tiberi, C.; Ebinger, C.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.; Déverchère, J.; Le Gall, B.; Tarits, P.; Roecker, S.; Wambura, F.; Muzuka, A.; Mulibo, G.; Mtelela, K.; Msabi, M.; Kianji, G.; Hautot, S.; Perrot, J.; Gama, R.

    2017-07-01

    Rifting in a cratonic lithosphere is strongly controlled by several interacting processes including crust/mantle rheology, magmatism, inherited structure and stress regime. In order to better understand how these physical parameters interact, a 2 yr long seismological experiment has been carried out in the North Tanzanian Divergence (NTD), at the southern tip of the eastern magmatic branch of the East African rift, where the southward-propagating continental rift is at its earliest stage. We analyse teleseismic data from 38 broad-band stations ca. 25 km spaced and present here results from their receiver function (RF) analysis. The crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio are retrieved over a ca. 200 × 200 km2 area encompassing the South Kenya magmatic rift, the NTD and the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic chain. Cratonic nature of the lithosphere is clearly evinced through thick (up to ca. 40 km) homogeneous crust beneath the rift shoulders. Where rifting is present, Moho rises up to 27 km depth and the crust is strongly layered with clear velocity contrasts in the RF signal. The Vp/Vs ratio reaches its highest values (ca. 1.9) beneath volcanic edifices location and thinner crust, advocating for melting within the crust. We also clearly identify two major low-velocity zones (LVZs) within the NTD, one in the lower crust and the second in the upper part of the mantle. The first one starts at 15-18 km depth and correlates well with recent tomographic models. This LVZ does not always coexist with high Vp/Vs ratio, pleading for a supplementary source of velocity decrease, such as temperature or composition. At a greater depth of ca. 60 km, a mid-lithospheric discontinuity roughly mimics the step-like and symmetrically outward-dipping geometry of the Moho but with a more slanting direction (NE-SW) compared to the NS rift. By comparison with synthetic RF, we estimate the associated velocity reduction to be 8-9 per cent. We relate this interface to melt ponding

  10. Focused seismicity triggered by flank instability on Kīlauea's Southwest Rift Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Josiah; Thelen, Weston A.; Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2018-03-01

    Swarms of earthquakes at the head of the Southwest Rift Zone on Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai´i, reveal an interaction of normal and strike-slip faulting associated with movement of Kīlauea's south flank. A relocated subset of earthquakes between January 2012 and August 2014 are highly focused in space and time at depths that are coincident with the south caldera magma reservoir beneath the southern margin of Kīlauea Caldera. Newly calculated focal mechanisms are dominantly dextral shear with a north-south preferred fault orientation. Two earthquakes within this focused area of seismicity have normal faulting mechanisms, indicating two mechanisms of failure in very close proximity (10's of meters to 100 m). We suggest a model where opening along the Southwest Rift Zone caused by seaward motion of the south flank permits injection of magma and subsequent freezing of a plug, which then fails in a right-lateral strike-slip sense, consistent with the direction of movement of the south flank. The seismicity is concentrated in an area where a constriction occurs between a normal fault and the deeper magma transport system into the Southwest Rift Zone. Although in many ways the Southwest Rift Zone appears analogous to the more active East Rift Zone, the localization of the largest seismicity (>M2.5) within the swarms to a small volume necessitates a different model than has been proposed to explain the lineament outlined by earthquakes along the East Rift Zone.

  11. Teleseismic Investigations of the Malawi and Luangwa Rift Zones: Ongoing Observations From the SAFARI Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Massinque, B.; Mdala, H. S.; Mutamina, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of crustal and mantle heterogeneities upon the initiation of the Malawi rift zone (MRZ) and reactivation of the Zambian Luangwa rift zone (LRZ) subject to Cenozoic plate boundary stress fields and mantle buoyancy forces, we installed and operated 33 Seismic Arrays For African Rift Initiation (SAFARI) three-component broadband seismic stations in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia from 2012 to 2014. During the twenty-four month acquisition period, nearly 6200 radial receiver functions (RFs) were recorded. Stations situated within the MRZ, either along the coastal plains or within the Shire Graben toward the south, report an average crustal thickness of 42 km relative to approximately 46 km observed at stations located along the rift flanks. This implies the juvenile MRZ is characterized by a stretching factor not exceeding 1.1. Meanwhile, P-to-S velocity ratios within the MRZ increase from 1.71 to 1.82 in southernmost Malawi, indicating a substantial modification of the crust during Recent rifting. Time-series stacking of approximately 5500 RFs recorded by the SAFARI and 44 neighboring network stations reveals an apparent uplift of 10 to 15 km along both the 410- and 660-km mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities beneath the MRZ and LRZ which, coupled with an apparently normal 250-km MTZ thickness, implies a first-order high-velocity contribution from thickened lithosphere. Preliminary manual checking of SAFARI shear-wave splitting (SWS) measurements provides roughly 650 high-quality XKS phases following a component re-orientation to correct station misalignments. Regional azimuthal variations in SWS fast orientations are observed, from rift-parallel in the vicinity of the LRZ to rift-oblique in the MRZ. A major 60° rotation in the fast orientation occurs at approximately 31°E, possibly resulting from the modulation of mantle flow around a relatively thick lithospheric keel situated between the two rift zones.

  12. No Moho uplift below the Baikal Rift Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Thybo, Hans

    2009-01-01

    .4-7.6 ± 0.2 km/s), slightly offset to the northeast from the rift axis. We interpret this feature as resulting from mafic intrusions. Their presence may explain the flat Moho by compensation of lower crustal thinning by intrusion of mafic melts. The Pn wave velocities (8.15-8.2 km/s) are normal for the area...

  13. Dykes and structures of the NE rift of Tenerife, Canary Islands: a record of stabilisation and destabilisation of ocean island rift zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcamp, A.; Troll, V. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Carracedo, J. C.; Petronis, M. S.; Pérez-Torrado, F. J.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-07-01

    Many oceanic island rift zones are associated with lateral sector collapses, and several models have been proposed to explain this link. The North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) of Tenerife Island, Spain offers an opportunity to explore this relationship, as three successive collapses are located on both sides of the rift. We have carried out a systematic and detailed mapping campaign on the rift zone, including analysis of about 400 dykes. We recorded dyke morphology, thickness, composition, internal textural features and orientation to provide a catalogue of the characteristics of rift zone dykes. Dykes were intruded along the rift, but also radiate from several nodes along the rift and form en échelon sets along the walls of collapse scars. A striking characteristic of the dykes along the collapse scars is that they dip away from rift or embayment axes and are oblique to the collapse walls. This dyke pattern is consistent with the lateral spreading of the sectors long before the collapse events. The slump sides would create the necessary strike-slip movement to promote en échelon dyke patterns. The spreading flank would probably involve a basal decollement. Lateral flank spreading could have been generated by the intense intrusive activity along the rift but sectorial spreading in turn focused intrusive activity and allowed the development of deep intra-volcanic intrusive complexes. With continued magma supply, spreading caused temporary stabilisation of the rift by reducing slopes and relaxing stress. However, as magmatic intrusion persisted, a critical point was reached, beyond which further intrusion led to large-scale flank failure and sector collapse. During the early stages of growth, the rift could have been influenced by regional stress/strain fields and by pre-existing oceanic structures, but its later and mature development probably depended largely on the local volcanic and magmatic stress/strain fields that are effectively controlled by the rift zone growth

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF EARTHQUAKE AFTERSHOCK AND SWARM SEQUENCES IN THE BAIKAL RIFT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Radziminovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalog of earthquakes (КR³6.6 which occurred in the Baikal rift zone (BRZ was declastered, and the results are presented in the article. Aftershocks of seismic events (КR³12.5 were determined by the software developed by V.B. Smirnov (Lomonosov Moscow State University with application of the algorithm co-authored by G.M. Molchan and O.E. Dmitrieva. To ensure proper control of the software application, aftershocks were also selected manually. The results of declustering show that aftershocks of the earthquakes (КR³12.5 account for about 25 per cent of all seismic events in the regional catalog. Aftershocks accompanied 90 per cent of all the earthquakes considered as main shocks. Besides, earthquake swarms, including events with КR³11, were identified. The results of this study show that, in the BRZ, the swarms and strong events with aftershocks are not spatially separated, and this conclusion differs from the views of the previous studies that reviewed data from a shorter observation period. Moreover, it is noted that the swarms may consist of several main shocks accompanied by aftershocks. The data accumulated over the last fifty years of instrumental observations support the conclusion made earlier that the swarms in BRZ occur mainly in the north-eastward direction from Lake Baikal and also confirm the trend of a small number of aftershocks accompanying earthquakes in the south-western part of the Baikal rift zone.

  15. Images of Kilauea East Rift Zone eruption, 1983-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taeko Jane; Abston, C.C.; Heliker, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    This CD-ROM disc contains 475 scanned photographs from the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaii Observatory Library. The collection represents a comprehensive range of the best photographic images of volcanic phenomena for Kilauea's East Rift eruption, which continues as of September 1995. Captions of the images present information on location, geologic feature or process, and date. Short documentations of work by the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in geology, seismology, ground deformation, geophysics, and geochemistry are also included, along with selected references. The CD-ROM was produced in accordance with the ISO 9660 standard; however, it is intended for use only on DOS-based computer systems.

  16. Extension parallel to the rift zone during segmented fault growth: application to the evolution of the NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bubeck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical interaction of propagating normal faults is known to influence the linkage geometry of first-order faults, and the development of second-order faults and fractures, which transfer displacement within relay zones. Here we use natural examples of growth faults from two active volcanic rift zones (Koa`e, island of Hawai`i, and Krafla, northern Iceland to illustrate the importance of horizontal-plane extension (heave gradients, and associated vertical axis rotations, in evolving continental rift systems. Second-order extension and extensional-shear faults within the relay zones variably resolve components of regional extension, and components of extension and/or shortening parallel to the rift zone, to accommodate the inherently three-dimensional (3-D strains associated with relay zone development and rotation. Such a configuration involves volume increase, which is accommodated at the surface by open fractures; in the subsurface this may be accommodated by veins or dikes oriented obliquely and normal to the rift axis. To consider the scalability of the effects of relay zone rotations, we compare the geometry and kinematics of fault and fracture sets in the Koa`e and Krafla rift zones with data from exhumed contemporaneous fault and dike systems developed within a > 5×104 km2 relay system that developed during formation of the NE Atlantic margins. Based on the findings presented here we propose a new conceptual model for the evolution of segmented continental rift basins on the NE Atlantic margins.

  17. Bookshelf faulting and transform motion between rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. G.; White, R. S.; Greenfield, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Plate spreading is segmented on length scales from 10 - 1,000 kilometres. Where spreading segments are offset, extensional motion has to transfer from one segment to another. In classical plate tectonics, mid-ocean ridge spreading centres are offset by transform faults, but smaller 'non-transform' offsets exist between slightly overlapping spreading centres which accommodate shear by a variety of geometries. In Iceland the mid-Atlantic Ridge is raised above sea level by the Iceland mantle plume, and is divided into a series of segments 20-150 km long. Using microseismicity recorded by a temporary array of 26 three-component seismometers during 2009-2012 we map bookshelf faulting between the offset Askja and Kverkfjöll rift segments in north Iceland. The micro-earthquakes delineate a series of sub-parallel strike-slip faults. Well constrained fault plane solutions show consistent left-lateral motion on fault planes aligned closely with epicentral trends. The shear couple across the transform zone causes left-lateral slip on the series of strike-slip faults sub-parallel to the rift fabric, causing clockwise rotations about a vertical axis of the intervening rigid crustal blocks. This accommodates the overall right-lateral transform motion in the relay zone between the two overlapping volcanic rift segments. The faults probably reactivated crustal weaknesses along the dyke intrusion fabric (parallel to the rift axis) and have since rotated ˜15° clockwise into their present orientation. The reactivation of pre-existing rift-parallel weaknesses is in contrast with mid-ocean ridge transform faults, and is an important illustration of a 'non-transform' offset accommodating shear between overlapping spreading segments.

  18. The origin of Mauna Loa's Nīnole Hills: Evidence of rift zone reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Trusdell, Frank A.; Martin, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the origin of Mauna Loa volcano's Nīnole Hills, Bouguer gravity was used to delineate density contrasts within the edifice. Our survey identified two residual anomalies beneath the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) and the Nīnole Hills. The Nīnole Hills anomaly is elongated, striking northeast, and in inversions both anomalies merge at approximately −7 km above sea level. The positive anomaly, modeled as a rock volume of ~1200 km3 beneath the Nīnole Hills, is associated with old eruptive vents. Based on the geologic and geophysical data, we propose that the gravity anomaly under the Nīnole Hills records an early SWRZ orientation, now abandoned due to geologically rapid rift-zone reorganization. Catastrophic submarine landslides from Mauna Loa's western flank are the most likely cause for the concurrent abandonment of the Nīnole Hills section of the SWRZ. Rift zone reorganization induced by mass wasting is likely more common than currently recognized.

  19. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, lower east rift zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard B.

    1992-08-01

    Detailed geologic mapping and radiocarbon dating of tholeiitic basalts covering about 275 km2 on the lower east rift zone (LERZ) and adjoining flanks of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, show that at least 112 separate eruptions have occurred during the past 2360 years. Eruptive products include spatter ramparts and cones, a shield, two extensive lithic-rich tuff deposits, aa and pahoehoe flows, and three littoral cones. Areal coverage, number of eruptions and average dormant interval estimates in years for the five age groups assigned are: (I) historic, i.e. A D 1790 and younger: 25%, 5, 42.75; (II) 200 400 years old: 50%, 15, 14.3: (III) 400 750 years old: 20%, 54, 6.6; (IV) 750 1500 years old: 5%, 37, 20.8; (V) 1500 3000 years old: LERZ during the past 1500 years. Estimated volumes of the exposed products of individual eruptions range from a few tens of cubic meters for older units in small kipukas to as much as 0.4 km3 for the heiheiahulu shield. The average dormant interval has been about 13.6 years during the past 1500 years. The most recent eruption occurred in 1961, and the area may be overdue for its next eruption. However, eruptive activity will not resume on the LERZ until either the dike feeding the current eruption on the middle east rift zone extends farther down rift, or a new dike, unrelated to the current eruption, extends into the LERZ.

  20. Geophysical and geochemical models of the Earth's shields and rift zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes a collection of, synthesis of, and speculation on the geophysical and geochemical models of the earth's stable shields and rift zones. Two basic crustal types, continental and oceanic, and two basic mantle types, stable and unstable, are described. It is pointed out that both the crust and upper mantle play a strongly interactive role with surface geological phenomena ranging from the occurrence of mountains, ocean trenches, oceanic and continental rifts to geographic distributions of earthquakes, faults, and volcanoes. On the composition of the mantle, there is little doubt regarding the view that olivine constitutes a major fraction of the mineralogy of the earth's upper mantle. Studies are suggested to simulate the elasticity and composition of the earth's lower crust and upper mantle

  1. Numerical reconstruction of Late-Cenosoic evolution of normal-fault scarps in Baikal Rift Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzov, Leonid; San'kov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Numerical landscape development modeling has recently become a popular tool in geo-logic and geomorphic investigations. We employed this technique to reconstruct Late-Cenosoic evolution of Baikal Rift Zone mountains. The objects of research were Barguzin Range and Svyatoy Nos Upland. These structures are formed under conditions of crustal extension and bounded by active normal faults. In our experiments we used instruments, engineered by Greg Tucker (University of Colo-rado) - CHILD (Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development) and 'Bedrock Fault Scarp'. First program allowed constructing the complex landscape model considering tectonic uplift, fluvial and hillslope processes; second program is used for more accurate simulating of triangular facet evolution. In general, our experiments consisted in testing of tectonic parameters, and climatic char-acteristic, erosion and diffusion properties, hydraulic geometry were practically constant except for some special runs. Numerous experiments, with various scenarios of development, showed that Barguzin range and Svyatoy Nos Upland has many common features. These structures characterized by internal differentiation, which appear in height and shape of slopes. At the same time, individual segments of these objects are very similar - this conclusion refers to most developing parts, with pronounced facets and V-shaped valleys. Accordingly modelling, these landscapes are in a steady state and are undergoing a uplift with rate 0,4 mm/yr since Early Pliocene (this solution accords with AFT-dating). Lower segments of Barguzin Range and Svyatoy Nos Upland also have some general fea-tures, but the reasons of such similarity probably are different. In particular, southern segment of Svyatoy Nos Upland, which characterized by relative high slope with very weak incision, may be formed as result very rapid fault movement or catastrophic landslide. On the other hand, a lower segment of Barguzin Range (Ulun segment, for example

  2. Fault Growth and Propagation and its Effect on Surficial Processes within the Incipient Okavango Rift Zone, Northwest Botswana, Africa (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekwana, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) is suggested to be a zone of incipient continental rifting occuring at the distal end of the southwestern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), therefore providing a unique opportunity to investigate neotectonic processes during the early stages of rifting. We used geophysical (aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric), Shuttle Radar Tomography Mission, Digital Elevation Model (SRTM-DEM), and sedimentological data to characterize the growth and propagation of faults associated with continental extension in the ORZ, and to elucidate the interplay between neotectonics and surficial processes. The results suggest that: (1) fault growth occurs by along axis linkage of fault segments, (2) an immature border fault is developing through the process of “Fault Piracy” by fault-linkages between major fault systems, (3) significant discrepancies exits between the height of fault scarps and the throws across the faults compared to their lengths in the basement, (4) utilization of preexisting zones of weakness allowed the development of very long faults (> 25-100 km) at a very early stage of continental rifting, explaining the apparent paradox between the fault length versus throw for this young rift, (5) active faults are characterized by conductive anomalies resulting from fluids, whereas, inactive faults show no conductivity anomaly; and 6) sedimentlogical data reveal a major perturbation in lake sedimentation between 41 ka and 27 ka. The sedimentation perturbation is attributed to faulting associated with the rifting and may have resulted in the alteration of hydrology forming the modern day Okavango delta. We infer that this time period may represent the age of the latest rift reactivation and fault growth and propagation within the ORZ.

  3. Active Deformation of Malawi Rift's North Basin Hinge Zone Modulated by Reactivation of Preexisting Precambrian Shear Zone Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R.; Salima, J.; Kalindekafe, L.

    2018-03-01

    We integrated temporal aeromagnetic data and recent earthquake data to address the long-standing question on the role of preexisting Precambrian structures in modulating strain accommodation and subsequent ruptures leading to seismic events within the East African Rift System. We used aeromagnetic data to elucidate the relationship between the locations of the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi, earthquake surface ruptures and buried basement faults along the hinge zone of the half-graben comprising the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Through the application of derivative filters and depth-to-magnetic-source modeling, we identified and constrained the trend of the Precambrian metamorphic fabrics and correlated them to the three-dimensional structure of buried basement faults. Our results reveal an unprecedented detail of the basement fabric dominated by high-frequency WNW to NW trending magnetic lineaments associated with the Precambrian Mughese Shear Zone fabric. The high-frequency magnetic lineaments are superimposed by lower frequency NNW trending magnetic lineaments associated with possible Cenozoic faults. Surface ruptures associated with the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga earthquake swarm aligned with one of the NNW-trending magnetic lineaments defining a normal fault that is characterized by right-stepping segments along its northern half and coalesced segments on its southern half. Fault geometries, regional kinematics, and spatial distribution of seismicity suggest that seismogenic faults reactivated the basement fabric found along the half-graben hinge zone. We suggest that focusing of strain accommodation and seismicity along the half-graben hinge zone is facilitated and modulated by the presence of the basement fabric.

  4. Contribution of slab melting to magmatism at the active rifts zone in the middle of the Izu-Bonin arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y.; Okamura, S.; Sakamoto, I.; Shinjo, R.; Wada, K.; Yoshida, T.

    2016-12-01

    The active rifts zone lies just behind the Quaternary volcanic front in the middle of the Izu-Bonin arc. Volcanism at the active rifts zone has been active since ca. 2 Ma, and late Quaternary basaltic lavas (< 0.1 Ma) and hydrothermal activity occur along the central axis of the rifts (Taylor, 1992; Ishizuka et al., 2003). In this paper we present new Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope and trace element data for the basalts erupted in the active rifts zone, including the Aogashima, Myojin and Sumisu rifts. Two geochemical groups can be identified within the active rift basalts: High-Zr basalts (HZB) and Low-Zr basalts (LZB). In the case of the Sumisu rift, the HZB exhibits higher in K2O, Na2O, Y, Zr and Ni, and also has higher Ce/Yb and Zr/Y, lower Ba/Th than the LZB. Depletion of Zr-Hf in the N-MORB spidergram characterizes the LZB from the Aogashima, Myojin and Sumisu rifts. The 176Hf/177Hf ratios are slightly lower in the HZB than in the LZB, decoupling of 176Hf/177Hf ratios and 143Nd/144Nd ratios. Estimated primary magma compositions suggest that primary magma segregation for the HZB occurred at depths less than 70 km ( 2 GPa), whereas the LZB more than 70 km (2 3 GPa). ODP Leg126 site 788, 790, and 791 reached the basaltic basement of the Sumisu rift (Gill et al., 1992). The geochemical data and stratigraphic relations of the basement indicate that the HZB is younger than the LZB. Geochemical modelling demonstrates that slab-derived melt mixed with mantle wedge produces the observed isotopic and trace elemental characteristics. The LZB volcanism at the early stage of the back-arc rifting is best explained by a partial melting of subducted slab saturated with trace quantities of zircon under low-temperature conditions in the mantle wedge. On the other hand, the HZB requires a partial melt of subducted slab accompanied by full dissolution of zircon under high-temperature conditions in the mantle wedge, which could have been caused by hot asthenospheric injection during the

  5. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Robin M; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W; Swanson, Don; Kent, Adam J R

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai‘i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n=10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n=38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea’s summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the

  6. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea's east rift zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Robin M.; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W.; Swanson, Donald A.; Kent, Adam J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2 concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai'i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n = 10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n = 38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea's summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the summit

  7. Factors influencing seismic wave attenuation in the lithosphere in continental rift zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Dobrynina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of seismic waves in the crust and the upper mantle has been studied in three global rift systems: the Baikal rift system (Eurasia, the North Tanzanian divergence zone (Africa and the Basin and Range Province (North America. Using the records of direct and coda waves of regional earthquakes, the single scattering theory [Aki, Chouet, 1975], the hybrid model from [Zeng, 1991] and the approach described in [Wennerberg, 1993], we estimated the seismic quality factor (QC, frequency parameter (n, attenuation coefficient (δ, and total attenuation (QT. In addition, we evaluated the contributions of two components into total attenuation: intrinsic attenuation (Qi, and scattering attenuation (Qsc. Values of QC are strongly dependent on the frequency within the range of 0.2–16 Hz, as well as on the length of the coda processing window. The observed increase of QC with larger lengths of the coda processing window can be interpreted as a decrease in attenuation with increasing depth. Having compared the depth variations in the attenuation coefficient (δ and the frequency (n with the velocity structures of the studied regions, we conclude that seismic wave attenuation changes at the velocity boundaries in the medium. Moreover, the comparison results show that the estimated variations in the attenuation parameters with increasing depth are considerably dependent on utilized velocity models of the medium. Lateral variations in attenuation of seismic waves correlate with the geological and geophysical characteristics of the regions, and attenuation is primarily dependent on the regional seismic activity and regional heat flow. The geological inhomogeneities of the medium and the age of crust consolidation are secondary factors. Our estimations of intrinsic attenuation (Qi and scattering attenuation (Qsc show that in all the three studied regions, intrinsic attenuation is the major contributor to total attenuation. Our study shows that the

  8. The chemically zoned 1949 eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands): Petrologic evolution and magma supply dynamics of a rift zone eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Andreas; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; White, James D. L.

    2000-03-01

    The 1949 rift zone eruption along the Cumbre Vieja ridge on La Palma involved three eruptive centers, 3 km spaced apart, and was chemically and mineralogically zoned. Duraznero crater erupted tephrite for 14 days and shut down upon the opening of Llano del Banco, a fissure that issued first tephrite and, after 3 days, basanite. Hoyo Negro crater opened 4 days later and erupted basanite, tephrite, and phonotephrite, while Llano del Banco continued to issue basanite. The eruption ended with Duraznero erupting basanite with abundant crustal and mantle xenoliths. The tephrites and basanites from Duraznero and Llano del Banco show narrow compositional ranges and define a bimodal suite. Each batch ascended and evolved separately without significant intermixing, as did the Hoyo Negro basanite, which formed at lower degrees of melting. The magmas fractionated clinopyroxene +olivine±kaersutite±Ti-magnetite at 600-800 MPa and possibly 800-1100 MPa. Abundant reversely zoned phenocrysts reflect mixing with evolved melts at mantle depths. Probably as early as 1936, Hoyo Negro basanite entered the deep rift system at 200-350 MPa. Some shallower pockets of this basanite evolved to phonotephrite through differentiation and assimilation of wall rock. A few months prior to eruption, a mixing event in the mantle may have triggered the final ascent of the magmas. Most of the erupted tephrite and basanite ascended from mantle depths within hours to days without prolonged storage in crustal reservoirs. The Cumbre Vieja rift zone differs from the rift zones of Kilauea volcano (Hawaii) in lacking a summit caldera or a summit reservoir feeding the rift system and in being smaller and less active with most of the rift magma solidifying between eruptions.

  9. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted margin, and its significance for understanding the Panvel flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Hrishikesh; Pundalik, Ashwin; D'souza, Joseph; Sheth, Hetu; Lobo, Keegan Carmo; D'souza, Kyle; Patel, Vanit

    2017-02-01

    The Panvel flexure is a 150-km long tectonic structure, comprising prominently seaward-dipping Deccan flood basalts, on the western Indian rifted margin. Given the active tectonic faulting beneath the Panvel flexure zone inferred from microseismicity, better structural understanding of the region is needed. The geology of Elephanta Island in the Mumbai harbour, famous for the ca. mid-6th century A.D. Hindu rock-cut caves in Deccan basalt (a UNESCO World Heritage site) is poorly known. We describe a previously unreported but well-exposed fault zone on Elephanta Island, consisting of two large faults dipping steeply east-southeast and producing easterly downthrows. Well-developed slickensides and structural measurements indicate oblique slip on both faults. The Elephanta Island fault zone may be the northern extension of the Alibag-Uran fault zone previously described. This and two other known regional faults (Nhava-Sheva and Belpada faults) indicate a progressively eastward step-faulted structure of the Panvel flexure, with the important result that the individual movements were not simply downdip but also oblique-slip and locally even rotational (as at Uran). An interesting problem is the normal faulting, block tectonics and rifting of this region of the crust for which seismological data indicate a normal thickness (up to 41.3 km). A model of asymmetric rifting by simple shear may explain this observation and the consistently landward dips of the rifted margin faults.

  10. State-of-stress in magmatic rift zones: Predicting the role of surface and subsurface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, S. J. C.; Ebinger, C.; Rivalta, E.; Williams, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Continental rift zones are segmented along their length by large fault systems that form in response to extensional stresses. Volcanoes and crustal magma chambers cause fundamental changes to the density structure, load the plates, and alter the state-of-stress within the crust, which then dictates fracture orientation. In this study, we develop geodynamic models scaled to a structure, petrologic and thermodynamic studies constrain material densities, and seismicity and structural analyses constrain active and time-averaged kinematics. This area is an ideal test area because a 60º stress rotation is observed in time-averaged fault and magma intrusion, and in local seismicity, and because this was the site of a large volume dike intrusion and seismic sequence in 2007. We use physics-based 2D and 3D models (analytical and finite elements) constrained by data from active rift zones to quantify the effects of loading on state-of-stress. By modeling varying geometric arrangements, and density contrasts of topographic and subsurface loads, and with reasonable regional extensional forces, the resulting state-of-stress reveals the favored orientation for new intrusions. Although our models are generalized, they allow us to evaluate whether a magmatic system (surface and subsurface) can explain the observed stress rotation, and enable new intrusions, new faults, or fault reactivation with orientations oblique to the main border faults. Our results will improve our understanding of the different factors at play in these extensional regimes, as well as contribute to a better assessment of the hazards in the area.

  11. The chemically zoned 1949 eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands): Petrologic evolution and magma supply dynamics of a rift zone eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Klügel, Andreas; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; White, James D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The 1949 rift zone eruption along the Cumbre Vieja ridge on La Palma involved three eruptive centers, 3 km spaced apart, and was chemically and mineralogically zoned. Duraznero crater erupted tephrite for 14 days and shut down upon the opening of Llano del Banco, a fissure that issued first tephrite and, after 3 days, basanite. Hoyo Negro crater opened 4 days later and erupted basanite, tephrite, and phonotephrite, while Llano del Banco continued to issue basanite. The eruption ended with Dur...

  12. Hydrothermal circulation, serpentinization, and degassing at a rift valley-fracture zone intersection: Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15[degree]N, 45[degree]W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rona, P.A.; Nelson, T.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States)); Bougault, H.; Charlou, J.L.; Needham, H.D. (Inst. Francais de Recherche pour I' Exploitation de la Mer, Centre de Brest (France)); Appriou, P. (Univ. of Western Brittany, Brest (France)); Trefry, J.H. (Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne (United States)); Eberhart, G.L.; Barone, A. (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A hydrothermal system characterized by high ratios of methane to both manganese and suspended particulate matter was detected in seawater sampled at the eastern intersection of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone. This finding contrasts with low ratios in black smoker-type hydrothermal systems that occur within spreading segments. Near-bottom water sampling coordinated with SeaBeam bathymetry and camera-temperature tows detected the highest concentrations of methane at fault zones in rocks with the appearance of altered ultramafic units in a large dome that forms part of the inside corner high at the intersection. The distinct chemical signatures of the two types of hydrothermal systems are inferred to be controlled by different circulation pathways related to reaction of seawater primarily with ultramafic rocks at intersections of spreading segments with fracture zones but with mafic rocks within spreading segments.

  13. Coulomb Stress Change and Seismic Hazard of Rift Zones in Southern Tibet after the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal Earthquake and Its Mw7.3 Aftershock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Zha, X.; Lu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In southern Tibet (30~34N, 80~95E), many north-trending rifts, such as Yadong-Gulu and Lunggar rifts, are characterized by internally drained graben or half-graben basins bounded by active normal faults. Some developed rifts have become a portion of important transportation lines in Tibet, China. Since 1976, eighty-seven >Mw5.0 earthquakes have happened in the rift regions, and fifty-five events have normal faulting focal mechanisms according to the GCMT catalog. These rifts and normal faults are associated with both the EW-trending extension of the southern Tibet and the convergence between Indian and Tibet. The 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal great earthquake and its Mw7.3 aftershock occurred at the main Himalayan Thrust zone and caused tremendous damages in Kathmandu region. Those earthquakes will lead to significant viscoelastic deformation and stress changes in the southern Tibet in the future. To evaluate the seismic hazard in the active rift regions in southern Tibet, we modeled the slip distribution of the 2015 Nepal great earthquakes using the InSAR displacement field from the ALOS-2 satellite SAR data, and calculated the Coulomb failure stress (CFS) on these active normal faults in the rift zones. Because the estimated CFS depends on the geometrical parameters of receiver faults, it is necessary to get the accurate fault parameters in the rift zones. Some historical earthquakes have been studied using the field data, teleseismic data and InSAR observations, but results are in not agreement with each other. In this study, we revaluated the geometrical parameters of seismogenic faults occurred in the rift zones using some high-quality coseismic InSAR observations and teleseismic body-wave data. Finally, we will evaluate the seismic hazard in the rift zones according to the value of the estimated CFS and aftershock distribution.

  14. Motion in the north Iceland volcanic rift zone accommodated by bookshelf faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.; White, Robert S.; Greenfield, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Along mid-ocean ridges the extending crust is segmented on length scales of 10-1,000km. Where rift segments are offset from one another, motion between segments is accommodated by transform faults that are oriented orthogonally to the main rift axis. Where segments overlap, non-transform offsets with a variety of geometries accommodate shear motions. Here we use micro-seismic data to analyse the geometries of faults at two overlapping rift segments exposed on land in north Iceland. Between the rift segments, we identify a series of faults that are aligned sub-parallel to the orientation of the main rift. These faults slip through left-lateral strike-slip motion. Yet, movement between the overlapping rift segments is through right-lateral motion. Together, these motions induce a clockwise rotation of the faults and intervening crustal blocks in a motion that is consistent with a bookshelf-faulting mechanism, named after its resemblance to a tilting row of books on a shelf. The faults probably reactivated existing crustal weaknesses, such as dyke intrusions, that were originally oriented parallel to the main rift and have since rotated about 15° clockwise. Reactivation of pre-existing, rift-parallel weaknesses contrasts with typical mid-ocean ridge transform faults and is an important illustration of a non-transform offset accommodating shear motion between overlapping rift segments.

  15. Recent and Hazardous Volcanic Activity Along the NW Rift Zone of Piton De La Fournaise Volcano, La Réunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, G.; Frese, I.; Di Muro, A.; Kueppers, U.; Michon, L.; Metrich, N.

    2014-12-01

    Shield volcanoes are a common feature of basaltic volcanism. Their volcanic activity is often confined to a summit crater area and rift systems, both characterized by constructive (scoria and cinder cones; lava flows) and destructive (pit craters; caldera collapse) phenomena. Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) shield volcano (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) is an ideal place to study these differences in eruptive behaviour. Besides the frequent eruptions in the central Enclos Fouqué caldera, hundreds of eruptive vents opened along three main rift zones cutting the edifice during the last 50 kyrs. Two short rift zones are characterized by weak seismicity and lateral magma transport at shallow depth (above sea level). Here we focus on the third and largest rift zone (15km wide, 20 km long), which extends in a north-westerly direction between PdF and nearby Piton des Neiges volcanic complex. It is typified by deep seismicity (up to 30 km), emitting mostly primitive magmas, testifying of high fluid pressures (up to 5 kbar) and large-volume eruptions. We present new field data (including stratigraphic logs, a geological map of the area, C-14 dating and geochemical analyses of the eruption products) on one of the youngest (~6kyrs) and largest lava field (Trous Blancs eruption). It extends for 24km from a height of 1800 m asl, passing Le Tampon and Saint Pierre cities, until reaching the coast. The source area of this huge lava flow has been identified in an alignment of four previously unidentified pit craters. The eruption initiated with intense fountaining activity, producing a m-thick bed of loose black scoria, which becomes densely welded in its upper part; followed by an alternation of volume rich lava effusions and strombolian activity, resulting in the emplacement of meter-thick, massive units of olivine-basalt alternating with coarse scoria beds in the proximal area. Activity ended with the emplacement of a dm-thick bed of glassy, dense scoria and a stratified lithic

  16. Mending the Rift between Full and Part-Time Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Larry W.; Grunder, Pat; O'Connell, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the need to improve the working conditions of part-time faculty by referring to Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs (1954), which includes physiological, safety and security, love and belongingness, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualizing needs. Calls for "overarching initiatives" that need to be undertaken on behalf…

  17. Microstructural evolution and seismic anisotropy of upper mantle rocks in rift zones. Geologica Ultraiectina (300)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasse, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates field-scale fragments of subcontinental upper mantle rocks from the ancient Mesozoic North Pyrenean rift and Plio-Pleistocene xenoliths from the active Baja California rift, in order to constrain the deformation history of the uppermost mantle. The main focus of the study is

  18. The seismicity related to the southern part of the Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnack, D.; Stangl, R.

    1998-04-01

    In 1990 the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi started to build up a seismological network for Kenya, which has been operating since 1993. In this paper the actual state of this seismological network is described. Additionally, the first results on the seismic activity in the southern part of Kenya and adjacent areas between October 1993 and August 1996 are presented and are compared with historical data. Out of more than 2000 recorded local earthquakes 435 could be localised within the study area with local magnitudes of up to 5. The distribution of the events shows three areas of prominent seismicity: the Rift Valley between Nakuru and northern Tanzania; the area northeast of Kilimanjaro; and the Nyanza Rift in western Kenya. In a first attempt to assess the seismic hazard for the study area, a seismic energy map for the period of observation is given.

  19. Escape tectonism in the Gulf of Thailand: Paleogene left-lateral pull-apart rifting in the Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H

    2010-01-01

    The Malay Basin represents one of the largest rift basins of SE Asia. Based on a comprehensive 2-D seismic database tied to wells covering mainly Vietnamese acreage, the evolution of the Vietnamese part of the basin is outlined and a new tectonic model is proposed for the development of the basin....... The Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin comprises a large and deep Paleogene pull-apart basin formed through Middle or Late Eocene to Oligocene left-lateral strike-slip along NNW-trending fault zones. The Tho Chu Fault Zone constitutes a significant Paleogene left-lateral strike-slip zone most likely associated......–Strending faults in the central part of the basin. However, the lack of inversion in Vietnamese territory only seems to merit a few kilometers of dextral inversion....

  20. Trace element and isotope geochemistry of geothermal fluids, East Rift Zone, Kilauea, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, H.B.; Delanoy, G.A.; Thomas, D.M. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Gerlach, D.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Chen, B.; Takahashi, P.; Thomas, D.M. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States) Evans (Charles) and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A research program has been undertaken in an effort to better characterize the composition and the precipitation characteristic of the geothermal fluids produced by the HGP-A geothermal well located on the Kilauea East Rift Zone on the Island of Hawaii. The results of these studies have shown that the chemical composition of the fluids changed over the production life of the well and that the fluids produced were the result of mixing of at least two, and possibly three, source fluids. These source fluids were recognized as: a sea water composition modified by high temperature water-rock reactions; meteoric recharge; and a hydrothermal fluid that had been equilibrated with high temperature reservoir rocks and magmatic volatiles. Although the major alkali and halide elements show clearly increasing trends with time, only a few of the trace transition metals show a similar trend. The rare earth elements, were typically found at low concentrations and appeared to be highly variable with time. Studies of the precipitation characteristics of silica showed that amorphous silica deposition rates were highly sensitive to fluid pH and that increases in fluid pH above about 8.5 could flocculate more than 80% of the suspended colloidal silica in excess of its solubility. Addition of transition metal salts were also found to enhance the recovery fractions of silica from solution. The amorphous silica precipitate was also found to strongly scavenge the alkaline earth and transition metal ions naturally present in the brines; mild acid treatments were shown to be capable of removing substantial fractions of the scavenged metals from the silica flocs yielding a moderately pure gelatinous by-product. Further work on the silica precipitation process is recommended to improve our ability to control silica scaling from high temperature geothermal fluids or to recover a marketable silica by-product from these fluids prior to reinjection.

  1. Diachronism in the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian arc-rift transition of North Gondwana: A comparison of Morocco and the Iberian Ossa-Morena Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Bellido, Félix; Gasquet, Dominique; Pereira, M. Francisco; Quesada, Cecilio; Sánchez-García, Teresa

    2014-10-01

    In the northwestern border of the West African craton (North Gondwana), a transition from late Neoproterozoic subduction/collision to Cambrian rift processes was recorded in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Iberia). Cambrian rifting affected both Pan-African and Cadomian basements in a stepwise and diachronous way. Subsequently, both areas evolved into a syn-rift margin episodically punctuated by uplift and tilting that precluded Furongian sedimentation. A comparison of sedimentary, volcanic and geodynamic evolution is made in the late Neoproterozoic (Pan-African and Cadomian) belts and Cambrian rifts trying to solve the apparent diachronous (SW-NE-trending) propagation of an early Palaeozoic rifting regime that finally led to the opening of the Rheic Ocean.

  2. Sedimentary record of relay zone evolution, Central Corinth Rift (Greece): Role of fault propagation and structural inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelsdaël, Romain; Ford, Mary; Meyer, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    Relay zones along rift border fault systems form topographic lows that are considered to allow the transfer of sediment from the footwall into hanging wall depocentres. Present knowledge focuses on the modifications of drainage patterns and sediment pathways across relay zones, however their vertical motion during growth and interaction of faults segments is not well documented. 3D models of fault growth and linkage are also under debate. The Corinth rift (Greece) is an ideal natural laboratory for the study of fault system evolution. Fault activity and rift depocentres migrated northward during Pliocene to Recent N-S extension. We report on the evolution of a relay zone in the currently active southern rift margin fault system from Pleistocene to present-day. The relay zone lies between the E-W East Helike (EHF) and Derveni faults (DF) that lie just offshore and around the town of Akrata. During its evolution the relay zone captured the antecedent Krathis river which continued to deposit Gilbert-type deltas across the relay zone during fault interaction, breaching and post linkage phases. Moreover our work underlines the role that pre-existing structure in the location of the transfer zone. Offshore fault geometry and kinematics, and sediment distribution were defined by interpretation and depth conversion of high resolution seismic profiles (from Maurice Ewing 2001 geophysical survey). Early lateral propagation of the EHF is recorded by synsedimentary fault propagation folds while the DF records tilted block geometries since initiation. Within the relay zone beds are gradually tilted toward the basin before breaching. These different styles of deformation highlight mechanical contrasts and upper crustal partition associated with the development of the Akrata relay zone. Onshore detailed lithostratigraphy, structure and geomorphological features record sedimentation across the subsiding relay ramp and subsequent footwall uplift after breaching. The area is

  3. Chronology and volcanology of the 1949 multi-vent rift-zone eruption on La Palma (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, A.; Schmincke, H.-U.; White, J. D. L.; Hoernle, K. A.

    1999-12-01

    The compositionally zoned San Juan eruption on La Palma emanated from three eruptive centers located along a north-south-trending rift zone in the south of the island. Seismic precursors began weakly in 1936 and became strong in March 1949, with their foci progressing from the north of the rift zone towards its south. This suggests that magma ascended beneath the old Taburiente shield volcano and moved southward along the rift. The eruption began on June 24, 1949, with phreatomagmatic activity at Duraznero crater on the ridgetop (ca. 1880 m above sea level), where five vents erupted tephritic lava along a 400-m-long fissure. On June 8, the Duraznero vents shut down abruptly, and the activity shifted to an off-rift fissure at Llano del Banco, located at ca. 550 m lower elevation and 3 km to the northwest. This eruptive center issued initially tephritic aa and later basanitic pahoehoe lava at high rates, producing a lava flow that entered the sea. Two days after basanite began to erupt at Llano del Banco, Hoyo Negro crater (ca. 1880 m asl), located 700 m north of Duraznero along the rift, opened on July 12 and produced ash and bombs of basanitic to phonotephritic composition in violent phreatomagmatic explosions ( White and Schmincke, 1999). Llano del Banco and Hoyo Negro were simultaneously active for 11 days and showed a co-variance of their eruption rates indicating a shallow hydraulic connection. On July 30, after 3 days of quiescence at all vents, Duraznero and Hoyo Negro became active again during a final eruptive phase. Duraznero issued basanitic lava at high rates for 12 h and produced a lava flow that descended towards the east coast. The lava contains ca. 1 vol.% crustal and mantle xenoliths consisting of 40% tholeiitic gabbros from the oceanic crust, 35% alkaline gabbros, and 20% ultramafic cumulates. The occurrence of xenoliths almost exclusively in the final lava is consistent with their origin by wall-rock collapse at depth near the end of the eruption

  4. An Isotopic Perspective into the Magmatic Evolution and Architecture of the Rift Zones of Kīlauea Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruszka, A. J.; Marske, J. P.; Garcia, M. O.; Heaton, D. E.; Rhodes, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    We present Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios for Kīlauea's historical rift zone lavas (n=50) to examine the magmatic evolution and architecture of the volcano's East Rift Zone (ERZ) and Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ). Our results show that Kīlauea's historical eruptive period was preceded by the delivery of a major batch of magma from the summit reservoir to the ERZ. The timing of this intrusion, most likely in the late 17th century, was probably related to the 300-yr period of explosive eruptions that followed the formation of the modern caldera (Swanson et al., 2012; JVGR). This rift-stored magma was a component in lavas from lower ERZ (LERZ) eruptions in 1790(?), 1840, 1955, and 1960. The only other components in these LERZ lavas are related to summit lavas erupted (1) after the 1924 collapse of Halemáumáu and (2) during episodes of high fountaining at Kīlauea Iki in 1959. Thus, the intrusion of magma from the summit reservoir into the LERZ is a rare occurrence that is tied to major volcanological events. Intrusions from the summit reservoir in the 1960s likely flushed most older, stored magma from the upper ERZ (UERZ) and middle ERZ (MERZ), leaving large pockets of 1960s-era magma to serve as a dominant component in many subsequent rift lavas. An increase in the duration of pre-eruptive magma storage from the UERZ ( 0-7 yr) to the MERZ ( 0-19 yr) to the LERZ (up to 335 yr) is likely controlled by a decrease in the rate of magma supply to the more distal portions of the ERZ. Lavas from several UERZ eruptions in the 1960s and 1970s have a component of mantle-derived magma that bypassed the summit reservoir. There is no evidence for a summit bypass into the MERZ, LERZ, or the volcanically active portion of the SWRZ. These results support a recent model for Kīlauea's plumbing system (Poland et al., 2014; USGS Prof. Pap. 1801): the ERZ is connected to the deeper "South Caldera" magma body and the volcanic SWRZ is connected to the shallower Halemáumáu magma body.

  5. Toward an Integrated Model for the Composition, Structure, and Physical Properties of the Crust in Icelandic Rift Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Panero, W. R.; Barton, M.

    2009-05-01

    The rift zones that extend across Iceland roughly southwest to northeast are the only portion of the mid-Atlantic Ridge that is exposed above sea level. This reflects anomalously high melt productivity in the mantle leading to anomalously thick oceanic crust. There are 30 active volcanic centers in the rift zones. Petrologic studies of the 30 volcanic centers in the active rift zones show that, magmas pond at a mid-crustal level as well as at the base of the crust prior to eruption. The depth of magma chambers at the base of the crust provides an estimate of crustal thickness of (20 ± 2.5 km) in these zones. Melts erupting to the surface directly from chambers at the base of the crust provide one constraint on the composition of the crust because any compositional variations within the crust must be the result of differentiation of these melts. However, the glass compositions indicate that relatively evolved magmas erupted from the deep chambers, suggesting that crystallization of compositionally more primitive magmas also occurred at the base of the crust. Knowledge of crustal thickness, the temperature of melts at the base of the crust, and the compositions of these melts allows development of comprehensive models of the composition, structure and properties of crust within the rift zones. We have developed two end member models: one with variation of mineralogy with depth in the crust due to metamorphism, and one with variation of crustal composition with depth due to fractionation processes. We have also considered models that are plausible combinations of these two end member models. We have calculated well constrained geothermal gradients and used these to predict variations in density, seismic velocity, and bulk modulus with depth. These models which include petrologic and geochemical data are consistent with published geophysical data, therefore provide important constraints on interpretation of geophysical data. In particular, results of this work provide

  6. Ground Tilt Time Delays between Kilauea Volcano's Summit and East Rift Zone Caused by Magma Reservoir Buffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, M. M.; Patrick, M. R.; Anderson, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    A cyclic pattern of ground deformation, called a deflation-inflation (DI) cycle, is commonly observed at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. These cycles are an important part of Kilauea's eruptive activity because they directly influence the level of the summit lava lake as well as the effusion rate (and resulting lava flow hazard) at the East Rift Zone eruption site at Pu`u `O`o. DI events normally span several days, and are measured both at the summit and at Pu`u `O`o cone (20 km distance). Signals appear first at the summit and are then observed at Pu`u `O`o after an apparent delay of between 0.5 and 10 hours, which has been previously interpreted as reflecting magma transport time. We propose an alternate explanation, in which the apparent delay is an artifact of buffering by the small magma reservoir thought to exist at Pu`u `O`o. Simple Poiseuille flow modeling demonstrates that this apparent delay can be reproduced by the changing balance of inflow (from the summit) and outflow (to surface lava flows) at the Pu`u `O`o magma reservoir. The apparent delay is sensitive to the geometry of the conduit leaving Pu`u `O`o, feeding surface lava flows. We demonstrate how the reservoir buffering is quantitatively equivalent to a causal low-pass filter, which explains both the apparent delay as well as the smoothed, skewed nature of the signal at Pu`u `O`o relative to the summit. By comparing summit and Pu`u `O`o ground tilt signals over an extended time period, it may be possible to constrain the changing geometry of the shallow magmatic system through time.

  7. Yield gaps and resource use across farming zones in the central rift valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getnet, Mezegebu; Ittersum, van Martin; Hengsdijk, Huib; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, low productive cereal systems and a declining resource base call for options to increase crop productivity and improve resource use efficiency to meet the growing demand of food. We compiled and analysed a large amount of data from farmers’ fields

  8. Diverse Eruptions at Approximately 2,200 Years B.P. on the Great Rift, Idaho: Inferences for Magma Dynamics Along Volcanic Rift Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. E. Kobs; Borg, C.; Mallonee, H. C.; Purcell, S.; Neish, C.; Garry, W. B.; Haberle, C. W.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Compositionally and morphologically diverse lava flows erupted on the Great Rift of Idaho approximately 2.2 ka (kilo-annum, 1000 years ago) during a volcanic "flare-up" of activity following an approximately 2 ky (kiloyear, 1000 years) hiatus in eruptions. Volcanism at Craters of the Moon (COTM), Wapi and Kings Bowl lava fields around this time included primitive and evolved compositions, separated over 75 kilometers along the approximately 85 kilometers-long rift, with striking variability in lava flow emplacement mechanisms and surface morphologies. Although the temporal associations may be coincidental, the system provides a planetary analog to better understand magma dynamics along rift systems, including that associated with lunar floor-fractured craters. This study aims to help bridge the knowledge gap between ancient rift volcanism evident on the Moon and other terrestrial planets, and active rift volcanism, e.g., at Hawai'i and Iceland.

  9. Rifting-to-drifting transition of the South China Sea: Moho reflection characteristics in continental-ocean transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dispute remains on the process of continental rifting to subsequent seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (SCS). Several crust-scale multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired in the continent-ocean transition zone (COT) of the SCS provide a detailed overview of Moho and deep crustal reflectors and give key information on rifting-to-drifting transition of the area. Moho has strong but discontinuous seismic reflection in COT. These discontinuities are mainly located in the landward side of continent-ocean boundary (COB), and may own to upwelling of lower crustal materials during initial continental extension, leading to numerous volcanic edifices and volcanic ridges. The continental crust in COT shows discontinuous Moho reflections at 11-8.5 s in two-way travel time (twtt), and thins from 18-20.5 km under the uppermost slope to 6-7 km under the lower slope, assuming an average crustal velocity of 6.0 km/s. The oceanic crust has Moho reflections of moderate to high continuity mostly at 1.8-2.2 s twtt below the top of the igneous basement, which means that the crustal thickness excluding sediment layer in COT is 5.4-6.6 km. Subhorizontal Moho reflections are often abruptly interrupted by large seaward dipping normal faults in southern COT but are more continuous compared with the fluctuant and very discontinuous Moho reflections in northern COT. The thickness of thinned continental crust (4.2-4.8 km) is smaller than that of oceanic crust (5.4-6.0 km) near southern COB, indicating that the continental crust has experienced a long period of rifting before seafloor spreading started. The smaller width of northern COT (0-40 km) than in southern COT (0-60 km), and thinner continental crust in southern COT, all indicate that the continental margin rifting and extension was asymmetric. The COT width in the SCS is narrower than that found in other magma-poor continental margins, indicating a swift transition from the final stage of rifting to the inception of

  10. Estimation of age of Dali-Ganis rifting and associated volcanic activity, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of age for the Dali and Ganis Chasma rift zones and their associated volcanism based on photogeologic analysis of stratigraphic relations of rift-associated features with impact craters which have associated features indicative of their age. The features are radar-dark and parabolic, and they are believed to be mantles of debris derived from fallout of the craters' ejecta. They are thought to be among the youngest features on the Venusian surface, so their 'parent' craters must also be very young, evidently among the youngest 10 percent of Venus' crater population. Dali Chasma and Ganis Chasma are a part of a system of rift zones contained within eastern Aphrodite and Atla Regio which is a significant component of Venus tectonics. The rifts of this system are fracture belts which dissect typical Venusian plains with rare islands of tessera terrain. The rift zone system consists of several segments following each other (Diane, Dali, Ganis) and forming the major rift zone line, about 10,000 km long, which has junctions with several other rift zones, including Parga Chasma Rift. The junctions are usually locations of rift-associated volcanism in the form of volcanic edifices (Maat and Ozza Montes) or plain-forming flows flooding some areas within the rift zones and the adjacent plains.

  11. The East African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia

  12. [Rift Valley fever: sporadic infection of French military personnel outside currently recognized epidemic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J P; Richecoeur, L; Peyrefitte, C; Boutin, J P; Davoust, B; Zeller, H; Bouloy, M; Tolou, H

    2002-01-01

    For three years the arbovirus surveillance unit of the Tropical Medicine Institute of the French Army Medical Corps (French acronym IMTSSA) in Marseille, France has been investigating causes of benign non-malarial febrile syndromes in French military personnel serving outside mainland France. The methodology used in N'Djamena consisted of sending frozen specimens collected concomitant with viremia, to Marseille for culture. During the rainy season of 2001, specimens were collected from a total of 50 febrile soldiers. Cultures allowed isolation and identification of two strains of Rift Valley virus. The risk of contamination exists not only in the field but also in mainland hospital departments treating infected patients. Routine serological diagnosis for Rift Valley fever must be DISCUSSED for all patients in the field or returning from Africa.

  13. Images of the East Africa Rift System from the Joint Inversion of Body Waves, Surface Waves, and Gravity: Investigating the Role of Magma in Early-Stage Continental Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecker, S. W.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Muzuka, A.; Khalfan, M.; Kianji, G.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.

    2015-12-01

    With several rift segments at different stages of the rifting cycle, and the last orogenic episode more than 500 Mya, the young (Ngorongoro caldera appears to be physically cut off from the magma beneath the main part of the rift zone by a relatively thin (< 10 km) wide zone of higher shear wave speeds that lies along the western edge of the fault-bounded rift. The narrow ridge of higher velocity lower crustal material may be a consequence of flexural uplift of the rift flank in response to stretching of strong, cratonic lithosphere.

  14. Geology of the Western Part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-3 to TA-16), Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J.Lewis; A.Lavine; S.L.Reneau; J.N.Gardner; R.Channell; C.W.Criswell

    2002-12-01

    We present data that elucidate the stratigraphy, geomorphology, and structure in the western part of Los Alamos National Laboratory between Technical Areas 3 and 16 (TA-3 and TA-16). Data include those gathered by geologic mapping of surficial, post-Bandelier Tuff strata, conventional and high-precision geologic mapping and geochemical analysis of cooling units within the Bandelier Tuff, logging of boreholes and a gas pipeline trench, and structural analysis using profiles, cross sections, structure contour maps, and stereographic projections. This work contributes to an improved understanding of the paleoseismic and geomorphic history of the area, which will aid in future seismic hazard evaluations and other investigations. The study area lies at the base of the main, 120-m (400-ft) high escarpment formed by the Pajarito fault, an active fault of the Rio Grande rift that bounds Los Alamos National Laboratory on the west. Subsidiary fracturing, faulting, and folding associated with the Pajarito fault zone extends at least 1,500 m (5,000 ft) to the east of the main Pajarito fault escarpment. Stratigraphic units in the study area include upper units of the Tshirege Member of the early Pleistocene Bandelier Tuff, early Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits that predate incision of canyons on this part of the Pajarito Plateau, and younger Pleistocene and Holocene alluvium and colluvium that postdate drainage incision. We discriminate four sets of structures in the area between TA-3 and TA-16: (a) north-striking faults and folds that mark the main zone of deformation, including a graben in the central part of the study area; (b) north-northwest-striking fractures and rare faults that bound the eastern side of the principal zone of deformation and may be the surface expression of deep-seated faulting; (c) rare northeast-striking structures near the northern limit of the area associated with the southern end of the Rendija Canyon fault; and (d) several small east

  15. Edifice growth, deformation and rift zone development in basaltic setting: Insights from Piton de la Fournaise shield volcano (Réunion Island)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Laurent; Cayol, Valérie; Letourneur, Ludovic; Peltier, Aline; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Staudacher, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The overall morphology of basaltic volcanoes mainly depends on their eruptive activity (effusive vs. explosive), the geometry of the rift zones and the characteristics of both endogenous and exogenous growth processes. The origin of the steep geometry of the central cone of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, which is unusual for a basaltic effusive volcano, and its deformation are examined with a combination of a detailed morphological analysis, field observations, GPS data from the Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory and numerical models. The new caldera walls formed during the April 2007 summit collapse reveal that the steep cone is composed of a pyroclastic core, inherited from an earlier explosive phase, overlapped by a pile of thin lava flows. This suggests that exogenous processes played a major role in the building of the steep central cone. Magma injections into the cone, which mainly occur along the N25-30 and N120 rift zones, lead to an asymmetric outward inflation concentrated in the cone's eastern half. This endogenous growth progressively tilts the southeast and east flanks of the cone, and induces the development of a dense network of flank fractures. Finally, it is proposed that intrusions along the N120 rift zone are encouraged by stresses induced by magma injections along the N25-30 rift zone.

  16. Diffuse CO2 degassing monitoring for the volcanic surveillance of Tenerife North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) volcano, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F.; Thomas, G. E.; Wong, T.; García, E.; Melián, G.; Padron, E.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Hernández, P. A.; Perez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    The North East Rift zone of Tenerife Island (NERZ, 210 km2) is one of the three major volcanic rift-zones of the island. The most recent eruptive activity along the NERZ took place in the 1704-1705 period with eruptions of Siete Fuentes, Fasnia and Arafo volcanoes. Since fumarolic activity is nowadays absent at the NERZ, soil CO2 degassing monitoring represent a potential geochemical tool for its volcanic surveillance. The aim of this study is to report the results of the last CO2 efflux survey performed in June 2017, with 658 sampling sites. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of the NERZ were performed by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) following the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission, soil CO2 efflux spatial distribution maps were constructed using Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) as interpolation method. The diffuse CO2 emission values ranged between 0 - 41.1 g m-2 d-1. The probability plot technique applied to the data allowed to distinguish two different geochemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 81.8% and 18.2% of the total data, respectively, with geometric means of 3.9 and 15.0 g m-2 d-1, respectively. The average map constructed with 100 equiprobable simulations showed an emission rate of 1,361±35 t d-1. This value relatively higher than the background average of CO2 emission estimated on 415 t d-1 and slightly higher than the background range of 148 t d-1 (-1σ) and 1,189 t d-1 (+1σ) observed at the NERZ. This study reinforces the importance of performing soil CO2 efflux surveys as an effective surveillance volcanic tool in the NERZ.

  17. Rift Valley fever in a zone potentially occupied by Aedes vexans in Senegal: dynamics and risk mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vignolles

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the interaction between the various variables associated with Rift Valley fever (RVF such as the mosquito vector, available hosts and rainfall distribution. To that end, the varying zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes (ZPOM, rainfall events and pond dynamics, and the associated exposure of hosts to the RVF virus by Aedes vexans, were analyzed in the Barkedji area of the Ferlo, Senegal, during the 2003 rainy season. Ponds were identified by remote sensing using a high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite image. Additional data on ponds and rainfall events from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were combined with in-situ entomological and limnimetric measurements, and the localization of vulnerable ruminant hosts (data derived from QuickBird satellite. Since “Ae. vexans productive events” are dependent on the timing of rainfall for their embryogenesis (six days without rain are necessary to trigger hatching, the dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Ae. vexans density was based on the total rainfall amount and pond dynamics. Detailed ZPOM mapping was obtained on a daily basis and combined with aggressiveness temporal profiles. Risks zones, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability are combined, are expressed by the percentages of parks where animals are potentially exposed to mosquito bites. This new approach, simply relying upon rainfall distribution evaluated from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of a new, operational early warning system for RVF based on environmental risks linked to climatic and environmental conditions.

  18. Fault zone architecture within Miocene–Pliocene syn-rift sediments ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study focusses on field description of small normal fault zones in Upper Miocene–Pliocene sedimentary rocks on the northwestern side of the Red Sea, Egypt. The trend of these fault zones is mainly NW–SE. Paleostress analysis of 17 fault planes and slickenlines indicate that the tension direction is NE–SW.

  19. Hydrogeological Modelling of the Geothermal Waters of Alaşehir in the Continental Rift Zone of the Gediz, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ӧzgür, Nevzat; Bostancı, Yesim; Anilır Yürük, Ezgi

    2017-12-01

    In western Anatolia, Turkey, the continental rift zones of the Büyük Menderes, Küçük Menderes and Gediz were formed by extensional tectonic features striking E-W generally and representing a great number of active geothermal systems, epithermal mineralizations and volcanic rocks from Middle Miocene to recent. The geothermal waters are associated with the faults which strike preferentially NW-SE and NE-SW and locate diagonal to general strike of the rift zones of the Menderes Massif. These NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults were probably generated by compressional tectonic regimes which leads to the deformation of uplift between two extensional rift zones in the Menderes Massif. The one of these rift zones is Gediz which is distinguished by a great number of geothermal waters such as Alaşehir, Kurşunlu, Çamurlu, Pamukkale and Urganlı. The geothermal waters of Alaşehir form the biggest potential in the rift zone of Gediz with a capacity of about 100 to 200 MWe. Geologically, the gneisses from the basement rocks in the study area which are overlain by an Paleozoic to Mesozoic intercalation of mica schists, quartzites and marbles, a Miocene intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones and Plio-Quaternary intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones discordantly. In the study area, Paleozoic to Mesozoic quartzites and marbles form the reservoir rocks hydrogeologically. The geothermal waters anions with Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and HCO3>Cl> dominant anions are of Na-HCO3 type and can be considered as partial equilibrated waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures area of about 185°C in accordance with measured reservoir temperatures. Stabile isotopes of δ18O versus δ2H of geothermal waters of Alaşehir deviate from the meteoric water line showing an intensive water-rock interaction under high temperature conditions. These data are well correlated with the results of the

  20. The origin of thermal waters in the northeastern part of the Eger Rift, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupalová, T.; Šráček, O.; Vencelides, Z.; span class="emphasis">Žák, Karelspan>

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2012), s. 689-702 ISSN 0883-2927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : thermal waters * Eger Rift * hydrogeology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.708, year: 2012

  1. Large-scale variation in lithospheric structure along and across the Kenya rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodehl, C.; Mechie, J.; Kaminski, W.; Fuchs, K.; Grosse, C.; Hoffmann, H.; Stangl, R.; Stellrecht, R.; Khan, M.A.; Maguire, Peter K.H.; Kirk, W.; Keller, Gordon R.; Githui, A.; Baker, M.; Mooney, W.; Criley, E.; Luetgert, J.; Jacob, B.; Thybo, H.; Demartin, M.; Scarascia, S.; Hirn, A.; Bowman, J.R.; Nyambok, I.; Gaciri, S.; Patel, J.; Dindi, E.; Griffiths, D.H.; King, R.F.; Mussett, A.E.; Braile, L.W.; Thompson, G.; Olsen, K.; Harder, S.; Vees, R.; Gajewski, D.; Schulte, A.; Obel, J.; Mwango, F.; Mukinya, J.; Riaroh, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Kenya rift is one of the classic examples of a continental rift zone: models for its evolution range from extension of the lithosphere by pure shear1, through extension by simple shear2, to diapiric upwelling of an asthenolith3. Following a pilot study in 19854, the present work involved the shooting of three seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profiles along the axis, across the margins, and on the northeastern flank of the rift (Fig. 1). These lines were intended to reconcile the different crustal thickness estimates for the northern and southern parts of the rift4-6 and to reveal the structure across the rift, including that beneath the flanks. The data, presented here, reveal significant lateral variations in structure both along and across the rift. The crust thins along the rift axis from 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north; there are abrupt changes in Mono depth and uppermost-mantle seismic velocity across the rift margins, and crustal thickening across the boundary between the Archaean craton and PanAfrican orogenic belt immediately west of the rift. These results suggest that thickened crust may have controlled the rift's location, that there is a decrease in extension from north to south, and that the upper mantle immediately beneath the rift may contain reservoirs of magma generated at greater depth.

  2. The geology and geophysics of the Oslo rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The regional geology and geophysical characteristics of the Oslo graben are reviewed. The graben is part of a Permian age failed continental rift. Alkali olivine, tholefitic, and monzonitic intrusives as well as basaltic lavas outline the extent of the graben. Geophysical evidence indicates that rifting activity covered a much greater area in Skagerrak Sea as well as the Paleozoic time, possibly including the northern Skagerrak Sea as well as the Oslo graben itself. Much of the surficial geologic characteristics in the southern part of the rift have since been eroded or covered by sedimentation. Geophysical data reveal a gravity maximum along the strike of the Oslo graben, local emplacements of magnetic material throughout the Skagerrak and the graben, and a slight mantle upward beneath the rift zone. Petrologic and geophysical maps which depict regional structure are included in the text. An extensive bibliography of pertinent literature published in English between 1960 and 1980 is also provided.

  3. Fleeing to Fault Zones: Incorporating Syrian Refugees into Earthquake Risk Analysis along the East Anatolian and Dead Sea Rift Fault Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B.; Paradise, T. R.

    2016-12-01

    The influx of millions of Syrian refugees into Turkey has rapidly changed the population distribution along the Dead Sea Rift and East Anatolian Fault zones. In contrast to other countries in the Middle East where refugees are accommodated in camp environments, the majority of displaced individuals in Turkey are integrated into cities, towns, and villages—placing stress on urban settings and increasing potential exposure to strong shaking. Yet, displaced populations are not traditionally captured in data sources used in earthquake risk analysis or loss estimations. Accordingly, we present a district-level analysis assessing the spatial overlap of earthquake hazards and refugee locations in southeastern Turkey to determine how migration patterns are altering seismic risk in the region. Using migration estimates from the U.S. Humanitarian Information Unit, we create three district-level population scenarios that combine official population statistics, refugee camp populations, and low, median, and high bounds for integrated refugee populations. We perform probabilistic seismic hazard analysis alongside these population scenarios to map spatial variations in seismic risk between 2011 and late 2015. Our results show a significant relative southward increase of seismic risk for this period due to refugee migration. Additionally, we calculate earthquake fatalities for simulated earthquakes using a semi-empirical loss estimation technique to determine degree of under-estimation resulting from forgoing migration data in loss modeling. We find that including refugee populations increased casualties by 11-12% using median population estimates, and upwards of 20% using high population estimates. These results communicate the ongoing importance of placing environmental hazards in their appropriate regional and temporal context which unites physical, political, cultural, and socio-economic landscapes. Keywords: Earthquakes, Hazards, Loss-Estimation, Syrian Crisis, Migration

  4. Research on gravity and magnetic field in east part of Yangzi land mass. The relationship between physical stratification zoning of the crust and the deep-seated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhua; Huang Linping

    1999-08-01

    The research area ranges mainly in Yangzi platform (the east part of Yangzi platform) north latitude from 24 degree to 32 degree and east longitude from 108 degree to 126 degree including South China geo-synclinal area (south east parts), east part of Qingqi geo-synclinal area and southern parts of North China platform. The research results show that: (1) There has once been happened a large-scale lithosphere fold in this area during geological history period. The developed fault structure, the intensity of the magmatic activity and all kinds of igneous rocks (especially granite) are widely and variety distributed. (2) There had been occurred the stretches and compression belt of multi-mass interaction in this area with some strong rift activities. Therefore it could be an ideal place to exchange positions of the crust and mantle physics and to offer some advantageous space condition for mineral physics transportation and occurrence, in which various kinds of ore deposits could be mineralized. (3) Jiangnan and Huaxia ancient continent were developed due to rift activities and the distribution of granite rocks and all kinds of igneous rocks were resulted from rift activities. (4) The physics vertical layering and horizontal layering are attemptable presented, which resulted in the depth distribution of magnetic layer, and the dividing of the thin varied zone of the magnetic layer and the thick varied zone of the magnetic layer were arisen. In horizontal direction five 'unstable zones' were divided, which further inferred its relationship with mineralization

  5. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows from northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hilo 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Banks, J. M.; Lockwood, J.P.; Rubin, M.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-eight 14C analyses are reported for carbonized roots and other plant material collected from beneath 15 prehistoric lava flows erupted from the northeast rift zone (NERZ) of Mauna Loa Volcano (ML). The new 14C dates establish ages for 13 previously undated lava flows, and correct or add to information previously reported. Limiting ages on other flows that lie either above or below the dated flows are also established. These dates help to unravel the eruptive history of ML's NERZ. -from Authors

  6. Mantle and crustal contribution in the genesis of Recent basalts from off-rift zones in Iceland: Constraints from Th, Sr and O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Condomines, Michel; Fourcade, Serge

    1992-05-01

    Along the two volcanic off-rift zones in Iceland, the Sn˦fellsnes volcanic zone (SNVZ) and the South Iceland volcanic zone (SIVZ), geochemical parameters vary regularly along the strike towards the centre of the island. Recent basalts from the SNVZ change from alkali basalts to tholeiites where the volcanic zone reaches the active rift axis, and their 87Sr/ 86Sr and Th/U ratios decrease in the same direction. These variations are interpreted as the result of mixing between mantle melts from two distinct reservoirs below Sn˦fellsnes. The mantle melt would be more depleted in incompatible elements, but with a higher 3He/ 4He ratio ( R/Ra≈ 20) beneath the centre of Iceland than at the tip of the Sn˦fellsnes volcanic zone ( R/Ra≈ 7.5). From southwest to northeast along the SIVZ, the basalts change from alkali basalts to FeTi basalts and quartz-normative tholeiites. The Th/U ratio of the Recent basalts increases and both ( 230Th/ 232Th ) and δ 18O values decrease in the same direction. This reflects an important crustal contamination of the FeTi-rich basalts and the quartz tholeiites. The two types of basalts could be produced through assimilation and fractional crystallization in which primary alkali basaltic and olivine tholeiitic melts 'erode' and assimilate the base of the crust. The increasingly tholeiitic character of the basalts towards the centre of Iceland, which reflects a higher degree of partial melting, is qualitatively consistent with increasing geothermal gradient and negative gravity anomaly. The highest Sr isotope ratio in Recent basalts from Iceland is observed inÖr˦fajökull volcano, which has a 3He/ 4He ratio ( R/Ra≈ 7.8) close to the MORB value, and this might represent a mantle source similar to that of Mauna Loa in Hawaii.

  7. A shifting rift—Geophysical insights into the evolution of Rio Grande rift margins and the Embudo transfer zone near Taos, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Bauer, Paul W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Kelson, Keith I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed example of how a subbasin develops adjacent to a transfer zone in the Rio Grande rift. The Embudo transfer zone in the Rio Grande rift is considered one of the classic examples and has been used as the inspiration for several theoretical models. Despite this attention, the history of its development into a major rift structure is poorly known along its northern extent near Taos, New Mexico. Geologic evidence for all but its young rift history is concealed under Quaternary cover. We focus on understanding the pre-Quaternary evidence that is in the subsurface by integrating diverse pieces of geologic and geophysical information. As a result, we present a substantively new understanding of the tectonic configuration and evolution of the northern extent of the Embudo fault and its adjacent subbasin.We integrate geophysical, borehole, and geologic information to interpret the subsurface configuration of the rift margins formed by the Embudo and Sangre de Cristo faults and the geometry of the subbasin within the Taos embayment. Key features interpreted include (1) an imperfect D-shaped subbasin that slopes to the east and southeast, with the deepest point ∼2 km below the valley floor located northwest of Taos at ∼36° 26′N latitude and 105° 37′W longitude; (2) a concealed Embudo fault system that extends as much as 7 km wider than is mapped at the surface, wherein fault strands disrupt or truncate flows of Pliocene Servilleta Basalt and step down into the subbasin with a minimum of 1.8 km of vertical displacement; and (3) a similar, wider than expected (5–7 km) zone of stepped, west-down normal faults associated with the Sangre de Cristo range front fault.From the geophysical interpretations and subsurface models, we infer relations between faulting and flows of Pliocene Servilleta Basalt and older, buried basaltic rocks that, combined with geologic mapping, suggest a revised rift history involving shifts in the locus of fault activity as

  8. Neoproterozoic stratigraphic framework of the Tarim Craton in NW China: Implications for rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Guan, Shuwei; Zhang, Shuichang; Yang, Haijun; Jin, Jiuqiang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Chunyu

    2018-06-01

    The Tarim Craton is overlain by thick Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions in rift tectonic setting. This study examines the latest outcrop, seismic, and drilling core data with the objective of investigating the regional stratigraphy to deeply recognize the evolution of rifting in the craton. Cryogenian to Lower Ediacaran successions are mainly composed of clastic rocks with thicknesses of 2000-3000 m, and the Upper Ediacaran successions are composed of carbonate rocks with thicknesses of 500-800 m. The rift basins and stratigraphic zones are divided into northern and southern parts by a central paleo-uplift. The northern rift basin extends through the northern Tarim Craton in an E-W direction with two depocenters (Aksu and Kuruktag). The southern rift basin is oriented NE-SW. There are three or four phases of tillites in the northern zone, while there are two in the southern zone. Given the north-south difference of the stratigraphic framework, the northern rift basin initiated at ca. 740 Ma and the southern rift basin initiated at ca. 780 Ma. During the Cryogenian and Ediacaran, the northern and southern rift basins were separated by the central paleo-uplift, finally connecting with each other in the early Cambrian. Tectonic deformation in the Late Ediacaran led to the formation of a parallel unconformity in the rift basins and an angular unconformity in the central paleo-uplift. The Neoproterozoic rift basins continued to affect the distribution of Lower Cambrian hydrocarbon source rocks. The north-south distribution and evolution of the rift basins in the Tarim Craton have implications for reconstructions of the Rodinia supercontinent.

  9. High-resolution seismic survey for the characterization of planned PIER-ICDP fluid-monitoring sites in the Eger Rift zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, H.; Buske, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Eger Rift zone (Czech Republic) is a intra-continental non-volcanic region and is characterized by outstanding geodynamic activities, which result in earthquake swarms and significant CO2 emanations. Because fluid-induced stress can trigger earthquake swarms, both natural phenomena are probably related to each other. The epicentres of the earthquake swarms cluster at the northern edge of the Cheb Basin. Although the location of the cluster coincides with the major Mariánské-Lázně Fault Zone (MLFZ) the strike of the focal plane indicates another fault zone, the N-S trending Počátky-Plesná Zone (PPZ). Isotopic analysis of the CO2-rich fluids revealed a significant portion of upper mantle derived components, hence a magmatic fluid source in the upper mantle was postulated. Because of these phenomena, the Eger Rift area is a unique site for interdisciplinary drilling programs to study the fluid-earthquake interaction. The ICDP project PIER (Probing of Intra-continental magmatic activity: drilling the Eger Rift) will set up an observatory, consisting of five monitoring boreholes. In preparation for the drilling, the goal of the seismic survey is the characterization of the projected fluid-monitoring drill site at the CO2 degassing mofette field near Hartoušov. This will be achieved by a 6 km long profile with dense source and receiver spacing. The W-E trending profile will cross the proposed drill site and the surface traces of MLFZ and PPZ. The outcome of the seismic survey will be a high-resolution structural image of potential reflectors related to these fault zones. This will be achieved by the application of advanced pre-stack depth migration methods and a detailed P-wave velocity distribution of the area obtained from first arrival tomography. During interpretation of the seismic data, a geoelectrical resistivity model, acquired along the same profile line, will provide important constraints, especially with respect to fluid pathways.

  10. Magma mixing in the 1100 AD Montaña Reventada composite lava flow, Tenerife, Canary Islands: interaction between rift zone and central volcano plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmaier, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Troll, V. R.; Carracedo, J. C.; Chadwick, J. P.; Chew, D. M.

    2011-09-01

    Zoned eruption deposits commonly show a lower felsic and an upper mafic member, thought to reflect eruption from large, stratified magma chambers. In contrast, the Montaña Reventada composite flow (Tenerife) consists of a lower basanite and a much thicker upper phonolite. A sharp interface separates basanite and phonolite, and chilled margins at this contact indicate the basanite was still hot upon emplacement of the phonolite, i.e. the two magmas erupted in quick succession. Four types of mafic to intermediate inclusions are found in the phonolite. Inclusion textures comprise foamy quenched ones, others with chilled margins and yet others that are physically mingled, reflecting progressive mixing with a decreasing temperature contrast between the end-members. Analysis of basanite, phonolite and inclusions for majors, traces and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes show the inclusions to be derived from binary mixing of basanite and phonolite end-members in ratios of 2:1 to 4:1. Although, basanite and phonolite magmas were in direct contact, contrasting 206Pb/204Pb ratios show that they are genetically distinct (19.7193(21)-19.7418(31) vs. 19.7671(18)-19.7807(23), respectively). We argue that the Montaña Reventada basanite and phonolite first met just prior to eruption and had limited interaction time only. Montaña Reventada erupted from the transition zone between two plumbing systems, the phonolitic Teide-Pico Viejo complex and the basanitic Northwest rift zone. A rift zone basanite dyke most likely intersected the previously emplaced phonolite magma chamber. This led to eruption of geochemically and texturally unaffected basanite, with the inclusion-rich phonolite subsequently following into the established conduit.

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO_{2} degassing at the N-S volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during 2002-2015 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mar; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Barrancos, José; Rodríguez, Fátima; Melián, Gladys; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria Island, is the only one with a central volcanic complex that started to grow at about 3.5 Ma. Nowadays the central complex is formed by Las Cañadas caldera, a volcanic depression measuring 16×9 km that resulted from multiple vertical collapses and was partially filled by post-caldera volcanic products. Up to 297 mafic monogenetic cones have been recognized on Tenerife, and they represent the most common eruptive activity occurring on the island during the last 1 Ma (Dóniz et al., 2008). Most of the monogenetic cones are aligned following a triple junction-shaped rift system, as result of inflation produced by the concentration of emission vents and dykes in bands at 120o to one another as a result of minimum stress fracturing of the crust by a mantle upwelling. The main structural characteristic of the southern volcanic rift (N-S) of the island is an apparent absence of a distinct ridge, and a fan shaped distribution of monogenetic cones. Four main volcanic successions in the southern volcanic rift zone of Tenerife, temporally separated by longer periods (˜70 - 250 ka) without volcanic activity, have been identified (Kröchert and Buchner, 2008). Since there are currently no visible gas emissions at the N-S rift, diffuse degassing surveys have become an important geochemical tool for the surveillance of this volcanic system. We report here the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the N-S rift of Tenerife, performed using the accumulation chamber method in the summer period of 2015. The objectives of the surveys were: (i) to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area and (ii) to evaluate occasional CO2 efflux surveys as a volcanic surveillance tool for the N-S rift of Tenerife. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 31.7 g m-2 d-1. A spatial distribution map, constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure, did not show an

  12. Physics-based and statistical earthquake forecasting in a continental rift zone: the case study of Corinth Gulf (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segou, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    I perform a retrospective forecast experiment in the most rapid extensive continental rift worldwide, the western Corinth Gulf (wCG, Greece), aiming to predict shallow seismicity (depth statistics, four physics-based (CRS) models, combining static stress change estimations and the rate-and-state laboratory law and one hybrid model. For the latter models, I incorporate the stress changes imparted from 31 earthquakes with magnitude M ≥ 4.5 at the extended area of wCG. Special attention is given on the 3-D representation of active faults, acting as potential receiver planes for the estimation of static stress changes. I use reference seismicity between 1990 and 1995, corresponding to the learning phase of physics-based models, and I evaluate the forecasts for six months following the 1995 M = 6.4 Aigio earthquake using log-likelihood performance metrics. For the ETAS realizations, I use seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 2.5 within daily update intervals to enhance their predictive power. For assessing the role of background seismicity, I implement a stochastic reconstruction (aka declustering) aiming to answer whether M > 4.5 earthquakes correspond to spontaneous events and identify, if possible, different triggering characteristics between aftershock sequences and swarm-type seismicity periods. I find that: (1) ETAS models outperform CRS models in most time intervals achieving very low rejection ratio RN = 6 per cent, when I test their efficiency to forecast the total number of events inside the study area, (2) the best rejection ratio for CRS models reaches RN = 17 per cent, when I use varying target depths and receiver plane geometry, (3) 75 per cent of the 1995 Aigio aftershocks that occurred within the first month can be explained by static stress changes, (4) highly variable performance on behalf of both statistical and physical models is suggested by large confidence intervals of information gain per earthquake and (5) generic ETAS models can adequately

  13. Commerce geophysical lineament - Its source, geometry, and relation to the Reelfoot rift and New Madrid seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Commerce geophysical lineament is a northeast-trending magnetic and gravity feature that extends from central Arkansas to southern Illinois over a distance of ???400 km. It is parallel to the trend of the Reelfoot graben, but offset ???40 km to the northwest of the western margin of the rift floor. Modeling indicates that the source of the aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies is probably a mafic dike swarm. The age of the source of the Commerce geophysical lineament is not known, but the linearity and trend of the anomalies suggest a relationship with the Reelfoot rift, which has undergone episodic igneous activity. The Commerce geophysical lineament coincides with several topographic lineaments, movement on associated faults at least as young as Quaternary, and intrusions of various ages. Several earthquakes (Mb > 3) coincide with the Commerce geophysical lineament, but the diversity of associated focal mechanisms and the variety of surface structural features along the length of the Commerce geophysical lineament obscure its relation to the release of present-day strain. With the available seismicity data, it is difficult to attribute individual earthquakes to a specific structural lineament such as the Commerce geophysical lineament. However, the close correspondence between Quaternary faulting and present-day seismicity along the Commerce geophysical lineament is intriguing and warrants further study.

  14. Monitoring diffuse degassing in monogenetic volcanic field during seismic-volcanic unrest: the case of Tenerife North-West Rift Zone (NWRZ), Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E.; Botelho, A. H.; Regnier, G. S. G.; Rodríguez, F.; Alonso Cótchico, M.; Melián, G.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tenerife North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ) is the most active volcano of the oceanic active volcanic island of Tenerife and the scenario of three historical eruptions (Boca Cangrejo S. XVI, Arenas Negras 1706 and Chinyero 1909). Since no visible degassing (fumaroles, etc.) at Tenerife NWRZ occurs, a geochemical monitoring program at Tenerife NWRZ was established mainly consisting on performing soil CO2 efflux surveys (50 surveys since 2000) to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of soil CO2 efflux measurements and the diffuse CO2 emission rate. To do so, about 340 sampling sites were selected for each survey to obtain a homogeneous distribution after taking into consideration the local geology, structure, and accessibility. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were performed in situ by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared sensor following the accumulation chamber method. The soil CO2 efflux values of the 2017 survey ranged from non-detectable to 46.6 g m-2 d-1. Statistical-graphical analysis of the 2017 data show two different geochemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 93.3% and 1.9% of the total data, respectively. The geometric means of the B and P populations are 2.4 and 19.1 g m-2 d-1, respectively. Most of the area showed B values while the P values were mainly observed at the N-W side of the volcanic rift. To estimate the diffuse CO2 emission in metric tons per day released from Tenerife NWRZ (75 km2) for the 2017 survey, we ran about 100 sGs simulations. The estimated 2017 diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere by the Tenerife NWRZ volcano was 297 ± 13 t d-1. This 2017 diffuse CO2 emission rate value is relatively higher than the estimated background value (144 t d-1) and falls within the estimated background range (72 - 321 t d-1) observed for Tenerife NWRZ volcano during the 2000-2017 period. The observed temporal variation in the diffuse CO2 degassing output during this period does not seem to be driven by external

  15. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.

    2017-08-01

    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  16. Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalati, Moutaz

    Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from

  17. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  18. Imaging an off-axis volcanic field in the Main Ethiopian Rift using 3-D magnetotellurics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, J.; Whaler, K. A.; Fisseha, S.; Hogg, C.

    2017-12-01

    In active continental rifts, asthenospheric upwelling and crustal thinning result in the ascent of melt through the crust to the surface. In the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), most volcanic activity is located in magmatic segments in the rift centre, but there are areas of significant off-axis magmatism as well. The Butajira volcanic field is part of the Silti Debre Zeyt Fault (SDZF) zone in the western Main Ethiopian Rift. It is characterized by densely clustered volcanic vents (mostly scoria cones) and by limited seismic activity, which is mainly located along the big border faults that form the edge of a steep escarpment. Seismic P-Wave tomography reveals a crustal low velocity anomaly in this area. We present newly collected Magnetotelluric (MT) data to image the electrical conductivity structure of the area. We deployed 12 LMT instruments and 27 broadband stations in the western flank of the rift to further investigate the along-rift and depth extent of a highly conductive region under the SDZF which was previously identified by MT data collected on the central volcano Aluto and along a cross-rift transverse. This large conductor was interpreted as potential pathways for magma and fluid in the crust. MT Stations were positioned in five NW-SE running 50 km long profiles, covering overall 100km along the rift and providing good coverage for a 3-D inversion of the data to image this enigmatic area of the MER.

  19. Contrasted continental rifting via plume-craton interaction: Applications to Central East African Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koptev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The East African Rift system (EARS provides a unique system with the juxtaposition of two contrasting yet simultaneously formed rift branches, the eastern, magma-rich, and the western, magma-poor, on either sides of the old thick Tanzanian craton embedded in a younger lithosphere. Data on the pre-rift, syn-rift and post-rift far-field volcanic and tectonic activity show that the EARS formed in the context of the interaction between a deep mantle plume and a horizontally and vertically heterogeneous lithosphere under far-field tectonic extension. We bring quantitative insights into this evolution by implementing high-resolution 3D thermo-mechanical numerical deformation models of a lithosphere of realistic rheology. The models focus on the central part of the EARS. We explore scenarios of plume-lithosphere interaction with plumes of various size and initial position rising beneath a tectonically pre-stretched lithosphere. We test the impact of the inherited rheological discontinuities (suture zones along the craton borders, of the rheological structure, of lithosphere plate thickness variations, and of physical and mechanical contrasts between the craton and the embedding lithosphere. Our experiments indicate that the ascending plume material is deflected by the cratonic keel and preferentially channeled along one of its sides, leading to the formation of a large rift zone along the eastern side of the craton, with significant magmatic activity and substantial melt amount derived from the mantle plume material. We show that the observed asymmetry of the central EARS, with coeval amagmatic (western and magmatic (eastern branches, can be explained by the splitting of warm material rising from a broad plume head whose initial position is slightly shifted to the eastern side of the craton. In that case, neither a mechanical weakness of the contact between the craton and the embedding lithosphere nor the presence of second plume are required to

  20. Hydrothermal fluid flow within a tectonically active rift-ridge transform junction: Tjörnes Fracture Zone, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, M.; Geiger, S.; Graham, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the regional fluid flow dynamics in a highly faulted transform area, the Tjörnes Fracture Zone in northern Iceland which is characterized by steep geothermal gradients, hydrothermal activity, and strong seismicity. We simulate fluid flow within the Tjörnes Fracture Zone using a high-resolution model that was based on the available geological and geophysical data and has the aim to represent the complex geological structures and the thermodynamical processes that drive the regional fluid flow in a physically realistic way. Our results show that convective heat flow and mixing of cold and saline seawater with deep hydrothermal fluids controls the large-scale fluid flow. The distribution of faults has a strong influence on the local hydrodynamics by focusing flow around clusters of faults. This explains the nature of isolated upflow zones of hot hydrothermal fluids which are observed in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. An important emergent characteristic of the regional fluid flow in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone are two separate flow systems: one in the sedimentary basins, comprising more vigorous convection, and one in the crystalline basement, which is dominated by conduction. These two flow systems yield fundamental insight into the connection between regional hydrothermal fluid flow and seismicity because they form the basis of a toggle switch mechanism that is thought to have caused the hydrogeochemical anomalies recorded at Húsavik before and after the 5.8 M earthquake in September 2002.

  1. The evolution of the western rift area of the Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Humbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the evolution of a zone in the Fimbul Ice Shelf that is characterised by large crevasses and rifts west of Jutulstraumen, an outlet glacier flowing into Fimbulisen. High-resolution radar imagery and radio echo sounding data were used to study the surface and internal structure of this rift area and to define zones of similar characteristics. The western rift area is dominated by two factors: a small ice rumple that leads to basal crevasses and disturbs the homogeneity of the ice, and a zone with fibre-like blocks. Downstream of the rumple we found down-welling of internal layers and local thinning, which we explain as a result of basal crevasses due to the basal drag at the ice rumple. North of Ahlmannryggen the ice loses its lateral constraint and forms individual blocks, which are deformed like fibres under shear, where the ice stream merges with slower moving ice masses of the western side. There, the ice loses its integrity, which initiates the western rift system. The velocity difference between the slow moving western part and the fast moving extension of Jutulstraumen produces shear stress that causes the rifts to form tails and expand them to the major rifts of up to 30 km length.

  2. How sedimentation affects rift segment interaction during oblique extension: a 4D analogue modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Adam, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    During the early stages of rifting, rift segments may form along non-continuous and/or offset pre-existing weaknesses. It is important to understand how these initial rift segments interact and connect to form a continuous rift system. Previous modelling of rift interaction structures has shown the dominant influence of oblique extension, promoting rift segment linkage (e.g. Zwaan et al., 2016) and eventual continent break-up (Brune et al., 2012). However, these studies did not incorporate sedimentation, which can have important implications for rift evolution (e.g. Bialas and Buck, 2009). Here we present a series of analogue model experiments investigating the influence of sedimentation on rift interaction structures under oblique extension conditions. Our set-up involves a base of compressed foam and plexiglass that forces distributed extension in the overlying analogue materials when the model sidewalls move apart. A sand layer simulates the brittle upper crust and a viscous sand/silicone mixture the ductile lower crust. One of the underlying base plates can move laterally allowing oblique extension. Right-stepping offset and disconnected lines of silicone (seeds) on top of the basal viscous serve as inherited structures since the strong sand cover is locally thinner. We apply syn-rift sediments by filling in the developing rift and transfer zone basins with sand at fixed time steps. Models are run either with sedimentation or without to allow comparison. The first results suggest that the gross structures are similar with or without sedimentation. As seen by Zwaan et al. (2016), dextral oblique extension promotes rift linkage because rift propagation aligns itself perpendicular to the extension direction. This causes the rift segments to grow towards each other and to establish a continuous rift structure. However, the structures within the rift segments show quite different behaviour when sedimentation is applied. The extra sediment loading in the rift basin

  3. Mid-Continent Rift: Rift, LIP, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Keller, G. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    North America's Midcontinent Rift (MCR) is traditionally considered to have formed by midplate extension and volcanism ~1.1 Ga that ended due to compression from the Grenville orogeny, the ~1.3 - ~0.98 Ga assembly of Amazonia (Precambrian northeast South America), Laurentia (Precambrian North America), and other continents into the supercontinent of Rodinia. We find that a more plausible scenario is that it formed as part of the rifting of Amazonia from Laurentia and became inactive once seafloor spreading was established. The MCR has aspects both of a continental rift - a segmented linear depression filled with sedimentary and igneous rocks - and a large igneous province (LIP). Comparison of areas and volumes for a range of continental LIPS shows that the MCR volcanic rocks are significantly thicker than the others. The MCR flood basalts have steeper dips and thicker overlying sediments than other continental flood basalts, and were deposited in a subsiding basin after most extension ended, indicating that they are better viewed as post-rift than syn-rift rocks. Hence we view the MCR as a LIP deposited in crust weakened by rifting, and thus first a rift and then a LIP.

  4. Oblique reactivation of lithosphere-scale lineaments controls rift physiography - the upper-crustal expression of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, offshore southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas B.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Duffy, Oliver B.

    2018-04-01

    Pre-existing structures within sub-crustal lithosphere may localise stresses during subsequent tectonic events, resulting in complex fault systems at upper-crustal levels. As these sub-crustal structures are difficult to resolve at great depths, the evolution of kinematically and perhaps geometrically linked upper-crustal fault populations can offer insights into their deformation history, including when and how they reactivate and accommodate stresses during later tectonic events. In this study, we use borehole-constrained 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data to investigate the structural development of the Farsund Basin, offshore southern Norway. We use throw-length (T-x) analysis and fault displacement backstripping techniques to determine the geometric and kinematic evolution of N-S- and E-W-striking upper-crustal fault populations during the multiphase evolution of the Farsund Basin. N-S-striking faults were active during the Triassic, prior to a period of sinistral strike-slip activity along E-W-striking faults during the Early Jurassic, which represented a hitherto undocumented phase of activity in this area. These E-W-striking upper-crustal faults are later obliquely reactivated under a dextral stress regime during the Early Cretaceous, with new faults also propagating away from pre-existing ones, representing a switch to a predominantly dextral sense of motion. The E-W faults within the Farsund Basin are interpreted to extend through the crust to the Moho and link with the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, a lithosphere-scale lineament, identified within the sub-crustal lithosphere, that extends > 1000 km across central Europe. Based on this geometric linkage, we infer that the E-W-striking faults represent the upper-crustal component of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone and that the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone represents a long-lived lithosphere-scale lineament that is periodically reactivated throughout its protracted geological history. The upper-crustal component of

  5. Mapping of zones potentially occupied by Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes, the main vectors of Rift Valley fever in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Tourre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition for Rift Valley fever (RVF emergence is the presence of Aedes (Aedimorphus vexans and Culex (Culex poicilipes mosquitoes carrying the arbovirus and responsible for the infection. This paper presents a detailed mapping in the Sahelian region of Senegal of zones potentially occupied by these mosquitoes (ZPOMs whose population density is directly linked to ecozones in the vicinity of small ponds. The vectors habitats and breeding sites have been characterized through an integrated approach combining remote sensing technology, geographical information systems, geographical positioning systems and field observations for proper geo-referencing. From five SPOT-5 images (~10 m spatial resolution with appropriate channels, a meridional composite transect of 290 x 60 km was first constructed at the height of the summer monsoon. Subsequent ZPOMs covered major ecozones from north to south with different hydrological environments and different patterns pond distributions. It was found that an overall area of 12,817 ha ± 10% (about 0.8% of the transect is occupied by ponds with an average ZPOM 17 times larger than this (212,813 ha ± 10% or about 14% of the transect. By comparing the very humid year of 2003 with 2006 which had just below normal rainfall, the ZPOMs inter-annual variability was analyzed in a sandy-clayey ecozone with an important hydrofossil riverbed within the Ferlo region of Senegal. Very probably contributing to an increased abundance of vectors by the end of August 2003, it was shown that the aggregate pond area was already about 22 times larger than in August 2006, corresponding to an approximately five times larger total ZPOM. The results show the importance of pin-pointing small ponds (sizes down to 0.1 ha and their geographical distribution in order to assess animal exposure to the RVF vectors.

  6. Is the Proterozoic Ladoga Rift (SE Baltic Shield) a rift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Shulgin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    , and geophysical characteristics typical of continental rifts in general and demonstrate that, except for magmatic and, perhaps, some gravity signature, the Lake Ladoga region lacks any other rift features. We also compare the geophysical data from the Lake Ladoga region with similar in age Midcontinent and Valday...... interpreted as an intracratonic Ladoga rift (graben). We question the validity of this geodynamic interpretation by analyzing regional geophysical data (crustal structure, heat flow, Bouguer gravity anomalies, magnetic anomalies, and mantle Vs velocities). We provide a complete list of tectonic, magmatic...... rifts, and provide alternative explanations for Mesoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of the southern Baltic Shield. We propose that Mesoproterozoic mafic intrusions in southern Fennoscandia may be associated with a complex deformation pattern during reconfiguration of (a part of) Nuna (Columbia...

  7. Tectonic inheritance in the development of the Kivu - north Tanganyika rift segment of the East African Rift System: role of pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Fiama Bondo, Silvanos; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire

    2017-04-01

    The present architecture of the junction between the Kivu rift basin and the north Tanganyika rift basin is that of a typical accommodation zone trough the Ruzizi depression. However, this structure appeared only late in the development of the Western branch of the East African Rift System and is the result of a strong control by pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin. In the frame of a seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift region, we (Delvaux et al., 2016) constructed homogeneous geological, structural and neotectonic maps cross the five countries of this region, mapped the pre-rift, early rift and Late Quaternary faults and compiled the existing knowledge on thermal springs (assumed to be diagnostic of current tectonic activity along faults). We also produced also a new catalogue of historical and instrumental seismicity and defined the seismotectonic characteristics (stress field, depth of faulting) using published focal mechanism data. Rifting in this region started at about 11 Ma by initial doming and extensive fissural basaltic volcanism along normal faults sub-parallel to the axis of the future rift valley, as a consequence of the divergence between the Nubia and the Victoria plate. In a later stage, starting around 8-7 Ma, extension localized along a series of major border faults individualizing the subsiding tectonic basins from the uplifting rift shoulders, while lava evolved towards alkali basaltic composition until 2.6 Ma. During this stage, initial Kivu rift valley was extending linearly in a SSW direction, much further than its the actual termination at Bukavu, into the Mwenga-Kamituga graben, up to Namoya. The SW extremity of this graben was linked via a long oblique transfer zone to the central part of Lake Tanganyika, itself reactivating an older ductile-brittle shear zone. In the late Quaternary-early Holocene, volcanism migrated towards the center of the basin, with the development of the Virunga volcanic massif

  8. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO_{2} degassing at the Tenerife North-South Rift Zone (NSRZ) volcano (Canary Islands) during the period 2002-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; McCollum, John J. K.; Orland, Elijah D. M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán D.; Calvo, David; Amonte, Cecilia; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Subaerial volcanic activity on Tenerife (2034 km2), the largest island of the Canary archipelago, started 14 My ago and 4 volcanic eruptions have occurred in historical times during the last 300 years. The main volcano-structural and geomorphological features of Tenerife are (i) the central volcanic complex, nowadays formed by Las Cañadas caldera, a volcanic depression measuring 16×9 km that resulted from multiple vertical collapses and partially filled by post-caldera volcanic products and (ii) the triple junction-shaped rift system, formed by numerous aligned monogenetic cones. Up to 297 mafic monogenetic cones have been recognized on Tenerife, and they represent the most common eruptive activity occurring on the island during the last 1 My (Dóniz et al., 2008). The North-South Rift Zone (NSRZ) of Tenerife comprises at least 139 cones. The main structural characteristic of the NSRZ of the island is an apparent absence of a distinct ridge, and a fan shaped distribution of monogenetic cones. Since there are currently no visible gas emissions at the NSRZ, diffuse degassing surveys have become an important geochemical tool for the surveillance of this volcanic system. Five diffuse CO2 degassing surveys have been carried out at NSRZ of Tenerife since 2002, the last one in the summer period of 2016, to evaluate the spatio-temporal variations of CO2 degassing as a volcanic surveillance tool for the NSRZ of Tenerife. At each survey, around 600 sampling sites were selected to cover homogenously the study area (325 km2) using the accumulation chamber method. The diffuse CO2 output ranged from 78 to 707 t/d in the study period, with the highest emission rate measured in 2015. The backgroung emission rate was estimated in 300 t/d. The last results the soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 24.7 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution map, constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure, showed the highest CO2 values as multiple

  9. EIA modelling for coastal zone management. Part 2

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    stream_size 15 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt stream_source_info Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  10. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics and magma sources of the early Cretaceous trachybasalts of the Goby-Altai rift zone: an example of grabens in the Arts-Bogdo range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlov, V.S.; Yarmolyuk, V.V.; Kovalenko, V.I.; Ivanov, V.G.; Pakhol'chenko, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    Geochemical and isotopic-geochemical characteristics of the basalts of Early Cretaceous (Hoby-Altai rift zone; Arts-Bogdo region, Mongolia). Atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, photometry, mass spectroscopy and other methods were used. Mantle nature of the basalt geochemical specificity is shown as well as their initial melts. Data on the rubidium-strontium isotopic composition of Neocomian basalts are the following ones: 87 Sr/ 86 Sr 87 Sr/ 86 Sr > 0.707 and Rb/Sr > 0.06 [ru

  11. Phanerozoic Rifting Phases And Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    connected with NW,WNW and N-S faults genetically related to volcano-hydrothermal activity associated the Red Sea rifting. At Sherm EL-Sheikh hydrothermal manganese deposit occurs in Oligocene clastics within fault zone. Four iron-manganese-barite mineralization in Esh-Elmellaha plateau are controlled by faults trending NW,NE and nearly E-W intersecting Miocene carbonate rocks. Barite exists disseminated in the ores and as a vein in NW fault. In Shalatee - Halaib district 24 manganese deposits and barite veins with sulphide patches occur within Miocene carbonates distributed along two NW fault planes,trending 240°and 310° and occur in granite and basalt . Uranium -lead-zinc sulfide mineralization occur in Late Proterozoic granite, Late Cretaceous sandstones, and chiefly in Miocene clastic-carbonate-evaporate rocks. The occurrences of uranium- lead-zinc and iron-manganese-barite mineralization have the characteristic features of hypogene cavity filling and replacement deposits correlated with Miocene- Recent Aden volcanic rocks rifting. In western Saudi Arabia barite-lead-zinc mineralization occurs at Lat. 25° 45' and 25° 50'N hosted by Tertiary sediments in limestone nearby basaltic flows and NE-SW fault system. The mineralized hot brines in the Red Sea deeps considered by the author a part of this province. The author considers the constant rifting phases of Pangea and then progressive fragmentation of Western Gondwana during the Late Carboniferous-Lias, Late Jurassic-Early Aptian, Late Aptian - Albian and Late Eocene-Early Miocene and Oligocene-Miocene, responsible for formation of the mineral deposits constituting the M provinces. During these events, rifting, magmatism and hydrothermal activities took place in different peri-continental margins.

  12. Continental Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  13. Boundary separating the seismically active reelfoot rift from the sparsely seismic Rough Creek graben, Kentucky and Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Reelfoot rift is the most active of six Iapetan rifts and grabens in central and eastern North America. In contrast, the Rough Creek graben is one of the least active, being seismically indistinguishable from the central craton of North America. Yet the rift and graben adjoin. Hazard assessment in the rift and graben would be aided by identification of a boundary between them. Changes in the strikes of single large faults, the location of a Cambrian transfer zone, and the geographic extent of alkaline igneous rocks provide three independent estimates of the location of a structural boundary between the rift and the graben. The boundary trends north-northwest through the northeastern part of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex of Kentucky and Illinois, and has no obvious surface expression. The boundary involves the largest faults, which are the most likely to penetrate to hypocentral depths, and the boundary coincides with the geographic change from abundant seismicity in the rift to sparse seismicity in the graben. Because the structural boundary was defined by geologic variables that are expected to be causally associated with seismicity, it may continue to bound the Reelfoot rift seismicity in the future.

  14. Track treeing mechanism and plastic zone in solid Part 1: Initial development of plastic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Boyang

    2008-01-01

    After neutron exposure and chemical etching in advance, latent tracks of recoil nucleon develop into pits on CR39 surface. During electrochemical etching, plastic zone is formed at top of pits. Some pits develop into tree cracks in the initial stage of plastic zone development. Physical and mathematical model of crack and plastic zone is proposed; parameter of development free path of plastic zone is presented. Based on integration of elementary theories the stress analysis is build up; based on analyses of measured parameters, a set of common relations between parameters is obtained. Integrate parameter analysis and stress analysis, depth of plastic zone development, law and phenomenon in experimental data can be interpreted completely

  15. Lower Crustal Seismicity, Volatiles, and Evolving Strain Fields During the Initial Stages of Cratonic Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C.; Muirhead, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Kianji, G.; Mulibo, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    The volcanically active East African rift system in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania transects thick cratonic lithosphere, and comprises several basins characterized by deep crustal seismicity. The US-French-Tanzania-Kenya CRAFTI project aims to understand the role of magma and volatile movement during the initiation and evolution of rifting in cratonic lithosphere. Our 38-station broadband network spans all or parts of fault-bounded rift segments, enabling comparison of lithospheric structure, fault kinematics, and seismogenic layer thickness with age and proximity to the deeply rooted Archaen craton. Seismicity levels are high in all basins, but we find profound differences in seismogenic layer thickness along the length of the rift. Seismicity in the Manyara basin occurs almost exclusively within the lower crust, and in spatial clusters that have been active since 1990. In contrast, seismicity in the ~ 5 My older Magadi basin is localized in the upper crust, and the long border fault bounding the west side of the basin is seismically inactive. Between these two basins lies the Natron rift segment, which shows seismicity between ~ 20 and ~2 km depth, and high concentrations at Oldoinyo Lengai and Gelai volcanoes. Older volcanoes on the uplifted western flank (e.g., Ngorongoro) experience swarms of activity, suggesting that active magmatism and degassing are widespread. Focal mechanisms of the frequent earthquakes recorded across the array are spatially variable, and indicate a stress field strongly influenced by (1) Holocene volcanoes, (2) mechanical interactions between adjacent rift basins, and (3) a far-field ESE-WNW extensional stress regime. We explore the spatial correlation between zones of intense degassing along fault systems and seismicity, and examine the influence of high gas pressures on lower and upper crustal seismicity in this youthful cratonic rift zone.

  16. Characterising and comparing animal-health services in the Rift Valley, Kenya: an exploratory analysis (part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, L E; Ongeri, W; Asena, K; Thrusfield, M V

    2016-12-01

    Livestock are of vital importance to the livelihoods of millions of people across the world, playing a pivotal role in income generation, employment, food security, transport and social cohesion. Access to quality animal-health services by livestock owners is critical to sustainable food-animal production; therefore, animal-health practitioners represent key stakeholders within the world food system. A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise and compare existing private animal-health services and to explore perceptions of veterinary services amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal-health outlets, including franchise outlets of 'Sidai Africa Ltd.', and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of a Maasai pastoralist group and members of a dairy-farmer cooperative of their local animal-health services. Results were analysed using descriptive methods and the confidence interval overlap technique. Differences were detected in the characteristics of Sidai outlets, agrovets (agricultural retailers), pharmacies and dukas (general shops). Sidai outlets offered a more professional and diverse portfolio of livestock services. Across all outlet types, staff knowledge and training gaps and a shortage of cold-chain facilities were identified. Farmers have strong preferences for certain products, which may foster the development of drug resistance. There is a disconnection between the sale of veterinary medicines and the provision of quality advice, with many agrovets, pharmacies and dukas selling veterinary medicines but lacking the capacity to provide clinical services. There is a clear demand from livestock keepers for accessible, affordable and quality animal-health services and products in Kenya; therefore, animal-health practitioners have the potential to provide increased support to livestock-based livelihoods.

  17. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  18. Rift systems in the southern North Atlantic: why did some fail and others not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirrengarten, M.; Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.; Kusznir, N. J.; Sauter, D.

    2017-12-01

    Orphan, Rockall, Porcupine, Parentis and Pyrenean Basins are failed rift systems surrounding the southern North Atlantic Ocean. The failure or succeessing of a rift system is intimately linked to the question of what controls lithospheric breakup and what keeps oceanic spreading alive. Extension rates and the thermal structure are usually the main parameters invoked. However, between the rifts that succeeded and those that failed, the relative control and relative importance of these parameters is not clear. Cessation of driving forces, strain hardening or competition between concurrent rifts are hypotheses often used to explain rift failure. In this work, we aim to analyze the influence of far field forces on the abandon of rift systems in the southern North Atlantic domain using plate kinematic modeling. A new reconstruction approach that integrates the spatio-temporal evolution of rifted basins has been developed. The plate modeling is based on the definition, mapping and restoration of rift domains using 3D gravity inversions methods that provide crustal thickness maps. The kinematic description of each rift system enables us to discuss the local rift evolution relative to the far field kinematic framework. The resulting model shows a strong segmentation of the different rift systems during extreme crustal thinning that are crosscut by V-shape propagators linked to the exhumation of mantle and emplacement of first oceanic crust. The northward propagating lithospheric breakup of the southern North Atlantic may be partly triggered and channeled by extreme lithospheric thinning. However, at Aptian-Albian time, the northward propagating lithospheric breakup diverts and is partitioned along a transtensional system resulting in the abandon of the Orphan and Rockall basins. The change in the propagation direction may be related to a local strain weakening along existing/inherited transfer zones and/or, alternatively, to a more global plate reorganization. The

  19. Oxygenated gasoline release in the unsaturated zone - Part 1: Source zone behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

    2011-11-01

    Oxygenates present in gasoline, such as ethanol and MTBE, are a concern in subsurface contamination related to accidental spills. While gasoline hydrocarbon compounds have low solubility, MTBE and ethanol are more soluble, ethanol being completely miscible with water. Consequently, their fate in the subsurface is likely to differ from that of gasoline. To evaluate the fate of gasoline containing oxygenates following a release in the unsaturated zone shielded from rainfall/recharge, a controlled field test was performed at Canadian Forces Base Borden, in Ontario. 200L of a mixture composed of gasoline with 10% ethanol and 4.5% MTBE was released in the unsaturated zone, into a trench 20cm deep, about 32cm above the water table. Based on soil cores, most of the ethanol was retained in the source, above the capillary fringe, and remained there for more than 100 days. Ethanol partitioned from the gasoline to the unsaturated pore-water and was retained, despite the thin unsaturated zone at the site (~35cm from the top of the capillary fringe to ground surface). Due to its lower solubility, most of the MTBE remained within the NAPL as it infiltrated deeper into the unsaturated zone and accumulated with the gasoline on top of the depressed capillary fringe. Only minor changes in the distribution of ethanol were noted following oscillations in the water table. Two methods to estimate the capacity of the unsaturated zone to retain ethanol are explored. It is clear that conceptual models for sites impacted by ethanol-fuels must consider the unsaturated zone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The temporal and spatial distribution of upper crustal faulting and magmatism in the south Lake Turkana rift, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, J.; Scholz, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    During continental breakup extension is accommodated in the upper crust largely through dike intrusion and normal faulting. The Eastern branch of the East African Rift arguably represents the premier example of active continental breakup in the presence magma. Constraining how faulting is distributed in both time and space in these regions is challenging, yet can elucidate how extensional strain localizes within basins as rifting progresses to sea-floor spreading. Studies of active rifts, such as the Turkana Rift, reveal important links between faulting and active magmatic processes. We utilized over 1100 km of high-resolution Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) 2D seismic reflection data, integrated with a suite of radiocarbon-dated sediment cores (3 in total), to constrain a 17,000 year history of fault activity in south Lake Turkana. Here, a set of N-S-striking intra-rift faults exhibit time-averaged slip-rates as high as 1.6 mm/yr, with the highest slip-rates occurring along faults within 3 km of the rift axis. Results show that strain has localized into a zone of intra-rift faults along the rift axis, forming an approximately 20 km-wide graben in central parts of the basin. Subsurface structural mapping and fault throw profile analyses reveal increasing basin subsidence and fault-related strain as this faulted graben approaches a volcanic island in the center of the basin (South Island). The long-axis of this island trends north-south, and it contains a number of elongate cones that support recent emplacement of N-S-striking dike intrusions, which parallel recently active intra-rift faults. Overall, these observations suggest strain localization into intra-rift faults in the rift center is likely a product of both volcanic loading and the mechanical and thermal effects of diking along the rift axis. These results support the establishment of magmatic segmentation in southern Lake Turkana, and highlight the importance of magmatism for focusing upper

  1. The evolution of rifting process in the tectonic history of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovsky, E. E.; Nikishin, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    The continental rifting is the response of the lithosphere to the oriented tension. The distribution of viscosity in the lithosphere plays an essential role during all stages of the rifting. The viscosity is a function of the temperature, the lithostatic pressure, the rock composition, the deformation rate and other factors. The temperature is the most important factor. The vertical section of continental lithosphere of the rift zone may be divided into the following layers: the upper crust, in which brittle deformation prevails; the medialcrust, in which the role of plastic deformation increases; the lower crust, in which plastic deformation prevails; and the uppermost plastic part of the mantle overlapping asthenosphere. The depth of the boundaries in the crust layers are mainly controlled by the temperature.

  2. Combining hydrologic and groundwater modelling to characterize a regional aquifer system within a rift setting (Gidabo River Basin, Main Ethiopian Rift)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Steffen; Mechal, Abraham; Wagner, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried; Mogessie, Aberra

    2016-04-01

    heads measured in 72 wells. To account for the incomplete knowledge of the aquifer system several model set-ups differing in the number of transmissivity zones as well as in the implementation of fault zones, rivers, and model boundaries were evaluated using information criteria. The general pattern of the hydraulic-head distribution resulting from the plausible model set-ups agrees reasonably well with that obtained from the observations. Likewise the simulated baseflow is similar (though slightly higher) to that obtained by baseflow separation from measured discharge. The estimated transmissivity increases from the highland (in the order of 10-100 m²/day) toward the rift floor (in the order of 100-1000 m²/day). Although the rift-floor aquifers are mainly (65%) supplied by recharge from precipitation, groundwater flow from the highland (mountain block recharge) is found to provide a significant contribution (35%). At present, less than 1% of the groundwater flow is abstracted by pumping wells, suggesting a high potential for groundwater development both in the highland and the rift floor. With regard to the rift floor, potential effects of climate change on groundwater resources deserve further investigation, as the hydrological model suggests a high sensitivity of groundwater recharge to changes of precipitation and air temperature particularly within this part of the watershed.

  3. Young rift kinematics in the Tadjoura rift, western Gulf of Aden, Republic of Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Mohamed A.; Le Gall, Bernard; Maury, René C.; Rolet, JoëL.; Huchon, Philippe; Guillou, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The Tadjoura rift forms the westernmost edge of the westerly propagating Sheba ridge, between Arabia and Somalia, as it enters into the Afar depression. From structural and remote sensing data sets, the Tadjoura rift is interpreted as an asymmetrical south facing half-graben, about 40 km wide, dominated by a large boundary fault zone to the north. It is partially filled up by the 1-3 Myr old Gulf Basalts which onlapped the older Somali Basalts along its shallower southern flexural margin. The major and trace element analysis of 78 young onshore lavas allows us to distinguish and map four distinct basaltic types, namely the Gulf, Somali, Goumarre, and Hayyabley Basalts. These results, together with radiometric age data, lead us to propose a revised volcano-stratigraphic sketch of the two exposed Tadjoura rift margins and to discriminate and date several distinct fault networks of this oblique rift. Morphological and statistical analyses of onshore extensional fault populations show marked changes in structural styles along-strike, in a direction parallel to the rift axis. These major fault disturbances are assigned to the arrest of axial fault tip propagation against preexisting discontinuities in the NS-oriented Arta transverse zone. According to our model, the sinistral jump of rifting into the Asal-Ghoubbet rift segment results from structural inheritance, in contrast with the en échelon or transform mechanism of propagation that prevailed along the entire length of the Gulf of Aden extensional system.

  4. Using historical crash data as part of traffic work zone safety planning and project management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This funding enabled the project entitled, USING HISTORICAL CRASH DATA AS PART OF TRAFFIC WORK ZONE SAFETY : PLANNING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES to address the following: : Evaluate current organizational strategies with respect to w...

  5. Orogenic inheritance and continental breakup: Wilson Cycle-control on rift and passive margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, C.; Petersen, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Rifts often develop along suture zones between previously collided continents, as part of the Wilson cycle. The North Atlantic is such an example, formed where Pangaea broke apart along Caledonian and Variscan sutures. Dipping upper mantle structures in E. Greenland and Scotland, have been interpreted as fossil subduction zones and the seismic signature indicates the presence of eclogite and serpentinite. We speculate that this orogenic material may impose a rheological control upon post-orogenic extension and we use thermo-mechanical modelling to explore such effects. Our model includes the following features: 1) Crustal thickness anomalies, 2) Eclogitised mafic crust emplaced in the mantle lithosphere, and 3) Hydrated mantle peridotite (serpentinite) formed in a pre-rift subduction setting. Our models indicate that the inherited structures control the location and the structural and magmatic evolution of the rift. Rifting of thin initial crust allows for relatively large amounts of serpentinite to be preserved within the uppermost mantle. This facilitates rapid continental breakup and serpentinite exhumation. Magmatism does not occur before continental breakup. Rifts in thicker crust preserve little or no serpentinite and thinning is more focused in the mantle lithosphere, rather than in the crust. Continental breakup is therefore preceded by magmatism. This implies that pre-rift orogenic properties may determine whether magma-poor or magma-rich conjugate margins are formed. Our models show that inherited orogenic eclogite and serpentinite are deformed and partially emplaced either as dipping structures within the lithospheric mantle or at the base of the thinned continental crust. The former is consistent with dipping sub-Moho reflectors often observed in passive margins. The latter provides an alternative interpretation of `lower crustal bodies' which are often regarded as igneous bodies. An additional implication of our models is that serpentinite, often

  6. Kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift and Absolute motion of Africa and Somalia Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of East African Rift System (EARS), forms a boundary zone accommodating differential motion between Africa and Somalia Plates. Its orientation was influenced by the inherited Pan-African collisional system and related lithospheric fabric. We present the kinematics of ER derived from compilation of geodetic velocities, focal mechanism inversions, structural data analysis, and construction of geological profiles. GPS velocity field shows a systematic eastward magnitude increase in NE direction in the central ER. In the same region, incremental extensional strain axes recorded by earthquake focal mechanism and fault slip inversion show ≈N1000E orientation. This deviation between GPS velocity trajectories and orientation of incremental extensional strain is developed due to left lateral transtensional deformation. This interpretation is consistent with the en-échelon pattern of tensional and transtensional faults, the distribution of the volcanic centers, and the asymmetry of the rift itself. Small amount of vertical axis blocks rotation, sinistral strike slip faults and dyke intrusions in the rift accommodate the transtensional deformation. We analyzed the kinematics of ER relative to Deep and Shallow Hot Spot Reference Frames (HSRF). Comparison between the two reference frames shows different kinematics in ER and also Africa and Somalia plate motion both in magnitude and direction. Plate spreading direction in shallow HSRF (i.e. the source of the plumes locates in the asthenosphere) and the trend of ER deviate by about 27°. Shearing and extension across the plate boundary zone contribute both to the style of deformation and overall kinematics in the rift. We conclude that the observed long wavelength kinematics and tectonics are consequences of faster SW ward motion of Africa than Somalia in the shallow HSRF. This reference frame seems more consistent with the geophysical and geological constraints in the Rift. The

  7. Impact of rheological layering on rift asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Yoann; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Duretz, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Although numerous models of rift formation have been proposed, what triggers asymmetry of rifted margins remains unclear. Parametrized material softening is often employed to induce asymmetric fault patterns in numerical models. Here, we use thermo-mechanical finite element models that allow softening via thermal weakening. We investigate the importance of lithosphere rheology and mechanical layering on rift morphology. The numerical code is based on the MILAMIN solver and uses the Triangle mesh generator. Our model configuration consists of a visco-elasto-platic layered lithosphere comprising either (1) only one brittle-ductile transition (in the mantle) or (2) three brittle-ductile transitions (one in the upper crust, one in the lower crust and one in the mantle). We perform then two sets of simulations characterized by low and high extensional strain rates (5*10-15 s-1, 2*10-14 s-1). The results show that the extension of a lithosphere comprising only one brittle-ductile transition produces a symmetric 'neck' type rift. The upper and lower crusts are thinned until the lithospheric mantle is exhumed to the seafloor. A lithosphere containing three brittle-ductile transitions favors strain localization. Shear zones at different horizontal locations and generated in the brittle levels of the lithosphere get connected by the weak ductile layers. The results suggest that rheological layering of the lithosphere can be a reason for the generation of asymmetric rifting and subsequent rift morphology.

  8. Flux and genesis of CO2 degassing from volcanic-geothermal fields of Gulu-Yadong rift in the Lhasa terrane, South Tibet: Constraints on characteristics of deep carbon cycle in the India-Asia continent subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihong; Guo, Zhengfu; Sano, Yuji; Zhang, Maoliang; Sun, Yutao; Cheng, Zhihui; Yang, Tsanyao Frank

    2017-11-01

    Gulu-Yadong rift (GYR) is the longest extensional, NE-SW-trending rift in the Himalayas and Lhasa terrane of South Tibet. Many volcanic-geothermal fields (VGFs), which comprise intense hot springs, steaming fissures, geysers and soil micro-seepage, are distributed in the GYR, making it ideal area for studying deep carbon emissions in the India-Asia continent subduction zone. As for the northern segment of GYR in the Lhasa terrane, its total flux and genesis of CO2 emissions are poorly understood. Following accumulation chamber method, soil CO2 flux survey has been carried out in VGFs (i.e., Jidaguo, Ningzhong, Sanglai, Tuoma and Yuzhai from south to north) of the northern segment of GYR. Total soil CO2 output of the northern GYR is about 1.50 × 107 t a-1, which is attributed to biogenic and volcanic-geothermal source. Geochemical characteristics of the volcanic-geothermal gases (including CO2 and He) of the northern GYR indicate their significant mantle-derived affinities. Combined with previous petrogeochemical and geophysical data, our He-C isotope modeling calculation results show that (1) excess mantle-derived 3He reflects degassing of volatiles related with partial melts from enriched mantle wedge induced by northward subduction of the Indian lithosphere, and (2) the crust-mantle interaction can provide continuous heat and materials for the overlying volcanic-geothermal system, in which magma-derived volatiles are inferred to experience significant crustal contamination during their migration to the surface.

  9. Oblique transfer of extensional strain between basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, New Mexico: Fault kinematic and paleostress constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Thompson, Ren A.

    2013-01-01

    The structural geometry of transfer and accommodation zones that relay strain between extensional domains in rifted crust has been addressed in many studies over the past 30 years. However, details of the kinematics of deformation and related stress changes within these zones have received relatively little attention. In this study we conduct the first-ever systematic, multi-basin fault-slip measurement campaign within the late Cenozoic Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico to address the mechanisms and causes of extensional strain transfer associated with a broad accommodation zone. Numerous (562) kinematic measurements were collected at fault exposures within and adjacent to the NE-trending Santo Domingo Basin accommodation zone, or relay, which structurally links the N-trending, right-stepping en echelon Albuquerque and Española rift basins. The following observations are made based on these fault measurements and paleostresses computed from them. (1) Compared to the typical northerly striking normal to normal-oblique faults in the rift basins to the north and south, normal-oblique faults are broadly distributed within two merging, NE-trending zones on the northwest and southeast sides of the Santo Domingo Basin. (2) Faults in these zones have greater dispersion of rake values and fault strikes, greater dextral strike-slip components over a wide northerly strike range, and small to moderate clockwise deflections of their tips. (3) Relative-age relations among fault surfaces and slickenlines used to compute reduced stress tensors suggest that far-field, ~E-W–trending σ3 stress trajectories were perturbed 45° to 90° clockwise into NW to N trends within the Santo Domingo zones. (4) Fault-stratigraphic age relations constrain the stress perturbations to the later stages of rifting, possibly as late as 2.7–1.1 Ma. Our fault observations and previous paleomagnetic evidence of post–2.7 Ma counterclockwise vertical-axis rotations are consistent with increased

  10. The crustal characteristics at syn- and/or post-rifting in eastern Shikoku basin by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Takizawa, K.; No, T.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Imaging of the arc-backarc transition zone is important in relation to the backarc opening process. Shikoku Basin locates between the Kyushu-Palau Ridge and the Izu-Ogasawara Arc, which is an important area to reveal the opening evolution of the backarc basins as a part of the growth process of the Philippine Sea. The Shikoku Basin was in the backarc rifting and spreading stage during about 30-15 Ma (e.g. Okino et al., 1994). High P-wave velocity lower crust is identified in arc-backarc transition zone by refraction survey using OBSs (Takahashi et al., 2007). Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) survey using 12,000 cu.in. air gun and 5 km streamer with 204 ch hydrophones in the Izu-Ogasawara region since 2004. We extracted and mapped the crustal characteristics from poststack and prestack depth migrated profiles. According to obtained profiles, the deformation structure with share component is recognized in arc-backarc transition zone, which located eastern side of Shikoku Basin from Zenisu Ridge to about 500 km south. The maximum width of this deformation zone is about 100 km. The relative displacement of horizon is little; however, it is strongly deformed from upper crust beneath seafloor. This deformation zone indicates the post- rifting activity in east side of Shikoku Basin. On the other hand, some knolls are indicated along the en- echelon arrangement from Izu-Ogasawara arc. Ishizuka et al. (2003) reported post-rifting volcanism with Miocene age in en-echelon arrangement. A part of these knolls are estimated to penetrate at syn-rifting and/or post-rifting stage in backarc opening. By comparing the both side of arc-backarc transition zone, we elucidate syn- and post-rifting effect in Shikoku Basin. We also carried out high density MCS surveys in Shikoku Basin in order to IODP proposal site for reconstruction of magmatic processes since Oligocene in rear arc. In this survey, we use new

  11. Upper crustal structure of the northern part of the Bohemian ­Massif in ­rel­ation­ t­o geological, potential field data and new deep seismic data (Eger/Ohře Rift, Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skácelová, Z.; Mlčoch, B.; Novotný, Miroslav; Mrlina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-18 ISSN 0303-4534 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602; GA MŽP SB/630/3/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : upper crustal structure * Bohemian Massif * Eger/Ohře Rift * Saxothuringian Zone * Teplá-Barrandian Unit * Moldanubian Zone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  12. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for Carboniferous rifting: mafic dykes in the central Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Dorud-Azna, West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakerardakani Farzaneh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present detailed field observations, chronological, geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic data and discuss the petrogenetic aspects of two types of mafic dykes, of alkaline to subalkaline nature. The alkaline mafic dykes exhibit a cumulate to foliated texture and strike NW–SE, parallel to the main trend of the region. The 40Ar/39Ar amphibole age of 321.32 ± 0.55 Ma from an alkaline mafic dyke is interpreted as an indication of Carboniferous cooling through ca. 550 °C after intrusion of the dyke into the granitic Galeh-Doz orthogneiss and Amphibolite-Metagabbro units, the latter with Early Carboniferous amphibolite facies grade metamorphism and containing the Dare-Hedavand metagabbro with a similar Carboniferous age. The alkaline and subalkaline mafic dykes can be geochemically categorized into those with light REE-enriched patterns [(La/YbN = 8.32–9.28] and others with a rather flat REE pattern [(La/YbN = 1.16] and with a negative Nb anomaly. Together, the mafic dykes show oceanic island basalt to MORB geochemical signature, respectively. This is consistent, as well, with the (Tb/YbPM ratios. The alkaline mafic dykes were formed within an enriched mantle source at depths of ˃ 90 km, generating a suite of alkaline basalts. In comparison, the subalkaline mafic dykes were formed within more depleted mantle source at depths of ˂ 90 km. The subalkaline mafic dyke is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.706 and positive ɛNd(t value of + 0.77, whereas 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.708 and ɛNd(t value of + 1.65 of the alkaline mafic dyke, consistent with the derivation from an enriched mantle source. There is no evidence that the mafic dykes were affected by significant crustal contamination during emplacement. Because of the similar age, the generation of magmas of alkaline mafic dykes and of the Dare-Hedavand metagabbro are assumed to reflect the same process of lithospheric or asthenospheric melting. Carboniferous back-arc rifting is

  13. Two-dimensional, average velocity field across the Asal Rift, Djibouti from 1997-2008 RADARSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, J.; Doubre, C.; Peltzer, G.

    2009-12-01

    Located at the western end of the Aden ridge, the Asal Rift is the first emerged section of the ridge propagating into Afar, a region of intense volcanic and tectonic activity. We construct a two-dimensional surface velocity map of the 200x400 km2 region covering the rift using the 1997-2008 archive of InSAR data acquired from ascending and descending passes of the RADARSAT satellite. The large phase signal due to turbulent troposphere conditions over the Afar region is mostly removed from the 11-year average line of sight (LOS) velocity maps, revealing a clear deformation signal across the rift. We combine the ascending and descending pass LOS velocity fields with the Arabia-Somalia pole of rotation adjusted to regional GPS velocities (Vigny et al., 2007) to compute the fields of the vertical and horizontal, GPS-parallel components of the velocity over the rift. The vertical velocity field shows a ~40 km wide zone of doming centered over the Fieale caldera associated with shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift inner floor. Differential movement between shoulders and floor is accommodated by creep at 6 mm/yr on Fault γ and 2.7 mm/yr on Fault E. The horizontal field shows that the two shoulders open at a rate of ~15 mm/yr, while the horizontal velocity decreases away from the rift to the plate motion rate of ~11 mm/yr. Part of the opening is concentrated on faults γ (5 mm/yr) and E (4 mm/yr) and about 4 mm/yr is distributed between Fault E and Fault H in the southern part of the rift. The observed velocity field along a 60 km-long profile across the eastern part of the rift can be explained with a 2D mechanical model involving a 5-9 km-deep, vertical dyke expanding horizontally at a rate of 5 cm/yr, a 2 km-wide, 7 km-deep sill expanding vertically at 1cm/yr, and down-dip and opening of faults γ and E. Results from 3D rift models describing along-strike velocity decrease away from the Goubbet Gulf and the effects of a pressurized magma chamber will be

  14. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  15. From continental to oceanic rifting in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Bonini, Marco; Martín, Arturo

    2017-11-01

    The continental margin of northwestern Mexico is the youngest example of the transition from a convergent plate boundary to an oblique divergent margin that formed the Gulf of California rift. Subduction of the Farallon oceanic plate during the Cenozoic progressively brought the East Pacific Rise (EPR) toward the North America trench. In this process increasingly younger and buoyant oceanic lithosphere entered the subduction zone until subduction ended just before most of the EPR could collide with the North America continental lithosphere. The EPR segments bounding the unsubducted parts of the Farallón plate remnants (Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates) also ceased spreading (Lonsdale, 1991) and a belt of the North American plate (California and Baja California Peninsula) became coupled with the Pacific Plate and started moving northwestward forming the modern Gulf of California oblique rift (Nicholson et al., 1994; Bohannon and Parsons, 1995). The timing of the change from plate convergence to oblique divergence off western Mexico has been constrained at the middle Miocene (15-12.5 Ma) by ocean floor morphology and magnetic anomalies as well as plate tectonic reconstructions (Atwater and Severinghaus, 1989; Stock and Hodges, 1989; Lonsdale, 1991), although the onset of transtensional deformation and the amount of right lateral displacement within the Gulf region are still being studied (Oskin et al., 2001; Fletcher et al., 2007; Bennett and Oskin, 2014). Other aspects of the formation of the Gulf of California remain not well understood. At present the Gulf of California straddles the transition from continental transtension in the north to oceanic spreading in the south. Seismic reflection-refraction data indicate asymmetric continent-ocean transition across conjugate margins of rift segments (González-Fernández et al., 2005; Lizarralde et al., 2007; Miller and Lizarralde, 2013; Martín-Barajas et al., 2013). The asymmetry may be related to crustal

  16. Polyphase Rifting and Breakup of the Central Mozambique Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkans, Andrew; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Elia; Castilla, Raymi

    2017-04-01

    The breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent resulted in the formation of the Central Mozambique passive margin as Africa and Antarctica were separated during the mid-Jurassic period. The identification of magnetic anomalies in the Mozambique Basin and Riiser Larsen Sea means that post-oceanisation plate kinematics are well-constrained. Unresolved questions remain, however, regarding the initial fit, continental breakup process, and the first relative movements of Africa and Antarctica. This study uses high quality multi-channel seismic reflection profiles in an effort to identify the major crustal domains in the Angoche and Beira regions of the Central Mozambique margin. This work is part of the integrated pluri-disciplinary PAMELA project*. Our results show that the Central Mozambique passive margin is characterised by intense but localised magmatic activity, evidenced by the existence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) in the Angoche region, as well as magmatic sills and volcanoclastic material which mark the Beira High. The Angoche region is defined by a faulted upper-continental crust, with the possible exhumation of lower crustal material forming an extended ocean-continent transition (OCT). The profiles studied across the Beira high reveal an offshore continental fragment, which is overlain by a pre-rift sedimentary unit likely to belong to the Karoo Group. Faulting of the crust and overlying sedimentary unit reveals that the Beira High has recorded several phases of deformation. The combination of our seismic interpretation with existing geophysical and geological results have allowed us to propose a breakup model which supports the idea that the Central Mozambique margin was affected by polyphase rifting. The analysis of both along-dip and along-strike profiles shows that the Beira High initially experienced extension in a direction approximately parallel to the Mozambique coastline onshore of the Beira High. Our results suggest that the Beira High results

  17. Guidebook to Rio Grande rift in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the details of geologic features along the rift zone. Included are short papers on topics relative to the overall region. These papers and the road logs are of special interest to any one pursuing further study of the rift. This book is a comprehensive guide to the middle and late Cenozoic geology of the Rio Grande region of Colorado and New Mexico. Though initially used on field trips for the International Symposium on Tectonics and Magmatism of the Rio Grande rift, the guidebook will be useful to anyone interested in the Cenozoic history of the 600-mi-long area extending from central Colorado to El Paso, Texas.

  18. Crustal-scale recycling in caldera complexes and rift zones along the Yellowstone hotspot track: O and Hf isotopic evidence in diverse zircons from voluminous rhyolites of the Picabo volcanic field, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Dana L.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Watts, Kathryn E.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Fu, Bin; McCurry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    followed by rapid batch assembly prior to eruption. However, due to the greater abundance of low-δ18O rhyolites at Picabo, the eruptive framework may reflect an intertwined history of caldera collapse and coeval Basin and Range rifting and hydrothermal alteration. We speculate that the source rocks with pre-existing low-δ18O alteration may be related to: (1) deeply buried and unexposed older deposits of Picabo-age or Twin Falls-age low-δ18O volcanics; and/or (2) regionally-abundant late Eocene Challis volcanics, which were hydrothermally altered near the surface prior to or during peak Picabo magmatism. Basin and Range extension, specifically the formation of metamorphic core complexes exposed in the region, could have facilitated the generation of low-δ18O magmas by exhuming heated rocks and creating the large water-rock ratios necessary for shallow hydrothermal alteration of tectonically (rift zones) and volcanically (calderas) buried volcanic rocks. These interpretations highlight the major processes by which supereruptive volumes of magma are generated in the SRP, mechanisms applicable to producing rhyolites worldwide that are facilitated by plume driven volcanism and extensional tectonics.

  19. ODP Leg 210 Drills the Newfoundland Margin in the Newfoundland-Iberia Non-Volcanic Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucholke, B. E.; Sibuet, J.

    2003-12-01

    The final leg of the Ocean Drilling Project (Leg 210, July-September 2003) was devoted to studying the history of rifting and post-rift sedimentation in the Newfoundland-Iberia rift. For the first time, drilling was conducted in the Newfoundland Basin along a transect conjugate to previous drill sites on the Iberia margin (Legs 149 and 173) to obtain data on a complete `non-volcanic' rift system. The prime site during this leg (Site 1276) was drilled in the transition zone between known continental crust and known oceanic crust at chrons M3 and younger. Extensive geophysical work and deep-sea drilling have shown that this transition-zone crust on the conjugate Iberia margin is exhumed continental mantle that is strongly serpentinized in its upper part. Transition-zone crust on the Newfoundland side, however, is typically a kilometer or more shallower and has much smoother topography, and seismic refraction data suggest that the crust may be thin (about 4 km) oceanic crust. A major goal of Site 1276 was to investigate these differences by sampling basement and a strong, basinwide reflection (U) overlying basement. Site 1276 was cored from 800 to 1737 m below seafloor with excellent recovery (avg. 85%), bottoming in two alkaline diabase sills >10 m thick that are estimated to be 100-200 meters above basement. The sills have sedimentary contacts that show extensive hydrothermal metamorphism. Associated sediment structural features indicate that the sills were intruded at shallow levels within highly porous sediments. The upper sill likely is at the level of the U reflection, which correlates with lower Albian - uppermost Aptian(?) fine- to coarse-grained gravity-flow deposits. Overlying lower Albian to lower Oligocene sediments record paleoceanographic conditions similar to those on the Iberia margin and in the main North Atlantic basin, including deposition of `black shales'; however, they show an extensive component of gravity-flow deposits throughout.

  20. A deterministic and stochastic velocity model for the Salton Trough/Basin and Range transition zone and constraints on magmatism during rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Steven P.; Levander, Alan; Okaya, David; Goff, John A.

    1996-12-01

    As a high resolution addition to the 1992 Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE), a 45-km-long deep crustal seismic reflection profile was acquired across the Chocolate Mountains in southeastern California to illuminate crustal structure in the transition between the Salton Trough and the Basin and Range province. The complex seismic data are analyzed for both large-scale (deterministic) and fine-scale (stochastic) crustal features. A low-fold near-offset common-midpoint (CMP) stacked section shows the northeastward lateral extent of a high-velocity lower crustal body which is centered beneath the Salton Trough. Off-end shots record a high-amplitude diffraction from the point where the high velocity lower crust pinches out at the Moho. Above the high-velocity lower crust, moderate-amplitude reflections occur at midcrustal levels. These reflections display the coherency and frequency characteristics of reflections backscattered from a heterogeneous velocity field, which we model as horizontal intrusions with a von Kármán (fractal) distribution. The effects of upper crustal scattering are included by combining the mapped surface geology and laboratory measurements of exposed rocks within the Chocolate Mountains to reproduce the upper crustal velocity heterogeneity in our crustal velocity model. Viscoelastic finite difference simulations indicate that the volume of mafic material within the reflective zone necessary to produce the observed backscatter is about 5%. The presence of wavelength-scale heterogeneity within the near-surface, upper, and middle crust also produces a 0.5-s-thick zone of discontinuous reflections from a crust-mantle interface which is actually a first-order discontinuity.

  1. Contrasting geochemical trends in the fertile and refractory parts of the NE Atlantic mantle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnes, R. G.; Debaille, V.; Brandon, A. D.; Waight, T. E.; Graham, D. W.; Williams, A.; Lee, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Primitive alkaline basalts from the Icelandic off-rift volcanic zones and Jan Mayen represent low-degree melts from the fertile parts of the NE Atlantic mantle. Olivine tholeiites and picrites from the Icelandic rift zones and nearby oceanic spreading ridges are formed by protracted decompressional melting. The V-shaped ridges along the Reykjanes, Kolbeinsey and Aegir ridges indicate that ascending source material is supplied by a pulsating plume and deflected laterally for distances of about 1000 km from Iceland (Jones et al. GGG 2002; Breivik et al. JGR 2006). Plume material deflected in the direction of the rift zones and spreading ridges undergoes extensive melting at shallow level, whereas material deflected in other directions flows laterally at deeper levels and remains largely unmelted and more fertile. The comparison of a sample suite of primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen (Debaille et al., in prep.) with olivine tholeiites and picrites from the Icelandic rift zones (mainly Brandon et al. GCA 2007) demonstrate opposing geochemical trends. The degree of source enrichment, expressed by the La/Sm-ratio, is positively and negatively correlated with 87/86Sr and 143/144Nd throughout the entire range of depleted rift zone tholeiites and enriched off-rift basalts. In the rift zone tholeiites the La/Sm-ratio has negative correlations with Mg# and Mg-content and positive correlations with 187/188Os and 3/4He. These four trends have opposite equivalents for the off-rift basalts. The most enriched and alkaline basalts from Jan Mayen and Snæfellsnes have the lowest 3/4He of 6-9*Ra and 187/188Os of 0.12-0.13. The trends seem to require a source component with ancient melt depletion and subsequent enrichment. A subcontinental lithospheric mantle keel (SCLM) is the most likely origin for the enriched component with high LILE, La/Sm and 87/86Sr and low 143/144Nd, 3/4He and 187/188Os. The most enriched alkaline basalts have notably higher Mg# and Mg and

  2. Timing of the volcanism of the southern Kivu province: Implications for the evolution of the western branch of the East African rift system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteels, P.

    1989-01-01

    New K-Ar datings of a large rock sampling from the South Kivu volcanic province (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) are reported. No ages older than 10 Ma have been obtained. This result contrasts with older assumptions and puts severe constraints on the relations between volcanism and rift evolution. From 10 to 7.5 Ma tholeiitic volcanism predominates corresponding to an episode of fissural eruptions; from 7.5 to 5 Ma alkali basalts and their differentiates are mainly erupted in localized rifts. A culmination of activity occurs between 6.0 and 5.5 Ma ago. Pleistocene alkalic volcanism is restricted to localized areas. The transition from tholeiites to alkali-basaltic volcanism dated around 7.5 Ma would correspond to a major rifting phase which corresponds with the initiation of Lake Kivu Basin formation. The distribution of tholeiitic rocks in the central part of the rift, and predominantly alkalic rocks along the western active border fault, strengthens the idea that the former are associated with tension, the latter with vertical, possibly also strike-slip movements. Volcanism in the Western Rift is restricted to areas where tension occurs in a zone which is located between two zones of strike-slip. In the South Kivu area normal faults intersect strike-slip faults and this seems to have determined the location of volcanic activity. Magma formation is considered to be related with shear heating combined with adiabatic decompression in ascending diapirs. This implies heating at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary as a result of extension. Generation of tholeiitic or alkalic magmas is connected with the variable ascent velocity of mantle diapirs or with variable shear heating along the shear zone. Changes in both magma composition and intensity of volcanic activity with time are considered to be related to major phases of rift evolution. (orig.)

  3. Fluids circulation during the Miocene rifting of the Penedès half-graben, NE Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqués, Vinyet; Travé, Anna; Cantarero, Irene

    2013-04-01

    The Penedès half-graben, located in the north-western part of the Mediterranean, is a NE-SW oriented basin generated during the Miocene rifting. This graben is bounded to the northwest by the SE-dipping Vallès-Penedès fault, which places the Mesozoic rocks in contact with the Miocene basin-fill. The basin is filled with an up to 4 km thick succession of sediments divided into three lithostratigraphic units. From base to top: (1) a lower continental complex, (2) a continental to marine complex and (3) an upper continental complex. These units are covered by Pliocene deposits which onlap a Messinian regional erosive surface. The structural features within the Penedès half-graben allow defining three deformational phases during the Miocene rifting. The first, during the syn-rift, two successive stages of NE-SW normal faults were formed. The second, during the early post-rift, one stage of NE-SW normal faults and one minor compression phase with a dextral directional developed. The third, during the late post-rift, two successive stages of N-S trending extensional fractures (faults and joints) and one minor compression with a sinistral component developed. The fractures related to the syn-rift stage acted as conduits for meteoric fluids both, in the phreatic and in the vadose zone. During the early post-rift, Fe2+- rich fluids precipitated oxides along the NE-SW fault planes. The dextral directional faults served as conduits for meteoric fluids which reequilibrated totally the marine Miocene host rocks under the phreatic environment. The late post-rift stage was characterized by marine fluids upflowing through the N-S fractures, probably derived from the Miocene marine interval, which mixed with meteoric fluids producing dolomitization. The second set of N-S fractures served as conduits for meteoric fluids characterised by δ13C-depleted soil-derived CO2 attributed to precipitation in the vadose zone. The change from phreatic to vadose meteoric environment and the

  4. Evidence for triple-junction rifting focussed on local magmatic centres along Parga Chasma, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, J. R.; Ernst, R. E.; Samson, C.

    2018-05-01

    Parga Chasma is a discontinuous rift system marking the southern boundary of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) region on Venus. Along a 1500 km section of Parga Chasma, detailed mapping of Magellan Synthetic Aperture Radar images has revealed 5 coronae, 11 local rift zones distinct from a regional extension pattern, and 47 graben-fissure systems with radiating (28), linear (12) and circumferential (7) geometries. The magmatic centres of these graben-fissure systems typically coincide with coronae or large volcanoes, although a few lack any central magmatic or tectonic feature (i.e. are cryptic). Some of the magmatic centres are interpreted as the foci of triple-junction rifting that form the 11 local rift zones. Cross-cutting relationships between graben-fissure systems and local rift faults reveal synchronous formation, implying a genetic association. Additionally, cross-cutting relationships show that local rifting events postdate the regional extension along Parga Chasma, further indicating multiple stages of rifting. Evidence for multiple centres of younger magmatism and local rifting against a background of regional extension provides an explanation for the discontinuous morphology of Parga Chasma. Examination of the Atlantic Rift System (prior to ocean opening) on Earth provides an analogue to the rift morphologies observed on Venus.

  5. Post-rift deformation of the Red Sea Arabian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Davide; Schettino, Antonio; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the Oligocene, the Red Sea rift nucleated within the composite Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield. After about 30 Ma-long history of continental lithosphere thinning and magmatism, the first pulse of oceanic spreading occurred at around 4.6 Ma at the triple junction of Africa, Arabia, and Danakil plate boundaries and propagated southward separating Danakil and Arabia plates. Ocean floor spreading between Arabia and Africa started later, at about 3 Ma and propagated northward (Schettino et al., 2016). Nowadays the northern part of the Red Sea is characterised by isolated oceanic deeps or a thinned continental lithosphere. Here we investigate the deformation of thinned continental margins that develops as a consequence of the continental lithosphere break-up induced by the progressive oceanisation. This deformation consists of a system of transcurrent and reverse faults that accommodate the anelastic relaxation of the extended margins. Inversion and shortening tectonics along the rifted margins as a consequence of the formation of a new segment of ocean ridge was already documented in the Atlantic margin of North America (e.g. Schlische et al. 2003). We present preliminary structural data obtained along the north-central portion of the Arabian rifted margin of the Red Sea. We explored NE-SW trending lineaments within the Arabian margin that are the inland continuation of transform boundaries between segments of the oceanic ridge. We found brittle fault zones whose kinematics is consistent with a post-rift inversion. Along the southernmost transcurrent fault (Ad Damm fault) of the central portion of the Red Sea we found evidence of dextral movement. Along the northernmost transcurrent fault, which intersects the Harrat Lunayyir, structures indicate dextral movement. At the inland termination of this fault the evidence of dextral movement are weaker and NW-SE trending reverse faults outcrop. Between these two faults we found other dextral transcurrent

  6. Preferential rifting of continents - A source of displaced terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, G. E.; Morgan, W. J.; Zhao, W.-L.

    1984-01-01

    Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifting of continents, the total strength of different lithospheres is compared by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of three. Also, a thickened crust can halve the total strength of normal continental lithosphere. Because the weakest area acts as a stress guide, any rifting close to an ocean-continent boundary would prefer a continental pathway. This results in the formation of small continental fragments or microplates that, once accreted back to a continent during subduction, are seen as displaced terranes. In addition, the large crustal thicknesses associated with suture zones would make such areas likely locations for future rifting episodes. This results in the tendency of new oceans to open along the suture where a former ocean had closed.

  7. Rift-drift transition in the Dangerous Grounds, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Shen, Chuanbo; Mei, Lianfu; Zhao, Zhigang; Xie, Xiaojun

    2018-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has a long record of rifting before and after subsequent seafloor spreading, affecting the wide continent of the Dangerous Grounds, and its scissor-shape opening manner results in the rifting structures that vary along this margin. Some 2000 km of regional multichannel seismic data combined with borehole and dredge data are interpreted to analyze the multistage rifting process, structural architecture and dynamic evolution across the entire Dangerous Grounds. Key sequence boundaries above the Cenozoic basement are identified and classified into the breakup unconformity and the rift end unconformity, which consist of the rift-related unconformities. Reflector T70 in the east of the Dangerous Grounds represents the breakup unconformity, which is likely corresponding to the spreading of the East Subbasin. T60 formed on the top of carbonate platform is time equivalent to the spreading of the Southwest Subbasin, marking the breakup unconformity of the central Dangerous Grounds. The termination of the spreading of the SCS is manifested by the rift end unconformity of T50 in the southwest and the final rift occurring in the northwest of the Dangerous Grounds is postponed to the rift end unconformity of T40. On the basis of the stratigraphic and structural analysis, distinct segments in the structural architecture of the syn-rift units and the ages of rift-drift transition show obvious change from the proximal zone to the distal zone. Three domains, which are the Reed Bank-Palawan Rift domain, the Dangerous Grounds Central Detachment domain and Nam Con Son Exhumation domain, reflect the propagation of the margin rifting developed initially by grabens formed by high angle faults, then large half-grabens controlled by listric faults and detachments and finally rotated fault blocks in the hyper-extended upper crust associated with missing lower crust or exhumed mantle revealing a migration and stepwise rifting process in the south margin of the SCS.

  8. Asthenospheric flow and origin of volcanism in the Baikal rift area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2006-01-01

    The origin of low-volume, hotspot-like volcanism often observed in continental rift areas is debated, as is the nature of the flow in the mantle beneath. In this paper we assemble seismic constraints on the mantle flow below the Baikal Rift Zone. We combine new evidence from upper-mantle

  9. SPECIALIZED MAPPING OF CRUSTAL FAULT ZONES. PART 1: BASIC THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies of shear zones have included collection of data on fractures showing no indication of displacement which are termed as 'blank' fractures. A method aimed at mapping fault structures and stress fields has been developed on the basis of results of paragenetic analysis of measurements of abundant fractures. The method is termed as 'specialized mapping', firstly, due to its specific structural goal so that to distinguish it from the conventional geological mapping of regions in nature, and, secondly, because of the specific procedure applied to refer to fractures as references to decipher fault-block patterns of natural regions. In Part 1, basic theoretical concepts and principles of specialized mapping are described. Part 2 is being prepared for publication in one of the next issues of the journal; it will cover stages of the proposed method and describe some of the cases of its application.In terms of general organizational principles, specialized mapping is similar to other methods based on structural paragenetic analysis and differs from such methods in types of paragenesises viewed as references to reveal crustal fault zones. Such paragenesises result from stage-by-stage faulting (Fig 2 and Fig. 7 during which stress fields of the 2nd order are regularly changeable within the shear zone. According to combined experimental and natural data, a complete paragenesis of fractures in the shear zone includes a major (1st order fault plane and fractures of other seven types, R, R’, n, n’, t, t’ and T (2nd order (Fig. 4 and Fig 8. At the fracture level, each of them corresponds to a paragenesis including three nearly perpendicular systems of early ruptures (Fig. 1, which are based on two classical patterns of conjugated fractures, one of which is consistent with the position of the fault plane (Fig. 3. Taking into account that strike-slip, reverse and normal faults are similar in terms of mechanics (i.e. they are formed due to

  10. Geology of Kubi Algi and Derati mountains, pantellerite bodies of Miocene age from the northern part of the Kenyan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, R. T.

    The small isolated peaks of Kubi Algi and Derati on the periphery of the Koobi Fora basin, to the north-east of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya, are remnants of silicic peralkaline volcanic centres. Detailed geological maps of the areas of the two mountains are presented. Both are massive bodies of generally aphyric, microgranular pantellerite sharing similar petrography and chemistry. Kubi Algi shows evidence of having formed as an extrusive dome and is considered the source of local pantellerite lava flows, here designated the Il Burrka Formation. Derati mountain can best be interpreted as a denuded plug of a second extrusive centre. The volcanoes were active in the middle Miocene towards the end of a period of regional magmatism extending from late-Oligocene times. The pantellerites are holocrystalline and thus contrast with the normally glassy over-saturated peralkaline rocks from the East African rifts, including older pyroclastic pantellerites of the northern Lake Turkana region. Despite being very finely crystalline, they show mineralogical features seen elsewhere in more slowly cooled, deep-seated, peralkaline granites. A very broad range of feldspar compositions present in the rocks is explained by the interaction of groundwater with the rapidly cooling magma. Of additional interest is the abundance of aegirine, present as a product of primary magmatic crystallization and, in the Derati rock, as a hydrothermal mineral. It contains significant but highly variable amounts of titanium and zirconium, the latter broadly equivalent to typical maximum concentrations reported from peralkaline intrusive complexes.

  11. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    L., Passarelli; E., Rivalta; A., Shuler

    2014-01-01

    As continental rifts evolve towards mid-ocean ridges, strain is accommodated by repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism. Discrete rifting episodes have been observed along two subaerial divergent plate boundaries, the Krafla segment of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone in Iceland and the Manda-Hararo segment of the Red Sea Rift in Ethiopia. In both cases, the initial and largest dike intrusion was followed by a series of smaller intrusions. By performing a statistical analysis of these rifting episodes, we demonstrate that dike intrusions obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, and the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law. Due to the effects of magma supply, the timing of secondary dike intrusions differs from that of the aftershocks. This work provides evidence of self-similarity in the rifting process. PMID:24469260

  12. Fault zone identification in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf based on combined seismic attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkamali, M. S.; Keshavarz FK, N.; Bakhtiari, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    Faults, as main pathways for fluids, play a critical role in creating regions of high porosity and permeability, in cutting cap rock and in the migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir. Therefore, accurate identification of fault zones is very important in maximizing production from petroleum traps. Image processing and modern visualization techniques are provided for better mapping of objects of interest. In this study, the application of fault mapping in the identification of fault zones within the Mishan and Aghajari formations above the Guri base unconformity surface in the eastern part of Persian Gulf is investigated. Seismic single- and multi-trace attribute analyses are employed separately to determine faults in a vertical section, but different kinds of geological objects cannot be identified using individual attributes only. A mapping model is utilized to improve the identification of the faults, giving more accurate results. This method is based on combinations of all individual relevant attributes using a neural network system to create combined attributes, which gives an optimal view of the object of interest. Firstly, a set of relevant attributes were separately calculated on the vertical section. Then, at interpreted positions, some example training locations were manually selected in each fault and non-fault class by an interpreter. A neural network was trained on combinations of the attributes extracted at the example training locations to generate an optimized fault cube. Finally, the results of the fault and nonfault probability cube were estimated, which the neural network applied to the entire data set. The fault probability cube was obtained with higher mapping accuracy and greater contrast, and with fewer disturbances in comparison with individual attributes. The computed results of this study can support better understanding of the data, providing fault zone mapping with reliable results.

  13. Fault zone identification in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf based on combined seismic attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkamali, M S; Keshavarz FK, N; Bakhtiari, M R

    2013-01-01

    Faults, as main pathways for fluids, play a critical role in creating regions of high porosity and permeability, in cutting cap rock and in the migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir. Therefore, accurate identification of fault zones is very important in maximizing production from petroleum traps. Image processing and modern visualization techniques are provided for better mapping of objects of interest. In this study, the application of fault mapping in the identification of fault zones within the Mishan and Aghajari formations above the Guri base unconformity surface in the eastern part of Persian Gulf is investigated. Seismic single- and multi-trace attribute analyses are employed separately to determine faults in a vertical section, but different kinds of geological objects cannot be identified using individual attributes only. A mapping model is utilized to improve the identification of the faults, giving more accurate results. This method is based on combinations of all individual relevant attributes using a neural network system to create combined attributes, which gives an optimal view of the object of interest. Firstly, a set of relevant attributes were separately calculated on the vertical section. Then, at interpreted positions, some example training locations were manually selected in each fault and non-fault class by an interpreter. A neural network was trained on combinations of the attributes extracted at the example training locations to generate an optimized fault cube. Finally, the results of the fault and nonfault probability cube were estimated, which the neural network applied to the entire data set. The fault probability cube was obtained with higher mapping accuracy and greater contrast, and with fewer disturbances in comparison with individual attributes. The computed results of this study can support better understanding of the data, providing fault zone mapping with reliable results. (paper)

  14. Geological Mapping and Investigation into a Proposed Syn-rift Alluvial Fan Deposit in the Kerpini Fault Block, Greece.

    OpenAIRE

    Hadland, Sindre

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum geosciences engineering The Kerpini Fault Block is located in the southern part of the Gulf of Corinth rift system. The rift system consists of several east-west orientated half-grabens with associated syn-rift sediments. Kerpini Fault Block is one of the southernmost half-grabens within the rift systems, and is composed of several different stratigraphic units. The stratigraphic framework consists of a complex interaction of several stratigraphic units. One of...

  15. Characterising and comparing drug-dispensing practices at animal health outlets in the Rift Valley, Kenya: an exploratory analysis (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, L E; Ongeri, W; Asena, K; Thrusfield, M V

    2016-12-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise drug-dispensing practices amongst staff at animal health outlets and to explore perceptions of veterinary medicines amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal health outlets, including franchise outlets of 'Sidai Africa Ltd.', and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of local animal health services by a Maasai pastoralist group and a dairy farmer cooperative. Differences were detected in the characteristics of Sidai outlets, agrovets, pharmacies and dukas. A greater proportion of Sidai outlet staff selected drugs based on principles of responsible drug use than staff at other types of outlet, and technical qualifications and training were associated with responsible drug use. Across all outlet types, staff knowledge and training gaps were identified, including in the correct administration of medicines. The majority of drug sales are accompanied by verbal advice to farmers. Members of the Maasai pastoralist group were concerned about accidental self-medication, withdrawal periods, drug residues and the misuse of drugs due to a lack of quality information and advice. The dairy farmer group raised similar concerns, reporting under-dosing as a common mistake amongst farmers. This study concludes that current knowledge, attitudes and practices of many service providers and livestock owners in the sale, purchase and use of veterinary medicines present risks of drug misuse and therefore the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. There is a clear demand from livestock keepers for accessible, affordable and quality animal health services and products in Kenya, and animal health practitioners have the potential to provide increased support to livestock-based livelihoods and act as stewards of our existing portfolio of animal and human medicines.

  16. Morphostructural evidence for Recent/active extension in Central Tanzania beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, B.; Rolet, J.; Gernigon, L.; Ebinger, C.; Gloaguen, R.

    2003-04-01

    The southern tip zone of the Kenya Rift on the eastern branch of the East African System is usually thought to occur in the so-called North Tanzanian Divergence. In this region, the narrow (50 km-wide) axial graben of southern Kenya splays southwards, via a major EW-trending volcanic lineament, into a 200 km-wide broad rifted zone with three separate arms of normal faulting and tilted fault blocks (Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani arms from W to E). Remote sensing analysis from Central Tanzania demonstrates that rift morphology exists over an area lying 400 km beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift. The most prominent rift structures are observed in the Kilombero region and consist of a 100 km-wide range of uplifted basement blocks fringed to the west by an E-facing half-graben inferred to reach depths of 6-8 km from aeromagnetic dataset. Physiographic features (fault scarps), and river drainage anomalies suggest that the present-day rift pattern in the Kilombero extensional province principally results from Recent/Neogene deformation. That assumption is also supported by the seismogenic character of a number of faults. The Kilombero half-graben is superimposed upon an earlier rift system, Karoo in age, which is totally overprinted and is only evidenced from its sedimentary infill. On the other hand, the nature and thickness of the inferred Neogene synrift section is still unknown. The Kilombero rifted zone is assumed to connect northwards into the central rift arm (Manyara) of the South Kenya Rift via a seismically active transverse fault zone that follows ductile fabrics within the Mozambican crystalline basement. The proposed rift model implies that incipient rifting propagates hroughout the cold and strong crust/lithosphere of Central Tanzania along Proterozoic (N140=B0E) basement weakness zones and earlier Karoo (NS)rift structures. A second belt of Recent-active linked fault/basins also extends further East from the Pangani rift arm to the offshore

  17. The role of inheritance in structuring hyperextended rift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatschal, Gianreto; Lavier, Luc; Chenin, Pauline

    2015-04-01

    A long-standing question in Earth Sciences is related to the importance of inheritance in controlling tectonic processes. In contrast to physical processes that are generally applicable, assessing the role of inheritance suffers from two major problems: firstly, it is difficult to appraise without having insights into the history of a geological system; and secondly all inherited features are not reactivated during subsequent deformation phases. Therefore, the aim of our presentation is to give some conceptual framework about how inheritance may control the architecture and evolution of hyperextended rift systems. We use the term inheritance to refer to the difference between an "ideal" layer-cake type lithosphere and a "real" lithosphere containing heterogeneities and we define 3 types of inheritance, namely structural, compositional and thermal inheritance. Moreover, we assume that the evolution of hyperextended rift systems reflects the interplay between their inheritance (innate/"genetic code") and the physical processes at play (acquired/external factors). Thus, by observing the architecture and evolution of hyperextended rift systems and integrating the physical processes, one my get hints on what may have been the original inheritance of a system. Using this approach, we focus on 3 well-studied rift systems that are the Alpine Tethys, Pyrenean-Bay of Biscay and Iberia-Newfoundland rift systems. For the studied examples we can show that: 1) strain localization on a local scale and during early stages of rifting is controlled by inherited structures and weaknesses 2) the architecture of the necking zone seems to be influenced by the distribution and importance of ductile layers during decoupled deformation and is consequently controlled by the thermal structure and/or the inherited composition of the curst 3) the location of breakup in the 3 examples is not significantly controlled by the inherited structures 4) inherited mantle composition and rift

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authority. FRA believes that it will be very useful to include these organizations in the planning process... implementation process. This section also discusses Partial (e.g. night time only quiet zones) and Intermediate... provides four basic ways in which a quiet zone may be established. Creation of both New Quiet Zones and Pre...

  19. Geologic Map of the Middle East Rift Geothermal Subzone, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Moore, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    K'lauea is an active shield volcano in the southeastern part of the Island of Hawai'i. The middle east rift zone (MERZ) map includes about 27 square kilometers of the MERZ and shows the distribution of the products of 37 separate eruptions during late Holocene time. Lava flows erupted during 1983-96 have reached the mapped area. The subaerial part of the MERZ is 3-4 km wide and about 18 km long. It is a constructional ridge, 50-150 m above the adjoining terrain, marked by low spatter ramparts and cones as high as 60 m. Lava typically flowed either northeast or southeast, depending on vent location relative to the topographic crest of the rift zone. The MERZ receives more than 100 in. of rainfall annually and is covered by tropical rain forest. Vegetation begins to grow on lava a few months after its eruption. Relative heights of trees can be a guide to relative ages of underlying lava flows, but proximity to faults, presence of easily weathered cinders, and human activity also affect the rate of growth. The rocks have been grouped into five basic age groups. The framework for the ages assigned is provided by eight radiocarbon ages from previous mapping by the authors and a single date from the current mapping effort. The numerical ages are supplemented by observations of stratigraphic relations, degree of weathering, soil development, and vegetative cover.

  20. Kanda fault: A major seismogenic element west of the Rukwa Rift (Tanzania, East Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittori, Eutizio; Delvaux, Damien; Kervyn, François

    1997-09-01

    The NW-SE trending Rukwa Rift, part of the East African Rift System, links the approximately N-S oriented Tanganyika and Nyassa (Malawi) depressions. The rift has a complex half-graben structure, generally interpreted as the result of normal and strike-slip faulting. Morphological and structural data (e.g. fault scarps, faceted spurs, tilting of Quaternary continental deposits, volcanism, seismicity) indicate Late Quaternary activity within the rift. In 1910 an earthquake of M = 7.4 (historically the largest felt in Africa) struck the Rukwa region. The epicentre was located near the Kanda fault, which affects the Ufipa plateau, separating the Rukwa depression from the south-Tanganyika basin. The geomorphic expression of the Kanda fault is a prominent fresh-looking scarp more than 180 km long, from Tunduma to north of Sumbawanga, that strikes roughly NW-SE, and dips constantly northeast. No evidence for horizontal slip was observed. Generally, the active faulting affects a very narrow zone, and is only locally distributed over several subparallel scarps. The height of the scarp progressively decreases towards the northwest, from about 40-50 m to a few metres north of Sumbawanga. Faulted lacustrine deposits exposed in a road cut near Kaengesa were dated as 8340 ± 700 and 13 600 ± 1240 radiocarbon years. These low-energy deposits now hang more than 15 m above the present-day valley floor, suggesting rapid uplift during the Holocene. Due to its high rate of activity in very recent times, the Kanda Fault could have produced the 1910 earthquake. Detailed paleoseismological studies are used to characterize its recent history. In addition, the seismic hazard posed by this fault, which crosses the fast growing town of Sumbawanga, must be seriously considered in urban planning.

  1. Groundwater and solute transport modeling at Hyporheic zone of upper part Citarum River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Irwan; Farazi, Hendy; Fadhilah, Rahmat; Purnandi, Cipto; Notosiswoyo, Sudarto

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater and surface water interaction is an interesting topic to be studied related to the water resources and environmental studies. The study of interaction between groundwater and river water at the Upper Part Citarum River aims to know the contribution of groundwater to the river or reversely and also solute transport of dissolved ions between them. Analysis of drill logs, vertical electrical sounding at the selected sections, measurement of dissolved ions, and groundwater modeling were applied to determine the flow and solute transport phenomena at the hyporheic zone. It showed the hyporheic zone dominated by silt and clay with hydraulic conductivity range from 10-4∼10-8 m/s. The groundwater flowing into the river with very low gradient and it shows that the Citarum River is a gaining stream. The groundwater modeling shows direct seepage of groundwater into the Citarum River is only 186 l/s, very small compared to the total discharge of the river. Total dissolved ions of the groundwater ranged from 200 to 480 ppm while the river water range from 200 to 2,000 ppm. Based on solute transport modeling it indicates dissolved ions dispersion of the Citarum River into groundwater may occur in some areas such as Bojongsoang-Dayeuh Kolot and Nanjung. This situation would increase the dissolved ions in groundwater in the region due to the contribution of the Citarum River. The results of the research can be a reference for further studies related to the mechanism of transport of the pollutants in the groundwater around the Citarum River.

  2. Fracture-zone tectonics at Zabargad Island, Red Sea (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Stephen; Bonatti, Enrico; Brueckner, Hannes; Paulsen, Timothy

    1992-12-01

    Zabargad Island, which lies along the western margin of the Red Sea rift, is a remarkable place because it provides fresh exposures of undepleted mantle peridotite. How this peridotite came to be exposed on Zabargad remains unclear. Our field mapping indicates that most of the contacts between peridotite and the adjacent bodies of Pan-African gneiss and Cretaceous(?) Zabargad Formation on the island are now high-angle brittle faults. Zabargad Formation strata have been complexly folded, partly in response to this faulting. Overall, the array of high-angle faults and associated folds on the island resembles those found in cross-rift transfer zones. We suggest, therefore, that the Zabargad fracture zone, a band of submarine escarpments on the floor of the Red Sea north of the island, crosses Zabargad Island and has actively resolved differential movement between the central Red Sea rift and the northern Red Sea rift. The final stage of uplift that brought the unusual peridotite to the earth's surface is related to shallow crustal transpression, which may have inverted an earlier transtensional regime.

  3. Role of Transtension in Rifting at the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Transtensional plate motion can be accommodated either in a localized zone of transtensional rifting or over a broader region. Broader zones of deformation can be classified either as diffuse deformation or strain partitioning (one or more major strike-slip shear zones geographically offset from a region of a extensional faulting). The Pacific-North America plate boundary in southwestern North America was transtensional during much of its history and has exhibited the full range of these behaviors at different spatial scales and in different locations, as recorded by fault motions and paleomagnetic rotations. Here we focus on the northern Gulf of California part of the plate boundary (Upper and Lower Delfin basin segments), which has been in a zone of transtensional Pacific-North America plate boundary motion ever since the middle Miocene demise of adjacent Farallon-derived microplates. Prior to the middle Miocene, during the time of microplate activity, this sector of North America experienced basin-and-range normal faults (core complexes) in Sonora. However there is no evidence of continued extensional faulting nor of a Gulf-related topographic depression until after ca 12 Ma when a major ignimbrite (Tuff of San Felipe/ Ignimbrite of Hermosillo) was deposited across the entire region of the future Gulf of California rift in this sector. After 12 Ma, faults disrupted this marker bed in eastern Baja California and western Sonora, and some major NNW-striking right-lateral faults are inferred to have developed near the Sonoran coast causing offset of some of the volcanic facies. However, there are major tectonic rotations of the volcanic rocks in NE Baja California between 12 and 6 Ma, suggesting that the plate boundary motion was still occurring over a broad region. By contrast, after about 6 Ma, diminished rotations in latest Miocene and Pliocene volcanic rocks, as well as fault slip histories, show that plate boundary deformation became localized to a narrower

  4. Arsenic distribution along different hydrogeomorphic zones in parts of the Brahmaputra River Valley, Assam (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Runti; Mahanta, Chandan; Verma, Swati; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2017-06-01

    The spatial distribution of arsenic (As) concentrations along three classified hydrogeomorphological zones in the Brahmaputra River Valley in Assam (India) have been investigated: zone I, comprising the piedmont and alluvial fans; zone II, comprising the runoff areas; and zone III, comprising the discharge zones. Groundwater (150 samples) from shallow hand-pumped and public water supply wells (2-60 m in depth) was analysed for chemical composition to examine the geochemical processes controlling As mobilization. As concentrations up to 0.134 mg/L were recorded, with concentrations below the World Health Organization and the Bureau of Indian Standards drinking-water limits of 0.01 mg/L being found mainly in the proximal recharge areas. Eh and other redox indicators (i.e., dissolved oxygen, Fe, Mn and As) indicate that, except for samples taken in the recharge zone, groundwater is reducing and exhibits a systematic decrease in redox conditions along the runoff and discharge zones. Hydrogeochemical evaluation indicated that zone I, located along the proximal recharge areas, is characterized by low As concentration, while zones II and III are areas with high and moderate concentrations, respectively. Systematic changes in As concentrations along the three zones support the view that areas of active recharge with high hydraulic gradient are potential areas hosting low-As aquifers.

  5. ALVIN-SeaBeam studies of the Sumisu Rift, Izu-Bonin arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B.; Brown, G.; Fryer, P.; Gill, J. B.; Hochstaedter, A. G.; Hotta, H.; Langmuir, C. H.; Leinen, M.; Nishimura, A.; Urabe, T.

    1990-10-01

    Bimodal volcanism, normal faulting, rapid sedimentation, and hydrothermal circulation characterize the rifting of the Izu-Bonin arc at 31°N. Analysis of the zigzag pattern, in plan view, of the normal faults that bound Sumisu Rift indicates that the extension direction (080° ± 10°) is orthogonal to the regional trend of the volcanic front. Normal faults divide the rift into an inner rift on the arc side, which is the locus for maximum subsidence and sedimentation, and an outer rift further west. Transfer zones that link opposing master faults and/or rift flank uplifts further subdivide the rift into three segments along strike. Volcanism is concentrated along the ENE-trending transfer zone which separates the northern and central rift segments. The differential motion across the zone is accommodated by interdigitating north-trending normal faults rather than by ENE-trending oblique-slip faults. Volcanism in the outer rift has built 50-700 m high edifices without summit craters whereas in the inner rift it has formed two multi-vent en echelon ridges (the largest is 600 m high and 16 km long). The volcanism is dominantly basaltic, with compositions reflecting mantle sources little influenced by arc components. An elongate rhyolite dome and low-temperature hydrothermal deposits occur at the en echelon step in the larger ridge, which is located at the intersection of the transfer zone with the inner rift. The chimneys, veins, and crusts are composed of silica, barite and iron oxide, and are of similar composition to the ferruginous chert that mantles the Kuroko deposits. A 1.2-km transect of seven ALVIN heat flow measurements at 30°48.5'N showed that the inner-rift-bounding faults may serve as water recharge zones, but that they are not necessarily areas of focussed hydrothermal outflow, which instead occurs through the thick basin sediments. The rift basin and arc margin sediments are probably dominated by permeable rhyolitic pumice and ash erupted from submarine

  6. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantum-chemical studies of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems. Part 2. Cumulenes and origin of the forbidden zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Kruglyak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the basic problem in quantum theory of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems like polyenes (Part 1 and cumulenes (Part 2 – physical origin of the forbidden zone in these and analogous 1D electron systems due to two possible effects – Peierls instability (bond alternation and Mott instability (electron correlation. Both possible contradiction and coexistence of the Mott and Peierls instabilities are summerized on the basis of the Kiev quantum chemistry team research projects.

  8. The Age of Rift-Related Basalts in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitchenkov, G. L.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Kaminsky, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    The Lambert Rift, which is a large intracontinental rift zone in East Antarctica, developed over a long period of geological time, beginning from the Late Paleozoic, and its evolution was accompanied by magmatic activity. The latest manifestation of magmatism is eruption of alkaline olivine-leucite basalts on the western side of the Lambert Rift; Rb-Sr dating referred its time to the Middle Eocene, although its genesis remained vague. In order to solve this problem, we found geochronometer minerals in basaltic samples and 68 apatite grains appeared to be suitable for analysis. Their ages and ages of host basalts, determined by the U-Pb local method on the SIMS SHRIMP-II, were significantly different (323 ± 31 Ma) from those assumed earlier. This age corresponds to the earliest stage of crustal extension in East Antarctica and to most of Gondwana. The new data crucially change the ideas about the evolution of Lambert Rift and demonstrate the ambiguity of K-Ar dates of the alkali effusive formed under long-term rifting.

  9. Regional Survey of Structural Properties and Cementation Patterns of Fault Zones in the Northern Part of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico - Implications for Ground-Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the need to document and evaluate the types and variability of fault zone properties that potentially affect aquifer systems in basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, we systematically characterized structural and cementation properties of exposed fault zones at 176 sites in the northern Albuquerque Basin. A statistical analysis of measurements and observations evaluated four aspects of the fault zones: (1) attitude and displacement, (2) cement, (3) lithology of the host rock or sediment, and (4) character and width of distinctive structural architectural components at the outcrop scale. Three structural architectural components of the fault zones were observed: (1) outer damage zones related to fault growth; these zones typically contain deformation bands, shear fractures, and open extensional fractures, which strike subparallel to the fault and may promote ground-water flow along the fault zone; (2) inner mixed zones composed of variably entrained, disrupted, and dismembered blocks of host sediment; and (3) central fault cores that accommodate most shear strain and in which persistent low- permeability clay-rich rocks likely impede the flow of water across the fault. The lithology of the host rock or sediment influences the structure of the fault zone and the width of its components. Different grain-size distributions and degrees of induration of the host materials produce differences in material strength that lead to variations in width, degree, and style of fracturing and other fault-related deformation. In addition, lithology of the host sediment appears to strongly control the distribution of cement in fault zones. Most faults strike north to north-northeast and dip 55? - 77? east or west, toward the basin center. Most faults exhibit normal slip, and many of these faults have been reactivated by normal-oblique and strike slip. Although measured fault displacements have a broad range, from 0.9 to 4,000 m, most are internal structure of, and cement

  10. Near N-S paleo-extension in the western Deccan region, India: Does it link strike-slip tectonics with India-Seychelles rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Achyuta Ayan; Bhattacharya, Gourab; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Bose, Narayan

    2014-09-01

    This is the first detailed report and analyses of deformation from the W part of the Deccan large igneous province (DLIP), Maharashtra, India. This deformation, related to the India-Seychelles rifting during Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene, was studied, and the paleostress tensors were deduced. Near N-S trending shear zones, lineaments, and faults were already reported without significant detail. An E-W extension was envisaged by the previous workers to explain the India-Seychelles rift at ~64 Ma. The direction of extension, however, does not match with their N-S brittle shear zones and also those faults (sub-vertical, ~NE-SW/~NW-SE, and few ~N-S) we report and emphasize in this work. Slickenside-bearing fault planes, brittle shear zones, and extension fractures in meso-scale enabled us to estimate the paleostress tensors (directions and relative magnitudes). The field study was complemented by remote sensing lineament analyses to map dykes and shear zones. Dykes emplaced along pre-existing ~N-S to ~NE-SW/~NW-SE shears/fractures. This information was used to derive regional paleostress trends. A ~NW-SE/NE-SW minimum compressive stress in the oldest Kalsubai Subgroup and a ~N-S direction for the younger Lonavala, Wai, and Salsette Subgroups were deciphered. Thus, a ~NW/NE to ~N-S extension is put forward that refutes the popular view of E-W India-Seychelles extension. Paleostress analyses indicate that this is an oblique rifted margin. Field criteria suggest only ~NE-SW and ~NW-SE, with some ~N-S strike-slip faults/brittle shear zones. We refer this deformation zone as the "Western Deccan Strike-slip Zone" (WDSZ). The observed deformation was matched with offshore tectonics deciphered mainly from faults interpreted on seismic profiles and from magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies. These geophysical findings too indicate oblique rifting in this part of the W Indian passive margin. We argue that the Seychelles microcontinent separated from India only after much of

  11. 3D numerical simulations of multiphase continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naliboff, J.; Glerum, A.; Brune, S.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of rifted margin architecture suggest continental breakup occurs through multiple phases of extension with distinct styles of deformation. The initial rifting stages are often characterized by slow extension rates and distributed normal faulting in the upper crust decoupled from deformation in the lower crust and mantle lithosphere. Further rifting marks a transition to higher extension rates and coupling between the crust and mantle lithosphere, with deformation typically focused along large-scale detachment faults. Significantly, recent detailed reconstructions and high-resolution 2D numerical simulations suggest that rather than remaining focused on a single long-lived detachment fault, deformation in this phase may progress toward lithospheric breakup through a complex process of fault interaction and development. The numerical simulations also suggest that an initial phase of distributed normal faulting can play a key role in the development of these complex fault networks and the resulting finite deformation patterns. Motivated by these findings, we will present 3D numerical simulations of continental rifting that examine the role of temporal increases in extension velocity on rifted margin structure. The numerical simulations are developed with the massively parallel finite-element code ASPECT. While originally designed to model mantle convection using advanced solvers and adaptive mesh refinement techniques, ASPECT has been extended to model visco-plastic deformation that combines a Drucker Prager yield criterion with non-linear dislocation and diffusion creep. To promote deformation localization, the internal friction angle and cohesion weaken as a function of accumulated plastic strain. Rather than prescribing a single zone of weakness to initiate deformation, an initial random perturbation of the plastic strain field combined with rapid strain weakening produces distributed normal faulting at relatively slow rates of extension in both 2D and

  12. Tectonic phase separation applied to the Sudetic Marginal Fault Zone (NE part of the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2015), s. 251-267 ISSN 1672-6316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1244 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Sudetic Marginal Fault Zone * paleostress reconstruction * active tectonics * frequency analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2015

  13. SPECIALIZED MAPPING OF CRUSTAL FAULT ZONES. PART 2: MAIN STAGES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is to complete the description of the special mapping method which theoretical basis and principles were published in [Seminsky, 2014]. With reference to data on the Ulirba site located in Priolkhonie (Western Pribaikalie, the content of special mapping is reviewed in detail. The method is based on paragenetical analysis of abundant jointing which specific feature is the lack of any visible displacement indicators. There are three stages in the special mapping method (Fig. 3 as follows:Stage I: Preparation and analysis of previously published data on the regional fault structure (Fig. 1, А–Г, establishment of a networks of stations to conduct structural geological monitoring and mass measurements of joints, re­cord of rock data (Fig. 2, А, general state of the fault network (Fig. 1, Д–З, fracture density (Fig. 2, Б and, if any, structures of the above-jointing level (Fig. 1, Е, З; Fig. 2, А.Stage II is aimed at processing of field data and includes activities in four groups (II.1–II.4 as follows: Group II.1: construction of circle diagrams, specification of characteristics of joint systems and their typical scatters (Fig. 4, А, identification of simple (generally tipple paragenesises, and determination of dynamic settings of their formation (translocal rank (Table 1, evaluation of densities and complexity of the joint networks, analysis of their spacial patterns within the site under mapping, and identification of the most intensively destructed zones in the rock massif (Fig. 2, Б–В. Group II.2: comparison of jointing diagrams with reference ones showing joint poles (Fig. 4, Б–В; Е–З; Л–Н, and, in case of their satisfactory correlation, making a conclusion of potential formation of a specific joint pattern in the local zone of strike-slip, normal faulting or reverse faulting (Fig. 4,  Г–Д, И–К, О–П; Fig. 5; Fig. 7, Б, and determination of relative age relationships between such zones on

  14. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1042 - Not-to-Exceed Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1042... engines certified using the duty cycle specified in § 1042.505(b)(1), except for variable-speed propulsion... Appendix illustrates the default NTE zone for variable-speed marine engines used with controllable-pitch...

  15. Mantle Flow Across the Baikal Rift Constrained With Integrated Seismic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    The Baikal Rift is located at the boundary of the stable Siberian Craton and deforming central Mongolia. The origin of the late Cenozoic rifting and volcanism are debated, as is the mantle flow beneath the rift zone. Here we combine new evidence from azimuthally-anisotropic upper-mantle tomography and from a radially-anisotropic inversion of interstation surface-wave dispersion curves with previously published shear-wave-splitting measurements of azimuthal anisotropy across the rift (Gao et al. 1994). While our tomographic model maps isotropic and anisotropic shear-velocity heterogeneity globally, the inversion of interstation phase-velocity measurements produces a single, radially-anisotropic, shear-velocity profile that averages from the rift to 500 km SE of it. The precision and the broad band (8-340 s) of the Rayleigh and Love wave curves ensures high accuracy of the profile. Tomography and shear-wave splitting both give a NW-SE fast direction (perpendicular to the rift) in the vicinity of the rift, changing towards W-E a few hundred kilometers from it. Previously, this has been interpreted as evidence for mantle flow similar to that beneath mid-ocean ridges, with deeper vertical flow directly beneath the rift also proposed. Our radially anisotropic profile, however, shows that while strong anisotropy with SH waves faster than SV waves is present in the thin lithosphere and upper asthenosphere beneath and SE of the rift, no anisotropy is required below 110 km. The tomographic model shows thick cratonic lithosphere north of the rift. These observations suggest that instead of a flow diverging from the rift axis in NW and SE directions, the most likely pattern is the asthenospheric flow in SE direction from beneath the Siberian lithosphere and across the rift. Possible driving forces of the flow are large-scale lithospheric deformation in East Asia and the draining of asthenosphere at W-Pacific subduction zones; a plume beneath the Siberian craton also cannot be

  16. ALVIN investigation of an active propagating rift system, Galapagos 95.5° W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, R.N.; Sinton, J.M.; Kleinrock, M.C.; Yonover, R.N.; MacDonald, K.C.; Miller, S.P.; Searle, R.C.; Christie, D.M.; Atwater, T.M.; Sleep, Norman H.; Johnson, H. Paul; Neal, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    ALVIN investigations have defined the fine-scale structural and volcanic patterns produced by active rift and spreading center propagation and failure near 95.5° W on the Galapagos spreading center. Behind the initial lithospheric rifting, which is propagating nearly due west at about 50 km m.y.−1, a triangular block of preexisting lithosphere is being stretched and fractured, with some recent volcanism along curving fissures. A well-organized seafloor spreading center, an extensively faulted and fissured volcanic ridge, develops ~ 10 km (~ 200,000 years) behind the tectonic rift tip. Regional variations in the chemical compositions of the youngest lavas collected during this program contrast with those encompassing the entire 3 m.y. of propagation history for this region. A maximum in degree of magmatic differentiation occurs about 9 km behind the propagating rift tip, in a region of diffuse rifting. The propagating spreading center shows a gentle gradient in magmatic differentiation culminating at the SW-curving spreading center tip. Except for the doomed rift, which is in a constructional phase, tectonic activity also dominates over volcanic activity along the failing spreading system. In contrast to the propagating rift, failing rift lavas show a highly restricted range of compositions consistent with derivation from a declining upwelling zone accompanying rift failure. The lithosphere transferred from the Cocos to the Nazca plate by this propagator is extensively faulted and characterized by ubiquitous talus in one of the most tectonically disrupted areas of seafloor known. The pseudofault scarps, where the preexisting lithosphere was rifted apart, appear to include both normal and propagator lavas and are thus more lithologically complex than previously thought. Biological communities, probably vestimentiferan tubeworms, occur near the top of the outer pseudofault scarp, although no hydrothermal venting was observed.

  17. Tectonics and stratigraphy of the East Brazil Rift system: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung Kiang Chang; Kowsmann, Renato Oscar; Figueiredo, Antonio Manuel Ferreira; Bender, AndréAdriano

    1992-10-01

    The East Brazilian Rift system (Ebris) constitutes the northern segment of the South Atlantic rift system which developed during the Mesozoic breakup of South America and Africa. Following crustal separation in the Late Aptian, it evolved into a passive continental margin. Along the continental margin six basins are recognized, while three onshore basins form part of an aborted rift. Three continental syn-rift stratigraphic sequences are recognized, spanning Jurassic to Barremian times. The Jurassic (Syn-rift I) and Neocomian (Syn-rift II) phases were most active in the interior rift basins. During the Barremian (Syn-rift III), rift subsidence rates were twice as large as during the Neocomian (Syn-rift II), both in the interior rift and in the marginal rift segments, indicating that rift axis did not migrate from the interior to the marginal setting. Rift magmatism was centered on the southern EBRIS and peaked between 130 and 120 Ma during syn-rift phase II. Rift phase III was followed by a transitional marine, evaporitic megasequence of Aptian age, which directly overlies the rift unconformity and a marine drift megasequence which spans Albian to Recent times. During the Late Cretaceous, sedimentation rates responded to first-order eustatic sea-level fluctuations. Tertiary accelerated sedimentation rates can be related to local clastic supply which filled in spaces inherited from previous starved conditions. Between 60 and 40 Ma, post-rift magmatism, centered on the Abrolhos and Royal Charlotte banks, is probably related to development of a hot spot associated with the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain. Although crossing three distinct Precambrian tectono-thermal provinces, ranging from Archean through Late Proterozoic, rift structures follow a general NE trend, subparallel to the principal basement fabric. A NW-SE oriented stress field appears to be compatible with both Neocomian and Barremian phases of crustal extension. Profiles transverse to the rift axis

  18. The regional structure of the Red Sea Rift revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Nico; van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Devey, Colin W.; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís

    2017-04-01

    The Red Sea Rift has, for decades, been considered a text book example of how young ocean basins form and mature. Nevertheless, most studies of submarine processes in the Red Sea were previously based on sparse data (mostly obtained between the late 1960's and 1980's) collected at very low resolution. This low resolution, combined with large gaps between individual datasets, required large interpolations when developing geological models. Thus, these models generally considered the Red Sea Rift a special case of young ocean basement formation, dividing it from North to South into three zones: a continental thinning zone, a "transition zone" and a fully developed spreading zone. All these zones are imagined, in most of the models, to be separated by large transform faults, potentially starting and ending on the African and Arabian continental shields. However, no consensus between models e.g. about the locations (or even the existence) of major faults, the nature of the transition zone or the extent of oceanic crust in the Red Sea Rift has been reached. Recently, high resolution bathymetry revealed detailed seafloor morphology as never seen before from the Red Sea, very comparable to other (ultra)slow spreading mid-ocean ridges such as the Gakkel Ridge, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and SW-Indian Ridge, changing the overall picture of the Red Sea significantly. New discoveries about the extent, movement and physical properties of submarine salt deposits led to the Red Sea Rift being linked to the young Aptian-age South Atlantic. Extensive crosscutting transform faults are not evident in the modern bathymetry data, neither in teleseismic nor vertical gravity gradient data and comparisons to Gakkel Ridge and the SW-Indian Ridge suggest that the Red Sea is much simpler in terms of structural geology than was previously thought. Complicated tectonic models do not appear necessary and there appears to be large areas of oceanic crust under the Red Sea salt blankets. Based on

  19. Geometry of the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary into Afar: Preliminary Results from the Seismic Profile Across the Asal Rift (Djibouti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, J.; Doubre, C.; Mohamed, K.; Tiberi, C.; Leroy, S.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the Afar Depression, the Asal-Ghoubbet Rift in Djibouti is a young segment on land at the propagating tip of the Aden Ridge. This segment represents an ideal laboratory to observe the mechanisms of extension and the structural evolutions involved, from the continental break-up to the first stage of oceanic spreading. However, we lack first order information about the crustal and upper mantle structure in this region, which for example prevent detailed numerical modeling of the deformations observed at the surface from GPS or InSAR. Moreover the current permanent network is not well suited to precisely constrain the ratio of seismic/aseismic deformation and to characterize the active deformation and the rifting dynamics. Since November 2009 we have maintained a temporary network of 25 seismic stations deployed along a 150 km-long profile. Because we expect rapid variations of the lithospheric structure across the 10 km-wide central part of the rift, we gradually decreased the inter-stations spacing to less than 1 km in the middle section of the profile. In order to obtain a continuous image of the plate boundary, from the topographic surface to the upper mantle, several techniques and methods will be applied: P and S wave receiver functions, tomographies based on body waves, surface waves and seismic noise correlation, anisotropy, and finally a gravity-seismic joint inversion. We present some preliminary results deduced from the receiver functions applied to the data acquired during the first months of the experiment. We migrate several sets of receiver functions computed in various frequency bands to resolve both mantle interfaces and fine scale structures within the thin crust in the center of the rift. These first images confirm a rapid variation of the Moho depth on both sides of the rift and a very complex lithospheric structure in the central section with several low velocity zones within the top 50km that might correspond to magma lenses.

  20. Transboundary Clusters in the Coastal Zones of the European Part of Russia: Inventory, Typology, Factors, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory and a typology of the existing and emerging economic clusters in the coastal zone of the European part of Russia. The authors hold that transboundary clustering takes priority in the Baltic coastal region — nine of the 56 clusters identified are located in the Kaliningrad region and another eight in Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad region. The authors describe major catalysts and immanent inhibitors in coastal zones. The former include a high density of coastal economies, proximity to international markets, and better logistics and communications. The inhibitors comprise geopolitical risks and institutional barriers. It is shown that the potential and prospects of transboundary clustering are affected by both global integration and disintegration patterns, coastal infrastructure, geopolitical and geoeconomic ‘neighbourhood’, cultural excellence, and business and investment environment.

  1. Landslide susceptibility mapping for a part of North Anatolian Fault Zone (Northeast Turkey) using logistic regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Gökhan; aytekin, mustafa; banu ikizler, sabriye; angın, zekai

    2013-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault is know as one of the most active and destructive fault zone which produced many earthquakes with high magnitudes. Along this fault zone, the morphology and the lithological features are prone to landsliding. However, many earthquake induced landslides were recorded by several studies along this fault zone, and these landslides caused both injuiries and live losts. Therefore, a detailed landslide susceptibility assessment for this area is indispancable. In this context, a landslide susceptibility assessment for the 1445 km2 area in the Kelkit River valley a part of North Anatolian Fault zone (Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey) was intended with this study, and the results of this study are summarized here. For this purpose, geographical information system (GIS) and a bivariate statistical model were used. Initially, Landslide inventory maps are prepared by using landslide data determined by field surveys and landslide data taken from General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration. The landslide conditioning factors are considered to be lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, topographical elevation, distance to streams, distance to roads and distance to faults, drainage density and fault density. ArcGIS package was used to manipulate and analyze all the collected data Logistic regression method was applied to create a landslide susceptibility map. Landslide susceptibility maps were divided into five susceptibility regions such as very low, low, moderate, high and very high. The result of the analysis was verified using the inventoried landslide locations and compared with the produced probability model. For this purpose, Area Under Curvature (AUC) approach was applied, and a AUC value was obtained. Based on this AUC value, the obtained landslide susceptibility map was concluded as satisfactory. Keywords: North Anatolian Fault Zone, Landslide susceptibility map, Geographical Information Systems, Logistic Regression Analysis.

  2. A General Case to Determine Dimensions and Their Tolerance Zones for the Thread Parts of Epicyclic Roller-Screw Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Blinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important trend in the development of aerospace industry is to increase load capacity of mechanisms, assemblies, and parts without increasing their size and weight. The above is also true for widely used in aircrafts and the most promising up to date Epicyclic Roller-Screw Mechanisms (ERSM that convert rotational movement into translational one. Previously (in the article, it was proposed to increase the load capacity (approximately by 15% through reduction of included angle of ERSM threaded parts from 90° to 70°.However, such improvement of ERSM will change dimensions of the mechanism parts and its parameters and characteristics (efficiency factor, position of initial point of contact of the conjugated thread turns and parameters of their contact interaction, as well as kinematic parameters, which will require additional studies. If we take into account the priority of these studies, then surely we must begin with development of technique to determine dimensions of the ERSM main parts and their tolerance zones because we need drawings to manufacture and test the upgraded ERSM. We have developed a technique to calculate dimensions of the main parts of ERSM and associated tolerance zones that takes in to account the change of included angle of threaded parts of the mechanism and radius of circular arc according to which roller thread profile has been fulfilled. So the proposed technique is the general one in comparison with the previous ones.This technique uses various conditions and equations to determine dimensions of parts and associated tolerance zones. For example, a nut encircles a screw with rollers, and their dimensions form a closed dimension chain, in which the dimensions and associated tolerances must be such as to ensure ERSM assembling, on the one hand, and, on the other hand the backlash of the mechanism should be minimal to ensure high load capacity, kinematic accuracy, and rigidity of ERSM. We used the following

  3. Fault kinematics and tectonic stress in the seismically active Manyara Dodoma Rift segment in Central Tanzania Implications for the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheyeki, Athanas S.; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Mruma, Abdulkarim

    2008-07-01

    The Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System is well known in Ethiopia (Main Ethiopian Rift) and Kenya (Kenya or Gregory Rift) and is usually considered to fade away southwards in the North Tanzanian Divergence, where it splits into the Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani segments. Further towards the south, rift structures are more weakly expressed and this area has not attracted much attention since the mapping and exploratory works of the 1950s. In November 4, 2002, an earthquake of magnitude Mb = 5.5 struck Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania. Analysis of modern digital relief, seismological and geological data reveals that ongoing tectonic deformation is presently affecting a broad N-S trending belt, extending southward from the North Tanzanian Divergence to the region of Dodoma, forming the proposed "Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment". North of Arusha-Ngorongoro line, the rift is confined to a narrow belt (Natron graben in Tanzania) and south of it, it broadens into a wide deformation zone which includes both the Eyasi and Manyara grabens. The two-stage rifting model proposed for Kenya and North Tanzania also applies to the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment. In a first stage, large, well-expressed topographic and volcanogenic structures were initiated in the Natron, Eyasi and Manyara grabens during the Late Miocene to Pliocene. From the Middle Pleistocene onwards, deformations related to the second rifting stage propagated southwards to the Dodoma region. These young structures have still limited morphological expressions compared to the structures formed during the first stage. However, they appear to be tectonically active as shown by the high concentration of moderate earthquakes into earthquake swarms, the distribution of He-bearing thermal springs, the morphological freshness of the fault scarps, and the presence of open surface fractures. Fault kinematic and paleostress analysis of geological fault data in basement rocks along the active fault lines show that recent

  4. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  5. Stress and slip partitioning during oblique rifting: comparison between data from the Main Ethiopian Rift and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, G.; Philippon, M.; Sani, F.; Keir, D.

    2012-04-01

    Oblique rifting in the central and northern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) has resulted in a complex structural pattern characterized by two differently oriented fault systems: a set of NE-SW-trending boundary faults and a system of roughly NNE-SSW-oriented fault swarms affecting the rift floor (Wonji faults). Boundary faults formed oblique to the regional extension vector, likely as a result of the oblique reactivation of a pre-existing deep-seated rheological anisotropy, whereas internal Wonji faults developed sub-orthogonal to the stretching direction. Previous works have successfully reconciled this rift architecture and fault distribution with the long-term plate kinematics; however, at a more local scale, fault-slip and earthquake data reveal significant variations in the orientation the minimum principal stress and related fault-slip direction across the rift valley. Whereas fault measurements indicate a roughly N95°E extension on the axial Wonji faults, a N105°E to N110°E directed minimum principal stress is observed along boundary faults. Both fault-slip data and analysis of seismicity indicate a roughly pure dip-slip motion on the boundary faults, despite their orientation (oblique to the regional extension vector) should result in an oblique displacement. To shed light on the process driving the variability of data derived from fault-slip (and seismicity) analysis we present crustal-scale analogue models of oblique rifting, deformed in a large-capacity centrifuge by using materials and boundary conditions described in several previous modeling works. As in these previous works, the experiments show the diachronous activation of two fault systems, boundary and internal, whose pattern strikingly resemble that observed in previous lithospheric-scale modeling, as well as that described in the MER. Internal faults arrange in two different, en-echelon segments connected by a transfer zone where strike-slip displacement dominates. Whereas internal faults develop

  6. The NE Rift of Tenerife: towards a model on the origin and evolution of ocean island rifts; La dorsal NE de Tenerife: hacia un modelo del origen y evolucion de los rifts de islas oceanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carracedo, J. C.; Guillou, H.; Rodriguez Badiola, E.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, A.; Peris, R.; Troll, V.; Wiesmaier, S.; Delcamp, A.; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    , plume-related fractures acting throughout the entire growth of the islands. Basaltic volcanism forms the bulk of the islands and rift zones. However, collapses of the flanks of the rifts disrupt their established fissural feeding system, frequently favouring magma accumulation and residence at shallow emplacements, leading to differentiation of magmas, and intermediate to felsic nested eruptions. Rifts and their collapse may therefore act as an important factor in providing petrological variability to oceanic volcanoes. Conversely, the possibility exists that the presence of important felsic volcanism may indicate lateral collapses in oceanic shields and ridge-like volcanoes, even if they are concealed by post-collapse volcanism or partially mass-wasted by erosion. (Author) 76 refs.

  7. Cenozoic Evolution of the Central Part of the Mexican Subduction Zone From Geologic and Geophysical Data - In the Eve of the Result From the "Mase" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Meso America Subduction Experiments (MASE), carried out jointly by Caltech, UCLA and UNAM (Institute of Geophysics and Center for Geoscience) is about to provide a detailed image of the crust and upper mantle in the central part of the Mexican subduction zone (Acapulco, Gro. Huejutla, Hgo.). Preliminary results show that the Cocos plate between the coast and the volcanic front is horizontal and placed just beneath the upper plate Moho. Further north, beneath the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), seismicity is scarce or absent and the geometry of the subducted plate is poorly defined. This part of the TMVB also displays a large geochemical variability, including lavas with scarce to none evidence of fluids from the subducting plate (OIB in Sierra Chichinautzin) and lavas with slab melting signature (adakites of Nevado de Toluca and Apan area) that coexist with the more abundant products showing clear evidence of fluids from the subduting plate. These peculiarities led several workers to formulate models that depart from a classic subduction scenario for the genesis of the TMVB. These include the presence of a rootless mantle plume, the development of a continental rift, a more or less abrupt increase of the subduction angle and a detached slab. While waiting from the final results of the MASE project the data available from potential methods, thermal modeling and the geologic record of the TMVB provide some constraints to evaluate these models. Gravimetric and magnetotelluric data consistently indicate that beneath the TMVB the upper mantle has a relatively low density and high temperatures/conductivity. Thermal modeling also indicates a low viscosity and high temperature mantle beneath the arc. All the above seems to indicate that the slab must increase rapidly its dip beneath the volcanic front leaving space for a hot asthenospheric mantle. The fate of the slab further to the north is unclear from geophysical data alone. Global and regional tomographic

  8. Two-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Intracontinental Extension: A Case Study Of the Baikal Rift Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, H.; Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina

    The Baikal Rift zone (BRZ) is a narrow ( 10 km) active intra-continental basin, located at the boundary between the Amurian and Eurasian Plates. Although the BRZ is one of the major tectonically active rift zones in the world andit has been a subject of numerous geological...... on topography,basin depth, the structure of the crust, lithosphere thickness, and the location of major tectonic faults. Our goal is to determine the physical models that reproduce reasonably well the ob-served deformation patterns of the BRZ.We perform a systematic analysis of the pa-rameter space in order...

  9. Voluminous lava flow from Axial Seamount's south rift constrains extension rate on northern Vance Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saout, M.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Axial Seamount is characterized by a robust magma supply resulting from the interaction between the Cobb hotspot and the Juan de Fuca Ridge. During the last two decades, magmatic activity was focused within the summit caldera and upper and middle portions of the two rift zones, with eruptions in 1998, 2011, and 2015. However, the distal ends of both rift zones have experienced numerous eruptions in the past. The most voluminous flows are located near the extreme ends, greater than 40 kilometers from the caldera. Where Axial's South Rift Zone overlaps with the Vance Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the 2015 MBARI expedition mapped 16 km2 of the seafloor with our AUV, and collected 33 rocks and 33 sediment cores during two ROV dives. The data were used to confirm the boundaries of an extensive flow tentatively identified using modern ship based bathymetry. This flow is 18 km wide and 6 km long for a total surface area of 63 km2. The flow is modified by superficial ( 5 m deep) and deep (25 to 45 m deep) subsidence pits, with the deepest pits giving an indication of the minimum thickness of the flow. The maximum thickness of 100 m is measured at the margins of the flow. We thus estimate a volume between 2.5 and 6 km3, making this flow the most voluminous known on the global mid ocean ridge system. The minimum volume is equivalent to the present volume of the summit caldera. Radiocarbon ages of foraminifera from the basal sections of sediment cores suggest that this flow is 1000 years old. This flow travelled east and partially filled the axial valley of the adjacent Vance Segment. Since emplacement, this part of the flow has experienced deformation by fissures and faults aligned with the trend of the Vance Segment. The horizontal extension across these features allows us to estimate a local deformation rate of 3 cm/yr of tectonic extension on the northern end of Vance Segment during the last 1000 years.

  10. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  11. Delineation of groundwater development potential zones in parts of marginal Ganga Alluvial Plain in South Bihar, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Dhar, Y R; Vittala, S S

    2010-06-01

    A part of the Gangetic Alluvial Plain covering 2,228 km(2), in the state of Bihar, is studied for demarcating groundwater development potential zones. The area is mainly agrarian and experiencing intensive groundwater draft to the tune of 0.12 million cubic metre per square kilometres per year from the Quaternary marginal alluvial deposits, unconformably overlain northerly sloping Precambrian bedrock. Multiparametric data on groundwater comprising water level, hydraulic gradient (pre- and post-monsoon), aquifer thickness, permeability, suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation and groundwater resources vs. draft are spatially analysed and integrated on a Geographical Information System platform to generate thematic layers. By integrating these layers, three zones have been delineated based on groundwater development potential. It is inferred that about 48% of the area covering northern part has high development potential, while medium and low development potential category covers 41% of the area. Further increase in groundwater extraction is not recommended for an area of 173 km(2), affected by over-exploitation. The replenishable groundwater resource available for further extraction has been estimated. The development potential enhances towards north with increase in thickness of sediments. Local deviations are due to variation of-(1) cumulative thickness of aquifers, (2) deeper water level resulting from localised heavy groundwater extraction and (3) aquifer permeability.

  12. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  13. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr ≤ annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to cluster bean

  14. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H. E-mail: hsingh11@rediffmail.com; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M

    2004-09-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr {<=} annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to

  15. ATM Coastal Topography-Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 15 (Part 1 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 15, from Isles Dernieres to Grand Isle, acquired September 7 and 10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last

  16. ATM Coastal Topography - Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 16 (Part 2 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 16, from Grand Isle to the Chandeleur Islands, acquired September 7 and 9, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and

  17. Sediment budget and tectonic evolution of the Meuse catchment in the Ardennes and the Roer Valley Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, R.T. van; Houtgast, R.F.; Wateren, F.M. van der; Berghe, J. van den; Bogaart, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Meuse river system is located in the northeastern part of the Paris Basin, the Ardennes, and the Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS). The Meuse river system developed during the uplift of the Ardennes since the Eocene and it was affected by renewed rifting of the RVRS starting in the Late Oligocene.

  18. Sediment budget and tectonic evolution of the Meuse catchment in the Ardennes and the Roer Valley Rift System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balen, R.T.; Houtgast, R.F.; van der Wateren, F.M.; Vandenberghe, J.; Bogaart, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Meuse river system is located in the northeastern part of the Paris Basin, the Ardennes, and the Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS). The Meuse river system developed during the uplift of the Ardennes since the Eocene and it was affected by renewed rifting of the RVRS starting in the Late Oligocene.

  19. Mantle convection patterns reveal the enigma of the Red Sea rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunin, Alexey; Kaban, Mikhail; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2017-04-01

    Initiation and further development of the Red Sea rift (RSR) is usually associated with the Afar plume at the Oligocene-Miocene separating the Arabian plate from the rest of the continent. Usually, the RSR is divided into three parts with different geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, but the nature of this partitioning is still debatable. To understand origin and driving forces responsible for the tectonic partitioning of the RSR, we have developed a global mantle convection model based on the refined density model and viscosity distribution derived from tectonic, rheological and seismic data. The global density model of the upper mantle is refined for the Middle East based on the high-resolution 3D model (Kaban et al., 2016). This model based on a joint inversion of the residual gravity and residual topography provides much better constraints on the 3D density structure compared to the global model based on seismic tomography. The refined density model and the viscosity distribution based on a homologous temperature approach provide an initial setup for further numerical calculations. The present-day snapshot of the mantle convection is calculated by using the code ProSpher 3D that allows for strong lateral variations of viscosity (Petrunin et al., 2013). The setup includes weak plate boundaries, while the measured GPS velocities are used to constrain the solution. The resulting mantle flow patterns show clear distinctions among the mantle flow patterns below the three parts of the RSR. According to the modeling results, tectonics of the southern part of the Red Sea is mainly determined by the Afar plume and the Ethiopian rift opening. It is characterized by a divergent mantle flow, which is connected to the East African Rift activity. The rising mantle flow is traced down to the transition zone and continues in the lower mantle for a few thousand kilometers south-west of Afar. The hot mantle anomaly below the central part of the RSR can be

  20. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    zones and adjoining highs. Late Eocene rocks exposed in the western part of the basin exhibit a complex network of branching segmented normal and strike-slip faults, generally with a NNW-SSE structural orientations. Many surface structural features have been interpreted from satellite images which confirm sinistral strike-slip kinematics. Relay ramp structures, numerous elongate asymmetric synclines associated with shallow west limbs and steeper dipping east limbs are developed in the hangingwalls adjacent to west downthrowing normal faults. These structural patterns reflect Cretaceous/Tertiary extensional tectonics with additional control by underlying pre-existing Pan-African basement fabrics and ENE-WSW trending Hercynian structures. We relate the Sirt Basin rift development as exemplified in our study area to the break-up of Gondwana represented by the structural evolution of the West-Central African rift system, and the South and Central Atlantic, the Tethys and the Indian Oceans.

  1. On abrupt transpression to transtension transition in the South Baikal rift system (Tunka - South Baikal segment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankov, Vladimir; Parfeevets, Anna; Lukhnev, Andrey; Miroshnitchenko, Andrey; Ashurkov, Sergey; Sankov, Alexey; Usynin, Leonid; Eskin, Alexander; Bryzhak, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    This work addresses to relation of transpression and extension stress-strain conditions in intracontinental rift system. In our investigation we use a new structural, shallow geophysics, GPS geodetic data and paleostress reconstructions. The surroundings of southern tip of Siberian platform is the region of three Late Cenozoic structures conjugation: sublatitudinal Obruchev fault (OF) controlling the northern boundary of the South Baikal basin, NW trending Main Sayan fault (MSF) as the strike-slip boundary between Siberian platform and East Sayan block and WNW trending eastern segment of Tunka fault (TF) as part of the Tunka basins system northern boundary. A new evidences of superposition of compression and extension fault structures were revealed near the southern extremity of Baikal lake. We've find a very close vicinity of Late Pleistocene - Holocene strike-slip, thrust and normal faulting in the MSF and OF junction zone. The on-land Holocene normal faulting can be considered as secondary fault paragenesis within the main strike-slip zone (Sankov et al., 2009). Active strike-slip, thrust and reverse faulting characterize the MSF and TF junction zone. The transpression conditions are replaced very sharply by transtension and extension ones in eastern direction from zone of structures conjugation - the active normal faulting is dominated within the South Baikal basin. The Bystraya rift basin located in the west shows the tectonic inversion since Middle Pleistocene as a result of the strike-slip movements partitioning between TF and MSF and inset of edition compression stress. The active strike-slip and intrabasin extension conditions are dominated father to the west in Tunka basin. The results of our GPS measurements show the present day convergence and east movements of Khamar-Daban block and eastern Tunka basins relative to Siberian platform along MSF and TF with NE-SW shortening domination. The clear NW-SE divergence across Baikal basin is documented. Holocene

  2. Composite volcanoes in the south-eastern part of İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Helvacı, Cahit; Pécskay, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    During the Early-Middle Miocene (Western Anatolia) several volcanic fields occur along a NE-SW-trending shear zone, known as İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone. This is a deformed crustal-scale sinistral strike-slip fault zone crossing the Bornova flysch and extending along the NW-boundary of the Menderes Massif by accommodating the differential deformation between the Cycladic and Menderes core complexes within the Aegean extensional system. Here we discuss the volcanic activity in Yamanlar and Yuntdağı fields that is closely related to the extensional tectonics of the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone and in the same time with the episodic core complex denudation of the Menderes Massif. This study documents two composite volcanoes (Yamanlar and Yuntdağı), whose present vent area is strongly eroded and cut by a variety of strike-slip and normal fault systems, the transcurrent NW-SE being the dominant one. The erosional remnants of the vent areas, resembling a shallow crater intrusive complex, illustrate the presence of numerous dykes or variably sized neck-like intrusions and lava flows, typically associated with hydrothermal alteration processes (propylitic and argillic). Such vent areas were observed in both the examined volcanic fields, having ~ 6 km in diameter and being much more eroded toward the south, along the NW-SE fault system. Lava flows and lava domes are sometimes associated with proximal block and ash flow deposits. In the cone-building association part, besides lava flows and remnants of lava domes, rare block and ash and pumice-rich pyroclastic flow deposits, as well as a series of debris-flow deposits, have been observed. The rocks display a porphyritic texture and contain various proportions of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, amphibole, rare biotite and corroded quartz. The examined rocks fall at the limit between calc-alkaline to alkaline field, and plot predominantly in high-K andesite and dacite fields and one is rhyolite. The trace

  3. Deeply subducted continental fragments - Part 2: Insight from petrochronology in the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Burn, Marco; Kunz, Barbara Eva; Engi, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Subducted continental terranes commonly comprise an assembly of subunits that reflect the different tectono-metamorphic histories they experienced in the subduction zone. Our challenge is to unravel how, when, and in which part of the subduction zone these subunits were juxtaposed. Petrochronology offers powerful tools to decipher pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) histories of metamorphic rocks that preserve a record of several stages of transformation. A major issue is that the driving forces for re-equilibration at high pressure are not well understood. For example, continental granulite terrains subducted to mantle depths frequently show only partial and localized eclogitization. The Sesia Zone (NW Italy) is exceptional because it comprises several continental subunits in which eclogitic rocks predominate and high-pressure (HP) assemblages almost completely replaced the Permian granulite protoliths. This field-based study comprises both main complexes of the Sesia terrane, covering some of the recently recognized tectonic subunits involved in its assembly; hence our data constrain the HP tectonics that formed the Sesia Zone. We used a petrochronological approach consisting of petrographic and microstructural analysis linked with thermodynamic modelling and U-Th-Pb age dating to reconstruct the P-T-t trajectories of these tectonic subunits. Our study documents when and under what conditions re-equilibration took place. Results constrain the main stages of mineral growth and deformation, associated with fluid influx that occurred in the subduction channel. In the Internal Complex (IC), pulses of fluid percolated at eclogite facies conditions between 77 and 55 Ma with the HP conditions reaching ˜ 2 GPa and 600-670 °C. By contrast, the External Complex (EC) records a lower pressure peak of ˜ 0.8 GPa for 500 °C at ˜ 63 Ma. The juxtaposition of the two complexes occurred during exhumation, probably at ˜ 0.8 GPa and 350 °C; the timing is constrained between 46

  4. Deeply subducted continental fragments – Part 2: Insight from petrochronology in the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giuntoli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Subducted continental terranes commonly comprise an assembly of subunits that reflect the different tectono-metamorphic histories they experienced in the subduction zone. Our challenge is to unravel how, when, and in which part of the subduction zone these subunits were juxtaposed. Petrochronology offers powerful tools to decipher pressure–temperature–time (P–T–t histories of metamorphic rocks that preserve a record of several stages of transformation. A major issue is that the driving forces for re-equilibration at high pressure are not well understood. For example, continental granulite terrains subducted to mantle depths frequently show only partial and localized eclogitization. The Sesia Zone (NW Italy is exceptional because it comprises several continental subunits in which eclogitic rocks predominate and high-pressure (HP assemblages almost completely replaced the Permian granulite protoliths. This field-based study comprises both main complexes of the Sesia terrane, covering some of the recently recognized tectonic subunits involved in its assembly; hence our data constrain the HP tectonics that formed the Sesia Zone. We used a petrochronological approach consisting of petrographic and microstructural analysis linked with thermodynamic modelling and U–Th–Pb age dating to reconstruct the P–T–t trajectories of these tectonic subunits. Our study documents when and under what conditions re-equilibration took place. Results constrain the main stages of mineral growth and deformation, associated with fluid influx that occurred in the subduction channel. In the Internal Complex (IC, pulses of fluid percolated at eclogite facies conditions between 77 and 55 Ma with the HP conditions reaching  ∼  2 GPa and 600–670 °C. By contrast, the External Complex (EC records a lower pressure peak of  ∼  0.8 GPa for 500 °C at  ∼  63 Ma. The juxtaposition of the two complexes occurred during exhumation

  5. 3D Thermo-Mechanical Models of Plume-Lithosphere Interactions: Implications for the Kenya rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Koptev, A.; Sippel, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) thermo-mechanical models aiming to explore the interaction of an active mantle plume with heterogeneous pre-stressed lithosphere in the Kenya rift region. As shown by the recent data-driven 3D gravity and thermal modeling (Sippel et al., 2017), the integrated strength of the lithosphere for the region of Kenya and northern Tanzania appears to be strongly controlled by the complex inherited crustal structure, which may have been decisive for the onset, localization and propagation of rifting. In order to test this hypothesis, we have performed a series of ultra-high resolution 3D numerical experiments that include a coupled mantle/lithosphere system in a dynamically and rheologically consistent framework. In contrast to our previous studies assuming a simple and quasi-symmetrical initial condition (Koptev et al., 2015, 2016, 2017), the complex 3D distribution of rock physical properties inferred from geological and geophysical observations (Sippel et al., 2017) has been incorporated into the model setup that comprises a stratified three-layer continental lithosphere composed of an upper and lower crust and lithospheric mantle overlaying the upper mantle. Following the evidence of the presence of a broad low-velocity seismic anomaly under the central parts of the East African Rift system (e.g. Nyblade et al, 2000; Chang et al., 2015), a 200-km radius mantle plume has been seeded at the bottom of a 635 km-depth model box representing a thermal anomaly of 300°C temperature excess. In all model runs, results show that the spatial distribution of surface deformation is indeed strongly controlled by crustal structure: within the southern part of the model box, a localized narrow zone stretched in NS direction (i.e. perpendicularly to applied far-field extension) is aligned along a structural boundary within the lower crust, whereas in the northern part of the model domain, deformation is more diffused and its eastern limit coincides with

  6. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part II. Practical impact in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, Martin; Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tesařová, Eva; Dubský, Pavel; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    This article elucidates the practical impact of the complexation of buffer constituents with complexation agents on electrophoretic results, namely, complexation constant determination, system peak development, and proper separation of analytes. Several common buffers, which were selected based on the pH study in Part I of this paper series (Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tošner, Z.; Beneš, M.; Tesařová, E.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem., 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac4013804); e.g., CHES, MES, MOPS, Tricine were used to demonstrate behavior of such complex separation systems. We show that the value of a complexation constant determined in the interacting buffers environment depends not only on the analyte and complexation agent but it is also substantially affected by the type and concentration of buffer constituents. As a result, the complexation parameters determined in the interacting buffers cannot be regarded as thermodynamic ones and may provide misleading information about the strength of complexation of the compound of interest. We also demonstrate that the development of system peaks in interacting buffer systems significantly differs from the behavior known for noncomplexing systems, as the mobility of system peaks depends on the concentration and type of neutral complexation agent. Finally, we show that the use of interacting buffers can totally ruin the results of electrophoretic separation because the buffer properties change as the consequence of the buffer constituents' complexation. As a general conclusion, the interaction of buffer constituents with the complexation agent should always be considered in any method development procedures.

  7. Continental rift architecture and patterns of magma migration: a dynamic analysis based on centrifuge models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corti, G.; Bonini, M.; Sokoutis, D.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Mulugeta, G.

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale centrifuge models were used to investigate the role of continental rift structure in controlling patterns of magma migration and emplacement. Experiments considered the reactivation of weakness zones in the lower crust and the presence of magma at Moho depths. Results suggest that

  8. Geophysical exploration of the Boku geothermal area, Central Ethiopian Rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiye, Tamiru A. [School of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, P.O. Box Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Tigistu Haile [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2008-12-15

    The Boku central volcano is located within the axial zone of the Central Ethiopian Rift near the town of Nazareth, Ethiopia. An integrated geophysical survey involving thermal, magnetic, electrical and gravimetric methods has been carried out over the Boku geothermal area in order to understand the circulation of fluids in the subsurface, and to localize the 'hot spot' providing heat to the downward migrating groundwaters before they return to the surface. The aim of the investigations was to reconstruct the geometry of the aquifers and the fluid flow paths in the Boku geothermal system, the country's least studied. Geological studies show that it taps heat from the shallow acidic Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Rift floor. The aquifer system is hosted in Quaternary Rift floor ignimbrites that are intensively fractured and receive regional meteoric water recharge from the adjacent escarpment and locally from precipitation and the Awash River. Geophysical surveys have mapped Quaternary faults that are the major geologic structures that allow the ascent of the hotter fluids towards the surface, as well as the cold-water recharge of the geothermal system. The shallow aquifers are mapped, preferred borehole sites for the extraction of thermal fluids are delineated and the depths to deeper thermal aquifers are estimated. (author)

  9. The tectonic evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift/São Miguel region (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, B. J.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.

    2015-07-01

    The eastern Azores Archipelago with São Miguel being the dominant subaerial structure is located at the intersection of an oceanic rift (Terceira Rift) with a major transform fault (Gloria Fault) representing the westernmost part of the Nubian-Eurasian plate boundary. The evolution of islands, bathymetric highs and basin margins involves strong volcanism, but the controlling geodynamic and tectonic processes are currently under debate. In order to study this evolution, multibeam bathymetry and marine seismic reflection data were collected to image faults and stratigraphy. The basins of the southeastern Terceira Rift are rift valleys whose southwestern and northeastern margins are defined by few major normal faults and several minor normal faults, respectively. Since São Miguel in between the rift valleys shows an unusual W-E orientation, it is supposed to be located on a leaky transform. South of the island and separated by a N120° trending graben system, the Monacco Bank represents a N160° oriented flat topped volcanic ridge dominated by tilted fault blocks. Up to six seismic units are interpreted for each basin. Although volcanic ridges hamper a direct linking of depositional strata between the rift and adjacent basins, the individual seismic stratigraphic units have distinct characteristics. Using these units to provide a consistent relative chrono-stratigraphic scheme for the entire study area, we suggest that the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift occurred in two stages. Considering age constrains from previous studies, we conclude that N140° structures developed orthogonal to the SW-NE direction of plate-tectonic extension before ~ 10 Ma. The N160° trending volcanic ridges and faults developed later as the plate tectonic spreading direction changed to WSW-ENE. Hence, the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift domain is predominantly controlled by plate kinematics and lithospheric stress forming a kind of a re-organized rift system.

  10. The Porcupine Basin: from rifting to continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, Timothy; Gaw, Viola; Klaeschen, Dirk; McDermott, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Southwest of Ireland, the Porcupine Basin is characterized by axial stretching factors that increase southward to values greater than six and typical of rifted margins. As such, the basin can be regarded as a natural laboratory to investigate the evolution and symmetry of rifting leading towards continental separation and breakup, and in particular the processes of mantle serpentinisation, and the onset of detachment faulting. We have processed through to prestack depth migration a series of E-W profiles crossing the basin at different axial stretching factors and linked by a N-S profile running close to the rift axis. Our results constrain the structure of the basin and have implications for the evolution of rifted margins. In the north at a latitude of 52.25N, no clear detachment is imaged, although faults do appear to cut down into the mantle, so that serpentinisation may have started. Further south (51.75N), a bright reflection (here named P) cuts down to the west from the base of the sedimentary section, is overlain by small fault blocks and appears to represent a detachment fault. P may in part follow the top of partially serpentinized mantle: this interpretation is consistent with gravity modelling, with numerical models of crustal embrittlement and mantle serpentinization during extension and with wide-angle data (see posters of Prada and of Watremez). Furthermore, P closely resembles the S reflection west of Iberia, where such serpentinites are well documented. P develops where the crust was thinned to less than 3 km during rifting, again similar to S. Although overall the basin remains symmetrical, the consistent westward structural dip of the detachment implies that, at high stretching factors, extension became asymmetric. Analysis of the depth sections suggests that the detachment may have been active as a rolling hinge rooting at low-angle beneath the Porcupine Bank, consistent with the presence of a footwall of serpentinites. This requires very weak

  11. Kinematics of the entire East African Rift from GPS velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M.; King, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Through a collaborative effort of the GeoPRISMS East Africa Rift GPS Working Group, we have collected and collated all of the publicly available continuous and survey-mode data for the entire rift system between 1994 and 2017 and processed these data as part of a larger velocity solution for Africa, Arabia and western Eurasia. We present here our velocity solution encompassing the major bounding plates and intervening terranes along the East African Rift from the Red Sea to the Malawi Rift and adjacent regions for GPS sites with data spans of at least 2.4 years, and north and east velocity uncertainties less than 1.5 mm/yr. To obtain realistic uncertainties for the velocity estimates, we attempted at each stage of the analysis to account for the character of the noise: During phase processing, we used an elevation-dependent weighting based on the phase residuals for each station; we then examined each position time series, removing outliers and reweighting appropriately to account for the white noise component of the errors; and e accounted for temporal correlations by estimating an equivalent random-walk magnitude for each continuous site and applying the median value (0.5 mm/√yr) to all survey-mode sites. We rigorously estimate relative rotation rates of Nubia, by choosing subset of well-determined sites such that the effective weights of western, northeastern and southern Africa were roughly equivalent, and Somalia, for which the estimate is dominated by three sites (MALI, RCMN, SEY1) whose uncertainties are a factor of 2-3 smaller than those of the other sites. For both plates, the weighted root-mean-square of the velocity residuals is 0.5 mm/yr. Our unified velocity solution provides a geodetic framework and constraints on the continental-scale kinematics of surface motions as well as more local effects both within and outside of the rift structures. Specific focus areas with denser coverage than previous fields include the Danakil block, the Afar Rift, the

  12. Active Magmatic Underplating in Western Eger Rift, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Bräuer, Karin; Vavryčuk, Václav; Tomek, Čestmír.; Kämpf, Horst

    2017-12-01

    The Eger Rift is an active element of the European Cenozoic Rift System associated with intense Cenozoic intraplate alkaline volcanism and system of sedimentary basins. The intracontinental Cheb Basin at its western part displays geodynamic activity with fluid emanations, persistent seismicity, Cenozoic volcanism, and neotectonic crustal movements at the intersections of major intraplate faults. In this paper, we study detailed geometry of the crust/mantle boundary and its possible origin in the western Eger Rift. We review existing seismic and seismological studies, provide new interpretation of the reflection profile 9HR, and supplement it by new results from local seismicity. We identify significant lateral variations of the high-velocity lower crust and relate them to the distribution and chemical status of mantle-derived fluids and to xenolith studies from corresponding depths. New interpretation based on combined seismic and isotope study points to a local-scale magmatic emplacement at the base of the continental crust within a new rift environment. This concept of magmatic underplating is supported by detecting two types of the lower crust: a high-velocity lower crust with pronounced reflectivity and a high-velocity reflection-free lower crust. The character of the underplated material enables to differentiate timing and tectonic setting of two episodes with different times of origin of underplating events. The lower crust with high reflectivity evidences magmatic underplating west of the Eger Rift of the Late Variscan age. The reflection-free lower crust together with a strong reflector at its top at depths of 28-30 km forms a magma body indicating magmatic underplating of the late Cenozoic (middle and upper Miocene) to recent. Spatial and temporal relations to recent geodynamic processes suggest active magmatic underplating in the intracontinental setting.

  13. Geodynamic modelling of the rift-drift transition: Application to the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, E.; Schettino, A.; Capitanio, F. A.; Ranalli, G.

    2017-12-01

    The onset of oceanic accretion after a rifting phase is generally accompanied by an initial fast pulse of spreading in the case of volcanic margins, such that the effective spreading rate exceeds the relative far-field velocity between the two plates for a short time interval. This pulse has been attributed to edge-driven convention (EDC), although our numerical modelling shows that the shear stress at the base of the lithosphere cannot exceed 1 MPa. In general, we have developed a 2D numerical model of the mantle instabilities during the rifting phase, in order to determine the geodynamic conditions at the rift-drift transition. The model was tested using Underworld II software, variable rheological parameters, and temperature and stress-dependent viscosity. Our results show an increase of strain rates at the top of the lithosphere with the lithosphere thickness as well as with the initial width of the margin up to 300 km. Beyond this value, the influence of the initial rift width can be neglected. An interesting outcome of the numerical model is the existence of an axial zone characterized by higher strain rates, which is flanked by two low-strain stripes. As a consequence, the model suggests the existence of an area of syn-rift compression within the rift valley. Regarding the post-rift phase, we propose that at the onset of a seafloor spreading, a phase of transient creep allows the release of the strain energy accumulated in the mantle lithosphere during the rifting phase, through anelastic relaxation. Then, the conjugated margins would be subject to post-rift contraction and eventually to tectonic inversion of the rift structures. To explore the tenability of this model, we introduce an anelastic component in the lithosphere rheology, assuming both the classical linear Kelvin-Voigt rheology and a non-linear Kelvin model. The non-linear model predicts viable relaxation times ( 1-2Myrs) to explain the post-rift tectonic inversion observed along the Arabian

  14. Geodetic Measurements and Numerical Models of Rifting in Northern Iceland for 1993-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T.; Feigl, K.; Masterlark, T.; Carr, B. B.; Sigmundsson, F.; Thurber, C. H.

    2009-12-01

    Rifting occurs as episodes of active deformation in individual rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland. To measure the deformation, we use interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 1993 and 1999. Preliminary results suggest that a complex interplay of multiple inflating and deflating sources at depth is required to account for the observed deformation. In an effort to integrate heterogeneous constraining information (kinematic plate spreading, seismic tomography and anisotropy, and thermal and rheologic structures), we develop finite element models that simulate the underlying sources and processes associated with rifting events to quantitatively understand the magmatic plumbing system beneath Krafla central volcano and rift segment, the site of the most recent rifting episode in the NVZ. Calibration parameters include the positions, geometries, and flux rates for elements of the plumbing system, as well as material properties. The General Inversion for Phase Technique (GIPhT) [Feigl and Thurber, Geophys. J. Int., 2009] is used to model the InSAR phase data directly, without unwrapping parameters. It operates on wrapped phase values ranging from -1/2 to +1/2 cycles. By defining a cost function that quantifies the misfit between observed and modeled values in terms of wrapped phase, GIPhT can estimate parameters in a geophysical model by minimizing the cost function. Since this approach can handle noisy, wrapped phase data, it avoids the pitfalls of phase-unwrapping approaches. Consequently, GIPhT allows the analysis, interpretation and modeling of more interferometric pairs than approaches that require unwrapping. GIPhT also allows statistical testing of hypotheses because the wrapped phase residuals follow a Von Mises distribution. As a result, the model parameters estimated by GIPhT include formal uncertainties. We test the hypothesis that deformation in the rift zone occurred at a constant (secular

  15. Crustal and mantle structure and anisotropy beneath the incipient segments of the East African Rift System: Preliminary results from the ongoing SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Massinque, B.; Mdala, H. S.; moidaki, M.; Mutamina, D. M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ingate, S. F.; Reusch, A.; Barstow, N.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the vast wealth of research conducted toward understanding processes associated with continental rifting, the extent of our knowledge is derived primarily from studies focused on mature rift systems, such as the well-developed portions of the East African Rift System (EARS) north of Lake Malawi. To explore the dynamics of early rift evolution, the SAFARI (Seismic Arrays for African Rift Initiation) team deployed 50 PASSCAL broadband seismic stations across the Malawi, Luangwa, and Okavango rifts of the EARS during the summer of 2012. The cumulative length of the profiles is about 2500 km and the planned recording duration is 2 years. Here we present the preliminary results of systematic analyses of data obtained from the first year of acquisition for all 50 stations. A total of 446 high-quality shear-wave splitting measurements using PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases from 84 teleseismic events were used to constrain fast polarization directions and splitting times throughout the region. The Malawi and Okavango rifts are characterized by mostly NE trending fast directions with a mean splitting time of about 1 s. The fast directions on the west side of the Luangwa Rift Zone are parallel to the rift valley, and those on the east side are more N-S oriented. Stacking of approximately 1900 radial receiver functions reveals significant spatial variations of both crustal thickness and the ratio of crustal P and S wave velocities, as well as the thickness of the mantle transition zone. Stations situated within the Malawi rift demonstrate a southward increase in observed crustal thickness, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the Malawi rift originated at the northern end of the rift system and propagated southward. Both the Okavango and Luangwa rifts are associated with thinned crust and increased Vp/Vs, although additional data is required at some stations to enhance the reliability of the observations. Teleseismic P-wave travel-time residuals show a delay of about

  16. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  17. La dorsal NE de Tenerife: hacia un modelo del origen y evolución de los rifts de islas oceánicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcamp, A.

    2009-06-01

    primordial, plume-related fractures acting throughout the entire growth of the islands. Basaltic volcanism forms the bulk of the islands and rift zones. However, collapses of the flanks of the rifts disrupt their established fissural feeding system, frequently favouring magma accumulation and residence at shallow emplacements, leading to differentiation of magmas, and intermediate to felsic nested eruptions. Rifts and their collapse may therefore act as an important factor in providing petrological variability to oceanic volcanoes. Conversely, the possibility exists that the presence of important felsic volcanism may indicate lateral collapses in oceanic shields and ridge-like volcanoes, even if they are concealed by post-collapse volcanism or partially mass-wasted by erosion.El Rift NE de Tenerife, conocido localmente como la Dorsal de La Esperanza, es un excelente ejem plo de un rift persistente y recurrente. Su estudio ha aportado evidencias significativas del origen y diná mica de este tipo de estructuras volcánicas. Los rifts son posiblemente las estructuras más relevantes en la geología de las islas volcánicas oceánicas: 1. Controlan, tal vez desde su inicio, la construcción de los edificios insulares; 2. Son elementos sustanciales en la configuración (forma y topografía de estas islas; 3. Dan origen a sus principales formas del relieve y el paisaje; 4. Al concentrar la actividad eruptiva, son asimismo estructuras cruciales en la distribución del riesgo volcánico; 5. Condicionan la distribución de recursos naturales básicos, como el agua subterránea. En las Canarias están muy bien representados tanto los rifts típicos de los estadios juveniles de desarrollo en escudo, como los más tardíos, correspondientes a las fases de rejuvenecimiento post-ero sivo. El Rift NE es un buen ejemplo de este último tipo de rifts. El Rift NE se ha desarrollado en tres etapas diferentes separadas por periodos más largos de quiescencia o actividad reducida. La primera

  18. Geochemical significance of neoproterozoic rasimalai alkali syenite emplaced along Dharmapuri shear zone in the Northern part of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavel, S.; Balasubramani, S.; Nagaraju, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Zakaulla, Syed; Rai, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Rasimalai alkali syenite complex is emplaced within Peninsular Gneissic complex and spatially associated with NE-SW trending major Dharmapuri shear zone (DSZ) in the northern part of Tamil Nadu. It is surrounded by epidote hornblend egneiss, which is the fenetised product of Charnockite and occurs about 20 km NE of Alangayam in Vellore district. It is mainly comprised of medium to coarse grained grey syenite (albite and orthoclase) and medium to micro grained pink syenite (orthoclase, microcline and perthite) at places porphyritic in nature with hornblende, riebeckitc, aegirine and acmite as accessory minerals. Grey syenite is non radioactive and uranium mineralisation is associated with pink syenite (syngenetic and disseminated type) and quartz-barite veins (hydrothermal type). Hydrothermal activity is manifested in the form of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, barite, calcite and calcian-strontianite which occur in the form of disseminations, stringers, lumps, aggregates, veinlets and veins. Presence of high silica (63.14-75.43%) with high field strength elements (U, Th, Nb and Pb) and large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Sr, K, Ba) possibly indicates that Rasimalai alkali syenite is the product of crustal communication and partial melting of protracted emplacement of parental alkali basaltic magma

  19. The Role of Rift Obliquity in Formation of the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott Edmund Kelsey

    The Gulf of California illustrates how highly oblique rift geometries, where transform faults are kinematically linked to large-offset normal faults in adjacent pull-apart basins, enhance the ability of continental lithosphere to rupture and, ultimately, hasten the formation of new oceanic basins. The Gulf of California rift has accommodated oblique divergence of the Pacific and North America tectonic plates in northwestern Mexico since Miocene time. Due to its infancy, the rifted margins of the Gulf of California preserve a rare onshore record of early continental break-up processes from which to investigate the role of rift obliquity in strain localization. Using new high-precision paleomagnetic vectors from tectonically stable sites in north-central Baja California, I compile a paleomagnetic transect of Miocene ignimbrites across northern Baja California and Sonora that reveals the timing and distribution of dextral shear associated with inception of this oblique rift. I integrate detailed geologic mapping, basin analysis, and geochronology of pre-rift and syn-rift volcanic units to determine the timing of fault activity on Isla Tiburon, a proximal onshore exposure of the rifted North America margin, adjacent to the axis of the Gulf of California. The onset of strike-slip faulting on Isla Tiburon, ca. 8 - 7 Ma, was synchronous with the onset of transform faulting along a significant length of the nascent plate boundary within the rift. This tectonic transition coincides with a clockwise azimuthal shift in Pacific-North America relative motion that increased rift obliquity. I constrain the earliest marine conditions on southwest Isla Tiburon to ca. 6.4 - 6.0 Ma, coincident with a regional latest Miocene marine incursion in the northern proto-Gulf of California. This event likely flooded a narrow, incipient topographic depression along a ˜650 km-long portion of the latest Miocene plate boundary and corresponds in time and space with formation of a newly

  20. Off-axis volcano-tectonic activity during continental rifting: Insights from the transversal Goba-Bonga lineament, Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Agostini, Samuele; Philippon, Melody; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2018-03-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa, is characterized by the presence of major, enigmatic structures which strike approximately orthogonal to the trend of the rift valley. These structures are marked by important deformation and magmatic activity in an off-axis position in the plateaus surrounding the rift. In this study, we present new structural data based on a remote and field analysis, complemented with analogue modelling experiments, and new geochemical analysis of volcanic rocks sampled in different portions of one of these transversal structures: the Goba-Bonga volcano-tectonic lineament (GBVL). This integrated analysis shows that the GBVL is associated with roughly E-W-trending prominent volcano-tectonic activity affecting the western plateau. Within the rift floor, the approximately E-W alignment of Awasa and Corbetti calderas likely represent expressions of the GBVL. Conversely, no tectonic or volcanic features of similar (E-W) orientation have been recognized on the eastern plateau. Analogue modelling suggests that the volcano-tectonic features of the GBVL have probably been controlled by the presence of a roughly E-W striking pre-existing discontinuity beneath the western plateau, which did not extend beneath the eastern plateau. Geochemical analysis supports this interpretation and indicates that, although magmas have the same sub-lithospheric mantle source, limited differences in magma evolution displayed by products found along the GBVL may be ascribed to the different tectonic framework to the west, to the east, and in the axial zone of the rift. These results support the importance of the heterogeneous nature of the lithosphere and the spatial variations of its structure in controlling the architecture of continental rifts and the distribution of the related volcano-tectonic activity.

  1. Lateral variations in foreland flexure of a rifted continental margin: The Aquitaine Basin (SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrand, P.; Ford, M.; Watts, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of the inherited Aptian to Cenomanian rift on crustal rheology and evolution of the Late Cretaceous to Neogene flexural Aquitaine foreland basin, northern Pyrenees. We use surface and subsurface geological data to define the crustal geometry and the post-rift thermal subsidence, and Bouguer gravity anomalies and flexural modeling to study the lateral variation of the elastic thickness, flexure of the European plate and controlling loads. The Aquitaine foreland can be divided along-strike into three sectors. The eastern foreland is un-rifted and is associated with a simple flexural subsidence. The central sector is affected by crustal stretching and the observed foreland base is modeled by combining topographic and buried loads, with post-rift thermal subsidence. In the western sector the foreland basin geometry is mainly controlled by post-rift thermal subsidence. These three sectors are separated by major lineaments, which affect both crustal and foreland geometry. These lineaments seem to be part of a larger structural pattern that includes the Toulouse and Pamplona Faults. The European foreland shows lateral variations in flexural behavior: the relative role of surface and sub-surface (i.e., buried) loading varies along-strike and the elastic thickness values decrease from the north-east to the south-west where the plate is the most stretched. We suggest that foreland basins are influenced by the thermal state of the underlying lithosphere if it was initiated soon after rifting and that thermal cooling can contribute significantly to subsidence.

  2. Geodetic measurements and models of rifting in Northern Iceland for 1993-1998 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T.; Feigl, K.; Thurber, C. H.; Masterlark, T.; Carr, B.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2010-12-01

    Rifting occurs as episodes of active deformation in individual rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) in Iceland. Here we simulate deformation around the Krafla central volcano and rift system in NVZ in order to explain InSAR data acquired between 1993 and 1998. The General Inversion for Phase Technique (GIPhT) is used to model the InSAR phase data directly, without unwrapping [Feigl and Thurber, Geophys. J. Int., 2009]. Using a parallel simulated annealing algorithm, GIPhT minimizes the non-linear cost function that quantifies the misfit between observed and modeled values of the phase. We test the hypothesis that the observed deformation can be explained by a combination of at least three processes including: (i) secular plate spreading, (ii) post rifting relaxation following the Krafla rifting episode (1975-1984), and (iii) deflation of a shallow magma chamber beneath the central volcano. The calibration parameters include material properties of upper/lower crust and mantle as well as flux rates for the elements of the plumbing system. The best fitting Maxwell model favors a stronger lower crust (~1.0E+20 Pa.s) and a mantle viscosity of ~1.0E+18 Pa.s as well as a shallow deflating magma chamber. The deformation appears to be linear in time over the observed interval.

  3. Linking the tectonic evolution with fluid history in magma-poor rifted margins: tracking mantle- and continental crust-related fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, V. H. G.; Manatschal, G.; Karpoff, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The thinning of the crust and the exhumation of subcontinental mantle is accompanied by a series of extensional detachment faults. Exhumation of mantle and crustal rocks is intimately related to percolation of fluids along detachment faults leading to changes in mineralogy and chemistry of the mantle, crustal and sedimentary rocks. Field observation, analytical methods, refraction/reflection and well-core data, allowed us to investigate the role of fluids in the Iberian margin and former Alpine Tethys distal margins and the Pyrenees rifted system. In the continental crust, fluid-rock interaction leads to saussuritization that produces Si and Ca enriched fluids found in forms of veins along the fault zone. In the zone of exhumed mantle, large amounts of water are absorbed in the first 5-6 km of serpentinized mantle, which has the counter-effect of depleting the mantle of elements (e.g., Si, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Cr) forming mantle-related fluids. Using Cr-Ni-V and Fe-Mn as tracers, we show that in the distal margin, mantle-related fluids used detachment faults as pathways and interacted with the overlying crust, the sedimentary basin and the seawater, while further inward parts of the margin, continental crust-related fluids enriched in Si and Ca impregnated the fault zone and may have affected the sedimentary basin. The overall observations and results enable us to show when, where and how these interactions occurred during the formation of the rifted margin. In a first stage, continental crust-related fluids dominated the rifted systems. During the second stage, mantle-related fluids affected the overlying syn-tectonic sediments through direct migration along detachment faults at the future distal margin. In a third stage, these fluids reached the seafloor, "polluted" the seawater and were absorbed by post-tectonic sediments. We conclude that a significant amount of serpentinization occurred underneath the thinned continental crust, that the mantle-related fluids

  4. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  5. Fylla Bank: structure and evolution of a normal-to-shear rifted margin in the northern Labrador Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne

    2011-01-01

    ‐strike discontinuities in oceanic crust in the Labrador Sea to define margin segmentation in southern West Greenland, including the borders of Fylla Bank. A structural‐kinematic model presented here thus suggests that the Cretaceous–Cenozoic poly‐phase rifting to some extent was controlled by pre‐existing crustal fabric......, the Bank may be compared with the Demerara Plateau, part of the French Guinea‐Northeast Brazil continental margin. Seismic reflection interpretations presented in this study show that Fylla Bank is situated above an extensive basin complex, herein referred to as Fylla Structural Complex, which contains...... an up to 5‐km‐thick Cretaceous–Cenozoic sedimentary succession above an inferred pre‐Cretaceous basement. Seismic mapping of basement structures show that the complex is dominated by NNW‐/NW‐striking rift basins in its southern part and NNE‐striking rift basins in its northern part. The rift basins...

  6. Characterising East Antarctic Lithosphere and its Rift Systems using Gravity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V. Sasha; Rogozhina, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), a view has prevailed that East Antarctica has a relatively homogeneous lithospheric structure, consisting of a craton-like mosaic of Precambrian terranes, stable since the Pan-African orogeny ~500 million years ago (e.g. Ferracioli et al. 2011). Recent recognition of a continental-scale rift system cutting the East Antarctic interior has crystallised an alternative view of much more recent geological activity with important implications. The newly defined East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) (Ferraccioli et al. 2011) appears to extend from at least the South Pole to the continental margin at the Lambert Rift, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. New analysis of RadarSat data by Golynsky & Golynsky (2009) indicates that further rift zones may form widely distributed extension zones within the continent. A pilot study (Vaughan et al. 2012), using a newly developed gravity inversion technique (Chappell & Kusznir 2008) with existing public domain satellite data, shows distinct crustal thickness provinces with overall high average thickness separated by thinner, possibly rifted, crust. Understanding the nature of crustal thickness in East Antarctica is critical because: 1) this is poorly known along the ocean-continent transition, but is necessary to improve the plate reconstruction fit between Antarctica, Australia and India in Gondwana, which will also better define how and when these continents separated; 2) lateral variation in crustal thickness can be used to test supercontinent reconstructions and assess the effects of crystalline basement architecture and mechanical properties on rifting; 3) rift zone trajectories through East Antarctica will define the geometry of zones of crustal and lithospheric thinning at plate-scale; 4) it is not clear why or when the crust of East Antarctica became so thick and elevated, but knowing this can be used to test models of

  7. Probable existence of a Gondwana transcontinental rift system in western India: Implications in hydrocarbon exploration in Kutch and Saurashtra offshore: A GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, S.; Tep, Blecy; Pangtey, K. K. S.; Das, K. K.; Mitra, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The Gondwanaland assembly rifted dominantly during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian forming several intracratonic rift basins. These rifts were subsequently filled with a thick sequence of continental clastic sediments with minor marine intercalations in early phase. In western part of India, these sediments are recorded in enclaves of Bikaner-Nagaur and Jaisalmer basins in Rajasthan. Facies correlatives of these sediments are observed in a number of basins that were earlier thought to be associated with the western part of India. The present work is a GIS based approach to reconnect those basins to their position during rifting and reconstruct the tectono-sedimentary environment at that time range. The study indicates a rift system spanning from Arabian plate in the north and extending to southern part of Africa that passes through Indus basin, western part of India and Madagascar, and existed from Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic. Extensions related to the opening of Neo-Tethys led to the formation of a number of cross trends in the rift systems that acted as barriers to marine transgressions from the north as well as disrupted the earlier continuous longitudinal drainage systems. The axis of this rift system is envisaged to pass through present day offshore Kutch and Saurashtra and implies a thick deposit of Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic sediments in these areas. Based on analogy with other basins associated with this rift system, these sediments may be targeted for hydrocarbon exploration.

  8. Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults, Boudinage and Ductile Shear at Rifted Passive Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, C. N.; Ringenbach, J. C.; Jolivet, L.; Ballard, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Deep structures resulting from the rifting of the continental crust are now well imaged by seismic profiles. We present a series of recent industrial profiles that allow the identification of various rift-related geological processes such as crustal boudinage, ductile shear of the base of the crust and low-angle detachment faulting. Along both magma-rich and magma-poor rifted margins, we observe clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust. Large-scale shallow dipping shear zones are identified with a top-to-the-continent sense of shear. This sense of shear is consistent with the activity of the Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) that accommodate the extension in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for an oceanward migration of the deformation and of the associated syn-tectonic deposits (sediments and/or volcanics). We discuss the origin of the Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) and investigate their implications and the effect of sediment thermal blanketing on crustal rheology. In some cases, low-angle shear zones define an anastomosed pattern that delineates boudin-like structures that seem to control the position and dip of upper crustal normal faults. We present some of the most striking examples from several locations (Uruguay, West Africa, South China Sea…), and discuss their rifting histories that differ from the classical models of oceanward-dipping normal faults.

  9. Plate Speed-up and Deceleration during Continental Rifting: Insights from Global 2D Mantle Convection Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, S.; Ulvrova, M.; Williams, S.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of the Earth is divided into a jigsaw of tectonic plates, some carrrying continents that disperse and aggregate through time, forming transient supercontinents like Pangea and Rodinia. Here, we study continental rifting using large-scale numerical simulations with self-consistent evolution of plate boundaries, where continental break-up emerges spontaneously due to slab pull, basal drag and trench suction forces.We use the StagYY convection code employing a visco-plastic rheology in a spherical annulus geometry. We consider an incompressible mantle under the Boussinesq approximation that is basally and internally heated.We show that continental separation follows a characteristic evolution with three distinctive phases: (1) A pre-rift phase that typically lasts for several hundreds of millions of years with tectonic quiescence in the suture and extensional stresses that are slowly building up. (2) A rift phase that further divides into a slow rift period of several tens of millions of years where stresses continuously increase followed by a rift acceleration period featuring an abrupt stress drop within several millions of years. The speed-up takes place before lithospheric break-up and therefore affects the structural architecture of the rifted margins. (3) The drifting phase with initially high divergence rates persists over tens of millions of years until the system adjust to new conditions and the spreading typically slows down.By illustrating the geodynamic connection between subduction dynamics and rift evolution, our results allow new interpretations of plate tectonic reconstructions. Rift acceleration within the second phase of rifting is compensated by enhanced convergence rates at subduction zones. This model outcome predicts enhanced subduction velocities, e.g. between North America and the Farallon plate during Central Atlantic rifting 200 My ago, or closure of potential back-arc basins such as in the proto-Andean ranges of South America

  10. The major tectonic boundaries of the Northern Red Sea rift, Egypt derived from geophysical data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salah; Pamukçu, Oya; Brimich, Ladislav

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we have attempted to map the plate boundary between Arabia and Africa at the Northern Red Sea rift region including the Suez rift, Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform and southeastern Mediterranean region by using gravity data analysis. In the boundary analysis method which was used; low-pass filtered gravity anomalies of the Northern Red Sea rift region were computed. Different crustal types and thicknesses, sediment thicknesses and different heat flow anomalies were evaluated. According to the results, there are six subzones (crustal blocks) separated from each other by tectonic plate boundaries and/or lineaments. It seems that these tectonic boundaries reveal complex structural lineaments, which are mostly influenced by a predominant set of NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending lineaments bordering the Red Sea and Suez rift regions. On the other side, the E-W and N-S to NNE-SSW trended lineaments bordering the South-eastern Mediterranean, Northern Sinai and Aqaba-Dead Sea transform regions, respectively. The analysis of the low pass filtered Bouguer anomaly maps reveals that the positive regional anomaly over both the Red Sea rift and South-eastern Mediterranean basin subzones are considered to be caused by the high density of the oceanic crust and/or the anomalous upper mantle structures beneath these regions whereas, the broad medium anomalies along the western half of Central Sinai with the Suez rift and the Eastern Desert subzones are attributed to low-density sediments of the Suez rift and/or the thick upper continental crustal thickness below these zones. There are observable negative anomalies over the Northern Arabia subzone, particularly in the areas covered by Cenozoic volcanics. These negative anomalies may be attributed to both the low densities of the surface volcanics and/or to a very thick upper continental crust. On the contrary, the negative anomaly which belongs to the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform zone is due to crustal thickening

  11. Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities Beneath the Central and Southern East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Miller, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses the Automated Generalized Seismological Data Function (AGSDF) method to develop a model of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the central and southern portions of the East African Rift System (EARS). These phase velocity models at periods of 20-100s lend insight into the lithospheric structures associated with surficial rifting and volcanism, as well as basement structures that pre-date and affect the course of rifting. A large dataset of >700 earthquakes is used, comprised of Mw=6.0+ events that occurred between the years 1995 and 2016. These events were recorded by a composite array of 176 stations from twelve non-contemporaneous seismic networks, each with a distinctive array geometry and station spacing. Several first-order features are resolved in this phase velocity model, confirming findings from previous studies. (1) Low velocities are observed in isolated regions along the Western Rift Branch and across the Eastern Rift Branch, corresponding to areas of active volcanism. (2) Two linear low velocity zones are imaged trending southeast and southwest from the Eastern Rift Branch in Tanzania, corresponding with areas of seismic activity and indicating possible incipient rifting. (3) High velocity regions are observed beneath both the Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block. Furthermore, this model indicates several new findings. (1) High velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend to longer periods than those found beneath the Tanzania Craton, perhaps indicating that rifting processes have not altered the Bangweulu Block as extensively as the Tanzania Craton. (2) At long periods, the fast velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend eastwards beyond the surficial boundaries, to and possibly across the Malawi Rift. This may suggest the presence of older, thick blocks of lithosphere in regions where they are not exposed at the surface. (3) Finally, while the findings of this study correspond well with previous studies in regions of overlapping

  12. Constraining the dynamic response of subcontinental lithospheric mantle to rifting using Re-Os model ages in the Western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, C.; Class, C.; Goldstein, S. L.; Shirey, S. B.; Martin, A. P.; Cooper, A. F.; Berg, J. H.; Gamble, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the dynamic response of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) to rifting, it is important to be able to distinguish the geochemical signatures of SCLM vs. asthenosphere. Recent work demonstrates that unradiogenic Os isotope ratios can indicate old depletion events in the convecting upper mantle (e.g. Rudnick & Walker, 2009), and allow us to make these distinctions. Thus, if SCLM can be traced across a rifted margin, its fate during rifting can be established. The Western Ross Sea provides favorable conditions to test the dynamic response of SCLM to rifting. Re-Os measurements from 8 locations extending from the rift shoulder to 200 km into the rift basin reveal 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1056 at Foster Crater on the shoulder, to 0.1265 on Ross Island within the rift. While individual sample model ages vary widely throughout the margin, 'aluminochron' ages (Reisberg & Lorand, 1995) reveal a narrower range of lithospheric stabilization ages. Franklin Island and Sulfur Cones show a range of Re-depletion ages (603-1522 Ma and 436-1497 Ma) but aluminochrons yield Paleoproterozoic stabilization ages of 1680 Ma and 1789 Ma, respectively. These ages coincide with U-Pb zircon ages from Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) crustal rocks, in support of SCLM stabilization at the time of crust formation along the central TAM. The Paleoproterozoic stabilization age recorded at Franklin Island is especially significant, since it lies 200km off of the rift shoulder. The similar ages beneath the rift shoulder and within the rift suggests stretched SCLM reaches into the rift and thus precludes replacement by asthenospheric mantle. The persistence of thinned Paleoproterozoic SCLM into the rifted zone in WARS suggests that it represents a 'type I' margin of Huismans and Beaumont (2011), which is characterized by crustal breakup before loss of lithospheric mantle. The Archean Re-depletion age of 3.2 Ga observed on the rift shoulder suggests that cratonic

  13. Deepening, and repairing, the metabolic rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mindi; McMichael, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the metabolic rift as a social, ecological, and historical concept describing the disruption of natural cycles and processes and ruptures in material human-nature relations under capitalism. As a social concept, the metabolic rift presumes that metabolism is understood in relation to the labour process. This conception, however, privileges the organisation of labour to the exclusion of the practice of labour, which we argue challenges its utility for analysing contemporary socio-environmental crises. As an ecological concept, the metabolic rift is based on outmoded understandings of (agro) ecosystems and inadequately describes relations and interactions between labour and ecological processes. Historically, the metabolic rift is integral to debates about the definitions and relations of capitalism, industrialism, and modernity as historical concepts. At the same time, it gives rise to an epistemic rift, insofar as the separation of the natural and social worlds comes to be expressed in social thought and critical theory, which have one-sidedly focused on the social. We argue that a reunification of the social and the ecological, in historical practice and in historical thought, is the key to repairing the metabolic rift, both conceptually and practically. The food sovereignty movement in this respect is exemplary.

  14. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. ∗. Corresponding ..... stress regimes, where the maximum principal stress ..... ern Spain; In: Geological Society of America Penrose Con-.

  15. Lower crustal intrusions beneath the southern Baikal Rift Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Thybo, Hans

    2009-01-01

    centre. The BEST (Baikal Explosion Seismic Transect) project acquired a 360-km long, deep seismic, refraction/wide-angle reflection profile in 2002 across southern Lake Baikal. The data from this project is used for identification of large-scale crustal structures and modelling of the seismic velocities....../s and 7.9 km/s. We interpret this feature as resulting from mafic to ultra-mafic intrusions in the form of sills. Petrological interpretation of the velocity values suggests that the intrusions are sorted by fractional crystallization into plagioclase-rich low-velocity layers and pyroxene- and olivine...

  16. Ductile extension of syn-magmatic lower crusts, with application to volcanic passive margins: the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidault, Marie; Geoffroy, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Aubourg, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Deep seismic reflection profiles of present-day volcanic passive margins often show a 2-layered lower crust, from top to bottom: an apparently ductile 12 km-thick middle-lower layer (LC1) of strong folded reflectors and a 4 km-thick supra-Moho layer (LC2) of horizontal and parallel reflectors. Those layers appear to be structurally disconnected and to develop at the early stages of margins evolution. A magmatic origin has been suggested by several studies to explain those strong reflectors, favoring mafic sills intrusion hypothesis. Overlying mafic and acidic extrusives (Seaward Dipping Reflectors sequences) are bounded by continentward-dipping detachment faults rooting in, and co-structurated with, the ductile part of the lower crust (LC1). Consequently the syn-rift to post-rift evolution of volcanic passive margins (and passive margins in general) largely depends on the nature and the properties of the lower crust, yet poorly understood. We propose to investigate the properties and rheology of a magma-injected extensional lower crust with a field analogue, the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy). The Ivrea Zone displays a complete back-thrusted section of a Variscan continental lower crust that first underwent gravitational collapse, and then lithospheric extension. This Late Paleozoic extension was apparently associated with the continuous intrusion of a large volume of mafic to acid magma. Both the magma timing and volume, and the structure of the Ivrea lower crust suggest that this section represents an adequate analogue of a syn-magmatic in-extension mafic rift zone which aborted at the end of the Permian. Notably, we may recognize the 2 layers LC1 and LC2. From a number of tectonic observations, we reconstitute the whole tectonic history of the area, focusing on the strain field evolution with time, in connection with mafic magma injection. We compare those results with available data from extensional mafic lower crusts at rifts and margins.

  17. Opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Geometric Rifting and Asymmetric Initial Seafloor Spreading after Continental Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Funck, T.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Schnabel, M.; Reichert, C. J.; Gutscher, M. A.; Bronner, A.; Austin, J. A., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, the initial phases of the opening of an ocean and the formation of its associated sedimentary basins. The study of the deep structure of conjugate passive continental margins combined with precise plate kinematic reconstructions can provide constraints on the mechanisms of rifting and formation of initial oceanic crust. In this study the Central Atlantic conjugate margins are compared, based on compilation of wide-angle seismic profiles from the NW-Africa Nova Scotian and US passive margins. Plate cinematic reconstructions were used to place the profiles in the position at opening and at the M25 magnetic anomaly. The patterns of volcanism, crustal thickness, geometry, and seismic velocities in the transition zone. suggest symmetric rifting followed by asymmetric oceanic crustal accretion. Conjugate profiles in the southern Central Atlantic image differences in the continental crustal thickness. While profiles on the eastern US margin are characterized by thick layers of magmatic underplating, no such underplate was imaged along the NW-African continental margin. It has been proposed that these volcanic products form part of the CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province). In the north, two wide-angle seismic profiles acquired in exactly conjugate positions show that the crustal geometry of the unthinned continental crust and the necking zone are nearly symmetric. A region including seismic velocities too high to be explained by either continental or oceanic crust is imaged along the Nova Scotia margin off Eastern Canada, corresponding on the African side to an oceanic crust with slightly elevated velocities. These might result from asymmetric spreading creating seafloor by faulting the existing lithosphere on the Canadian side and the emplacement of magmatic oceanic crust including pockets of serpentinite on the Moroccan margin. A slightly elevated crustal thickness along the

  18. Population morbidity in the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant observation zone as an integral part of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenko, I M; Zakladna, N V; Orlova, N M

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the health status of adult population living in the Ukrainian nuclear power industry obser vation zone on the example of Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant. System review, analytic, sociological survey and statistical methods. There was established an increase in the incidence of digestive diseases among adult population in Nikopol of Dnipropetrovsk region, which is included in the Zaporizhzhia NPP observation zone. The highest increase was observed in the incidence of peptic ulcer, gastritis and duodenitis, cholecystitis and cholangitis by 340 %, 305 % and 83 %, respectively. In connection with the residence in industrially developed region and NPP life extension in Ukraine, the possible influence of harmful factors on health status of the population of observation zones, an increase in the incidence of digestive diseases among adult population, there is required continuous monitoring and detailed study of public health. I. M. Khomenko, N. V. Zakladna, N. M. Orlova.

  19. Tectonic Implications of Changes in the Paleogene Paleodrainage Network in the West-Central Part of the San Luis Basin, Northern Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico and Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. A.; Turner, K. J.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.

    2016-12-01

    The San Luis Basin is the largest of extensional basins in the northern Rio Grande rift (>11,400 km2). The modern basin configuration is the result of Neogene deformation that has been the focus of numerous studies. In contrast, Paleogene extensional deformation is relatively little studied owing to a fragmentary or poorly exposed stratigraphic record in most areas. However, volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits exposed along the western margin of the basin provide the spatial and temporal framework for interpretation of paleodrainage patterns that changed in direct response to Oligocene basin subsidence and the migration of centers of Tertiary volcanism. The early Oligocene (34 to 30 Ma) drainage pattern that originated in the volcanic highlands of the San Juan Mountains flowed south into the northern Tusas Mountains. A structural and topographic high composed of Proterozoic rocks in the Tusas Mountains directed flow to the southeast at least as late as 29 Ma, as ash-flow tuffs sourced in the southeast San Juan Mountains are restricted to the north side of the paleohigh. Construction of volcanic highlands in the San Luis Hills between 30 and 28.5 Ma provided an abundant source of volcanic debris that combined with volcanic detritus sourced in the southeast San Juan Mountains and was deposited (Los Pinos Formation) throughout the northern Tusas Mountains progressively onlapping the paleotopographic high. By 29 Ma, subsidence of the Las Mesitas graben, a structural sub-basin, between the San Luis Hills and the southeast San Juan and northern Tusas Mountains is reflected by thick deposits of Los Pinos Formation beneath 26.5 Ma basalts. Regional tectonism responsible for the formation of the graben may have also lowered the topographic and structural high in the Tusas Mountains, which allowed development of a southwest-flowing paleodrainage that likely flowed onto the Colorado Plateau. Tholeiitic basalt flows erupted in the San Luis Hills at 25.8 Ma, that presently cap

  20. The lithosphere of the East African Rift and Plateau (Afar-Ethiopia-Turkana) : insights from Integrated 3-D density modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Woldetinsae, Girma

    2005-01-01

    The area encompassing the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS: Afar-Ethiopia-Turkana) and associated plateaux is an ideal region to investigate extension and magmatism associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Ethiopia covers an important part of the EARS. It contains the major section of the ca. 5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield and the Mozambique Belt. A compilation of over 45000 onshore and offshore gravity stati...

  1. Crustal thinning and exhumation along a fossil magma-poor distal margin preserved in Corsica: A hot rift to drift transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrando, Marco; Zibra, Ivan; Montanini, Alessandra; Tribuzio, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    Rift-related thinning of continental basement along distal margins is likely achieved through the combined activity of ductile shear zones and brittle faults. While extensional detachments responsible for the latest stages of exhumation are being increasingly recognized, rift-related shear zones have never been sampled in ODP sites and have only rarely been identified in fossil distal margins preserved in orogenic belts. Here we report evidence of the Jurassic multi-stage crustal thinning preserved in the Santa Lucia nappe (Alpine Corsica), where amphibolite facies shearing persisted into the rift to drift transition. In this nappe, Lower Permian meta-gabbros to meta-gabbro-norites of the Mafic Complex are separated from Lower Permian granitoids of the Diorite-Granite Complex by a 100-250 m wide shear zone. Fine-grained syn-kinematic andesine + Mg-hornblende assemblages in meta-tonalites of the Diorite-Granite Complex indicate shearing at T = 710 ± 40 °C at P Lucia basement. These results imply that middle to lower crustal rocks can be cooled and exhumed rapidly in the last stages of rifting, when significant crustal thinning is accommodated in less than 5 Myr through the consecutive activity of extensional shear zones and detachment faults. High thermal gradients may delay the switch from ductile shear zone- to detachment-dominated crustal thinning, thus preventing the exhumation of middle and lower crustal rocks until the final stages of rifting.

  2. Contrasted continental rifting via plume-craton interaction : Applications to Central East African Rift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koptev, Alexander; Burov, Evgueni; Calais, Eric; Leroy, Sylvie; Gerya, Taras; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Cloetingh, Sierd

    The East African Rift system (EARS) provides a unique system with the juxtaposition of two contrasting yet simultaneously formed rift branches, the eastern, magma-rich, and the western, magma-poor, on either sides of the old thick Tanzanian craton embedded in a younger lithosphere. Data on the

  3. The genus Crataegus L. in the western part of the buffer zone of the Low Tatras National Park (Slovakia, in accordance with recent morphological and systematic recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Turisová

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The work contains results of investigation on the genus Crataegus L., conducted in 2011 ‑ 2012 on the area of the western part of the buffer zone of the Low Tatras National Park. Analysing various features, including the morphometric ones, occurrence of six native species, among them three species of hybrid origin, were confirmed in the investigated area. Comparative analysis of leaves morphology of the hybrid hawthorns and their original parental forms was carried out.

  4. Construction Guide to Next-Generation High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 - Part 1: 2x6 Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Part 1 of this Construction Guide to High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 provides time-proven, practical, and cost-effective strategies for constructing durable, energy-efficient walls. It addresses walls constructed with 2x6 wood frame studs, wood structural panel (WSP) exterior sheathing, and a cladding system installed over WSP sheathing in low-rise residential buildings up to three stories high.

  5. Reservoir engineering assessment of Dubti geothermal field, Northern Tendaho Rift, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, A.; Ferragina, C. [Aquater S.p.A. (ENI Group), San Lorenzo in Campo (Italy); Yiheyis, A.; Abatneh, W. [Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Calore, C. [International Institute for Geothermal Research, Pisa (Italy)

    2002-06-01

    Following on from surface exploration surveys performed during the 1970s and early 1980s, exploration drilling was carried out in the Tendaho Rift, in Central Afar (Ethiopia), from October 1993 to June 1995. Three deep and one shallow well were drilled in the central part of the Northern Tendaho Rift to verify the existence of a geothermal reservoir and its possible utilisation for electric power generation. The project was jointly financed by the Ethiopian Ministry of Mines and Energy and the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Project activities were performed by the Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys and Aquater SpA. The main reservoir engineering data discussed in this paper were collected during drilling and testing of the above four wells, three of which are located inside the Dubti Cotton Plantation, in which a promising hydrothermal area was identified by surface exploration surveys. Drilling confirmed the existence of a liquid-dominated shallow reservoir inside the Dubti Plantation, characterised by a boiling -point-for-depth temperature distribution down to about 500 m depth. The main permeable zones in the Sedimentary Sequence, which is made up of lacustrine deposits, are located in correspondence to basalt lava flow interlayerings, or at the contact between volcanic and sedimentary rocks. At depth, the basaltic lava flows that characterise the Afar Stratoid Series seem to have low permeability, with the exception of fractured zones associated with sub-vertical faults. Two different upflows of geothermal fluids have been inferred: one flow connected to the Dubti fault feeds the shallow reservoir crossed by wells TD-2 and TD-4, where a maximum temperature of 245{sup o}C was recorded; the second flow seems to be connected with a fault located east of well TD-1, where the maximum recorded temperature was 270{sup o}C. A schematic conceptual model of the Dubti hydrothermal area, as derived from reservoir engineering studies integrated with geological

  6. Construction Guide to Next-Generation High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 - Part 2: 2x4 Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Part 2 of this Construction Guide to High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 provides straightforward and cost-effective strategies to construct durable, energy-efficient walls. It addresses walls constructed with 2x4 wood frame studs, wood structural panel (WSP) sheathing as wall bracing and added backing for foam sheathing, a layer of rigid foam sheathing insulation up to 1.5 inches thick over the WSP, and a cladding system installed over the foam sheathing in low-rise residential buildings up to three stories high. Walls with 2x6 framing are addressed in Part 1 of the Guide.

  7. Construction Guide to Next-Generation High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 - Part 2: 2x4 Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Part 2 of this Construction Guide to High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 provides straightforward and cost-effective strategies to construct durable, energy-efficient walls. It addresses walls constructed with 2x4 wood frame studs, wood structural panel (WSP) sheathing as wall bracing and added backing for foam sheathing, a layer of rigid foam sheathing insulation up to 1.5 inches thick over the WSP, and a cladding system installed over the foam sheathing in low-rise residential buildings up to three stories high. Walls with 2x6 framing are addressed in Part 1 of the Guide.

  8. Geodynamics of rift-plume interaction in Iceland as constrained by new 40Ar/ 39Ar and in situ U-Pb zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Paquette, J. L.; Bosse, V.; Ruffet, G.; Tiepolo, M.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2011-11-01

    The interaction between a rift zone and a mantle plume leads to exceptional situations in Iceland where the island is 1.5 wider than expected, given the North-Atlantic spreading rate. In order to give a better idea of the timeframe of this evolution, we present 32 new 40Ar/ 39Ar and in-situ U-Pb dating on zircon from 16 volcanic systems located from the west to east coasts of Iceland. The North Iceland Rift Zone (NIRZ) was initiated at least 12 Ma ago. Furthermore, during these last 12 Ma, the NIRZ half spreading rate was between 0.7 and 1.2 cm/yr and it propagated to the south at a rate of 1.0-1.2 cm/yr. The excess width of Iceland can thus not be explained by faster spreading rate in the past. Here we discuss a model that explains the ~ 200 km 'excess' of crust, taking into account the eastward relocation of the rift zone and corresponding older crustal capture over the course of Iceland's geological history. The most recent rift relocation is dated at approximately 6 Ma at Snæfellsnes Peninsula in the west, whereas the oldest volcanic systems (15-13 Ma) from the extreme north east of Iceland were most likely generated at the Kolbeinsey ridge north of Iceland rather than in the NIRZ itself. The need for rift relocations and crustal capture to explain the width of Iceland strongly suggests that during rift-plume interaction the mantle plume plays an active role. It forces the active rift zone to be frequently relocated by rift jumps above its center leaving inactive rift zones as older synclines in the geological record. This result in an eastward position of the rift zone in Iceland relative to the North Atlantic ridge, and it can be predicted that in a few tens of millions of years the Mid-Atlantic ridge and the Icelandic plume may become decoupled.

  9. Which Fault Orientations Occur during Oblique Rifting? Combining Analog and Numerical 3d Models with Observations from the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, J.; Brune, S.

    2013-12-01

    Oblique rift systems like the Gulf of Aden are intrinsically three-dimensional. In order to understand the evolution of these systems, one has to decode the fundamental mechanical similarities of oblique rifts. One way to accomplish this, is to strip away the complexity that is generated by inherited fault structures. In doing so, we assume a laterally homogeneous segment of Earth's lithosphere and ask how many different fault populations are generated during oblique extension inbetween initial deformation and final break-up. We combine results of an analog and a numerical model that feature a 3D segment of a layered lithosphere. In both cases, rift evolution is recorded quantitatively in terms of crustal fault geometries. For the numerical model, we adopt a novel post-processing method that allows to infer small-scale crustal fault orientation from the surface stress tensor. Both models involve an angle of 40 degrees between the rift normal and the extensional direction which allows comparison to the Gulf of Aden rift system. The resulting spatio-temporal fault pattern of our models shows three normal fault orientations: rift-parallel, extension-orthogonal, and intermediate, i.e. with a direction inbetween the two previous orientations. The rift evolution involves three distinct phases: (i) During the initial rift phase, wide-spread faulting with intermediate orientation occurs. (ii) Advanced lithospheric necking enables rift-parallel normal faulting at the rift flanks, while strike-slip faulting in the central part of the rift system indicates strain partitioning. (iii) During continental break-up, displacement-orthogonal as well as intermediate faults occur. We compare our results to the structural evolution of the Eastern Gulf of Aden. External parts of the rift exhibit intermediate and displacement-orthogonal faults while rift-parallel faults are present at the rift borders. The ocean-continent transition mainly features intermediate and displacement

  10. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and oxyhydroxides minerals were saturated

  11. Transtensional Rifting in the Late Proto-Gulf of California Near Bahía Kino, Sonora, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S. E.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the role of obliquity in continental rupture from the example of the Gulf of California rift. Focused transtensional strain adjacent to strike-slip faults, ubiquitous in oblique rifts, may act as a catalyst for lithospheric rupture. To test this hypothesis we completed detailed structural mapping, fault kinematic analysis, basin analysis, and paleomagnetism of pre- and syn-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks exposed in coastal Sonora, near Bahía Kino, México. This area is host to the NW-striking, dextral Sacrificio and Bahía Kino faults onshore that are likely linked to the offshore De Mar transform fault that accommodated Gulf opening. Three fault-bounded sedimentary basins formed unconformably above the 12.50 ± 0.08 Ma Tuff of San Felipe. The 6.53 ± 0.18 Ma Tuff of Cerro Tordillo and the 6.39 ± 0.02 Ma Tuffs of Mesa Cuadrada are interbedded in the lower part of the non-marine basin fill. In one of these basins, we used these tuff markers to calibrate a sedimentation rate of 1.2 ± 0.2 mm/yr and a tilting rate of 0.12 ± 0.02 °/kyr. These rapid rates suggest transtensional strain and related basin subsidence initiated ca. 6.6 Ma, near the end of proto-Gulf time. Paleomagnetism of the Tuff of San Felipe and Tuffs of Mesa Cuadrada in coastal Sonora show variable amounts of clockwise vertical-axis rotation when compared to paleomagnetic reference sites in Baja California. Fault blocks in the central and southern parts of the study area are rotated counter-clockwise 15° to clockwise 35°. Strike-slip faults in this area accommodate up to 10 km of slip. In contrast, ~53° of clockwise rotation occurred in the northern part of the study area, where strike-slip faults are absent. In this northern area, transtensional deformation occurred primarily by block rotation and ~6 km of normal slip on the low-angle (5-15°) Punta Chueca fault. After correcting for variable amounts of rotation, fault blocks display a consistent tilt down to the ENE. Pre-rift

  12. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, James A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  13. Pits, rifts and slumps: the summit structure of Piton de la Fournaise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Adam; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Kelfoun, Karim; Bachèlery, Patrick; Briole, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    A clear model of structures and associated stress fields of a volcano can provide a framework in which to study and monitor activity. We propose a volcano-tectonic model for the dynamics of the summit of Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, Indian Ocean). The summit contains two main pit crater structures (Dolomieu and Bory), two active rift zones, and a slumping eastern sector, all of which contribute to the actual fracture system. Dolomieu has developed over 100 years by sudden large collapse events and subsequent smaller drops that include terrace formation. Small intra-pit collapse scars and eruptive fissures are located along the southern floor of Dolomieu. The western pit wall of Dolomieu has a superficial inward dipping normal fault boundary connected to a deeper ring fault system. Outside Dolomieu, an oval extension zone containing sub-parallel pit-related fractures extends to a maximum distance of 225 m from the pit. At the summit the main trend for eruptive fissures is N80°, normal to the north south rift zone. The terraced structure of Dolomieu has been reproduced by analogue models with a roof to width ratio of approximately 1, suggesting an original magma chamber depth of about 1 km. Such a chamber may continue to act as a storage location today. The east flank has a convex concave profile and is bounded by strike-slip fractures that define a gravity slump. This zone is bound to the north by strike-slip fractures that may delineate a shear zone. The southern reciprocal shear zone is probably marked by an alignment of large scoria cones and is hidden by recent aa lavas. The slump head intersects Dolomieu pit and may slide on a hydrothermally altered layer known to be located at a depth of around 300 m. Our model has the summit activity controlled by the pit crater collapse structure, not the rifts. The rifts become important on the mid-flanks of the cone, away from pit-related fractures. On the east flank the superficial structures are controlled

  14. Subsurface images of the Eastern Rift, Africa, from the joint inversion of body waves, surface waves and gravity: investigating the role of fluids in early-stage continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecker, S.; Ebinger, C.; Tiberi, C.; Mulibo, G.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Mtelela, K.; Kianji, G.; Muzuka, A.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Eastern Rift System (ERS) of northern Tanzania and southern Kenya, where a cratonic lithosphere is in the early stages of rifting, offers an ideal venue for investigating the roles of magma and other fluids in such an environment. To illuminate these roles, we jointly invert arrival times of locally recorded P and S body waves, phase delays of ambient noise generated Rayleigh waves and Bouguer anomalies from gravity observations to generate a 3-D image of P and S wave speeds in the upper 25 km of the crust. While joint inversion of gravity and arrival times requires a relationship between density and wave speeds, the improvement in resolution obtained by the combination of these disparate data sets serves to further constrain models, and reduce uncertainties. The most significant features in the 3-D model are (1) P and S wave speeds that are 10-15 per cent lower beneath the rift zone than in the surrounding regions, (2) a relatively high wave speed tabular feature located along the western edge of the Natron and Manyara rifts, and (3) low (∼1.71) values of Vp/Vs throughout the upper crust, with the lowest ratios along the boundaries of the rift zones. The low P and S wave speeds at mid-crustal levels beneath the rift valley are an expected consequence of active volcanism, and the tabular, high-wave speed feature is interpreted to be an uplifted footwall at the western edge of the rift. Given the high levels of CO2 outgassing observed at the surface along border fault zones, and the sensitivity of Vp/Vs to pore-fluid compressibility, we infer that the low Vp/Vs values in and around the rift zone are caused by the volcanic plumbing in the upper crust being suffused by a gaseous CO2 froth on top of a deeper, crystalline mush. The repository for molten rock is likely located in the lower crust and upper mantle, where the Vp/Vs ratios are significantly higher.

  15. Historical volcanism and the state of stress in the East African Rift System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wadge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crustal extension at the East African Rift System (EARS should, as a tectonic ideal, involve a stress field in which the direction of minimum horizontal stress is perpendicular to the rift. A volcano in such a setting should produce dykes and fissures parallel to the rift. How closely do the volcanoes of the EARS follow this? We answer this question by studying the 21 volcanoes that have erupted historically (since about 1800 and find that 7 match the (approximate geometrical ideal. At the other 14 volcanoes the orientation of the eruptive fissures/dykes and/or the axes of the host rift segments are oblique to the ideal values. To explain the eruptions at these volcanoes we invoke local (non-plate tectonic variations of the stress field caused by: crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies (dominated by NW structures in the Protoerozoic basement, transfer zone tectonics at the ends of offset rift segments, gravitational loading by the volcanic edifice (typically those with 1-2 km relief and magmatic pressure in central reservoirs. We find that the more oblique volcanoes tend to have large edifices, large eruptive volumes and evolved and mixed magmas capable of explosive behaviour. Nine of the volcanoes have calderas of varying ellipticity, 6 of which are large, reservoir-collapse types mainly elongated across rift (e.g. Kone and 3 are smaller, elongated parallel to the rift and contain active lava lakes (e.g. Erta Ale, suggesting different mechanisms of formation and stress fields. Nyamuragira is the only EARS volcano with enough sufficiently well-documented eruptions to infer its long-term dynamic behaviour. Eruptions within 7 km of the volcano are of relatively short duration (<100 days, but eruptions with more distal fissures tend to have greater obliquity and longer durations, indicating a changing stress field away from the volcano. There were major changes in long-term magma extrusion rates in 1977 (and perhaps in 2002 due to major along-rift

  16. Early evolution of the southern margin of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Tectono-stratigraphic implications for rift evolution and exploration of hydrocarbon plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Leandro; Bilmes, Andrés; Franzese, Juan R.; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Hernández, Mariano; Muravchik, Martín

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived rift basins are characterized by a complex structural and tectonic evolution. They present significant lateral and vertical stratigraphic variations that determine diverse basin-patterns at different timing, scale and location. These issues cause difficulties to establish facies models, correlations and stratal stacking patterns of the fault-related stratigraphy, specially when exploration of hydrocarbon plays proceeds on the subsurface of a basin. The present case study corresponds to the rift-successions of the Neuquén Basin. This basin formed in response to continental extension that took place at the western margin of Gondwana during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic. A tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the initial successions of the southern part of the Neuquén Basin was carried out. Three syn-rift sequences were determined. These syn-rift sequences were located in different extensional depocentres during the rifting phases. The specific periods of rifting show distinctly different structural and stratigraphic styles: from non-volcanic to volcanic successions and/or from continental to marine sedimentation. The results were compared with surface and subsurface interpretations performed for other depocentres of the basin, devising an integrated rifting scheme for the whole basin. The more accepted tectono-stratigraphic scheme that assumes the deposits of the first marine transgression (Cuyo Cycle) as indicative of the onset of a post-rift phase is reconsidered. In the southern part of the basin, the marine deposits (lower Cuyo Cycle) were integrated into the syn-rift phase, implying the existence of different tectonic signatures for Cuyo Cycle along the basin. The rift climax becomes younger from north to south along the basin. The post-rift initiation followed the diachronic ending of the main syn-rift phase throughout the Neuquén Basin. Thus, initiation of the post-rift stage started in the north and proceeded towards the south, constituting a

  17. Proterozoic rifting and major unconformities in Rajasthan, and their implications for uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha-Roy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Evolution of the Precambrian terrain in Rajasthan has taken place via crustal consolidation of the basement at ca. 2.9 Ga, its cratonisation at ca. 2.5 Ga, through protracted tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Proterozoic cover sequences, following repeated rifting and Wilson cycles in the Aravalli and Delhi foldbelts. Consequently, the Proterozoic rift basins are characterised by growth faults and pull-aparts, and multitier volcanose dimentary sequences that contain a number of unconformities and stratigraphic breaks. The Archaean basement of the Mewar terrain that witnessed end-Archaean K-magmatism and ductile shearing, led to the creation of a possible uranium province, namely uranium enriched basement. This province acted as the source of remobilised uranium and its concentration at suitable multilevel structural and stratigraphic traps within the Proterozoic rift basins to give rise to unconformity-related syngenetic uranium mineralisation. Late Neoproterozoic to Pan-African tectonothermal reworking of the basement rocks produced fracture zones and caused Na-metasomatism giving rise to albitite-related uranium mineralisation. Based on an analysis of Proterozoic rift kinematics and lithofacies characteristics, five possible uranium-enriched stratigraphic horizons have been identified in the Aravalli and its equivalent sequences as well as in the North Delhi foldbelt sequences. From a regional synthesis, ten possible uranium metallogenic events, spanning ca. 2.5-0.5 Ga, are recognised in Rajasthan. These uranium events have predictive value for delineation of target areas for exploration. (author)

  18. A joint inversion for shear velocity and anisotropy: the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilon, Zachary; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Gaherty, James B.

    2016-08-01

    Trade-offs between velocity and anisotropy heterogeneity complicate the interpretation of differential traveltime data and have the potential to bias isotropic tomographic models. By constructing a simple parametrisation to describe an elastic tensor with hexagonal symmetry, we find analytic solutions to the Christoffel equations in terms of fast and slow horizontal velocities that allow us to simultaneously invert differential traveltime data and splitting data from teleseismic S arrivals to recover 3-D velocity and anisotropy structure. This technique provides a constraint on the depth-extent of shallow anisotropy, otherwise absent from interpretations based on SKS splitting alone. This approach is well suited to the young Woodlark Rift, where previous studies have found strong velocity variation and substantial SKS splitting in a continental rift with relatively simple geometry. This study images a low-velocity rift axis with ≤4 per cent spreading-parallel anisotropy at 50-100 km depth that separates regions of pre-existing lithospheric fabric, indicating the synchronous development of extensional crystallographic preferred orientation and lithospheric thinning. A high-velocity slab fragment north of the rift axis is associated with strike-parallel anisotropic fast axes, similar to that seen in the shallow mantle of some subduction zones. In addition to the insights provided by the anisotropy structure, the improvement in fit to the differential traveltime data demonstrates the merit to a joint inversion that accounts for anisotropy.

  19. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  20. A new perspective on evolution of the Baikal Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Mats

    2011-07-01

    The three-stage model of the rift history does not rule out the previous division into two major stages but rather extends its limits back into time as far as the Maastrichtian. Our model is consistent with geological, stratigraphic, structural, and geophysical data and provides further insights into the understanding of rifting in the Baikal region in particular and continental rifting in general.

  1. Is there a role for anterior zone sampling as part of saturation trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Eric; Margel, David; Greenspan, Michael; Shayegan, Bobby; Matsumoto, Edward; Fischer, Marc A; Patlas, Michael; Daya, Dean; Pinthus, Jehonathan H

    2014-05-03

    The prostatic anterior zone (AZ) is not targeted routinely by TRUS guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Pbx). MRI is an accurate diagnostic tool for AZ tumors, but is often unavailable due to cost or system restrictions. We examined the diagnostic yield of office based AZ TRUS-Pbx. 127 men at risk for AZ tumors were studied: Patients with elevated PSA and previous extended negative TRUS-Pbx (group 1, n = 78) and actively surveyed low risk prostate cancer patients (group 2, n = 49). None of the participants had a previous AZ biopsy. Biopsy template included suspicious ultrasonic areas, 16 peripheral zone (PZ), 4 transitional zone (TZ) and 6 AZ cores. All biopsies were performed by a single urologist under local peri-prostatic anaesthetic, using the B-K Medical US System, an end-firing probe 4-12 MHZ and 18 ga/25 cm needle. All samples were reviewed by a single specialized uro-pathologist. Multivariate analysis was used to detect predictors for AZ tumors accounting for age, PSA, PSA density, prostate volume, BMI, and number of previous biopsies. Median PSA was 10.4 (group 1) and 7.3 (group 2). Age (63.9, 64.5), number of previous biopsies (1.5) and cores (17.8, 21.3) and prostate volume (56.4 cc, 51 cc) were similar for both groups. The overall diagnostic yield was 34.6% (group 1) and 85.7% (group 2). AZ cancers were detected in 21.8% (group 1) and 34.7% (group 2) but were rarely the only zone involved (1.3% and 4.1% respectively). Gleason ≥ 7 AZ cancers were often accompanied by equal grade PZ tumors. In multivariate analysis only prostate volume predicted for AZ tumors. Patients detected with AZ tumors had significantly smaller prostates (36.9 cc vs. 61.1 cc p < 0.001). Suspicious AZ ultrasonic findings were uncommon (6.3%). TRUS-Pbx AZ sampling rarely improves the diagnostic yield of extended PZ sampling in patients with elevated PSA and previous negative biopsies. In low risk prostate cancer patients who are followed by active surveillance, AZ sampling changes risk

  2. Littoral sedimentation of rift lakes: an illustrated overview from the modern to Pliocene Lake Turkana (East African Rift System, Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Nutz, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Existing depositional models for rift lakes can be summarized as clastics transported by axial and lateral rivers, then distributed by fan-deltas and/or deltas into a standing water body which is dominated by settling of fine particles, and experiencing occasional coarser underflows. Even if known from paleolakes and modern lakes, reworking of clastics by alongshore drift, waves and storms are rarely considered in depositional models. However, if we consider the lake Turkana Basin (East African Rift System, Kenya) it is obvious that this vision is incomplete. Three representative time slices are considered here: the modern Lake Turkana, the Megalake Turkana which developed thanks to the African Humid Period (Holocene), and the Plio-Pleistocene highstand episodes of paleolake Turkana (Nachukui, Shungura and Koobi Fora Formations, Omo Group). First, remarkable clastic morphosedimentary structures such as beach ridges, spits, washover fans, lagoons, or wave-dominated deltas are very well developed along the shoreline of modern lake Turkana, suggesting strong hydrodynamics responsible for a major reworking of the fluvial-derived clastics all along the littoral zone (longshore and cross-shore transport) of the lake. Similarly, past hydrodynamics are recorded from prominent raised beach ridges and spits, well-preserved all around the lake, above its present water-level (~360 m asl) and up to ~455 m. These large-scale clastic morphosedimentary structures also record the maximum extent of Megalake Turkana during the African Humid Period, as well as its subsequent regression forced by the end of the Holocene climatic optimum. Several hundreds of meters of fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine deposits spanning the Pliocene-Pleistocene are exposed in the Turkana basin thanks to tectonic faulting. These deposits are world famous for their paleontological and archeological content that documents the very early story of Mankind. They also preserve several paleolake highstand episodes with

  3. The Annual Glaciohydrology Cycle in the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Part 1. Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, William; Rajaram, Harihar; Anderson, Robert; Steffen. Konrad; Phillips, Thomas; Zwally, H. Jay; Abdalati, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    We apply a novel one-dimensional glacier hydrology model that calculates hydraulic head to the tidewater-terminating Sermeq Avannarleq flowline of the Greenland ice sheet. Within a plausible parameter space, the model achieves a quasi-steady-state annual cycle in which hydraulic head oscillates close to flotation throughout the ablation zone. Flotation is briefly achieved during the summer melt season along a approx.17 km stretch of the approx.50 km of flowline within the ablation zone. Beneath the majority of the flowline, subglacial conduit storage closes (i.e. obtains minimum radius) during the winter and opens (i.e. obtains maximum radius) during the summer. Along certain stretches of the flowline, the model predicts that subglacial conduit storage remains open throughout the year. A calculated mean glacier water residence time of approx.2.2 years implies that significant amounts of water are stored in the glacier throughout the year. We interpret this residence time as being indicative of the timescale over which the glacier hydrologic system is capable of adjusting to external surface meltwater forcings. Based on in situ ice velocity observations, we suggest that the summer speed-up event generally corresponds to conditions of increasing hydraulic head during inefficient subglacial drainage. Conversely, the slowdown during fall generally corresponds to conditions of decreasing hydraulic head during efficient subglacial drainage.

  4. ACADEMICIAN N.A. LOGATCHEV AND HIS SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL: CONTRUBITION TO STUDIES OF THE CENOZOIC CONTINENTAL RIFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Rasskazov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available N.A. Florensov and N.A. Logatchev pioneered development of fundamental concepts of the structure and evolution of the Baikal system of rift basins. At the turn to the 21st century, in view of the wide availability of scientific research data on the Cenozoic continental rift zones located in Eurasia, Africa and North America, and taking into account the application of new research methods and options to process and analyze huge amounts of geological and geophysical data, a priority was comprehensive modeling of rifting from its origin to the current period of time. This scientific challenge was addressed by the research team under the leadership of N.A. Logachev.

  5. Oppositely directed pairs of propagating rifts in back-arc basins: Double saloon door seafloor spreading during subduction rollback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. K.

    2006-06-01

    When a continent breaks up into two plates, which then separate from each other about a rotation pole, it can be shown that if initial movement is taken up by lithospheric extension, asthenospheric breakthrough and oceanic accretion propagate toward the pole of rotation. Such a propagating rift model is then applied to an embryonic centrally located rift which evolves into two rifts propagating in opposite directions. The resultant rhombic shape of the modeled basin, initially underlain entirely by thinned continental crust, is very similar to the Oligocene to Burdigalian back-arc evolution of the Valencia Trough and the Liguro-Provencal Basin in the western Mediterranean. Existing well and seismic stratigraphic data confirm that a rift did initiate in the Gulf of Lion and propagated southwest into the Valencia Trough. Similarly, seismic refraction, gravity, and heat flow data demonstrate that maximum extension within the Valencia Trough/Liguro-Provencal Basin occurred in an axial position close to the North Balearic Fracture Zone. The same model of oppositely propagating rifts, when applied to the Burdigalian/Langhian episode of back-arc oceanic accretion within the Liguro-Provencal and Algerian basins, predicts a number of features which are borne out by existing geological and geophysical, particularly magnetic data. These include the orientation of subparallel magnetic anomalies, presumed to be seafloor spreading isochrons, in both basins; concave-to-the-west fracture zones southwest of the North Balearic Fracture Zone, and concave-to-the-east fracture zones to its northeast; a spherical triangular area of NW oriented seafloor spreading isochrons southwest of Sardinia; the greater NW extension of the central (youngest?) magnetic anomaly within this triangular area, in agreement with the model-predicted northwestward propagation of a rift in this zone; successively more central (younger) magnetic anomalies abutting thinned continental crust nearer to the pole of

  6. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita

    2015-04-01

    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.

  7. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of an basalt-Trachyte-Rhyolite suite in the Spilli area (south of Siahkal, north of Iran: evidences of continental rift-related bimodal magmatism in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Haghnazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spilli volcanic rocks suite consisting of Basalt- Trachyte- Rhyolite with upper Cretaceous, outcrop in the northern part of Alborz and south of Siahkal area (east of the Guilan province. Based on geochemical data, the studied suite attributed to transitional to alkali series. Negative correlation of Al2O3, CaO, P2O5 and positive correlation of Rb and Th versus SiO2 reveal the occurrence of fractional crystallization process. Also, the negative correlation of Sr versus Y, Sr/Zr versus Sr and CaO/Al2O3 versus SiO2 show that fractionation of plagioclase has played an important role in petrogenesis of the spilli Suite. The hypotheses is supported by the negative anomalies of Eu, Ba and Sr. The overall geochemical evidences indicate that the basic rocks belong to intra-continental rift zone whereas the felsic rocks are classified as A1 type derived from parent basaltic magmas via fractional crystallization in an anorogenic setting. The studied magmatism share many similarities with bimodal magmatism in continental rift zones.

  8. 3D Numerical Rift Modeling with Application to the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, A.; Brune, S.; Naliboff, J.

    2017-12-01

    As key components of plate tectonics, continental rifting and the formation of passive margins have been extensively studied with both analogue models and numerical techniques. Only recently however, technical advances have enabled numerical investigations into rift evolution in three dimensions, as is actually required for including those processes that cause rift-parallel variability, such as structural inheritance and oblique extension (Brune 2016). We use the massively parallel finite element code ASPECT (Kronbichler et al. 2012; Heister et al. 2017) to investigate rift evolution. ASPECT's adaptive mesh refinement enables us to focus resolution on the regions of interest (i.e. the rift center), while leaving other areas such as the asthenospheric mantle at coarse resolution, leading to kilometer-scale local mesh resolution in 3D. Furthermore, we implemented plastic and viscous strain weakening of the nonlinear viscoplastic rheology required to develop asymmetric rift geometries (e.g. Huismans and Beaumont 2003). Additionally created plugins to ASPECT allow us to specify initial temperature and composition conditions based on geophysical data (e.g. LITHO1.0, Pasyanos et al. 2014) or to prescribe more general along-strike variation in the initial strain seeding the rift. Employing the above functionality, we construct regional models of the East African Rift System (EARS), the world's largest currently active rift. As the EARS is characterized by both orthogonal and oblique rift sections, multi-phase extension histories as well as magmatic and a-magmatic branches (e.g. Chorowicz 2005; Ebinger and Scholz 2011), it constitutes an extensive natural laboratory for our research into the 3D nature of continental rifting. References:Brune, S. (2016), in Plate boundaries and natural hazards, AGU Geophysical Monograph 219, J. C. Duarte and W. P. Schellart (Eds.). Chorowicz, J. (2005). J. Afr. Earth Sci., 43, 379-410. Ebinger, C. and Scholz, C. A. (2011), in Tectonics of

  9. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, Maria Luísa; Solá, Ana Rita

    2015-01-01

    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n’Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran–Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometrie...

  10. The distribution and hydrogeological controls of fluoride in the groundwater of central Ethiopian rift and adjacent highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenew, Tenalem

    2008-05-01

    Occurrence of fluoride (F) in groundwater has drawn worldwide attention, since it has considerable impact on human health. In Ethiopia high concentrations of F in groundwaters used for community water supply have resulted in extensive dental and skeletal fluorosis. As a part of a broader study, the distribution of F in groundwater has been investigated, and compared with bedrock geology and pertinent hydrochemical variables. The result indicates extreme spatial variations. High F concentration is often associated with active and sub-active regional thermal fields and acidic volcanics within high temperature rift floor. Variations in F can also be related to changes in calcium concentration resulting from dissolution of calcium minerals and mixing with waters of different chemical composition originated from variable hydrogeological environment across the rift valley. The concentration of F dramatically declines from the rift towards the highlands with the exception of scattered points associated with thermal springs confined in local volcanic centers. There are also interactions of F-rich alkaline lakes and the surrounding groundwater. Meteoric waters recharging volcanic aquifers become enriched with respect to F along the groundwater flow path from highland recharge areas to rift discharge areas. Locally wells drilled along large rift faults acting as conduits of fresh highland waters show relatively lower F. These areas are likely to be possible sources of better quality waters within the rift. The result of this study has important implications on site selection for water well drilling.

  11. THE BAIKAL RIFT: PLIOCENE (MIOCENE – QUATERNARY EPISODE OR PRODUCT OF EXTENDED DEVELOPMENT SINCE THE LATE CRETACEOUS UNDER VARIOUS TECTONIC FACTORS. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Mats

    2015-01-01

    that it took only about 5 Ma to form the entire syn‐rift sequence ofLake Baikal. In [Bazarov, 1986; Rasskazov et al., 2014; Mashchuk, Akulov, 2012; Hutchinson et al., 1993; Zonenshain et al., 1995; Kaz’min et al., 1995], the BR age is determined as the Miocene (Oligocene‐Miocene according to the age of the Tankhoisuite (Miocene or Oligocene‐Miocene and the correlation between the lower seismostratigraphic complex (SSC‐1 and the Tankhoi suite [Hutchinson et al., 1993; Zonenshain et al., 1995]. The Tankhoi suite lies directly on the crystalline basement of the rift and is believed to mark the start of the Baikal syn‐rift profile. However, this concept does not take into account the main specific feature of the profile, i.e. a developing rift. As shown in Fig. 6, the most ancient elements in the syn‐rift profile are inside the deep part of the rift. At the day surface, the basement is overlaid by the younger elements of the sedimentary wedge due to the ‘expansion non‐conformity effect’ (as termed in [Khain, Mikhailov, 1985]. In our opinion, it is incorrect to correlate SSC‐1 and the Tankhoi suires – the representative seismic profile (Fig. 5 shows that SSC‐1 falls out of the profile before reaching the day surface and leans against the rising slope of the basement, while SSC‐2 correlates with the Tankhoi suite. Besides, correlating SSC‐1 with the Tankhoi suite is contradicting to the data of structural studies reported in [San’kov et al., 1997; Delvaux et al., 1997]. SSC‐1 originated before the time when the Lake Baikal region was impacted by the Indo‐Eurasian collision and formed under the influence of pure expansion when tensile stresses were oriented from NW to SE across the strike of the rift along the SE 145–150° azimuth [Zonenshain et al., 1995]. By the time of the SSC‐2 formation, the stress vector turned counterclockwise towards the NE‐SW direction at an acute angle to the rift strike. The Baikal rift

  12. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Shallow marine syn-rift sedimentation: Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

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    Engkilde, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation – Fossilbjerget Formation couplet of Jameson Land, East Greenland, is a well-exposed example of the Middle Jurassic inshore–offshore successions characteristicof the rifted seaways in the Northwest European – North Atlantic region. Early Jurassic deposition took place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions following Late Permian – earliest Triassic and Early Triassic rift phases and the Lower Jurassic stratal package shows an overall layer-cake geometry. A long-term extensional phase was initiated in Middle Jurassic (Late Bajocian time, culminated in the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–Volgian, and petered out in the earliest Cretaceous (Valanginian. The Upper Bajocian – Middle Callovian early-rift succession comprises shallow marine sandstones of the Pelion Formation and correlative offshore siltstones of theFossilbjerget Formation. Deposition was initiated by southwards progradation of shallow marine sands of the Pelion Formation in the Late Bajocian followed by major backstepping in Bathonian–Callovian times and drowning of the sandy depositional system in the Middle–Late Callovian. Six facies associations are recognised in the Pelion–Fossilbjerget couplet, representing estuarine, shoreface, offshore transition zone and offshore environments. The north–southtrendingaxis of the Jameson Land Basin had a low inclination, and deposition was sensitive to even small changes in relative sea level which caused the shorelines to advance or retreat over tens to several hundreds of kilometres. Eight composite sequences, termed P1–P8, are recognised and are subdivided into a total of 28 depositional sequences. The duration of the two orders of sequences was about 1–2 Ma and 360,000 years, respectively. The Upper Bajocian P1–2 sequencesinclude the most basinally positioned shallow marine sandstones, deposited during major sealevel lowstands. The lowstands were terminated by significant marine

  13. Cratonic roots and lower crustal seismicity: Investigating the role of deep intrusion in the Western rift, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drooff, C.; Ebinger, C. J.; Lavayssiere, A.; Keir, D.; Oliva, S. J.; Tepp, G.; Gallacher, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Improved seismic imaging beneath the African continent reveals lateral variations in lithospheric thickness, and crustal structure, complementing a growing crust and mantle xenolith data base. Border fault systems in the active cratonic rifts of East Africa are characterized by lower crustal seismicity, both in magmatic sectors and weakly magmatic sectors, providing constraints on crustal rheology and, in some areas, magmatic fluid migration. We report new seismicity data from magmatic and weakly magmatic sectors of the East African rift zone, and place the work in the context of independent geophysical and geochemical studies to models for strain localization during early rifting stages. Specifically, multidisciplinary studies in the Magadi Natron rift sectors reveal volumetrically large magmatic CO2 degassing along border faults with seismicity along projections of surface dips to the lower crust. The magmatic CO2 degassing and high Vp/Vs ratios and reflectivity of the lower crust implies that the border fault serves a conduit between the lower crustal underplating and the atmospheric. Crustal xenoliths in the Eastern rift sector indicate a granulitic lower crust, which is relatively weak in the presence of fluids, arguing against a strong lower crust. Within magmatic sectors, seismic, structural, and geochemistry results indicate that frequent lower crustal earthquakes are promoted by elevated pore pressures from volatile degassing along border faults, and hydraulic fracture around the margins of magma bodies. Within some weakly magmatic sectors, lower crustal earthquakes also occur along projections of border faults to the lower crust (>30 km), and they are prevalent in areas with high Vp/Vs in the lower crust. Within the southern Tanganyika rift, focal mechanisms are predominantly normal with steep nodal planes. Our comparative studies suggest that pervasive metasomatism above a mantle plume, and melt extraction in thin zones between cratonic roots, lead to

  14. Coupled large earthquakes in the Baikal rift system: Response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis

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    Anatoly V. Klyuchevskii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current lithospheric geodynamics and tectonophysics in the Baikal rift are discussed in terms of a nonlinear oscillator with dissipation. The nonlinear oscillator model is applicable to the area because stress change shows up as quasi-periodic inharmonic oscillations at rifting attractor structures (RAS. The model is consistent with the space-time patterns of regional seismicity in which coupled large earthquakes, proximal in time but distant in space, may be a response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis in a system of three oscillators corresponding to the rifting attractors. The space-time distribution of coupled MLH > 5.5 events has been stable for the period of instrumental seismicity, with the largest events occurring in pairs, one shortly after another, on two ends of the rift system and with couples of smaller events in the central part of the rift. The event couples appear as peaks of earthquake ‘migration’ rate with an approximately decadal periodicity. Thus the energy accumulated at RAS is released in coupled large events by the mechanism of nonlinear oscillators with dissipation. The new knowledge, with special focus on space-time rifting attractors and bifurcations in a system of nonlinear resonance hysteresis, may be of theoretical and practical value for earthquake prediction issues. Extrapolation of the results into the nearest future indicates the probability of such a bifurcation in the region, i.e., there is growing risk of a pending M ≈ 7 coupled event to happen within a few years.

  15. Deeply subducted continental fragments - Part 1: Fracturing, dissolution-precipitation, and diffusion processes recorded by garnet textures of the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Contiguous continental high-pressure terranes in orogens offer insight into deep recycling and transformation processes that occur in subduction zones. These remain poorly understood, and currently debated ideas need testing. The approach we chose is to investigate, in detail, the record in suitable rock samples that preserve textures and robust mineral assemblages that withstood overprinting during exhumation. We document complex garnet zoning in eclogitic mica schists from the Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps). These retain evidence of two orogenic cycles and provide detailed insight into resorption, growth, and diffusion processes induced by fluid pulses in high-pressure conditions. We analysed local textures and garnet compositional patterns, which turned out remarkably complex. By combining these with thermodynamic modelling, we could unravel and quantify repeated fluid-rock interaction processes. Garnet shows low-Ca porphyroclastic cores that were stable under (Permian) granulite facies conditions. The series of rims that surround these cores provide insight into the subsequent evolution: the first garnet rim that surrounds the pre-Alpine granulite facies core in one sample indicates that pre-Alpine amphibolite facies metamorphism followed the granulite facies event. In all samples documented, cores show lobate edges and preserve inner fractures, which are sealed by high-Ca garnet that reflects high-pressure Alpine conditions. These observations suggest that during early stages of subduction, before hydration of the granulites, brittle failure of garnet occurred, indicating high strain rates that may be due to seismic failure. Several Alpine rims show conspicuous textures indicative of interaction with hydrous fluid: (a) resorption-dominated textures produced lobate edges, at the expense of the outer part of the granulite core; (b) peninsulas and atoll garnet are the result of replacement reactions; and (c) spatially limited resorption and enhanced transport

  16. Breaking Ice 2: A rift system on the Ross Ice Shelf as an analog for tidal tectonics on icy moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, K. M.; Hurford, T., Jr.; Schmerr, N. C.; Sauber, J. M.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Ice shelves are the floating regions of the polar ice sheets. Outside of the influence of the narrow region of their grounding zone, they are fully hydrostatic and strongly influenced by the ocean tides. Recent observational and modeling studies have assessed the effect of tides on ice shelves, including: the tidal influence on the ice-shelf surface height, which changes by as much as 6 to 7 m on the southern extreme of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf; the tidal modulation of the ice-shelf horizontal flow velocities, which changes the mean ice-flow rate by as much as two fold on the Ross Ice Shelf; and the tidal contribution to fracture and rift propagation, which eventually leads to iceberg calving. Here, we present the analysis of 16 days of continuous GPS data from a rift system near the front of the Ross Ice Shelf. While the GPS sites were installed for a different scientific investigation, and not optimized to assess tidal rifting mechanics, they provide a first-order sense of the tidal evolution of the rift system. These analyses can be used as a terrestrial analog for tidal activity on icy satellites, such as Europa and Enceladus, moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Using remote sensing and modeling of the Ross Ice Shelf rift system, we can investigate the geological processes observed on icy satellites and advance modeling efforts of their tidal-tectonic evolution.

  17. Rifte Guaritas basin compartmentation in Camaqua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preissler, A; Rolim, S; Philipp, R.

    2010-01-01

    The study contributes to the knowledge of the tectonic evolution of the Guaritas rift basin in Camaqua. Were used aero magnetic geophysical data for modeling the geometry and the depth of the structures and geological units. The research was supported in processing and interpretation of Aster images (EOS-Terra), which were extracted from geophysical models and digital image

  18. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  19. Molecular Rift: Virtual Reality for Drug Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Magnus; Grebner, Christoph; Eriksson, Joakim; Boström, Jonas

    2015-11-23

    Recent advances in interaction design have created new ways to use computers. One example is the ability to create enhanced 3D environments that simulate physical presence in the real world--a virtual reality. This is relevant to drug discovery since molecular models are frequently used to obtain deeper understandings of, say, ligand-protein complexes. We have developed a tool (Molecular Rift), which creates a virtual reality environment steered with hand movements. Oculus Rift, a head-mounted display, is used to create the virtual settings. The program is controlled by gesture-recognition, using the gaming sensor MS Kinect v2, eliminating the need for standard input devices. The Open Babel toolkit was integrated to provide access to powerful cheminformatics functions. Molecular Rift was developed with a focus on usability, including iterative test-group evaluations. We conclude with reflections on virtual reality's future capabilities in chemistry and education. Molecular Rift is open source and can be downloaded from GitHub.

  20. Geodetic constraints on continental rifting along the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilinger, R.; McClusky, S.; Arrajehi, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.; Ghebreab, W.; Ogubazghi, G.; Al-Aydrus, A.

    2006-12-01

    We are using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to monitor and quantify patterns and rates of tectonic and magmatic deformation associated with active rifting of the continental lithosphere and the transition to sea floor spreading in the Red Sea. Broad-scale motions of the Nubian and Arabian plates indicate coherent plate motion with internal deformation below the current resolution of our measurements (~ 1-2 mm/yr). The GPS-determined Euler vector for Arabia-Nubia is indistinguishable from the geologic Euler vector determined from marine magnetic anomalies, and Arabia-Eurasia relative motion from GPS is equal within uncertainties to relative motion determined from plate reconstructions, suggesting that Arabia plate motion has remained constant (±10%) during at least the past ~10 Ma. The approximate agreement between broad-scale GPS rates of extension (i.e., determined from relative plate motions) and those determined from magnetic anomalies along the Red Sea rift implies that spreading in the central Red Sea is primarily confined to the central rift (±10-20%). Extension appears to be more broadly distributed in the N Red Sea and Gulf of Suez where comparisons with geologic data also indicate a relatively recent (between 500 and 125 kyr BP) change in the motion of the Sinai block that is distinct from both Nubia and Arabia. In the southern Red Sea, GPS results are beginning to define the motion of the "Danakil micro-plate". We investigate and report on a model involving CCW rotation of the Danakil micro-plate relative to Nubia and magmatic inflation below the Afar Triple Junction that is consistent with available geodetic constraints. Running the model back in time suggests that the Danakil micro-plate has been an integral part of rifting/triple junction processes throughout the history of separation of the Arabian and Nubian plates. On the scale of Nubia-Arabia-Eurasia plate interactions, we show that new area formed at spreading centers roughly equals that

  1. Normal-Faulting in Madagascar: Another Round of Continental Rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Pratt, M. J.; Tsiriandrimanana, R.; Andriampenomanana Ny Ony, F. S. T.; Nyblade, A.; Durrheim, R. J.; Tilmann, F. J.; Rumpker, G.; Rambolamanana, G.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P.

    2017-12-01

    Analyses of seismicity and seismic structure within Madagascar suggest the current occurrence of crustal extension, which may be related to continental rifting associated with a diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle tectonic plates. Madagascar has participated in two major rifting events as part of the break-up of Gondwana: the break-away of Greater India (Madagascar, India, the Seychelles) away from mainland Africa during the Jurassic and the break-away of India from Madagascar during the Cretaceous. Seismic activity and the structures obtained from it, using data from the 2-year (2011-2013) MACOMO project, suggest that this break-up may not be finished, and that continental rifts may be developing again. There are fairly high levels of intraplate seismicity within Madagascar: over 800 events located during the 22 months of the deployment. For comparison, a 2-year deployment of seismometers within the upper Midwest of the U.S. yielded just 12 intraplate earthquakes. While the Madagascar seismicity occurs across the island, it is strongly concentrated in the central region, where Cenozoic volcanism has occurred through the Holocene, and earthquakes align along N-S-trending lineations associated with N-S-trending pull-apart graben structures. The thickness of the crust is still >40 km in this region, but it is underlain by a large low-velocity structure within the lithosphere and asthenosphere that is observed in our studies of surface-wave, body-wave, and Pn-phase tomography. Normal faulting is not observed everywhere on the island, however; seismicity in the north is largely strike-slip, and seismicity in the south appears to be largely reverse faulting. Several studies have suggested that the diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle plates runs roughly E-W across Madagascar. Extensional faulting seems to predominate only within central Madagascar, likely associated with the current volcanic activity, which also appears to be associated with the

  2. Volcanism in the Sumisu Rift. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochstaedter, A.G.; Gill, J.B.; Morris, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    A bimodal suite of volcanic rocks collected from the Sumisu Rift by ALVIN provide present day example of the first magmatic products of arc rifting during the initiation of back-arc spreading. The trace element and isotopic composition of these rocks, which are contemporaneous with island arc tholeiite lavas of the Izu-Ogasawara arc 20 km to the east, differ from those of arc rocks and N-MORB in their relative incorporation of both subduction-related and non-subduction-related components. Subduction-related components, i.e., those that distinguish volcanic arc basalts from N-MORB, are less pronounced in rift lavas than in arc lavas. Alkali and alkaline earth to high field strength element and REE ratios as well as 87 Sr/ 86 Sr are intermediate between those of N-MORB and Izu arc lavas and indicate that Sumisu Rift basalts are similar to BABB erupted in other, more mature back-arc basins. These results show that back-arc basins may begin their magmatic evolution with BABB rather than more arc-like lavas. Evidence of non-subduction related components remains after the effects of subduction related components are removed or accounted for. Compared to the arc, higher HFSE and REE concentrations, contrasting REE patterns, and ≤ε Nd in the rift reflect derivation of rift lavas from more enriched components. Although SR basalt resembles E-MORB in many trace element ratios, it is referred to as BABB because low concentrations of Nb are similar to those in volcanic arcs and H 2 O/REE and H 2 O/K 2 O exceed those of E-MORB. Differences in HREE pattern and ε Nd require that the E-MORB characteristics result from source heterogeneities and not lower degrees of melting. Enriched mantle beneath the rift may reflect enriched blobs entrained in a more depleted matrix, or injection of new, more enriched mantle. High 208 Pb/ 204 Pb and moderate 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios with respect to Pacific MORB also reflect ancient mantle enrichment. (orig.)

  3. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.

  4. Polyphased rifting to post-breakup evolution of the Coral Sea region, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulois, Cédric; Pubellier, Manuel; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The Coral Sea Basin, offshore Papua New Guinea, is generally described as a rift propagator that opened through the Australian craton during the Late Cretaceous. Rifting was later followed by spreading activity during Palaeocene to lowermost Eocene times and basin inversion during the Cenozoic. Herein, we specifically describe the extensional structures and show that the area has actually a much longer history that dates back from the Late Palaeozoic. A special focus is made on the northern margin of the Coral Sea Basin along which subsurface and HD topographic data were recently acquired. Extension took place discontinuously from the Late Palaeozoic to the Lower Cenozoic through several rift megacycles that include extensional pulses and relaxation episodes. The first rift megacycle (R1), poorly documented, occurred during the Triassic along an old Permo-Triassic, NS-trending structural fabric. Evidence of Permo-Triassic features is principally observed in the western part of the Coral Sea near the Tasman Line, a major lithospheric discontinuity that marks the eastern limit of the underlying Australian craton in Papua New Guinea. This early Triassic framework was reactivated during a Jurassic rifting stage (R2), resulting in small (~10/20km) tilted basins bounded by major NS, NE-SW and EW normal faults. Extension formed a large basin, floored by oceanic crust that might have connected with the Tethys Ocean. The Owen Stanley Oceanic Basin containing deep-marine sediments now obducted in the Ocean Stanley Thrust Belt are likely to represent this oceanic terrane. Both R1 and R2 megacycles shaped the geometry of the Jurassic Australian margin. A third Cretaceous extensional megacycle (R3) only reactivated the largest faults, cutting through the midst of this early stretched continental margin. It formed wider, poorly tilted basins and terminated with the onset of the Coral Sea seafloor spreading from Danian to Ypresian times (61.8 to 53.4 Myr). Then, the overall

  5. A bottom-driven mechanism for distributed faulting: Insights from the Gulf of California Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, P.; Tan, E.; Choi, E.; Contreras, J.; Lavier, L. L.

    2017-12-01

    findings motivate a suite of 3D models of the early plate boundary evolution in the Gulf, and highlight the importance of local stress field perturbations as a mechanism for broadening the deformation zone in other regions such as the Basin and Range, Rio Grande Rift and Malawi Rift.

  6. Extensional Fault Evolution and its Flexural Isostatic Response During Iberia-Newfoundland Rifted Margin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romeu, J.; Kusznir, N.; Manatschal, G.; Roberts, A.

    2017-12-01

    During the formation of magma-poor rifted margins, upper lithosphere thinning and stretching is achieved by extensional faulting, however, there is still debate and uncertainty how faults evolve during rifting leading to breakup. Seismic data provides an image of the present-day structural and stratigraphic configuration and thus initial fault geometry is unknown. To understand the geometric evolution of extensional faults at rifted margins it is extremely important to also consider the flexural response of the lithosphere produced by fault displacement resulting in footwall uplift and hangingwall subsidence. We investigate how the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting controls the structural development of rifted margins. To achieve our aim, we use a kinematic forward model (RIFTER) which incorporates the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting, crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal loads, sedimentation and erosion. Inputs for RIFTER are derived from seismic reflection interpretation and outputs of RIFTER are the prediction of the structural and stratigraphic consequences of recursive sequential faulting and sedimentation. Using RIFTER we model the simultaneous tectonic development of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins along the ISE01-SCREECH1 and TGS/LG12-SCREECH2 seismic lines. We quantitatively test and calibrate the model against observed target data restored to breakup time. Two quantitative methods are used to obtain this target data: (i) gravity anomaly inversion which predicts Moho depth and continental lithosphere thinning and (ii) reverse post-rift subsidence modelling to give water and Moho depths at breakup time. We show that extensional faulting occurs on steep ( 60°) normal faults in both proximal and distal parts of rifted margins. Extensional faults together with their flexural isostatic response produce not only sub-horizontal exhumed footwall surfaces (i.e. the rolling hinge model) and highly rotated (60

  7. Geometry of the neoproterozoic and paleozoic rift margin of western Laurentia: Implications for mineral deposit settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. and Canadian Cordilleran miogeocline evolved during several phases of Cryogenian-Devonian intracontinental rifting that formed the western mangin of Laurentia. Recent field and dating studies across central Idaho and northern Nevada result in identification of two segments of the rift margin. Resulting interpretations of rift geometry in the northern U.S. Cordillera are compatible with interpretations of northwest- striking asymmetric extensional segments subdivided by northeast-striking transform and transfer segments. The new interpretation permits integration of miogeoclinal segments along the length of the western North American Cordillera. For the U.S. Cordillera, miogeoclinal segments include the St. Mary-Moyie transform, eastern Washington- eastern Idaho upper-plate margin, Snake River transfer, Nevada-Utah lower-plate margin, and Mina transfer. The rift is orthogonal to most older basement domains, but the location of the transform-transfer zones suggests control of them by basement domain boundaries. The zigzag geometry of reentrants and promontories along the rift is paralleled by salients and recesses in younger thrust belts and by segmentation of younger extensional domains. Likewise, transform transfer zones localized subsequent transcurrent structures and igneous activity. Sediment-hosted mineral deposits trace the same zigzag geometry along the margin. Sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Zn-Pb-Ag ??Au and barite mineral deposits formed in continental-slope rocks during the Late Devonian-Mississippian and to a lesser degree, during the Cambrian-Early Ordovician. Such deposits formed during episodes of renewed extension along miogeoclinal segments. Carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley- type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits formed in structurally reactivated continental shelf rocks during the Late Devonian-Mississippian and Mesozoic due to reactivation of preexisting structures. The distribution and abundance of sedex and MVT deposits are controlled by the

  8. Asymmetric rifting, breakup and magmatism across conjugate margin pairs: insights from Newfoundland to Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Alexander L.; Welford, J. Kim; Foulger, Gillian R.; McCaffrey, Ken J. W.

    2017-04-01

    Continental extension, subsequent rifting and eventual breakup result in the development of passive margins with transitional crust between extended continental crust and newly created oceanic crust. Globally, passive margins are typically classified as either magma-rich or magma-poor. Despite this simple classification, magma-poor margins like the West Orphan Basin, offshore Newfoundland, do exhibit some evidence of localized magmatism, as magmatism to some extent invariably accompanies all continental breakup. For example, on the Newfoundland margin, a small volcanic province has been interpreted near the termination of the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone, whereas on the conjugate Irish margin within the Rockall Basin, magmatism appears to be more widespread and has been documented both in the north and in the south. The broader region over which volcanism has been identified on the Irish margin is suggestive of magmatic asymmetry across this conjugate margin pair and this may have direct implications for the mechanisms governing the nature of rifting and breakup. Possible causes of the magmatic asymmetry include asymmetric rifting (simple shear), post-breakup thermal anomalies in the mantle, or pre-existing compositional zones in the crust that predispose one of the margins to more melting than its conjugate. A greater understanding of the mechanisms leading to conjugate margin asymmetry will enhance our fundamental understanding of rifting processes and will also reduce hydrocarbon exploration risk by better characterizing the structural and thermal evolution of hydrocarbon bearing basins on magma-poor margins where evidence of localized magmatism exists. Here, the latest results of a conjugate margin study of the Newfoundland-Ireland pair utilizing seismic interpretation integrated with other geological and geophysical datasets are presented. Our analysis has begun to reveal the nature and timing of rift-related magmatism and the degree to which magmatic asymmetry

  9. The geometry of pull-apart basins in the southern part of Sumatran strike-slip fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribowo, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Models of pull-apart basin geometry have been described by many previous studies in a variety tectonic setting. 2D geometry of Ranau Lake represents a pull-apart basin in the Sumatran Fault Zone. However, there are unclear geomorphic traces of two sub-parallel overlapping strike-slip faults in the boundary of the lake. Nonetheless, clear geomorphic traces that parallel to Kumering Segment of the Sumatran Fault are considered as inactive faults in the southern side of the lake. I demonstrate the angular characteristics of the Ranau Lake and Suoh complex pull-apart basins and compare with pull-apart basin examples from published studies. I use digital elevation model (DEM) image to sketch the shape of the depression of Ranau Lake and Suoh Valley and measure 2D geometry of pull-apart basins. This study shows that Ranau Lake is not a pull-apart basin, and the pull-apart basin is actually located in the eastern side of the lake. Since there is a clear connection between pull-apart basin and volcanic activity in Sumatra, I also predict that the unclear trace of the pull-apart basin near Ranau Lake may be covered by Ranau Caldera and Seminung volcanic products.

  10. Part 2: A field study of enhanced remediation of Toluene in the vadose zone using a nutrient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J.A.; Weeks, E.P.; Friedel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a nitrate-rich nutrient solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance in-situ microbial remediation of toluene in the unsaturated zone. Three sand-filled plots were tested in three phases (each phase lasting approximately 2 weeks). During the control phase, toluene was applied uniformly via sprinkler irrigation. Passive remediation was allowed to occur during this phase. A modified Hoagland nutrient solution, concentrated in 150 L of water, was tested during the second phase. The final phase involved addition of 230 moles of H2O2 in 150 L of water to increase the available oxygen needed for aerobic biodegradation. During the first phase, measured toluene concentrations in soil gas were reduced from 120 ppm to 25 ppm in 14 days. After the addition of nutrients during the second phase, concentrations were reduced from 90 ppm to about 8 ppm within 14 days, and for the third phase (H 2O2), toluene concentrations were about 1 ppm after only 5 days. Initial results suggest that this method could be an effective means of remediating a contaminated site, directly after a BTEX spill, without the intrusiveness and high cost of other abatement technologies such as bioventing or soil-vapor extraction. However, further tests need to be completed to determine the effect of each of the BTEX components. ?? Springer 2005.

  11. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  12. Weed infestation of field crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part II. Root crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of root crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park was conducted in the years 1991-1995. As many as 240 phytosociological records, made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method, were taken in potato and sugar beet fields. The number of weed species in sugar beet and potato in the area depended on the soil and type of root crop. In the same environment conditions. the iiuinber of weed species was higher in potato than in sugar beet. The most difficult weed species iii all types of soil were: Chenopodium album, Stellaria media and Convolvulus arvensis. Podsolic soils were highly infested by two acidophylic species: Spergula arvensis and Raphanus raphanistum. Potato in loess soil and brown soil made of loamy sands were highly infested by Echinochloa crus-galli, Equisetum arvense and Galinsoga parviflora. Root crop plantations in brown soils formed from gaizes of granulometric loam texture and limestone soils were infested by: Galium aparine, Sonchus arvensis, Sinapis arvensis and Veronica persica.

  13. Comparative Riftology: Insights into the Evolution of Passive Continental Margins and Continental Rifts from the Failed Midcontinent Rift (MCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, R. P.; Stein, C. A.; Stein, S.; Kley, J.; Keller, G. R.; Wysession, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Continental rifts evolve to seafloor spreading and are preserved in passive margins, or fail and remain as fossil features in continents. Rifts at different stages give insight into these evolutionary paths. Of particular interest is the evolution of volcanic passive margins, which are characterized by seaward dipping reflectors, volcanic rocks yielding magnetic anomalies landward of the oldest spreading anomalies, and are underlain by high-velocity lower crustal bodies. How and when these features form remains unclear. Insights are given by the Midcontinent Rift (MCR), which began to form during the 1.1 Ga rifting of Amazonia from Laurentia, but failed when seafloor spreading was established elsewhere. MCR volcanics are much thicker than other continental flood basalts, due to deposition in a narrow rift rather than a broad region, giving a rift's geometry but a LIP's magma volume. The MCR provides a snapshot of the deposition of a thick and highly magnetized volcanic section during rifting. Surface exposures and reflection seismic data near Lake Superior show a rift basin filled by inward-dipping flood basalt layers. Had the rift evolved to seafloor spreading, the basin would have split into two sets of volcanics with opposite-facing SDRs, each with a magnetic anomaly. Because the rift formed as a series of alternating half-grabens, structural asymmetries between conjugate margins would have naturally occurred had it gone to completion. Hence the MCR implies that many passive margin features form prior to seafloor spreading. Massive inversion of the MCR long after it failed has provided a much clearer picture of its structure compared to failed rifts with lesser degrees of inversion. Seismic imaging as well as gravity and magnetic modeling provide important insight into the effects of inversion on failed rifts. The MCR provides an end member for the evolution of actively extending rifts, characterized by upwelling mantle and negative gravity anomalies, to failed

  14. Integrated geophysical investigations in a fault zone located on southwestern part of İzmir city, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahor, Mahmut G.; Berge, Meriç A.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated geophysical investigations consisting of joint application of various geophysical techniques have become a major tool of active tectonic investigations. The choice of integrated techniques depends on geological features, tectonic and fault characteristics of the study area, required resolution and penetration depth of used techniques and also financial supports. Therefore, fault geometry and offsets, sediment thickness and properties, features of folded strata and tectonic characteristics of near-surface sections of the subsurface could be thoroughly determined using integrated geophysical approaches. Although Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) methods are commonly used in active tectonic investigations, other geophysical techniques will also contribute in obtaining of different properties in the complex geological environments of tectonically active sites. In this study, six different geophysical methods used to define faulting locations and characterizations around the study area. These are GPR, ERT, SRT, Very Low Frequency electromagnetic (VLF), magnetics and self-potential (SP). Overall integrated geophysical approaches used in this study gave us commonly important results about the near surface geological properties and faulting characteristics in the investigation area. After integrated interpretations of geophysical surveys, we determined an optimal trench location for paleoseismological studies. The main geological properties associated with faulting process obtained after trenching studies. In addition, geophysical results pointed out some indications concerning the active faulting mechanism in the area investigated. Consequently, the trenching studies indicate that the integrated approach of geophysical techniques applied on the fault problem reveals very useful and interpretative results in description of various properties of faulting zone in the investigation site.

  15. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  16. Physical Processes Contributing To Small-scale Vertical Movements During Changing Inplane Stresses In Rift Basins and At Passive Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G. E.; Nielsen, S. B.; Hansen, D. L.

    The vertical movements during a regional stress reversal in a rifted basin or on a passive continental margin are examined using a numerical 2D thermo-mechanical finite element model with a visco-elastic-plastic rheology. Three different physical mechanisms are recognized in small-scale vertical movements at small inplane force variations: elastic dilatation, elastic flexure, and permanent deformation. Their rela- tive importance depend on the applied force, the duration of the force, and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Elastic material dilatation occurs whenever the stress state changes. A reversal from extension to compression therefore immediately leads to elastic dilatation, and re- sults in an overall subsidence of the entire profile. Simultaneously with dilatation the lithosphere reacts with flexure. The significance of the flexural component strongly depends on the thermal structure of the lithosphere. The polarity and amplitude of the flexure depends on the initial (before compression) loading of the lithosphere. Gener- ally, the flexural effects lead to subsidence of the overdeep in the landward part of the basin and a small amount of uplift at the basin flanks. The amplitudes of the flexural response are small and comparable with the amplitudes of the elastic dilatation. With continuing compression permanent deformation and lithospheric thickening becomes increasingly important. Ultimately, the thickened part of the lithosphere stands out as an inverted zone. The amount of permanent deformation is directly connected with the size and duration of the applied force, but even a relatively small force leads to inversion tectonics in the landward part of the basin. The conclusions are: 1) small stress induced vertical movements in rift basins and at passive continental margins are the result of a complex interaction of at least three different processes, 2) the total sediment loaded amplitudes resulting from these pro- cesses are small (2-300 m) for

  17. Transition zone dosimetry. Part of a coordinated programme on high-dose standardization and intercomparison for industrial radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.

    1981-12-01

    A Non-Destructive Assay system is described for the direct determination of fissile material in extended waste boxes and irradiated fuel elements. It is based on active neutron interrogation with an Sb-Be neutron source and attenuation of the source neutrons relative to the fission neutrons. The system is operating in a hot cell in the presence of some 100Ci of fission products. The count rate, obtained from source neutrons, was finally equivalent to 60 mg U-235. This value indicates the lower detection limit of the system. One part of the system (i) is intended for small samples mainly for calibration purposes. In the other part of the system (II) the samples are continuously moving during the measuring turn. For waste boxes of 16,5cm diameter and 25cm height, the relative counting efficiency in system II is 50% as compared to system I. Different packing positions change the result by 5%, the addition of 500g metal wool by 2% and the measurement of 8 subsamples as a whole by 4%. Performance is demonstrated with irradiated fuel elements of the AVR reactor at burn-up values between 0 and 170.000 MWd/t

  18. The stress shadow induced by the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting episode

    KAUST Repository

    Maccaferri, F.

    2013-03-01

    It has been posited that the 1975–1984 Krafla rifting episode in northern Iceland was responsible for a significant drop in the rate of earthquakes along the Húsavík-Flatey Fault (HFF), a transform fault that had previously been the source of several magnitude 6–7 earthquakes. This compelling case of the existence of a stress shadow has never been studied in detail, and the implications of such a stress shadow remain an open question. According to rate-state models, intense stress shadows cause tens of years of low seismicity rate followed by a faster recovery phase of rate increase. Here, we compare the long-term predictions from a Coulomb stress model of the rifting episode with seismological observations from the SIL catalog (1995–2011) in northern Iceland. In the analyzed time frame, we find that the rift-induced stress shadow coincides with the eastern half of the fault where the observed seismicity rates are found to be significantly lower than expected, given the historical earthquake activity there. We also find that the seismicity rates on the central part of the HFF increased significantly in the last 17 years, with the seismicity progressively recovering from west to east. Our observations confirm that rate-state theory successfully describes the long-term seismic rate variation during the reloading phase of a fault invested by a negative Coulomb stress. Coincident with this recovery, we find that the b-value of the frequency-magnitude distribution changed significantly over time. We conclude that the rift-induced stress shadow not only decreased the seismic rate on the eastern part of the HFF but also temporarily modified how the system releases seismic energy, with more large magnitude events in proportion to small ones. This behavior is currently being overturned, as rift-induced locking is now being compensated by tectonic forcing.

  19. The stress shadow induced by the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, F.; Rivalta, E.; Passarelli, L.; Jónsson, S.

    2013-03-01

    It has been posited that the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting episode in northern Iceland was responsible for a significant drop in the rate of earthquakes along the Húsavík-Flatey Fault (HFF), a transform fault that had previously been the source of several magnitude 6-7 earthquakes. This compelling case of the existence of a stress shadow has never been studied in detail, and the implications of such a stress shadow remain an open question. According to rate-state models, intense stress shadows cause tens of years of low seismicity rate followed by a faster recovery phase of rate increase. Here, we compare the long-term predictions from a Coulomb stress model of the rifting episode with seismological observations from the SIL catalog (1995-2011) in northern Iceland. In the analyzed time frame, we find that the rift-induced stress shadow coincides with the eastern half of the fault where the observed seismicity rates are found to be significantly lower than expected, given the historical earthquake activity there. We also find that the seismicity rates on the central part of the HFF increased significantly in the last 17 years, with the seismicity progressively recovering from west to east. Our observations confirm that rate-state theory successfully describes the long-term seismic rate variation during the reloading phase of a fault invested by a negative Coulomb stress. Coincident with this recovery, we find that the b-value of the frequency-magnitude distribution changed significantly over time. We conclude that the rift-induced stress shadow not only decreased the seismic rate on the eastern part of the HFF but also temporarily modified how the system releases seismic energy, with more large magnitude events in proportion to small ones. This behavior is currently being overturned, as rift-induced locking is now being compensated by tectonic forcing.

  20. Lithospheric rheological heterogeneity across an intraplate rift basin (Linfen Basin, North China) constrained from magnetotelluric data: Implications for seismicity and rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yaotian; Jin, Sheng; Wei, Wenbo; Ye, Gaofeng; Jing, Jian'en; Zhang, Letian; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang; Liang, Hongda

    2017-10-01

    We take the Linfen Basin, which is the most active segment of the Cenozoic intraplate Shanxi Rift, as an example, showing how to use magnetotelluric data to constrain lithospheric rheological heterogeneities of intraplate tectonic zones. Electrical resistivity models, combined with previous rheological numerical simulation, show a good correlation between resistivity and rheological strength, indicating the mechanisms of enhanced conductivity could also be reasons of reduced viscosity. The crust beneath the Linfen Basin shows overall stratified features in both electrical resistivity and rheology. The uppermost crustal conductive layer is dominated by friction sliding-type brittle fracturing. The high-resistivity mid-crust is inferred to be high-viscosity metamorphic basement being intersected by deep fault. The plastic lower crust show significantly high-conductivity feature. Seismicity appears to be controlled by crustal rheological heterogeneity. Micro-earthquakes mainly distribute at the brittle-ductile transition zones as indicated by high- to low-resistivity interfaces or the high pore pressure fault zones while the epicenters of two giant destructive historical earthquakes occur within the high-resistivity and therefore high-strength blocks near the inferred rheological interfaces. The lithosphere-scale lateral rheological heterogeneity along the profile can also be illustrated. The crust and upper mantle beneath the Ordos Block, Lüliang Mountains and Taihang Mountains are of high rheological strength as indicated by large-scale high-resistivity zones while a significant high-conductivity, lithosphere-scale weak zone exists beneath the eastern margin of the Linfen Basin. According to previous geodynamic modeling works, we suggest that this kind of lateral rheological heterogeneity may play an essential role for providing driving force for the formation and evolution of the Shanxi Rift, regional lithospheric deformation and earthquake activities under the

  1. Extension style in the Orphan Basin during the Mesozoic North Atlantic rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouiza, Mohamed; Hall, Jeremy

    2013-04-01

    The Orphan Basin, lying along the Newfoundland passive continental margin, has formed in Mesozoic time during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean and the breakup of Iberia/Eurasia from North America. Regional deep seismic reflection profiles across the basin indicate that the Neoproterozoic basement has been affected by repeated extensional episodes between the Late Triassic/Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous. Deformation initiated in the eastern part of the Orphan basin in the Jurassic and migrated toward the west in the Early Cretaceous, resulting in numerous rift structures filled with Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous syn-rift successions and sealed by thick Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic post-rift sediments. The seismic data show an extremely attenuated crust underneath the eastern and western part of the deep basin, forming two sub-basins associated with the development of rifting. The two sub-basins are separated by a wide structural high with a relatively thick crust and are bounded to the west by the continental shelf domain. Restoration of the Orphan Basin along a 2D crustal section (520 km long), yields a total amount of stretching of about 144 km, while the total crustal thinning indicates an extension of around 250 km, assuming mass conservation along the section and an initial crustal thickness of 28 km. Brittle deformation accommodated by normal faults is documented in the seismic profiles and affected essentially the present-day upper portion of the crust, and represents only 60% of the total extension which thinned the Orphan crust. The remaining crustal thinning must involve other deformation processes which are not (easily) recognizable in the seismic data. We propose two models that could explain discrepancies between brittle deformation and total crustal thinning during lithospheric extension. The first model assumes the reactivation of pre-rift inherited structures, which act as crustal-scale detachments during the early stages of rifting. The second

  2. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: a model of continental disruption 2. The Darfur domal uplift and associated Cainozoic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, P. M.; Fairhead, J. D.; Stuart, G. W.

    1983-05-01

    Gravity studies of the Darfur uplift, Western Sudan, show it to be associated with a circular negative Bouguer anomaly, 50 mGal in amplitude and 700 km across. A three-dimensional model interpretation of the Darfur anomaly, using constraints deduced from geophysical studies of similar but more evolved Kenya and Ethiopia domes, suggests either a low-density laccolithic body at mid-lithospheric depth (~ 60 km) or a thinned lithosphere with emplacement at high level of low-density asthenospheric material. The regional setting of the Darfur uplift is described in terms of it being an integral part of the Central African Rift System which is shown to be broadly equivalent to the early to middle Miocene stage in the development of the Afro-Arabian Rift System. Comparisons between these rift systems suggest that extensional tectonics and passive rifting, resulting in the subsiding sedimentary rift basins associated with the Ngaoundere, Abu Gabra, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, are more typical of the early stage development of passive continental margins than the active domal uplift and development of rifted features associated with the Darfur, Kenya and Ethiopia domes.

  3. DEEP STRUCTURE OF THE SIBERIAN PLATFORM – CENTRAL ASIAN MOBILE BELT TRANSITION ZONE FROM TELESEISMIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mordvinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep velocity sections of the transition zone from the Siberian platform to the Central Asian mobile belt are constructed by teleseismic tomography and P-receiver function techniques. An array of the dense ancient Siberian craton is identified in the velocity sections with areas of high seismic velocity. In the SSW section MOBAL_2003, the surface boundary of the craton corresponds to the southern margin of the Siberian platform and is nearly vertical to a depth of 120 km. At larger depths, the craton slides almost horizontally underneath the Tunka rift area. At depths from 150 to 250 km, it is in contact with the area under the Khamar-Daban mountain range. In the southeast, according to the SE velocity section PASSCAL_1992 across the South Baikal basin and the Khamar-Daban mountain range, the Siberian craton thickness is reduced from 270 to 150 km at the contact of the Siberian platform with the Baikal folded area. In this contact zone, the upper part of the craton is wedge-shaped and has an angle of about 45° with the ground surface; it completely tapers off at a depth of 150 km to the east of Lake Baikal. The vertical configuration of the southern segment of the Siberian craton, which evolved with time, may determine the nature of the Baikal rifting in the Cenozoic. 

  4. Quantitative characterization of hazardous waste incinerator performance - Part I: Model components viewed in the context of exchange among equilibrium reactions zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atimtay, A.; Weaver, R.E.C.; Murray, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    This first paper of a series treats the algorithmic details of an efficient approach to equilibrium definition through free energy minimization and examines the region near the flame of a selected incinerator configuration, explicitly treating candidate heat and mass transfer processes occurring among the zones in local chemical equilibrium. The prospect for achieving maximum permitted flexibility of operations out of RCRA Part B Test Burn studies (in addition to achieving design improvements) will be enhanced by having a tractable yet versatile incinerator simulation capability. This approach seeks to integrate as much independent evidence on constituents processes as may be available in a quantitative aggregate from which a comparison can be drawn with what is measured in actual operations

  5. The nevado-filábride complex in the western part of Sierra de los Filabres (Betic Internal Zone), structure and lithologic succession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz de Galdeano, C.; López Garrido, A.

    2016-07-01

    In the western part of Sierra de los Filabres (in the Nevado-Filábride Complex, within the Betic Internal Zone) several tectonic units have been described, in varying numbers depending on the author describing them. However, new cartographical data show that the limits of these units pass through the lithological formations without displacing them. Moreover, the rocks belonging to some units that are supposedly situated in a lower tectonic position really belong to higher formations. From bottom to top, these lithological formations are the following: (1) dark schists and quartzites; (2) quartzites, sandstones, sands, lutites, schists, and mica schists; (3) schists; (4) marbles, schists, and mica schists. High-angle reverse faults are associated with the great E-W anticline of Sierra de los Filabres. The existence of sands and apparent lutites visibly interlayered between rocks, such as schists and mica schists with garnets, poses a metamorphic problem that has not as yet been addressed. (Author)

  6. From Compression to Extension: Cretaceous A-type Granite as Indicator of Geodynamic Changes in the Adria Part of the European Neotethys Suture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balen, D.; Schneider, P.; Massonne, H. J.; Opitz, J.; Petrinec, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous suture zone between the colliding plates of European and Adria (Gondwana) marks the closure of the W Neotethys branch. This zone, partly located in the northern Croatia, comprises reddish alkali granite which is mainly composed of alkali feldspar and quartz, with small amounts of albite, white mica and hematite with ilmenite exsolutions. Accessory minerals include zircon, apatite and Fe-(Ti)-oxides. This granite shows a geochemical signature typical for A2-type granite characterized by a highly siliceous composition and an enrichment in alkalies (high-K calc-alkaline series) and Al (strongly peraluminous, ASI>1.1). The rock belongs to the group of oxidized and ferroan granites with low CaO, MgO, MnO and FeO* contents. Characteristic trace element ratios, primitive mantle and OIB normalized spider-diagrams show significant positive anomalies of Rb, Th, U, K, Zr and Pb accompanied with clear negative anomalies of Ba, Nb, Sr, P, Eu and Ti. The negative anomalies suggest fractionation of plagioclase, apatite and Fe-Ti oxide. Based on the geochemical characteristics the magma originated mainly from melting of lower continental crust (granulite facies metasediments) although a mantle contribution cannot be excluded. The melting process could have been triggered by a heat from the upwelling upper mantle as inferred from zircon typology (D and J5 types prevail), as well from the zircon and whole-rock chemistry accompanied with high zircon saturation temperatures (T=860-950°C). Subsequent ascent of granitic magma was localized along the Europe-Adria suture i.e. the Sava Zone segment of the Late Cretaceous collisional zone where granite was emplaced at ca. 20 km depth. The emplacement followed a long period of Mesozoic orogenic compressional activity. Typical for A-type granites, although in our case related to the subduction of the Adria plate underneath the European plate, is their formation in an extensional tectonic regime. Thus, the studied A

  7. Structural Evolution of Transform Fault Zones in Thick Oceanic Crust of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Brandsdottir, B.; Horst, A. J.; Farrell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Spreading centers in Iceland are offset from the regional trend of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) in the north and the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) in the south. Rift propagation away from the center of the Iceland hotspot, has resulted in migration of these transform faults to the N and S, respectively. As they migrate, new transform faults develop in older crust between offset spreading centers. Active transform faults, and abandoned transform structures left in their wakes, show features that reflect different amounts (and durations) of slip that can be viewed as a series of snapshots of different stages of transform fault evolution in thick, oceanic crust. This crust has a highly anisotropic, spreading fabric with pervasive zones of weakness created by spreading-related normal faults, fissures and dike margins oriented parallel to the spreading centers where they formed. These structures have a strong influence on the mechanical properties of the crust. By integrating available data, we suggest a series of stages of transform development: 1) Formation of an oblique rift (or leaky transform) with magmatic centers, linked by bookshelf fault zones (antithetic strike-slip faults at a high angle to the spreading direction) (Grimsey Fault Zone, youngest part of the TFZ); 2) broad zone of conjugate faulting (tens of km) (Hreppar Block N of the SISZ); 3) narrower ( 20 km) zone of bookshelf faulting aligned with the spreading direction (SISZ); 4) mature, narrow ( 1 km) through-going transform fault zone bounded by deformation (bookshelf faulting and block rotations) distributed over 10 km to either side (Húsavík-Flatey Fault Zone in the TFZ). With progressive slip, the transform zone becomes progressively narrower and more closely aligned with the spreading direction. The transform and non-transform (beyond spreading centers) domains may be truncated by renewed propagation and separated by subsequent spreading. This perspective

  8. The origin and evolution of silicic magmas during continental rifting: new constraints from trace elements and oxygen isotopes from Ethiopian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, W.; Boyce, A.; Mather, T. A.; Pyle, D. M.; Yirgu, G.; Gleeson, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The petrologic diversity of rift magmas is generated by two key processes: interaction with the crust via partial melting or assimilation; and closed-system fractional crystallization of the parental magma. It is not yet known whether these two petrogenetic processes vary spatially between different rift settings, and whether there are any significant secular variations during rift evolution. The Ethiopian Rift is the ideal setting to test these hypotheses because it captures the transition from continental rifting to sea-floor spreading and has witnessed the eruption of large volumes of mafic and silicic volcanic rocks since 30 Ma. We use new oxygen isotope (δ18O) and trace element data to fingerprint fractional crystallisation and partial crustal melting processes in Ethiopia and evaluate spatial variations between three active rift segments. δ18O measurements are used to examine partial crustal melting processes. We find that most δ18O data from basalts to rhyolites fall within the bounds of modelled fractional crystallization trajectories (i.e., 5.5-6.5 ‰). Few samples deviate from this trend, emphasising that fractional crystallization is the dominant petrogenetic processes and that little fusible Precambrian crustal material (δ18O of 7-18 ‰) remain to be assimilated beneath the magmatic segments. Trace element systematics (e.g., Ba, Sr, Rb, Th and Zr) further underscore the dominant role of fractional crystallization but also reveal important variations in the degree of melt evolution between the volcanic systems. We find that the most evolved silicic magmas, i.e., those with greatest peralkalinity (molar Na2O+K2O>Al2O3), are promoted in regions of lowest magma flux off-axis and along rift. Our findings provide new information on the nature of the crust beneath Ethiopia's active magmatic segments and also have relevance for understanding ancient rift zones and the geotectonic settings that promote genesis of economically-valuable mineral deposits.

  9. Evidence for cross rift structural controls on deformation and seismicity at a continental rift caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Ryan; Biggs, Juliet; Wilks, Matthew; Nowacki, Andy; Kendall, J.-Michael; Ayele, Atalay; Lewi, Elias; Eysteinsson, Hjálmar

    2018-04-01

    In continental rifts structural heterogeneities, such as pre-existing faults and foliations, are thought to influence shallow crustal processes, particularly the formation of rift faults, magma reservoirs and surface volcanism. We focus on the Corbetti caldera, in the southern central Main Ethiopian Rift. We measure the surface deformation between 22nd June 2007 and 25th March 2009 using ALOS and ENVISAT SAR interferograms and observe a semi-circular pattern of deformation bounded by a sharp linear feature cross-cutting the caldera, coincident with the caldera long axis. The signal reverses in sign but is not seasonal: from June to December 2007 the region south of this structure moves upwards 3 cm relative to the north, while from December 2007 until November 2008 it subsides by 2 cm. Comparison of data taken from two different satellite look directions show that the displacement is primarily vertical. We discuss potential mechanisms and conclude that this deformation is associated with pressure changes within a shallow (statistically consistent with this fault structure, indicating that the fault has also controlled the migration of magma from a reservoir to the surface over tens of thousands of years. Spatial patterns of seismicity are consistent with a cross-rift structure that extents outside the caldera and to a depth of ∼30 km, and patterns of seismic anisotropy suggests stress partitioning occurs across the structure. We discuss the possible nature of this structure, and conclude that it is most likely associated with the Goba-Bonga lineament, which cross-cuts and pre-dates the current rift. Our observations show that pre-rift structures play an important role in magma transport and shallow hydrothermal processes, and therefore they should not be neglected when discussing these processes.

  10. Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Wang, Teng; Xu, Wenbin; Hensch, Martin; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2016-01-01

    -field deformation has rarely been captured, hindering progress in understanding rifting mechanisms and evolution. Here we show new evidence of oblique rift opening during a rifting event influenced by pre-existing fractures and two centuries of extension deficit

  11. The MOZART Project - MOZAmbique Rift Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, J. F.; Chamussa, J. R.; Domingues, A.; Helffrich, G. R.; Fishwick, S.; Ferreira, A. M.; Custodio, S.; Brisbourne, A. M.; Grobbelaar, M.

    2012-12-01

    Project MOZART (MOZAmbique Rift Tomography) is an ongoing joint effort of Portuguese, Mozambican and British research groups to investigate the geological structure and current tectonic activity of the southernmost tip of the East African Rift System (EARS) through the deployment of a network of 30 broad band seismic stations in Central and Southern Mozambique. In contrast with other stretches of the EARS to the North and with the Kapvaal craton to the West and South, the lithosphere of Mozambique was not previously studied with a dense seismographic deployment on account of past political instability, and many questions remain unanswered with respect to the location and characteristics of the EARS to the south of Tanzania. In recent years, space geodesy revealed the existence of three microplates in and off Mozambique - Victoria, Rovuma, Lwandle - whose borders provide a connection of the EARS to the South West Indian Ridge as required by plate tectonics. However, the picture is still coarse concerning the location of the rift structures. The 2006 M7 Machaze earthquake in Central Mozambique highlighted the current tectonic activity of the region and added a further clue to the location of the continental rift, prompting the MOZART deployment. Besides helping unravel the current tectonics, the project is expected to shed light on the poorly known Mesoproterozoic structure described by Arthur Holmes in 1951 as the Mozambique Belt, and on the mechanisms of transition from stable craton to rifted continental crust, through the development of a tomographic model for the lithosphere. The MOZART network is distributed South of the Zambezi river at average inter-station spaces of the order of 100 km and includes four stations across the border in South Africa. Data exchange was agreed with AfricaArray. The deployment proceeded in two phases in March 2011, and November and December 2011. Decommissioning is foreseen for August 2013. We report preliminary results for this

  12. Long wavelength magnetic anomalies over continental rifts in cratonic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. A.; Persaud, P.; Ferre, E. C.; Martín-Hernández, F.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    New collections of unaltered mantle xenoliths shed light on potential upper mantle contributions to long wavelength magnetic anomalies (LWMA) in continental rifts in cratonic / shield areas. The new material originates from the East African Rift (Tanzania), the Rio Grande Rift (U.S.A.), the Rhine Rift (Germany), and the West Antarctic Rift (Antarctica). The xenoliths sample the uppermost ( 0.2 or Fe geotherms (>60ºC/km) that are characteristic of rifted regions preclude any contribution to LWMA at depths >10 km. Hence, only upper basalts and hypovolcanic mafic sills would constitute potential magnetic sources. In contrast, the margins of these rifted regions consist of refractory cratonic domains, often characterized by oxidized sublithospheric mantle that host significant concentrations of primary magnetite. The higher NRMs of these peridotites (up to 15 A/m, Qn > 2.5) combined with much lower geotherms (as low as 15ºC/km) allows for a 5 to 10 km layer of uppermost mantle to potentially contribute to LWMA. Assuming that Qn values in rift margins are also gradient across the rift would primarily reflect thermal equilibration over time.

  13. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) is a 3,000-km-long Cenozoic age continental rift extending from the Afar triple junction, between the horn of Africa and the Middle East, to western Mozambique. Sectors of active extension occur from the Indian Ocean, west to Botswana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is the only rift system in the world that is active on a continent-wide scale, providing geologists with a view of how continental rifts develop over time into oceanic spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  14. Subsidence history, crustal structure and evolution of the Nogal Rift, Northern Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic reflection profile, gravity anomaly, and biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells have been used to determine the tectonic subsidence, structure and evolution of the Nogal basin, Northern Somalia, one of a number of ENE-WSW trending early Mesozoic rifts that formed prior to opening of the Gulf of Aden. Backstripping of biostratigraphic data at the Nogal-1 and Kali-1 wells provides new constraints on the age of rifting, and the amount of crustal and mantle extension. The tectonic subsidence and uplift history at the wells can be generally explained as a consequence of two, possibly three, major rifting events. The first event initiated in the Late Jurassic (~156 Ma) and lasted for ~10 Myr. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the break-up of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. The second event initiated in the Late Cretaceous (~80 Ma) and lasted for ~20 Myr. This event probably correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The backstripped tectonic subsidence data can be explained by a multi-rift extensional model with a stretching factor, β, in the range 1.17-1.38. The third and most recent event occurred in the Oligocene (~32 Ma) and lasted for ~10 Myr. This rift only developed at the centre of the basin close to Nogal-1 well, and is related to the opening of the Gulf of Aden. The amount of crustal thinning inferred at the Kali-1 well is consistent with the results of Process-Oriented Gravity and Flexure (POGM) modelling, assuming an elastic thickness of ~30 km. The thinning at the Nogal-1 well, however, is greater by ~ 7 km than predicted suggesting that the basin may be locally underplated by magmatic material. Irrespective, POGM suggests the transition between thick crust beneath Northern Somalia to thin crust beneath the Indian Ocean forms a ~500 km wide

  15. Rifting an Archaean Craton: Insights from Seismic Anisotropy Patterns in E. Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Currie, C. A.; van Wijk, J.; Albaric, J.

    2016-12-01

    Few places worldwide offer opportunities to study active deformation of deeply-keeled cratonic lithosphere. The magma-rich Eastern rift transects the eastern edge of the Archaean Tanzania craton in northeastern Tanzania, which has been affected by a large-scale mantle upwelling. Abundant xenolith locales offer constraints on mantle age, composition, and physical properties. Our aim is to evaluate models for magmatic fluid-alteration (metasomatism) and deformation of mantle lithosphere along the edge of cratons by considering spatial variations in the direction and magnitude of seismic anisotropy, which is strongly influenced by mantle flow patterns along lithosphere-asthenosphere topography, fluid-filled cracks (e.g., dikes), and pre-existing mantle lithosphere strain fabrics. Waveforms of teleseismic earthquakes (SKS, SKKS) recorded on the 39-station CRAFTI-CoLiBREA broadband array in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania are used to determine the azimuth and amount of shear-wave splitting accrued as seismic waves pass through the uppermost mantle and lithosphere at the craton edge. Lower crustal earthquakes enable evaluation of seismic anisotropy throughout the crust along the rift flanks and beneath the heavily intruded Magadi and Natron basins, and the weakly intruded Manyara basin. Our results and those of earlier studies show a consistent N50E splitting direction within the craton, with delay times of ca. 1.5 s, and similar direction east of the rift in thinner Pan-African lithosphere. Stations within the rift zone are rotated to a N15-35E splitting, with the largest delay times of 2.5 s at the margin of the heavily intruded Magadi basin. The short length scale of variations and rift-parallel splitting directions are similar to patterns in the Main Ethiopian rift attributed to melt-filled cracks or oriented pockets rising from the base of the lithosphere. The widespread evidence for mantle metasomatism and magma intrusion to mid-crustal levels suggests that

  16. Surface Wave Analysis of Regional Earthquakes in the Eastern Rift System (Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, S. J. C.; Guidarelli, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Roecker, S. W.; Tiberi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Tanzania Divergence (NTD), the youngest part of the East African Rift System, presents the opportunity to obtain insights about the birth and early stages of rifting before it progresses to mature rifting and seafloor spreading. This region is particularly interesting because the Eastern rift splits into three arms in this area and develops in a region of thick and cold lithosphere, amid the Archaean Tanzanian craton and the Proterozoic orogenic belt (the Masai block). We analyzed about two thousand seismic events recorded by the 39 broadband stations of the CRAFTI network during its two-year deployment in the NTD area in 2013 to 2014. We present the results of surface wave tomographic inversion obtained from fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves for short periods (between 4 to 14 seconds). Group velocity dispersion curves obtained via multiple filter analysis are path-averaged and inverted to produce 0.1º x 0.1º nodal grid tomographic maps for discrete periods using a 2D generalization of the Backus and Gilbert method. To quantify our results in terms of S-wave velocity structure the average group velocity dispersion curves are then inverted, using a linearized least-squares inversion scheme, in order to obtain the shear wave velocity structure for the upper 20 km of the crust. Low velocity anomalies are observed in the region 50 km south of Lake Natron, as well as in the area of the Ngorongoro crater. The implications of our results for the local tectonics and the development of the rifting system will be discussed in light of the growing geophysical database from this region.

  17. Evidence for Strong Controls from Preexisting Structures on Border Fault Development and Basin Evolution in the Malawi Rift from 3D Lacustrine Refraction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, N. J.; Shillington, D. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Scholz, C. A.; Ebinger, C.; Nyblade, A.; McCartney, T.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Kamihanda, G.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.

    2017-12-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds controls on the development and ultimately abandonment of basin bounding border faults. The Malawi Rift in the the Western Branch of the East African Rift System presents an ideal location to investigate normal fault development. The rift is composed of a series of half graben basins bound by large border faults, which cross several terranes and pre-existing features. To delineate rift basin structure, we undertook 3D first arrival tomography across the North and Central basins of the Malawi Rift based on seismic refraction data acquired in Lake Malawi. The resulting 3D velocity model allows for the first-ever mapping of 3D basin structure in the Western Branch of the EAR. We estimate fault displacement profiles along the two border faults and find that each accommodated 7.2 km of throw. Previous modeling studies suggest that given the significant lengths (>140 km) and throws of these faults, they may be nearing their maximum dimensions or may have already been abandoned. While both faults accommodate similar throws, their lengths differ by 40 km, likely due to the influence of both preexisting basement fabric and large-scale preexisting structures crossing the rift. Over 4 km of sediment exists where the border faults overlap in the accommodation zone indicating that these faults likely established their lengths early. Portions of both basins contain packages of sediment with anomalously fast velocities (> 4 km/s), which we interpret to represent sediment packages from prior rifting episodes. In the Central Basin, this preexisting sediment traces along the inferred offshore continuation of the Karoo-aged Ruhuhu Basin that intersects Lake Malawi at the junction between the North and Central basins. This feature may have influenced the length of the border fault bounding the Central Basin. In the North Basin, the preexisting sediment is thicker ( 4 km) and likely represents the offshore continuation of a series of preexisting rift

  18. The crust and upper mantle of central East Greenland - implications for continental accretion and rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, Niels; Ebbing, Jörg; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    The geological evolution of the North Atlantic Realm during the past 450 Myr, which has shaped the present-day topographic, crustal and upper mantle features, was dominated by the Caledonian orogeny and the formation of the North Atlantic and associated igneous activity. The distinct high altitude-low relief landscapes that accompany the North Atlantic rifted passive margins are the focus of a discussion of whether they are remnant and modified Caledonian features or, alternatively, recently uplifted peneplains. Teleseismic receiver function analysis of 11 broadband seismometers in the Central Fjord Region in East Greenland indicates the presence of a fossil subduction complex, including a slab of eclogitised mafic crust and an overlying wedge of hydrated mantle peridotite. This model is generally consistent with gravity and topography. It is shown that the entire structure including crustal thickness variations and sub-Moho heterogeneity gives a superior gravity and isostatic topographic fit compared to a model with a homogeneous lithospheric layer (1). The high topography of >1000 m in the western part of the area is supported by the c. 40 km thick crust. The eastern part requires buoyancy from the low velocity/low density mantle wedge. The geometry, velocities and densities are consistent with structures associated with a fossil subduction zone. The spatial relations with Caledonian structures suggest a Caledonian origin. The results indicate that topography is isostatically compensated by density variations within the lithosphere and that significant present-day dynamic topography seems not to be required. Further, this structure is suggested to be geophysically very similar to the Flannan reflector imaged north of Scotland, and that these are the remnants of the same fossil subduction zone, broken apart and separated during the formation of the North Atlantic in the early Cenozoic (2). 1) Schiffer, C., Jacobsen, B.H., Balling, N., Ebbing, J. and Nielsen, S

  19. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon measurement technique in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Al-Ali, M.A.; Al-Hilall, M.

    1999-07-01

    Radon concentrations in groundwater were measured from six monitoring stations that were distributed along the Syrian rift valley, with time intervals of one month over a span of more than six years from 1992 to 1998. This set of data was integrated and statistically handled in order to be used as a significant base for estimating the range of natural radon background variations in groundwater along the concerned zone. The results reveal that only few anomalous radon values were recorded during the given time-window, which might be caused by tectonic disturbances or otherwise in the study region. (author)

  20. THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC IMANDRA-VARZUGA RIFTING STRUCTURE (KOLA PENINSULA: INTRUSIVE MAGMATISM AND MINERAGENY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chashchin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data on the structure of the Paleoproterozoic intercontinental Imandra-Varzuga rifting structure (IVS and compositions of intrusive formations typical of the early stage of the IVS development and associated mineral resources. IVS is located in the central part of the Kola region. Its length is about 350 km, and its width varies from 10 km at the flanks to 50 km in the central part. IVS contains an association of the sedimentary-volcanic, intrusive and dyke complexes. It is a part of a large igneous Paleoproterozoic province of the Fennoscandian Shield spreading for a huge area (about 1 million km2, which probably reflects the settings of the head part of the mantle plume. Two age groups of layered intrusions were associated with the initial stage of the IVS development. The layered intrusions of the Fedorovo-Pansky and Monchegorsk complexes (about 2.50 Ga are confined to the northern flank and the western closure of IVS, while intrusions of the Imandra complex (about 2.45 Ga are located at the southern flank of IVS. Intrusions of older complexes are composed of rock series from dunite to gabbro and anorthosites (Monchegorsk complex and from orthopyroxenite to gabbro and anorthosites (Fedorovo-Pansky complex. Some intrusions of this complexes reveal features of multiphase ones. The younger Imandra complex intrusions (about 2.45 Ga are stratified from orthopyroxenite to ferrogabbro. Their important feature is comagmatical connection with volcanites. All the intrusive complexes have the boninite-like mantle origin enriched by lithophyle components. Rocks of these two complexеs with different age have specific geochemical characteristics. In the rocks of the Monchegorsk and Fedorovo-Pansky complexes, the accumulation of REE clearly depends on the basicity of the rocks, the spectrum of REE is non-fractionated and ‘flat’, and the Eu positive anomaly is slightly manifested. In the rocks of the Imandra complex, the level of

  1. Rate-distortion analysis of dead-zone plus uniform threshold scalar quantization and its application--part II: two-pass VBR coding for H.264/AVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Duan, Yizhou; Li, Jiangtao; Liu, Jiaying; Guo, Zongming

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, we derive a source model describing the relationship between the rate, distortion, and quantization steps of the dead-zone plus uniform threshold scalar quantizers with nearly uniform reconstruction quantizers for generalized Gaussian distribution. This source model consists of rate-quantization, distortion-quantization (D-Q), and distortion-rate (D-R) models. In this part, we first rigorously confirm the accuracy of the proposed source model by comparing the calculated results with the coding data of JM 16.0. Efficient parameter estimation strategies are then developed to better employ this source model in our two-pass rate control method for H.264 variable bit rate coding. Based on our D-Q and D-R models, the proposed method is of high stability, low complexity and is easy to implement. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves: 1) average peak signal-to-noise ratio variance of only 0.0658 dB, compared to 1.8758 dB of JM 16.0's method, with an average rate control error of 1.95% and 2) significant improvement in smoothing the video quality compared with the latest two-pass rate control method.

  2. Geodetic measurements and numerical models of the Afar rifting sequence 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T.; Feigl, K.; Calais, E.; Hamling, I. J.; Wright, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Rifting episodes are characterized by magma migration and dike intrusions that perturb the stress field within the surrounding lithosphere, inducing viscous flow in the lower crust and upper mantle that leads to observable, transient surface deformation. The Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rifting episode that occurred in the Afar depression between 2005 and 2010 is the first such episode to unfold fully in the era of satellite geodesy, thus providing a unique opportunity to probe the rheology of lithosphere at a divergent plate boundary. GPS and SAR measurements over the region since 2005 show accelerated surface deformation rates during post-diking intervals [Wright et al., Nature Geosci., 2012]. Using these observations in combination with a numerical model, we estimate model parameters that best explain the deformation signal. Our model accounts for three distinct processes: (i) secular plate spreading between Nubian and Arabian plates, (ii) time dependent post-rifting viscoelastic relaxation following the 14 dike intrusions that occurred between 2005 and 2010, including the 60 km long mega dike intrusion of September 2005, and (iii) magma accumulation within crustal reservoirs that feed the dikes. To model the time dependent deformation field, we use the open-source unstructured finite element code, Defmod [Ali, 2011, http://defmod.googlecode.com/]. Using a gradient-based iterative scheme [Ali and Feigl, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 2012], we optimize the fit between observed and modeled deformation to estimate parameters in the model, including the locking depth of the rift zone, geometry and depth of magma reservoirs and rheological properties of lower crust and upper mantle, along with their formal uncertainties.

  3. Mid–Late Neoproterozoic rift-related volcanic rocks in China: Geological records of rifting and break-up of Rodinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqi Xia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Early Cambrian and Mid–Late Neoproterozoic volcanic rocks in China are widespread on several Precambrian continental blocks, which had aggregated to form part of the Rodinia supercontinent by ca. 900 Ma. On the basis of petrogeochemical data, the basic lavas can be classified into two major magma types: HT (Ti/Y > 500 and LT (Ti/Y  0.85 and HT2 (Nb/La ≤ 0.85, and LT1 (Nb/La > 0.85 and LT2 (Nb/La ≤ 0.85 subtypes, respectively. The geochemical variation of the HT2 and LT2 lavas can be accounted for by lithospheric contamination of asthenosphere- (or plume- derived magmas, whereas the parental magmas of the HT1 and LT1 lavas did not undergo, during their ascent, pronounced lithospheric contamination. These volcanics exhibit at least three characteristics: (1 most have a compositional bimodality; (2 they were formed in an intracontinental rift setting; and (3 they are genetically linked with mantle plumes or a mantle surperplume. This rift-related volcanism at end of the Mid–Neoproterozoic and Early Cambrian coincided temporally with the separation between Australia–East Antarctica, South China and Laurentia and between Australia and Tarim, respectively. The Mid–Late Neoproterozoic volcanism in China is the geologic record of the rifting and break-up of the supercontinent Rodinia.

  4. Magnetic Data Interpretation for the Source-Edge Locations in Parts of the Tectonically Active Transition Zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    The study has been carried out in the transition zone of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL) which is seismically active with various geological complexities, upwarp movement of the mantle material into the crust through fault, fractures lamination and upwelling. NSL is one of the most prominent lineaments in central India after the Himalaya in the Indian geology. The area of investigation extends from longitude 80.25°E to 81.50°E and latitude 23.50°N to 24.37°N in the central part of the Indian continent. Different types of subsurface geological formations viz. alluvial, Gondwana, Deccan traps, Vindhyan, Mahakoshal, Granite and Gneisses groups exist in this area with varying geological ages. In this study area tectonic movement and crustal variation have been taken place during the past time and which might be reason for the variation of magnetic field. Magnetic anomaly suggests that the area has been highly disturbed which causes the Narmada-Son lineament trending in the ENE-WSW direction. Magnetic anomaly variation has been taken place due to the lithological variations subject to the changes in the geological contacts like thrusts and faults in this area. Shallow and deeper sources have been distinguished using frequency domain analysis by applying different filters. To enhance the magnetic data, various types of derivatives to identify the source-edge locations of the causative source bodies. The present study carried out the interpretation using total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative, horizontal tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative map to get source-edge locations. The results derived from various derivatives of magnetic data have been compared with the basement depth solutions calculated from 3D Euler deconvolution. It is suggested that total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative are the most useful tools for identifying the multiple source edge locations of the causative bodies in this tectonically active

  5. Temporal variations of the fractal properties of seismicity in the western part of the north Anatolian fault zone: possible artifacts due to improvements in station coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Öncel

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismically-active fault zones are complex natural systems exhibiting scale-invariant or fractal correlation between earthquakes in space and time, and a power-law scaling of fault length or earthquake source dimension consistent with the exponent b of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation. The fractal dimension of seismicity is a measure of the degree of both the heterogeneity of the process (whether fixed or self-generated and the clustering of seismic activity. Temporal variations of the b-value and the two-point fractal (correlation dimension Dc have been related to the preparation process for natural earthquakes and rock fracture in the laboratory These statistical scaling properties of seismicity may therefore have the potential at least to be sensitive short- term predictors of major earthquakes. The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ is a seismicallyactive dextral strike slip fault zone which forms the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian plate. It is splayed into three branches at about 31oE and continues westward toward the northern Aegean sea. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of Dc and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value for seismicity in the western part of the NAFZ (including the northern Aegean sea for earthquakes of Ms > 4.5 occurring in the period between 1900 and 1992. b ranges from 0.6-1.6 and Dc from 0.6 to 1.4. The b-value is found to be weakly negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.56. However the (log of event rate N is positively correlated with b, with a similar degree of statistical significance (r=0.42, and negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.48. Since N increases dramatically with improved station coverage since 1970, the observed negative correlation between b and Dc is therefore more likely to be due to this effect than any underlying physical process in this case. We present this as an example of how man-made artefacts of recording can have similar statistical effects to

  6. Neotectonics of the Roer Valley rift system; style and rate of crustal deformation inferred from syn-tectonic sedimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.W.

    1995-01-01

    River sediments of the Meuse, Rhine and local Belgian systems have been preserved in various parts of the Roer Valley rift. Age-altitude positions of Meuse terraces provide a detailed record of neotectonic regional uplift. It shows accelerations and decelerations superimposed on a long-term average

  7. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate del Valle, Pedro F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara - CUCEI, Ap. Postal 4-021, Guadalajara, Jalisco CP 44410 (Mexico); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Building 104, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 (United States)]. E-mail: simoneit@coas.oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka ({sup 14}C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions.

  8. Tectonic inheritance and continental rift architecture: Numerical and analogue models of the East African Rift System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corti, G.; van Wijk, J.W.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Morley, C.

    2007-01-01

    The western branch of the East African Rift is composed of an arcuate succession of elongate asymmetric basins, which differ in terms of interaction geometry, fault architecture and kinematics, and patterns of uplift/subsidence and erosion/sedimentation. The basins are located within Proterozoic

  9. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M.; Al-Ali, A.; Jubeli, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Groundwater radon data were recorded once every two months from six monitoring sites of the Syrian rift valley during the year 1996. Radon samples were measured from deep artesian wells and from continuously-flowing springs that are distributed along this most active seismic zone in Syria. The available data were integrated with previously measured groundwater radon data from the same stations in order to estimate the range of normal radon fluctuations in the region. The estimation of such range may enable the separation between usual groundwater radon variations from other outliers which may indicate possible tectonic activities or earthquake hazards in the study area. Periodical radon measurements based on two months intervals and long distance between sampling stations does not enable us to trust with high level of confidence the connection between radon values and any possible earth dynamics. Therefore, shorter measuring time with closer monitoring sites are highly recommended to achieve the optimum advantage of such application. (Author). 8 Figs., 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

  10. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  11. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been isolated from more than 40 species of mosquitoes from eight genera. This study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in Ngorongoro ...

  12. Salt Lakes of the African Rift System: A Valuable Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt Lakes of the African Rift System: A Valuable Research Opportunity for Insight into Nature's Concenrtated Multi-Electrolyte Science. JYN Philip, DMS Mosha. Abstract. The Tanzanian rift system salt lakes present significant cultural, ecological, recreational and economical values. Beyond the wealth of minerals, resources ...

  13. Major and micro seismo-volcanic crises in the Asal Rift, Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, G.; Doubre, C.; Tomic, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Asal-Ghoubbet Rift is located on the eastern branch of the Afar triple junction between the Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia tectonic plates. The last major seismo-volcanic crisis on this segment occurred in November 1978, involving two earthquakes of mb=5+, a basaltic fissure eruption, the development of many open fissures across the rift and up to 80 cm of vertical slip on the bordering faults. Geodetic leveling revealed ~2 m of horizontal opening of the rift accompanied by ~70 cm of subsidence of the inner-floor, consistent with models of the elastic deformation produced by the injection of magma in a system of two dykes. InSAR data acquired at 24-day intervals during the last 12 years by the Canadian Radarsat satellite over the Asal Rift show that the two main faults activated in 1978 continue to slip with periods of steady creep at rates of 0.3-1.3 mm/yr, interrupted by sudden slip events of a few millimeters, in 2000 and 2003. Slip events are coincident with bursts of micro earthquakes distributed around and over the Fieale volcanic center in the eastern part of the Asal Rift. In both cases (the 1978 crisis and micro-slip events), the observed geodetic moment released by fault slip exceeds by a few orders of magnitude the total seismic moment released by earthquakes over the same period. Aseismic fault slip is likely to be the faults response to a changing stress field associated with a volcanic process and not due to dry friction on faults. Sustained injection of magma (1978 crisis) and/or crustal fluids (micro-slip events) in dykes and fissures is a plausible mechanism to control fluid pressure in the basal parts of faults and trigger aseismic slip. In this respect, the micro-events observed by InSAR during a 12-year period of low activity in the rift and the 1978 seismo-volcanic episode are of same nature.

  14. Shyok Suture Zone, N Pakistan: late Mesozoic Tertiary evolution of a critical suture separating the oceanic Ladakh Arc from the Asian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Collins, Alan S.

    2002-02-01

    The Shyok Suture Zone (Northern Suture) of North Pakistan is an important Cretaceous-Tertiary suture separating the Asian continent (Karakoram) from the Cretaceous Kohistan-Ladakh oceanic arc to the south. In previously published interpretations, the Shyok Suture Zone marks either the site of subduction of a wide Tethyan ocean, or represents an Early Cretaceous intra-continental marginal basin along the southern margin of Asia. To shed light on alternative hypotheses, a sedimentological, structural and igneous geochemical study was made of a well-exposed traverse in North Pakistan, in the Skardu area (Baltistan). To the south of the Shyok Suture Zone in this area is the Ladakh Arc and its Late Cretaceous, mainly volcanogenic, sedimentary cover (Burje-La Formation). The Shyok Suture Zone extends northwards (ca. 30 km) to the late Tertiary Main Karakoram Thrust that transported Asian, mainly high-grade metamorphic rocks southwards over the suture zone. The Shyok Suture Zone is dominated by four contrasting units separated by thrusts, as follows: (1). The lowermost, Askore amphibolite, is mainly amphibolite facies meta-basites and turbiditic meta-sediments interpreted as early marginal basin rift products, or trapped Tethyan oceanic crust, metamorphosed during later arc rifting. (2). The overlying Pakora Formation is a very thick (ca. 7 km in outcrop) succession of greenschist facies volcaniclastic sandstones, redeposited limestones and subordinate basaltic-andesitic extrusives and flow breccias of at least partly Early Cretaceous age. The Pakora Formation lacks terrigenous continental detritus and is interpreted as a proximal base-of-slope apron related to rifting of the oceanic Ladakh Arc; (3). The Tectonic Melange (ocean ridge-type volcanics and recrystallised radiolarian cherts, interpreted as accreted oceanic crust. (4). The Bauma-Harel Group (structurally highest) is a thick succession (several km) of Ordovician and Carboniferous to Permian-Triassic, low

  15. Petrological Constraints on Melt Generation Beneath the Asal Rift (Djibouti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzuti, P.; Humler, E.; Manighetti, I.; Gaudemer, Y.; Bézos, A.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal evolution of the mantle melting processes in the Asal Rift is evaluated from the chemical composition of 95 lava flows sampled along 10 km of the rift axis and 8 km off-axis (that is for the last 650 ky). The major element composition and the trace element ratios of aphyric basalts across the Asal Rift show a symmetric pattern relative to the rift axis and preserved a clear signal of mantle melting depth variations. FeO, Fe8.0, Sm/YbN and Zr/Y increase, whereas SiO2 and Lu/HfN decrease from the rift axis to the rift shoulders. These variations are qualitatively consistent with a shallower melting beneath the rift axis than off-axis and the data show that the melting regime is inconsistent with a passive upwelling model. In order to quantify the depth range and extent of melting, we invert Na8.0 and Fe8.0 contents of basalts based on a pure active upwelling model. Beneath the rift axis, melting paths are shallow, from 60 to 30 km. These melting paths are consistent with adiabatic melting in normal-temperature asthenosphere, beneath an extensively thinned mantle lithosphere. In contrast, melting on the rift shoulders occurred beneath a thick mantle lithosphere and required mantle solidus temperature 180°C hotter than normal (melting paths from 110 to 75 km). The calculated rate of lithospheric thinning is high (6.0 cm yr-1) and could explain the survival of a metastable garnet within the mantle at depth shallower than 90 km beneath the modern Asal Rift.

  16. The distribution of heavy metals and 137Cs in the central part of the Polish maritime zone (Baltic Sea) - the area selected for wind farm acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Kosakowska, Alicja; Bełdowski, Jacek; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Szubska, Marta; Walkusz-Miotk, Jolanta; Żak, Adam; Ciechanowicz, Agnieszka; Wdowiak, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    Disturbances of the marine sediments that may be induced by offshore wind energy (OWE) construction and functioning may cause reintroduction of contaminants accumulated in the sea bottom over last century. It is thus very important to check in which offshore region of the Polish coast the littlest consequences of the OWE construction may be expected. The area of 9000 km2 in the central part of the Polish economic zone was selected for sediments sampling. In total, sediments from 46 stations were collected by gravity twin corer or geo-vibro corer. Heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn) concentrations were measured by AAS and ICP-MS while 137 Cs activity concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometer. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by 210Pb geochronology at 7 stations to follow the history of contaminants accumulation. Study areas located between isobaths of 20 m and 40 m were characterized by the lowest concentration of heavy metals, often below natural environmental background (e.g. Pb = 6.7 - 11.4 μg·g-1, As = 0.3 - 8.4 μg·g-1). The largest contamination by heavy metals (e.g. Pb reached 86.1 μg·g-1 while As = 21.0 μg·g-1) was visible at the outer part of Bornholm Basin and in Słupsk Furrow, the deepest studied regions. Highest accumulation of heavy metals in this area is connected to large fraction of pelite sediments and large proportion of organic matter at those stations. It may be concluded that shallow sandy sediments of the Southern Baltic are unpolluted and appropriate for OWE construction. Deeper sea regions e.g Słupsk Furrow and Bornholm Basin may be regarded as moderately polluted and therefore not recommended for OWE acquisition.

  17. Three-Dimensional Rheological Structure of North China Craton Determined by Integration of Multiple observations: Controlling Role for Lithospheric Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Shan, B.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) has undergone significant lithospheric rejuvenation in late Mesozoic and Cenozoic, one feature of which is the widespread extension and rifting. The extension is distinct between the two parts of NCC: widespread rifting in the eastern NCC and localized narrow rifting in the west. The mechanism being responsible for this difference is uncertain and highly debated. Since lithospheric deformation can be regarded as the response of lithosphere to various dynamic actions, the rheological properties of lithosphere must have a fundamental influence on its tectonics and deformation behavior. In this study, we investigated the 3D thermal and rheological structure of NCC by developing a model integrating several geophysical observables (such as surface heatflow, regional elevation, gravity and geoid anomalies, and seismic tomography models). The results exhibit obvious lateral variation in rheological structure between the eastern and western NCC. The overall lithospheric strength is higher in the western NCC than in the east. Despite of such difference in rheology, both parts of NCC are characterized by mantle dominated strength regime, which facilitates the development of narrow rifting. Using ancient heatflow derived from mantle xenoliths studies, and taking the subduction-related dehydration reactions during Mesozoic into account, we constructed the thermal and rheological structure of NCC in Ordovician, early Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. Combining the evidence from numerical simulations, we proposed an evolution path of the rifting in NCC. The lithosphere of NCC in Ordovician was characterized by a normal craton features: low geotherm, high strength and mantle dominated regime. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the mantle lithosphere in the eastern NCC was hydrated by fluid released by the suduction of the Pacific plate, resulting in weakening of the lithosphere and a transition from mantle dominated to crust dominated regime, which

  18. Recognized Multiple Rifts of the Neoproterozoic in the Initiation of the Tarim Craton (NW China) and Their Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Jiao, C.; Huang, T.; Zhou, X.; Cai, Z.; Cao, Z.; Jiang, Z.; Cui, J.; Yu, Z.; Chen, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Tarim Basin is the largest, oil-bearing and superimposed basin in the northwest of China. The development and tectonic property of the initial Tarim basin have been acutely disputed and remain enigmatic. Urgently need to reveal the origin and formation dynamics of the Tarim Carton and evaluate the potential of the deep energy resources. However, covered by vast desert and huge-thickness sedimentary strata, suffered by multiple tectonic movements, seismic data with low signal- to- noise ratio in the deep are the critical difficulties. We analyse 4 field outcrops, 18 wells, 27 reprocessed seismic reflection profiles with high SNR across the basin and many ancillary ones and aeromagnetic data. We find about 20 normal fault-controlled rift depressions of the Cryogenian and Ediacaran scattered in the Tarim basin, which developed on the Precambrian metamorphic and crystalline basements and covered by the epeiric sea and basin facies sediments of the Lower Cambrian. The structural styles of the rifts are mainly half grabens, symmetrical troughs and horst-grabens. The regional differences exist obviously in spatial and temporal. The WNW-ESE-trending faults occur in the central part and northern of the basin and the NE, and the NEE-trending faults occur in the southern parts, which response with the anomaly of aeromagnetic. Some main faults of the Ediacaran inherited from the Cryogenian and some occurred newly, the more rifting depressions occurred during the Ediacaran. The extensional NNW-SSE-oriented and NNE-SSW-oriented paleostress field occurred simultaneously during rifting, and accompanied with the clockwise shearing. According to the activities of syn-sedimentary faults, magmatic events and sediments, the tectonic properties of the rifts are different depending on their locations in the Tarim craton. The rifting phases mainly occurred from 780 Ma to 615 Ma. The formation of rifts were associated with the opening of the South Tianshan Ocean and the South Altun

  19. Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaka, Lydia A., E-mail: lydiaolaka@gmail.com [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Wilke, Franziska D.H. [Geoforschungs Zentrum, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Olago, Daniel O.; Odada, Eric O. [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Mulch, Andreas [Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Geowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Musolff, Andreas [UFZ-Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02–75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5 mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F{sup −} concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2–9.2 mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27–75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ{sup 18}O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from − 6.2 to + 5.8‰ and − 31.3 to + 33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750–6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (< 1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F{sup −} enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management

  20. Magmatic dyking and recharge in the Asal Rift, Republic of Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, G.; Harrington, J.; Doubre, C.; Tomic, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Asal Rift, Republic of Djibouti, has been the locus of a major magmatic event in 1978 and seems to have maintained a sustained activity in the three decade following the event. We compare the dyking event of 1978 with the magmatic activity occurring in the rift during the 1997-2008 time period. We use historical air photos and satellite images to quantify the horizontal opening on the major faults activated in 1978. These observations are combined with ground based geodetic data acquired between 1973 and 1979 across the rift to constrain a kinematic model of the 1978 rifting event, including bordering faults and mid-crustal dykes under the Asal Rift and the Ghoubbet Gulf. The model indicates that extension was concentrated between the surface and a depth of 3 km in the crust, resulting in the opening of faults, dykes and fissures between the two main faults, E and gamma, and that the structure located under the Asal Rift, below 3 km, deflated. These results suggest that, during the 1978 event, magmatic fluids transferred from a mid-crustal reservoir to the shallow structures, injecting dykes and filling faults and fissures, and reaching the surface in the Ardoukoba fissural eruption. Surface deformation observed by InSAR during the 1997-2008 decade reveals a slow, yet sustained inflation and extension across the Asal Rift combined with continuous subsidence of the rift inner floor. Modeling shows that these observations cannot be explained by visco-elastic relaxation, a process, which mostly vanishes 20 to 30 years after the 1978 event. However, the InSAR observations over this decade are well explained by a kinematic model in which an inflating body is present at mid-crustal depth, approximately under the Fieale caldera, and shallow faults accommodate both horizontal opening and down-dip slip. The total geometric moment rate, or inflation rate, due to the opening of the mid-crustal structure and the deeper parts of the opening faults is 3 106 m3yr. Such a

  1. Re-investigation of slip rate along the southern part of the Sumatran Fault Zone using SuMo GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, I.; Lubis, A. M.; Sahputra, R.; Hill, E.; Sieh, K.; Feng, L.; Salman, R.; Hananto, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Sumatran Fault Zone (SFZ) accommodates a significant component of the strike-slip motion of oblique convergence along the Sumatra subduction zone. Previous studies have suggested that the slip rates of the SFZ increase from south to north. However, recent work shows that the slip rates may not vary along the SFZ [Bradley et al., 2015]. New data are needed to help confirm these results, and to assess slip-rate variability and fault segmentation in more detail. This information is vital for seismic hazard assessment for the region. We have therefore installed and operated the SuMo (Sumatran Fault Monitoring) network, a dense GPS campaign network focused around the SFZ. From 2013-2015 we selected and installed 32 GPS monuments over the southern part of the SFZ. The network comprises of three transects. The first transect is around the location of the great 1900 earthquake, at the Musi segment. Two transects cover the Manna segment, which saw its last great earthquake in 1893, and the Kumering segment, which saw two great earthquakes in 1933 (M 7.5) and 1994 (M 7.0). We have now conducted three GPS campaign surveys for these stations (3-4 days of measurement for each occupation site), and established 5 semi-permanent cGPS stations in the area. The processed data show that the campaigns sites are still too premature to be used for estimating slip rates, but from the preliminary results for the semi-permanent stations we may see our first signal of deformation. More data from future survey campaigns will help us to estimated revised slip rates. In addition to the science goals for our project, we are this year starting a project called "SuMo Goes to School," which will aim to disseminate information on our science to the schools that house the SuMo GPS stations. The SuMo project also achieves capacity building by training students from Bengkulu University in geodesy and campaign GPS survey techniques.

  2. The effect of tectonic evolution on lacustrine syn-rift sediment patters in Qikou Sag, Bohaiwan Basin, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Wang, H.; Xu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Normal fault arrays and associated relay ramps between two overlapping en-echelon normal faults are well known to control the deposition and distribution of sediments in alluvial, fluvial and deltaic systems in rift settings. The influence of transfer zones or relay ramps on sediment routes and dispersal patterns in subaqueous (deeper marine/lacustrine), however, is barely studied and hence less clear. Previous experimental studies indicate that subaqueous relay ramps may act as sediment transportation pathways if certain conditions are available. In this study, we integrate detailed structural and stratigraphic analysis with three-dimensional seismic data and limited well log data from the Qikou Sag to examine the tectonic evolution and the syn-rift sediment patterns response to fault growth and linkage in an active rift setting. Qikou Sag is located at the center of Huanghua Depression, Bohaiwan Basin of eastern China. Structurally, it is a typical continental rift basin characterized by a linked system of two NEE-SWW-striking half-grabens and one E-W-striking graben. Qikou sag is filled with Eocene-Oligocene syn-rift sediments and Miocene to Quaternary post-rift sediments. The Eocene-Oligocene rifting stage can be divided into early rifting period (43-36.5 Ma, the third member and second member of Shahejie Formation, Es3 and Es2), stable rifting period (36.5-29Ma, the first member of Shaehejie Formation, Es1) and fault-depressed diversionary period (29-24.6Ma, the Dongying Formation, Ed). This study focus on the early syn-rift, the third and second member of Shehejie Formation, which is mostly dark-grey mudstone interbedded with fine to coarse-grained sandstone deposited by large-scale turbidity currents in deep-lake. In particular, we use a combination of thickness variability and facies distributions, onlap patterns within a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, integrated with structural geometry, fault activity and subsidence history analysis to

  3. Compressional reactivation of hyperextended domains on a rifted margin: a requirement for a reappraisal of traditional restoration procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas Martínez, P.; Fernandez Viejo, G.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The North Iberian margin is an inverted hyperextended rifted margin that preserves the initial stages of compressional reactivation. Rift inheritance conditioned in a determinant way the contractional reactivation. The underthrusting of the hyperextended distal domains beneath the platform and the formation of an accretionary wedge at the toe of the slope focused most of the compression. The underthrusting gave place to the formation of a crustal root and the uplifting of the Cantabrian Mountains onshore. Meanwhile, the main rift basins within the continental platform were slightly inverted. Plate kinematic reconstructions and palinspatic restorations have provided different shortening values. Thereby, the amount of shortening linked with the Cenozoic compression is still unclear and a matter of debate on this area.In this work, we present a full cross-section at the central part of the North Iberian margin developed from the restoration of a high quality depth migrated seismic profile running from the continental platform to the Biscay abyssal plain. A shortening calculation gives an estimate of about 1 km within the Asturian Basin, in the continental platform, while in the accretionary wedge at the bottom of the slope, shortening values ranges between 12 km and 15 km. The limited values estimated within the Asturian Basin support the mild inversion observed within this basin, which preserves most of the extensional imprint. Within the abyssal plain, shortening values differ from previous estimations and cannot account for a high amount of compression in the upper crust. Deformation of the hyperextended crust and the exhumed mantle domains inherited from the rifting processes would have accommodated most of the compression. Restoration of these domains seems to be the key to decipher the structure and the tectonic evolution of the reactivated rifted margin but cannot be solved accurately using traditional restoration methods. This leads to a reappraisal of the

  4. RESULTS OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE UNDERGROUND HYDROSPHERE WITHIN THE WESTERN SHOULDER OF THE BAIKAL RIFT (AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE BAYANDAI – KRESTOVSKY CAPE SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Zh. Seminsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of comprehensive studies is the underground hydrosphere of the upper crust of the western shoulder of the Baikal rift, being characterized by high tectonic activity in the recent stage of tectogenesis. The studies were focused on the Bayandai – Krestovsky Cape site, considering it as a benchmark for the territory of the Western Pribiakalie (Fig. 1. The available hydrogeological survey database is used to study underground waters circulating at depth of several kilometers. Analyses of deeper waters are conducted on the basis of geophysical data. According to results of initial geological and geophysical studies [Семинский и др., 2010], the crust at the junction of the Siberian crater and the SayanBaikal folded belt is characterized by a hierarchic zoneblock structure (Fig. 2. Regardless of the scale of studies, the territory under study can be divided into sections of two types, that alternate from NW to SE and represent wide highly destructed zones and relatively monolithic blocks of the crust. The Obruchev fault system is distinguished as the main interblock zone (the 2nd hierarchic level in the study area. It represents the 50 km long NW shoulder of the Baikal rift (the1st hierarchic level and includes the Morskaya, Primorskaya and Prikhrebtovaya interplate zones (the 3rd hierarchic level. These zones are traced from depth of dozens of kilometers; at the surface, they are represented by fault structures of the highest hierarchic levels.Specific features of the current zoneblock divisibility of the crust serve as the structural basis for interpreting the materials obtained by hydrogeological studies conducted on the Bayandai – Krestovsky Cape site to research the distribution, mineralization and macrocomponent compositions of waters which represent the subsurface part of the underground lithosphere in the study area. The research is based on analyses of the underground water samples from 46 observation points

  5. Rock magnetic characterization of faulted sediments with associated magnetic anomalies in the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in rock magnetic properties are responsible for the many linear, short-wavelength, low-amplitude magnetic anomalies that are spatially associated with faults that cut Neogene basin sediments in the Rio Grande rift, including the San Ysidro normal fault, which is well exposed in the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin. Magnetic-susceptibility measurements from 310 sites distributed through a 1200-m-thick composite section of rift-filling sediments of the Santa Fe Group and prerift Eocene and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks document large variations of magnetic properties juxtaposed by the San Ysidro fault. Mean volume magnetic susceptibilities generally increase upsection through eight map units: from 1.7 to 2.2E-4 in the prerift Eocene and Cretaceous rocks to 9.9E-4-1.2E-3 in three members of the Miocene Zia Formation of the Santa Fe Group to 1.5E-3-3.5E-3 in three members of the Miocene-Pleistocene Arroyo Ojito Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Rock magnetic measurements and petrography indicate that the amount of detrital magnetite and its variable oxidation to maghemite and hematite within the Santa Fe Group sediments are the predominant controls of their magnetic property variations. Magnetic susceptibility increases progressively with sediment grain size within the members of the Arroyo Ojito Formation (deposited in fluvial environments) but within members of the Zia Formation (deposited in mostly eolian environments) reaches highest values in fine to medium sands. Partial oxidation of detrital magnetite is spatially associated with calcite cementation in the Santa Fe Group. Both oxidation and cementation probably reflect past flow of groundwater through permeable zones. Magnetic models for geologic cross sections that incorporate mean magnetic susceptibilities for the different stratigraphic units mimic the aeromagnetic profiles across the San Ysidro fault and demonstrate that the stratigraphic level of dominant magnetic contrast changes with

  6. Morpho-structural evolution of a volcanic island developed inside an active oceanic rift: S. Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Weiss, B.; Boulesteix, T.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of volcanic islands is generally marked by fast construction phases alternating with destruction by a variety of mass-wasting processes. More specifically, volcanic islands located in areas of intense regional deformation can be particularly prone to gravitational destabilisation. The island of S. Miguel (Azores) has developed during the last 1 Myr inside the active Terceira Rift, a major tectonic structure materializing the present boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian lithospheric plates. In this work, we depict the evolution of the island, based on high-resolution DEM data, stratigraphic and structural analyses, high-precision K-Ar dating on separated mineral phases, and offshore data (bathymetry and seismic profiles). The new results indicate that: (1) the oldest volcanic complex (Nordeste), composing the easternmost part of the island, was dominantly active between ca. 850 and 750 ka, and was subsequently affected by a major south-directed flank collapse. (2) Between at least 500 ka and 250 ka, the landslide depression was massively filled by a thick lava succession erupted from volcanic cones and domes distributed along the main E-W collapse scar. (3) Since 250 kyr, the western part of this succession (Furnas area) was affected by multiple vertical collapses; associated plinian eruptions produced large pyroclastic deposits, here dated at ca. 60 ka and less than 25 ka. (4) During the same period, the eastern part of the landslide scar was enlarged by retrogressive erosion, producing the large Povoação valley, which was gradually filled by sediments and young volcanic products. (5) The Fogo volcano, in the middle of S. Miguel, is here dated between ca. 270 and 17 ka, and was affected by, at least, one southwards flank collapse. (6) The Sete Cidades volcano, in the western end of the island, is here dated between ca. 91 and 13 ka, and experienced mutliple caldera collapses; a landslide to the North is also suspected from the presence of a

  7. Relations between tectonics and sedimentation along the Eastern Sardinian margin (Western Tyrrhenian Sea) : from rifting to reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Chanier, Frank; Vendeville, Bruno; Lymer, Gaël; Maillard, Agnès; Thinon, Isabelle; Lofi, Johanna; Sage, Françoise; Giresse, Pierre; Bassetti, Maria-Angela

    2014-05-01

    The offshore-onshore project "METYSS-METYSAR" aims at better understand the Miocene-Pliocene relationships between crustal tectonics, salt tectonics, and sedimentation along the Eastern Sardinian margin, Western Tyrrhenian Sea. In this key-area, the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin underwent recent rifting (9-5 Ma), pro parte coeval with the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.96-5.33 Ma), sea-floor spreading starting during Pliocene times. Thereby, the Tyrrhenian basin and the Eastern Sardinian margin are excellent candidates for studying the mechanisms of extreme lithospheric stretching and thinning, the role of pre-existing structural fabric during and after rifting, and the reactivation of a passive margin and the associated deformation and sedimentation patterns during the MSC. We looked at the respective contributions of crustal and salt tectonics in quantifying vertical and horizontal movements, using especially the seismic markers of the MSC. Overall, we delineate the history of rifting and tectonic reactivation in the area. The distribution maps respectively of the Messinian Erosion Surface and of Messinian units (Upper Unit and Mobile Unit) show that a rifted basin already existed by Messinian time. This reveals a major pre-MSC rifting across the entire domain. Because salt tectonics can create fan-shaped geometries in sediments, syn-rift deposits have to be carefully re-examined in order to decipher the effects of crustal tectonics (rifting) and thin-skinned salt tectonics. Our data surprisingly show that there are no clues for Messinian syn-rift sediments along the East-Sardinia Basin and Cornaglia Terrace, hence no evidence for rifting after Late Tortonian times. Nevertheless, widespread deformation occurred during the Pliocene and can only be attributed to post-rift reactivation. This reactivation is characterized not only by normal faulting but also by contractional structures. Some Pliocene vertical movements caused localized gravity gliding of the mobile

  8. Is the Gop rift oceanic? A reevaluation of the Seychelles-India conjugate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huixin; Werner, Philippe; Geoffroy, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Gop Rift axis. We propose that the conspicuous buoyant central part of the Gop Rift is likely associated with a continental C-Block as described in a recent paper on conjugated VPMs8, at least in the southern part of the Gop Rift. The crust below the Laxmi basin is probably transitional continental i.e. strongly intruded. West of India and west of the Laxmi Ridge, the transition to the Carlsberg Basin occurs along a clearly-expressed transform fault, not through an extended and thinned continental margin. We reinterpret the whole system based on those observations and propositions, giving some explanations on controversial magnetic anomalies based on similar observations from the southern Atlantic Ocean. 1: Collier et al., 2008. Age of the Seychelles-India break-up. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2: Minshull et al., 2008. The relationship between riftingand magmatism in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Nature Geoscience. 3 : Armitage et al., 2010. The importance of rift history for volcanic margin. Nature. 4 : Krishna et al., 2006. Nature of the crust in the Laxmi Basin (14 degrees-20 degrees N), western continental margin of India. Tectonics. 5 : Misra et al., 2015. Repeat ridge jumps and microcontinent separation: insights from NE Arabian Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 6 : Biswas, 1982. Rift basins in the western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects. Bull. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. 7 : Chatterjee et al., 2013. The longest voyage: Tectonic, magmatic, and paleoclimatic evolution of the Indian plate during its northward flight from Gondwana to Asia. Gondwana Research. 8 : Geoffroy et al., 2015. Volcanic passive margins: anotherway to break up continents. Scientific Reports.

  9. Metallogenic condition and regularity of inter layered oxidation zone-type sandstone uranium deposit in southwestern part of Turpan-Hami basin, Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Weidong; Chen Zhaobo; Chen Zuyi; Yin Jinshuang

    2001-01-01

    Regional geological surveying and drilling evaluation in recent years show that there are very large potential resources of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the southwestern part of Turpan-Hami basin. According to the characteristics of tectonic evolution and sedimentary cover of the basin, the evolution stages and types of the basin are divided, and the favorable development stages for the ore-bearing formation and the formation of uranium deposits in the evolution process are identified. The metallogenic conditions of uranium deposits are deeply discussed from four aspects: basic tectonics, paleoclimate evolution, hydrogeology and uranium source of the region. All these have laid an important foundation for accurate prediction and evaluation of uranium resources in this region. The research indicates that the uranium metallogeny is a process of long-term, multi-stage and pulsation. The authors try to ascertain the role of organic matter in concentrating uranium. The organic matter is of humic type in sandstone host-rock in the studied area, whose original mother material mainly belongs to terrestrial high plant. The maturity of the organic matter is very low, being in low-grade stage of thermal evolution. Correlation analysis and separation experiments show that uranium concentration is closely related with the organic matter, and the organic matter in uranium ore is mainly in the form of humic acid adsorption and humate. For this reason the total organic carbon content is often increased in the geochemical redox zone in epigenetic sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is suggested that the north of China is of great potential for sandstone-type uranium resources

  10. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  11. The rifted margin of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, J. S.; Orcutt, J. A.

    The structure of rifted continental margins has always been of great scientific interest, and now, with dwindling economic oil deposits, these complex geological features assume practical importance as well. The ocean-continent transition is, by definition, laterally heterogeneous and likely to be extremely complicated. The southernmost shotpoints (4, 5, and 6) in the U.S. Geological Survey seismic refraction profile in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia lie within a transition region and thus provide a testing ground for methods that treat wave propagation in laterally heterogeneous media. This portion of the profile runs from the Farasan Islands in the Red Sea across the coast line and the Hijaz-Asir escarpment into the Hijaz-Asir tectonic province. Because the southernmost shotpoint is within the margin of the Saudi sub-continent, the full transition region is not sampled. Furthermore, such an experiment is precluded by the narrowness of the purely oceanic portion of the Red Sea.

  12. Hydrothermal Petroleum in Active Continental Rift: Lake Chapala, Western Mexico, Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-del Valle, P. F.; Simoneit, B. R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, H. U.

    2003-12-01

    Lake Chapala in western Mexico is located partially in the Citala Rift, which belongs to the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The region is characterized by active volcanism (Ceboruco, Volcan de Fuego), tectonic (1995 earthquake, M=8, 40-50 mm to SW) and hydrothermal (San Juan Cosala & Villa Corona spas and La Calera sinter deposit) activities. Hydrothermal petroleum has been described in active continental rift (East African Rift) and marine spreading zones (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California). In 1868 the Mexican local press reported that manifestations of bitumen were appearing in front of the Columba Cap on the mid south shore of Lake Chapala. This bitumen is linked to the lake bottom and when the water level decreases sufficiently it is possible to access these tar bodies as islands. Because of these manifestations the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) drilled an exploration well (2,348m) at Tizapan El Alto without success. Hydrothermal activity is evident in the tar island zone as three in-shore thermal springs (26.8 m depth, 48.5° C, pH 7.8 and oriented N-S). The preliminary analyses by GC-MS of the tar from these islands indicate hydrothermal petroleum derived from lake sedimentary organic matter, generated at low temperatures (150° -200° C). The tars contain no n-alkanes, no PAH or other aromatics, but a major UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons and mature biomarkers derived from lacustrine biota. The biomarkers consist of mainly 17α (H),21β (H)-hopanes ranging from C27 to C34 (no C28), gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes (C20-C26), carotane and its cracking products, and drimanes (C14-C16). The biomarker composition indicates an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. 14C dating of samples from two tar islands yielded ages exceeding 40 kyrs, i.e., old carbon from hydrothermal/tectonic remobilization of bitumen from deeper horizons to the surface. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in

  13. Lithospheric discontinuities beneath the U.S. Midcontinent - signatures of Proterozoic terrane accretion and failed rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gilbert, Hersh; Fischer, Karen M.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Pavlis, Gary L.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Marshak, Stephen; Larson, Timothy; Yang, Xiaotao

    2018-01-01

    Seismic discontinuities between the Moho and the inferred lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are known as mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLDs) and have been ascribed to a variety of phenomena that are critical to understanding lithospheric growth and evolution. In this study, we used S-to-P converted waves recorded by the USArray Transportable Array and the OIINK (Ozarks-Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky) Flexible Array to investigate lithospheric structure beneath the central U.S. This region, a portion of North America's cratonic platform, provides an opportunity to explore how terrane accretion, cratonization, and subsequent rifting may have influenced lithospheric structure. The 3D common conversion point (CCP) volume produced by stacking back-projected Sp receiver functions reveals a general absence of negative converted phases at the depths of the LAB across much of the central U.S. This observation suggests a gradual velocity decrease between the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, the CCP stacks display negative arrivals at depths between 65 km and 125 km. We interpret these as MLDs resulting from the top of a layer of crystallized melts (sill-like igneous intrusions) or otherwise chemically modified lithosphere that is enriched in water and/or hydrous minerals. Chemical modification in this manner would cause a weak layer in the lithosphere that marks the MLDs. The depth and amplitude of negative MLD phases vary significantly both within and between the physiographic provinces of the midcontinent. Double, or overlapping, MLDs can be seen along Precambrian terrane boundaries and appear to result from stacked or imbricated lithospheric blocks. A prominent negative Sp phase can be clearly identified at 80 km depth within the Reelfoot Rift. This arrival aligns with the top of a zone of low shear-wave velocities, which suggests that it marks an unusually shallow seismic LAB for the midcontinent. This boundary would correspond to the top of a

  14. Graben formation during the Bárðarbunga rifting event in central Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    On the 16th of August 2014, an intense seismic swarm was detected at the Bárðarbunga caldera (central Iceland), which migrated to the east and then to the northeast during the following days. The swarm, highlighting magma propagation pathway from the caldera, migrated laterally during the following two weeks over 40 km. By the end of August, a volcanic eruption had started along a north-south oriented fissure located ~45 km from the caldera. Here we focus on the near-field deformation related to the dike emplacement in the shallow crust, which generated in few days an 8 km long by 0.8 km wide graben (depression) structure. The new graben extends from the northern edge of the Vatnajökull glacier and to the north to the eruptive fissure. We analyze the temporal evolution of the graben by integrating structural mapping using multiple acquisitions of TerraSAR-X amplitude radar images, InSAR and ground-truth data with GPS and structural measurements. Pixel-offset tracking of radar amplitude images shows clearly the graben subsidence, directly above the intrusion pathway, of up to 6 meters in the satellite line-of-sight direction. We installed a GPS profile of 15 points across the graben in October 2014 and measured its depth up to 8 meters, relative to the flanks of the graben. Field structural observations show graben collapse structures that typically accompany dike intrusions, with two tilted blocks dipping toward the graben axis, bordered by two normal faults. Extensive fractures at the center of the graben and at the graben edges show a cumulative extension of ~8 meters. The formation of the graben was also accompanied by strong seismic activity locally, constraining the time frame period of the main graben formation subsidence. Our results show a rare case of a graben formation captured from space and from ground observations. Such structures are the dominant features along rift zones, however, their formation remain poorly understood. The results also provide

  15. Comparison of the rift and post-rift architecture of conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a regional comparison between selected 2D seismic transects from large, conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore southern Brazil (Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Kwanza Basin, northern and southern Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin). Tectonic-stratigraphic interpretation of the main rift and post-rift units, free-air gravity data and flexural isostatic backstripping were used for a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key mechanisms controlling the present-day differences in conjugated and neighbouring South Atlantic basins. A significant variation in the tectonic-sedimentary architecture along-strike at each margin and between the conjugated basins across the South Atlantic reflects major differences in (1) the structural configuration of each margin segment at transitional phase between rifting and breakup, as emphasized in the highly asymmetric settings of the large Santos salt basin and the conjugated, salt-free southern Namibe Basin, (2) the post-breakup subsidence and uplift history of the respective margin segment, which caused major differences for example between the Campos and Espirito Santo basins and the conjugated northern Namibe and Kwanza basins, (3) variations in the quantity and distribution of post-breakup margin sediments, which led to major differences in the subsidence history and the related present-day basin architecture, for example in the initially rather symmetric, siliciclastic Pelotas and Walvis basins, and (4) the deposition of Aptian evaporites in the large rift and sag basin provinces north of the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, highly contrasting the siliciclastic basins along the margin segments south of the ridges. The resulting present-day architecture of the basins can be generally classified as (i) moderately symmetric, salt-free, and magma-rich in the northern part of the southern segment, (i) highly asymmetric, salt-bearing and magma-poor vs. salt-free and magma

  16. Along strike behavior of the Tizi n' Firest fault during the Lower Jurassic rifting (Central High Atlas Carbonate basin, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarih, S.; Quiquerez, A.; Allemand, P.; Garcia, J. P.; El Hariri, K.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the along-strike early syn-rift history of the Lower Jurassic Carbonate basin of the Central High Atlas (Morocco) by combining sedimentological observations and high-resolution biostratigraphy. Six sections, each from the Sinemurian to the Upper Pliensbachian, were investigated along a 75 km-long transect at the hanging wall of a major fault of the Lower Jurassic Basin (i.e. the Tizi n' Firest fault). Depositional geometries of the early syn-rift deposits were reconstructed from the correlation between eight main timelines dated by biochronological markers for a time span covering about 6 Ma. Depocentre migration was examined and accommodation rates were calculated at the sub-zone timescale to discuss the along-strike-fault behavior of the Lower Jurassic basin formation. The early stages of extension are marked by contrasted along-strike variations in depositional geometry thickness, depocentre migration and accommodation rates, leading to the growth of three independent sub-basins (i.e. western, central, and eastern), ranging in size from 30 to 50 km, and displaying three contrasted tectono-sedimentary histories. Our results suggest that, during the early rifting phase, tectonic activity was not a continuous and progressive process evolving towards a rift climax stage, but rather a series of acceleration periods that alternated with periods of much reduced activity. The length of active fault segments is estimated at about 15-20 km, with a lifespan of a few ammonite sub-zones (> 2-3 Ma).

  17. Along-Axis Structure and Crustal Construction Processes of Spreading Segments in Iceland: Implications for Magmatic Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, D. L.; Karson, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Magmatic rift systems are composed of discrete spreading segments defined by morphologic, structural, and volcanic features that vary systematically along strike. In Iceland, structural features mapped in the glaciated and exhumed Miocene age upper crust correlate with analogous features in the seismically and volcanically active neovolcanic zone. Integrating information from both the active rift zones and ancient crust provides a three-dimensional perspective of crustal structure and the volcanic and tectonic processes that construct crust along spreading segments. Crustal exposures in the Skagi region of northern Iceland reveal significant along-strike variations in geologic structure. The upper crust at exhumed magmatic centers (segment centers) is characterized by a variety of intrusive rocks, high-temperature hydrothermal alteration, and geologic evidence for kilometer-scale subsidence. In contrast, the upper crust along segment limbs, which extend along strike from magmatic centers, is characterized by thick sections of gently dipping lava flows, cut by varying proportions of subvertical dikes. This structure implies relatively minor upper crustal subsidence and lateral dike intrusion. The differing modes of subsidence beneath segment centers and segment limbs require along-axis mass redistribution in the underlying upper, middle, and lower crust during crustal construction. This along-axis material transport is accomplished through lateral dike intrusion in the upper crust and by along-axis flow of magmatic to high-temperature solid-state gabbroic material in the middle and lower crust. These processes, inferred from outcrop evidence in Skagi, are consistent with processes inferred to be important during active rifting in Iceland and at analogous magmatic oceanic and continental rifts.

  18. Is the Okavango Delta the terminus of the East African Rift System? Towards a new geodynamic model: Geodetic study and geophysical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastier, Anne-Morwenn; Dauteuil, Olivier; Murray-Hudson, Michael; Moreau, Frédérique; Walpersdorf, Andrea; Makati, Kaelo

    2017-08-01

    The Okavango Graben (OG) has been considered as the terminus of the southwestern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) since the 1970s based on fault morphology and early seismic and geophysical data. Thus it has been assumed to be an incipient rifting zone, analogous to the early stage of mature rifts in the EARS. Recent geodetic data and geophysical studies in the area bring new insights into the local crust and lithosphere, mantle activity and fault activity. In this study, we computed the velocities for three permanent GPS stations surrounding the graben and undertook a review of the new geophysical data available for the area. The northern and southern blocks of the graben show an exclusively low strike-slip displacement rate of about 1mm/year, revealing the transtensional nature of this basin. The seismic record of central and southern Africa was found to be instrumentally biased for the events recorded before 2004 and the OG may not represent the most seismically active area in Botswana anymore. Moreover, no significant lithosphere and crustal thinning is found in the tectonic structure nor any strong negative Bouguer anomaly and surface heat flux. Thus the OG does not match the classical model for a rifting zone. We propose a new geodynamic model for the deformation observed west of the EARS based on accommodation of far-field deformation due to the differential extension rates of the EARS and the displacement of the Kalahari craton relative to the Nubian plate.

  19. Intense CH{sub 4} plumes generated by serpentinization of ultramafic rocks at the intersection of the 15{degree}20[minutes]N fracture zone and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlou, J.L.; Fouquet, Y.; Bougault, H.; Donval, J.P.; Etoubleau, J. [IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France). Dept. Geosciences Marines; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Dapoigny, A. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Appriou, P. [Univ. de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Rona, P.A. [Rutgers-the State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    As part of the FARA French-US Program designed to study the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between 15{degree}N and the Azores, twenty-three dives with the submersible Nautile were conducted during the French-US Faranaut 15N cruise on the eastern and western parts of the Fracture Zone/Ridge axis intersection. South of the eastern ridge-transform fault intersection, nine Nautile dives were made within the rift valley and along the western rift valley wall. CH{sub 4} concentrations in the bottom waters reach 53.2 nmol/kg along faulted zones on top and on the east flank of the ultramafic inner corner high where serpentinized rocks outcrop. No {sup 3}He anomaly is associated with methane, ruling out any primary mantle component. High CH{sub 4} anomalies (up to 22 nmol/kg) are also present in the bottom waters of the rift valley northern segment on both the western and eastern valley walls and on the inner high adjacent to the eastern wall where ultramafic rocks outcrop. Seven vertical hydrocasts carried out in the axial valley (4500 M deep) show an intense CH{sub 4} anomaly, with a maximum (35.8 nmol/kg) at 3200 m depth. CH{sub 4} concentrations of 9.9--14.9 nmol/kg are also present on the western wall along the 3200 m isobath. CH{sub 4} output from ultramafic outcrops on the western and eastern intersections of the Fracture Zone with the MAR is believed to reflect ongoing serpentinization.

  20. Artificial Synthesis of Conserved Segment S Gene Fragment of Rift ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fragment of Rift Valley Fever Virus and Preliminary Study of Its Reverse ... blindness, encephalitis, hemorrhagic hepatitis, and, in serious ... over 30 mosquito species [5] of mosquito. As ..... RVFV, as a mosquito-borne virus for a multitude.

  1. Gravity anomalies, crustal structure and rift tectonics at the Konkan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trolled by the mode of extension and thinning of continental ... facilitates to evaluate the mechanism of rifting, thermal as ..... estimated as the median depth between the back- stripped .... and gravity modeling with an application to the Gulf of.

  2. SALT LAKES OF THE AFRICAN RIFT SYSTEM: A VALUABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    rift lake locations fitting the description. “endorheic” (closed) ... updating, as well as harness the scholarship ... Ionic concentrations are location and season .... Progress and effects of weathering of Lake Natron Basin rock formations; a hill in.

  3. Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. ..... Krockel, U., Rose, A., Eiras, A.E. & Geier, M. (2006) New tools for surveillance of adult yellow fever ... baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in ...

  4. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... USCG-2009-1081 New Orleans, LA Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 12/23/2009 USCG-2009-1084 Rio Vista, CA...-1096 Port Portland Zone......... Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 7/3/2010 USCG-2009-0040 La Push, WA Safety...-0950 Madisonville, LA Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 12/31/2009 USCG-2009-0951 Lower Mississippi River...

  5. Controls of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity on rift linkage: Numerical and analog models of interaction between the Kenyan and Ethiopian rifts across the Turkana depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Corti, Giacomo; Ranalli, Giorgio

    2017-09-01

    Inherited rheological structures in the lithosphere are expected to have large impact on the architecture of continental rifts. The Turkana depression in the East African Rift connects the Main Ethiopian Rift to the north with the Kenya rift in the south. This region is characterized by a NW-SE trending band of thinned crust inherited from a Mesozoic rifting event, which is cutting the present-day N-S rift trend at high angle. In striking contrast to the narrow rifts in Ethiopia and Kenya, extension in the Turkana region is accommodated in subparallel deformation domains that are laterally distributed over several hundred kilometers. We present both analog experiments and numerical models that reproduce the along-axis transition from narrow rifting in Ethiopia and Kenya to a distributed deformation within the Turkana depression. Similarly to natural observations, our models show that the Ethiopian and Kenyan rifts bend away from each other within the Turkana region, thus forming a right-lateral step over and avoiding a direct link to form a continuous N-S depression. The models reveal five potential types of rift linkage across the preexisting basin: three types where rifts bend away from the inherited structure connecting via a (1) wide or (2) narrow rift or by (3) forming a rotating microplate, (4) a type where rifts bend towards it, and (5) straight rift linkage. The fact that linkage type 1 is realized in the Turkana region provides new insights on the rheological configuration of the Mesozoic rift system at the onset of the recent rift episode.

  6. Geology of quadrangles H-12, H-13, and parts of I-12 and I-13, (zone III) in northeastern Santander Department, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Jaime B.; Restrepo, Hernan A.

    1974-01-01

    A program of geologic mapping and mineral investigation in Colombia was undertaken cooperatively by the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (formerly known as the Inventario Minero Nacional), and the U. S. Geological Survey; by the Government of Colombia and the Agency for International Development, U. S. Department of State. The purpose was to study, and evaluate mineral resources (excluding of petroleum, coal, emeralds, and alluvial gold) of four selected areas, designated Zones I to IV, that total about 70,000 km2. The work in Zone III, in the Cordillera Oriental, was done from 1965 to 1968. The northeast trend of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia swings abruptly to north-northwest in the area of this report, and divides around the southern end of the Maracaibo Basin. This section of the Cordillera Oriental is referred to as the Santander Massif. Radiometric age determinations indicate that the oldest rocks of the Santander massif are Precambrian and include high-grade gneiss, schist, and migmatite of the Bucaramanga Formation. These rocks were probably part of the Precambrian Guayana Shield. Low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks of late Precambrian to Ordovician age .include phyllite, schist, metasiltstone, metasandstone, and marble of the Silgara Formation, a geosynclinal series of considerable extent in the Cordillera Oriental and possibly the Cordillera de Merida of Venezuela. Orthogneiss ranging from granite to tonalite is widely distributed in the high- and medium-grade metamorphic rocks of the central core of the massif and probably represents rocks of two ages, Precambrian and Ordovician to Early Devonian. Younger orthogneiss and the Silgara are overlain by Middle Devonian beds of the Floresta Formation which show a generally low but varying degree of metamorphism. Phyllite and argillite are common, and infrequent marble and other calcareous beds are fossiliferous. Except for recrystallization in limestones of !the

  7. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  8. Magma-maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tim J; Ebinger, Cindy; Biggs, Juliet; Ayele, Atalay; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Keir, Derek; Stork, Anna

    2006-07-20

    Seafloor spreading centres show a regular along-axis segmentation thought to be produced by a segmented magma supply in the passively upwelling mantle. On the other hand, continental rifts are segmented by large offset normal faults, and many lack magmatism. It is unclear how, when and where the ubiquitous segmented melt zones are emplaced during the continental rupture process. Between 14 September and 4 October 2005, 163 earthquakes (magnitudes greater than 3.9) and a volcanic eruption occurred within the approximately 60-km-long Dabbahu magmatic segment of the Afar rift, a nascent seafloor spreading centre in stretched continental lithosphere. Here we present a three-dimensional deformation field for the Dabbahu rifting episode derived from satellite radar data, which shows that the entire segment ruptured, making it the largest to have occurred on land in the era of satellite geodesy. Simple elastic modelling shows that the magmatic segment opened by up to 8 m, yet seismic rupture can account for only 8 per cent of the observed deformation. Magma was injected along a dyke between depths of 2 and 9 km, corresponding to a total intrusion volume of approximately 2.5 km3. Much of the magma appears to have originated from shallow chambers beneath Dabbahu and Gabho volcanoes at the northern end of the segment, where an explosive fissural eruption occurred on 26 September 2005. Although comparable in magnitude to the ten year (1975-84) Krafla events in Iceland, seismic data suggest that most of the Dabbahu dyke intrusion occurred in less than a week. Thus, magma intrusion via dyking, rather than segmented normal faulting, maintains and probably initiated the along-axis segmentation along this sector of the Nubia-Arabia plate boundary.

  9. Rotation, narrowing and preferential reactivation of brittle structures during oblique rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huismans, R. S.; Duclaux, G.; May, D.

    2017-12-01

    Occurrence of multiple faults populations with contrasting orientations in oblique continental rifts and passive margins has long sparked debate about relative timing of deformation events and tectonic interpretations. Here, we use high-resolution three-dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical modeling to characterize the evolution of the structural style associated with moderately oblique rifting in the continental lithosphere. Automatic analysis of the distribution of active extensional shears at the surface of the model demonstrates a characteristic deformation sequence. We show that upon localization, Phase 1 wide oblique en-échelon grabens develop, limited by extensional shears oriented orthogonal to σ3. Subsequent widening of the grabens is accompanied by a progressive rotation of the Phase 1 extensional shears that become sub-orthogonal the plate motion direction. Phase 2 is marked by narrowing of active deformation resulting from thinning of the continental lithosphere and development of a second-generation of extensional shears. During Phase 2 deformation localizes both on plate motion direction-orthogonal structures that reactivate rotated Phase 1 shears, and on new oblique structures orthogonal to σ3. Finally, Phase 3 consists in the oblique rupture of the continental lithosphere and produces an oceanic domain where oblique ridge segments are linked with highly oblique accommodation zones. We conclude that while new structures form normal to σ3 in an oblique rift, progressive rotation and long-term reactivation of Phase 1 structures promotes orthorhombic fault systems, critical to accommodate upper crustal extension and control oblique passive margin architecture. The distribution, orientation, and evolution of frictional-plastic structures observed in our models is remarkably similar to documented fault populations in the Gulf of Aden conjugate passive margins, which developed in moderately oblique extensional settings.

  10. Pre-existing oblique transfer zones and transfer/transform relationships in continental margins: New insights from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Leroy, S.; Autin, J.; Razin, P.; d'Acremont, E.; Sloan, H.; Pik, R.; Ahmed, A.; Khanbari, K.

    2013-11-01

    Transfer zones are ubiquitous features in continental rifts and margins, as are transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present a structural study of the Hadibo Transfer Zone (HTZ), located in Socotra Island (Yemen) in the southeastern Gulf of Aden. There, we interpret this continental transfer fault zone to represent a reactivated pre-existing structure. Its trend is oblique to the direction of divergence and it has been active from the early up to the latest stages of rifting. One of the main oceanic fracture zones (FZ), the Hadibo-Sharbithat FZ, is aligned with and appears to be an extension of the HTZ and is probably genetically linked to it. Comparing this setting with observations from other Afro-Arabian rifts as well as with passive margins worldwide, it appears that many continental transfer zones are reactivated pre-existing structures, oblique to divergence. We therefore establish a classification system for oceanic FZ based upon their relationship with syn-rift structures. Type 1 FZ form at syn-rift structures and are late syn-rift to early syn-OCT. Type 2 FZ form during the OCT formation and Type 3 FZ form within the oceanic domain, after the oceanic spreading onset. The latter are controlled by far-field forces, magmatic processes, spreading rates, and oceanic crust rheology.

  11. The evolution of magma during continental rifting: New constraints from the isotopic and trace element signatures of silicic magmas from Ethiopian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Boyce, Adrian J.; Gleeson, Matthew L. M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Blundy, Jon D.; Ferguson, David J.; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Millar, Ian L.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Finch, Adrian A.

    2018-05-01

    Magma plays a vital role in the break-up of continental lithosphere. However, significant uncertainty remains about how magma-crust interactions and melt evolution vary during the development of a rift system. Ethiopia captures the transition from continental rifting to incipient sea-floor spreading and has witnessed the eruption of large volumes of silicic volcanic rocks across the region over ∼45 Ma. The petrogenesis of these silicic rocks sheds light on the role of magmatism in rift development, by providing information on crustal interactions, melt fluxes and magmatic differentiation. We report new trace element and Sr-Nd-O isotopic data for volcanic rocks, glasses and minerals along and across active segments of the Main Ethiopian (MER) and Afar Rifts. Most δ18 O data for mineral and glass separates from these active rift zones fall within the bounds of modelled fractional crystallization trajectories from basaltic parent magmas (i.e., 5.5-6.5‰) with scant evidence for assimilation of Pan-African Precambrian crustal material (δ18 O of 7-18‰). Radiogenic isotopes (εNd = 0.92- 6.52; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7037-0.7072) and incompatible trace element ratios (Rb/Nb productivity or where crustal structure inhibits magma ascent). This has important implications for understanding the geotectonic settings that promote extreme melt evolution and, potentially, genesis of economically-valuable mineral deposits in ancient rift-settings. The limited isotopic evidence for assimilation of Pan-African crustal material in Ethiopia suggests that the pre-rift crust beneath the magmatic segments has been substantially modified by rift-related magmatism over the past ∼45 Ma; consistent with geophysical observations. We argue that considerable volumes of crystal cumulate are stored beneath silicic volcanic systems (>100 km3), and estimate that crystal cumulates fill at least 16-30% of the volume generated by crustal extension under the axial volcanoes of the MER and Manda Hararo

  12. Geomorphic Response to Spatial and Temporal Tectonic uplift on the Kenya Rift of East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic uplifts of the shoulders of the East Africa Rift System (EARS) have significant impact on the geological record by reorganizing drainage systems, increasing sediment supply, and changing climate and biogeography. Recent studies in geochronology, geomorphology and geophysics have provided some understanding of the timing of tectonic uplift and its distribution pattern of the (EARS). We do not know how the vertical motion is localized along the rift axis and the relative roles of upwelling of magma and rift extensional processes play in tectonic uplift history. This work presents detailed morphometric study of the fluvial landscape response to the tectonic uplift and climate shifting of the Kenya Rift shoulders in order to reconstruct their incision history, with special attention to timing, location, and intensity of uplift episodes. This work compiles the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Sentinel-2A data, summarized previous 39Ar-40Ar and thermochronology data, and calculates long-term incision rate and geomorphic proxies (normalized steepness and chi-integral) along the Kenya Rift. It also models the age of tectonic/climatic events by using knickpoint celerity model and R/SR integrative approach. It found that the maximum long-term incision rates of 300 mm/kyr to be at the central Kenya Rift, possibly related to the mantle-driven process and rapid tectonic uplift. The geomorphic proxies indicate southward decreasing pattern of the short-term incision rate, possibly related to the migration of the mantle plume.

  13. Tectonic characteristics and structural styles of a continental rifted basin: Revelation from deep seismic reflection profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fushan Depression is a half-graben rifted sub-basin located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. The Paleogene Liushagang sequence is the main hydrocarbon-bearing stratigraphic unit in the sub-basin. Using three-dimensional (3-D seismic data and logging data over the sub-basin, we analyzed structural styles and sedimentary characteristics of the Liushagang sequence. Five types of structural styles were defined: ancient horst, traditional slope, flexure slope-break, faulted slope-break and multiple-stage faults slope, and interpretations for positions, background and development formations of each structural style were discussed. Structural framework across the sub-basin reveals that the most remarkable tectonic setting is represented by the central transfer zone (CTZ which divides the sub-basin into two independent depressions, and two kinds of sequence architectures are summarized: (i the western multi-stage faults slope; (ii the eastern flexure slope break belt. Combined with regional stress field of the Fushan Depression, we got plane combinations of the faults, and finally built up plan distribution maps of structural system for main sequence. Also, we discussed the controlling factors mainly focused on subsidence history and background tectonic activities such as volcanic activity and earthquakes. The analysis of structural styles and tectonic evolution provides strong theoretical support for future prospecting in the Fushan sub-basin and other similar rifted basins of the Beibuwan Basin in South China Sea.

  14. Lithospheric Expressions of the Precambrian Shield, Mesozoic Rifting, and Cenozoic Subduction and Mountain Building in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Caribbean (CAR)-South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of faulting and diffuse deformation. GPS measurements show the CAR moving approximately 2 cm/yr relative to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, with more oblique convergence in the west (Weber et al., 2001) causing the southern edge of the Caribbean to subduct beneath northwestern South America. The west is further complicated by the motion of the triangular Maracaibo block, which is escaping northeastward relative to SA along the Bocono and Santa Marta Faults. In central and eastern Venezuela, plate motion is accommodated by transpression and transtension along the right lateral San Sebastian- El Pilar strike-slip fault system. The strike-slip system marks the northern edge of coastal thrust belts and their associated foreland basins. The Archean-Proterozoic Guayana Shield, part of the Amazonian Craton, underlies southeastern and south-central Venezuela. We used the 87 station Venezuela-U.S. BOLIVAR array (Levander et al., 2006) to investigate lithospheric structure in northern South America. We combined finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography with Ps and Sp receiver functions to determine lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities from 45 earthquakes in the period band 20-100s. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D shear velocity structure on a 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid. Crustal thickness for the starting model was determined from active seismic experiments and receiver function analysis. The resulting 3D shear velocity model was then used to determine the depth of the LAB, and to CCP stack Ps and Sp receiver functions from ~45 earthquakes. The receiver functions were calculated in several frequency bands using iterative deconvolution and inverse filtering. Lithospheric thickness varies by more a factor of 2.5 across Venezuela. We can divide the lithosphere into several distinct provinces, with LAB depth

  15. Transition From a Magmatic to a Tectonic Rift System : Seismotectonics of the Eyasi- Manyara Region, Northern Tanzania, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaric, J.; Perrot, J.; Deschamps, A.; Deverchere, J.; Wambura, R. F.; Tiberi, C.; Petit, C.; Le Gall, B.; Sue, C.

    2008-12-01

    How a rift system propagates and breaks throughout a cold and thick continental crust remains poorly known. Only few places allow to address the question. In the East African Rift System (EARS), the eastern magma- rich branch abruptly splits into two amagmatic arms (the Eyasi and Manyara faulted systems), south of a E-W volcanic chain (the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic belt), as crossing the Archaean Tanzanian craton margin. We present the first detailed seismotectonic picture of the Eyasi-Manyara rifts where a network of ~25 seismometers was settled from June to November 2007 (SEISMO-TANZ'07 seismological experiment). From the seismicity recorded by the network, we identify active faults and discuss the stress field framework obtained from the inversion of focal mechanisms. We use the determined depth of earthquakes (1) to discuss the crustal structure of the transition zone from a magma-rich to a magma-starved section of the EARS and (2) to further emphasize the rheological control on depth distributions in the EARS (Albaric et al., Tectonophysics, 2008). The stress and strain directions deduced from our work are also used to question recently published kinematics and conceptual models of the EARS (Calais et al., Geol. Soc. London, 2006 ; Le Gall et al., Tectonophysics, 2008).

  16. TerraSAR-X high-resolution radar remote sensing: an operational warning system for Rift Valley fever risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vignolles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the vicinity of the Barkedji village (in the Ferlo region of Senegal, the abundance and aggressiveness of the vector mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever (RVF are strongly linked to rainfall events and associated ponds dynamics. Initially, these results were obtained from spectral analysis of high-resolution (~10 m Spot-5 images, but, as a part of the French AdaptFVR project, identification of the free water dynamics within ponds was made with the new high-resolution (down to 3-meter pixels, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite (TerraSAR-X produced by Infoterra GmbH, Friedrichshafen/Potsdam, Germany. During summer 2008, within a 30 x 50 km radar image, it was found that identified free water fell well within the footprints of ponds localized by optical data (i.e. Spot-5 images, which increased the confidence in this new and complementary remote sensing technique. Moreover, by using near real-time rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, NASA/JAXA joint mission, the filling-up and flushingout rates of the ponds can be accurately determined. The latter allows for a precise, spatio-temporal mapping of the zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes capable of revealing the variability of pond surfaces. The risk for RVF infection of gathered bovines and small ruminants (~1 park/km2 can thus be assessed. This new operational approach (which is independent of weather conditions is an important development in the mapping of risk components (i.e. hazards plus vulnerability related to RVF transmission during the summer monsoon, thus contributing to a RVF early warning system.

  17. TerraSAR-X high-resolution radar remote sensing: an operational warning system for Rift Valley fever risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolles, Cécile; Tourre, Yves M; Mora, Oscar; Imanache, Laurent; Lafaye, Murielle

    2010-11-01

    In the vicinity of the Barkedji village (in the Ferlo region of Senegal), the abundance and aggressiveness of the vector mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever (RVF) are strongly linked to rainfall events and associated ponds dynamics. Initially, these results were obtained from spectral analysis of high-resolution (~10 m) Spot-5 images, but, as a part of the French AdaptFVR project, identification of the free water dynamics within ponds was made with the new high-resolution (down to 3-meter pixels), Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite (TerraSAR-X) produced by Infoterra GmbH, Friedrichshafen/Potsdam, Germany. During summer 2008, within a 30 x 50 km radar image, it was found that identified free water fell well within the footprints of ponds localized by optical data (i.e. Spot-5 images), which increased the confidence in this new and complementary remote sensing technique. Moreover, by using near real-time rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), NASA/JAXA joint mission, the filling-up and flushing-out rates of the ponds can be accurately determined. The latter allows for a precise, spatio-temporal mapping of the zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes capable of revealing the variability of pond surfaces. The risk for RVF infection of gathered bovines and small ruminants (~1 park/km(2)) can thus be assessed. This new operational approach (which is independent of weather conditions) is an important development in the mapping of risk components (i.e. hazards plus vulnerability) related to RVF transmission during the summer monsoon, thus contributing to a RVF early warning system.

  18. LES RISQUES LIES AUX MAZUKU DANS LA REGION DE GOMA, REPUBLIQUE DEMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO (RIFT EST-AFRICAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellin Musosekania KASEREKA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area north of Lake Kivu, in the western part of the African Rift, deep fractures allow the uptake of gas, especially carbon dioxide, into areas locally called mazuku; in Kiswahili places where a diabolical gas kills people. Generally, mazuku are depressions and / or fronts of lava flows where CO2 accumulates by gravity, forming areas where the air is very rich in CO2 and therefore toxic, even lethal. CO2 is a gas heavier than air, asphyxiating, irritates the eyes, nose and throat, and is lethal at concentrations greater than 15%. Unfortunately many mazuku are located within the perimeter of the city of Goma and in immediate surroundings. The population of Goma believes that the CO2 concentrations have decreased over time in the mazuku, yet four surveys of measurements carried out in the mazuku of the city of Goma show the opposite and it goes up to 70% in some sites. The mazuku are found in the city of Goma, but they are most abundant in the Kituku, Green Lake and Bulengo regions. It is unfortunately on these sites that new housing constructions are oriented, which exposes them to the risk already present, spaces with high concentrations of CO2 are already covered by buildings. This volcanic gas has caused and continues to cause deaths of humans and animals in the affected areas. We propose that warning signs be placed or even replaced in these high-risk zones and information and awareness campaigns on the risks associated with mazuku are also strongly recommended.

  19. SYN-RIFT SANDSTONЕS: THE FEATURES OF BULK CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS, AND POSITIONS ON PALEOGEODYNAMIC DISCRIMINANT DIAGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Maslov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1980s, the data on the bulk chemical composition of sandstones and mudstones are actively involved for interpretation of the paleogeodynamic settings for sedimentary sequences. Discriminant diagrams such as K2O/Na2O–SiO2/Al2O3 [Maynard et al., 1982], (Fe2O3*+MgO–K2O/Na2O and others [Bhatia, 1983], SiO2–K2O/Na2O [Roser, Korsch, 1986], (K2O+Na2O–SiO2/20–(TiO2+Fe2O3+MgO [Kroonenberg, 1994] etc., are now widely used in regional investigations to classify terrigenous rocks from several paleogeodynamic settings (passive and active continental margins, oceanic and continental volcanic arcs etc. with a certain ‘percentage of consistency’. The first diagrams DF1–DF2 for syn-rift compositions were published in the early 2010s [Verma, Armstrong-Altrin, 2013]. This article analyzes the bulk chemical compositions of syn-rift sandstones from intracratonic rifts and rifts formed during the break-up of the Columbia and Gondwana supercontinents, rifts within volcanic arcs and related to the collapse of collision orogens (for example, Permian sandstones of the Malužiná formation, Western Carpathians, Slovakia. Our database includes the Neoproterozoic Uinta Mountain Group (USA, the Cretaceous Omdurman formation of the Khartoum Basin (Sudan, the siliciclastic deposits of the Kalahari Basin (East African rift zone, the sandstones of the Vindhyan Supergroup (India, the Neoproterozoic Ui Group of the Uchur-Maya region (Southeast Siberia, the Meso-Neoproterozoic Banxi Group (Southern China, the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell Supergroup (USA, the Oronto and Bayfield Groups of the Midcontinent (USA, as well as the sandstones of the Upper Precambrian Ai and Mashak formations, and the metasedimentary rocks of the Arsha Group (Southern Urals. The article examines: (1 the position of the syn-rift sandstone compositions (fields on the log(SiO2/Al2O3–log(Na2O/K2O classification diagram and the F1–F2 diagram, which gives the possible

  20. Orogenic structural inheritance and rifted passive margin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Mora, Claudio A.; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2016-04-01

    Structural inheritance is related to mechanical weaknesses in the lithosphere due to previous tectonic events, e.g. rifting, subduction and collision. The North and South Atlantic rifted passive margins that formed during the breakup of Western Gondwana, are parallel to the older Caledonide and the Brasiliano-Pan-African orogenic belts. In the South Atlantic, 'old' mantle lithospheric fabric resulting from crystallographic preferred orientation of olivine is suggested to play a role during rifted margin formation (Tommasi and Vauchez, 2001). Magnetometric and gravimetric mapping of onshore structures in the Camamu and Almada basins suggest that extensional faults are controlled by two different directions of inherited older Brasiliano structures in the upper lithosphere (Ferreira et al., 2009). In the South Atlantic Campos Basin, 3D seismic data indicate that inherited basement structures provide a first order control on basin structure (Fetter, 2009). Here we investigate the role of structural inheritance on the formation of rifted passive margins with high-resolution 2D thermo-mechanical numerical experiments. The numerical domain is 1200 km long and 600 km deep and represents the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Model experiments were carried out by creating self-consistent orogenic inheritance where a first phase of orogen formation is followed by extension. We focus in particular on the role of varying amount of orogenic shortening, crustal rheology, contrasting styles of orogen formation on rifted margin style, and the time delay between orogeny and subsequent rifted passive formation. Model results are compared to contrasting structural styles of rifted passive margin formation as observed in the South Atlantic. Ferreira, T.S., Caixeta, J.M., Lima, F.D., 2009. Basement control in Camamu and Almada rift basins. Boletim de Geociências da Petrobrás 17, 69-88. Fetter, M., 2009. The role of basement tectonic reactivation on the structural evolution

  1. Surface morphology of active normal faults in hard rock: Implications for the mechanics of the Asal Rift, Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzuti, Paul; Mignan, Arnaud; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2010-10-01

    Tectonic-stretching models have been previously proposed to explain the process of continental break-up through the example of the Asal Rift, Djibouti, one of the few places where the early stages of seafloor spreading can be observed. In these models, deformation is distributed starting at the base of a shallow seismogenic zone, in which sub-vertical normal faults are responsible for subsidence whereas cracks accommodate extension. Alternative models suggest that extension results from localised magma intrusion, with normal faults accommodating extension and subsidence only above the maximum reach of the magma column. In these magmatic rifting models, or so-called magmatic intrusion models, normal faults have dips of 45-55° and root into dikes. Vertical profiles of normal fault scarps from levelling campaign in the Asal Rift, where normal faults seem sub-vertical at surface level, have been analysed to discuss the creation and evolution of normal faults in massive fractured rocks (basalt lava flows), using mechanical and kinematics concepts. We show that the studied normal fault planes actually have an average dip ranging between 45° and 65° and are characterised by an irregular stepped form. We suggest that these normal fault scarps correspond to sub-vertical en echelon structures, and that, at greater depth, these scarps combine and give birth to dipping normal faults. The results of our analysis are compatible with the magmatic intrusion models instead of tectonic-stretching models. The geometry of faulting between the Fieale volcano and Lake Asal in the Asal Rift can be simply related to the depth of diking, which in turn can be related to magma supply. This new view supports the magmatic intrusion model of early stages of continental breaking.

  2. Diagnosis of Farmers' Conditions Using Wealth Ranking Approach- A Case study of North Rift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanyama, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    characterization of farming systems based on resources endowment was done in five districts of north rift in 1997/1999. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select districts, divisions and villages. The villages were randomly selected from each administrative agricultural division in 15 major agro- ecological zones. Key informants, who were mainly village elders, were the respondents. A total of 360 respondents were interviewed during the survey. The households were grouped into high, average and low resource groups based on key indicators of wealth status. These were: farm size, off-farm employment, number of livestock, use of external purchasable inputs, use and ownership of farm machinery. There were distinct similarities and differences in farm types based and major producer of agricultural products. Therefore these categories of farmers form favourable target groups for technology for perceptible impact on increased crop and livestock productivity

  3. Morphotectonics of a high plateau on the northwestern flank of the Continental Rift of southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi-Gauttieri, May Christine; Takashi Hiruma, Silvio; Riccomini, Claudio

    2002-03-01

    Integration of landform and structural analysis allowed the identification of Late Pleistocene-Holocene pulses of tectonic activity in the Campos do Jordão Plateau with ages and regimes similar to the ones from the continental rift. Fault reactivation along Precambrian shear zones give rise to a series of conspicuous morphotectonic features, determine the formation of stream piracy phenomena, and divide the plateau into smaller blocks. Recognition of these tectonic pulses as well as of their effects in landform development—particularly clear on the Campos de São Francisco at the highest area of the SE edge of the plateau—show that besides the climate-related Quaternary environmental changes significant neotectonic instability should be considered in the geomorphic evolution of the Campos do Jordão Plateau.

  4. Biological production in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones - Part 1: refined estimation via the use of a variable compensation depth in ocean carbon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethalekshmi Sreeush, Mohanan; Valsala, Vinu; Pentakota, Sreenivas; Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, Koneru; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2018-04-01

    Biological modelling approach adopted by the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-II) provided amazingly simple but surprisingly accurate rendition of the annual mean carbon cycle for the global ocean. Nonetheless, OCMIP models are known to have seasonal biases which are typically attributed to their bulk parameterisation of compensation depth. Utilising the criteria of surface Chl a-based attenuation of solar radiation and the minimum solar radiation required for production, we have proposed a new parameterisation for a spatially and temporally varying compensation depth which captures the seasonality in the production zone reasonably well. This new parameterisation is shown to improve the seasonality of CO2 fluxes, surface ocean pCO2, biological export and new production in the major upwelling zones of the Indian Ocean. The seasonally varying compensation depth enriches the nutrient concentration in the upper ocean yielding more faithful biological exports which in turn leads to accurate seasonality in the carbon cycle. The export production strengthens by ˜ 70 % over the western Arabian Sea during the monsoon period and achieves a good balance between export and new production in the model. This underscores the importance of having a seasonal balance in the model export and new productions for a better representation of the seasonality of the carbon cycle over upwelling regions. The study also implies that both the biological and solubility pumps play an important role in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones.

  5. Tectonic evolution of a part of the Tethyside orogenic collage: The Kargi Massif, northern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Okan

    1990-02-01

    The central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment, one of the major tectonic units in Turkey, provides critical data for evaluating the Cimmeride and Alpide evolution of the Mediterranean Tethysides. Tectonic events that affected the central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment since the end of the Paleozoic, generated east-west trending belts with the event of every episode redeforming and partly obliterating the structures of previous episodes. This evolution may be conveniently described in terms of three major episodes: (1) Two different realms of pre-Dogger oceanic rocks are present in the area. The northern realm coincided with main branch of Paleo-Tethys that was being actively destroyed by south dipping subduction. The southern realm, the Karakaya ocean, a back arc basin related to this subduction, began opening by rifting of a retroarc carbonate platform during the Permo-Triassic. To the west a continental domain with sparse magmatism seperated the two oceanic areas. Toward the east the two oceans become united by the wedging out of the continental domain. These two pre-Dogger oceans closed during the Lias, and their remnants were emplaced between the southern margin of Laurasia and the fragments of the Cimmerian continent. (2) The second episode partly overlapped the first with rifting south of the Cimmerian continent fragment during the Lias. This rifting was followed by a transgression which covered the ruins of the Cimmeride orogenic belt by the Malm. This rifting concurrently led to the development of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys and a south facing Atlantic-type continental margin. A southerly thickening sedimentary prism developed on this margin during the Lias to early Cretaceous interval. (3) The floor of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys began to be consumed along the north dipping subduction zone beneath the previosly constructed continental margin. This convergent margin generated a magmatic arc to the north and to the south a subduction

  6. Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dautu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no reports of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005−2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

  7. Evaporation estimation of rift valley lakes: comparison of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Assefa M; Abtew, Wossenu; Dessalegne, Tibebe

    2009-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method) of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE) methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux.

  8. Evaporation Estimation of Rift Valley Lakes: Comparison of Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibebe Dessalegne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux.

  9. Volcanic geothermal system in the Main Ethiopian Rift: insights from 3D MT finite-element inversion and other exploration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrock, F.; Grayver, A.; Eysteinsson, H.; Saar, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    In search for geothermal resources, especially in exploration for high-enthalpy systems found in regions with active volcanism, the magnetotelluric (MT) method has proven to be an efficient tool. Electrical conductivity of the subsurface, imaged by MT, is used for detecting layers of electrically highly conductive clays which form around the surrounding strata of hot circulating fluids and for delineating magmatic heat sources such as zones with partial melting. We present a case study using a novel 3-D inverse solver, based on adaptive local mesh refinement techniques, applied to decoupled forward and inverse mesh parameterizations. The flexible meshing allows accurate representation of surface topography, while keeping computational costs at a reasonable level. The MT data set we analyze was measured at 112 sites, covering an area of 18 by 11 km at a geothermal prospect in the Main Ethiopian Rift. For inverse modelling, we tested a series of different settings to ensure that the recovered structures are supported by the data. Specifically, we tested different starting models, regularization functionals, sets of transfer functions, with and without inclusion of topography. Several robust subsurface structures were revealed. These are prominent features of a high-enthalpy geothermal system: A highly conductive shallow clay cap occurs in an area with high fumarolic activity, and is underlain by a more resistive zone, which is commonly interpreted as a propylitic reservoir and is the main geothermal target for drilling. An interesting discovery is the existence of a channel-like conductor connecting the geothermal field at the surface with an off-rift conductive zone, whose existence was proposed earlier as being related to an off-rift volcanic belt along the western shoulder of the Main Ethiopian Rift. The electrical conductivity model is interpreted together with results from other geoscientific studies and outcomes from satellite remote sensing techniques.

  10. Lithosphere Response to Intracratonic Rifting: Examples from Europe and Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.; Herceg, M.

    2012-01-01

    is based on critically assessed results from various seismic studies, including reflection and refraction profiles and receiver function studies. We also use global shear-wave tomography models, gravity constraints based on GOCE data, and thermal models for the lithosphere to speculate on thermo...... of basaltic magmas and consequently in a change in mantle density and seismic velocities. Although kimberlite magmatism is commonly not considered as a rifting events, its deep causes may be similar to the mantle-driven rifting and, as a consequence, modification of mantle density and velocity structure may...... in it seismic wave velocity and density structure....

  11. A Middle-Upper Miocene fluvial-lacustrine rift sequence in the Song Ba Rift, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lars H., Nielsen; Henrik I., Petersen; Nguyen D., Dau

    2007-01-01

    The small Neogene Krong Pa graben is situated within the continental Song Ba Rift, which is bounded by strike-slip faults that were reactivated as extensional faults in Middle Miocene time. The 500 m thick graben-fill shows an overall depositional development reflecting the structural evolution...... subsidence rate and possibly a higher influx of water from the axial river systems the general water level in the graben rose and deep lakes formed. High organic preservation in the lakes prompted the formation of two excellent oil-prone lacustrine source-rock units. In the late phase of the graben...... as carrier beds, whereas the braided fluvial sandstones and conglomerates along the graben margins may form reservoirs. The Krong Pa graben thus contains oil-prone lacustrine source rocks, effective conduits for generated hydrocarbons and reservoir sandstones side-sealed by the graben faults toward...

  12. Human Dispersals Along the African Rift Valley in the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate- and tectonic-driven environmental dynamics of the East African Rift System (EARS) during the Quaternary played an important role in the demographic history of early Homo sapiens, including expansions of modern humans across and out of Africa. Human forager population size, geographic range, and behaviors such as hunting strategies and residential mobility likely varied in response to changes in the local and regional environment. Throughout the Quaternary, floral and faunal change was linked at least in part to variations in moisture availability, temperature, and atmospheric CO2, which in addition to uplift and faulting, contributed to the expansion and contraction of a number of large lakes that served as biogeographic barriers to many taxa. This is particularly clear for the Lake Victoria basin, where biogeographic, geological, and paleontological evidence documents repeated expansion and contraction of the ranges of species in response to lake level and vegetation change. Across much of eastern Africa, the topography of the rift facilitated north-south dispersals, the timing of which may have depended in part on the expansion and contraction of the equatorial forest belt. Dispersal potential likely increased during the more arid periods of the late Quaternary, when the roles of lakes and forests as dispersal barriers was reduced and the extent of low net primary productivity dry grasslands increased, the latter requiring large home ranges for human foragers, conditions suitable for range expansions within H. sapiens.

  13. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm in the structure of the Middle Paleozoic Vilyui rift system (Siberian Craton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A. I.; Konstantinov, K. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The formation of the Vilyui rift system in the eastern Siberian Craton was finished with breakdown of the continent and formation of its eastern margin. A characteristic feature of this rift system is the radial distribution of dyke swarms of basic rocks. This peculiarity allows us to relate it to the breaking processes above the mantle plume, the center of which was located in the region overlain in the modern structure by the foreland of the Verkhoyan folded-thrust belt. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm is the southern part of a large area of Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism in the eastern Siberian Craton. The OIB-like geochemical characteristics of dolerite allow us to suggest that the melting substrate for Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism was represented by a relatively homogeneous, mid-depleted mantle of the plume with geochemical parameters similar to those of OIB.

  14. Tectonoestratigraphic and Thermal Models of the Tiburon and Wagner Basins, northern Gulf of California Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Ramirez Zerpa, N. A.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of California Rift System consist sofa series faults that accommodate both normal and strike-slip motion. The faults formed a series of half-greens filled with more than 7 km of siliciclastic suc­cessions. Here, we present tectonostratigraphic and heat flow models for the Tiburón basin, in the southern part of the system, and the Wag­ner basin in the north. The models are constrained by two-dimensional seis­mic lines and by two deep boreholes drilled by PEMEX­-PEP. Analysis of the seismic lines and models' results show that: (i) subsidence of the basins is controlled by high-angle normal faults and by flow of the lower crust, (ii) basins share a common history, and (iii) there are significant differences in the way brittle strain was partitioned in the basins, a feature frequently observed in rift basins. On one hand, the bounding faults of the Tiburón basin have a nested geometry and became active following a west-to-east sequence of activation. The Tiburon half-graben was formed by two pulses of fault activity. One took place during the protogulf extensional phase in the Miocene and the other during the opening of Gulf of California in the Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Wagner basin is the result of two fault generations. During the late-to middle Miocene, the west-dipping Cerro Prieto and San Felipe faults formed a domino array. Then, during the Pleistocene the Consag and Wagner faults dissected the hanging-wall of the Cerro Prieto fault forming the modern Wagner basin. Thermal modeling of the deep borehole temperatures suggests that the heat flow in these basins in the order of 110 mW/m2 which is in agreement with superficial heat flow measurements in the northern Gulf of California Rift System.

  15. Imaging rifting at the lithospheric scale in the northern East African Rift using S-to-P receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavayssiere, A.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J. M.; Leroy, S. D.; Doubre, C.

    2017-12-01

    The lithosphere is modified during rifting by a combination of mechanical stretching, heating and potentially partial melt. We image the crust and upper mantle discontinuity structure beneath the northern East African Rift System (EARS), a unique tectonically active continental rift exposing along strike the transition from continental rifting in the Main Ethiopian rift (MER) to incipient seafloor spreading in Afar and the Red Sea. S-to-P receiver functions from 182 stations across the northern EARS were generated from 3688 high quality waveforms using a multitaper technique and then migrated to depth using a regional velocity model. Waveform modelling of data stacked in large conversion point bins confirms the depth and strength of imaged discontinuities. We image the Moho at 29.6±4.7 km depth beneath the Ethiopian plateaux with a variability in depth that is possibly due to lower crustal intrusions. The crust is 27.3±3.9 km thick in the MER and thinner in northern Afar, 17.5±0.7 km. The model requires a 3±1.2% reduction in shear velocity with increasing depth at 68.5±1.5 km beneath the Ethiopian plateaux, consistent with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). We do not resolve a LAB beneath Afar and the MER. This is likely associated with partial melt near the base of the lithosphere, reducing the velocity contrast between the melt-intruded lithosphere and the partially molten asthenosphere. We identify a 4.5±0.7% increase in velocity with depth at 91±3 km beneath the MER. This change in velocity is consistent with the onset of melting found by previous receiver functions and petrology studies. Our results provide independent constraints on the depth of melt production in the asthenosphere and suggest melt percolation through the base of the lithosphere beneath the northernmost East African rift.

  16. Discussion on final rifting evolution and breakup : insights from the Mid Norwegian - North East Greenland rifted system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2016-04-01

    In terms of rifted margin studies, the characteristics of the distal and outer domains are among the today's most debated questions. The architecture and composition of deep margins are rarely well constrained and hence little understood. Except from in a handful number of cases (eg. Iberia-Newfoundland, Southern Australia, Red Sea), basement samples are not available to decipher between the various interpretations allowed by geophysical models. No consensus has been reached on the basement composition, tectonic structures, sedimentary geometries or magmatic content. The result is that non-unique end-member interpretations and models are still proposed in the literature. So, although these domains mark the connection between continents and oceans, and thus correspond to unique stages in the Earth's lithospheric life cycle, their spatial and temporal evolution are still unresolved. The Norwegian-Greenland Sea rift system represents an exceptional laboratory to work on questions related to rifting, rifted margin formation and sedimentary basin evolution. It has been extensively studied for decades by both the academic and the industry communities. The proven and expected oil and gas potentials led to the methodical acquisition of world-class geophysical datasets, which permit the detailed research and thorough testing of concepts at local and regional scales. This contribution is issued from a three years project funded by ExxonMobil aiming at better understanding the crustal-scale nature and evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The idea was to take advantage of the data availability on this specific rift system to investigate further the full crustal conjugate scale history of rifting, confronting the various available datasets. In this contribution, we will review the possible structural and sedimentary geometries of the distal margin, and their connection to the oceanic domain. We will discuss the definition of 'breakup' and introduce a first order conceptual

  17. In-situ heating test in the sedimentary soft rock. Part 3. Monitoring of the extent of high temperature zone by resistivity tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenji; Suzuki, Koichi; Ikenoya, Takafumi; Takakura, Nozomu; Tani, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    One of the major issues in disposal of nuclear waste is that the long term behaviors of sedimentary soft rocks can be affected by various environmental factors such as temperature or hydraulic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for evaluating the long term stability of caverns in sedimentary soft rocks as subjected to changes of environment. We have conducted in-situ heating test to evaluate the influence of high temperature to the surrounding rock mass at a depth of 50m. Resistivity monitoring is thought to be effective to map the extent of high temperature zone. So resistivity tomography was conducted during the heating. The results demonstrated that the resistivity of the rock mass around the heater well was decreased and this area was gradually expanded from the heated area during the heating. Resistivity of rock is proportional to that of pore water which is known to decrease with increasing temperature. This suggests that high temperature zone is detected and spatial distribution of temperature can be mapped by resistivity tomography. So resistivity tomography is expected to be one of the promising methods to monitor the heated area by nuclear waste. (author)

  18. INTERBLOCK ZONES IN THE CRUST OF THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF EAST SIBERIA: TECTONOPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The zone-block structure of the lithosphere is represented by a hierarchically organized pattern of stable blocks and mobile zones which border such blocks and contain highly dislocated geological medium (Fig. 1. Today, different specialists adhere to different concepts of blocks and zones, which are two main elements of the lithosphere structure. Differences are most significant in determinations of ‘interblock zones’ that are named as deformation / destructive / contact / mobile / fracture zones etc. due to their diversity in different conditions of deformation. One of the most effective approaches to studying the zone-block structure of the lithosphere is a combination of geological and geophysical studies of interblock zones tectonic features on various scales, which can make it possible to reveal the most common patterns of the interblock zones, general regularities of their development and relationships between the interblock zones.The main objectives of our study were (1 to identify the zone-block structure of the crust in the southern regions of East Siberia from tectonophysical analysis of geological and geophysical surveys conducted on four different scales along the 500 km long Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect crossing the marginal segment of the Siberian block, the Baikal rift and the Transbaikalian block (Fig. 2; (2 to clarify structural features of the central part of the Baikal rift (representing the tectonic type of interblock extension zone by applying new research methods, such as radon emanation survey, to the Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect and using the previously applied methods, such as magnetotelluric sounding, on a smaller scale; and (3 to study manifestation of interblock zones of various ranks in different geological and geophysical fields, to reveal common specific features of their structural patterns for the upper crust, and to establish regularities of hierarchic and spatial relationships between the interblock

  19. Cambrian–early Ordovician volcanism across the South Armorican and Occitan domains of the Variscan Belt in France: Continental break-up and rifting of the northern Gondwana margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pouclet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cambrian–lower Ordovician volcanic units of the South Armorican and Occitan domains are analysed in a tectonostratigraphic survey of the French Variscan Belt. The South Armorican lavas consist of continental tholeiites in middle Cambrian–Furongian sequences related to continental break-up. A significant volcanic activity occurred in the Tremadocian, dominated by crustal melted rhyolitic lavas and initial rifting tholeiites. The Occitan lavas are distributed into five volcanic phases: (1 basal Cambrian rhyolites, (2 upper lower Cambrian Mg-rich tholeiites close to N-MORBs but crustal contaminated, (3 upper lower–middle Cambrian continental tholeiites, (4 Tremadocian rhyolites, and (5 upper lower Ordovician initial rift tholeiites. A rifting event linked to asthenosphere upwelling took place in the late early Cambrian but did not evolve. It renewed in the Tremadocian with abundant crustal melting due to underplating of mixed asthenospheric and lithospheric magmas. This main tectono-magmatic continental rift is termed the “Tremadocian Tectonic Belt” underlined by a chain of rhyolitic volcanoes from Occitan and South Armorican domains to Central Iberia. It evolved with the setting of syn-rift coarse siliciclastic deposits overlain by post-rift deep water shales in a suite of sedimentary basins that forecasted the South Armorican–Medio-European Ocean as a part of the Palaeotethys Ocean.

  20. Extensional fault geometry and its flexural isostatic response during the formation of the Iberia - Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romeu, Júlia; Kusznir, Nick; Manatschal, Gianreto; Roberts, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Despite magma-poor rifted margins having been extensively studied for the last 20 years, the evolution of extensional fault geometry and the flexural isostatic response to faulting remain still debated topics. We investigate how the flexural isostatic response to faulting controls the structural development of the distal part of rifted margins in the hyper-extended domain and the resulting sedimentary record. In particular we address an important question concerning the geometry and evolution of extensional faults within distal hyper-extended continental crust; are the seismically observed extensional fault blocks in this region allochthons from the upper plate or are they autochthons of the lower plate? In order to achieve our aim we focus on the west Iberian rifted continental margin along the TGS and LG12 seismic profiles. Our strategy is to use a kinematic forward model (RIFTER) to model the tectonic and stratigraphic development of the west Iberia margin along TGS-LG12 and quantitatively test and calibrate the model against breakup paleo-bathymetry, crustal basement thickness and well data. RIFTER incorporates the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting, crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal loads, sedimentation and erosion. The model predicts the structural and stratigraphic consequences of recursive sequential faulting and sedimentation. The target data used to constrain model predictions consists of two components: (i) gravity anomaly inversion is used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning and (ii) reverse post-rift subsidence modelling consisting of flexural backstripping, decompaction and reverse post-rift thermal subsidence modelling is used to give paleo-bathymetry at breakup time. We show that successful modelling of the structural and stratigraphic development of the TGS-LG12 Iberian margin transect also requires the simultaneous modelling of the Newfoundland conjugate margin, which we

  1. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis of rift valley goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence, mean intensity, relative density of helminth species and the effects of environmental factors, sex and maturity of host on seasonal dynamics in relative density of helminthes ova in Rift Valley goats were investigated from July 1997 to June 1998. Ten nematode and three cestode species were identified.

  2. Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated mosquito sampling techniques with two types of traps and attractants at different time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. The study was conducted in six villages in Ngorongoro district in Tanzania from September to October 2012. A total of 1814 mosquitoes were collected, of which 738 ...

  3. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.

  4. Occurrence of rift valley fever (RVF) in Dodoma region, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a peracute or acute febrile zoonotic ... results the patients were treated for malaria and/or meningitis based on visual/ clinical signs. ... RVF occurrence to humans by using case study definitions for RVF suspect's, and ...

  5. The Relationships of Subparallel Synthetic Faults and Pre-existing Structures in the Central Malawi Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.; Mendez, K.; Beresh, S. C. M.; Mynatt, W. G.; Elifritz, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Chisenga, C.; Gondwe, S.; Mkumbura, M.; Kalaguluka, D.; Kalindekafe, L.; Salima, J.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of our research is to explore the evolution of synthetic fault systems in continental rifts. It has been suggested that during the rifting process border faults may become locked and strain is then accommodated within the hanging wall. The Malawi Rift provides an opportunity to study the evolution of these faults within a young (8 Ma), active and magma-poor continental rift. Two faults in central Malawi may show the transference of strain into the hanging wall. These faults are the older Chirobwe-Ntcheu with a length of 115 km and a scarp height of 300-1000 m and the younger Bilila-Mtakataka with a length of 130 km and a scarp height of 4-320 m. We used high-resolution aeromagnetic data and 30m resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) to provide a 3D spatial characterization of the fault system. Additionally 10cm resolution DEMs were created using unmanned aerial system (UAS) derived aerial photography and Structure from Motion to document the regional Precambrian foliation and joint patterns. Moreover, displacement profiles where extracted from the SRTM-DEM data to compare the segmentation and linkage of the outer and inner faults. Our preliminary results show that the strike of each fault is approximately NW-SE which follows the strike of the Precambrian fabric. The magnetic fabric has a strike of NW-SE in the south changing to NE-SW in the north suggesting that the faults are controlled in part by an inherited Precambrian fabric. The displacement profile of the inner Bilila-Mtakataka fault is asymmetric and displays five fault segments supporting the interpretation that this is a relatively young fault. The expected results of this study are information about segmentation and displacement of each fault and their relationship to one another. The results from the aeromagnetic data utilizing Source Parameter Imaging to produce an approximate depth to basement which will support the displacement profiles derived

  6. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part II. Application to electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.; Klokkehaug, S.

    2000-03-01

    In the present investigation, a process model for electron beam (EB) welding of different grades of duplex stainless steels (i.e. SAF 2205 and 2507) has been developed. A number of attractive features are built into the original finite element code, including (1) a separate module for prediction of the penetration depth and distribution of the heat source into the plate, (2) adaptive refinement of the three-dimensional (3-D) element mesh for quick and reliable solution of the differential heat flow equation, and (3) special subroutines for calculation of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructure evolution. The process model has been validated by comparison with experimental data obtained from in situ thermocouple measurements and optical microscope examinations. Subsequently, its aptness to alloy design and optimization of welding conditions for duplex stainless steels is illustrated in different numerical examples and case studies pertaining to EB welding of tubular joints.

  7. Perched Lava Pond Complex on South Rift of Axial Volcano Revealed in AUV Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    -like structures and jumbled sheet flows on the floors suggest the eruption was on-going when the ponds emptied. 14C-dating of foraminifera from basal sediments on the pond floors gives a minimum age for the ponds of ~1500 years, which is older than any of the surface flows in Axial's summit caldera. Limu o Pele was abundant. Glass contents of the recovered lavas are 7.6 to 8.0 wt% MgO with few exceptions, and other than being plagioclase-phyric, the chemistry is similar to the majority of lavas at the summit. Lava samples from the floors of several ponds have a few tenths of a weight percent lower MgO than the nearby levees, suggesting the pond's molten interior or resupplied lavas had some time to cool. The varying levee rim heights and abundance of ponds in the vicinity suggest this type of activity occurred many times in this area, but it is an unusual eruption style for mid-ocean ridges. Another lava pond complex with even higher levees occurs on the north rift of Axial Volcano. Formation of these ponds requires long-lived, steady, moderate-eruption-rate lava effusion on nearly horizontal seafloor and may occur only on deep distal rift zones of central volcanoes.

  8. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

  9. SEISMODYNAMICS AND DEEP INTERNAL ORIGIN OF THE NORTH CHINA ZONE OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Stepashko

    2011-01-01

    the Sakhalin Island and simultaneously subject to the clockwise rotation. As a result, along and above the margins of the covered lithospheric block in the southern Far East of Russia, main seismic zones have formed (Figure 5, B, wherein earthquakes of M≥5.0 are recorded. The anomalous mantle block at the base of the Sikhote Alin used to be a part of the SinoKorean craton; it was cut out in the JurassicCretaceous period and moved in the northeastern direction along the Tan-Lu shear fault. The lithosphere of the craton was significantly extended during closure of the remaining area, and an evident consequence of extension was formation of two Cenozoic rifting systems. In the Paleogene, the Hebei rift system occurred westward of the Tan-Lu megazone; it hosted earthquakes of the latest seismic cycle. The Shanxi rift system strikes in the northeastward direction and separates the western block of the craton (called Ordos from the western block (called Hebei; it hosted earthquakes of the earlier seismic cycle.Recent geodynamics. During restructuring of the lithosphere, rotations of tectonic blocks were of importance, along with the lithospheric extension. The specific features of the craton structure suggest two tectonophysical mechanisms of rotation. Firstly, when the triangleshaped zone westward of Tan-Lu was being closed, the lithospheric segment rotated clockwise (Figure 5, С. Consequently, at the mobile front, a compression zone was formed; it has two maximums located NE and SW of the rotation centre. This structural pattern is typical of the lithosphere of the central part of the craton. Within the limits of two conjugated maximums westward of Tan-Lu, the crustal thickness is reduced, and the depth to the asthenosphere is sharply decreased (Figures 4, B and 4, C. The rotation of the blocks in the lithosphere resulted in formation of the gigantic anticline fold, where at the eastern area of rifting is located. Secondly, the clockwise rotation of the Hebei

  10. Thermal and microstructural modelling in weld heat-affected zones. Part I: thermal cycles; Modelizacion termica y microestructural de la zona afectada por el calor en la soldadura. Parte I: ciclos termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribera, J.M.; Prado, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    After a review about theoretical concepts involved in heat transfer, the ``double ellipsoid`` model is proposed which will be useful to simulate the welding heat input accurately. The different steps to perform an analysis using the Finite Elements Method (FEM) are described in order to compute the transient temperature field for any point of interest, and the transfer equations are solved numerically for several welding situations. The thermal cycles are obtained and so it will be possible to understand the metallurgical behavior that takes place in weld heat affected zones. In addition the effects of different welding parameters on the shape of the computed thermal cycles are shown. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. The influence of inherited structures on magmatic and amagmatic processes in the East African Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, J.; Lloyd, R.; Hodge, M.; Robertson, E.; Wilks, M.; Fagereng, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Mdala, H. S.; Lewi, E.; Ayele, A.

    2017-12-01

    The idea that crustal heterogeneities, particularly inherited structures, influence the initiation and evolution of continental rifts is not new, but now modern techniques allow us to explore these controls from a fresh perspective, over a range of lengthscales, timescales and depths. In amagmatic rifts, I will demonstrate that deep fault structure is controlled by the stress orientation during the earliest phase of rifting, while the surface expression exploits near-surface weaknesses. I will show that pre-existing structures control the storage and orientation of deeper magma reservoirs in magmatic rifts, while the tectonic stress regime controls intra-rift faulting and shallow magmatism and stresses related to surface loading and cycles of inflation and deflation dominate at volcanic edifices. Finally, I will show how cross-rift structures influence short-term processes such as deformation and seismicity. I will illustrate the talk throughout using examples from along the East African Rift, including Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia.

  12. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, Carol A.; Jordan, Tom A.; Bell, Robin E.; Anderson, Lester M.; Damaske, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains’ origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1 Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250 Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100 Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere.

  13. Large mammals from the Upper Neopleistocene reference sections in the Tunka rift valley, southwestern Baikal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchetnikov, A. A.; Klementiev, A. M.; Filinov, I. A.; Semeney, E. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the data on new finds of fossil macrotheriofauna in the reference sections of the Upper Neopleistocene sediments in the Tunka rift valley (southwestern Baikal Region). The osteological material of a number of Late Neopleistocene mammals including extinct species rare for the Baikal region such as Crocuta spelaea, Panthera spelaea, and Spirocerus kiakhtensis (?) was directly dated with a radiocarbon (AMS) method. The obtained 14C data (18000-35000 years) allow one to rejuvenate significantly the upper limit of the common age interval of habitat of these animals in southern part of Eastern Siberia. Cave hyena and spiral-horned antelope lived in the Tunka rift valley in the Baikal region in Late Kargino time (37-24 ka), and cave lion survived the maximum in the Sartan cryochron in the region (21-20 ka). The study of collected paleontological collections provides a basis for selection of independent Kargino (MIS 3) faunal assemblages to use them for regional biostratigraphic analysis of Pleistocene deposits. Radiocarbon age dating of samples allows one to attribute confidently all paleofaunal remains available to the second half of the Late Pleistocene.

  14. Magma-driven antiform structures in the Afar rift: The Ali Sabieh range, Djibouti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Mohamed Ahmed; Maury, René C.; Rolet, Joël; Guillou, Hervé; Sue, Christian

    2010-06-01

    The Ali Sabieh Range, SE Afar, is an antiform involving Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and synrift volcanics. Previous studies have postulated a tectonic origin for this structure, in either a contractional or extensional regime. New stratigraphic, mapping and structural data demonstrate that large-scale doming took place at an early stage of rifting, in response to a mafic laccolithic intrusion dated between 28 and 20 Ma from new K-Ar age determinations. Our 'laccolith' model is chiefly supported by: (i) the geometry of the intrusion roof, (ii) the recognition of roof pendants in its axial part, and (iii) the mapping relationships between the intrusion, the associated dyke-sill network, and the upper volcanic/volcaniclastic sequences. The laccolith is assumed to have inflated with time, and to have upwardly bent its sedimentary roof rocks. From the architecture of the ˜1 km-thick Mesozoic overburden sequences, ca. 2 km of roof lifting are assumed to have occurred, probably in association with reactivated transverse discontinuities. Computed paleostress tensors indicate that the minimum principal stress axis is consistently horizontal and oriented E-W, with a dominance of extensional versus strike-slip regimes. The Ali Sabieh laccolith is the first regional-scale magma-driven antiform structure reported so far in the Afro-Arabian rift system.

  15. Response to exploitation (1982-2002) of the Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico) geothermal field. Part I: North Zone; Respuesta a la explotacion (1982-2003) del yacimiento geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico). Parte I: Zona Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Barragan R, Rosa Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Torres R, Marco Antonio; Sandoval M, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    This work studies the thermodynamic evolution of the Los Azufres northern zone reservoir fluids as a response of exploitation since 1982 to 2002 is presented. Thermodynamic conditions for reservoir fluids were estimated using the WELFLO heat-and flow-well simulator, using production data as the input. The initial thermodynamic conditions of the north zone wells indicated the presence of compressed liquid; also it was noticed that the first response to exploitation was a pressure drop and an enthalpy increase, while the long term response indicated a very small pressure change but a high enthalpy increment. The analysis of production, chemical and isotopic (d18O, dD) data in this zone showed interference effects of fluids reinjected in well Az-52 on well Az-5; and in well Az-15 on wells Az-13, Az-28 and Az-43. At the present time due to the low injection flow rates, this effect is minimal. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la evolucion termodinamica de los fluidos de la zona norte del yacimiento de Los Azufres desde el inicio de su explotacion en 1982 hasta el ano 2002, considerando las condiciones de fondo de pozos del campo, como respuesta a la extraccion e inyeccion de fluidos. Las condiciones termodinamicas de los fluidos del yacimiento se estimaron mediante el simulador del flujo de fluidos y calor en pozos {sup W}ELFLO{sup ,} a partir de datos de produccion. Las condiciones termodinamicas iniciales de los fluidos de la zona norte de campo se encontraron en la region de liquido comprimido; la primera respuesta a la explotacion consistio en una disminucion de presion y un incremento en la entalpia. A largo plazo, se observaron cambios muy pequenos en la presion y grandes incrementos en la entalpia. El analisis de datos quimicos, isotopicos (d18O, dD) y de produccion de pozos en la zona norte evidencio la ocurrencia de interferencia de fluidos de reinyeccion del pozo Az-52 con el pozo Az-5 y del pozo Az-15 con los pozos Az-13, Az-28 y Az 43

  16. Response to exploitation (1982-2002) of the Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico) geothermal field. Part II: South Zone; Respuesta a la explotacion (1982-2003) del yacimiento geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico). Parte II: Zona Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano G, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico); Torres R, Marco Antonio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Barragan R, Rosa Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico); Sandoval M, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes the thermodynamic evolution of fluids in the Los Azufres geothermal field's southern zone reservoir, as a response to exploitation from 1982 to 2002. Thermodynamic conditions for the reservoir fluids were estimated with production data using the WELFLO heat-and-flow well simulator. In the southern zone, initial fluid thermodynamic conditions indicated that compressed liquid, two-phase fluids and vapor occurred in the reservoir, depending on the well depths. The fist response to exploitation consisted in a pressure drop an enthalpy increase. For the long term, the following patterns have been identified: pressure and mass flow-rate drop, boiling, cooling, vapor production and in some wells affected by injection an increase in both pressure and mass flow rate. The isotopic results of well fluids in the southern zone showed the occurrence of two processes. The first, with a positive slope, indicates a mixing of reservoir and injection fluids and mainly affects wells Az-2, Az-16, Az-33, Az-36 and Az-46. The second, with a negative slope, results from the original processes of reservoir steam separation and partial condensation. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la evolucion termodinamica de los fluidos de la zona sur del yacimiento de Los Azufres, como respuesta a la extraccion e inyeccion de fluidos, desde el inicio de su explotacion en 1982 hasta el ano 2002. Las condiciones termodinamicas de los fluidos del yacimiento se estimaron mediante el simulador de flujo de fluidos y calor en pozos WELFLO, a partir de datos de produccion. Las condiciones termodinamicas iniciales de los fluidos de la zona sur, indicaron la existencia de liquido comprimido, dos fases con liquido dominante y dos fases con vapor dominante, dependiendo de la profundidad de los pozos. La respuesta inicial de la zona sur a la explotacion consistio en una disminucion de la presion y un aumento en la entalpia mientras que a mas largo plazo se han observado

  17. On some aspects of the stratigraphy, depositional environment and its bearing on uranium mineralisation in parts of the Singhbhum shear zone, Bihar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virnave, S.N.; Mukhopadhyay, T.K.; Krishnabadri, N.S.R.

    1994-01-01

    A review of the geology and controls of uranium mineralisation in the Singhbhum Shear Zone between Narwapahar (Lat. 22deg44'N; Long. 86deg15'E) in the west, to Ghatsila (Lat. 22deg25'N; Long. 86deg20'E) in the southeast and up to Dalmas in the north is presented in the light of new data based on facies analysis and palaeo-current studies on the conglomerate and associated meta-sediments in the area. Synthesis and integration of geologic data have led to the following conclusions: a) The facies variation and its distribution pattern in the area demonstrate fluviatile conditions of deposition with upward fining and thinning sequences b) The sedimentary sequence shows progressive younging towards north without any obvious break or juxta-position of the older over the younger. c) The nature of Jaduguda sedimentary facies assemblage is indicative of a fluvial fan with conglomerate gray-wacke-arenite assemblage representing proximal fan facies. On the basis of facies model, the area north of Subarnarekha river represents a meandering fluvial pattern. d) Uranium mineralisation is distinctly stratabound with characteristic facies association. (author). 13 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Bioecological peculiarities of mid-ripening varieties of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Павлюк

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Improvement of a range of strawberry varie­ties based on comprehensive study and introduction of new Ukrainian and West European cultivars. Methods. Cultivars and elite forms were studied using the methods of primary variety studying and state variety testing at three-year strawberry plantations of the Institute of Horticulture of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the city of Kyiv and its variety testing stations. Results. It was found that more frequent spring and summer droughts as well as black frosts in winter adversely affected the strawberry productivity. The best varieties were selected among new ones for the complex of traits, they included ‘Elegance’ from the Great Britain, ‘Gercules’ from Ukraine (both are dessert grapes, ‘Elsanta’ from Holland (for universal use, ‘Alba’ from Italia (as raw material. The highly adaptive and productive ‘Istochnik’ and ‘Festyvalna romashka’ varieties (as raw material are recommended for the north regions. Conclusions. In the context of profound climatic change, high-profitable cultivation of mid-ripening varieties and a strawberry as such in the Northern Forest-Steppe zone is expedient under controlled conditions – in high film tunnels, in hot-houses and under perennial irrigation that already has become the European tendency.

  19. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part II. Modeling the transport process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoschenko, V.I.; Kashparov, V.A.; Levchuk, S.E.; Glukhovskiy, A.S.; Khomutinin, Yu.V.; Protsak, V.P.; Lundin, S.M.; Tschiersch, J.

    2006-01-01

    To predict parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires, several model modules were developed and adapted. Experimental data of controlled burning of prepared experimental plots in the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been used to evaluate the prognostic power of the models. The predicted trajectories and elevations of the plume match with those visually observed during the fire experiments in the grassland and forest sites. Experimentally determined parameters could be successfully used for the calculation of the initial plume parameters which provide the tools for the description of various fire scenarios and enable prognostic calculations. In summary, the model predicts a release of some per mille from the radionuclide inventory of the fuel material by the grassland fires. During the forest fire, up to 4% of 137 Cs and 9 Sr and up to 1% of the Pu isotopes can be released from the forest litter according to the model calculations. However, these results depend on the parameters of the fire events. In general, the modeling results are in good accordance with the experimental data. Therefore, the considered models were successfully validated and can be recommended for the assessment of the resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in contaminated territories

  20. Structure of the la VELA Offshore Basin, Western Venezuela: AN Obliquely-Opening Rift Basin Within the South America-Caribbean Strike-Slip Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. M.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    Bathymetric, gravity and magnetic maps show that the east-west trend of the Cretaceous Great Arc of the Caribbean in the Leeward Antilles islands is transected by an en echelon series of obliquely-sheared rift basins that show right-lateral offsets ranging from 20 to 40 km. The basins are 75-100 km in length and 20-30 km in width and are composed of sub-parallel, oblique slip normal faults that define deep, bathymetric channels that bound the larger islands of the Leeward Antilles including Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire. A single basin of similar orientation and structure, the Urumaco basin, is present to the southwest in the Gulf of Venezuela. We mapped structures and sedimentation in the La Vela rift basin using a 3D seismic data volume recorded down to 6 seconds TWT. The basin can be mapped from the Falcon coast where it is correlative with the right-lateral Adicora fault mapped onshore, and its submarine extension. To the southeast of the 3D survey area, previous workers have mapped a 70-km-wide zone of northeast-striking, oblique, right-lateral faults, some with apparent right-lateral offsets of the coastline. On seismic data, the faults vary in dip from 45 to 60 degrees and exhibit maximum vertical offsets of 600 m. The La Vela and other obliquely-opening rifts accommodate right-lateral shear with linkages to intervening, east-west-striking right-lateral faults like the Adicora. The zone of oblique rifts is restricted to the trend of the Great Arc of the Caribbean and may reflect the susceptiblity of this granitic basement to active shearing. The age of onset for the basins known from previous studies on the Leeward Antilles is early Miocene. As most of these faults occur offshore their potential to generate damaging earthquakes in the densely populated Leeward Antilles is not known.

  1. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of a Rio Grande rift subbasin, Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.; Thompson, R.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Anderson, M.; Drenth, B.J.; Rotzien, J.; Lyon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, a structural subbasin of the greater San Luis Basin of the northern Rio Grande rift, is bounded to the north and south by the San Luis Hills and the Red River fault zone, respectively. Surficial mapping, neotectonic investigations, geochronology, and geophysics demonstrate that the structural, volcanic, and geomorphic evolution of the basin involves the intermingling of climatic cycles and spatially and temporally varying tectonic activity of the Rio Grande rift system. Tectonic activity has transferred between range-bounding and intrabasin faults creating relict landforms of higher tectonic-activity rates along the mountain-piedmont junction. Pliocene–Pleistocene average long-term slip rates along the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone range between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/year with late Pleistocene slip rates approximately half (0.06 mm/year) of the longer Quaternary slip rate. During the late Pleistocene, climatic influences have been dominant over tectonic influences on mountain-front geomorphic processes. Geomorphic evidence suggests that this once-closed subbasin was integrated into the Rio Grande prior to the integration of the once-closed northern San Luis Basin, north of the San Luis Hills, Colorado; however, deep canyon incision, north of the Red River and south of the San Luis Hills, initiated relatively coeval to the integration of the northern San Luis Basin.Long-term projections of slip rates applied to a 1.6 km basin depth defined from geophysical modeling suggests that rifting initiated within this subbasin between 20 and 10 Ma. Geologic mapping and geophysical interpretations reveal a complex network of northwest-, northeast-, and north-south–trending faults. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults show dual polarity and are crosscut by north-south– trending faults. This structural model possibly provides an analog for how some intracontinental rift structures evolve through time.

  2. Rift Valley Fever Risk Map Model and Seroprevalence in Selected Wild Ungulates and Camels from Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britch, Seth C.; Binepal, Yatinder S.; Ruder, Mark G.; Kariithi, Henry M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Tucker, Compton J.; Ateya, Leonard O.; Oriko, Abuu A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Since the first isolation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the 1930s, there have been multiple epizootics and epidemics in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective climate-based models have recently been developed that flag areas at risk of RVFV transmission in endemic regions based on key environmental indicators that precede Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootics and epidemics. Although the timing and locations of human case data from the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya have been compared to risk zones flagged by the model, seroprevalence of RVF antibodies in wildlife has not yet been analyzed in light of temporal and spatial predictions of RVF activity. Primarily wild ungulate serum samples from periods before, during, and after the 2006-2007 RVF epizootic were analyzed for the presence of RVFV IgM and/or IgG antibody. Results show an increase in RVF seropositivity from samples collected in 2007 (31.8%), compared to antibody prevalence observed from 2000-2006 (3.3%). After the epizootic, average RVF seropositivity diminished to 5% in samples collected from 2008-2009. Overlaying maps of modeled RVF risk assessments with sampling locations indicated positive RVF serology in several species of wild ungulate in or near areas flagged as being at risk for RVF. Our results establish the need to continue and expand sero-surveillance of wildlife species Kenya and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa to further calibrate and improve the RVF risk model, and better understand the dynamics of RVFV transmission.

  3. Inter-Rifting and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in a Propagating Ridge System: A Geodetic Study from South Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, M. E.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a slow spreading (~19 mm/yr) mid-ocean ridge boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates, is exposed subaerially in Iceland as the result of ridge-hotspot interaction. Plate spreading in Iceland is accommodated along neovolcanic zones comprised of central volcanoes and their fissure swarms. In south Iceland plate motion is partitioned between the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) and Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The EVZ is propagating to the southwest, while the WVZ is dying out from the northeast. Plate motion across both systems has been accommodated by repeated rifting events and fissure eruptions. In this study we investigate whether the WVZ is active and accumulating strain, and how strain is partitioned between the WVZ and EVZ. We also test how strain is accumulating along fissure swarms within the EVZ (i.e. is strain accumulation localized to one fissure swarm, or are multiple systems active?). We use GPS data and elastic block models run using the program DEFNODE to investigate these issues. GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and have been truncated to the 2000.5-2011 time period to avoid co-seismic displacement from the two June 2000 South Iceland Seismic Zone earthquakes. We also truncate the time series for sites within 20 km of Eyjafjallajökull to the beginning of 2010 to eliminate deformation associated with the March 2010 eruption of that volcano. We correct for co-seismic displacement from the two May 2008 SISZ earthquakes, inflation at Hekla volcano and the horizontal component of glacial isostatic rebound (GIA). Our best-fit model for inter-rifting and inter-seismic elastic strain accumulation suggests 80-90% of spreading is accommodated in the EVZ with the other 10-20% accommodated by the WVZ. The best-fit location of the EVZ is between Veidivotn and Lakigigar in an area of no Holocene volcanic activity. We suggest the WVZ is only active at Hengill and its associated fissure swarm. Geologic and

  4. Integrated Remote Sensing and Geophysical Investigations of the Geodynamic Activities at Lake Magadi, Southern Kenyan Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinola Adesuji Komolafe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic lineaments and thermal structure of Lake Magadi, southern Kenyan rift system, were investigated using ASTER data and geophysical methods. Five N-S faults close to known hot springs were identified for geoelectric ground investigation. Aeromagnetic data were employed to further probe faults at greater depths and determine the Curie-point depth. Results indicate a funnel-shaped fluid-filled (mostly saline hydrothermal zone with relatively low resistivity values of less than 1 Ω-m, separated by resistive structures to the west and east, to a depth of 75 m along the resistivity profiles. There was evidence of saline hydrothermal fluid flow toward the surface through the fault splays. The observed faults extend from the surface to a depth of 7.5 km and are probably the ones that bound the graben laterally. They serve as major conduits for the upward heat flux in the study area. The aeromagnetics spectral analysis also revealed heat source emplacement at a depth of about 12 km. The relative shallowness implies a high geothermal gradient evidenced in the surface manifestations of hot springs along the lake margins. Correlation of the heat source with the hypocenters showed that the seismogenetic zone exists directly above the magmatic intrusion, forming the commencement of geodynamic activities.

  5. Thermomechanical Controls on the Success and Failure of Continental Rift Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of long-term continental rift evolution are often biased towards rifts that succeed in breaking the continent like the North Atlantic, South China Sea, or South Atlantic rifts. However there are many prominent rift systems on Earth where activity stopped before the formation of a new ocean basin such as the North Sea, the West and Central African Rifts, or the West Antarctic Rift System. The factors controlling the success and failure of rifts can be divided in two groups: (1) Intrinsic processes - for instance frictional weakening, lithospheric thinning, shear heating or the strain-dependent growth of rift strength by replacing weak crust with strong mantle. (2) External processes - such as a change of plate divergence rate, the waning of a far-field driving force, or the arrival of a mantle plume. Here I use numerical and analytical modeling to investigate the role of these processes for the success and failure of rift systems. These models show that a change of plate divergence rate under constant force extension is controlled by the non-linearity of lithospheric materials. For successful rifts, a strong increase in divergence velocity can be expected to take place within few million years, a prediction that agrees with independent plate tectonic reconstructions of major Mesozoic and Cenozoic ocean-forming rift systems. Another model prediction is that oblique rifting is mechanically favored over orthogonal rifting, which means that simultaneous deformation within neighboring rift systems of different obliquity and otherwise identical properties will lead to success and failure of the more and less oblique rift, respectively. This can be exemplified by the Cretaceous activity within the Equatorial Atlantic and the West African Rifts that lead to the formation of a highly oblique oceanic spreading center and the failure of the West African Rift System. While in nature the circumstances of rift success or failure may be manifold, simplified numerical and

  6. Origin and structural evolution of the Cenozoic Rift System of Southeastern Brazil; Origem e evolucao estrutural do Sistema de Riftes Cenozoicos do Sudeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalan, Pedro Victor [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). E e P. Gerencia de Gestao de Projetos Exploratorios], E-mail: zalan@petrobras.com.br; Oliveira, Joao Alberto Bach de

    2005-05-15

    The southeastern region of Brazil did not constitute a typical passive margin as one would expect from the premises of Plate Tectonics. After 25 m.y. that rifting (134-114 Ma) ceased an uplift of epeirogenic nature of the continental crust started in response to the drifting of the South American Plate over a thermal anomaly (Trindade hot spot). This Late Cretaceous (89-65 Ma) uplift was accompanied by intense alkaline (over non-extended crust) and basaltic (over thinned crust) magmatism. A marked absence of tectonism, however, also characterized this event. The resulting highlands extended over 300 000 km{sup 2} (Cretaceous Serra do Mar), and they were the main source area for coniacian-maastrichtian sediments of the Santos, Campos and Parana Basins. By the end of the rising (exactly at the K/T boundary) a widespread erosional surface had developed (Japi Surface) and leveled the top of the highlands at around 2 000 m (in relation to present-day sea level). This mega-plateau was adjacent to the subsiding Santos and Campos Basins and created an isostatically unstable situation. Gravitational collapse began around 7 m.y. after K/T, towards the depocenters of the basins. From Late Paleocene to Early Miocene (58-20 Ma) the continental crust broke and collapsed into a series of grabens, thus forming corridors (rifts) parallel to the current coastline. The ancient eastern edge of the Cretaceous Serra do Mar coincided with the current cretaceous hinge line of the Santos and Campos Basins. The topographic remnants of the mega-plateau nowadays form the highest parts of the Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar Ranges, modified by elastic rebound and tilting of the fault blocks. (author)

  7. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  8. Replacement of benthic communities in two Neoproterozoic-Cambrian subtropical-to-temperate rift basins, High Atlas and Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Sébastien; Álvaro, J. Javier; Zamora, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    The ‘Cambrian explosion’ is often introduced as a major shift in benthic marine communities with a coeval decline of microbial consortia related to the diversification of metazoans and development of bioturbation (‘Agronomic Revolution’). Successive community replacements have been reported along with ecosystem diversification and increase in guild complexity from Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times. This process is recorded worldwide but with regional diachroneities, some of them directly controlled by the geodynamic conditions of sedimentary basins. The southern High Atlas and Anti-Atlas of Morocco record development of two rifts, Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian and latest Ediacarian-Cambrian in age, separated by the onset of the Pan-African Orogeny. This tectonically controlled, regional geodynamic change played a primary control on pattern and timing of benthic ecosystem replacements. Benthic communities include microbial consortia, archaeocyathan-thromboid reefal complexes, chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows, and deeper offshore echinoderm-dominated communities. Microbial consortia appeared in deeper parts of the Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian fluvio-deltaic progradational rift sequences, lacustrine environments of the Ediacaran Volcanic Atlasic Chain (Ouarzazate Supergroup) and the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary interval, characterized by the peritidal-dominated Tifnout Member (Adoudou Formation). They persisted and were largely significant until Cambrian Age 3, as previous restricted marine conditions precluded the immigration of shelly metazoans in the relatively shallow epeiric parts of the Cambrian Atlas Rift. Successive Cambrian benthic communities were replaced as a result of distinct hydrodynamic and substrate conditions, which allow identification of biotic (e.g., antagonistic relationships between microbial consortia and echinoderms, and taphonomic feedback patterns in chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows) and abiotic (e.g., rifting

  9. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  10. Immune status of perpons taking part in accident effect elimination and personnel of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone according to the data of 5-year monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oradovskaya, I.V.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical-immunological surveillance of persons taking part in accident effect elimination realized 5 years later has shown that the most characteristic clinical symptocomplex for the persons examined remains the syndrome of increased fatiguability. Supression of the immune status cell link expressed in lowering the mean values of T-lymphocytes is revealed for the persons examined 5 years later. It may be supposed that the fifth year is the critical period in which T-cell immune deficits develop for more than one third of persons subjected to the effects of the complex of severe radiation accident factors. 5 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. Más allá del valle del Rift: la evidencia arqueológica del Plio-Pleistoceno fuera de África Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la TORRE SÁINZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La mayor parte de los trabajos sobre la arqueología del Plio-Pleistoceno en Africa se centran en la evidencia del valle del Rift. Allí existen extensas columnas crono-estratigráficas que permiten contextualizar de forma fiable los conjuntos arqueo-paleontológicos y reconstruir así la secuencia evolutiva de nuestro género. Se suele obviar de esa forma la evidencia del resto de África, donde existen grandes áreas sedimentarias muy poco conocidas desde un punto de vista arqueológico. En este trabajo se reflexionará sobre el registro arqueológico plio-pleistocénico en las zonas alejadas del valle del Rift, y se tratará de reconstruir cómo fue la primera colonización del continente africano.ABSTRACT: Most of the works about the African Plio-Pleistocene are focused on the Rift Valley evidence. In this area there are long chrono-stratigraphical columns that build reliable contexts for the archaeo-paleontological sites, providing the reconstruction of the evolutionary sequence of our Genus. Evidence on the rest of Africa, where there are poor-known sedimentary areas from an archaeological point of view, is usually dismissed. In this work we will reflect on the Plio-Pleistocene record beyond the Rift Valley, trying to reconstruct the first settlement of the African continent.

  12. Fault-Magma Interactions during Early Continental Rifting: Seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A.; Oliva, S. J.; Ebinger, C.; Aman, M.; Lambert, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Tiberi, C.; Muirhead, J.

    2017-12-01

    Although magmatism may occur during the earliest stages of continental rifting, its role in strain accommodation remains weakly constrained by largely 2D studies. We analyze seismicity data from a 13-month, 39-station broadband seismic array to determine the role of magma intrusion on state-of-stress and strain localization, and their along-strike variations. Precise earthquake locations using cluster analyses and a new 3D velocity model reveal lower crustal earthquakes along projections of steep border faults that degas CO2. Seismicity forms several disks interpreted as sills at 6-10 km below a monogenetic cone field. The sills overlie a lower crustal magma chamber that may feed eruptions at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. After determining a new ML scaling relation, we determine a b-value of 0.87 ± 0.03. Focal mechanisms for 66 earthquakes, and a longer time period of relocated earthquakes from global arrays reveal an along-axis stress rotation of 50 o ( N150 oE) in the magmatically active zone. Using Kostrov summation of local and teleseismic mechanisms, we find opening directions of N122ºE and N92ºE north and south of the magmatically active zone. The stress rotation facilitates strain transfer from border fault systems, the locus of early stage deformation, to the zone of magma intrusion in the central rift. Our seismic, structural, and geochemistry results indicate that frequent lower crustal earthquakes are promoted by elevated pore pressures from volatile degassing along border faults, and hydraulic fracture around the margins of magma bodies. Earthquakes are largely driven by stress state around inflating magma bodies, and more dike intrusions with surface faulting, eruptions, and earthquakes are expected.

  13. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  14. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  15. Signature recognition for rift structures of different sediment strata in ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xigang

    2006-10-01

    The rift structure weak information of high Bouguer gravity anomaly data among different Sediment strata are extracted By the horizontal gradient Maximum modulus, the wavelet variation, stripped gravity anomaly of basement and interfaces above/under researched layer, image processing method. So the linear rift structures of different Sediment strata are recognized on data images, such as Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian and Carboniferous, Ordovician System. Development rifts of different Sediment strata occur in stereo structure with quasi-uniform spacing, the rift density of above Sediment stratum is more than lower in different Sediment strata, but the north rift density of the same Sediment stratum is less than south's. It is useful to study rift structure and co-explore for oil, gas, coal and uranium resources in Ordos Basin. (authors)

  16. Correlation of Plio Pleistocene Tephra in Ethiopian and Kenyan rift basins: Temporal calibration of geological features and hominid fossil records

    Science.gov (United States)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Katoh, Shigehiro; Beyene, Yonas; Suwa, Gen

    2005-10-01

    The 200-m-thick fossiliferous Konso Formation and overlying terrace deposits, which crop out at the end of the southern sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), contain more than 30 distal tephra layers. Local and regional tephra correlations of more than 20 tephra units were established using major and trace element data of discrete and purified bulk glass samples within the Konso study area. Eleven correlative marker tuffs were recognized in stratigraphic sections of both the Konso Formation and the Omo-Turkana Basin sediments in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. The Turoha, Hope, Ivory, Bright White, and Boleshe Tuffs in the Konso Formation, and the Upper White Tuff in the overlying terrace deposits are securely correlated with the KBS, Akait, Lokapetamoi, Chari, Lower Nariokotome, and Silbo Tuffs of the Omo-Turkana Basin, using least mobile major elements (CaO, Fe 2O 3*, and TiO 2) and geochronology. Preliminary correlations are also suggested between the Konso Formation distal tephra and proximal units of the Quaternary caldera-forming silicic centers in the central sector of the MER. The strongly peralkaline tuffs of the Konso Formation are compositionally similar to proximal eruptions mostly located along the Quaternary axial rift zone of the southern, central, and northern sectors of the MER. The tephra correlation provides information about the temporal and spatial features of the volcanic and tectonic processes recorded in the evolving basins. Thickness and sedimentation rate were determined for both the Konso Formation and the Omo-Turkana Basin sections, measured between the Turoha (=KBS; 1.91 ± 0.03 Ma) and the Bright White (=Chari; 1.40 ± 0.02 Ma) Tuffs. Although the lithostratigraphic sequence at the Konso study area is younger, sedimentation rate within the Konso Formation was comparable to that of the Koobi Fora Formation, higher in the Nachukui Formation, and lower in the Shungura Formation. Local and regional differences in thickness and

  17. Latest Miocene transtensional rifting of northeast Isla Tiburón, eastern margin of the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott E. K.; Oskin, Michael E.; Iriondo, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Details about the timing and kinematics of rifting are crucial to understand the conditions that led to strain localization, continental rupture, and formation of the Gulf of California ocean basin. We integrate detailed geologic and structural mapping, basin analysis, and geochronology to characterize transtensional rifting on northeastern Isla Tiburón, a proximal onshore exposure of the rifted North America margin, adjacent to the axis of the Gulf of California. Slip on the Kunkaak normal fault tilted its hanging wall down-to-the-east 70° and formed the non-marine Tecomate basin, deposited across a 20° angular unconformity. From 7.1-6.4 Ma, the hanging wall tilted at 35 ± 5°/Myr, while non-marine sandstone and conglomerate accumulated at 1.4 ± 0.2 mm/yr. At least 1.8 ± 0.1 km of sediments and pyroclastic deposits accumulated in the Tecomate basin concurrent with clockwise vertical-axis block rotation and 2.8 km of total dip-slip motion on the Kunkaak fault. Linear extrapolation of tilting and sedimentation rates suggests that faulting and basin deposition initiated 7.6-7.4 Ma, but an older history involving initially slower rates is permissible. The Kunkaak fault and Tecomate basin are truncated by NW-striking, dextral-oblique structures, including the Yawassag fault, which accrued > 8 km of post-6.4 Ma dextral displacement. The Coastal Sonora fault zone on mainland Sonora, which accrued several tens of kilometers of late Miocene dextral offset, continues to the northwest, across northeastern Isla Tiburón and offshore into the Gulf of California. The establishment of rapid, latest Miocene transtension in the Coastal Sonora fault zone was synchronous with the 8-7 Ma onset of transform faulting and basin formation along the nascent Pacific-North America plate boundary throughout northwestern Mexico and southern California. Plate boundary strain localized into this Gulf of California shear zone, a narrow transtensional belt that subsequently hosted the

  18. Fluid flow and permeabilities in basement fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinsworth, Allan; Koehn, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Fault zones are important sites for crustal fluid flow, specifically where they cross-cut low permeability host rocks such as granites and gneisses. Fluids migrating through fault zones can cause rheology changes, mineral precipitation and pore space closure, and may alter the physical and chemical properties of the host rock and deformation products. It is therefore essential to consider the evolution of permeability in fault zones at a range of pressure-temperature conditions to understand fluid migration throughout a fault's history, and how fluid-rock interaction modifies permeability and rheological characteristics. Field localities in the Rwenzori Mountains, western Uganda and the Outer Hebrides, north-west Scotland, have been selected for field work and sample collection. Here Archaean-age TTG gneisses have been faulted within the upper 15km of the crust and have experienced fluid ingress. The Rwenzori Mountains are an anomalously uplifted horst-block located in a transfer zone in the western rift of the East African Rift System. The north-western ridge is characterised by a tectonically simple western flank, where the partially mineralised Bwamba Fault has detached from the Congo craton. Mineralisation is associated with hydrothermal fluids heated by a thermal body beneath the Semliki rift, and has resulted in substantial iron oxide precipitation within porous cataclasites. Non-mineralised faults further north contain foliated gouges and show evidence of leaking fluids. These faults serve as an analogue for faults associated with the Lake Albert oil and gas prospects. The Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (OHFZ) was largely active during the Caledonian Orogeny (ca. 430-400 Ma) at a deeper crustal level than the Ugandan rift faults. Initial dry conditions were followed by fluid ingress during deformation that controlled its rheological behaviour. The transition also altered the existing permeability. The OHFZ is a natural laboratory in which to study brittle fault

  19. Rhyolites associated to Ethiopian CFB: Clues for initial rifting at the Afar plume axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi; Bianchini, Gianluca; Siena, Franca

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive tectono-magmatic model based on new geochemical and field data is discussed in order to highlight the significance of the high-TiO 2 bimodal picrite basalt/rhyolite association in the north-eastern sector of the Ethiopian Plateau, which is considered to be the axial zone of the 30 Ma Continental Flood Basalt activity related to the Afar plume (Beccaluva et al., 2009). In this area the volcanic sequence consists of approximately 1700 m of high TiO 2 (4-6.5%) picrite basalts, covered by rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas, with an average thickness of 300 m, which discontinuously extend over an area of nearly 13,500 km 2 (ca. 3600 km 3). Petrogenetic modelling, using rock and mineral chemical data and phase equilibria calculations by PELE and MELTS, indicates that: 1) picrite basalts could generate rhyolitic, sometimes peralkaline, residual melts with persistently high titanium contents (TiO 2 0.4-1.1%; Fluorine 0.2-0.3%; H 2O 2-3%; density ca. 2.4) corresponding to liquid fractions 9-16%; 2) closed system fractional crystallisation processes developed at 0.1-0.3 GPa pressure and 1390-750 °C temperature ranges, under QFM fO 2 conditions; 3) the highest crystallisation rate - involving 10-13% of Fe-Ti oxide removal - in the temperature range 1070-950 °C, represents a transitory (short-lived) fractionation stage, which results in the absence of erupted silica intermediate products (Daly gap). The eruption of low aspect ratio fluorine-rich rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas capping the basic volcanics implies a rapid change from open- to closed-system tectono-magmatic conditions, which favoured the trapping of parental picrite basalts and their fractionation in upwardly zoned magma chambers. This evolution resulted from the onset of continental rifting, which was accompanied by normal faulting and block tilting, and the formation of shallow - N-S elongated - fissural chambers parallel to the future Afar Escarpment. The eruption of large volumes of rhyolitic

  20. The role of magmatic loads and rift jumps in generating seaward dipping reflectors on volcanic rifted margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, W. Roger

    2017-05-01

    The largest volcanic constructs on Earth are the seismically imaged seaward dipping reflector (SDR) units found offshore of many rifted continental margins, including most that border the Atlantic Ocean. Whether their formation requires large magnitude (i.e. 10 s of km) of normal fault slip or results from the deflection of the lithosphere by the weight of volcanic flows is controversial. Though there is evidence for faulting associated with some SDRs, this paper considers the range of structures that can be produced by magmatic and volcanic loading alone. To do this an idealized mechanical model for the construction of rift-related volcanic flow structures is developed. Dikes open as plates move away from the center of a model rift and volcanic flows fill the depression produced by the load caused by dike solidification. The thin elastic plate flexure approximation allows a closed form description of the shape of both the contacts between flows and between the flows and underlying dikes. The model depends on two independent parameters: the flexure parameter, α, and the maximum isostatically supported extrusive layer thickness, w0. For reasonable values of these parameters the model reproduces the observed down-dip thickening of flows and the range of reflector dip angles. A numerical scheme using the analytic results allows simulation of the effect of temporal changes in the locus of magmatic spreading as well as changes in the amount of volcanic infill. Either jumps in the location of the center of diking or periods with no volcanism result in separate units or "packages" of model SDRs, in which the flow-dike contact dips landward, consistent with observations previously attributed only to listric normal fault offset. When jumps in the spreading center are small (i.e. less than α) they result in thicker, narrower volcanic units on one side of a rift compared to those on the other side. This is similar to the asymmetric distributions of volcanic packages seen

  1. Analysis of the pre-rift/rifte transition interval (Serraria and Barra de Itiuba formations) from the Sergipe-Alagoas basin; Analise da secao de transicao pre-rifte/rifte (formacoes Serraria e Barra de Itiuba) da Bacia Sergipe-Alagoas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, C.B.; Mizusaki, A.M.P. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: camilita@terra.com.br; ana.misuzaki@ufrgs.br; Garcia, A.J.V. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: garcia@euler.unisinos.br

    2003-07-01

    The pre-rift/rift transition is represented by the Serraria and Barra de Itiuba formations. This interval was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative descriptions of cores, electric log analysis and studies of outcropping sections. The integration of surface and subsurface data allowed the stratigraphic characterization of sandstone bodies in the pre-rift/rift. These sandstones bodies were deposited by fluvial braided, lacustrine and deltaic systems (delta plain, delta front and pro delta). The sedimentary deposits characterized in the Serraria Formation are of channel, flooding of the fluvial system and eolic. The upper interval of this formation is characterized by to coarse medium-grained sandstones identified as the Caioba Sandstone. The Barra de Itiuba Formation contains lake, pro delta, frontal bar, distributary mouth, crevasse and distributary channel deposits. The sandstone units were specifically characterized in terms of their potential reservoir quality, and they were characterized the reservoirs R1 (good to medium quality) and Caioba (good quality) from the pre-rift phase, and reservoirs R2 (medium quality) and R3 (medium to good quality) from the rift phase. The reservoirs from pre-rift phase phase show the better reservoirs quality potential of the pre-rift/rift transition in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. (author)

  2. 78 FR 15883 - Standard Time Zone Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...] RIN 2105-AE20 Standard Time Zone Boundaries AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... time zone boundaries regulations to reflect changes that Congress made to the Uniform Time Act. The... regulations on standard time zone boundaries, 49 CFR Part 71, need to be updated in order to ensure their...

  3. Venus - Limited extension and volcanism along zones of lithospheric weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    Three global-scale zones of possible tectonic origin are described as occurring along broad, low rises within the Equatorial Highlands on Venus (lat 50 deg N to 50 deg S, long 60 deg to 310 deg). The two longest of these tectonic zones, the Aphrodite-Beta and Themis-Atla zones, extend for 21,000 and 14,000 km, respectively. Several lines of evidence indicate that Beta and Atla Regiones, located at the only two intersections of the three major tectonic zones, are dynamically supported volcanic terranes associated with currently active volcanism. Rift valleys south of Aphrodite Terra and between Beta and Phoebe Regiones are characterized by 75- to 100-km widths, raised rims, and extensions of only a few tens of kilometers, about the same magnitudes as in continental rifts on the earth. Horizontal extension on Venus was probably restricted by an early choking-off of plate motion by high crustal and upper-mantle temperatures, and the subsequent loss of water and an asthenosphere.

  4. Coastal zone