WorldWideScience

Sample records for rift valley fever virus

  1. Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. ..... Krockel, U., Rose, A., Eiras, A.E. & Geier, M. (2006) New tools for surveillance of adult yellow fever ... baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in ...

  2. Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated mosquito sampling techniques with two types of traps and attractants at different time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. The study was conducted in six villages in Ngorongoro district in Tanzania from September to October 2012. A total of 1814 mosquitoes were collected, of which 738 ...

  3. Electron microscopic identification of Zinga virus as a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, O D; Baigent, C L; Mueller, G; Tomori, O; Schmitz, H

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of a negatively stained suspension of Zinga virus showed particles 90-100 nm in diameter, enveloped with spikes 12-20 nm in length and 5 nm in diameter. Further identification of the virus by immune electron microscopy showed the reactivity of human Rift Valley fever virus-positive serum with Zinga virus. Results of this study are in agreement with earlier reports that Zinga virus is a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

  4. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 68783 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus AGENCY: Centers for Disease..., filed 12/21/2007, entitled ``Development of Rift Valley Fever Virus Utilizing Reverse Genetics,'' US... (RVF) Viruses and Method of Use,'' PCT Application PCT/US2008/ 087023, filed 12/16/2008, entitled...

  6. Restriction of Rift Valley Fever Virus Virulence in Mosquito Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja R. Gerrard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses are maintained in a natural cycle that requires blood-sucking arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses are believed to persistently infect their arthropod host without overt pathology and cause acute infection with viremia in their vertebrate host. We have focused on elucidating how a specific arbovirus, Rift Valley fever (RVF virus, causes cytopathic effect in cells derived from vertebrates and non-cytopathic infection in cells derived from arthropods. We demonstrate that the vertebrate virulence factor, NSs, is functional in arthropod cells but is expressed at significantly lower levels in infected arthropod versus infected vertebrate cells.

  7. 77 FR 68783 - Prospective Grant of Co-Exclusive License: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Grant of Co-Exclusive License: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus AGENCY: Centers for... Valley Fever Virus Utilizing Reverse Genetics,'' US Provisional Application 61/042,987, filed 4/7/2008, entitled ``Recombinant Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Viruses and Method of Use,'' PCT Application PCT/US2008...

  8. Interventions Against West Nile Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus: Where Are We?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.; Ergonul, O.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    ARBO-ZOONET is an international network financed by the European Commission's seventh framework program. The major goal of this initiative is capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases, with a clear focus on West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and

  9. Rift Valley fever virus infection in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionna Scharton

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a formidable pathogen that causes severe disease and abortion in a variety of livestock species and a range of disease in humans that includes hemorrhagic fever, fulminant hepatitis, encephalitis and blindness. The natural transmission cycle involves mosquito vectors, but exposure can also occur through contact with infected fluids and tissues. The lack of approved antiviral therapies and vaccines for human use underlies the importance of small animal models for proof-of-concept efficacy studies. Several mouse and rat models of RVFV infection have been well characterized and provide useful systems for the study of certain aspects of pathogenesis, as well as antiviral drug and vaccine development. However, certain host-directed therapeutics may not act on mouse or rat pathways. Here, we describe the natural history of disease in golden Syrian hamsters challenged subcutaneously with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Peracute disease resulted in rapid lethality within 2 to 3 days of RVFV challenge. High titer viremia and substantial viral loads were observed in most tissues examined; however, histopathology and immunostaining for RVFV antigen were largely restricted to the liver. Acute hepatocellular necrosis associated with a strong presence of viral antigen in the hepatocytes indicates that fulminant hepatitis is the likely cause of mortality. Further studies to assess the susceptibility and disease progression following respiratory route exposure are warranted. The use of the hamsters to model RVFV infection is suitable for early stage antiviral drug and vaccine development studies.

  10. Innate Immune Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfon, Charles K.; Marszal, Peter; Zhang, Shunzhen; Weingartl, Hana M.

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a re-emerging mosquito-borne disease of ruminants and man, was endemic in Africa but spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen, meaning it could spread even further. Little is known about innate and cell-mediated immunity to RVF virus (RVFV) in ruminants, which is knowledge required for adequate vaccine trials. We therefore studied these aspects in experimentally infected goats. We also compared RVFV grown in an insect cell-line and that grown in a mammalian cell-line for differences in the course of infection. Goats developed viremia one day post infection (DPI), which lasted three to four days and some goats had transient fever coinciding with peak viremia. Up to 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were positive for RVFV. Monocytes and dendritic cells in PBMCs declined possibly from being directly infected with virus as suggested by in vitro exposure. Infected goats produced serum IFN-γ, IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines but not IFN-α. Despite the lack of IFN-α, innate immunity via the IL-12 to IFN-γ circuit possibly contributed to early protection against RVFV since neutralising antibodies were detected after viremia had cleared. The course of infection with insect cell-derived RVFV (IN-RVFV) appeared to be different from mammalian cell-derived RVFV (MAM-RVFV), with the former attaining peak viremia faster, inducing fever and profoundly affecting specific immune cell subpopulations. This indicated possible differences in infections of ruminants acquired from mosquito bites relative to those due to contact with infectious material from other animals. These differences need to be considered when testing RVF vaccines in laboratory settings. PMID:22545170

  11. Acid-activated structural reorganization of the Rift Valley fever virus Gc fusion protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de S.M.; Kortekaas, J.A.; Spel, L.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Bosch, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Entry of the enveloped Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) into its host cell is mediated by the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc. We investigated the RVFV entry process and its pH-dependent activation mechanism in particular using our recently developed nonspreading RVFV particle system. Entry of the virus

  12. Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus from European-breed lambs to Culex pipiens mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloet, Rianka P.M.; Vogels, Chantal B.F.; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Eiden, Martin; Gonzales, Jose L.; Keulen, van Lucien J.M.; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus of the genus Phlebovirus that is highly pathogenic to ruminants and humans. The disease is currently confined to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but globalization and climate change may facilitate introductions of the virus

  13. Spread and Control of Rift Valley Fever virus after accidental introduction in the Netherlands: a modelling study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, E.A.J.; Boender, G.J.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Nodelijk, G.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a zoonotic vector-borne infection and causes a potentially severe disease in both humans and young animals. The Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (EL&I) is interested in the risk of an outbreak of Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) for the

  14. Effect of environmental temperature on the vector competence of mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental temperature has been shown to affect the ability of mosquitoes to transmit numerous arboviruses and for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in particular. We evaluated the effect of incubation temperatures ranging from 14-26ºC on infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for Culex ta...

  15. Vertical transmission of Rift Valley Fever Virus without detectable maternal viremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.; Kortekaas, J.A.; Kant-Eenbergen, H.C.M.; Vloet, R.P.M.; Vogel-Brink, A.; Stockhofe, N.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic bunyavirus that causes abortions in domesticated ruminants. Sheep breeds exotic to endemic areas are reportedly the most susceptible to RVFV infection. Within the scope of a risk assessment program of The Netherlands, we investigated the susceptibility of

  16. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of Rift Valley fever virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Michael B.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Watowich, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae; Phlebovirus) is an emerging human veterinary pathogen causing acute hepatitis in ruminants and has the potential to Single-particle cryo-EM reconstruction of RVFV MP-12 hemorrhagic fever in humans. We report a three-dimensional reconstruction of RVFV vaccine strain MP-12 (RVFV MP-12) by cryo-electron microcopy using icosahedral symmetry of individual virions. Although the genomic core of RVFV MP-12 is apparently poorly ordered, the glycoproteins on...

  17. Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine encoding Toscana virus NSs retains neuroinvasiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, Sabarish V; Lihoradova, Olga A; Phoenix, Inaia; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Kalveram, Birte; Head, Jennifer A; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Smith, Jennifer K; Zhang, Lihong; Juelich, Terry L; Gong, Bin; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) causes high rates of abortion and fetal malformation in pregnant ruminants, and haemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans. The MP-12 strain is a highly efficacious and safe live-attenuated vaccine candidate for both humans and ruminants. However, MP-12 lacks a marker to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. In this study, we originally aimed to characterize the efficacy of a recombinant RVFV MP-12 strain encoding Toscana virus (TOSV) NSs gene in place of MP-12 NSs (rMP12-TOSNSs). TOSV NSs promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and inhibits interferon-β gene up-regulation without suppressing host general transcription. Unexpectedly, rMP12-TOSNSs increased death in vaccinated outbred mice and inbred BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice. Immunohistochemistry showed diffusely positive viral antigens in the thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem, including the medulla. No viral antigens were detected in spleen or liver, which is similar to the antigen distribution of moribund mice infected with MP-12. These results suggest that rMP12-TOSNSs retains neuroinvasiveness in mice. Our findings demonstrate that rMP12-TOSNSs causes neuroinvasion without any hepatic disease and will be useful for studying the neuroinvasion mechanism of RVFV and TOSV.

  18. Neutralizing antibodies against flaviviruses, Babanki virus, and Rift Valley fever virus in Ugandan bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, Rebekah C; Kityo, Robert M; Mossel, Eric C; Borland, Erin M; Nakayiki, Teddie; Nalikka, Betty; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Panella, Nicholas A; Gilbert, Amy T; Crabtree, Mary B; Peterhans, Julian Kerbis; Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Nichol, Stuart T; Powers, Ann M; Lutwama, Julius J; Miller, Barry R

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: A number of arboviruses have previously been isolated from naturally-infected East African bats, however the role of bats in arbovirus maintenance is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure history of Ugandan bats to a panel of arboviruses. Materials and methods: Insectivorous and fruit bats were captured from multiple locations throughout Uganda during 2009 and 2011-2013. All serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), Zika virus (ZIKV), Babanki virus (BBKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Sera from up to 626 bats were screened for antibodies against each virus. Results and Discussion:  Key findings include the presence of neutralizing antibodies against RVFV in 5/52 (9.6%) of little epauletted fruit bats ( Epomophorus labiatus ) captured from Kawuku and 3/54 (5.6%) Egyptian rousette bats from Kasokero cave. Antibodies reactive to flaviviruses were widespread across bat taxa and sampling locations. Conclusion: The data presented demonstrate the widespread exposure of bats in Uganda to arboviruses, and highlight particular virus-bat associations that warrant further investigation.

  19. Potential for Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From Florida to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    signiÞcant disease and economic disruption. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), whichhasbeen responsible fornumerousoutbreaksof severe disease in ruminants and...is predominately a disease of domestic ruminants (cattle, goats, and sheep), where infection in pregnant animals usually results in abortion, and...www.cdc.gov/EID/ content /13/8/e1.htm). Britch, S.C.,K. J.Linthicum,A.Anyamba,C. J.Tucker,E.W. Pak, F. A. Maloney, K. Cobb, E. Stanwix, J. Humphries, A

  20. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  1. A fusion-inhibiting peptide against Rift Valley fever virus inhibits multiple, diverse viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    Full Text Available For enveloped viruses, fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is critical for a productive infection to occur. This fusion process is mediated by at least three classes of fusion proteins (Class I, II, and III based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, the glycoprotein Gc (Class II fusion protein mediates this fusion event following entry into the endocytic pathway, allowing the viral genome access to the cell cytoplasm. Here, we show that peptides analogous to the RVFV Gc stem region inhibited RVFV infectivity in cell culture by inhibiting the fusion process. Further, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (Ebola virus, Class II (Andes virus, or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus fusion proteins using this single peptide. Our findings are consistent with an inhibition mechanism similar to that proposed for stem peptide fusion inhibitors of dengue virus in which the RVFV inhibitory peptide first binds to both the virion and cell membranes, allowing it to traffic with the virus into the endocytic pathway. Upon acidification and rearrangement of Gc, the peptide is then able to specifically bind to Gc and prevent fusion of the viral and endocytic membranes, thus inhibiting viral infection. These results could provide novel insights into conserved features among the three classes of viral fusion proteins and offer direction for the future development of broadly active fusion inhibitors.

  2. Characterization of Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 strain encoding NSs of Punta Toro virus or sandfly fever Sicilian virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoradova, Olga A; Indran, Sabarish V; Kalveram, Birte; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Head, Jennifer A; Gong, Bin; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Juelich, Terry L; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen which can cause hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate of abortion in ruminants. MP-12 strain, a live-attenuated candidate vaccine, is attenuated in the M- and L-segments, but the S-segment retains the virulent phenotype. MP-12 was manufactured as an Investigational New Drug vaccine by using MRC-5 cells and encodes a functional NSs gene, the major virulence factor of RVFV which 1) induces a shutoff of the host transcription, 2) inhibits interferon (IFN)-β promoter activation, and 3) promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). MP-12 lacks a marker for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Although MP-12 lacking NSs works for DIVA, it does not replicate efficiently in type-I IFN-competent MRC-5 cells, while the use of type-I IFN-incompetent cells may negatively affect its genetic stability. To generate modified MP-12 vaccine candidates encoding a DIVA marker, while still replicating efficiently in MRC-5 cells, we generated recombinant MP-12 encoding Punta Toro virus Adames strain NSs (rMP12-PTNSs) or Sandfly fever Sicilian virus NSs (rMP12-SFSNSs) in place of MP-12 NSs. We have demonstrated that those recombinant MP-12 viruses inhibit IFN-β mRNA synthesis, yet do not promote the degradation of PKR. The rMP12-PTNSs, but not rMP12-SFSNSs, replicated more efficiently than recombinant MP-12 lacking NSs in MRC-5 cells. Mice vaccinated with rMP12-PTNSs or rMP12-SFSNSs induced neutralizing antibodies at a level equivalent to those vaccinated with MP-12, and were efficiently protected from wild-type RVFV challenge. The rMP12-PTNSs and rMP12-SFSNSs did not induce antibodies cross-reactive to anti-RVFV NSs antibody and are therefore applicable to DIVA. Thus, rMP12-PTNSs is highly efficacious, replicates efficiently in MRC-5 cells, and encodes a DIVA marker, all of which are

  3. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been isolated from more than 40 species of mosquitoes from eight genera. This study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in Ngorongoro ...

  4. Efficient cellular release of Rift Valley fever virus requires genomic RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Piper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rift Valley fever virus is responsible for periodic, explosive epizootics throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The development of therapeutics targeting this virus is difficult due to a limited understanding of the viral replicative cycle. Utilizing a virus-like particle system, we have established roles for each of the viral structural components in assembly, release, and virus infectivity. The envelope glycoprotein, Gn, was discovered to be necessary and sufficient for packaging of the genome, nucleocapsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase into virus particles. Additionally, packaging of the genome was found to be necessary for the efficient release of particles, revealing a novel mechanism for the efficient generation of infectious virus. Our results identify possible conserved targets for development of anti-phlebovirus therapies.

  5. Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outbreak Summaries RVF Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology Posters Language: English (US) French File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  6. A Novel System for Identification of Inhibitors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Mary E.; Gerrard, Sonja R.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a human and livestock pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed a T7-dependent system for the efficient production of RVFV-like particles (RVF-VLPs) based on the virulent ZH-501 strain of RVFV. The RVF-VLPs are capable of performing a single round of infection, allowing for the study of viral replication, assembly, and infectivity. We demonstrate that these RVF-VLPs are antigenically indistinguishable from authentic RVFV and respond similarly ...

  7. A Novel System for Identification of Inhibitors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Piper

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a human and livestock pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed a T7-dependent system for the efficient production of RVFV-like particles (RVF-VLPs based on the virulent ZH-501 strain of RVFV. The RVF-VLPs are capable of performing a single round of infection, allowing for the study of viral replication, assembly, and infectivity. We demonstrate that these RVF-VLPs are antigenically indistinguishable from authentic RVFV and respond similarly to a wide array of known and previously unknown chemical inhibitors. This system should be useful for screening for small molecule inhibitors of RVFV replication.

  8. A novel system for identification of inhibitors of rift valley Fever virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Mary E; Gerrard, Sonja R

    2010-03-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a human and livestock pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed a T7-dependent system for the efficient production of RVFV-like particles (RVF-VLPs) based on the virulent ZH-501 strain of RVFV. The RVF-VLPs are capable of performing a single round of infection, allowing for the study of viral replication, assembly, and infectivity. We demonstrate that these RVF-VLPs are antigenically indistinguishable from authentic RVFV and respond similarly to a wide array of known and previously unknown chemical inhibitors. This system should be useful for screening for small molecule inhibitors of RVFV replication.

  9. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Michael B; Freiberg, Alexander N; Holbrook, Michael R; Watowich, Stanley J

    2009-04-25

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae; Phlebovirus) is an emerging human and veterinary pathogen causing acute hepatitis in ruminants and has the potential to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. We report a three-dimensional reconstruction of RVFV vaccine strain MP-12 (RVFV MP-12) by cryo-electron microcopy using icosahedral symmetry of individual virions. Although the genomic core of RVFV MP-12 is apparently poorly ordered, the glycoproteins on the virus surface are highly symmetric and arranged on a T=12 icosahedral lattice. Our RVFV MP-12 structure allowed clear identification of inter-capsomer contacts and definition of possible glycoprotein arrangements within capsomers. This structure provides a detailed model for phleboviruses, opens new avenues for high-resolution structural studies of the bunyavirus family, and aids the design of antiviral diagnostics and effective subunit vaccines.

  10. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of Rift Valley fever virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, Michael B.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Watowich, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae; Phlebovirus) is an emerging human and veterinary pathogen causing acute hepatitis in ruminants and has the potential to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. We report a three-dimensional reconstruction of RVFV vaccine strain MP-12 (RVFV MP-12) by cryo-electron microcopy using icosahedral symmetry of individual virions. Although the genomic core of RVFV MP-12 is apparently poorly ordered, the glycoproteins on the virus surface are highly symmetric and arranged on a T = 12 icosahedral lattice. Our RVFV MP-12 structure allowed clear identification of inter-capsomer contacts and definition of possible glycoprotein arrangements within capsomers. This structure provides a detailed model for phleboviruses, opens new avenues for high-resolution structural studies of the bunyavirus family, and aids the design of antiviral diagnostics and effective subunit vaccines.

  11. Four-segmented Rift Valley fever virus-based vaccines can be applied safely in ewes during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; Keulen, van Lucien; Kant-Eenbergen, Jet; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe and recurrent outbreaks on the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula and continues to expand its habitat. This mosquito-borne virus, belonging to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae contains a tri-segmented negative-strand RNA

  12. Identification of a major non-structural protein in the nuclei of Rift Valley fever virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, J K; Swanepoel, R

    1982-06-01

    A non-structural protein of mol. wt. 34 X 10(3) was demonstrated in the nuclei of Rift Valley fever virus-infected Vero cells by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis. The protein appears to correspond to the virus-induced antigen demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence in intranuclear inclusions.

  13. NSs protein of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus suppresses interferon production through different mechanism than Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Zheng, B; Wang, T; Li, A; Wan, J; Qu, J; Li, C H; Li, D; Liang, M

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a newly identified Phlebovirus that causes severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Our study demonstrated that SFTSV NSs functioned as IFN antagonist mainly by suppressing TBK1/IKKε-IRF3 signaling pathway. NSs interacted with and relocalized TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) into NSs-induced cytoplasmic structures and this interaction could effectively inhibit downstream phosphorylation and dimerization of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), resulting in the suppression of antiviral signaling and IFN induction. Functional sites of SFTSV NSs binding with TBK1 were then studied and results showed that NSs had lost their IFN-inhibiting activity after deleting the 25 amino acids in N-terminal. Furthermore, the mechanism of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) NSs blocking IFN-β response were also investigated. Preliminary results showed that RVFV NSs proteins could neither interact nor co-localize with TBK1 in cytoplasm, but suppressed its expression levels, phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3 in the subsequent steps, resulting in inhibition of the IFN-β production. Altogether, our data demonstrated the probable mechanism used by SFTSV to inhibit IFN responses which was different from RVFV and pointed toward a novel mechanism for RVFV suppressing IFN responses.

  14. Experimental transmission of West Nile Virus and Rift Valley Fever Virus by Culex pipiens from Lebanon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Zakhia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV are two emerging arboviruses transmitted by Culex pipiens species that includes two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. In Lebanon, human cases caused by WNV and RVFV have never been reported. However, the introduction of these viruses in the country is likely to occur through the migratory birds and animal trades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Cx. pipiens, a predominant mosquito species in urban and rural regions in Lebanon, to transmit WNV and RVFV. Culex egg rafts were collected in the West Bekaa district, east of Lebanon and adult females of Cx. pipiens were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 1.6×108 and 1.33×107 plaque forming units (PFU/mL, respectively. We estimated viral infection, dissemination and transmission at 3, 7, 14 and 19 days post infection (dpi. Results showed that infection was higher for WNV than for RVFV from 3 dpi to 19 dpi. Viral dissemination and transmission started from 3 dpi for WNV; and only from 19 dpi for RVFV. Moreover, Cx. pipiens were able to excrete in saliva a higher number of viral particles of WNV (1028 ± 405 PFU/saliva at 19 dpi than RVFV (42 PFU/saliva at 19 dpi. Cx. pipiens from Lebanon are efficient experimental vectors of WNV and to a lower extent, RVFV. These findings should stimulate local authorities to establish an active entomological surveillance in addition to animal surveys for both viruses in the country.

  15. Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein functions and the similarity to other bunyavirus NSs proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Hoai J; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-07-02

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that affects both ruminants and humans. The nonstructural (NS) protein, which is a major virulence factor for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), is encoded on the S-segment. Through the cullin 1-Skp1-Fbox E3 ligase complex, the NSs protein promotes the degradation of at least two host proteins, the TFIIH p62 and the PKR proteins. NSs protein bridges the Fbox protein with subsequent substrates, and facilitates the transfer of ubiquitin. The SAP30-YY1 complex also bridges the NSs protein with chromatin DNA, affecting cohesion and segregation of chromatin DNA as well as the activation of interferon-β promoter. The presence of NSs filaments in the nucleus induces DNA damage responses and causes cell-cycle arrest, p53 activation, and apoptosis. Despite the fact that NSs proteins have poor amino acid similarity among bunyaviruses, the strategy utilized to hijack host cells are similar. This review will provide and summarize an update of recent findings pertaining to the biological functions of the NSs protein of RVFV as well as the differences from those of other bunyaviruses.

  16. Ecological niche modelling of Rift Valley fever virus vectors in Baringo, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred O. Ochieng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has an impact on human health and animal productivity. Here, we explore the use of vector presence modelling to predict the distribution of RVF vector species under climate change scenario to demonstrate the potential for geographic spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of climate change on RVF vector distribution in Baringo County, Kenya, with an aim of developing a risk map for spatial prediction of RVF outbreaks. Methodology: The study used data on vector presence and ecological niche modelling (MaxEnt algorithm to predict the effect of climatic change on habitat suitability and the spatial distribution of RVF vectors in Baringo County. Data on species occurrence were obtained from longitudinal sampling of adult mosquitoes and larvae in the study area. We used present (2000 and future (2050 Bioclim climate databases to model the vector distribution. Results: Model results predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates for Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univitattus, Mansonia africana, and Mansonia uniformis. Under the present climatic conditions, the lowlands were found to be highly suitable for all the species. Future climatic conditions indicate an increase in the spatial distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus and M. africana. Model performance was statistically significant. Conclusion: Soil types, precipitation in the driest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and isothermality showed the highest predictive potential for the four species.

  17. Serologic evidence of exposure to Rift Valley fever virus detected in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bosworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv is capable of causing dramatic outbreaks amongst economically important animal species and is capable of causing severe symptoms and mortality in humans. RVFv is known to circulate widely throughout East Africa; serologic evidence of exposure has also been found in some northern African countries, including Mauritania. This study aimed to ascertain whether RVFv is circulating in regions beyond its known geographic range. Samples from febrile patients (n=181 and nonfebrile healthy agricultural and slaughterhouse workers (n=38 were collected during the summer of 2014 and surveyed for exposure to RVFv by both serologic tests and PCR. Of the 219 samples tested, 7.8% of nonfebrile participants showed immunoglobulin G reactivity to RVFv nucleoprotein and 8.3% of febrile patients showed immunoglobulin M reactivity, with the latter samples indicating recent exposure to the virus. Our results suggest an active circulation of RVFv and evidence of human exposure in the population of Tunisia.

  18. Mosquito host choices on livestock amplifiers of Rift Valley fever virus in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal hosts may vary in their attraction and acceptability as components of the host location process for assessing biting rates of vectors and risk of exposure to pathogens. However, these parameters remain poorly understood for mosquito vectors of the Rift Valley fever (RVF), an arboviral disease...

  19. Ultrastructural study of Rift Valley fever virus in the mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Christopher; Steele, Keith E.; Honko, Anna; Shamblin, Joshua; Hensley, Lisa E. [United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, MD (United States); Smith, Darci R., E-mail: darci.smith1@us.army.mil [United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, MD (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Detailed ultrastructural studies of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the mouse model are needed to develop and characterize a small animal model of RVF for the evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, the ultrastructural features of RVFV infection in the mouse model were analyzed. The main changes in the liver included the presence of viral particles in hepatocytes and hepatic stem cells accompanied by hepatocyte apoptosis. However, viral particles were observed rarely in the liver; in contrast, particles were extremely abundant in the CNS. Despite extensive lymphocytolysis, direct evidence of viral replication was not observed in the lymphoid tissue. These results correlate with the acute-onset hepatitis and delayed-onset encephalitis that are dominant features of severe human RVF, but suggest that host immune-mediated mechanisms contribute significantly to pathology. The results of this study expand our knowledge of RVFV-host interactions and further characterize the mouse model of RVF.

  20. A review of mosquitoes associated with Rift Valley fever virus in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Luciano M; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonotic disease occurring throughout Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Madagascar. The disease is caused by a Phlebovirus (RVF virus [RVFV]) transmitted to vertebrate hosts through the bite of infected mosquitoes. In Madagascar, the first RVFV circulation was reported in 1979 based on detection in mosquitoes but without epidemic episode. Subsequently, two outbreaks occurred: the first along the east coast and in the central highlands in 1990 and 1991 and the most recent along the northern and eastern coasts and in the central highlands in 2008 and 2009. Despite the presence of 24 mosquitoes species potentially associated with RVFV transmission in Madagascar, little associated entomological information is available. In this review, we list the RVFV vector, Culex antennatus, as well as other taxa as candidate vector species. We discuss risk factors from an entomological perspective for the re-emergence of RVF in Madagascar. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Ultrastructural study of Rift Valley fever virus in the mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Christopher; Steele, Keith E.; Honko, Anna; Shamblin, Joshua; Hensley, Lisa E.; Smith, Darci R.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed ultrastructural studies of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the mouse model are needed to develop and characterize a small animal model of RVF for the evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, the ultrastructural features of RVFV infection in the mouse model were analyzed. The main changes in the liver included the presence of viral particles in hepatocytes and hepatic stem cells accompanied by hepatocyte apoptosis. However, viral particles were observed rarely in the liver; in contrast, particles were extremely abundant in the CNS. Despite extensive lymphocytolysis, direct evidence of viral replication was not observed in the lymphoid tissue. These results correlate with the acute-onset hepatitis and delayed-onset encephalitis that are dominant features of severe human RVF, but suggest that host immune-mediated mechanisms contribute significantly to pathology. The results of this study expand our knowledge of RVFV–host interactions and further characterize the mouse model of RVF.

  2. Rift Valley fever virus: strategies for maintenance, survival and vertical transmission in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Sarah; Horton, Daniel L; Hernandez-Triana, Luis L M; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Hewson, Roger

    2017-05-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus causing severe disease in humans and ruminants. Spread of RVFV out of Africa has raised concerns that it could emerge in Europe or the USA. Virus persistence is dependent on successful infection of, replication in, and transmission to susceptible vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, modulated by virus-host and vector-virus interactions. The principal accepted theory for the long-term maintenance of RVFV involves vertical transmission (VT) of virus to mosquito progeny, with the virus surviving long inter-epizootic periods within the egg. This VT hypothesis, however, is yet to be comprehensively proven. Here, evidence for and against the VT of RVFV is reviewed along with the identification of factors limiting its detection in natural and experimental data. The observations of VT for other arboviruses in the genera Alphavirus, Flavivirus and Orthobunyavirus are discussed within the context of RVFV. The review concludes that VT of RVFV is likely but that current data are insufficient to irrefutably prove this hypothesis.

  3. Data-driven modeling to assess receptivity for Rift Valley Fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Barker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV is an enzootic virus that causes extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic ruminants in Africa, and it has shown the potential to invade other areas such as the Arabian Peninsula. Here, we develop methods for linking mathematical models to real-world data that could be used for continent-scale risk assessment given adequate data on local host and vector populations. We have applied the methods to a well-studied agricultural region of California with [Formula: see text]1 million dairy cattle, abundant and competent mosquito vectors, and a permissive climate that has enabled consistent transmission of West Nile virus and historically other arboviruses. Our results suggest that RVFV outbreaks could occur from February-November, but would progress slowly during winter-early spring or early fall and be limited spatially to areas with early increases in vector abundance. Risk was greatest in summer, when the areas at risk broadened to include most of the dairy farms in the study region, indicating the potential for considerable economic losses if an introduction were to occur. To assess the threat that RVFV poses to North America, including what-if scenarios for introduction and control strategies, models such as this one should be an integral part of the process; however, modeling must be paralleled by efforts to address the numerous remaining gaps in data and knowledge for this system.

  4. p53 Activation following Rift Valley fever virus infection contributes to cell death and viral production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Austin

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an emerging viral zoonosis that is responsible for devastating outbreaks among livestock and is capable of causing potentially fatal disease in humans. Studies have shown that upon infection, certain viruses have the capability of utilizing particular cellular signaling pathways to propagate viral infection. Activation of p53 is important for the DNA damage signaling cascade, initiation of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and transcriptional regulation of multiple genes. The current study focuses on the role of p53 signaling in RVFV infection and viral replication. These results show an up-regulation of p53 phosphorylation at several serine sites after RVFV MP-12 infection that is highly dependent on the viral protein NSs. qRT-PCR data showed a transcriptional up-regulation of several p53 targeted genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation following RVFV infection. Cell viability assays demonstrate that loss of p53 results in less RVFV induced cell death. Furthermore, decreased viral titers in p53 null cells indicate that RVFV utilizes p53 to enhance viral production. Collectively, these experiments indicate that the p53 signaling pathway is utilized during RVFV infection to induce cell death and increase viral production.

  5. Potential for North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit rift valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; Wilson, William C; Bennett, Kristine E

    2010-09-01

    To determine which arthropods should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America, we evaluated Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex erythrothorax Dyar, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex pipiens L., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Aedes dorsalis (Wiedemann), Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones from the western, midwestern, and southern United States for their ability to transmit RVFV. Female mosquitoes were allowed to feed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV, after which engorged mosquitoes were incubated for 7-21 d at 260C, then allowed to refeed on susceptible hamsters, and tested to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Other specimens were inoculated intrathoracically, held for 7 d, and then allowed to feed on a susceptible hamster to check for a salivary gland barrier. When exposed to hamsters with viremias > or =10(8.8) plaque-forming units/ml blood, Cx. tarsalis transmitted RVFV efficiently (infection rate = 93%, dissemination rate = 56%, and estimated transmission rate = 52%). In contrast, when exposed to the same virus dose, none of the other species tested transmitted RVFV efficiently. Estimated transmission rates for Cx. erythrothorax, Cx. pipiens, Cx. erraticus, and Ae. dorsalis were 10, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively, and for the remaining species were feeding preference, longevity, and foraging behavior should be considered when determining the potential role that these species could play in RVFV transmission.

  6. Identification of Rift Valley Fever Virus Nucleocapsid Protein-RNA Binding Inhibitors Using a High-Throughput Screening Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Ellenbecker, Mary; Lanchy, Jean-Marc; Lodmell, J. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging infectious pathogen that causes severe disease in humans and livestock and has the potential for global spread. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment for RVFV infection and there is no licensed vaccine. Inhibition of RNA binding to the essential viral nucleocapsid (N) protein represents a potential anti-viral therapeutic strategy because all of the functions performed by N during infection involve RNA binding. To target this interactio...

  7. Inter-epidemic abundance and distribution of potential mosquito vectors for Rift Valley fever virus in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mweya, Clement N.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.; Mellau, Lesakit S. B.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective: To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mos...

  8. Rift Valley fever virus seroprevalence in human rural populations of Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Pourrut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis caused by a phlebovirus and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Humans can also be infected through direct contact with blood (aerosols or tissues (placenta, stillborn of infected animals. Although severe clinical cases can be observed, infection with RVF virus (RVFV in humans is, in most cases, asymptomatic or causes a febrile illness without serious symptoms. In small ruminants RVFV mainly causes abortion and neonatal death. The distribution of RVFV has been well documented in many African countries, particularly in the north (Egypt, Sudan, east (Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia, west (Senegal, Mauritania and south (South Africa, but also in the Indian Ocean (Madagascar, Mayotte and the Arabian Peninsula. In contrast, the prevalence of RVFV has rarely been investigated in central African countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We therefore conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, involving 4,323 individuals from 212 randomly selected villages (10.3% of all Gabonese villages. RVFV-specific IgG was found in a total of 145 individuals (3.3% suggesting the wide circulation of Rift Valley fever virus in Gabon. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in the lakes region than in forest and savannas zones, with respective rates of 8.3%, 2.9% and 2.2%. In the lakes region, RVFV-specific IgG was significantly more prevalent in males than in females (respectively 12.8% and 3.8% and the seroprevalence increased gradually with age in males but not in females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although RVFV was suggested to circulate at a relatively high level in Gabon, no outbreaks or even isolated cases have been documented in the country. The higher prevalence in the lakes region is likely to be driven by specific ecologic conditions favorable to certain mosquito vector species. Males may be more at risk of infection than females because they spend more time farming and

  9. Seroprevalence of Infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya Viruses in Kenya, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ochieng

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007 to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV.The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2% were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive, followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively. For DENV and RVFV, the participant's province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01 with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01. These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV.

  10. Single-Molecule FISH Reveals Non-selective Packaging of Rift Valley Fever Virus Genome Segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Wichgers Schreur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bunyavirus genome comprises a small (S, medium (M, and large (L RNA segment of negative polarity. Although genome segmentation confers evolutionary advantages by enabling genome reassortment events with related viruses, genome segmentation also complicates genome replication and packaging. Accumulating evidence suggests that genomes of viruses with eight or more genome segments are incorporated into virions by highly selective processes. Remarkably, little is known about the genome packaging process of the tri-segmented bunyaviruses. Here, we evaluated, by single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the intracellular spatio-temporal distribution and replication kinetics of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV genome and determined the segment composition of mature virions. The results reveal that the RVFV genome segments start to replicate near the site of infection before spreading and replicating throughout the cytoplasm followed by translocation to the virion assembly site at the Golgi network. Despite the average intracellular S, M and L genome segments approached a 1:1:1 ratio, major differences in genome segment ratios were observed among cells. We also observed a significant amount of cells lacking evidence of M-segment replication. Analysis of two-segmented replicons and four-segmented viruses subsequently confirmed the previous notion that Golgi recruitment is mediated by the Gn glycoprotein. The absence of colocalization of the different segments in the cytoplasm and the successful rescue of a tri-segmented variant with a codon shuffled M-segment suggested that inter-segment interactions are unlikely to drive the copackaging of the different segments into a single virion. The latter was confirmed by direct visualization of RNPs inside mature virions which showed that the majority of virions lack one or more genome segments. Altogether, this study suggests that RVFV genome packaging is a non-selective process.

  11. Rift Valley fever virus epidemic in Kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Rosemary; Kioko, Elizabeth; Lutomiah, Joel; Warigia, Marion; Ochieng, Caroline; O'Guinn, Monica; Lee, John S; Koka, Hellen; Godsey, Marvin; Hoel, David; Hanafi, Hanafi; Miller, Barry; Schnabel, David; Breiman, Robert F; Richardson, Jason

    2010-08-01

    In December 2006, Rift Valley fever (RVF) was diagnosed in humans in Garissa Hospital, Kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. Entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of RVF virus (RVFV). Approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for RVFV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested positive for RVFV, including Aedes mcintoshi/circumluteolus (26 pools), Aedes ochraceus (23 pools), Mansonia uniformis (15 pools); Culex poicilipes, Culex bitaeniorhynchus (3 pools each); Anopheles squamosus, Mansonia africana (2 pools each); Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univittatus, Aedes pembaensis (1 pool each). Positive Ae. pembaensis, Cx. univittatus, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus was a first time observation. Species composition, densities, and infection varied among districts supporting hypothesis that different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVFV in diverse ecologies, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa.

  12. NSs protein of rift valley fever virus promotes posttranslational downregulation of the TFIIH subunit p62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Birte; Lihoradova, Olga; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2011-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) is an important emerging pathogen of humans and ruminants. Its NSs protein has previously been identified as a major virulence factor that suppresses host defense through three distinct mechanisms: it directly inhibits beta interferon (IFN-β) promoter activity, it promotes the degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), and it suppresses host transcription by disrupting the assembly of the basal transcription factor TFIIH through sequestration of its p44 subunit. Here, we report that in addition to PKR, NSs also promotes the degradation of the TFIIH subunit p62. Infection of cells with the RVFV MP-12 vaccine strain reduced p62 protein levels to below the detection limit early in the course of infection. This NSs-mediated downregulation of p62 was posttranslational, as it was unaffected by pharmacological inhibition of transcription or translation and MP-12 infection had no effect on p62 mRNA levels. Treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors but not inhibition of lysosomal acidification or nuclear export resulted in a stabilization of p62 in the presence of NSs. Furthermore, p62 could be coprecipitated with NSs from lysates of infected cells. These data suggest that the RVFV NSs protein is able to interact with the TFIIH subunit p62 inside infected cells and promotes its degradation, which can occur directly in the nucleus.

  13. Genetic Evidence for an Interferon-Antagonistic Function of Rift Valley Fever Virus Nonstructural Protein NSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloy, Michèle; Janzen, Christian; Vialat, Pierre; Khun, Huot; Pavlovic, Jovan; Huerre, Michel; Haller, Otto

    2001-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, is a major public health threat in Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa. The viral and host cellular factors that contribute to RVFV virulence and pathogenicity are still poorly understood. All pathogenic RVFV strains direct the synthesis of a nonstructural phosphoprotein (NSs) that is encoded by the smallest (S) segment of the tripartite genome and has an undefined accessory function. In this report, we show that MP12 and clone 13, two attenuated RVFV strains with mutations in the NSs gene, were highly virulent in IFNAR−/− mice lacking the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) receptor but remained attenuated in IFN-γ receptor-deficient mice. Both attenuated strains proved to be excellent inducers of early IFN-α/β production. In contrast, the virulent strain ZH548 failed to induce detectable amounts of IFN-α/β and replicated extensively in both IFN-competent and IFN-deficient mice. Clone 13 has a defective NSs gene with a large in-frame deletion. This defect in the NSs gene results in expression of a truncated protein which is rapidly degraded. To investigate whether the presence of the wild-type NSs gene correlated with inhibition of IFN-α/β production, we infected susceptible IFNAR−/− mice with S gene reassortant viruses. When the S segment of ZH548 was replaced by that of clone 13, the resulting reassortants became strong IFN inducers. When the defective S segment of clone 13 was exchanged with the wild-type S segment of ZH548, the reassortant virus lost the capacity to stimulate IFN-α/β production. These results demonstrate that the ability of RVFV to inhibit IFN-α/β production correlates with viral virulence and suggest that the accessory protein NSs is an IFN antagonist. PMID:11152510

  14. Rift Valley fever virus infections in Egyptian cattle and their prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, C; Gwida, M; El-Ashker, M; Ziegler, U; Homeier-Bachmann, T; Eiden, M; Groschup, M H

    2017-12-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes consistently severe outbreaks with high public health impacts and economic losses in livestock in many African countries and has also been introduced to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Egypt with its four large outbreaks in the last 40 years represents the northernmost endemic area of RVFV. The purpose of this study was to provide an insight into the current anti-RVFV antibody status in immunized as well as non-immunized dairy cattle from the Nile Delta of Egypt. During 2013-2015, a total of 4,167 dairy cattle from four governorates including Dakahlia, Damietta, Gharbia and Port Said were investigated. All cattle were born after 2007 and therewith after the last reported Egyptian RVFV outbreak in 2003. The samples derived from vaccinated animals from 26 different dairy farms as well as non-immunized cattle from 27 different smallholding flocks. All samples were examined following a three-part analysis including a commercially available competition ELISA, an in-house immunofluorescence assay and a virus neutralization test. Additionally, a subset of samples was analysed for acute infections using IgM ELISA and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. The results indicated that the RVFV is still circulating in Egypt as about 10% of the non-immunized animals exhibited RVFV-specific antibodies. Surprisingly, the antibody prevalence in immunized animals was not significantly higher than that in non-vaccinated animals which points out the need for further evaluation of the vaccination programme. Due to the substantial role of livestock in the amplification and transmission of RVFV, further recurrent monitoring of the antibody prevalence in susceptible species is highly warranted. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Comparison of Rift Valley fever virus replication in North American livestock and wildlife cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Natasha N; Indran, Sabarish V; Bryant, P K; Richt, Juergen A; Wilson, William C

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes disease outbreaks across Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in high morbidity and mortality among young domestic livestock, frequent abortions in pregnant animals, and potentially severe or fatal disease in humans. The possibility of RVFV spreading to the United States or other countries worldwide is of significant concern to animal and public health, livestock production, and trade. The mechanism for persistence of RVFV during inter-epidemic periods may be through mosquito transovarial transmission and/or by means of a wildlife reservoir. Field investigations in endemic areas and previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that RVFV can infect a wide range of animals, including indigenous wild ruminants of Africa. Yet no predominant wildlife reservoir has been identified, and gaps in our knowledge of RVFV permissive hosts still remain. In North America, domestic goats, sheep, and cattle are susceptible hosts for RVFV and several competent vectors exist. Wild ruminants such as deer might serve as a virus reservoir and given their abundance, wide distribution, and overlap with livestock farms and human populated areas could represent an important risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess a variety of cell lines derived from North American livestock and wildlife for susceptibility and permissiveness to RVFV. Results of this study suggest that RVFV could potentially replicate in native deer species such as white-tailed deer, and possibly a wide range of non-ruminant animals. This work serves to guide and support future animal model studies and risk model assessment regarding this high-consequence zoonotic pathogen.

  16. The use of Nanotrap particles in the enhanced detection of Rift Valley fever virus nucleoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazly Shafagati

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a highly pathogenic arthropod-borne virus that has a detrimental effect on both livestock and human populations. While there are several diagnostic methodologies available for RVFV detection, many are not sensitive enough to diagnose early infections. Furthermore, detection may be hindered by high abundant proteins such as albumin. Previous findings have shown that Nanotrap particles can be used to significantly enhance detection of various small analytes of low abundance. We have expanded upon this repertoire to show that this simple and efficient sample preparation technology can drastically improve the detection of the RVFV nucleoprotein (NP, the most abundant and widely used viral protein for RVFV diagnostics.After screening multiple Nanotrap particle architectures, we found that one particle, NT45, was optimal for RVFV NP capture, as demonstrated by western blotting. NT45 significantly enhanced detection of the NP at levels undetectable without the technology. Importantly, we demonstrated that Nanotrap particles are capable of concentrating NP in a number of matrices, including infected cell lysates, viral supernatants, and animal sera. Specifically, NT45 enhanced detection of NP at various viral titers, multiplicity of infections, and time points. Our most dramatic results were observed in spiked serum samples, where high abundance serum proteins hindered detection of NP without Nanotrap particles. Nanotrap particles allowed for sample cleanup and subsequent detection of RVFV NP. Finally, we demonstrated that incubation of our samples with Nanotrap particles protects the NP from degradation over extended periods of time (up to 120 hours and at elevated temperatures (at 37ºC.This study demonstrates that Nanotrap particles are capable of drastically lowering the limit of detection for RVFV NP by capturing, concentrating, and preserving RVFV NP in clinically relevant matrices. These studies can be extended to

  17. Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus from European-breed lambs to Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianka P M Vloet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus of the genus Phlebovirus that is highly pathogenic to ruminants and humans. The disease is currently confined to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but globalization and climate change may facilitate introductions of the virus into currently unaffected areas via infected animals or mosquitoes. The consequences of such an introduction will depend on environmental factors, the availability of susceptible ruminants and the capacity of local mosquitoes to transmit the virus. We have previously demonstrated that lambs native to the Netherlands are highly susceptible to RVFV and we here report the vector competence of Culex (Cx. pipiens, the most abundant and widespread mosquito species in the country. Vector competence was first determined after artificial blood feeding of laboratory-reared mosquitoes using the attenuated Clone 13 strain. Subsequently, experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs were performed. Finally, the transmission of RVFV from viremic lambs to mosquitoes was studied.Artificial feeding experiments using Clone 13 demonstrated that indigenous, laboratory-reared Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are susceptible to RVFV and that the virus can be transmitted via their saliva. Experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs confirmed the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands. To subsequently investigate transmission of the virus under more natural conditions, mosquitoes were allowed to feed on RVFV-infected lambs during the viremic period. We found that RVFV is efficiently transmitted from lambs to mosquitoes, although transmission was restricted to peak viremia. Interestingly, in the mosquito-exposed skin samples, replication of RVFV was detected in previously unrecognized target cells.We here report the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands for RVFV. Both

  18. Inter-epidemic acquisition of Rift Valley fever virus in humans in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert David Sumaye

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In East Africa, epidemics of Rift Valley fever (RVF occur in cycles of 5-15 years following unusually high rainfall. RVF transmission during inter-epidemic periods (IEP generally passes undetected in absence of surveillance in mammalian hosts and vectors. We studied IEP transmission of RVF and evaluated the demographic, behavioural, occupational and spatial determinants of past RVF infection. METHODOLOGY: Between March and August 2012 we collected blood samples, and administered a risk factor questionnaire among 606 inhabitants of 6 villages in the seasonally inundated Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. ELISA tests were used to detect RVFV IgM and IgG antibodies in serum samples. Risk factors were examined by mixed effects logistic regression. FINDINGS: RVF virus IgM antibodies, indicating recent RVFV acquisition, were detected in 16 participants, representing 2.6% overall and in 22.5% of inhibition ELISA positives (n = 71. Four of 16 (25.0% IgM positives and 11/71 (15.5% of individuals with inhibition ELISA sero-positivity reported they had had no previous contact with host animals. Sero-positivity on inhibition ELISA was 11.7% (95% CI 9.2-14.5 and risk was elevated with age (odds ratio (OR 1.03 per year; 95% CI 1.01-1.04, among milkers (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.23-3.91, and individuals eating raw meat (OR 4.17; 95% CI 1.18-14.66. Households keeping livestock had a higher probability of having members with evidence of past infection (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 1.42-6.48 than those that do not keep livestock. CONCLUSION: There is inter-epidemic acquisition of RVFV in Kilombero Valley inhabitants. In the wake of declining malaria incidence, these findings underscore the need for clinicians to consider RVF in the differential diagnosis for febrile illnesses. Several types of direct contact with livestock are important risk factors for past infection with RVFV in this study's population. However, at least part of RVFV transmission appears to have occurred

  19. Modelling the effects of seasonality and socioeconomic impact on the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanyu; Beier, John C.; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Cosner, Chris; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important mosquito-borne viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that causes human deaths and significant economic losses due to huge incidences of death and abortion among infected livestock. Outbreaks of RVF are sporadic and associated with both seasonal and socioeconomic effects. Here we propose an almost periodic three-patch model to investigate the transmission dynamics of RVF virus (RVFV) among ruminants with spatial movements. Our findings indicate that, in Northeastern Africa, human activities, including those associated with the Eid al Adha feast, along with a combination of climatic factors such as rainfall level and hydrological variations, contribute to the transmission and dispersal of the disease pathogen. Moreover, sporadic outbreaks may occur when the two events occur together: 1) abundant livestock are recruited into areas at risk from RVF due to the demand for the religious festival and 2) abundant numbers of mosquitoes emerge. These two factors have been shown to have impacts on the severity of RVF outbreaks. Our numerical results present the transmission dynamics of the disease pathogen over both short and long periods of time, particularly during the festival time. Further, we investigate the impact on patterns of disease outbreaks in each patch brought by festival- and seasonal-driven factors, such as the number of livestock imported daily, the animal transportation speed from patch to patch, and the death rate induced by ceremonial sacrifices. In addition, our simulations show that when the time for festival preparation starts earlier than usual, the risk of massive disease outbreaks rises, particularly in patch 3 (the place where the religious ceremony will be held).

  20. Temperature-sensitive mutations for live-attenuated Rift Valley fever vaccines: Implications from other RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko eNishiyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to the African continent. RVF is characterized by high rate of abortions in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or blindness in humans. RVF is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. Vaccination is the only known effective strategy to prevent the disease, but there are no licensed RVF vaccines available for humans. A live-attenuated vaccine candidate derived from the wild-type pathogenic Egyptian ZH548 strain, MP-12, has been conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the United States. MP-12 displays a temperature-sensitive (ts phenotype and does not replicate at 41oC. The ts mutation limits viral replication at a specific body temperature and may lead to an attenuation of the virus. Here we will review well-characterized ts mutations for RNA viruses, and further discuss the potential in designing novel live-attenuated vaccines for RVF.

  1. Functional analysis of Rift Valley fever virus NSs encoding a partial truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jennifer A; Kalveram, Birte; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), belongs to genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, causes high rates of abortion and fetal malformation in infected ruminants as well as causing neurological disorders, blindness, or lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. RVFV is classified as a category A priority pathogen and a select agent in the U.S., and currently there are no therapeutics available for RVF patients. NSs protein, a major virulence factor of RVFV, inhibits host transcription including interferon (IFN)-β mRNA synthesis and promotes degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). NSs self-associates at the C-terminus 17 aa., while NSs at aa.210-230 binds to Sin3A-associated protein (SAP30) to inhibit the activation of IFN-β promoter. Thus, we hypothesize that NSs function(s) can be abolished by truncation of specific domains, and co-expression of nonfunctional NSs with intact NSs will result in the attenuation of NSs function by dominant-negative effect. Unexpectedly, we found that RVFV NSs truncated at aa. 6-30, 31-55, 56-80, 81-105, 106-130, 131-155, 156-180, 181-205, 206-230, 231-248 or 249-265 lack functions of IFN-β mRNA synthesis inhibition and degradation of PKR. Truncated NSs were less stable in infected cells, while nuclear localization was inhibited in NSs lacking either of aa.81-105, 106-130, 131-155, 156-180, 181-205, 206-230 or 231-248. Furthermore, none of truncated NSs had exhibited significant dominant-negative functions for NSs-mediated IFN-β suppression or PKR degradation upon co-expression in cells infected with RVFV. We also found that any of truncated NSs except for intact NSs does not interact with RVFV NSs even in the presence of intact C-terminus self-association domain. Our results suggest that conformational integrity of NSs is important for the stability, cellular localization and biological functions of RVFV NSs, and the co-expression of truncated NSs does not exhibit dominant-negative phenotype.

  2. Functional analysis of Rift Valley fever virus NSs encoding a partial truncation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Head

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, belongs to genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, causes high rates of abortion and fetal malformation in infected ruminants as well as causing neurological disorders, blindness, or lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. RVFV is classified as a category A priority pathogen and a select agent in the U.S., and currently there are no therapeutics available for RVF patients. NSs protein, a major virulence factor of RVFV, inhibits host transcription including interferon (IFN-β mRNA synthesis and promotes degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR. NSs self-associates at the C-terminus 17 aa., while NSs at aa.210-230 binds to Sin3A-associated protein (SAP30 to inhibit the activation of IFN-β promoter. Thus, we hypothesize that NSs function(s can be abolished by truncation of specific domains, and co-expression of nonfunctional NSs with intact NSs will result in the attenuation of NSs function by dominant-negative effect. Unexpectedly, we found that RVFV NSs truncated at aa. 6-30, 31-55, 56-80, 81-105, 106-130, 131-155, 156-180, 181-205, 206-230, 231-248 or 249-265 lack functions of IFN-β mRNA synthesis inhibition and degradation of PKR. Truncated NSs were less stable in infected cells, while nuclear localization was inhibited in NSs lacking either of aa.81-105, 106-130, 131-155, 156-180, 181-205, 206-230 or 231-248. Furthermore, none of truncated NSs had exhibited significant dominant-negative functions for NSs-mediated IFN-β suppression or PKR degradation upon co-expression in cells infected with RVFV. We also found that any of truncated NSs except for intact NSs does not interact with RVFV NSs even in the presence of intact C-terminus self-association domain. Our results suggest that conformational integrity of NSs is important for the stability, cellular localization and biological functions of RVFV NSs, and the co-expression of truncated NSs does not exhibit dominant-negative phenotype.

  3. Rift Valley fever virus NSS gene expression correlates with a defect in nuclear mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the localization of host mRNA during Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that infection with RVFV altered the localization of host mRNA. mRNA accumulated in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. Further, overexpression of the NSS gene, but not the N, GN or NSM genes correlated with mRNA nuclear accumulation. Nuclear accumulation of host mRNA was not observed in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding NSS, confirming that expression of NSS is likely responsible for this phenomenon. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Rift Valley fever virus NSs inhibits host transcription independently of the degradation of dsRNA-dependent Protein Kinase PKR

    OpenAIRE

    Kalveram, Birte; Lihoradova, Olga; Indran, Sabarish V.; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Head, Jennifer A.; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) encodes one major virulence factor, the NSs protein. NSs suppresses host general transcription, including interferon (IFN)-β mRNA synthesis, and promotes degradation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). We generated a novel RVFV mutant (rMP12-NSsR173A) specifically lacking the function to promote PKR degradation. rMP12-NSsR173A infection induces early phosphorylation of eIF2α through PKR activation, while retaining the function to inhibit host general tr...

  5. Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C; Gardner, S

    2012-06-05

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  6. Rift Valley fever virus-infected mosquito ova and associated pathology: possible implications for endemic maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romoser WS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available William S Romoser1, Marco Neira Oviedo1, Kriangkrai Lerdthusnee2, Lisa A Patrican3, Michael J Turell4, David J Dohm4, Kenneth J Linthicum5, Charles L Bailey61Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Tropical Disease Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA; 2Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Infectious Disease Division, National Center for Medical Intelligence, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA; 4Department of Vector Assessment, Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA; 5Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service, Gainesville, Florida, USA; 6National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Disease, School of Systems Biology, College of Science, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, USABackground: Endemic/enzootic maintenance mechanisms like vertical transmission (pathogen passage from infected adults to their offspring are central in the epidemiology of zoonotic pathogens. In Kenya, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV may be maintained by vertical transmission in ground-pool mosquitoes such as Aedes mcintoshi. RVFV can cause serious morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Past epidemics/epizootics have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa but, since the late 1970s, RVFV has also appeared in North Africa and the Middle East. Preliminary results revealed RVFV-infected eggs in Ae. mcintoshi after virus injection into the hemocoel after the first of two blood meals, justifying further study.Methods: Mosquitoes were collected from an artificially flooded water-catching depression along a stream in Kenya, shipped live to the USA, and studied using an immunocytochemical method for RVFV-antigen localization in mosquito sections.Results and conclusion: After virus injection into the

  7. [Feeding pattern of Rift Valley Fever virus vectors in Senegal. Implications in the disease epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Y; Diallo, D; Dia, I; Diallo, M

    2006-10-01

    During the rainy season 2003, an entomological survey was undertaken in the Sahelian bioclimatic zone of the Ferlo area in northern Senegal, in order to evaluate the degree of interaction between Rift valley fever (RVF) virus vectors and domestic animals and to determine the role of natural vertebrate hosts in the transmission and maintenance cycle. The study of vector-host contact was carried out under bed net traps using man, cow, sheep, chicken as bait whereas the RVFV vectors-vertebrate host interactions were studied through the analysis by an ELISA technique of the origin of the blood meals from naturally engorged females collected by aspiration. Blood meals sources were determined using a set of eight antibodies. Overall, the different known RVFV vectors (Culex poicilipes, Aedes vexans and Aedes ochraceus) were opportunistic although the bovine-baited net was, as far the more effective trap with 53.6% of collected mosquitoes. It was followed by the sheep-baited net (16.7%), man-baited net (12.6%) and chicken-baited net (11.6%). The more effectiveness of the bovine-baited net confirms the degree of implication of this host in RVF epidemiology. The study of vector-hosts interactions in nature showed that among the 1,112 mosquito blood meals tested, 701 were identified of which 693 were from Aedes vexans. The percentage of non-reacting blood meal was 36.7% whereas 16.9 % of the blood meals were taken at least on two vertebrate hosts. Overall, 53.2% of the blood meals from Ae. vexans were taken on equine, 18.6% on bovines, 7.1% on sheep and 0.6% on human. No blood meal was taken on rodent. The greatest diversity was observed in August. These host feedings patterns show that although equine is known to play a minor role in RVF epidemiology a thorough attention should be made to this host with regard to the percentage of blood meals taken in this host. The low percentage of blood meals taken on human could probably explain the low human infection rate observed up

  8. Rift Valley fever virus NS{sub S} gene expression correlates with a defect in nuclear mRNA export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Van Deusen, Nicole M.; Schmaljohn, Connie S., E-mail: Connie.s.schmaljohn.civ@mail.mil

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the localization of host mRNA during Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that infection with RVFV altered the localization of host mRNA. mRNA accumulated in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. Further, overexpression of the NS{sub S} gene, but not the N, G{sub N} or NS{sub M} genes correlated with mRNA nuclear accumulation. Nuclear accumulation of host mRNA was not observed in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding NS{sub S}, confirming that expression of NS{sub S} is likely responsible for this phenomenon. - Highlights: • Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection alters the localization of host mRNA. • mRNA accumulates in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. • NS{sub S} is likely responsible for mRNA relocalization to the nucleus.

  9. Culex pipiens, an experimental efficient vector of West Nile and Rift Valley fever viruses in the Maghreb region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Amraoui

    Full Text Available West Nile fever (WNF and Rift Valley fever (RVF are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 10(7.8 and 10(8.5 plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14-21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology.

  10. Rift Valley fever outbreak, Mauritania, 1998: seroepidemiologic, virologic, entomologic, and zoologic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeth, P; Kane, Y; Abdalahi, M O; Diallo, M; Ndiaye, K; Ba, K; Schneegans, F; Sall, A A; Mathiot, C

    2001-01-01

    A Rift Valley fever outbreak occurred in Mauritania in 1998. Seroepidemiologic and virologic investigation showed active circulation of the Rift Valley fever virus, with 13 strains isolated, and 16% (range 1.5%-38%) immunoglobulin (Ig) M-positivity in sera from 90 humans and 343 animals (sheep, goats, camels, cattle, and donkeys). One human case was fatal.

  11. Blood Meal Analysis of and Virus Detection in Mosquitoes Collected during a Rift Valley fever Epizootic/Epidemic: Implications for epidemic disease transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for v...

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing Rift Valley fever virus antigens: Mice exhibit systemic immune responses as the result of oral administration of the transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbina, Irina; Lagerqvist, Nina; Moiane, Bélisario; Ahlm, Clas; Andersson, Sören; Strid, Åke; Falk, Kerstin I

    2016-11-01

    The zoonotic Rift Valley fever virus affects livestock and humans in Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula. The economic impact of this pathogen due to livestock losses, as well as its relevance to public health, underscores the importance of developing effective and easily distributed vaccines. Vaccines that can be delivered orally are of particular interest. Here, we report the expression in transformed plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) of Rift Valley fever virus antigens. The antigens used in this study were the N protein and a deletion mutant of the Gn glycoprotein. Transformed lines were analysed for specific mRNA and protein content by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, the plant-expressed antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity in mice fed the transgenic plants. After oral intake of fresh transgenic plant material, a proportion of the mice elicited specific IgG antibody responses, as compared to the control animals that were fed wild-type plants and of which none sero-converted. Thus, we show that transgenic plants can be readily used to express and produce Rift Valley Fever virus proteins, and that the plants are immunogenic when given orally to mice. These are promising findings and provide a basis for further studies on edible plant vaccines against the Rift Valley fever virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in Rift Valley fever virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkham, Chelsea; An, Soyeon; Lundberg, Lindsay; Bansal, Neha; Benedict, Ashwini; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that can cause severe illness in humans and livestock, triggering spontaneous abortion in almost 100% of pregnant ruminants. In this study, we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is phosphorylated on its conserved tyrosine residue (Y705) following RVFV infection. This phosphorylation was dependent on a major virulence factor, the viral nonstructural protein NSs. Loss of STAT3 had little effect on viral replication, but rather resulted in cells being more susceptible to RVFV-induced cell death. Phosphorylated STAT3 translocated to the nucleus, coinciding with inhibition of fos, jun, and nr4a2 gene expression, and the presence of STAT3 and NSs at the nr4a2 promoter. NSs was found predominantly in the cytoplasm of STAT3 null cells, indicating that STAT3 influences NSs nuclear localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that STAT3 functions in a pro-survival capacity through modulation of NSs localization. - Highlights: • STAT3 is phosphorylated on tyrosine residue 705 following RVFV infection. • Phosphorylation of STAT3 was dependent on the viral protein NSs. • STAT3 -/- MEFs were more susceptible to RVFV-induced cell death. • Loss of STAT3 led to an increase in pro-apoptotic gene expression. • STAT3 functions in a pro-survival capacity by modulation of NSs localization.

  14. The role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in Rift Valley fever virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkham, Chelsea; An, Soyeon; Lundberg, Lindsay; Bansal, Neha; Benedict, Ashwini; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene, E-mail: kkehnhal@gmu.edu

    2016-09-15

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that can cause severe illness in humans and livestock, triggering spontaneous abortion in almost 100% of pregnant ruminants. In this study, we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is phosphorylated on its conserved tyrosine residue (Y705) following RVFV infection. This phosphorylation was dependent on a major virulence factor, the viral nonstructural protein NSs. Loss of STAT3 had little effect on viral replication, but rather resulted in cells being more susceptible to RVFV-induced cell death. Phosphorylated STAT3 translocated to the nucleus, coinciding with inhibition of fos, jun, and nr4a2 gene expression, and the presence of STAT3 and NSs at the nr4a2 promoter. NSs was found predominantly in the cytoplasm of STAT3 null cells, indicating that STAT3 influences NSs nuclear localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that STAT3 functions in a pro-survival capacity through modulation of NSs localization. - Highlights: • STAT3 is phosphorylated on tyrosine residue 705 following RVFV infection. • Phosphorylation of STAT3 was dependent on the viral protein NSs. • STAT3 -/- MEFs were more susceptible to RVFV-induced cell death. • Loss of STAT3 led to an increase in pro-apoptotic gene expression. • STAT3 functions in a pro-survival capacity by modulation of NSs localization.

  15. Identification of potential vectors of and detection of antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus in livestock during interepizootic periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostal, Melinda K; Evans, Alina L; Sang, Rosemary; Gikundi, Solomon; Wakhule, Lilian; Munyua, Peninah; Macharia, Joseph; Feikin, Daniel R; Breiman, Robert F; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antibodies in livestock and presence of competent mosquito vectors of RVFV during an interepizootic period (IEP) in Kenya. 208 sheep and 84 goats ranging in age from 4 months to 15 years, from 2 breeding herds. Blood specimens were collected from the sheep and goats during the 1999-2006 IEP in Rift Valley Province, and serum was harvested. Serum specimens were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against RVFV by use of an ELISA. In addition, 7,134 mosquitoes were trapped in Naivasha, Nairobi, and Northeastern Province, and speciation was performed. No animals were seropositive for IgM against RVFV. Of the animals born after the 1997-1998 epizootic, 18% (34/188) of sheep were seropositive for IgG against RVFV, compared with 3% (2/75) of goats. Seventy percent (8,144/11,678) of the mosquitoes collected were of the Culex subgenera; 18% (2,102/11,678) were Aedes spp. Detection of IgG in the sera of sheep and goats born after the 1997-1998 epizootic and before the 2006 epizootic indicated that virus activity existed during the IEP. Detection of Aedes mosquitoes, which are competent vectors of RVFV, suggested that a cryptic vector-to-vertebrate cycle may exist during IEPs.

  16. An unexpected recurrent transmission of Rift Valley fever virus in cattle in a temperate and mountainous area of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Chevalier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is an acute, zoonotic viral disease of domestic ruminants, caused by a phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae family. A large outbreak occurred in Madagascar in 2008-2009. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the point prevalence of antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV in cattle in the Anjozorobe district, located in the wet and temperate highland region of Madagascar and yet heavily affected by the disease, and analyse environmental and trade factors potentially linked to RVFV transmission. A serological study was performed in 2009 in 894 bovines. For each bovine, the following variables were recorded: age, location of the night pen, minimum distance from the pen to the nearest water point and the forest, nearest water point type, and herd replacement practices. The serological data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The overall anti-RVFV IgG seroprevalence rate was 28% [CI95% 25-31]. Age was statistically linked to prevalence (p = 10(-4, being consistent with a recurrent RVFV circulation. Distance from the night pen to the nearest water point was a protective factor (p = 5.10(-3, which would be compatible with a substantial part of the virus transmission being carried out by nocturnal mosquito vectors. However, water point type did not influence the risk of infection: several mosquito species are probably involved. Cattle belonging to owners who purchase animals to renew the herd were significantly more likely to have seroconverted than others (p = 0.04: cattle trade may contribute to the introduction of the virus in this area. The minimum distance of the night pen to the forest was not linked to the prevalence. This is the first evidence of a recurrent transmission of RVFV in such an ecosystem that associates a wet, temperate climate, high altitude, paddy fields, and vicinity to a dense rain forest. Persistence mechanisms need to be further investigated.

  17. Landscape Genetics of Aedes mcintoshi (Diptera: Culicidae), an Important Vector of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Northeastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lindsay P; Alexander, Alana M

    2017-09-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne, zoonotic disease that affects humans, wild ungulates, and domesticated livestock in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Rift Valley fever virus exhibits interepizootic and epizootic phases, the latter defined by widespread virus occurrence in domesticated livestock. Kenya appears to be particularly vulnerable to epizootics, with 11 outbreaks occurring between 1951 and 2007. The mosquito species Aedes mcintoshi (subgenus Neomelaniconion) is an important primary vector for RVFV in Kenya. Here, we investigate associations between genetic diversity and differentiation of one regional subclade of Ae. mcintoshi in Northeastern Kenya with environmental variables, using a multivariate statistical approach. Using CO1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1) sequence data deposited in GenBank, we found no evidence of isolation by distance contributing to genetic differentiation across the study area. However, we did find significant CO1 subpopulation structure and associations with recent mean precipitation values. In addition, variation in genetic diversity across our seven sample sites was associated with both precipitation and percentage clay in the soil. The large number of haplotypes found in this data set indicates that a great deal of diversity remains unsampled in this region. Additional sampling across a larger geographic area, combined with next-generation sequencing approaches that better characterize the genome, would provide a more robust assessment of genetic diversity and differentiation. Further understanding of the genetic structure of Ae. mcintoshi could provide useful information regarding the potential for RVFV to spread across East African landscapes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Example of Eastern Africa: the dynamic of Rift Valley fever and tools for monitoring virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects animals but also has the capacity to infect humans. Outbreaks of this disease in eastern Africa are closely associated with periods of heavy rainfall and forecasting models and early warning systems have been developed to en...

  19. The nonstructural protein NSs induces a variable antibody response in domestic ruminants naturally infected with Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, José-Carlos; Billecocq, Agnès; Durand, Jean Paul; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Cardinale, Eric; Marianneau, Philippe; Pépin, Michel; Tordo, Noël; Bouloy, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonosis in Africa which has spread to Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar, and Comoros. RVF virus (RVFV) (Bunyaviridae family, Phlebovirus genus) causes a wide range of symptoms in humans, from benign fever to fatal hemorrhagic fever. Ruminants are severely affected by the disease, which leads to a high rate of mortality in young animals and to abortions and teratogenesis in pregnant females. Diagnostic tests include virus isolation and genome or antibody detection. During RVFV infection, the nucleoprotein encapsidating the tripartite RNA genome is expressed in large amounts and raises a robust antibody response, while the envelope glycoproteins elicit neutralizing antibodies which play a major role in protection. Much less is known about the antigenicity/immunogenicity of the nonstructural protein NSs, which is a major virulence factor. Here we have developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) enabling detection of low levels of NSs-specific antibodies in naturally infected or vaccinated ruminants. Detection of the NSs antibodies was validated by Western blotting. Altogether, our data showed that the NSs antibodies were detected in only 55% of animals naturally infected by RVFV, indicating that NSs does not induce a consistently high immune response. These results are discussed in light of differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) tests distinguishing naturally infected animals and those vaccinated with NSs-defective vaccines.

  20. Identification of Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid protein-RNA binding inhibitors using a high-throughput screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Mary; Lanchy, Jean-Marc; Lodmell, J Stephen

    2012-09-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging infectious pathogen that causes severe disease in humans and livestock and has the potential for global spread. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment for RVFV infection, and there is no licensed vaccine. Inhibition of RNA binding to the essential viral nucleocapsid (N) protein represents a potential antiviral therapeutic strategy because all of the functions performed by N during infection involve RNA binding. To target this interaction, we developed a fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput drug-screening assay and tested 26 424 chemical compounds for their ability to disrupt an N-RNA complex. From libraries of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, druglike molecules, and natural product extracts, we identified several lead compounds that are promising candidates for medicinal chemistry.

  1. Attenuation of pathogenic Rift Valley fever virus strain through the chimeric S-segment encoding sandfly fever phlebovirus NSs or a dominant-negative PKR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shoko; Slack, Olga A L; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Hill, Terence E; Juelich, Terry L; Zhang, Lihong; Smith, Jennifer K; Perez, David; Gong, Bin; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-11-16

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease affecting ruminants and humans. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) causes abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or retinitis in humans. The live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine is conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the US. However, this vaccine lacks a marker for the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA). NSs gene is dispensable for RVFV replication, and thus, rMP-12 strains lacking NSs gene is applicable to monitor vaccinated animals. However, the immunogenicity of MP-12 lacking NSs was not as high as parental MP-12. Thus, chimeric MP-12 strains encoding NSs from either Toscana virus (TOSV), sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) or Punta Toro virus Adames strain (PTA) were characterized previously. Although chimeric MP-12 strains are highly immunogenic, the attenuation through the S-segment remains unknown. Using pathogenic ZH501 strain, we aimed to demonstrate the attenuation of ZH501 strain through chimeric S-segment encoding either the NSs of TOSV, SFSV, PTA, or Punta Toro virus Balliet strain (PTB). In addition, we characterized rZH501 encoding a human dominant-negative PKR (PKRΔE7), which also enhances the immunogenicity of MP-12. Study done on mice revealed that attenuation of rZH501 occurred through the S-segment encoding either PKRΔE7 or SFSV NSs. However, rZH501 encoding either TOSV, PTA, or PTB NSs in the S-segment uniformly caused lethal encephalitis. Our results indicated that the S-segments encoding PKRΔE7 or SFSV NSs are attenuated and thus applicable toward next generation MP-12 vaccine candidates that encode a DIVA marker.

  2. Presence of viral RNA and proteins in exosomes from the cellular clones resistant to Rift Valley Fever Virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor eAhsan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV is a RNA virus that belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. It infects humans and livestock and causes Rift Valley fever. RVFV is considered an agricultural pathogen by the USDA, as it can cause up to 100% abortion in cattle and extensive death of newborns. In addition, it is designated as Category A pathogen by the CDC and the NIAID. In some human cases of RVFV infection, the virus causes fever, ocular damage, liver damage, hemorrhagic fever, and death. There are currently limited options for vaccine candidates, which include the MP-12 and clone 13 versions of RVFV. Viral infections often deregulate multiple cellular pathways that contribute to replication and host pathology. We have previously shown that latent HIV-1 and HTLV-1 infected cells secrete exosomes that contain short viral RNAs, limited number of genomic RNAs, and viral proteins. These exosomes largely target neighboring cells and activate the NF-кB pathway, leading to cell proliferation and overall better viral replication. In this manuscript, we studied the effects of exosome formation from RVFV infected cells and their function on recipient cells. We initially infected cells, isolated resistant clones, and further purified using dilution cloning. We then characterized these cells as resistant to new RVFV infection, but sensitive to other viral infections, including Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV. These clones contained normal markers (i.e. CD63 for exosomes and were able to activate the TLR pathway in recipient reporter cells. Interestingly, the exosome rich preparations, much like their host cell, contained viral RNA (L, M, and S genome. The RNAs were detected using qRT-PCR in both parental and exosomal preparations as well as in CD63 immunoprecipitates. Viral proteins such as N and a modified form of NSs were present in some of these exosomes. Finally, treatment of recipient cells (T- cells and monocytic cells showed

  3. Nuclear relocalization of polyadenylate binding protein during rift valley fever virus infection involves expression of the NSs gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Altamura, Louis A; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), an ambisense member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus, is the causative agent of Rift Valley fever, an important zoonotic infection in Africa and the Middle East. Phlebovirus proteins are translated from virally transcribed mRNAs that, like host mRNA, are capped but, unlike host mRNAs, are not polyadenylated. Here, we investigated the role of PABP1 during RVFV infection of HeLa cells. Immunofluorescence studies of infected cells demonstrated a gross relocalization of PABP1 to the nucleus late in infection. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies of nuclear proteins revealed costaining between PABP1 and markers of nuclear speckles. PABP1 relocalization was sharply decreased in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding the RVFV nonstructural protein S (NSs). To determine whether PABP1 was required for RVFV infection, we measured the production of nucleocapsid protein (N) in cells transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting PABP1. We found that the overall percentage of RVFV N-positive cells was not changed by siRNA treatment, indicating that PABP1 was not required for RVFV infection. However, when we analyzed populations of cells producing high versus low levels of PABP1, we found that the percentage of RVFV N-positive cells was decreased in cell populations producing physiologic levels of PABP1 and increased in cells with reduced levels of PABP1. Together, these results suggest that production of the NSs protein during RVFV infection leads to sequestration of PABP1 in the nuclear speckles, creating a state within the cell that favors viral protein production.

  4. Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever in Rhesus Monkeys: Role of Interferon Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    hemorrhagic fever characterized by epistaxis, petechial to purpuric cutaneous lesions, anorexia, and vomiting prior to death. The 14 remaining monkeys survived...DMI, FILE Copy Arch Virol (1990) 110: 195-212 Amhivesirology ( by Springer-Verlag 1990 00 N Pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever in rhesus monkeys: (NI...inoculated intravenously with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus presented clinical disease syndromes similar to human cases of RVF. All 17 infected monkeys

  5. Pathogenic effects of Rift Valley fever virus NSs gene are alleviated in cultured cells by expressed antiviral short hairpin RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tristan; Paweska, Janusz T; Arbuthnot, Patrick; Weinberg, Marc S

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the Bunyaviridae family, may cause severe hepatitis, encephalitis and haemorrhagic fever in humans. There are currently no available licensed vaccines or therapies to treat the viral infection in humans. RNA interference (RNAi)-based viral gene silencing offers a promising approach to inhibiting replication of this highly pathogenic virus. The small (S) segment of the RVFV tripartite genome carries the genetic determinates for pathogenicity during infection. This segment encodes the non-structural S (NSs) and essential nucleocapsid (N) genes. To advance RNAi-based inhibition of RVFV replication, we designed several Pol III short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression cassettes against the NSs and N genes, including a multimerized plasmid vector that included four shRNA expression cassettes. Effective target silencing was demonstrated using full- and partial-length target reporter assays, and confirmed by western blot analysis of exogenous N and NSs expression. Small RNA northern blots showed detectable RNAi guide strand formation from single and multimerized shRNA constructs. Using a cell culture model of RVFV replication, shRNAs targeting the N gene decreased intracellular nucleocapsid protein concentration and viral replication. The shRNAs directed against the NSs gene reduced NSs protein concentrations and alleviated NSs-mediated cytotoxicity, which may be caused by host transcription suppression. These data are the first demonstration that RNAi activators have a potential therapeutic benefit for countering RVFV infection.

  6. Identification of mutations in the M RNA of a candidate vaccine strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, K; Min, M K; Battles, J K; Sugiyama, K; Emery, V C; Dalrymple, J M; Bishop, D H

    1989-04-01

    The M RNA species of a candidate vaccine strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV ZH-548M12), derived by consecutive high level mutagenesis using 5-fluorouracil (H. Caplen, C. J. Peters, and D. H. L. Bishop, J. Gen. Virol., 66, 2271-2277, 1985), has been cloned and the cDNA sequenced. The data have been compared to those obtained for the parent virus strain RVFV ZH-548 as well as the previously published data for RVFV ZH-501 (M. S. Collett, A. F. Purchio, K. Keegan, S. Frazier, W. Hays, D. K. Anderson, M. D. Parker, C. Schmaljohn, J. Schmidt, and J. M. Dalrymple, Virology, 144, 228-245, 1985). Some eight nucleotide and three amino acid differences were identified between the M RNAs of ZH-501 and ZH-548. Between the M RNAs of ZH-548 and that of the M12 mutant there were 12 nucleotide and 7 amino acid changes. Unique to the mutant virus is a new AUG codon upstream of that which initiates the open reading frame of the RVFV M gene product (the viral glycoprotein precursor). The significance of this and other differences in the mutant RNA with regard to the derivation and potential attenuation of the candidate vaccine is discussed.

  7. Mechanistic Insight into the Host Transcription Inhibition Function of Rift Valley Fever Virus NSs and Its Importance in Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Kaori; Ramirez, Sydney I; Makino, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the genus Phlebovirus within the family Bunyaviridae, causes periodic outbreaks in livestocks and humans in countries of the African continent and Middle East. RVFV NSs protein, a nonstructural protein, is a major virulence factor that exhibits several important biological properties. These include suppression of general transcription, inhibition of IFN-β promoter induction and degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R. Although each of these biological functions of NSs are considered important for countering the antiviral response in the host, the individual contributions of these functions towards RVFV virulence remains unclear. To examine this, we generated two RVFV MP-12 strain-derived mutant viruses. Each carried mutations in NSs that specifically targeted its general transcription inhibition function without affecting its ability to degrade PKR and inhibit IFN-β promoter induction, through its interaction with Sin3-associated protein 30, a part of the repressor complex at the IFN-β promoter. Using these mutant viruses, we have dissected the transcription inhibition function of NSs and examined its importance in RVFV virulence. Both NSs mutant viruses exhibited a differentially impaired ability to inhibit host transcription when compared with MP-12. It has been reported that NSs suppresses general transcription by interfering with the formation of the transcription factor IIH complex, through the degradation of the p62 subunit and sequestration of the p44 subunit. Our study results lead us to suggest that the ability of NSs to induce p62 degradation is the major contributor to its general transcription inhibition property, whereas its interaction with p44 may not play a significant role in this function. Importantly, RVFV MP-12-NSs mutant viruses with an impaired general transcription inhibition function showed a reduced cytotoxicity in cell culture and attenuated virulence in young mice

  8. Post-exposure vaccination with MP-12 lacking NSs protects mice against lethal Rift Valley fever virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Brian B; Bailey, Kevin W; Scharton, Dionna; Vest, Zachery; Westover, Jonna B; Skirpstunas, Ramona; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-05-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe disease in humans and livestock. There are currently no approved antivirals or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of RVF disease in humans. A major virulence factor of RVFV is the NSs protein, which inhibits host transcription including the interferon (IFN)-β gene and promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. We analyzed the efficacy of the live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine strain and MP-12 variants that lack the NSs protein as post-exposure vaccinations. Although parental MP-12 failed to elicit a protective effect in mice challenged with wild-type (wt) RVFV by the intranasal route, significant protection was demonstrated by vaccination with MP-12 strains lacking NSs when they were administered at 20-30 min post-exposure. Viremia and virus replication in liver, spleen and brain were also inhibited by post-exposure vaccination with MP-12 lacking NSs. The protective effect was mostly lost when vaccination was delayed 6 or 24 h after intranasal RVFV challenge. When mice were challenged subcutaneously, efficacy of MP-12 lacking NSs was diminished, most likely due to more rapid dissemination of wt RVFV. Our findings suggest that post-exposure vaccination with MP-12 lacking NSs may be developed as a novel post-exposure treatment to prevent RVF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection and identification of Rift Valley fever virus in mosquito vectors by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaengo, D; Lorenzo, G; Iglesias, J; Warigia, M; Sang, R; Bishop, R P; Brun, A

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostic methods allowing for rapid identification of pathogens are crucial for controlling and preventing dissemination after disease outbreaks as well as for use in surveillance programs. For arboviruses, detection of the presence of virus in their arthropod hosts is important for monitoring of viral activity and quantitative information is useful for modeling of transmission dynamics. In this study, molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in mosquito samples from the 2006 to 2007 East African outbreaks was performed using quantitative real-time PCR assay (qRT-PCR). Specific RVFV sequence-based primer/fluorogenic (TaqMan) probe sets were derived from the L and S RNA segments of the virus. Both primer-probe L and S segment-based combinations detected genomic RVFV sequences, with generally comparable levels of sensitivity. Viral loads from three mosquito species, Aedes mcintoshi, Aedes ochraceus and Mansonia uniformis were estimated and significant differences of between 5- and 1000-fold were detected between Ae. mcintoshi and M. uniformis using both the L and S primer-probe-based assays. The genetic relationships of the viral sequences in mosquito samples were established by partial M segment sequencing and assigned to the two previously described viral lineages defined by analysis of livestock isolates obtained during the 2006-2007 outbreak, confirming that similar viruses were present in both the vector and mammalian host. The data confirms the utility of qRT-PCR for identification and initial quantification of virus in mosquito samples during RVFV outbreaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and characterization of a Rift Valley fever virus cell-cell fusion assay using alphavirus replicon vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filone, Claire Marie; Heise, Mark; Doms, Robert W.; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, is transmitted by mosquitoes and infects both humans and domestic animals, particularly cattle and sheep. Since primary RVFV strains must be handled in BSL-3+ or BSL-4 facilities, a RVFV cell-cell fusion assay will facilitate the investigation of RVFV glycoprotein function under BSL-2 conditions. As for other members of the Bunyaviridae family, RVFV glycoproteins are targeted to the Golgi, where the virus buds, and are not efficiently delivered to the cell surface. However, overexpression of RVFV glycoproteins using an alphavirus replicon vector resulted in the expression of the glycoproteins on the surface of multiple cell types. Brief treatment of RVFV glycoprotein expressing cells with mildly acidic media (pH 6.2 and below) resulted in rapid and efficient syncytia formation, which we quantified by β-galactosidase α-complementation. Fusion was observed with several cell types, suggesting that the receptor(s) for RVFV is widely expressed or that this acid-dependent virus does not require a specific receptor to mediate cell-cell fusion. Fusion occurred over a broad temperature range, as expected for a virus with both mosquito and mammalian hosts. In contrast to cell fusion mediated by the VSV-G glycoprotein, RVFV glycoprotein-dependent cell fusion could be prevented by treating target cells with trypsin, indicating that one or more proteins (or protein-associated carbohydrate) on the host cell surface are needed to support membrane fusion. The cell-cell fusion assay reported here will make it possible to study the membrane fusion activity of RVFV glycoproteins in a high-throughput format and to screen small molecule inhibitors for the ability to block virus-specific membrane fusion

  11. Mapping of the mutations present in the genome of the Rift Valley fever virus attenuated MP12 strain and their putative role in attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialat, P; Muller, R; Vu, T H; Prehaud, C; Bouloy, M

    1997-11-01

    The MP12 attenuated strain of Rift Valley fever virus was obtained by 12 serial passages of a virulent isolate ZH548 in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (Caplen et al., 1985. Mutagen-directed attenuation of Rift Valley fever virus as a method for vaccine development. J. Gen. Virol., 66, 2271-2277). The comparison of the M segment of the two strains has already been reported by Takehara et al. (Takehara et al., 1989. Identification of mutations in the M RNA of a candidate vaccine strain of Rift Valley fever virus. Virology 169, 452-457). We have completed the comparison and found that altogether a total of nine, 12 and four nucleotides were changed in the L, M and S segments of the two strains, respectively. Three mutations induced amino acid changes in the L protein but none of them was located in the recognized motifs conserved among RNA dependent polymerases. In the S segment, a single change modified an amino acid in the NSs protein and in the M segment, seven of the mutations resulted in amino acid changes in each of the four encoded G1, G2, 14 kDa and 78 kDa proteins. Characterization of the MP12 virus indicated that determinants for attenuation were present in each segment and that they were introduced progressively during the 12 passages in the presence of the mutagen (Saluzzo and Smith, 1990. Use of reassortant viruses to map attenuating and temperature-sensitive mutations of the Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine. Vaccine 8, 369-375). Passages 4 and 7-9 were found to be essential for introduction of temperature-sensitive lesions and attenuation. In an attempt to correlate some of the mutations with the attenuated or temperature-sensitive phenotypes, we determined by sequencing the passage level at which the different mutations appeared. This work should help to address the question of the role of the viral gene products in Rift Valley fever pathogenesis.

  12. Rift valley fever virus nonstructural protein NSs promotes viral RNA replication and transcription in a minigenome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Peters, C J; Makino, Shinji

    2005-05-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, has a tripartite negative-strand genome (S, M, and L segments) and is an important mosquito-borne pathogen for domestic animals and humans. We established an RVFV T7 RNA polymerase-driven minigenome system in which T7 RNA polymerase from an expression plasmid drove expression of RNA transcripts for viral proteins and minigenome RNA transcripts carrying a reporter gene between both termini of the M RNA segment in 293T cells. Like other viruses of the Bunyaviridae family, replication and transcription of the RVFV minigenome required expression of viral N and L proteins. Unexpectedly, the coexpression of an RVFV nonstructural protein, NSs, with N and L proteins resulted in a significant enhancement of minigenome RNA replication. Coexpression of NSs protein with N and L proteins also enhanced minigenome mRNA transcription in the cells expressing viral-sense minigenome RNA transcripts. NSs protein expression increased the RNA replication of minigenomes that originated from S and L RNA segments. Enhancement of minigenome RNA synthesis by NSs protein occurred in cells lacking alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) genes, indicating that the effect of NSs protein on minigenome RNA replication was unrelated to a putative NSs protein-induced inhibition of IFN-alpha/beta production. Our finding that RVFV NSs protein augmented minigenome RNA synthesis was in sharp contrast to reports that Bunyamwera virus (genus Bunyavirus) NSs protein inhibits viral minigenome RNA synthesis, suggesting that RVFV NSs protein and Bunyamwera virus NSs protein have distinctly different biological roles in viral RNA synthesis.

  13. Rift Valley fever virus NSs inhibits host transcription independently of the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Birte; Lihoradova, Olga; Indran, Sabarish V; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Head, Jennifer A; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-01-20

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) encodes one major virulence factor, the NSs protein. NSs suppresses host general transcription, including interferon (IFN)-β mRNA synthesis, and promotes degradation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). We generated a novel RVFV mutant (rMP12-NSsR173A) specifically lacking the function to promote PKR degradation. rMP12-NSsR173A infection induces early phosphorylation of eIF2α through PKR activation, while retaining the function to inhibit host general transcription including IFN-β gene inhibition. MP-12 NSs but not R173A NSs binds to wt PKR. R173A NSs formed filamentous structure in nucleus in a mosaic pattern, which was distinct from MP-12 NSs filament pattern. Due to early phosphorylation of eIF2α, rMP12-NSsR173A could not efficiently accumulate viral proteins. Our results suggest that NSs-mediated host general transcription suppression occurs independently of PKR degradation, while the PKR degradation is important to inhibit the phosphorylation of eIF2α in infected cells undergoing host general transcription suppression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. NSs Protein of Rift Valley Fever Virus Promotes Posttranslational Downregulation of the TFIIH Subunit p62▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Birte; Lihoradova, Olga; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) is an important emerging pathogen of humans and ruminants. Its NSs protein has previously been identified as a major virulence factor that suppresses host defense through three distinct mechanisms: it directly inhibits beta interferon (IFN-β) promoter activity, it promotes the degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), and it suppresses host transcription by disrupting the assembly of the basal transcription factor TFIIH through sequestration of its p44 subunit. Here, we report that in addition to PKR, NSs also promotes the degradation of the TFIIH subunit p62. Infection of cells with the RVFV MP-12 vaccine strain reduced p62 protein levels to below the detection limit early in the course of infection. This NSs-mediated downregulation of p62 was posttranslational, as it was unaffected by pharmacological inhibition of transcription or translation and MP-12 infection had no effect on p62 mRNA levels. Treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors but not inhibition of lysosomal acidification or nuclear export resulted in a stabilization of p62 in the presence of NSs. Furthermore, p62 could be coprecipitated with NSs from lysates of infected cells. These data suggest that the RVFV NSs protein is able to interact with the TFIIH subunit p62 inside infected cells and promotes its degradation, which can occur directly in the nucleus. PMID:21543505

  15. An Epidemiological Model of Rift Valley Fever with Spatial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchan Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a category A agent in the Center for Disease Control bioterrorism list, Rift Valley fever (RVF is considered a major threat to the United States (USA. Should the pathogen be intentionally or unintentionally introduced to the continental USA, there is tremendous potential for economic damages due to loss of livestock, trade restrictions, and subsequent food supply chain disruptions. We have incorporated the effects of space into a mathematical model of RVF in order to study the dynamics of the pathogen spread as affected by the movement of humans, livestock, and mosquitoes. The model accounts for the horizontal transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV between two mosquito and one livestock species, and mother-to-offspring transmission of virus in one of the mosquito species. Space effects are introduced by dividing geographic space into smaller patches and considering the patch-to-patch movement of species. For each patch, a system of ordinary differential equations models fractions of populations susceptible to, incubating, infectious with, or immune to RVFV. The main contribution of this work is a methodology for analyzing the likelihood of pathogen establishment should an introduction occur into an area devoid of RVF. Examples are provided for general and specific cases to illustrate the methodology.

  16. Role of Culex and Anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in Sudan outbreak, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal Fatma H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rift Valley fever (RVF is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Methods Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. Results A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7% in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2% in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by ≥ 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between

  17. Laboratory safe detection of nucleocapsid protein of Rift Valley fever virus in human and animal specimens by a sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen van Vuren, P; Paweska, J T

    2009-04-01

    A safe laboratory procedure, based on a sandwich ELISA (sAg-ELISA), was developed and evaluated for the detection of nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in specimens inactivated at 56 degrees C for 1h in the presence of 0.5% Tween-20 (v/v) before testing. Polyclonal capture and detection immune sera were generated respectively in sheep and rabbits immunized with recombinant NP antigen. The assay was highly repeatable and specific; it detected strains of RVFV from the entire distributional range of the disease, isolated over a period of 53 years; no cross-reactivity with genetically related African phleboviruses or other members of the family Bunyaviridae was observed. In specimens spiked with RVFV, including human and animal sera, homogenates of liver and spleen tissues of domestic ruminants, and Anopheles mosquito homogenates, the sAg-ELISA detection limit ranged from log(10)10(2.2) to 10(3.2) TCID(50)/reaction volume. The ELISA detected NP antigen in spiked bovine and sheep liver homogenates up to at least 8 days of incubation at 37 degrees C whereas infectious virus could not be detected at 48h incubation in these adverse conditions. Compared to virus isolation from sera from RVF patients and sheep infected experimentally, the ELISA had 67.7% and 70% sensitivity, and 97.97% and 100% specificity, respectively. The assay was 100% accurate when testing tissues of various organs from mice infected experimentally and buffalo foetuses infected naturally. The assay was able to detect NP antigen in infective culture supernatants 16-24h before cytopathic effects were observed microscopically and as early as 8h after inoculation with 10(5.8) TCID(50)/ml of RVFV. This ability renders the assay for rapid identification of the virus when its primary isolation is attempted in vitro. As a highly specific, safe and simple assay format, the sAg-ELISA represents a valuable diagnostic tool for use in less equipped laboratories in Africa, and for routine

  18. Serological evidence of Rift Valley fever virus circulation in sheep and goats in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fafetine

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is endemic in most parts of Africa and has also been reported to occur in the Arabian Peninsula. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in livestock, but also in humans. During the last two decades several outbreaks of RVF have been reported in countries in Southern Africa. In contrast to other countries, no clinical disease has been reported in Mozambique during this period. In a serological study conducted in 2007 in five districts of Zambézia Province, Mozambique, of a total of 654 small ruminants sampled (277 sheep and 377 goats, 35.8% of sheep sera and 21.2% of goat sera were positive for RVF virus (RVFV antibodies in a virus neutralization test (VN and in an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 313 sheep and 449 goats in two districts of the same province. This study revealed an overall seropositivity rate of 9.2% in sheep and 11.6% in goat and an increased likelihood of being seropositive in older animals (OR = 7.3; p<0.001 using an IgG ELISA. 29 out of 240 animals assessed for RVF specific IgM by ELISA were positive, suggesting recent exposure to RVFV. However, a longitudinal study carried out between September 2010 and April 2011 in a cohort of 125 of these animals (74 sheep and 51 goats failed to demonstrate seroconversion. The results of the study indicate that RVFV circulates sub-clinically in domestic small ruminants in Zambézia Province.

  19. Inter-epidemic abundance and distribution of potential mosquito vectors for Rift Valley fever virus in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement N; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Mellau, Lesakit S B; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588) were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226) Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9) Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095) of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225) of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78%) of C. pipiens complex and most (85%) of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania.

  20. Inter-epidemic abundance and distribution of potential mosquito vectors for Rift Valley fever virus in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement N. Mweya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective: To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results: A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588 were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226 Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9 Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095 of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225 of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78% of C. pipiens complex and most (85% of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions: These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania.

  1. Infection and transmission of Rift Valley fever viruses lacking the NSs and/or NSm genes in mosquitoes: potential role for NSm in mosquito infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Mary B; Kent Crockett, Rebekah J; Bird, Brian H; Nichol, Stuart T; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Miller, Barry R

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus is an arthropod-borne human and animal pathogen responsible for large outbreaks of acute and febrile illness throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Reverse genetics technology has been used to develop deletion mutants of the virus that lack the NSs and/or NSm virulence genes and have been shown to be stable, immunogenic and protective against Rift Valley fever virus infection in animals. We assessed the potential for these deletion mutant viruses to infect and be transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which are the principal vectors for maintenance of the virus in nature and emergence of virus initiating disease outbreaks, and by Culex mosquitoes which are important amplification vectors. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were fed bloodmeals containing the deletion mutant viruses. Two weeks post-exposure mosquitoes were assayed for infection, dissemination, and transmission. In Ae. aegypti, infection and transmission rates of the NSs deletion virus were similar to wild type virus while dissemination rates were significantly reduced. Infection and dissemination rates for the NSm deletion virus were lower compared to wild type. Virus lacking both NSs and NSm failed to infect Ae. aegypti. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, infection rates for viruses lacking NSm or both NSs and NSm were lower than for wild type virus. In both species, deletion of NSm or both NSs and NSm reduced the infection and transmission potential of the virus. Deletion of both NSs and NSm resulted in the highest level of attenuation of virus replication. Deletion of NSm alone was sufficient to nearly abolish infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, indicating an important role for this protein. The double deleted viruses represent an ideal vaccine profile in terms of environmental containment due to lack of ability to efficiently infect and be transmitted by mosquitoes.

  2. Infection and transmission of Rift Valley fever viruses lacking the NSs and/or NSm genes in mosquitoes: potential role for NSm in mosquito infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B Crabtree

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus is an arthropod-borne human and animal pathogen responsible for large outbreaks of acute and febrile illness throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Reverse genetics technology has been used to develop deletion mutants of the virus that lack the NSs and/or NSm virulence genes and have been shown to be stable, immunogenic and protective against Rift Valley fever virus infection in animals. We assessed the potential for these deletion mutant viruses to infect and be transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which are the principal vectors for maintenance of the virus in nature and emergence of virus initiating disease outbreaks, and by Culex mosquitoes which are important amplification vectors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were fed bloodmeals containing the deletion mutant viruses. Two weeks post-exposure mosquitoes were assayed for infection, dissemination, and transmission. In Ae. aegypti, infection and transmission rates of the NSs deletion virus were similar to wild type virus while dissemination rates were significantly reduced. Infection and dissemination rates for the NSm deletion virus were lower compared to wild type. Virus lacking both NSs and NSm failed to infect Ae. aegypti. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, infection rates for viruses lacking NSm or both NSs and NSm were lower than for wild type virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In both species, deletion of NSm or both NSs and NSm reduced the infection and transmission potential of the virus. Deletion of both NSs and NSm resulted in the highest level of attenuation of virus replication. Deletion of NSm alone was sufficient to nearly abolish infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, indicating an important role for this protein. The double deleted viruses represent an ideal vaccine profile in terms of environmental containment due to lack of ability to efficiently infect and be transmitted by mosquitoes.

  3. Reverse-phase phosphoproteome analysis of signaling pathways induced by Rift valley fever virus in human small airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taissia G Popova

    Full Text Available Rift valley fever virus (RVFV infection is an emerging zoonotic disease endemic in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa and in Egypt. In this study we show that human small airway epithelial cells are highly susceptible to RVFV virulent strain ZH-501 and the attenuated strain MP-12. We used the reverse-phase protein arrays technology to identify phosphoprotein signaling pathways modulated during infection of cultured airway epithelium. ZH-501 infection induced activation of MAP kinases (p38, JNK and ERK and downstream transcriptional factors [STAT1 (Y701, ATF2 (T69/71, MSK1 (S360 and CREB (S133]. NF-κB phosphorylation was also increased. Activation of p53 (S15, S46 correlated with the increased levels of cleaved effector caspase-3, -6 and -7, indicating activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. RVFV infection downregulated phosphorylation of a major anti-apoptotic regulator of survival pathways, AKT (S473, along with phosphorylation of FOX 01/03 (T24/31 which controls cell cycle arrest downstream from AKT. Consistent with this, the level of apoptosis inhibitor XIAP was decreased. However, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway marker, caspase-9, demonstrated only a marginal activation accompanied by an increased level of the inhibitor of apoptosome formation, HSP27. Concentration of the autophagy marker, LC3B, which often accompanies the pro-survival signaling, was decreased. Cumulatively, our analysis of RVFV infection in lung epithelium indicated a viral strategy directed toward the control of cell apoptosis through a number of transcriptional factors. Analyses of MP-12 titers in challenged cells in the presence of MAPK inhibitors indicated that activation of p38 represents a protective cell response while ERK activation controls viral replication.

  4. Rift Valley fever outbreak--Kenya, November 2006-January 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-02

    In mid-December 2006, several unexplained fatalities associated with fever and generalized bleeding were reported to the Kenya Ministry of Health (KMOH) from Garissa District in North Eastern Province (NEP). By December 20, a total of 11 deaths had been reported. Of serum samples collected from the first 19 patients, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus RNA or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against RVF virus were found in samples from 10 patients; all serum specimens were negative for yellow fever, Ebola, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and dengue viruses. The outbreak was confirmed by isolation of RVF virus from six of the specimens. Humans can be infected with RVF virus from bites of mosquitoes or other arthropod vectors that have fed on animals infected with RVF virus, or through contact with viremic animals, particularly livestock. Reports of livestock deaths and unexplained animal abortions in NEP provided further evidence of an RVF outbreak. On December 20, an investigation was launched by KMOH, the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), the Walter Reed Project of the U.S. Army Medical Research Unit, CDC-Kenya's Global Disease Detection Center, and other partners, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). This report describes the findings from that initial investigation and the control measures taken in response to the RVF outbreak, which spread to multiple additional provinces and districts, resulting in 404 cases with 118 deaths as of January 25, 2007.

  5. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.

  6. Occurrence of rift valley fever (RVF) in Dodoma region, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a peracute or acute febrile zoonotic ... results the patients were treated for malaria and/or meningitis based on visual/ clinical signs. ... RVF occurrence to humans by using case study definitions for RVF suspect's, and ...

  7. Dual functions of Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein: inhibition of host mRNA transcription and post-transcriptional downregulation of protein kinase PKR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Narayanan, Krishna; Won, Sungyong; Kamitani, Wataru; Peters, C J; Makino, Shinji

    2009-09-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a single-stranded, tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or ocular diseases. A viral nonstructural protein, NSs, is a major viral virulence factor. Past studies showed that NSs suppresses the transcription of host mRNAs, including interferon-beta mRNAs. Here we demonstrated that the NSs protein induced post-transcriptional downregulation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), to prevent phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and promoted viral translation in infected cells. These two biological activities of the NSs most probably have a synergistic effect in suppressing host innate immune functions and facilitate efficient viral replication in infected mammalian hosts.

  8. Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus Interepidemic Activity in Some Hotspot Areas of Kenya by Sentinel Animal Surveillance, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus causes an important zoonotic disease of humans and small ruminants in Eastern Africa and is spread primarily by a mosquito vector. In this region, it occurs as epizootics that typically occur at 5–15-year intervals associated with unusual rainfall events. It has hitherto been known that the virus is maintained between outbreaks in dormant eggs of the mosquito vector and this has formed the basis of understanding of the epidemiology and control strategies of the disease. We show here that seroconversion and sporadic acute disease do occur during the interepidemic periods (IEPs in the absence of reported cases in livestock or humans. The finding indicates that previously undetected low-level virus transmission during the IEPs does occur and that epizootics may also be due to periodic expansion of mosquito vectors in the presence of both circulating virus and naïve animals.

  9. Single-Molecule FISH Reveals Non-selective Packaging of Rift Valley Fever Virus Genome Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The bunyavirus genome comprises a small (S), medium (M), and large (L) RNA segment of negative polarity. Although genome segmentation confers evolutionary advantages by enabling genome reassortment events with related viruses, genome segmentation also complicates genome replication and packaging.

  10. Co-housing of Rift Valley fever virus infected lambs with immunocompetent or immunosuppressed lambs does not result in virus transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Wichgers Schreur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is transmitted among susceptible animals by mosquito vectors. Although the virus can be isolated from nasal and oral swabs of infected animals and is known to be highly infectious when administered experimentally via oral or respiratory route, horizontal transmission of the virus is only sporadically reported in literature. We considered that immunosuppression resulting from stressful conditions in the field may increase the susceptibility to horizontally transmitted RVFV. Additionally, we reasoned that horizontal transmission may induce immune responses that could affect the susceptibility of contact-exposed animals to subsequent infection via mosquito vectors. To address these two hypotheses, viremic lambs were brought into contact with sentinel lambs. One group of sentinel lambs was treated with the immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone and monitored for signs of disease and presence of virus in the blood and target organs. Another group of contact-exposed sentinel lambs remained untreated for three weeks and was subsequently challenged with RVFV. We found that none of the dexamethasone-treated contact-exposed lambs developed detectable viremia, antibody responses or significant increases in cytokine mRNA levels. Susceptibility of immunocompetent lambs to RVFV infection was not influenced by previous contact-exposure. Our results are discussed in light of previous findings.

  11. Infection of inbred rat strains with Rift Valley fever virus: development of a congenic resistant strain and observations on age-dependence of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G W; Rosebrock, J A; Johnson, A J; Jennings, G B; Peters, C J

    1991-05-01

    A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Resistance to hepatic disease developed gradually with age, with full expression at approximately 10 weeks in the WF.LEW and LEW rat strains. The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of resistance to Rift Valley fever virus governed by the dominant Mendelian gene.

  12. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyre, M.; Chevalier, V.; Abdo-Salem, S.; Velthuis, A.; Antoine-Moussiaux, N.; Thiry, E.; Roger, F.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to

  13. Blood Meal Analysis of Mosquitoes Involved in a Rift Valley fever Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were sc...

  14. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  15. Identifying landscape features associated with Rift Valley fever virus transmission, Ferlo region, Senegal, using very high spatial resolution satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soti, Valérie; Chevalier, Véronique; Maura, Jonathan; Bégué, Agnès; Lelong, Camille; Lancelot, Renaud; Thiongane, Yaya; Tran, Annelise

    2013-03-01

    Dynamics of most of vector-borne diseases are strongly linked to global and local environmental changes. Landscape changes are indicators of human activities or natural processes that are likely to modify the ecology of the diseases. Here, a landscape approach developed at a local scale is proposed for extracting mosquito favourable biotopes, and for testing ecological parameters when identifying risk areas of Rift Valley fever (RVF) transmission. The study was carried out around Barkedji village, Ferlo region, Senegal. In order to test whether pond characteristics may influence the density and the dispersal behaviour of RVF vectors, and thus the spatial variation in RVFV transmission, we used a very high spatial resolution remote sensing image (2.4 m resolution) provided by the Quickbird sensor to produce a detailed land-cover map of the study area. Based on knowledge of vector and disease ecology, seven landscape attributes were defined at the pond level and computed from the land-cover map. Then, the relationships between landscape attributes and RVF serologic incidence rates in small ruminants were analyzed through a beta-binomial regression. Finally, the best statistical model according to the Akaike Information Criterion corrected for small samples (AICC), was used to map areas at risk for RVF. Among the derived landscape variables, the vegetation density index (VDI) computed within a 500 m buffer around ponds was positively correlated with serologic incidence (premote sensing data for identifying environmental risk factors and mapping RVF risk areas at a local scale.

  16. NSs Virulence Factor of Rift Valley Fever Virus Engages the F-Box Proteins FBXW11 and β-TRCP1 To Degrade the Antiviral Protein Kinase PKR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Markus; Lau, Simone; Samuel, Charles E; Hornung, Veit; Weber, Friedemann

    2016-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) is a relevant pathogen of both humans and livestock in Africa. The nonstructural protein NSs is a major virulence factor known to suppress the type I interferon (IFN) response by inhibiting host cell transcription and by proteasomal degradation of a major antiviral IFN effector, the translation-inhibiting protein kinase PKR. Here, we identified components of the modular SCF (Skp1, Cul1, F-box protein)-type E3 ubiquitin ligases as mediators of PKR destruction by NSs. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against the conserved SCF subunit Skp1 protected PKR from NSs-mediated degradation. Consequently, RVFV replication was severely reduced in Skp1-depleted cells when PKR was present. SCF complexes have a variable F-box protein subunit that determines substrate specificity for ubiquitination. We performed an siRNA screen for all (about 70) human F-box proteins and found FBXW11 to be involved in PKR degradation. The partial stabilization of PKR by FBXW11 depletion upregulated PKR autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the PKR substrate eIF2α and caused a shutoff of host cell protein synthesis in RVFV-infected cells. To maximally protect PKR from the action of NSs, knockdown of structurally and functionally related FBXW1 (also known as β-TRCP1), in addition to FBXW11 deletion, was necessary. Consequently, NSs was found to interact with both FBXW11 and β-TRCP1. Thus, NSs eliminates the antiviral kinase PKR by recruitment of SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases containing FBXW11 and β-TRCP1 as substrate recognition subunits. This antagonism of PKR by NSs is essential for efficient RVFV replication in mammalian cells. Rift Valley fever virus is a pathogen of humans and animals that has the potential to spread from Africa and the Arabian Peninsula to other regions. A major virulence mechanism is the proteasomal degradation of the antiviral kinase PKR by the viral protein NSs. Here, we demonstrate that NSs

  17. Rescue of infectious rift valley fever virus entirely from cDNA, analysis of virus lacking the NSs gene, and expression of a foreign gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Won, Sungyong; Peters, C J; Makino, Shinji

    2006-03-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) has a tripartite negative-strand genome, causes a mosquito-borne disease that is endemic in sub-Saharan African countries and that also causes large epidemics among humans and livestock. Furthermore, it is a bioterrorist threat and poses a risk for introduction to other areas. In spite of its danger, neither veterinary nor human vaccines are available. We established a T7 RNA polymerase-driven reverse genetics system to rescue infectious clones of RVFV MP-12 strain entirely from cDNA, the first for any phlebovirus. Expression of viral structural proteins from the protein expression plasmids was not required for virus rescue, whereas NSs protein expression abolished virus rescue. Mutants of MP-12 partially or completely lacking the NSs open reading frame were viable. These NSs deletion mutants replicated efficiently in Vero and 293 cells, but not in MRC-5 cells. In the latter cell line, accumulation of beta interferon mRNA occurred after infection by these NSs deletion mutants, but not after infection by MP-12. The NSs deletion mutants formed larger plaques than MP-12 did in Vero E6 cells and failed to shut off host protein synthesis in Vero cells. An MP-12 mutant carrying a luciferase gene in place of the NSs gene replicated as efficiently as MP-12 did, produced enzymatically active luciferase during replication, and stably retained the luciferase gene after 10 virus passages, representing the first demonstration of foreign gene expression in any bunyavirus. This reverse genetics system can be used to study the molecular virology of RVFV, assess current vaccine candidates, produce new vaccines, and incorporate marker genes into animal vaccines.

  18. MP-12 virus containing the clone 13 deletion in the NSs gene prevents lethal disease when administered after Rift Valley fever virus infection in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Brian B; Westover, Jonna B; Sefing, Eric J; Bailey, Kevin W; Nishiyama, Shoko; Wandersee, Luci; Scharton, Dionna; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) causes a range of illnesses that include retinitis, fulminant hepatitis, neurologic disease, and hemorrhagic fever. In hospitalized individuals, case fatality rates can be as high as 10-20%. There are no vaccines or antivirals approved for human use to prevent or treat severe RVFV infections. We previously tested the efficacy of the MP-12 vaccine strain and related variants with NSs truncations as a post-exposure prophylaxis in mice infected with wild-type pathogenic RVFV strain ZH501. Post-exposure efficacy of the rMP12-C13type, a recombinant MP-12 vaccine virus which encodes an in-frame truncation removing 69% of the NSs protein, resulted in 30% survival when administering the virus within 30 min of subcutaneous ZH501 challenge in mice, while the parental MP-12 virus conferred no protection by post-exposure vaccination. Here, we demonstrate uniform protection of hamsters by post-exposure vaccination with rMP12-C13type administered 6 h post-ZH501 infection while no efficacy was observed with the parental MP-12 virus. Notably, both the MP-12 and rMP12-C13type viruses were highly effective (100% protection) when administered 21 days prior to challenge. In a subsequent study delaying vaccination until 8, 12, and 24 h post-RVFV exposure, we observed 80, 70, and 30% survival, respectively. Our findings indicate that the rapid protective innate immune response elicited by rMP12-C13type may be due to the truncated NSs protein, suggesting that the resulting functional inactivation of NSs plays an important role in the observed post-exposure efficacy. Taken together, the data demonstrate that post-exposure vaccination with rMP12-C13type is effective in limiting ZH501 replication and associated disease in standard pre-exposure vaccination and post-challenge treatment models of RVFV infection, and suggest an extended post-exposure prophylaxis window beyond that initially observed in mice.

  19. A ΩXaV motif in the Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Normand; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Lecoq, Lauriane; Guendel, Irene; Chabot, Philippe R; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Omichinski, James G

    2015-05-12

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a single-stranded RNA virus capable of inducing fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. A key component of RVFV virulence is its ability to form nuclear filaments through interactions between the viral nonstructural protein NSs and the host general transcription factor TFIIH. Here, we identify an interaction between a ΩXaV motif in NSs and the p62 subunit of TFIIH. This motif in NSs is similar to ΩXaV motifs found in nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors and transcription factors known to interact with p62. Structural and biophysical studies demonstrate that NSs binds to p62 in a similar manner as these other factors. Functional studies in RVFV-infected cells show that the ΩXaV motif is required for both nuclear filament formation and degradation of p62. Consistent with the fact that the RVFV can be distinguished from other Bunyaviridae-family viruses due to its ability to form nuclear filaments in infected cells, the motif is absent in the NSs proteins of other Bunyaviridae-family viruses. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that p62 binding to NSs through the ΩXaV motif is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and enhancing RVFV virulence. In addition, these results show how the RVFV incorporates a simple motif into the NSs protein that enables it to functionally mimic host cell proteins that bind the p62 subunit of TFIIH.

  20. Wolbachia Effects on Rift Valley Virus Infection in Culex tarsalis Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-25

    Wolbachia density in mosquitoes. 109" 110" Materials and Methods 111" Ethics statement 112" TR-17-113 Mosquitoes were maintained on commercially available...fever virus. 379" Vet Med Today. 2009; 883–893. 380" 29. Wilson M. Rift Valley fever virus ecology and the epidemiology of disease emergence. 381

  1. Common host-derived chemicals increase catches of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and can improve early warning systems for rift valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The emergence and re-emergence of the disease in the last 20 years especially in East Africa, poses a looming health threat which is likely to spread to beyond Africa. This threat is exacerbat...

  2. Identification of central Kenyan Rift Valley Fever virus vector habitats with Landsat TM and evaluation of their flooding status with airborne imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, K. O.; Sheffner, E. J.; Linthicum, K. J.; Bailey, C. L.; Logan, T. M.; Kasischke, E. S.; Birney, K.; Njogu, A. R.; Roberts, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne virus that affects livestock and humans in Africa. Landsat TM data are shown to be effective in identifying dambos, intermittently flooded areas that are potential mosquite breeding sites, in an area north of Nairobi, Kenya. Positive results were obtained from a limited test of flood detection in dambos with airborne high resolution L, C, and X band multipolarization SAR imagery. L and C bands were effective in detecting flooded dambos, but LHH was by far the best channel for discrimination between flooded and nonflooded sites in both sedge and short-grass environments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a combined passive and active remote sensing program for monitoring the location and condition of RVF vector habitats, thus making future control of the disease more promising.

  3. Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Nyamunura Mweya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. Methods: Diverse ecological niche modelling techniques have been developed for this purpose: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Results: Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Conclusion: Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.

  4. Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement Nyamunura; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Kija, John Bukombe; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2013-01-01

    The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. DIVERSE ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELLING TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THIS PURPOSE: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent) approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex) responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.

  5. High content image-based screening of a protease inhibitor library reveals compounds broadly active against Rift Valley fever virus and other highly pathogenic RNA viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini Mudhasani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High content image-based screening was developed as an approach to test a protease inhibitor small molecule library for antiviral activity against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV and to determine their mechanism of action. RVFV is the causative agent of severe disease of humans and animals throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Of the 849 compounds screened, 34 compounds exhibited ≥ 50% inhibition against RVFV. All of the hit compounds could be classified into 4 distinct groups based on their unique chemical backbone. Some of the compounds also showed broad antiviral activity against several highly pathogenic RNA viruses including Ebola, Marburg, Venezuela equine encephalitis, and Lassa viruses. Four hit compounds (C795-0925, D011-2120, F694-1532 and G202-0362, which were most active against RVFV and showed broad-spectrum antiviral activity, were selected for further evaluation for their cytotoxicity, dose response profile, and mode of action using classical virological methods and high-content imaging analysis. Time-of-addition assays in RVFV infections suggested that D011-2120 and G202-0362 targeted virus egress, while C795-0925 and F694-1532 inhibited virus replication. We showed that D011-2120 exhibited its antiviral effects by blocking microtubule polymerization, thereby disrupting the Golgi complex and inhibiting viral trafficking to the plasma membrane during virus egress. While G202-0362 also affected virus egress, it appears to do so by a different mechanism, namely by blocking virus budding from the trans Golgi. F694-1532 inhibited viral replication, but also appeared to inhibit overall cellular gene expression. However, G202-0362 and C795-0925 did not alter any of the morphological features that we examined and thus may prove to be good candidates for antiviral drug development. Overall this work demonstrates that high-content image analysis can be used to screen chemical libraries for new antivirals and to determine their

  6. Simulation modelling of population dynamics of mosquito vectors for rift valley Fever virus in a disease epidemic setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement N Mweya

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever (RVF is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics.Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district.Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings.

  7. Simulation modelling of population dynamics of mosquito vectors for rift valley Fever virus in a disease epidemic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement N; Holst, Niels; Mboera, Leonard E G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics. Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD) and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML) files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district. Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings.

  8. A dynamic, climate-driven model of Rift Valley fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Leedale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF in eastern Africa have previously occurred following specific rainfall dynamics and flooding events that appear to support the emergence of large numbers of mosquito vectors. As such, transmission of the virus is considered to be sensitive to environmental conditions and therefore changes in climate can impact the spatiotemporal dynamics of epizootic vulnerability. Epidemiological information describing the methods and parameters of RVF transmission and its dependence on climatic factors are used to develop a new spatio-temporal mathematical model that simulates these dynamics and can predict the impact of changes in climate. The Liverpool RVF (LRVF model is a new dynamic, process-based model driven by climate data that provides a predictive output of geographical changes in RVF outbreak susceptibility as a result of the climate and local livestock immunity. This description of the multi-disciplinary process of model development is accessible to mathematicians, epidemiological modellers and climate scientists, uniting dynamic mathematical modelling, empirical parameterisation and state-of-the-art climate information.

  9. Nonstructural NSs protein of rift valley fever virus interacts with pericentromeric DNA sequences of the host cell, inducing chromosome cohesion and segregation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuroglu, Z; Josse, T; Gilleron, J; Billecocq, A; Leger, P; Bouloy, M; Bonnefoy, E

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging, highly pathogenic virus; RVFV infection can lead to encephalitis, retinitis, or fatal hepatitis associated with hemorrhagic fever in humans, as well as death, abortions, and fetal deformities in animals. RVFV nonstructural NSs protein, a major factor of the virulence, forms filamentous structures in the nuclei of infected cells. In order to further understand RVFV pathology, we investigated, by chromatin immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and confocal microscopy, the capacity of NSs to interact with the host genome. Our results demonstrate that even though cellular DNA is predominantly excluded from NSs filaments, NSs interacts with some specific DNA regions of the host genome such as clusters of pericentromeric gamma-satellite sequence. Targeting of these sequences by NSs was correlated with the induction of chromosome cohesion and segregation defects in RVFV-infected murine, as well as sheep cells. Using recombinant nonpathogenic virus rZHDeltaNSs210-230, expressing a NSs protein deleted of its region of interaction with cellular factor SAP30, we showed that the NSs-SAP30 interaction was essential for NSs to target pericentromeric sequences, as well as for induction of chromosome segregation defects. The effect of RVFV upon the inheritance of genetic information is discussed with respect to the pathology associated with fetal deformities and abortions, highlighting the main role played by cellular cofactor SAP30 on the establishment of NSs interactions with host DNA sequences and RVFV pathogenesis.

  10. N-Glycans on the Rift Valley Fever Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Gn and Gc Redundantly Support Viral Infection via DC-SIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Inaia; Nishiyama, Shoko; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Hill, Terence E.; Huante, Matthew B.; Slack, Olga A.L.; Carpio, Victor H.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-transmitted, zoonotic disease that infects humans and ruminants. Dendritic cell specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3) grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) acts as a receptor for members of the phlebovirus genus. The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) glycoproteins (Gn/Gc) encode five putative N-glycan sequons (asparagine (N)–any amino acid (X)–serine (S)/threonine (T)) at positions: N438 (Gn), and N794, N829, N1035, and N1077 (Gc). The N-glycosylation profile and significance in viral infection via DC-SIGN have not been elucidated. Gc N-glycosylation was first evaluated by using Gc asparagine (N) to glutamine (Q) mutants. Subsequently, we generated a series of recombinant RVFV MP-12 strain mutants, which encode N-to-Q mutations, and the infectivity of each mutant in Jurkat cells stably expressing DC-SIGN was evaluated. Results showed that Gc N794, N1035, and N1077 were N-glycosylated but N829 was not. Gc N1077 was heterogeneously N-glycosylated. RVFV Gc made two distinct N-glycoforms: “Gc-large” and “Gc-small”, and N1077 was responsible for “Gc-large” band. RVFV showed increased infection of cells expressing DC-SIGN compared to cells lacking DC-SIGN. Infection via DC-SIGN was increased in the presence of either Gn N438 or Gc N1077. Our study showed that N-glycans on the Gc and Gn surface glycoproteins redundantly support RVFV infection via DC-SIGN. PMID:27223297

  11. NSs protein of rift valley fever virus induces the specific degradation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habjan, Matthias; Pichlmair, Andreas; Elliott, Richard M; Overby, Anna K; Glatter, Timo; Gstaiger, Matthias; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Unger, Hermann; Weber, Friedemann

    2009-05-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to cause large outbreaks of acute febrile and often fatal illness among humans and domesticated animals in Africa, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. The high pathogenicity of this bunyavirus is mainly due to the viral protein NSs, which was shown to prevent transcriptional induction of the antivirally active type I interferons (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-alpha/beta]). Viruses lacking the NSs gene induce synthesis of IFNs and are therefore attenuated, whereas the noninducing wild-type RVFV strains can only be inhibited by pretreatment with IFN. We demonstrate here in vitro and in vivo that a substantial part of the antiviral activity of IFN against RVFV is due to a double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). PKR-mediated virus inhibition, however, was much more pronounced for the strain Clone 13 with NSs deleted than for the NSs-expressing strain ZH548. In vivo, Clone 13 was nonpathogenic for wild-type (wt) mice but could regain pathogenicity if mice lacked the PKR gene. ZH548, in contrast, killed both wt and PKR knockout mice indiscriminately. ZH548 was largely resistant to the antiviral properties of PKR because RVFV NSs triggered the specific degradation of PKR via the proteasome. The NSs proteins of the related but less virulent sandfly fever Sicilian virus and La Crosse virus, in contrast, had no such anti-PKR activity despite being efficient suppressors of IFN induction. Our data suggest that RVFV NSs has gained an additional anti-IFN function that may explain the extraordinary pathogenicity of this virus.

  12. Multiple virus lineages sharing recent common ancestry were associated with a Large Rift Valley fever outbreak among livestock in Kenya during 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Githinji, Jane W K; Macharia, Joseph M; Kasiiti, Jacqueline L; Muriithi, Rees M; Gacheru, Stephen G; Musaa, Joseph O; Towner, Jonathan S; Reeder, Serena A; Oliver, Jennifer B; Stevens, Thomas L; Erickson, Bobbie R; Morgan, Laura T; Khristova, Marina L; Hartman, Amy L; Comer, James A; Rollin, Pierre E; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T

    2008-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus historically has caused widespread and extensive outbreaks of severe human and livestock disease throughout Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Following unusually heavy rainfall during the late autumn of 2006, reports of human and animal illness consistent with RVF virus infection emerged across semiarid regions of the Garissa District of northeastern Kenya and southern Somalia. Following initial RVF virus laboratory confirmation, a high-throughput RVF diagnostic facility was established at the Kenyan Central Veterinary Laboratories in Kabete, Kenya, to support the real-time identification of infected livestock and to facilitate outbreak response and control activities. A total of 3,250 specimens from a variety of animal species, including domesticated livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, and camels) and wildlife collected from a total of 55 of 71 Kenyan administrative districts, were tested by molecular and serologic assays. Evidence of RVF infection was found in 9.2% of animals tested and across 23 districts of Kenya, reflecting the large number of affected livestock and the geographic extent of the outbreak. The complete S, M, and/or L genome segment sequence was obtained from a total of 31 RVF virus specimens spanning the entire known outbreak period (December-May) and geographic areas affected by RVF virus activity. Extensive genomic analyses demonstrated the concurrent circulation of multiple virus lineages, gene segment reassortment, and the common ancestry of the 2006/2007 outbreak viruses with those from the 1997-1998 east African RVF outbreak. Evidence of recent increases in genomic diversity and effective population size 2 to 4 years prior to the 2006-2007 outbreak also was found, indicating ongoing RVF virus activity and evolution during the interepizootic/epidemic period. These findings have implications for further studies of basic RVF virus ecology and the design of future surveillance/diagnostic activities, and

  13. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of cell-free synthesized Rift Valley fever virus nucleoprotein capsids enables in vitro screening to identify novel antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broce, Sean; Hensley, Lisa; Sato, Tomoharu; Lehrer-Graiwer, Joshua; Essrich, Christian; Edwards, Katie J; Pajda, Jacqueline; Davis, Christopher J; Bhadresh, Rami; Hurt, Clarence R; Freeman, Beverly; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Kelleher, Colm A; Karpuj, Marcela V

    2016-05-14

    Viral capsid assembly involves the oligomerization of the capsid nucleoprotein (NP), which is an essential step in viral replication and may represent a potential antiviral target. An in vitro transcription-translation reaction using a wheat germ (WG) extract in combination with a sandwich ELISA assay has recently been used to identify small molecules with antiviral activity against the rabies virus. Here, we examined the application of this system to viruses with capsids with a different structure, such as the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the etiological agent of a severe emerging infectious disease. The biochemical and immunological characterization of the in vitro-generated RVFV NP assembly products enabled the distinction between intermediately and highly ordered capsid structures. This distinction was used to establish a screening method for the identification of potential antiviral drugs for RVFV countermeasures. These results indicated that this unique analytical system, which combines nucleoprotein oligomerization with the specific immune recognition of a highly ordered capsid structure, can be extended to various viral families and used both to study the early stages of NP assembly and to assist in the identification of potential antiviral drugs in a cost-efficient manner. Reviewed by Jeffry Skolnick and Noah Isakov. For the full reviews please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  14. Evaluation of positive Rift Valley fever virus formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples as a source of sequence data for retrospective phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubemba, B; Thompson, P N; Odendaal, L; Coetzee, P; Venter, E H

    2017-05-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), caused by an arthropod borne Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, is a haemorrhagic disease that affects ruminants and humans. Due to the zoonotic nature of the virus, a biosafety level 3 laboratory is required for isolation of the virus. Fresh and frozen samples are the preferred sample type for isolation and acquisition of sequence data. However, these samples are scarce in addition to posing a health risk to laboratory personnel. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are safe and readily available, however FFPE derived RNA is in most cases degraded and cross-linked in peptide bonds and it is unknown whether the sample type would be suitable as reference material for retrospective phylogenetic studies. A RT-PCR assay targeting a 490 nt portion of the structural G N glycoprotein encoding gene of the RVFV M-segment was applied to total RNA extracted from archived RVFV positive FFPE samples. Several attempts to obtain target amplicons were unsuccessful. FFPE samples were then analysed using next generation sequencing (NGS), i.e. Truseq ® (Illumina) and sequenced on the Miseq ® genome analyser (Illumina). Using reference mapping, gapped virus sequence data of varying degrees of shallow depth was aligned to a reference sequence. However, the NGS did not yield long enough contigs that consistently covered the same genome regions in all samples to allow phylogenetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Virulence factor NSs of rift valley fever virus recruits the F-box protein FBXO3 to degrade subunit p62 of general transcription factor TFIIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Markus; Habjan, Matthias; Hubel, Philipp; Busch, Laura; Lau, Simone; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pichlmair, Andreas; Weber, Friedemann

    2014-03-01

    The nonstructural protein NSs is the main virulence factor of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus), a serious pathogen of livestock and humans in Africa. RVFV NSs blocks transcriptional upregulation of antiviral type I interferons (IFN) and destroys the general transcription factor TFIIH subunit p62 via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Here, we identified a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligases, F-box protein FBXO3, as a host cell interactor of NSs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of FBXO3 rescued p62 protein levels in RVFV-infected cells and elevated IFN transcription by 1 order of magnitude. NSs interacts with the full-length FBXO3 protein as well as with a truncated isoform that lacks the C-terminal acidic and poly(R)-rich domains. These isoforms are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NSs exclusively removes the nuclear pool of full-length FBXO3, likely due to consumption during the degradation process. F-box proteins form the variable substrate recognition subunit of the so-called SCF ubiquitin ligases, which also contain the constant components Skp1, cullin 1 (or cullin 7), and Rbx1. siRNA knockdown of Skp1 also protected p62 from degradation, suggesting involvement in NSs action. However, knockdown of cullin 1, cullin 7, or Rbx1 could not rescue p62 degradation by NSs. Our data show that the enzymatic removal of p62 via the host cell factor FBXO3 is a major mechanism of IFN suppression by RVFV. Rift Valley fever virus is a serious emerging pathogen of animals and humans. Its main virulence factor, NSs, enables unhindered virus replication by suppressing the antiviral innate immune system. We identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO3 as a novel host cell interactor of NSs. NSs recruits FBXO3 to destroy the general host cell transcription factor TFIIH-p62, resulting in suppression of the transcriptional upregulation of innate immunity.

  16. Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein promotes post-transcriptional downregulation of protein kinase PKR and inhibits eIF2alpha phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Narayanan, Krishna; Won, Sungyong; Kamitani, Wataru; Peters, C J; Makino, Shinji

    2009-02-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is a negative-stranded RNA virus with a tripartite genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fever and severe hemorrhagic illness among humans, and fever and high rates of abortions in livestock. A nonstructural RVFV NSs protein inhibits the transcription of host mRNAs, including interferon-beta mRNA, and is a major virulence factor. The present study explored a novel function of the RVFV NSs protein by testing the replication of RVFV lacking the NSs gene in the presence of actinomycin D (ActD) or alpha-amanitin, both of which served as a surrogate of the host mRNA synthesis suppression function of the NSs. In the presence of the host-transcriptional inhibitors, the replication of RVFV lacking the NSs protein, but not that carrying NSs, induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-mediated eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2alpha phosphorylation, leading to the suppression of host and viral protein translation. RVFV NSs promoted post-transcriptional downregulation of PKR early in the course of the infection and suppressed the phosphorylated eIF2alpha accumulation. These data suggested that a combination of RVFV replication and NSs-induced host transcriptional suppression induces PKR-mediated eIF2alpha phosphorylation, while the NSs facilitates efficient viral translation by downregulating PKR and inhibiting PKR-mediated eIF2alpha phosphorylation. Thus, the two distinct functions of the NSs, i.e., the suppression of host transcription, including that of type I interferon mRNAs, and the downregulation of PKR, work together to prevent host innate antiviral functions, allowing efficient replication and survival of RVFV in infected mammalian hosts.

  17. Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein promotes post-transcriptional downregulation of protein kinase PKR and inhibits eIF2alpha phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Ikegami

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a negative-stranded RNA virus with a tripartite genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fever and severe hemorrhagic illness among humans, and fever and high rates of abortions in livestock. A nonstructural RVFV NSs protein inhibits the transcription of host mRNAs, including interferon-beta mRNA, and is a major virulence factor. The present study explored a novel function of the RVFV NSs protein by testing the replication of RVFV lacking the NSs gene in the presence of actinomycin D (ActD or alpha-amanitin, both of which served as a surrogate of the host mRNA synthesis suppression function of the NSs. In the presence of the host-transcriptional inhibitors, the replication of RVFV lacking the NSs protein, but not that carrying NSs, induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR-mediated eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2alpha phosphorylation, leading to the suppression of host and viral protein translation. RVFV NSs promoted post-transcriptional downregulation of PKR early in the course of the infection and suppressed the phosphorylated eIF2alpha accumulation. These data suggested that a combination of RVFV replication and NSs-induced host transcriptional suppression induces PKR-mediated eIF2alpha phosphorylation, while the NSs facilitates efficient viral translation by downregulating PKR and inhibiting PKR-mediated eIF2alpha phosphorylation. Thus, the two distinct functions of the NSs, i.e., the suppression of host transcription, including that of type I interferon mRNAs, and the downregulation of PKR, work together to prevent host innate antiviral functions, allowing efficient replication and survival of RVFV in infected mammalian hosts.

  18. Population Genetics of Two Key Mosquito Vectors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Reveals New Insights into the Changing Disease Outbreak Patterns in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouassi, David P.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Sole, Catherine L.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Lutomiah, Joel; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Borgemeister, Christian; Sang, Rosemary; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi) and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus) vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification. PMID:25474018

  19. Population genetics of two key mosquito vectors of Rift Valley Fever virus reveals new insights into the changing disease outbreak patterns in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Tchouassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification.

  20. Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Virus Clone 13 Is Able to Cross the Ovine Placental Barrier Associated with Foetal Infections, Malformations, and Stillbirths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Makoschey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne pathogen that affects domesticated ruminants and occasionally humans. Classical RVF vaccines are based on formalin-inactivated virus or the live-attenuated Smithburn strain. The inactivated vaccine is highly safe but requires multiple administrations and yearly re-vaccinations. Although the Smithburn vaccine provides solid protection after a single vaccination, this vaccine is not safe for pregnant animals. An alternative live-attenuated vaccine, named Clone 13, carries a large natural deletion in the NSs gene which encodes the major virulence factor of the virus. The Clone 13 vaccine was previously shown to be safe for young lambs and calves. Moreover, a study in pregnant ewes suggested that the vaccine could also be applied safely during gestation. To anticipate on a possible future incursion of RVFV in Europe, we have evaluated the safety of Clone 13 for young lambs and pregnant ewes. In line with the guidelines from the World Organisation for Animal health (Office International des Epizooties, OIE and regulations of the European Pharmacopeia (EP, these studies were performed with an overdose. Our studies with lambs showed that Clone 13 dissemination within vaccinated animals is very limited. Moreover, the Clone 13 vaccine virus was not shed nor spread to in-contact sentinels and did not revert to virulence upon animal-to-animal passage. Importantly, a large experiment with pregnant ewes demonstrated that the Clone 13 virus is able to spread to the fetus, resulting in malformations and stillbirths. Altogether, our results suggest that Clone 13 can be applied safely in lambs, but that caution should be taken when Clone 13 is used in pregnant animals, particularly during the first trimester of gestation.

  1. Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Virus Clone 13 Is Able to Cross the Ovine Placental Barrier Associated with Foetal Infections, Malformations, and Stillbirths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoschey, Birgit; van Kilsdonk, Emma; Hubers, Willem R.; Vrijenhoek, Mieke P.; Smit, Marianne; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; Kortekaas, Jeroen; Moulin, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that affects domesticated ruminants and occasionally humans. Classical RVF vaccines are based on formalin-inactivated virus or the live-attenuated Smithburn strain. The inactivated vaccine is highly safe but requires multiple administrations and yearly re-vaccinations. Although the Smithburn vaccine provides solid protection after a single vaccination, this vaccine is not safe for pregnant animals. An alternative live-attenuated vaccine, named Clone 13, carries a large natural deletion in the NSs gene which encodes the major virulence factor of the virus. The Clone 13 vaccine was previously shown to be safe for young lambs and calves. Moreover, a study in pregnant ewes suggested that the vaccine could also be applied safely during gestation. To anticipate on a possible future incursion of RVFV in Europe, we have evaluated the safety of Clone 13 for young lambs and pregnant ewes. In line with the guidelines from the World Organisation for Animal health (Office International des Epizooties, OIE) and regulations of the European Pharmacopeia (EP), these studies were performed with an overdose. Our studies with lambs showed that Clone 13 dissemination within vaccinated animals is very limited. Moreover, the Clone 13 vaccine virus was not shed nor spread to in-contact sentinels and did not revert to virulence upon animal-to-animal passage. Importantly, a large experiment with pregnant ewes demonstrated that the Clone 13 virus is able to spread to the fetus, resulting in malformations and stillbirths. Altogether, our results suggest that Clone 13 can be applied safely in lambs, but that caution should be taken when Clone 13 is used in pregnant animals, particularly during the first trimester of gestation. PMID:27031621

  2. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  3. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Boshra

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  4. Chemotactic and inflammatory responses in the liver and brain are associated with pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus infection in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly K Gray

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a major human and animal pathogen associated with severe disease including hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis. RVFV is endemic to parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but there is significant concern regarding its introduction into non-endemic regions and the potentially devastating effect to livestock populations with concurrent infections of humans. To date, there is little detailed data directly comparing the host response to infection with wild-type or vaccine strains of RVFV and correlation with viral pathogenesis. Here we characterized clinical and systemic immune responses to infection with wild-type strain ZH501 or IND vaccine strain MP-12 in the C57BL/6 mouse. Animals infected with live-attenuated MP-12 survived productive viral infection with little evidence of clinical disease and minimal cytokine response in evaluated tissues. In contrast, ZH501 infection was lethal, caused depletion of lymphocytes and platelets and elicited a strong, systemic cytokine response which correlated with high virus titers and significant tissue pathology. Lymphopenia and platelet depletion were indicators of disease onset with indications of lymphocyte recovery correlating with increases in G-CSF production. RVFV is hepatotropic and in these studies significant clinical and histological data supported these findings; however, significant evidence of a pro-inflammatory response in the liver was not apparent. Rather, viral infection resulted in a chemokine response indicating infiltration of immunoreactive cells, such as neutrophils, which was supported by histological data. In brains of ZH501 infected mice, a significant chemokine and pro-inflammatory cytokine response was evident, but with little pathology indicating meningoencephalitis. These data suggest that RVFV pathogenesis in mice is associated with a loss of liver function due to liver necrosis and hepatitis yet the long-term course of disease for those that

  5. Countermeasure development for Rift Valley fever: deletion, modification or targeting of major virulence factor NSs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoradova, Olga; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease characterized by a high rate of abortion in ruminants, and febrile illness, hemorrhagic fever, retinitis and encephalitis in humans. RVF is caused by the RVF virus (RVFV), belonging to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae . RVFV encodes a major virulence factor, NSs , which is dispensable for viral replication, yet required for evasion of host innate immune responses. RVFV NSs inhibits host gene upregulation at the transcriptional level, while promoting viral translation in the cytoplasm. In this article, we summarize the virology and pathology of RVF, and countermeasure development for RVF, with emphasis on NSs function and applications.

  6. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus-related transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kakani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for “exotic” viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, i.e. 42% of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, i.e. by 89%.

  7. Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Mauritania and Related Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Caminade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four large outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF occurred in Mauritania in 1998, 2003, 2010 and 2012 which caused lots of animal and several human deaths. We investigated rainfall and vegetation conditions that might have impacted on RVF transmission over the affected regions. Our results corroborate that RVF transmission generally occurs during the months of September and October in Mauritania, similarly to Senegal. The four outbreaks were preceded by a rainless period lasting at least a week followed by heavy precipitation that took place during the second half of the rainy season. First human infections were generally reported three to five weeks later. By bridging the gap between meteorological forecasting centers and veterinary services, an early warning system might be developed in Senegal and Mauritania to warn decision makers and health services about the upcoming RVF risk.

  8. Validation of an ELISA for the concurrent detection of total antibodies (IgM and IgG to Rift Valley fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Ellis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV infects humans and livestock, causing haemorrhaging andabortions in animals. Three major RVF epizootics have occurred in South Africa since the1950s and the outbreak in 2010 had a mortality rate of 10.7% in humans. Accurate and earlydetection is therefore essential for management of this zoonotic disease. Enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assays (ELISAs have been developed for the detection of either IgM or IgGantibodies to RVFV in animal sera. In this study, data are presented on the validation of adouble-antigen ELISA for the simultaneous detection of both classes of antibodies to RVFV ina single test. ELISA plates were coated with a recombinant nucleoprotein. The nucleoprotein,conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, was used as the detecting reagent. A total of 534 serafrom sheep and cattle were used in the validation. The sheep sera were collected during a RVFpathogenesis study at the Agricultural Research Council (ARC – Onderstepoort VeterinaryInstitute and the cattle sera were collected during an outbreak of RVF in 2008 at the ARC –Animal Production Institute in Irene, Pretoria. The ELISA had a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.4%and a specificity of 100% when compared to a commercial cELISA. This convenient and fastassay is suitable for use in serological surveys or monitoring immune responses in vaccinatedanimals.

  9. Re-emergence of Rift Valley fever virus in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002-2003: identification of new vectors and epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Y; Sall, A A; Diallo, D; Mondo, M; Girault, L; Dia, I; Diallo, M

    2012-09-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a threat that must not be neglected, as the consequences of RVFV are dramatic, both for human and animal health. This virus is a zoonotic virus that already has demonstrated a real capacity for re-emerging after long periods of silence, as observed in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002. In this article we present the 2nd emergence in Barkedji after the 1st manifestation in 1993, and for the 1st time the circulation of RVFV during 2 consecutive years among mosquito populations in Senegal. As part of the entomological surveillance program undertaken since 1990 to detect circulation of the RVFV in Barkedji, 108,336 mosquitoes belonging to 34 species and 5 genera were collected in 2002-2003. Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes, previously known to be vectors of RVFV in Senegal, comprised 88.7% of the total collection. In 2002, Ae. vexans was the most abundant mosquito, followed by Cx. poicilipes; the opposite situation was observed in 2003. In 2002, 29 and 10 RVFV isolates were obtained from Cx. poicilipes (minimum infection rate [MIR] = 0.13%) and Ae. vexans (MIR = 0.02%) pools, respectively and the MIR for the 2 species were significantly different (chi2 = 34.65; df = 1, P < 0.001). In 2003, 7 RVFV strains were isolated from Cx. poicilipes (3, MIR = 0.03), Mansonia africana (2, MIR = 0.08), Ae. fowleri (1), and Ma. uniformis (1, MIR = 0.05). The 3 latter species were found to be associated with RVFV for the 1st time in Senegal. A significant decrease in MIR was observed from 2002 to 2003 (chi2 6.28; df = 1, P = 0.01) for Cx. poicilipes, the only species involved in the transmission during the 2 sampling years.

  10. The Consequences of Reconfiguring the Ambisense S Genome Segment of Rift Valley Fever Virus on Viral Replication in Mammalian and Mosquito Cells and for Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, family Bunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne pathogen of both livestock and humans, found primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The viral genome comprises two negative-sense (L and M segments) and one ambisense (S segment) RNAs that encode seven proteins. The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein in the negative-sense and a nonstructural (NSs) protein in the positive-sense, though NSs cannot be translated directly from the S segment but rather from a specific subgenomic mRNA. Using reverse genetics we generated a virus, designated rMP12:S-Swap, in which the N protein is expressed from the NSs locus and NSs from the N locus within the genomic S RNA. In cells infected with rMP12:S-Swap NSs is expressed at higher levels with respect to N than in cells infected with the parental rMP12 virus. Despite NSs being the main interferon antagonist and determinant of virulence, growth of rMP12:S-Swap was attenuated in mammalian cells and gave a small plaque phenotype. The increased abundance of the NSs protein did not lead to faster inhibition of host cell protein synthesis or host cell transcription in infected mammalian cells. In cultured mosquito cells, however, infection with rMP12:S-Swap resulted in cell death rather than establishment of persistence as seen with rMP12. Finally, altering the composition of the S segment led to a differential packaging ratio of genomic to antigenomic RNA into rMP12:S-Swap virions. Our results highlight the plasticity of the RVFV genome and provide a useful experimental tool to investigate further the packaging mechanism of the segmented genome. PMID:24550727

  11. Rift Valley fever: current challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himeidan YE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yousif E Himeidan Vector Control Unit, Africa Technical Research Centre, Vector Health International, Arusha, Tanzania Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a zoonotic, mosquito-borne viral disease that affects human health and causes significant losses in the livestock industry. Recent outbreaks have led to severe human infections with high mortality rates. There are many challenges to applying effective preventive and control measures, including weak infrastructure of health facilities, lack of capacity and support systems for field logistics and communication, access to global expert organizations, and insufficient information on the epidemiological and reservoir status of the RVF virus. The health systems in East African countries are underdeveloped, with gaps in adaptability to new, more accurate and rapid techniques, and well-trained staff that affect their capacity to monitor and evaluate the disease. Surveillance and response systems are inadequate in providing accurate information in a timely manner for decision making to deal with the scope of interrupting the disease transmission by applying mass animal vaccination, and other preventive measures at the early stage of an outbreak. The historical vaccines are unsuitable for use in newborn and gestating livestock, and the recent ones require a booster and annual revaccination. Future live-attenuated RVF vaccines should possess lower safety concerns regardless of the physiologic state of the animal, and provide rapid and long-term immunity after a single dose of vaccination. In the absence of an effective vaccination program, prevention and control measures must be immediately undertaken after an alert is generated. These measures include enforcing and adapting standard protocols for animal trade and movement, extensive vector control, safe disposal of infected animals, and modification of human–animal contact behavior. Directing control efforts on farmers and workers who deal with

  12. Aerosol exposure to Rift Valley fever virus causes earlier and more severe neuropathology in the murine model, which has important implications for therapeutic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Reed

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an important mosquito-borne veterinary and human pathogen that can cause severe disease including acute-onset hepatitis, delayed-onset encephalitis, retinitis and blindness, or a hemorrhagic syndrome. Currently, no licensed vaccine or therapeutics exist to treat this potentially deadly disease. Detailed studies describing the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure have not been completed and candidate therapeutics have not been evaluated following an aerosol exposure. These studies are important because while mosquito transmission is the primary means for human infection, it can also be transmitted by aerosol or through mucosal contact. Therefore, we directly compared the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure to a subcutaneous (SC exposure in the murine model by analyzing survival, clinical observations, blood chemistry, hematology, immunohistochemistry, and virus titration of tissues. Additionally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the nucleoside analog ribavirin administered prophylactically to treat mice exposed by aerosol and SC. The route of exposure did not significantly affect the survival, chemistry or hematology results of the mice. Acute hepatitis occurred despite the route of exposure. However, the development of neuropathology occurred much earlier and was more severe in mice exposed by aerosol compared to SC exposed mice. Mice treated with ribavirin and exposed SC were partially protected, whereas treated mice exposed by aerosol were not protected. Early and aggressive viral invasion of brain tissues following aerosol exposure likely played an important role in ribavirin's failure to prevent mortality among these animals. Our results highlight the need for more candidate antivirals to treat RVFV infection, especially in the case of a potential aerosol exposure. Additionally, our study provides an account of the key pathogenetic differences in RVF disease following two potential

  13. Detection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Rift Valley fever virus from Anopheles (Anopheles) coustani, Anopheles (Anopheles) squamosus, and Culex (Culex) antennatus of the Haute Matsiatra region, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Olive, Marie-Marie; Tantely, Luciano Michael; Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Tata, Etienne; Razainirina, Josette; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Elissa, Nohal

    2011-06-01

    Following veterinary alerts of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in the districts of Fianarantsoa I and II in November 2008 and in the district of Ambalavao in April 2009, entomological and virological investigations were carried out to identify the mosquito species that could act as RVF virus (RVFV) vectors in the region. A total of 12,785 adult mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 21 species were collected. After identification, mosquitoes were pooled by species, sex, and female status (fed or unfed) and then stored at -80°C. Of 319 pools of unfed monospecific female mosquito tested by real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction, RVFV was detected in 1 pool of Anopheles coustani, 5 pools of An. squamosus, and 2 pools of Culex antennatus mosquitoes. The virus was isolated in mosquito cell lines from two of the five Real Time-RT-polymerase chain reaction (real time-RT-PCR) positive pools of An. squamosus mosquitoes. From the eight RVFV strains detected, partial S, M, and L genome segments sequences were obtained. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that the strains circulating in mosquitoes were genetically close to those that circulated in livestock and humans during RVF outbreaks in 2008 and 2009. This study, therefore, provides strong evidence that An. squamosus, An. coustani, and Cx. antennatus could play a role as vectors of the RVFV during the disease outbreaks in 2008-2009. Bioecological, genetic, and RVF transmission studies on these three mosquito species are needed to address this question and thus improve prevention and control of future RVF outbreaks in Madagascar, where these species are present.

  14. Validation of an IgM antibody capture ELISA based on a recombinant nucleoprotein for identification of domestic ruminants infected with Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roy; Ellis, Charlotte Elizabeth; Smith, Shirley Jacqueline; Potgieter, Christiaan Abraham; Wallace, David; Mareledwane, Vuyokazi Epipodia; Majiwa, Phelix Antipas Ochola

    2011-11-01

    The presence of competent vectors in some countries currently free of Rift Valley fever (RVF) and global changes in climate, travel and trade have increased the risk of RVF spreading to new regions and have emphasised the need for accurate and reliable diagnostic tools for early diagnosis during RVF outbreaks. Highly sensitive viral detection systems like PCR have a limited use during outbreaks because of the short duration of viraemia, whereas antibodies like specific IgM which are serological indicators of acute infection, can be detected for up to 50 days after infection. Using the highly conserved and immunogenic recombinant nucleoprotein of RVF virus in an IgM capture ELISA, the risk of laboratory infection associated with traditional serological methods is avoided. The use of pre-coated/pre-blocked ELISA plates and the conjugation of the recombinant nucleoprotein with horseradish peroxidase simplified and shortened the assay procedure. Results showed the assay to be highly reproducible with a lower detection limit equal to that of a commercial competition ELISA. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis the area under curve (AUC) index was determined as 1.0 and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at a PP cut-off value of 4.1 as 100% and 99.78% respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that the IgM capture ELISA is a safe, reliable and highly accurate diagnostic tool which can be used on its own or in parallel with other methods for the early diagnosis of RVF virus infection and also for monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated domestic ruminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutation of adjacent cysteine residues in the NSs protein of Rift Valley fever virus results in loss of virulence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Gaby E R; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J; Odendaal, Lieza; Clift, Sarah J; Kortekaas, Jeroen; Paweska, Janusz T

    2018-04-02

    The NSs protein encoded by the S segment of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is the major virulence factor, counteracting the host innate antiviral defence. It contains five highly conserved cysteine residues at positions 39, 40, 149, 178 and 194, which are thought to stabilize the tertiary and quaternary structure of the protein. Here, we report significant differences between clinical, virological, histopathological and host gene responses in BALB/c mice infected with wild-type RVFV (wtRVFV) or a genetic mutant having a double cysteine-to-serine substitution at residues 39 and 40 of the NSs protein (RVFV-C39S/C40S). Mice infected with the wtRVFV developed a fatal acute disease; characterized by high levels of viral replication, severe hepatocellular necrosis, and massive up-regulation of transcription of genes encoding type I and -II interferons (IFN) as well as pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The RVFV-C39S/C40S mutant did not cause clinical disease and its attenuated virulence was consistent with virological, histopathological and host gene expression findings in BALB/c mice. Clinical signs in mice infected with viruses containing cysteine-to-serine substitutions at positions 178 or 194 were similar to those occurring in mice infected with the wtRVFV, while a mutant containing a substitution at position 149 caused mild, non-fatal disease in mice. As mutant RVFV-C39S/C40S showed an attenuated phenotype in mice, the molecular mechanisms behind this attenuation were further investigated. The results show that two mechanisms are responsible for the attenuation; (1) loss of the IFN antagonistic propriety characteristic of the wtRVFV NSs and (2) the inability of the attenuated mutant to degrade Proteine Kinase R (PKR). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Predicting the mosquito species and vertebrate species involved in the theoretical transmission of Rift Valley fever virus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnar, Andrew J; Turell, Michael J; LaBeaud, A Desiree; Kading, Rebekah C; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2014-09-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridiae that has spread throughout continental Africa to Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The establishment of RVFV in North America would have serious consequences for human and animal health in addition to a significant economic impact on the livestock industry. Published and unpublished data on RVFV vector competence, vertebrate host competence, and mosquito feeding patterns from the United States were combined to quantitatively implicate mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts that may be important to RVFV transmission in the United States. A viremia-vector competence relationship based on published mosquito transmission studies was used to calculate a vertebrate host competence index which was then combined with mosquito blood feeding patterns to approximate the vector and vertebrate amplification fraction, defined as the relative contribution of the mosquito or vertebrate host to pathogen transmission. Results implicate several Aedes spp. mosquitoes and vertebrates in the order Artiodactyla as important hosts for RVFV transmission in the U.S. Moreover, this study identifies critical gaps in knowledge which would be necessary to complete a comprehensive analysis identifying the different contributions of mosquitoes and vertebrates to potential RVFV transmission in the U.S. Future research should focus on (1) the dose-dependent relationship between viremic exposure and the subsequent infectiousness of key mosquito species, (2) evaluation of vertebrate host competence for RVFV among North American mammal species, with particular emphasis on the order Artiodactyla, and (3) identification of areas with a high risk for RVFV introduction so data on local vector and host populations can help generate geographically appropriate amplification fraction estimates.

  17. Predicting the mosquito species and vertebrate species involved in the theoretical transmission of Rift Valley fever virus in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Golnar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridiae that has spread throughout continental Africa to Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The establishment of RVFV in North America would have serious consequences for human and animal health in addition to a significant economic impact on the livestock industry. Published and unpublished data on RVFV vector competence, vertebrate host competence, and mosquito feeding patterns from the United States were combined to quantitatively implicate mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts that may be important to RVFV transmission in the United States. A viremia-vector competence relationship based on published mosquito transmission studies was used to calculate a vertebrate host competence index which was then combined with mosquito blood feeding patterns to approximate the vector and vertebrate amplification fraction, defined as the relative contribution of the mosquito or vertebrate host to pathogen transmission. Results implicate several Aedes spp. mosquitoes and vertebrates in the order Artiodactyla as important hosts for RVFV transmission in the U.S. Moreover, this study identifies critical gaps in knowledge which would be necessary to complete a comprehensive analysis identifying the different contributions of mosquitoes and vertebrates to potential RVFV transmission in the U.S. Future research should focus on (1 the dose-dependent relationship between viremic exposure and the subsequent infectiousness of key mosquito species, (2 evaluation of vertebrate host competence for RVFV among North American mammal species, with particular emphasis on the order Artiodactyla, and (3 identification of areas with a high risk for RVFV introduction so data on local vector and host populations can help generate geographically appropriate amplification fraction estimates.

  18. [Rift Valley fever: sporadic infection of French military personnel outside currently recognized epidemic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J P; Richecoeur, L; Peyrefitte, C; Boutin, J P; Davoust, B; Zeller, H; Bouloy, M; Tolou, H

    2002-01-01

    For three years the arbovirus surveillance unit of the Tropical Medicine Institute of the French Army Medical Corps (French acronym IMTSSA) in Marseille, France has been investigating causes of benign non-malarial febrile syndromes in French military personnel serving outside mainland France. The methodology used in N'Djamena consisted of sending frozen specimens collected concomitant with viremia, to Marseille for culture. During the rainy season of 2001, specimens were collected from a total of 50 febrile soldiers. Cultures allowed isolation and identification of two strains of Rift Valley virus. The risk of contamination exists not only in the field but also in mainland hospital departments treating infected patients. Routine serological diagnosis for Rift Valley fever must be DISCUSSED for all patients in the field or returning from Africa.

  19. Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus potential vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement N; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2013-07-01

    We investigated mosquito sampling techniques with two types of traps and attractants at different time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. The study was conducted in six villages in Ngorongoro district in Tanzania from September to October 2012. A total of 1814 mosquitoes were collected, of which 738 were collected by CDC light traps and 1076 by Mosquito Magnet trapping technique. Of the collected mosquitoes, 12.46% (N = 226) were Aedes aegypti and 87.54% (N = 1588) were Culex pipiens complex. More mosquitoes were collected outdoors using Mosquito Magnets baited with octenol attractant, 36.38% (N =660) followed by indoor trapping using CDC light traps without attractant, 29.60% (N = 537). Most of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected outdoor using Mosquito Magnets, 95% (N = 214) whereas Cx. pipiens complex were trapped both indoor using CDC light traps without attractant and outdoors using both CDC light traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2) sachets and Mosquito Magnets. Analysis on the differences in abundance of mosquitoes trapped by different techniques using Generalized Linear Models was statistically significance at p-value < 0.05 for both species. Three hours mosquito collections show differing patterns in activity, most Ae. aegypti species were collected primarily during the first and last quarters of the day. Cx pipiens complex was active throughout the night, early evening and early morning then decreased markedly during the day time. The results presented in this paper emphasize the possibility of using Mosquito Magnets in order to efficiently capture these potential RVF vectors.

  20. Blood meal analysis and virus detection in blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomiah, Joel; Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel; Mutai, Collins; Mireji, Paul O; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Ken J; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the blood meals. Blood meals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for viruses using Vero cells and RT-PCR. DNA was also extracted and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified by PCR. Purified amplicons were sequenced and queried in GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) to identify the putative blood meal sources. The predominant species in Garissa were Aedes ochraceus, (n=561, 76%) and Ae. mcintoshi, (n=176, 24%), and Mansonia uniformis, (n=24, 72.7%) in Baringo. Ae. ochraceus fed on goats (37.6%), cattle (16.4%), donkeys (10.7%), sheep (5.9%), and humans (5.3%). Ae. mcintoshi fed on the same animals in almost equal proportions. RVFV was isolated from Ae. ochraceus that had fed on sheep (4), goats (3), human (1), cattle (1), and unidentified host (1), with infection and dissemination rates of 1.8% (10/561) and 50% (5/10), respectively, and 0.56% (1/176) and 100% (1/1) in Ae. mcintoshi. In Baringo, Ma. uniformis fed on sheep (38%), frogs (13%), duikers (8%), cattle (4%), goats (4%), and unidentified hosts (29%), with infection and dissemination rates of 25% (6/24) and 83.3% (5/6), respectively. Ndumu virus (NDUV) was also isolated from Ae. ochraceus with infection and dissemination rates of 2.3% (13/561) and 76.9% (10/13), and Ae. mcintoshi, 2.8% (5/176) and 80% (4/5), respectively. Ten of the infected Ae. ochraceus had fed on goats, sheep (1), and unidentified hosts (2), and Ae. mcintoshi on goats (3), camel (1), and donkey (1). This study has demonstrated that RVFV and NDUV were concurrently circulating during the outbreak, and sheep and goats were the main amplifiers of these viruses respectively.

  1. Impact of Global Climate on Rift Valley Fever and other Vector-borne Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthicum, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Since the virus was first isolated in Kenya in 1930 it has caused significant impact to animal and human health and national economies, and it is of concern to the international agricultural and public health community. In this presentation we will describe the (1) ecology of disease transmission as it relates to climate, (2) the impact of climate and other environmental conditions on outbreaks, (3) the ability to use global climate information to predict outbreaks, (4) effective response activities, and (4) the potential to mitigate globalization.

  2. Using reverse genetics to manipulate the NSs gene of the Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 strain to improve vaccine safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Birte; Lihoradova, Olga; Indran, Sabarish V; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2011-11-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which causes hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate abortion and fetal malformation in ruminants, has been classified as a HHS/USDA overlap select agent and a risk group 3 pathogen. It belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae and is one of the most virulent members of this family. Several reverse genetics systems for the RVFV MP-12 vaccine strain as well as wild-type RVFV strains, including ZH548 and ZH501, have been developed since 2006. The MP-12 strain (which is a risk group 2 pathogen and a non-select agent) is highly attenuated by several mutations in its M- and L-segments, but still carries virulent S-segment RNA, which encodes a functional virulence factor, NSs. The rMP12-C13type (C13type) carrying 69% in-frame deletion of NSs ORF lacks all the known NSs functions, while it replicates as efficient as does MP-12 in VeroE6 cells lacking type-I IFN. NSs induces a shut-off of host transcription including interferon (IFN)-beta mRNA and promotes degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) at the post-translational level. IFN-beta is transcriptionally upregulated by interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), NF-kB and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and the binding of IFN-beta to IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) stimulates the transcription of IFN-alpha genes or other interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), which induces host antiviral activities, whereas host transcription suppression including IFN-beta gene by NSs prevents the gene upregulations of those ISGs in response to viral replication although IRF-3, NF-kB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) can be activated by RVFV7. Thus, NSs is an excellent target to further attenuate MP-12, and to enhance host innate immune responses by abolishing the IFN-beta suppression function. Here, we describe a protocol for generating a recombinant MP-12 encoding mutated NSs, and provide an example of a screening method to identify

  3. Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dautu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no reports of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005−2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

  4. Surveillance of Rift Valley Fever in Iran between 2001 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh CHINIKAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an acute zoonotic viral disease that mostly affects ruminants with an occasional spillover as human infection. Following the outbreak of RVF in Saudi Arabia in 2000, surveillance of both animal and human population in Iran increased until 2011. During this period 1206 ovine, 405 caprine, 325 bovine and 28 camel samples were tested for RVFV in nine provinces in Iran. None of these samples tested IgG positive. Moreover, amongst 37 clinically suspected human cases of patients with RVF symptoms, none of these samples tested positive for RVFV. Despite the fact that no positive cases in human or animal populations were identified in Iran, surveillance and monitoring of viral haemorrhagic fevers including RVFV will continue.

  5. Surveillance of Rift Valley Fever in Iran between 2001 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh CHINIKAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an acute zoonotic viral disease that mostly affects ruminants with an occasional spillover as human infection. Following the outbreak of RVF in Saudi Arabia in 2000, surveillance of both animal and human population in Iran increased until 2011. During this period 1206 ovine, 405 caprine, 325 bovine and 28 camel samples were tested for RVFV in nine provinces in Iran. None of these samples tested IgG positive. Moreover, amongst 37 clinically suspected human cases of patients with RVF symptoms, none of these samples tested positive for RVFV. Despite the fact that no positive cases in human or animal populations were identified in Iran, surveillance and monitoring of viral haemorrhagic fevers including RVFV will continue.

  6. Rift valley fever virus lacking the NSs and NSm genes is highly attenuated, confers protective immunity from virulent virus challenge, and allows for differential identification of infected and vaccinated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Albariño, César G; Hartman, Amy L; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T

    2008-03-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne human and veterinary pathogen associated with large outbreaks of severe disease throughout Africa and more recently the Arabian peninsula. Infection of livestock can result in sweeping "abortion storms" and high mortality among young animals. Human infection results in self-limiting febrile disease that in approximately 1 to 2% of patients progresses to more serious complications including hepatitis, encephalitis, and retinitis or a hemorrhagic syndrome with high fatality. The virus S segment-encoded NSs and the M segment-encoded NSm proteins are important virulence factors. The development of safe, effective vaccines and tools to screen and evaluate antiviral compounds is critical for future control strategies. Here, we report the successful reverse genetics generation of multiple recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged RVF viruses containing either the full-length, complete virus genome or precise deletions of the NSs gene alone or the NSs/NSm genes in combination, thus creating attenuating deletions on multiple virus genome segments. These viruses were highly attenuated, with no detectable viremia or clinical illness observed with high challenge dosages (1.0 x 10(4) PFU) in the rat lethal disease model. A single-dose immunization regimen induced robust anti-RVF virus immunoglobulin G antibodies (titer, approximately 1:6,400) by day 26 postvaccination. All vaccinated animals that were subsequently challenged with a high dose of virulent RVF virus survived infection and could be serologically differentiated from naïve, experimentally infected animals by the lack of NSs antibodies. These rationally designed marker RVF vaccine viruses will be useful tools for in vitro screening of therapeutic compounds and will provide a basis for further development of RVF virus marker vaccines for use in endemic regions or following the natural or intentional introduction of the virus into previously unaffected areas.

  7. Rift Valley fever in Kenya: history of epizootics and identification of vulnerable districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murithi, R M; Munyua, P; Ithondeka, P M; Macharia, J M; Hightower, A; Luman, E T; Breiman, R F; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2011-03-01

    Since Kenya first reported Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like disease in livestock in 1912, the country has reported the most frequent epizootics of RVF disease. To determine the pattern of disease spread across the country after its introduction in 1912, and to identify regions vulnerable to the periodic epizootics, annual livestock disease records at the Department of Veterinary Services from 1910 to 2007 were analysed in order to document the number and location of RVF-infected livestock herds. A total of 38/69 (55%) administrative districts in the country had reported RVF epizootics by the end of 2007. During the 1912-1950 period, the disease was confined to a district in Rift Valley province that is prone to flooding and where livestock were raised in proximity with wildlife. Between 1951 and 2007, 11 national RVF epizootics were recorded with an average inter-epizootic period of 3·6 years (range 1-7 years); in addition, all epizootics occurred in years when the average annual rainfall increased by more than 50% in the affected districts. Whereas the first two national epizootics in 1951 and 1955 were confined to eight districts in the Rift Valley province, there was a sustained epizootic between 1961 and 1964 that spread the virus to over 30% of the districts across six out of eight provinces. The Western and Nyanza provinces, located on the southwestern region of the country, had never reported RVF infections by 2007. The probability of a district being involved in a national epizootic was fivefold higher (62%) in districts that had previously reported disease compared to districts that had no prior disease activity (11%). These findings suggests that once introduced into certain permissive ecologies, the RVF virus becomes enzootic, making the region vulnerable to periodic epizootics that were probably precipitated by amplification of resident virus associated with heavy rainfall and flooding.

  8. The persistence of rift valley fever in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadil, A A; Hasab-Allah, K A; Dafa-Allah, O M; Elmanea, A A

    2006-12-01

    A survey was conducted in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia to investigate the presence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in sheep and goats, by clinical identification of suspected herds and detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to RVF virus. The level of herd immunity was identified by detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Rift Valley fever was diagnosed in six out of eight districts included in the survey. Twenty-two animals from 17 herds tested positive for the presence of IgM antibodies against RVF in these districts. The infection rate ranged from 0.12% in the Sabya district to 1.04% in the Jizan district. The level of herd immunity ranged from 22.2% in Jizan to 39.3% in the Alarda district. It can be concluded that the presence of IgM antibodies in clinically suspected herds suggests persistent RVF infection in the Jazan region. Thus, RVF control programmes should be continued to prevent the recurrence of outbreaks in the region and the possible further spread of infection to other regions of Saudi Arabia.

  9. Rift Valley fever phlebovirus NSs protein core domain structure suggests molecular basis for nuclear filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Michal; Brennan, Benjamin; Miller, Ona K; Potter, Jane A; Vijayakrishnan, Swetha; Bhella, David; Naismith, James H; Elliott, Richard M; Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich

    2017-09-15

    Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a clinically and economically important pathogen increasingly likely to cause widespread epidemics. RVFV virulence depends on the interferon antagonist non-structural protein (NSs), which remains poorly characterized. We identified a stable core domain of RVFV NSs (residues 83-248), and solved its crystal structure, a novel all-helical fold organized into highly ordered fibrils. A hallmark of RVFV pathology is NSs filament formation in infected cell nuclei. Recombinant virus encoding the NSs core domain induced intranuclear filaments, suggesting it contains all essential determinants for nuclear translocation and filament formation. Mutations of key crystal fibril interface residues in viruses encoding full-length NSs completely abrogated intranuclear filament formation in infected cells. We propose the fibrillar arrangement of the NSs core domain in crystals reveals the molecular basis of assembly of this key virulence factor in cell nuclei. Our findings have important implications for fundamental understanding of RVFV virulence.

  10. The Rift Valley fever: could re-emerge in Egypt again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-04-01

    The Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health and economy. RVF is caused by RVF virus of the family of Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus. RVF is an acute, febrile disease affecting humans and a wide range of animals. The virus is trans-mitted through the bites from mosquitoes and exposure to viremic blood, body fluids, or contact with tissues of infected animals or by inhaling natural virus aerosols, also possibly by consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. The RVF-virus replicate at the site introduction and in local lymphatic followed by viremia and spread to other organs as the liver and central nervous system, causing the hepatic necrosis and eosinophilia cytoplasmic degeneration. The main signs and symptoms are fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, photophobia, bradycardia, conjunctivitis and flushing face. Main complications include jaundice, hemorrhagic, meningoencephalitis and retinal lesions. Generally speaking, in the 21st Century, the vector-borne infectious diseases, was accepted as the disaster issues with the considerable significant morbidity and mortality. These facts should be considered by the public health, veterinary and agricultural authorities

  11. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Jonathan E; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Benedict, Ashwini; Costantino, Julie; Ward, Michael; Peyser, Brian D; Retterer, Cary J; Tressler, Lyal E; Wanner, Laura M; McGovern, Hugh F; Zaidi, Anum; Anthony, Scott M; Kota, Krishna P; Bavari, Sina; Hakami, Ramin M

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  12. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Nuss

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  13. Rift Valley Fever Risk Map Model and Seroprevalence in Selected Wild Ungulates and Camels from Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britch, Seth C.; Binepal, Yatinder S.; Ruder, Mark G.; Kariithi, Henry M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Tucker, Compton J.; Ateya, Leonard O.; Oriko, Abuu A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Since the first isolation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the 1930s, there have been multiple epizootics and epidemics in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective climate-based models have recently been developed that flag areas at risk of RVFV transmission in endemic regions based on key environmental indicators that precede Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootics and epidemics. Although the timing and locations of human case data from the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya have been compared to risk zones flagged by the model, seroprevalence of RVF antibodies in wildlife has not yet been analyzed in light of temporal and spatial predictions of RVF activity. Primarily wild ungulate serum samples from periods before, during, and after the 2006-2007 RVF epizootic were analyzed for the presence of RVFV IgM and/or IgG antibody. Results show an increase in RVF seropositivity from samples collected in 2007 (31.8%), compared to antibody prevalence observed from 2000-2006 (3.3%). After the epizootic, average RVF seropositivity diminished to 5% in samples collected from 2008-2009. Overlaying maps of modeled RVF risk assessments with sampling locations indicated positive RVF serology in several species of wild ungulate in or near areas flagged as being at risk for RVF. Our results establish the need to continue and expand sero-surveillance of wildlife species Kenya and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa to further calibrate and improve the RVF risk model, and better understand the dynamics of RVFV transmission.

  14. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored Rift Valley fever vaccine in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Warimwe, GM; Lorenzo, G; Lopez-Gil, E; Reyes-Sandoval, A; Cottingham, MG; Spencer, AJ; Collins, KA; Dicks, MD; Milicic, A; Lall, A; Furze, J; Turner, AV; Hill, AV; Brun, A; Gilbert, SC

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that historically affects livestock production and human health in sub-Saharan Africa, though epizootics have also occurred in the Arabian Peninsula. Whilst an effective live-attenuated vaccine is available for livestock, there is currently no licensed human RVF vaccine. Replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd) vectors are an ideal platform for development of a human RVF vaccine, given the low prevalence of neutralizing antibod...

  15. Emerging vector-borne diseases in dromedaries in Tunisia: West Nile, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease and Rift Valley fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassine, Thameur B; Amdouni, Jihane; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Sghaier, Soufien; Selimen, Imed B; Chandoul, Walid; Hamida, Khaled B; Hammami, Salah

    2017-03-31

    A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4.6%, while in the second group, it was 25.8% for WNV and 9.7% for BTV. Only serotype 1 was detected for BTV in the two groups. No evidence for circulation of RVF and EHD viruses was revealed. Results indicated that dromedaries can be infected with BTV and WNV, suggesting that this species might play a significant role in the epizootiology of these viral diseases in Tunisia and neighbouring countries.

  16. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored Rift Valley fever vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warimwe, George M; Lorenzo, Gema; Lopez-Gil, Elena; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo; Cottingham, Matthew G; Spencer, Alexandra J; Collins, Katharine A; Dicks, Matthew D J; Milicic, Anita; Lall, Amar; Furze, Julie; Turner, Alison V; Hill, Adrian V S; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2013-12-05

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that historically affects livestock production and human health in sub-Saharan Africa, though epizootics have also occurred in the Arabian Peninsula. Whilst an effective live-attenuated vaccine is available for livestock, there is currently no licensed human RVF vaccine. Replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd) vectors are an ideal platform for development of a human RVF vaccine, given the low prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against them in the human population, and their excellent safety and immunogenicity profile in human clinical trials of vaccines against a wide range of pathogens. Here, in BALB/c mice, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector, ChAdOx1, encoding the RVF virus envelope glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which are targets of virus neutralizing antibodies. The ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine was assessed in comparison to a replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector encoding Gn and Gc (HAdV5-GnGc), a strategy previously shown to confer protective immunity against RVF in mice. A single immunization with either of the vaccines conferred protection against RVF virus challenge eight weeks post-immunization. Both vaccines elicited RVF virus neutralizing antibody and a robust CD8+ T cell response. Together the results support further development of RVF vaccines based on replication-deficient adenovirus vectors, with ChAdOx1-GnGc being a potential candidate for use in future human clinical trials.

  17. A network-based meta-population approach to model Rift Valley fever epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Scott, H Morgan; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Scoglio, Caterina

    2012-08-07

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been expanding its geographical distribution with important implications for both human and animal health. The emergence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in the Middle East, and its continuing presence in many areas of Africa, has negatively impacted both medical and veterinary infrastructures and human morbidity, mortality, and economic endpoints. Furthermore, worldwide attention should be directed towards the broader infection dynamics of RVFV, because suitable host, vector and environmental conditions for additional epidemics likely exist on other continents; including Asia, Europe and the Americas. We propose a new compartmentalized model of RVF and the related ordinary differential equations to assess disease spread in both time and space; with the latter driven as a function of contact networks. Humans and livestock hosts and two species of vector mosquitoes are included in the model. The model is based on weighted contact networks, where nodes of the networks represent geographical regions and the weights represent the level of contact between regional pairings for each set of species. The inclusion of human, animal, and vector movements among regions is new to RVF modeling. The movement of the infected individuals is not only treated as a possibility, but also an actuality that can be incorporated into the model. We have tested, calibrated, and evaluated the model using data from the recent 2010 RVF outbreak in South Africa as a case study; mapping the epidemic spread within and among three South African provinces. An extensive set of simulation results shows the potential of the proposed approach for accurately modeling the RVF spreading process in additional regions of the world. The benefits of the proposed model are twofold: not only can the model differentiate the maximum number of infected individuals among different provinces, but also it can reproduce the different starting times of the outbreak in multiple locations

  18. Monitoring of the antiviral potential of bee venom and wax extracts against Adeno-7 (DNA) and Rift Valley fever virus (RNA) viruses models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Mohamed, Aly F; Amer, Moner A; Hammad, Kotb M; Riad, Saber A

    2015-04-01

    This study monitored the antiviral potential of bee venom and four wax extracts, ethanol white and black beeswax (EWW/EBW) and acetone white and black beeswax (AWW/ABW) extracts. Two different virus models namely Adeno-7 as DNA model and RVFV as RNA virus models. End point calculation assay was used to calculate virus depletion titer. The depletion of viral infectivity titer of ABW to Adeno-7 virus showed strong antiviral activity recorded a depletion of viral infectivity titer (1.66 log (10)/ ml) that gave equal action with bee venom and more than interferon IFN (1 log (10)/ ml). On the other hand, antiviral activity of EBW showed a moderate potential, while AWW showed no antiviral activity. Finally EWW showed synergetic activity against Adeno-7 virus activity. Thus, activity of wax extracts to RVFV was arranged in order of IFN bee venom > AWW & EBW > EWW and ABW recorded 3.34, 0.65, 0.5, 0.34 respectively. It is the first time to study the beeswax effect against DNA and RNA virus' models; acetone black beeswax recorded a depletion titer 1.66 log (10)/ml.

  19. Risk factors associated with human Rift Valley fever infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Dennis E; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Waters, Nigel M

    2014-12-01

    To identify risk factors for human Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. A systematic review identified 17 articles reporting on 16 studies examining risk factors for RVFV. Pooled odds ratios (pOR) were calculated for exposures examined in four or more studies. Being male [pOR = 1.4 (1.0, 1.8)], contact with aborted animal tissue [pOR = 3.4 (1.6, 7.3)], birthing an animal [pOR = 3.2 (2.4, 4.2)], skinning an animal [pOR = 2.5 (1.9, 3.2)], slaughtering an animal [pOR = 2.4 (1.4, 4.1)] and drinking raw milk [pOR = 1.8 (1.2, 2.6)] were significantly associated with RVF infection after meta-analysis. Other potential risk factors include sheltering animals in the home and milking an animal, which may both involve contact with animal body fluids. Based on the identified risk factors, use of personal protective equipment and disinfectants by animal handlers may help reduce RVFV transmission during outbreaks. Milk pasteurisation and other possible preventive methods require further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Large-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation with promoter sequence microarray analysis of the interaction of the NSs protein of Rift Valley fever virus with regulatory DNA regions of the host genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benferhat, Rima; Josse, Thibaut; Albaud, Benoit; Gentien, David; Mansuroglu, Zeyni; Marcato, Vasco; Souès, Sylvie; Le Bonniec, Bernard; Bouloy, Michèle; Bonnefoy, Eliette

    2012-10-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a highly pathogenic Phlebovirus that infects humans and ruminants. Initially confined to Africa, RVFV has spread outside Africa and presently represents a high risk to other geographic regions. It is responsible for high fatality rates in sheep and cattle. In humans, RVFV can induce hepatitis, encephalitis, retinitis, or fatal hemorrhagic fever. The nonstructural NSs protein that is the major virulence factor is found in the nuclei of infected cells where it associates with cellular transcription factors and cofactors. In previous work, we have shown that NSs interacts with the promoter region of the beta interferon gene abnormally maintaining the promoter in a repressed state. In this work, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the interactions between NSs and the host genome using a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with promoter sequence microarray, the ChIP-on-chip technique. Several cellular promoter regions were identified as significantly interacting with NSs, and the establishment of NSs interactions with these regions was often found linked to deregulation of expression of the corresponding genes. Among annotated NSs-interacting genes were present not only genes regulating innate immunity and inflammation but also genes regulating cellular pathways that have not yet been identified as targeted by RVFV. Several of these pathways, such as cell adhesion, axonal guidance, development, and coagulation were closely related to RVFV-induced disorders. In particular, we show in this work that NSs targeted and modified the expression of genes coding for coagulation factors, demonstrating for the first time that this hemorrhagic virus impairs the host coagulation cascade at the transcriptional level.

  1. Development of a novel, single-cycle replicable rift valley Fever vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Murakami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is an arbovirus that causes severe disease in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan African countries. Although the MP-12 strain of RVFV is a live attenuated vaccine candidate, neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence of MP-12 in mice may be a concern when vaccinating certain individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised. We have developed a novel, single-cycle replicable MP-12 (scMP-12, which carries an L RNA, M RNA mutant encoding a mutant envelope protein lacking an endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal and defective for membrane fusion function, and S RNA encoding N protein and green fluorescent protein. The scMP-12 underwent efficient amplification, then formed plaques and retained the introduced mutation after serial passages in a cell line stably expressing viral envelope proteins. However, inoculation of the scMP-12 into naïve cells resulted in a single round of viral replication, and production of low levels of noninfectious virus-like particles. Intracranial inoculation of scMP-12 into suckling mice did not cause clinical signs or death, a finding which demonstrated that the scMP-12 lacked neurovirulence. Mice immunized with a single dose of scMP-12 produced neutralizing antibodies, whose titers were higher than in mice immunized with replicon particles carrying L RNA and S RNA encoding N protein and green fluorescent protein. Moreover, 90% of the scMP-12-immunized mice were protected from wild-type RVFV challenge by efficiently suppressing viremia and replication of the challenge virus in the liver and the spleen. These data demonstrated that scMP-12 is a safe and immunogenic RVFV vaccine candidate.

  2. Distinct virulence of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus strains from different genetic lineages in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Ikegami

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV causes high rates of abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral transmission occurs via mosquito vectors in endemic areas, which necessitates regular vaccination of susceptible livestock animals to prevent the RVF outbreaks. Although ZH501 strain has been used as a challenge strain for past vaccine efficacy studies, further characterization of other RVFV strains is important to optimize ruminant and nonhuman primate RVFV challenge models. This study aimed to characterize the virulence of wild-type RVFV strains belonging to different genetic lineages in outbred CD1 mice. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with 1x103 PFU of wild-type ZH501, Kenya 9800523, Kenya 90058, Saudi Arabia 200010911, OS1, OS7, SA75, Entebbe, or SA51 strains. Among them, mice infected with SA51, Entebbe, or OS7 strain showed rapid dissemination of virus in livers and peracute necrotic hepatitis at 2-3 dpi. Recombinant SA51 (rSA51 and Zinga (rZinga strains were recovered by reverse genetics, and their virulence was also tested in CD1 mice. The rSA51 strain reproduced peracute RVF disease in mice, whereas the rZinga strain showed a similar virulence with that of rZH501 strain. This study showed that RVFV strains in different genetic lineages display distinct virulence in outbred mice. Importantly, since wild-type RVFV strains contain defective-interfering RNA or various genetic subpopulations during passage from original viral isolations, recombinant RVFV strains generated by reverse genetics will be better suitable for reproducible challenge studies for vaccine development as well as pathological studies.

  3. Factors associated with severe human Rift Valley fever in Sangailu, Garissa County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Desirée LaBeaud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV causes acute, often severe, disease in livestock and humans. To determine the exposure factors and range of symptoms associated with human RVF, we performed a population-based cross-sectional survey in six villages across a 40 km transect in northeastern Kenya.A systematic survey of the total populations of six Northeastern Kenyan villages was performed. Among 1082 residents tested via anti-RVFV IgG ELISA, seroprevalence was 15% (CI95%, 13-17%. Prevalence did not vary significantly among villages. Subject age was a significant factor, with 31% (154/498 of adults seropositive vs. only 2% of children ≤15 years (12/583. Seroprevalence was higher among men (18% than women (13%. Factors associated with seropositivity included a history of animal exposure, non-focal fever symptoms, symptoms related to meningoencephalitis, and eye symptoms. Using cluster analysis in RVFV positive participants, a more severe symptom phenotype was empirically defined as having somatic symptoms of acute fever plus eye symptoms, and possibly one or more meningoencephalitic or hemorrhagic symptoms. Associated with this more severe disease phenotype were older age, village, recent illness, and loss of a family member during the last outbreak. In multivariate analysis, sheltering livestock (aOR = 3.5 CI95% 0.93-13.61, P = 0.065, disposing of livestock abortus (aOR = 4.11, CI95% 0.63-26.79, P = 0.14, and village location (P = 0.009 were independently associated with the severe disease phenotype.Our results demonstrate that a significant proportion of the population in northeastern Kenya has been infected with RVFV. Village and certain animal husbandry activities were associated with more severe disease. Older age, male gender, herder occupation, killing and butchering livestock, and poor visual acuity were useful markers for increased RVFV infection. Formal vision testing may therefore prove to be a helpful, low-technology tool

  4. Identifying Areas Suitable for the Occurrence of Rift Valley Fever in North Africa: Implications for Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsevska, E; Hellal, J; Mejri, S; Hammami, S; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2016-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has caused widespread outbreaks throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with serious consequences for livestock-based economies and public health. Although there have never been any reports of RVF in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, it is a priority disease in the Maghreb, due to the threat of introduction of the virus through transboundary livestock movements or infected mosquito vectors. However, the implementation of surveillance activities and early warning contingency plans requires better knowledge of the epidemiological situation. We conducted a multicriteria decision analysis, integrating host distribution with a combination of important ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance, to identify hotspots and suitable time periods for RVF enzootic circulation (i.e. stable transmission at a low to moderate level for an extended period of time) and an RVF epizootic event (i.e. a sudden occurrence of a large number of infected animals over a large geographic area) in the Maghreb. We also modelled vector species distribution using available information on vector presence and habitat preference. We found that the northern regions of the Maghreb were moderately suitable for RVF enzootics, but highly suitable for RVF epizootics. The vector species distribution model identified these regions as the most favourable mosquito habitats. Due to the low density of animal hosts and arid conditions, the desert region showed low RVF suitability, except in oases. However, the presence of competent vectors in putative unsuitable areas underlines the need for further assessments of mosquito habitat preference. This study produced monthly RVF suitability maps useful for animal health managers and veterinary services involved in designing risk-based surveillance programmes. The suitability maps can be further enhanced using existing country-specific sources of information and by incorporating knowledge

  5. Overlapping CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes identification for the progression of epitope-based peptide vaccine from nucleocapsid and glycoprotein of emerging Rift Valley fever virus using immunoinformatics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Utpal Kumar; Rahman, M Mizanur

    2017-12-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emergent arthropod-borne zoonotic infectious viral pathogen which causes fatal diseases in the humans and ruminants. Currently, no effective and licensed vaccine is available for the prevention of RVFV infection in endemic as well as in non-endemic regions. So, an immunoinformatics-driven genome-wide screening approach was performed for the identification of overlapping CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes and also linear B-cell epitopes from the conserved sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) of RVFV. We identified overlapping 99.39% conserved 1 CD8+ T-cell epitope (MMHPSFAGM) from N protein and 100% conserved 7 epitopes (AVFALAPVV, LAVFALAPV, FALAPVVFA, VFALAPVVF, IAMTVLPAL, FFDWFSGLM, and FLLIYLGRT) from G protein and also identified IL-4 and IFN-γ induced (99.39% conserved) 1 N protein CD4+ T-cell epitope (HMMHPSFAGMVDPSL) and 100% conserved 5 G protein CD4+ T-cell epitopes (LPALAVFALAPVVFA, PALAVFALAPVVFAE, GIAMTVLPALAVFAL, GSWNFFDWFSGLMSW, and FFLLIYLGRTGLSKM). The overlapping CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes were bound with most conserved HLA-C*12:03 and HLA-DRB1*01:01, respectively with the high binding affinity (kcal/mol). The combined population coverage analysis revealed that the allele frequencies of these epitopes are high in endemic and non-endemic regions. Besides, we found 100% conserved and non-allergenic 2 decamer B-cell epitopes, GVCEVGVQAL and RVFNCIDWVH of G protein had the sequence similarity with the nonamer CD8+ T-cell epitopes, VCEVGVQAL and RVFNCIDWV, respectively. Consequently, these epitopes may be used for the development of epitope-based peptide vaccine against emerging RVFV. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments are required for their efficient use as a vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk analysis of inter-species reassortment through a Rift Valley fever phlebovirus MP-12 vaccine strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoai J Ly

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The causative agent, Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV, belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Phenuiviridae and causes high rates of abortions in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral maintenance by mosquito vectors has led to sporadic RVF outbreaks in ruminants and humans in endemic countries, and effective vaccination of animals and humans may minimize the impact of this disease. A live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine strain is one of the best characterized RVFV strains, and was conditionally approved as a veterinary vaccine in the U.S. Live-attenuated RVF vaccines including MP-12 strain may form reassortant strains with other bunyavirus species. This study thus aimed to characterize the occurrence of genetic reassortment between the MP-12 strain and bunyavirus species closely related to RVFV. The Arumowot virus (AMTV and Gouleako goukovirus (GOLV, are transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa. The results of this study showed that GOLV does not form detectable reassortant strains with the MP-12 strain in co-infected C6/36 cells. The AMTV also did not form any reassortant strains with MP-12 strain in co-infected C6/36 cells, due to the incompatibility among N, L, and Gn/Gc proteins. A lack of reassortant formation could be due to a functional incompatibility of N and L proteins derived from heterologous species, and due to a lack of packaging via heterologous Gn/Gc proteins. The MP-12 strain did, however, randomly exchange L-, M-, and S-segments with a genetic variant strain, rMP12-GM50, in culture cells. The MP-12 strain is thus unlikely to form any reassortant strains with AMTV or GOLV in nature.

  7. Immunogenicity of a recombinant Rift Valley fever MP-12-NSm deletion vaccine candidate in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, John C; Laughlin, Richard C; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Wu, Jing; Pugh, Roberta; Kanani, Pooja; Adams, L Garry; Makino, Shinji; Peters, C J

    2013-10-09

    The safety and immunogenicity of an authentic recombinant (ar) of the live, attenuated MP-12 Rift Valley fever (RVF) vaccine virus with a large deletion of the NSm gene in the pre-Gn region of the M RNA segment (arMP-12ΔNSm21/384) was tested in 4-6 month old Bos taurus calves. Phase I of this study evaluated the neutralizing antibody response, measured by 80% plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT80), and clinical response of calves to doses of 1 × 10(1) through 1 × 10(7) plaque forming units (PFU) administered subcutaneously (s.c.). Phase II evaluated the clinical and neutralizing antibody response of calves inoculated s.c. or intramuscularly (i.m.) with 1 × 10(3), 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(5)PFU of arMP-12ΔNSm21/384. No significant adverse clinical events were observed in the animals in these studies. Of all specimens tested, only one vaccine viral isolate was recovered and that virus retained the introduced deletion. In the Phase I study, there was no statistically significant difference in the PRNT80 response between the dosage groups though the difference in IgG response between the 1 × 10(1)PFU group and the 1 × 10(5)PFU group was statistically significant (pPFU dose group showing the least response. The Phase II study also showed no statistically significant difference in PRNT80 response between the dosage groups though the difference in RVFV-specific IgG values was significantly increased (pPFU versus those inoculated s.c. with 1 × 10(3) or 1 × 10(5)PFU. Although the study groups were small, these data suggest that 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(5)PFU of arMP-12ΔNSm21/384 administered i.m. to calves will consistently stimulate a presumably protective PRNT80 response for at least 91 days post inoculation. Further studies of arMP-12ΔNSm21/384 are warranted to explore its suitability as an efficacious livestock vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emerging vector-borne diseases in dromedaries in Tunisia: West Nile, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease and Rift Valley fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thameur B. Hassine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV, bluetongue virus (BTV, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4.6%, while in the second group, it was 25.8% for WNV and 9.7% for BTV. Only serotype 1 was detected for BTV in the two groups. No evidence for circulation of RVF and EHD viruses was revealed. Results indicated that dromedaries can be infected with BTV and WNV, suggesting that this species might play a significant role in the epizootiology of these viral diseases in Tunisia and neighbouring countries.

  9. Protein Kinase R Degradation Is Essential for Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection and Is Regulated by SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF)FBXW11-NSs E3 Ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhasani, Rajini; Tran, Julie P; Retterer, Cary; Kota, Krishna P; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bavari, Sina

    2016-02-01

    Activated protein kinase R (PKR) plays a vital role in antiviral defense primarily by inhibiting protein synthesis and augmenting interferon responses. Many viral proteins have adopted unique strategies to counteract the deleterious effects of PKR. The NSs (Non-structural s) protein which is encoded by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) promotes early PKR proteasomal degradation through a previously undefined mechanism. In this study, we demonstrate that NSs carries out this activity by assembling the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box)(FBXW11) E3 ligase. NSs binds to the F-box protein, FBXW11, via the six amino acid sequence DDGFVE called the degron sequence and recruits PKR through an alternate binding site to the SCF(FBXW11) E3 ligase. We further show that disrupting the assembly of the SCF(FBXW11-NSs) E3 ligase with MLN4924 (a small molecule inhibitor of SCF E3 ligase activity) or NSs degron viral mutants or siRNA knockdown of FBXW11 can block PKR degradation. Surprisingly, under these conditions when PKR degradation was blocked, NSs was essential and sufficient to activate PKR causing potent inhibition of RVFV infection by suppressing viral protein synthesis. These antiviral effects were antagonized by the loss of PKR expression or with a NSs deleted mutant virus. Therefore, early PKR activation by disassembly of SCF(FBXW11-NSs) E3 ligase is sufficient to inhibit RVFV infection. Furthermore, FBXW11 and BTRC are the two homologues of the βTrCP (Beta-transducin repeat containing protein) gene that were previously described to be functionally redundant. However, in RVFV infection, among the two homologues of βTrCP, FBXW11 plays a dominant role in PKR degradation and is the limiting factor in the assembly of the SCF(FBXW11) complex. Thus, FBXW11 serves as a master regulator of RVFV infection by promoting PKR degradation. Overall these findings provide new insights into NSs regulation of PKR activity and offer potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention of RVFV infection.

  10. An Alternative Inactivant for Rift Valley Fever Virus using Cobra Venom-derived L-Amino Oxidase, which is Related to its Immune Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtesam M Al-Olayan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vaccine improvement depends on the formulation, adjuvant type and inactivant used. The type of formulation may interfere with immunogenicity. The present work aimed to evaluate the inactivation activity and related immune potential of the Cobra venom-derived LAO enzyme compared to the currently used inactivants (BPL and formalin for both animal and human vaccines. The RVF virus was completely inactivated within 6 hrs, 4 hrs and 2 hrs after treatment with Formalin, LAO and BPL, respectively. The vaccine potency [ED50] was arranged in a descending order from formalin (0.016 to BPL (0.005 and LAO (0.002. The total IgG levels, Neutralizing Index (NI and Interferon levels were significantly increased compared to those detected after immunization with the BPL- and Formalin-inactivated vaccine candidates.

  11. Remote Sensing Contributions to Prediction and Risk Assessment of Natural Disasters Caused by Large Scale Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer; Britch, S. C.; Tucker, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation measurements for the last 30 years combined with other climate data sets such as rainfall and sea surface temperatures have come to play an important role in the study of the ecology of arthropod-borne diseases. We show that epidemics and epizootics of previously unpredictable Rift Valley fever are directly influenced by large scale flooding associated with the El Ni o/Southern Oscillation. This flooding affects the ecology of disease transmitting arthropod vectors through vegetation development and other bioclimatic factors. This information is now utilized to monitor, model, and map areas of potential Rift Valley fever outbreaks and is used as an early warning system for risk reduction of outbreaks to human and animal health, trade, and associated economic impacts. The continuation of such satellite measurements is critical to anticipating, preventing, and managing disease epidemics and epizootics and other climate-related disasters.

  12. Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on the Dynamics of Rift Valley Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul C. Mpeshe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic SEIR model of rift valley fever (RVF with climate change parameters was considered to compute the basic reproduction number ℛ0 and investigate the impact of temperature and precipitation on ℛ0. To study the effect of model parameters to ℛ0, sensitivity and elasticity analysis of ℛ0 were performed. When temperature and precipitation effects are not considered, ℛ0 is more sensitive to the expected number of infected Aedes spp. due to one infected livestock and more elastic to the expected number of infected livestock due to one infected Aedes spp. When climatic data are used, ℛ0 is found to be more sensitive and elastic to the expected number of infected eggs laid by Aedes spp. via transovarial transmission, followed by the expected number of infected livestock due to one infected Aedes spp. and the expected number of infected Aedes spp. due to one infected livestock for both regions Arusha and Dodoma. These results call for attention to parameters regarding incubation period, the adequate contact rate of Aedes spp. and livestock, the infective periods of livestock and Aedes spp., and the vertical transmission in Aedes species.

  13. Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on the Dynamics of Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpeshe, Saul C.; Luboobi, Livingstone S.; Nkansah-Gyekye, Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A deterministic SEIR model of rift valley fever (RVF) with climate change parameters was considered to compute the basic reproduction number ℛ 0 and investigate the impact of temperature and precipitation on ℛ 0. To study the effect of model parameters to ℛ 0, sensitivity and elasticity analysis of ℛ 0 were performed. When temperature and precipitation effects are not considered, ℛ 0 is more sensitive to the expected number of infected Aedes spp. due to one infected livestock and more elastic to the expected number of infected livestock due to one infected Aedes spp. When climatic data are used, ℛ 0 is found to be more sensitive and elastic to the expected number of infected eggs laid by Aedes spp. via transovarial transmission, followed by the expected number of infected livestock due to one infected Aedes spp. and the expected number of infected Aedes spp. due to one infected livestock for both regions Arusha and Dodoma. These results call for attention to parameters regarding incubation period, the adequate contact rate of Aedes spp. and livestock, the infective periods of livestock and Aedes spp., and the vertical transmission in Aedes species. PMID:24795775

  14. Spatial, seasonal and climatic predictive models of Rift Valley fever disease across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, David W; Tiedt, Sonia; Lo Iacono, Gianni; Bett, Bernard; Jones, Kate E

    2017-07-19

    Understanding the emergence and subsequent spread of human infectious diseases is a critical global challenge, especially for high-impact zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. Global climate and land-use change are likely to alter host and vector distributions, but understanding the impact of these changes on the burden of infectious diseases is difficult. Here, we use a Bayesian spatial model to investigate environmental drivers of one of the most important diseases in Africa, Rift Valley fever (RVF). The model uses a hierarchical approach to determine how environmental drivers vary both spatially and seasonally, and incorporates the effects of key climatic oscillations, to produce a continental risk map of RVF in livestock (as a proxy for human RVF risk). We find RVF risk has a distinct seasonal spatial pattern influenced by climatic variation, with the majority of cases occurring in South Africa and Kenya in the first half of an El Niño year. Irrigation, rainfall and human population density were the main drivers of RVF cases, independent of seasonal, climatic or spatial variation. By accounting more subtly for the patterns in RVF data, we better determine the importance of underlying environmental drivers, and also make space- and time-sensitive predictions to better direct future surveillance resources.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Environmental change and Rift Valley fever in eastern Africa: projecting beyond HEALTHY FUTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF, a relatively recently emerged zoonosis endemic to large parts of sub-Saharan Africa that has the potential to spread beyond the continent, have profound health and socio-economic impacts, particularly in communities where resilience is already low. Here output from a new, dynamic disease model [the Liverpool RVF (LRVF model], driven by downscaled, bias-corrected climate change data from an ensemble of global circulation models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project run according to two radiative forcing scenarios [representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5], is combined with results of a spatial assessment of social vulnerability to the disease in eastern Africa. The combined approach allowed for analyses of spatial and temporal variations in the risk of RVF to the end of the current century. Results for both scenarios highlight the high-risk of future RVF outbreaks, including in parts of eastern Africa to date unaffected by the disease. The results also highlight the risk of spread from/to countries adjacent to the study area, and possibly farther afield, and the value of considering the geography of future projections of disease risk. Based on the results, there is a clear need to remain vigilant and to invest not only in surveillance and early warning systems, but also in addressing the socio-economic factors that underpin social vulnerability in order to mitigate, effectively, future impacts.

  16. Climate Influence on Emerging Risk Areas for Rift Valley Fever Epidemics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement N; Mboera, Leonard E G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I

    2017-07-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distribution of disease risk areas based on vectors and disease co-occurrence data approach. Climatic variables for the current and future scenarios were used as model inputs. Changes in mosquito vectors' habitat suitability in relation to disease risk areas were estimated. We used partial receiver operating characteristic and the area under the curves approach to evaluate model predictive performance and significance. Habitat suitability for Cx. pipiens complex indicated broad-scale potential for change and shift in the distribution of the vectors and disease for both 2020 and 2050 climatic scenarios. Risk areas indicated more intensification in the areas surrounding Lake Victoria and northeastern part of the country through 2050 climate scenario. Models show higher probability of emerging risk areas spreading toward the western parts of Tanzania from northeastern areas and decrease in the southern part of the country. Results presented here identified sites for consideration to guide surveillance and control interventions to reduce risk of RVF disease epidemics in Tanzania. A collaborative approach is recommended to develop and adapt climate-related disease control and prevention strategies.

  17. Distribution and abundance of key vectors of Rift Valley fever and other arboviruses in two ecologically distinct counties in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Sang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence. With each successive outbreak, RVF has been found to expand its geographic distribution to new areas, possibly driven by available vectors. The aim of the present study was to determine if RVF virus (RVFV transmission risk in two different ecological zones in Kenya could be assessed by looking at the species composition, abundance and distribution of key primary and secondary vector species and the level of virus activity.Mosquitoes were trapped during short and long rainy seasons in 2014 and 2015 using CO2 baited CDC light traps in two counties which differ in RVF epidemic risk levels(high risk Tana-River and low risk Isiolo,cryo-preserved in liquid nitrogen, transported to the laboratory, and identified to species. Mosquito pools were analyzed for virus infection using cell culture screening and molecular analysis.Over 69,000 mosquitoes were sampled and identified as 40 different species belonging to 6 genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Mansonia, Culex, Aedeomyia, Coquillettidia. The presence and abundance of Aedes mcintoshi and Aedes ochraceus, the primary mosquito vectors associated with RVFV transmission in outbreaks, varied significantly between Tana-River and Isiolo. Ae. mcintoshi was abundant in Tana-River and Isiolo but notably, Aedes ochraceus found in relatively high numbers in Tana-River (n = 1,290, was totally

  18. Ecological niche modeling and land cover risk areas for rift valley fever vector, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mohamed F; Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S; Abdullah, Mohamed A R

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles is a prevalent and confirmed Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) vector. This vector, in association with Aedimorphus arabiensis (Patton), was responsible for causing the outbreak of 2000 in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Larval occurrence records and a total of 19 bioclimatic and three topographic layers imported from Worldclim Database were used to predict the larval suitable breeding habitats for this vector in Jazan Province using ArcGIS ver.10 and MaxEnt modeling program. Also, a supervised land cover classification from SPOT5 imagery was developed to assess the land cover distribution within the suitable predicted habitats. Eleven bioclimatic and slope attributes were found to be the significant predictors for this larval suitable breeding habitat. Precipitation and temperature were strong predictors of mosquito distribution. Among six land cover classes, the linear regression model (LM) indicated wet muddy substrate is significantly associated with high-very high suitable predicted habitats (R(2) = 73.7%, Presearchers.

  19. Rift Valley fever in a zone potentially occupied by Aedes vexans in Senegal: dynamics and risk mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vignolles

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the interaction between the various variables associated with Rift Valley fever (RVF such as the mosquito vector, available hosts and rainfall distribution. To that end, the varying zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes (ZPOM, rainfall events and pond dynamics, and the associated exposure of hosts to the RVF virus by Aedes vexans, were analyzed in the Barkedji area of the Ferlo, Senegal, during the 2003 rainy season. Ponds were identified by remote sensing using a high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite image. Additional data on ponds and rainfall events from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were combined with in-situ entomological and limnimetric measurements, and the localization of vulnerable ruminant hosts (data derived from QuickBird satellite. Since “Ae. vexans productive events” are dependent on the timing of rainfall for their embryogenesis (six days without rain are necessary to trigger hatching, the dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Ae. vexans density was based on the total rainfall amount and pond dynamics. Detailed ZPOM mapping was obtained on a daily basis and combined with aggressiveness temporal profiles. Risks zones, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability are combined, are expressed by the percentages of parks where animals are potentially exposed to mosquito bites. This new approach, simply relying upon rainfall distribution evaluated from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of a new, operational early warning system for RVF based on environmental risks linked to climatic and environmental conditions.

  20. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Commercial Veterinary Vaccines against Rift Valley Fever: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Alhaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever (RVF is an infectious illness with serious clinical manifestations and health consequences in humans as well as a wide range of domestic ruminants. This review provides significant information about the prevention options of RVF along with the safety-efficacy profile of commercial vaccines and some of RVF vaccination strategies. Information presented in this paper was obtained through a systematic investigation of published data about RVF vaccines. Like other viral diseases, the prevention of RVF relies heavily on immunization of susceptible herds with safe and cost-effective vaccine that is able to confer long-term protective immunity. Several strains of RVF vaccines have been developed and are available in commercial production including Formalin-Inactivated vaccine, live attenuated Smithburn vaccine, and the most recent Clone13. Although Formalin-Inactivated vaccine and live attenuated Smithburn vaccine are immunogenic and widely used in prevention programs, they proved to be accompanied by significant concerns. Despite Clone13 vaccine being suggested as safe in pregnant ewes and as highly immunogenic along with its potential for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA, a recent study raised concerns about the safety of the vaccine during the first trimester of gestation. Accordingly, RVF vaccines that are currently available in the market to a significant extent do not fulfill the requirements of safety, potency, and DIVA. These adverse effects stressed the need for developing new vaccines with an excellent safety profile to bridge the gap in safety and immunity. Bringing RVF vaccine candidates to local markets besides the absence of validated serological test for DIVA remain the major challenges of RVF control.

  1. Exploratory space-time analyses of Rift Valley Fever in South Africa in 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Métras

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a zoonotic arbovirosis for which the primary hosts are domestic livestock (cattle, sheep and goats. RVF was first described in South Africa in 1950-1951. Mechanisms for short and long distance transmission have been hypothesised, but there is little supporting evidence. Here we describe RVF occurrence and spatial distribution in South Africa in 2008-11, and investigate the presence of a contagious process in order to generate hypotheses on the different mechanisms of transmission.A total of 658 cases were extracted from World Animal Health Information Database. Descriptive statistics, epidemic curves and maps were produced. The space-time K-function was used to test for evidence of space-time interaction. Five RVF outbreak waves (one in 2008, two in 2009, one in 2010 and one in 2011 of varying duration, location and size were reported. About 70% of cases (n = 471 occurred in 2010, when the epidemic was almost country-wide. No strong evidence of space-time interaction was found for 2008 or the second wave in 2009. In the first wave of 2009, a significant space-time interaction was detected for up to one month and over 40 km. In 2010 and 2011 a significant intense, short and localised space-time interaction (up to 3 days and 15 km was detected, followed by one of lower intensity (up to 2 weeks and 35 to 90 km.The description of the spatiotemporal patterns of RVF in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 supports the hypothesis that during an epidemic, disease spread may be supported by factors other than active vector dispersal. Limitations of under-reporting and space-time K-function properties are discussed. Further spatial analyses and data are required to explain factors and mechanisms driving RVF spread.

  2. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling for the detection of Rift Valley fever virus in naturally infected cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, Lieza; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Romito, Marco; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Clift, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling (IHC) were performed on liver specimens from 380 naturally infected cattle and sheep necropsied during the 2010 Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic in South Africa. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time RT-PCR, histopathology, and IHC were estimated in a latent-class model using a Bayesian framework. The Se and Sp of real-time RT-PCR were estimated as 97.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 95.2-98.8%) and 71.7% (95% CI = 65-77.9%) respectively. The Se and Sp of histopathology were estimated as 94.6% (95% CI = 91-97.2%) and 92.3% (95% CI = 87.6-95.8%), respectively. The Se and Sp of IHC were estimated as 97.6% (95% CI = 93.9-99.8%) and 99.4% (95% CI = 96.9-100%), respectively. Decreased Sp of real-time RT-PCR was ascribed to cross-contamination of samples. Stratified analysis of the data suggested variations in test accuracy with fetuses and severely autolyzed specimens. The Sp of histopathology in fetuses (83%) was 9.3% lower than the sample population (92.3%). The Se of IHC decreased from 97.6% to 81.5% in the presence of severe autolysis. The diagnostic Se and Sp of histopathology was higher than expected, confirming the value of routine postmortem examinations and histopathology of liver specimens. Aborted fetuses, however, should be screened using a variety of tests in areas endemic for RVF, and results from severely autolyzed specimens should be interpreted with caution. The most feasible testing option for countries lacking suitably equipped laboratories seems to be routine histology in combination with IHC.

  4. Predicting Rift Valley Fever Inter-epidemic Activities and Outbreak Patterns: Insights from a Stochastic Host-Vector Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansao A Pedro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF outbreaks are recurrent, occurring at irregular intervals of up to 15 years at least in East Africa. Between outbreaks disease inter-epidemic activities exist and occur at low levels and are maintained by female Aedes mcintoshi mosquitoes which transmit the virus to their eggs leading to disease persistence during unfavourable seasons. Here we formulate and analyse a full stochastic host-vector model with two routes of transmission: vertical and horizontal. By applying branching process theory we establish novel relationships between the basic reproduction number, R0, vertical transmission and the invasion and extinction probabilities. Optimum climatic conditions and presence of mosquitoes have not fully explained the irregular oscillatory behaviour of RVF outbreaks. Using our model without seasonality and applying van Kampen system-size expansion techniques, we provide an analytical expression for the spectrum of stochastic fluctuations, revealing how outbreaks multi-year periodicity varies with the vertical transmission. Our theory predicts complex fluctuations with a dominant period of 1 to 10 years which essentially depends on the efficiency of vertical transmission. Our predictions are then compared to temporal patterns of disease outbreaks in Tanzania, Kenya and South Africa. Our analyses show that interaction between nonlinearity, stochasticity and vertical transmission provides a simple but plausible explanation for the irregular oscillatory nature of RVF outbreaks. Therefore, we argue that while rainfall might be the major determinant for the onset and switch-off of an outbreak, the occurrence of a particular outbreak is also a result of a build up phenomena that is correlated to vertical transmission efficiency.

  5. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever: Research Gaps and Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, M; Chevalier, V; Abdo-Salem, S; Velthuis, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Thiry, E; Roger, F

    2015-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to evaluate them. Of the 52 papers selected for this review, 13 types of socio-economic impact were identified according to the sector impacted, the level and temporal scale of the impact. RVF has a dramatic impact on producers and livestock industries, affecting public and animal health, food security and the livelihood of the pastoralist communities. RVF also has an impact on international trade and other agro-industries. The risk of introducing RVF into disease-free countries via the importation of an infected animal or mosquito is real, and the consequent restriction of access to export markets may induce dramatic economic consequences for national and local economies. Despite the important threat of RVF, few studies have been conducted to assess the socio-economic impact of the disease. The 17 studies identified for quantitative analysis in this review relied only on partial cost analysis, with limited reference to mid- and long-term impact, public health or risk mitigation measures. However, the estimated impacts were high (ranging from $5 to $470 million USD losses). To reduce the impact of RVF, early detection and rapid response should be implemented. Comprehensive disease impact studies are required to provide decision-makers with science-based information on the best intervention measure to implement ensuring efficient resource allocation. Through the analysis of RVF socio-economic impact, this scoping study proposes insights into the mechanisms underpinning its often-underestimated importance. This study highlights the need for comparative socio-economic studies to help decision-makers with their choices related to RVF disease management. © 2014 The Authors

  6. Identification of suitable areas for the occurrence of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that may produce a considerable impact on the economy in affected countries. In the last decades, the geographic distribution of RVF virus has increased including most of the countries in Africa, Arabia Saudi and Yemen. This situation has raised the concerns regarding its potential introduction in the European Union (EU) countries where the high number of susceptible species and competent vectors may contribute to the spread of the disease and challenge its rapid control. Thus, the identification of the areas and time periods with highest suitability for RVF outbreak occurrence would be useful for improving the early detection and rapid response of the disease into free countries. The objective of this study was to identify suitable areas for the occurrence of RVF outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision making model based on weighted linear combination of factors in geographical information systems (GIS). To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first comprehensive GIS-based framework that provides risk maps for RVF suitability in an EU country. Spanish zones with the highest suitability for RVF were concentrated in the regions of Extremadura, south-western Castile and Leon, eastern Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, Basque Country, northern-central and southern region of Andalusia and in the Balearic Islands. October and May were the most suitable months for RVF outbreak occurrence. Methods and results presented here may be useful to target risk-based surveillance strategies and to more cost-effectively control potential RVFV incursions into Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial Heterogeneity of Habitat Suitability for Rift Valley Fever Occurrence in Tanzania: An Ecological Niche Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindato, Calvin; Stevens, Kim B.; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the long history of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Tanzania, extent of its suitable habitat in the country remains unclear. In this study we investigated potential effects of temperature, precipitation, elevation, soil type, livestock density, rainfall pattern, proximity to wild animals, protected areas and forest on the habitat suitability for RVF occurrence in Tanzania. Materials and Methods Presence-only records of 193 RVF outbreak locations from 1930 to 2007 together with potential predictor variables were used to model and map the suitable habitats for RVF occurrence using ecological niche modelling. Ground-truthing of the model outputs was conducted by comparing the levels of RVF virus specific antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats sampled from locations in Tanzania that presented different predicted habitat suitability values. Principal Findings Habitat suitability values for RVF occurrence were higher in the northern and central-eastern regions of Tanzania than the rest of the regions in the country. Soil type and precipitation of the wettest quarter contributed equally to habitat suitability (32.4% each), followed by livestock density (25.9%) and rainfall pattern (9.3%). Ground-truthing of model outputs revealed that the odds of an animal being seropositive for RVFV when sampled from areas predicted to be most suitable for RVF occurrence were twice the odds of an animal sampled from areas least suitable for RVF occurrence (95% CI: 1.43, 2.76, p < 0.001). Conclusion/Significance The regions in the northern and central-eastern Tanzania were more suitable for RVF occurrence than the rest of the regions in the country. The modelled suitable habitat is characterised by impermeable soils, moderate precipitation in the wettest quarter, high livestock density and a bimodal rainfall pattern. The findings of this study should provide guidance for the design of appropriate RVF surveillance, prevention and control strategies which target areas with

  8. Prediction, assessment of the Rift Valley fever activity in East and Southern Africa 2006-2008 and possible vector control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Small, Jennifer; Britch, Seth C; Pak, Edwin; de La Rocque, Stephane; Formenty, Pierre; Hightower, Allen W; Breiman, Robert F; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Tucker, Compton J; Schnabel, David; Sang, Rosemary; Haagsma, Karl; Latham, Mark; Lewandowski, Henry B; Magdi, Salih Osman; Mohamed, Mohamed Ally; Nguku, Patrick M; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Swanepoel, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Historical outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since the early 1950s have been associated with cyclical patterns of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, which results in elevated and widespread rainfall over the RVF endemic areas of Africa. Using satellite measurements of global and regional elevated sea surface temperatures, elevated rainfall, and satellite derived-normalized difference vegetation index data, we predicted with lead times of 2-4 months areas where outbreaks of RVF in humans and animals were expected and occurred in the Horn of Africa, Sudan, and Southern Africa at different time periods from September 2006 to March 2008. Predictions were confirmed by entomological field investigations of virus activity and by reported cases of RVF in human and livestock populations. This represents the first series of prospective predictions of RVF outbreaks and provides a baseline for improved early warning, control, response planning, and mitigation into the future.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on Rift Valley fever among agro pastoral communities in Kongwa and Kilombero districts, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Sasita S; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Mohamed, Mohamed; Moshiro, Candida S

    2015-08-21

    Rift valley fever (RVF) is a re-emerging viral vector-borne disease with rapid global socio-economic impact. A large RVF outbreak occurred in Tanzania in 2007 and affected more than half of the regions with high (47 %) case fatality rate. Little is known about RVF and its dynamics. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding RVF in Kongwa and Kilombero districts, Tanzania. We conducted a cross sectional survey among a randomly selected sample of individuals in 2011. We administered questionnaires to collect data on demographic characteristics, knowledge on symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention, attitudes and health seeking practices. A total of 463 community members participated in this study. The mean (±SD) age was 39.8 ± 14.4 years and 238 (51.4 %) were female. Majority of respondents had heard of RVF. However, only 8.8 % knew that mosquitoes were transmitting vectors. Male respondents were more likely to have greater knowledge about RVF. A small proportion mentioned clinical signs and symptoms of RVF in animals while 73.7 % mentioned unhealthy practices related to handling and consumption of dead animals. Thorough boiling of milk and cooking of meat were commonly mentioned as preventive measures for RVF. Majority (74.6 %) sought care for febrile illness at health facilities. Few (24.3 %) reported the use of protective gears to handle dead/sick animal while 15.5 % were consuming dead animals. Our study highlights the need to address the limited knowledge about RVF and promoting appropriate and timely health seeking practices. Rift valley fever outbreaks can be effectively managed with collaborative efforts of lay and professional communities with a shared perception that it poses a serious threat to public and animal health. The fact that this study was conducted in "high risk transmission areas" warrants further inquiry in other geographic regions with relatively low risk of RVF.

  10. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3. The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001, and slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047. A total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2. Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0-12.1, p = 0.047, was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further

  11. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jessie; Grossi-Soyster, Elysse Noel; de Glanville, William Anson; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Kariuki, Samuel; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Wamae, Claire Njeri; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2017-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3). The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001), and slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047). A total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2). Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0-12.1, p = 0.047), was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further evidence for RVFV

  12. Inter-epidemic transmission of Rift Valley fever in livestock in the Kilombero River Valley, Tanzania: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Sumaye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, evidence of Rift Valley fever (RVF transmission during inter-epidemic periods in parts of Africa has increasingly been reported. The inter-epidemic transmissions generally pass undetected where there is no surveillance in the livestock or human populations. We studied the presence of and the determinants for inter-epidemic RVF transmission in an area experiencing annual flooding in southern Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional sero-survey was conducted in randomly selected cattle, sheep and goats in the Kilombero river valley from May to August 2011, approximately four years after the 2006/07 RVF outbreak in Tanzania. The exposure status to RVF virus (RVFV was determined using two commercial ELISA kits, detecting IgM and IgG antibodies in serum. Information about determinants was obtained through structured interviews with herd owners. FINDINGS: An overall seroprevalence of 11.3% (n = 1680 was recorded; 5.5% in animals born after the 2006/07 RVF outbreak and 22.7% in animals present during the outbreak. There was a linear increase in prevalence in the post-epidemic annual cohorts. Nine inhibition-ELISA positive samples were also positive for RVFV IgM antibodies indicating a recent infection. The spatial distribution of seroprevalence exhibited a few hotspots. The sex difference in seroprevalence in animals born after the previous epidemic was not significant (6.1% vs. 4.6% for females and males respectively, p = 0.158 whereas it was significant in animals present during the outbreak (26.0% vs. 7.8% for females and males respectively, p15 km from the flood plain were more likely to have antibodies than those living <5 km (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.04-3.56. Species, breed, herd composition, grazing practices and altitude were not associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate post-epidemic transmission of RVFV in the study area. The linear increase in seroprevalence in the post-epidemic annual cohorts

  13. A temperature-limited assessment of the risk of Rift Valley fever transmission and establishment in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of West Nile virus across North America after its introduction in 1999 highlights the potential for foreign arboviruses to become established in the United States of America. Of particular concern is Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, which has been responsible for multiple African epidemics resulting in death of both humans and livestock, as well as major economic disruption due to livestock loss and trade restrictions. Modern globalization, travel, and commerce allow viruses to easily jump from one continent to another; and it is likely only a matter of time before RVFV reaches North American shores. We used a degree-day model in combination with livestock population data and a pathways analysis to identify regions and times where RVFV is most likely to enter and become established in the United States of America. Transmission risk of the disease varies across the country from 325 annual risk days in parts of Florida to zero risk days in the far North and in high mountain regions. Areas of particular concern are where there are a high number of possible transmission days, a large livestock population, and proximity to likely locations for the disease to enter the country via mosquito vector or human host. These areas should be monitored closely during transmission “risk seasons” so that if the virus does enter the country and begins to become established, it can be quickly controlled and eliminated before spreading further. Areas most at risk include the Baltimore and New York City metro areas as well as much of the region between these urban centers; most of Texas, especially around Houston; Florida; Atlanta; southwest Nebraska; southern California and Arizona; and the central valley of California.

  14. Rift Valley fever dynamics in Senegal: a project for pro-active adaptation and improvement of livestock raising management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murielle Lafaye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-disciplinary French project “Adaptation à la Fièvre de la Vallée du Rift” (AdaptFVR has concluded a 10-year constructive interaction between many scientists/partners involved with the Rift Valley fever (RVF dynamics in Senegal. The three targeted objectives reached were (i to produce - in near real-time - validated risk maps for parked livestock exposed to RVF mosquitoes/vectors bites; (ii to assess the impacts on RVF vectors from climate variability at different time-scales including climate change; and (iii to isolate processes improving local livestock management and animal health. Based on these results, concrete, pro-active adaptive actions were taken on site, which led to the establishment of a RVF early warning system (RVFews. Bulletins were released in a timely fashion during the project, tested and validated in close collaboration with the local populations, i.e. the primary users. Among the strategic, adaptive methods developed, conducted and evaluated in terms of cost/benefit analyses are the larvicide campaigns and the coupled bio-mathematical (hydrological and entomological model technologies, which are being transferred to the staff of the “Centre de Suivi Ecologique” (CSE in Dakar during 2013. Based on the results from the AdaptFVR project, other projects with similar conceptual and modelling approaches are currently being implemented, e.g. for urban and rural malaria and dengue in the French Antilles.

  15. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Degenne, Pascal; Chevalier, Véronique; Lo Seen, Danny; Thiongane, Yaya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Guégan, Jean-François; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes) involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003). We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends the identification of rainfall patterns favourable for RVFV amplification.

  16. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Soti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003. We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends

  17. Wetlands, wild Bovidae species richness and sheep density delineate risk of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in the African continent and Arabian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Walsh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is an emerging, vector-borne viral zoonosis that has significantly impacted public health, livestock health and production, and food security over the last three decades across large regions of the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The potential for expansion of RVF outbreaks within and beyond the range of previous occurrence is unknown. Despite many large national and international epidemics, the landscape epidemiology of RVF remains obscure, particularly with respect to the ecological roles of wildlife reservoirs and surface water features. The current investigation modeled RVF risk throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a function of a suite of biotic and abiotic landscape features using machine learning methods. Intermittent wetland, wild Bovidae species richness and sheep density were associated with increased landscape suitability to RVF outbreaks. These results suggest the role of wildlife hosts and distinct hydrogeographic landscapes in RVF virus circulation and subsequent outbreaks may be underestimated. These results await validation by studies employing a deeper, field-based interrogation of potential wildlife hosts within high risk taxa.

  18. Integrated Analysis of Environment, Cattle and Human Serological Data: Risks and Mechanisms of Transmission of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Marie-Marie; Chevalier, Véronique; Grosbois, Vladimir; Tran, Annelise; Andriamandimby, Soa-Fy; Durand, Benoit; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rogier, Christophe; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2016-07-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. Madagascar was heavily affected by RVF in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. The identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting RVF surveillance in Madagascar. Herein, the objectives of our study were: (i) to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to RVF transmission to both cattle and human and (ii) to identify human behaviors favoring human infections in Malagasy contexts. First, we characterized the environments of Malagasy communes using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Then, we analyzed cattle and human serological data collected at national level using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, with the individual serological status (cattle or human) as the response, and MFA factors, as well as other potential risk factors (cattle density, human behavior) as explanatory variables. Cattle and human seroprevalence rates were positively associated to humid environments (p<0.001). Areas with high cattle density were at risk (p<0.01; OR = 2.6). Furthermore, our analysis showed that frequent contact with raw milk contributed to explain human infection (OR = 1.6). Finally, our study highlighted the eastern-coast, western and north-western parts as high-risk areas for RVF transmission in cattle. Our integrated approach analyzing environmental, cattle and human datasets allow us to bring new insight on RVF transmission patterns in Madagascar. The association between cattle seroprevalence, humid environments and high cattle density suggests that concomitant vectorial and direct transmissions are critical to maintain RVF enzootic transmission. Additionally, in the at-risk humid environment of the western, north-western and the eastern-coast areas, suitable to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, vectorial transmission probably occurs in both cattle and human. The relative contribution of

  19. TerraSAR-X high-resolution radar remote sensing: an operational warning system for Rift Valley fever risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vignolles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the vicinity of the Barkedji village (in the Ferlo region of Senegal, the abundance and aggressiveness of the vector mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever (RVF are strongly linked to rainfall events and associated ponds dynamics. Initially, these results were obtained from spectral analysis of high-resolution (~10 m Spot-5 images, but, as a part of the French AdaptFVR project, identification of the free water dynamics within ponds was made with the new high-resolution (down to 3-meter pixels, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite (TerraSAR-X produced by Infoterra GmbH, Friedrichshafen/Potsdam, Germany. During summer 2008, within a 30 x 50 km radar image, it was found that identified free water fell well within the footprints of ponds localized by optical data (i.e. Spot-5 images, which increased the confidence in this new and complementary remote sensing technique. Moreover, by using near real-time rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, NASA/JAXA joint mission, the filling-up and flushingout rates of the ponds can be accurately determined. The latter allows for a precise, spatio-temporal mapping of the zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes capable of revealing the variability of pond surfaces. The risk for RVF infection of gathered bovines and small ruminants (~1 park/km2 can thus be assessed. This new operational approach (which is independent of weather conditions is an important development in the mapping of risk components (i.e. hazards plus vulnerability related to RVF transmission during the summer monsoon, thus contributing to a RVF early warning system.

  20. TerraSAR-X high-resolution radar remote sensing: an operational warning system for Rift Valley fever risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolles, Cécile; Tourre, Yves M; Mora, Oscar; Imanache, Laurent; Lafaye, Murielle

    2010-11-01

    In the vicinity of the Barkedji village (in the Ferlo region of Senegal), the abundance and aggressiveness of the vector mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever (RVF) are strongly linked to rainfall events and associated ponds dynamics. Initially, these results were obtained from spectral analysis of high-resolution (~10 m) Spot-5 images, but, as a part of the French AdaptFVR project, identification of the free water dynamics within ponds was made with the new high-resolution (down to 3-meter pixels), Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite (TerraSAR-X) produced by Infoterra GmbH, Friedrichshafen/Potsdam, Germany. During summer 2008, within a 30 x 50 km radar image, it was found that identified free water fell well within the footprints of ponds localized by optical data (i.e. Spot-5 images), which increased the confidence in this new and complementary remote sensing technique. Moreover, by using near real-time rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), NASA/JAXA joint mission, the filling-up and flushing-out rates of the ponds can be accurately determined. The latter allows for a precise, spatio-temporal mapping of the zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes capable of revealing the variability of pond surfaces. The risk for RVF infection of gathered bovines and small ruminants (~1 park/km(2)) can thus be assessed. This new operational approach (which is independent of weather conditions) is an important development in the mapping of risk components (i.e. hazards plus vulnerability) related to RVF transmission during the summer monsoon, thus contributing to a RVF early warning system.

  1. Statistical modeling of the abundance of vectors of West African Rift Valley fever in Barkédji, Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheikh Talla

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that represents a threat to human and animal health. The exophilic and exophagic behavior of the two main vector in West Africa (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes, adverse events post-vaccination, and lack of treatment, render ineffective the disease control. Therefore it is essential to develop an information system that facilitates decision-making and the implementation of adaptation strategies. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are linked with abnormally high rainfall, and can be predicted up to 5 months in advance by modeling approaches using climatic and environmental parameters. However, the application of these models in West Africa remains unsatisfactory due to a lack of data for animal and human cases and differences in the dynamics of the disease emergence and the vector species involved in transmission. Models have been proposed for West Africa but they were restricted to rainfall impact analysis without a spatial dimension. In this study, we developed a mixed Bayesian statistical model to evaluate the effects of climatic and ecological determinants on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the two main vectors. Adult mosquito abundance data were generated from July to December every fortnight in 2005-2006 at 79 sites, including temporary ponds, bare soils, shrubby savannah, wooded savannah, steppes, and villages in the Barkédji area. The results demonstrate the importance of environmental factors and weather conditions for predicting mosquito abundance. The rainfall and minimum temperature were positively correlated with the abundance of Cx. poicilipes, whereas the maximum temperature had negative effects. The rainfall was negatively correlated with the abundance of Ae. vexans. After combining land cover classes, weather conditions, and vector abundance, our model was used to predict the areas and periods with the highest risks of vector pressure. This information could support decision

  2. Integrated Analysis of Environment, Cattle and Human Serological Data: Risks and Mechanisms of Transmission of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Marie Olive

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. Madagascar was heavily affected by RVF in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. The identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting RVF surveillance in Madagascar. Herein, the objectives of our study were: (i to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to RVF transmission to both cattle and human and (ii to identify human behaviors favoring human infections in Malagasy contexts.First, we characterized the environments of Malagasy communes using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Then, we analyzed cattle and human serological data collected at national level using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, with the individual serological status (cattle or human as the response, and MFA factors, as well as other potential risk factors (cattle density, human behavior as explanatory variables. Cattle and human seroprevalence rates were positively associated to humid environments (p<0.001. Areas with high cattle density were at risk (p<0.01; OR = 2.6. Furthermore, our analysis showed that frequent contact with raw milk contributed to explain human infection (OR = 1.6. Finally, our study highlighted the eastern-coast, western and north-western parts as high-risk areas for RVF transmission in cattle.Our integrated approach analyzing environmental, cattle and human datasets allow us to bring new insight on RVF transmission patterns in Madagascar. The association between cattle seroprevalence, humid environments and high cattle density suggests that concomitant vectorial and direct transmissions are critical to maintain RVF enzootic transmission. Additionally, in the at-risk humid environment of the western, north-western and the eastern-coast areas, suitable to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, vectorial transmission probably occurs in both cattle and human. The relative contribution

  3. Rift Valley Fever Prediction and Risk Mapping: 2014-2015 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Extremes in either direction (+-) of precipitation temperature have significant implications for disease vectors and pathogen emergence and spread Magnitude of ENSO influence on precipitation temperature cannot be currently predicted rely on average history and patterns. Timing of event and emergence disease can be exploited (GAP) in to undertake vector control and preparedness measures. Currently - no risk for ecologically-coupled RVFV activity however we need to be vigilant during the coming fall season due the ongoing buildup of energy in the central Pacific Ocean. Potential for the dual-use of the RVF Monitor system for other VBDs Need to invest in early ground surveillance and the use of rapid field diagnostic capabilities for vector identification and virus isolation.

  4. Reprint of "Epidemiology of brucellosis, Q Fever and Rift Valley Fever at the human and livestock interface in northern Côte d'Ivoire".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouté, Youssouf B; Gragnon, Biégo G; Schindler, Christian; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2017-11-01

    Northern Côte d'Ivoire is the main livestock breeding zone and has the highest livestock cross-border movements in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to provide updated epidemiological data on three neglected zoonotic diseases, namely brucellosis, Q Fever and Rift Valley Fever (RVF). We conducted three-stage cross-sectional cluster surveys in livestock and humans between 2012 and 2014 in a random selection of 63 villages and a sample of 633 cattle, 622 small ruminants and 88 people. We administered questionnaires to capture risk factors and performed serological tests including the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Brucella spp. indirect and competitive ELISAs, Coxiella burnetii indirect ELISA and RVF competitive ELISA. The human seroprevalence for Brucella spp. was 5.3%. RBPT-positive small ruminants tested negative by the indirect ELISA. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in cattle adjusted for clustering was 4.6%. Cattle aged 5-8 years had higher odds of seropositivity (OR=3.5) than those aged ≤4years. The seropositivity in cattle was associated with having joint hygromas (OR=9), sharing the pastures with small ruminants (OR=5.8) and contact with pastoralist herds (OR=11.3). The seroprevalence of Q Fever was 13.9% in cattle, 9.4% in sheep and 12.4% in goats. The seroprevalence of RVF was 3.9% in cattle, 2.4% in sheep and 0% in goats. Seropositive ewes had greater odds (OR=4.7) of abortion than seronegative ones. In cattle, a shorter distance between the night pens and nearest permanent water bodies was a protective factor (OR=0.1). The study showed that the exposure to the three zoonoses is rather low in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Within a One Health approach, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of control measures should be assessed for an integrated control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety and immunogenicity of Onderstepoort Biological Products’ Rift Valley fever Clone 13 vaccine in sheep and goats under field conditions in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modou M. Lo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05. No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group, 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05. The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.

  6. HEMORRHAGIC-FEVER VIRUS-INFECTIONS IN AN ISOLATED RAIN-FOREST AREA OF CENTRAL LIBERIA - LIMITATIONS OF THE INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE SLIDE TEST FOR ANTIBODY SCREENING IN AFRICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waals, F. W.; Pomeroy, K. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Asher, D. M.; Gajdusek, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples from 119 healthy individuals and 106 epilepsy patients inhabiting Grand Bassa County, Liberia, were tested for antibodies to hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV) by indirect immunofluorescence. E6 Vero cells infected with Lassa fever virus (LAS), Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), Congo

  7. Rift Valley fever vector diversity and impact of meteorological and environmental factors on Culex pipiens dynamics in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachka, Hammami; Annelise, Tran; Alan, Kemp; Power, Tshikae; Patrick, Kgori; Véronique, Chevalier; Janusz, Paweska; Ferran, Jori

    2016-08-08

    In Northern Botswana, rural communities, livestock, wildlife and large numbers of mosquitoes cohabitate around permanent waters of the Okavango Delta. As in other regions of sub-Saharan Africa, Rift Valley Fever (RVF) virus is known to circulate in that area among wild and domestic animals. However, the diversity and composition of potential RVF mosquito vectors in that area are unknown as well as the climatic and ecological drivers susceptible to affect their population dynamics. Using net traps baited with carbon dioxide, monthly mosquito catches were implemented over four sites surrounding cattle corrals at the northwestern border of the Okavango Delta between 2011 and 2012. The collected mosquito species were identified and analysed for the presence of RVF virus by molecular methods. In addition, a mechanistic model was developed to assess the qualitative influence of meteorological and environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall and flooding levels, on the population dynamics of the most abundant species detected (Culex pipiens). More than 25,000 mosquitoes from 32 different species were captured with an overabundance of Cx. pipiens (69,39 %), followed by Mansonia uniformis (20,67 %) and a very low detection of Aedes spp. (0.51 %). No RVF virus was detected in our mosquito pooled samples. The model fitted well the Cx. pipiens catching results (ρ = 0.94, P = 0.017). The spatial distribution of its abundance was well represented when using local rainfall and flooding measures (ρ = 1, P = 0.083). The global population dynamics were mainly influenced by temperature, but both rainfall and flooding presented a significant influence. The best and worst suitable periods for mosquito abundance were around March to May and June to October, respectively. Our study provides the first available data on the presence of potential RVF vectors that could contribute to the maintenance and dissemination of RVF virus in the Okavango Delta. Our model allowed us to

  8. Spatio-temporal variation in prevalence of Rift Valley fever: a post-epidemic serum survey in cattle and wildlife in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Paul, George Omondi; Chiyo, Patrick I; Ng'ang'a, Eliud; Otieno, Viola; Obanda, Vincent; Evander, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a fatal arthropod-borne zoonotic disease of livestock and humans. Since the identification of RVF in Kenya in the 1930s, repeated epizootics and epidemics coinciding with El Niño events have occurred in several locations in Africa and Saudi Arabia, causing mass deaths of livestock and humans. RVF is of great interest worldwide because of its negative effect on international livestock trade and its potential to spread globally. The latter is due to the increasing incidence of extreme climatic phenomena caused by global warming, as well as to the increase in global trade and international travel. How RVF is maintained and sustained between epidemics and epizootics is not clearly understood, but it has been speculated that wildlife reservoirs and trans-ovarian transmission in the vector may be important. Several studies have examined the role of wildlife and livestock in isolation or in a limited geographical location within the one country over a short time (usually less than a year). In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-RVF antibodies in cattle and several wildlife species from several locations in Kenya over an inter-epidemic period spanning up to 7 years. A serological survey of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to RVF using competitive ELISA was undertaken on 297 serum samples from different wildlife species at various locations in Kenya. The samples were collected between 2008 and 2015. Serum was also collected in 2014 from 177 cattle from Ol Pejeta Conservancy; 113 of the cattle were in close contact with wildlife and the other 64 were kept separate from buffalo and large game by an electric fence. The seroprevalence of RVF virus (RVFV) antibody was 11.6% in wildlife species during the study period. Cattle that could come in contact with wildlife and large game were all negative for RVFV. The seroprevalence was relatively high in elephants, rhinoceros, and buffalo, but there were no antibodies in zebras, baboons

  9. Spatio-temporal variation in prevalence of Rift Valley fever: a post-epidemic serum survey in cattle and wildlife in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Wesula Lwande

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a fatal arthropod-borne zoonotic disease of livestock and humans. Since the identification of RVF in Kenya in the 1930s, repeated epizootics and epidemics coinciding with El Niño events have occurred in several locations in Africa and Saudi Arabia, causing mass deaths of livestock and humans. RVF is of great interest worldwide because of its negative effect on international livestock trade and its potential to spread globally. The latter is due to the increasing incidence of extreme climatic phenomena caused by global warming, as well as to the increase in global trade and international travel. How RVF is maintained and sustained between epidemics and epizootics is not clearly understood, but it has been speculated that wildlife reservoirs and trans-ovarian transmission in the vector may be important. Several studies have examined the role of wildlife and livestock in isolation or in a limited geographical location within the one country over a short time (usually less than a year. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-RVF antibodies in cattle and several wildlife species from several locations in Kenya over an inter-epidemic period spanning up to 7 years. Methods: A serological survey of immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies to RVF using competitive ELISA was undertaken on 297 serum samples from different wildlife species at various locations in Kenya. The samples were collected between 2008 and 2015. Serum was also collected in 2014 from 177 cattle from Ol Pejeta Conservancy; 113 of the cattle were in close contact with wildlife and the other 64 were kept separate from buffalo and large game by an electric fence. Results: The seroprevalence of RVF virus (RVFV antibody was 11.6% in wildlife species during the study period. Cattle that could come in contact with wildlife and large game were all negative for RVFV. The seroprevalence was relatively high in elephants, rhinoceros, and buffalo, but

  10. Relationship of climate, geography, and geology to the incidence of Rift Valley fever in Kenya during the 2006-2007 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Allen; Kinkade, Carl; Nguku, Patrick M; Anyangu, Amwayi; Mutonga, David; Omolo, Jared; Njenga, M Kariuki; Feikin, Daniel R; Schnabel, David; Ombok, Maurice; Breiman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    We estimated Rift Valley fever (RVF) incidence as a function of geological, geographical, and climatological factors during the 2006-2007 RVF epidemic in Kenya. Location information was obtained for 214 of 340 (63%) confirmed and probable RVF cases that occurred during an outbreak from November 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007. Locations with subtypes of solonetz, calcisols, solonchaks, and planosols soil types were highly associated with RVF occurrence during the outbreak period. Increased rainfall and higher greenness measures before the outbreak were associated with increased risk. RVF was more likely to occur on plains, in densely bushed areas, at lower elevations, and in the Somalia acacia ecological zone. Cases occurred in three spatial temporal clusters that differed by the date of associated rainfall, soil type, and land usage.

  11. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  12. Artificial Synthesis of Conserved Segment S Gene Fragment of Rift ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fragment of Rift Valley Fever Virus and Preliminary Study of Its Reverse ... blindness, encephalitis, hemorrhagic hepatitis, and, in serious ... over 30 mosquito species [5] of mosquito. As ..... RVFV, as a mosquito-borne virus for a multitude.

  13. Mapping of zones potentially occupied by Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes, the main vectors of Rift Valley fever in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Tourre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition for Rift Valley fever (RVF emergence is the presence of Aedes (Aedimorphus vexans and Culex (Culex poicilipes mosquitoes carrying the arbovirus and responsible for the infection. This paper presents a detailed mapping in the Sahelian region of Senegal of zones potentially occupied by these mosquitoes (ZPOMs whose population density is directly linked to ecozones in the vicinity of small ponds. The vectors habitats and breeding sites have been characterized through an integrated approach combining remote sensing technology, geographical information systems, geographical positioning systems and field observations for proper geo-referencing. From five SPOT-5 images (~10 m spatial resolution with appropriate channels, a meridional composite transect of 290 x 60 km was first constructed at the height of the summer monsoon. Subsequent ZPOMs covered major ecozones from north to south with different hydrological environments and different patterns pond distributions. It was found that an overall area of 12,817 ha ± 10% (about 0.8% of the transect is occupied by ponds with an average ZPOM 17 times larger than this (212,813 ha ± 10% or about 14% of the transect. By comparing the very humid year of 2003 with 2006 which had just below normal rainfall, the ZPOMs inter-annual variability was analyzed in a sandy-clayey ecozone with an important hydrofossil riverbed within the Ferlo region of Senegal. Very probably contributing to an increased abundance of vectors by the end of August 2003, it was shown that the aggregate pond area was already about 22 times larger than in August 2006, corresponding to an approximately five times larger total ZPOM. The results show the importance of pin-pointing small ponds (sizes down to 0.1 ha and their geographical distribution in order to assess animal exposure to the RVF vectors.

  14. A phytosociological analysis and description of wetland vegetation and ecological factors associated with locations of high mortality for the 2010-11 Rift Valley fever outbreak in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Robert F; Rostal, Melinda K; Kemp, Alan; Anyamba, Assaf; Zwiegers, Herman; Van Huyssteen, Cornelius W; Karesh, William B; Paweska, Janusz T

    2018-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in Africa and parts of the Middle East. It is an emerging zoonotic disease threat to veterinary and public health. Outbreaks of the disease have severe socio-economic impacts. RVF virus emergence is closely associated with specific endorheic wetlands that are utilized by the virus' mosquito vectors. Limited botanical vegetation surveys had been published with regard to RVF virus (RVFV) ecology. We report on a phytosociological classification, analysis and description of wetland vegetation and related abiotic parameters to elucidate factors possibly associated with the 2010-2011 RVFV disease outbreak in South Africa. The study sites were located in the western Free State and adjacent Northern Cape covering an area of ~40,000 km2 with wetlands associated with high RVF mortality rates in livestock. Other study sites included areas where no RVF activity was reported during the 2010-11 RVF outbreak. A total of 129 plots (30 m2) were selected where a visible difference could be seen in the wetland and upland vegetation. The Braun-Blanquet method was used for plant sampling. Classification was done using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis. The vegetation analysis resulted in the identification of eight plant communities, seven sub-communities and two variants. Indirect ordination was carried out using CANOCO to investigate the relationship between species and wetland ecology. The study also identified 5 categories of wetlands including anthropogenic wetlands. Locations of reported RVF cases overlapped sites characterized by high clay-content soils and specific wetland vegetation. These findings indicate ecological and environmental parameters that represent preferred breeding habitat for RVFV competent mosquito vectors.

  15. Trapping of Rift Valley Fever (RVF vectors using Light Emitting Diode (LED CDC traps in two arboviral disease hot spots in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchouassi David P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes’ response to artificial lights including color has been exploited in trap designs for improved sampling of mosquito vectors. Earlier studies suggest that mosquitoes are attracted to specific wavelengths of light and thus the need to refine techniques to increase mosquito captures following the development of super-bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs which emit narrow wavelengths of light or very specific colors. Therefore, we investigated if LEDs can be effective substitutes for incandescent lamps used in CDC light traps for mosquito surveillance, and if so, determine the best color for attraction of important Rift Valley Fever (RFV vectors. Methods The efficiency of selected colored LED CDC light traps (red, green, blue, violet, combination of blue-green-red (BGR to sample RVF vectors was evaluated relative to incandescent light (as control in a CDC light trap in two RVF hotspots (Marigat and Ijara districts in Kenya. In field experiments, traps were baited with dry ice and captures evaluated for Aedes tricholabis, Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus, Mansonia uniformis, Mn. africana and Culex pipiens, following Latin square design with days as replicates. Daily mosquito counts per treatment were analyzed using a generalized linear model with Negative Binomial error structure and log link using R. The incidence rate ratios (IRR that mosquito species chose other treatments instead of the control, were estimated. Results Seasonal preference of Ae.mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus at Ijara was evident with a bias towards BGR and blue traps respectively in one trapping period but this pattern waned during another period at same site with significantly low numbers recorded in all colored traps except blue relative to the control. Overall results showed that higher captures of all species were recorded in control traps compared to the other LED traps (IRR  Conclusion Based on our trapping design and color, none of the LEDs

  16. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  17. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    performance liquid chroma- tography to greater than 95% purity (Bio-synthesis, Inc., Lewisville, TX). Lyophilized peptides were initially resuspended in...lesser extent RVFV-6sc, were found to precipitate Gc (Figure 5); however, in the presence of the non- ionic detergent Triton-X, which will solubilize...Viral membrane fusion. Nat Struct Mol Biol 15: 690–698. 12. Allison SL, Schalich J, Stiasny K, Mandl CW, Kunz C, et al. (1995) Oligomeric rearrangement

  18. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  19. TP53 mutations, human papilloma virus DNA and inflammation markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from the Rift Valley, a high-incidence area in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel-Planche Ghislaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus is one of the most common malignancies in both men and women in eastern and south-eastern Africa. In Kenya, clinical observations suggest that this cancer is frequent in the Rift Valley area. However, so far, there has been no report on the molecular characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC in this area. Results We have analyzed TP53 mutations, the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV DNA and expression of inflammation markers Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2 and Nitrotyrosine (NTyR in 28 cases (13 males and 15 females of archived ESCC tissues collected at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Eleven mutations were detected in TP53 exons 5 to 8 (39%. All ESCC samples were negative for HPV 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73 and 82. Immunohistochemical analysis of Cox-2 and NTyR showed a low proportion of positive cases (17.4% and 39.1%, respectively. No association between the above markers and suspected risk factors (alcohol or tobacco use, hot tea drinking, use of charcoal for cooking was found. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mechanisms of esophageal carcinogenesis in eastern Africa might be different from other parts of the world. Low prevalence of TP53 mutation compared with other intermediate or high incidence areas of the world highlights this hypothesis. Our data did not support a possible ole of HPV in this series of cases. Further studies are needed to assess and compare the molecular patterns of ESCC from Kenya with those of high-incidence areas such as China or Central Asia.

  20. Studies of Infection and Dissemination of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-15

    SHEET Slide Code Epidermis: Head Thorax Abdomen Fat Body: Head Thorax peripheral visceral Abdomen Alimentary Canal: Epithelium Muscles Esophagous...by in situ hybridization. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 40: 561-8. Stiller D, 1990. Application of biotechnology for the diagnosis and control of ticks and tick

  1. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Category A Infectious Pathogens: Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Variola Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita Das

    Full Text Available CDC designated category A infectious agents pose a major risk to national security and require special action for public health preparedness. They include viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF syndrome as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VHF is characterized by hemorrhage and fever with multi-organ failure leading to high morbidity and mortality. Smallpox, a prior scourge, has been eradicated for decades, making it a particularly serious threat if released nefariously in the essentially non-immune world population. Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex detection assay that uses several species-specific PCR primers to generate amplicons from multiple pathogens; these are then targeted in a ligase detection reaction (LDR. The resultant fluorescently-labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array enabling simultaneous identification of the pathogens. The assay was evaluated on 32 different isolates associated with VHF (ebolavirus, marburgvirus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus as well as variola virus and vaccinia virus (the agent of smallpox and its vaccine strain, respectively. The assay was able to detect all viruses tested, including 8 sequences representative of different variola virus strains from the CDC repository. It does not cross react with other emerging zoonoses such as monkeypox virus or cowpox virus, or six flaviviruses tested (St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  2. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Category A Infectious Pathogens: Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Variola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanchita; Rundell, Mark S; Mirza, Aashiq H; Pingle, Maneesh R; Shigyo, Kristi; Garrison, Aura R; Paragas, Jason; Smith, Scott K; Olson, Victoria A; Larone, Davise H; Spitzer, Eric D; Barany, Francis; Golightly, Linnie M

    2015-01-01

    CDC designated category A infectious agents pose a major risk to national security and require special action for public health preparedness. They include viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VHF is characterized by hemorrhage and fever with multi-organ failure leading to high morbidity and mortality. Smallpox, a prior scourge, has been eradicated for decades, making it a particularly serious threat if released nefariously in the essentially non-immune world population. Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex detection assay that uses several species-specific PCR primers to generate amplicons from multiple pathogens; these are then targeted in a ligase detection reaction (LDR). The resultant fluorescently-labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array enabling simultaneous identification of the pathogens. The assay was evaluated on 32 different isolates associated with VHF (ebolavirus, marburgvirus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus) as well as variola virus and vaccinia virus (the agent of smallpox and its vaccine strain, respectively). The assay was able to detect all viruses tested, including 8 sequences representative of different variola virus strains from the CDC repository. It does not cross react with other emerging zoonoses such as monkeypox virus or cowpox virus, or six flaviviruses tested (St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus).

  3. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis of rift valley goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence, mean intensity, relative density of helminth species and the effects of environmental factors, sex and maturity of host on seasonal dynamics in relative density of helminthes ova in Rift Valley goats were investigated from July 1997 to June 1998. Ten nematode and three cestode species were identified.

  4. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  5. Association of Rift Valley fever virus infection with miscarriage in Sudanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Baudin, MSc

    2016-11-01

    Funding: Schlumberger Faculty for the Future, CRDF Global (31141, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, the County Council of Västerbotten, and the Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University.

  6. Investigation of hemorrhagic fever viruses inside wild populations of ticks: One of the pioneer studies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Ali El Hadi Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen hemorrhagic fever viruses inside wild populations of ticks collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January and March 2016. Methods: Ticks were identified depending on their morphological features using classical keys then grouped into pools. Ticks in each pool were processed separately using the sterile pestles and mortars. Viral RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit and Qiagen RNAeasy Columns (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany according to the instructions of manufacturers. A total number of 1 282 hard ticks were collected, and 582 of them were precisely identified then screened for the presence of arboviruses using quantitative real-time PCR. The four species were screened for six viruses: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, Alkhurma virus (INKV, Sindbis virus (SINV, and Pan Hanta virus (HANTA. CT value for the negative control (RNA free water was zero. Negative and positive controls were tested for each test to confirm the specificity of the selected primer pairs. SYBR Green One step RT-PCR Master Mix (KAPA Biosystems, Boston, MA was tested along with primers. Results: Ticks identification resulted into four species: Hyalomma schulzei, Hyalomma onatoli, Boophilus kdhlsi, and Hyalomm dromedarii. All the ticks’ species (except Boophilus kdhlsi were positive for the following viruses: SINV, RVFV, CHIKV, and CCHFV. While HANTA viruses have been detected in a single species (Hyalomm dromedarii. Conclusions: According to our knowledge this research may be one of the pioneer studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Incrimination of the above mentioned ticks species as well as their vectorial capacity are highly recommended for investigation in the upcoming researches.

  7. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhisi, Johnston; Patel, Kritika; Buziba, Nathan; Rotich, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Cancer of esophagus is the 9 th It is aggressive with poor prognosis especially in its late stage. Cancer of esophagus is geographically unevenly distributed with high incidence found within sharply demarcated geographic confines. Earlier reports from this country indicated relatively high proportion of cases in residents of Western and Central provinces with low incidence in the residents of the Rift Valley Province. This does not seem to be in agreement with our findings. Several aetiological factors have been associated with this type of cancer although their definitive mechanistic role is not clear. The main aim of this study was to describe the incidence, clinical epidemiology and histology of esophageal cancer in the North Rift region of Western Kenya, which forms the patients catchment area of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. This study involved a review of all available pathology reports beginning from January 1994 up to May 2001 from Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. All reports of esophageal cancer were abstracted and analyzed according to gender, age and ethnical background. All cases were based on histological diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software package. Esophageal cancer in this area is the most common cancer in men, yet it is the third common cancer in women. A male to female ratio of 1.5 to 1 was observed. Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age of the patients with this cancer was 58.7 years. The ethnic group most afflicted were Nandis and Luhyas. They are the majority tribes in this area. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 90% of the cases. Cancer of the esophagus is the most common malignancy in males and the third common malignancy in females in the catchment area of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. There is need to carry out further work to establish the aetiologic factors

  8. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Liu, Wei; Bowden, Thomas A; Cui, Ning; Zhuang, Lu; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Cao, Wu-Chun; Pybus, Oliver G

    2013-03-01

    In 2009, a novel Bunyavirus, called severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was identified in the vicinity of Huaiyangshan, China. Clinical symptoms of this zoonotic virus included severe fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with a mortality rate of ~10%. By the end of 2011 the disease associated with this pathogen had been reported from eleven Chinese provinces and human-to-human transmission suspected. However, current understanding of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of SFTSV before and after its identification is limited. To address this we undertake phylogenetic, evolutionary and structural analyses of all available SFTSV genetic sequences, including a new SFTSV complete genome isolated from a patient from Henan in 2011. Our discovery of a mosaic L segment sequence, which is descended from two major circulating lineages of SFTSV in China, represents the first evidence that homologous recombination plays a role in SFTSV evolution. Selection analyses indicate that negative selection is predominant in SFTSV genes, yet differences in selective forces among genes are consistent between Phlebovirus species. Further analysis reveals structural conservation between SFTSV and Rift Valley fever virus in the residues of their nucleocapsids that are responsible for oligomerisation and RNA-binding, suggesting the viruses share similar modes of higher-order assembly. We reconstruct the epidemic history of SFTSV using molecular clock and coalescent-based methods, revealing that the extant SFTSV lineages originated 50-150 years ago, and that the viral population experienced a recent growth phase that concurs with and extends the earliest serological reports of SFTSV infection. Taken together, our combined structural and phylogenetic analyses shed light into the evolutionary behaviour of SFTSV in the context of other, better-known, pathogenic Phleboviruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M.; Al-Ali, A.; Jubeli, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Groundwater radon data were recorded once every two months from six monitoring sites of the Syrian rift valley during the year 1996. Radon samples were measured from deep artesian wells and from continuously-flowing springs that are distributed along this most active seismic zone in Syria. The available data were integrated with previously measured groundwater radon data from the same stations in order to estimate the range of normal radon fluctuations in the region. The estimation of such range may enable the separation between usual groundwater radon variations from other outliers which may indicate possible tectonic activities or earthquake hazards in the study area. Periodical radon measurements based on two months intervals and long distance between sampling stations does not enable us to trust with high level of confidence the connection between radon values and any possible earth dynamics. Therefore, shorter measuring time with closer monitoring sites are highly recommended to achieve the optimum advantage of such application. (Author). 8 Figs., 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

  10. Evaporation estimation of rift valley lakes: comparison of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Assefa M; Abtew, Wossenu; Dessalegne, Tibebe

    2009-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method) of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE) methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux.

  11. Evaporation Estimation of Rift Valley Lakes: Comparison of Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibebe Dessalegne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux.

  12. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms.

  13. Ecological differentiation of members of the Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever virus in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara Korba, Raouf; Alayat, Moufida Saoucen; Bouiba, Lazhari; Boudrissa, Abdelkarim; Bouslama, Zihad; Boukraa, Slimane; Francis, Frederic; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Boubidi, Saïd Chaouki

    2016-08-17

    We investigated the ecological differentiation of two members of the Culex pipiens complex, Cx. p. pipiens form pipiens and Cx. p. pipiens form molestus in three sites, El-Kala, M'Sila and Tinerkouk in Algeria. These two forms are the most widespread mosquito vectors in temperate regions exhibiting important behavioural and physiological differences. Nevertheless, this group of potential vectors has been poorly studied, particularly in North Africa. Ten larval populations of Cx. p. pipiens were sampled from various above- and underground habitats in three zones representing the three bioclimatic regions in Algeria. The reproduction characteristics were also investigated in the laboratory to define the rates of autogeny and stenogamy. Identification of Cx. p. pipiens members present in Algeria was achieved using a molecular analysis with the microsatellite CQ11 locus. We detected larvae of Cx. p. pipiens in all areas suggesting that the species is a ubiquitous mosquito well adapted to various environments. To our knowledge, this study provides the first molecular evidence of the presence of the Cx. p. pipiens form molestus and hybrids (molestus/pipiens) in Algeria with a high proportion of molestus form (48.3 %) in comparison with hybrids (36.8 %) and pipiens form (14.9 %). Some unexpected correlations between the proportion of forms pipiens, molestus and hybrids, and mosquito biological characteristics were observed suggesting some epigenetic effects controlling Cx. p. pipiens mating and reproduction. Consequences for pathogen transmission are discussed.

  14. Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Tariq A; Abuelzein, El-Tayeb M E; Al-Bar, Hussein M S; Azhar, Esam I; Kao, Moujahed; Alshoeb, Haj O; Bamoosa, Alabd R

    2013-03-14

    Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. From 15-17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7 days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12 months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24 years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al-Mukalla. It is important to use both IgM and NS1-antigen

  15. Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. Methods From 15–17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7 days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12 months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Results Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24 years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. Conclusions DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al

  16. Performance assessment of smallholder irrigation in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, van G.E.; Lencha, B.K.; Assefa, M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in smallholder irrigation schemes in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia has been associated with the overexploitation of water resources, while the economic viability of these schemes has been questioned. This paper assesses water use efficiencies of the Haleku Irrigation Scheme

  17. Exploring co-investments in sustainable land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Kessler, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2013-01-01

    In Ethiopia, not only farmers but also the public and private sector partners are still hesitant to invest in sustainable land management (SLM). This study focuses on the Central Rift Valley and explores the potential for co-investments in SLM, where public and private sector partners support

  18. Yield gaps and resource use across farming zones in the central rift valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getnet, Mezegebu; Ittersum, van Martin; Hengsdijk, Huib; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, low productive cereal systems and a declining resource base call for options to increase crop productivity and improve resource use efficiency to meet the growing demand of food. We compiled and analysed a large amount of data from farmers’ fields

  19. Analysis of Adoption Spell of Hybrid Maize in the Central Rift Valley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper estimates farm household level determinants of the speed of adoption of hybrid maize in the central rift valley of Ethiopia in the framework of the dynamic time on cross-sectional data. Descriptive statistics and duration model were used to study the objectives of the study. The results from descriptive analysis ...

  20. A VARIA T OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical picture produced in mice. When inoculated .... have very pale mottled livers and the clinical picture in the ... unlikely to prove positive, attention was directed towards ..... selective intraperitoneal passage of liver or blood a viscero-.

  1. Rift Valley Fever in Camels in Northern Burkina Faso | Boussini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recommendations for systematic RVF investigation in camels and others domestic ruminants were made in order to improve the animal productivity. Habitual consumption of raw milk and close contact with infected animals signify possible zoonotic importance of RVF in the studied area. A risk assessment of the disease ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Outbreak of Rift Valley fever affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and veterinarians are at an increased risk of infection.4,6-8 No human- to-human transmission has been ... Outbreak Response Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) of the National Health .... Notification & initial interviews.

  3. Response to Rift Valley Fever in Tanzania: Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cattle, sheep, goats and camels), wildlife and humans caused by Phlebovirus. The disease occurs in periodic cycles of 4-15 years associated with flooding from unusually high precipitations in many flood-prone habitats. Aedes and Culex spp and ...

  4. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important entomological features for the identification of potential high risk areas for RVF occurrence, which can provide guidance in the design of appropriate prevention and control measures. The findings of this study have shown that the abundance and diversity of potential. RVF mosquito vectors vary between the study ...

  5. New foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, D K; Okelo, G B; Ndegwa, C W; Ashford, R W

    1993-01-01

    Active case detection and investigations of sandfly resting places in suspected transmission sites of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley resulted in the identification of several foci of the disease in Samburu, Isiolo, Laikipia, Nakuru and Nyandarua districts. The foci occurred in areas ranging from semi-arid lowlands at 400 m altitude to highland plateaux at 2500 m, including the floor of the Rift Valley, and were mostly inhabited by recently settled communities, nomads and migrant charcoal burners. Four species of Phlebotomus, 3 of the subgenus Larroussius (P. pedifer, P. aculeatus and P. guggisbergi) and one Paraphlebotomus (P. saevus) were collected from caves, rock crevices and tree hollows found in river valleys and in lava flows.

  6. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  7. Sediment budget and tectonic evolution of the Meuse catchment in the Ardennes and the Roer Valley Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, R.T. van; Houtgast, R.F.; Wateren, F.M. van der; Berghe, J. van den; Bogaart, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Meuse river system is located in the northeastern part of the Paris Basin, the Ardennes, and the Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS). The Meuse river system developed during the uplift of the Ardennes since the Eocene and it was affected by renewed rifting of the RVRS starting in the Late Oligocene.

  8. Sediment budget and tectonic evolution of the Meuse catchment in the Ardennes and the Roer Valley Rift System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balen, R.T.; Houtgast, R.F.; van der Wateren, F.M.; Vandenberghe, J.; Bogaart, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Meuse river system is located in the northeastern part of the Paris Basin, the Ardennes, and the Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS). The Meuse river system developed during the uplift of the Ardennes since the Eocene and it was affected by renewed rifting of the RVRS starting in the Late Oligocene.

  9. Sequential Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania in 2006-2007 Associated with Multiple Lineages of the Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routine testing for Campylobacter spp. in the food chain is primarily directed toward detection of C. jejuni and C. coli, thus the presence of novel Campylobacter spp., and their relative contribution to human illness, is not well understood. A survey to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp....

  10. Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    34, 35). A single study found abortions in sheep vaccinated during the first trimes- ter of pregnancy ; however, these sheep were housed outside under...Systems, Davis, CA)-47% Eagle’s minimal es- sential medium (EMEM)-2.5% FBS (Wisent, St-Bruno, QC, Canada)- 2.5% HEPES (25 mM final)-1% sodium

  11. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon measurement technique in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Al-Ali, M.A.; Al-Hilall, M.

    1999-07-01

    Radon concentrations in groundwater were measured from six monitoring stations that were distributed along the Syrian rift valley, with time intervals of one month over a span of more than six years from 1992 to 1998. This set of data was integrated and statistically handled in order to be used as a significant base for estimating the range of natural radon background variations in groundwater along the concerned zone. The results reveal that only few anomalous radon values were recorded during the given time-window, which might be caused by tectonic disturbances or otherwise in the study region. (author)

  12. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Large mammals from the Upper Neopleistocene reference sections in the Tunka rift valley, southwestern Baikal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchetnikov, A. A.; Klementiev, A. M.; Filinov, I. A.; Semeney, E. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the data on new finds of fossil macrotheriofauna in the reference sections of the Upper Neopleistocene sediments in the Tunka rift valley (southwestern Baikal Region). The osteological material of a number of Late Neopleistocene mammals including extinct species rare for the Baikal region such as Crocuta spelaea, Panthera spelaea, and Spirocerus kiakhtensis (?) was directly dated with a radiocarbon (AMS) method. The obtained 14C data (18000-35000 years) allow one to rejuvenate significantly the upper limit of the common age interval of habitat of these animals in southern part of Eastern Siberia. Cave hyena and spiral-horned antelope lived in the Tunka rift valley in the Baikal region in Late Kargino time (37-24 ka), and cave lion survived the maximum in the Sartan cryochron in the region (21-20 ka). The study of collected paleontological collections provides a basis for selection of independent Kargino (MIS 3) faunal assemblages to use them for regional biostratigraphic analysis of Pleistocene deposits. Radiocarbon age dating of samples allows one to attribute confidently all paleofaunal remains available to the second half of the Late Pleistocene.

  14. Relating coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) incidence to soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, E J; Bell, J E; Benedict, K; Shriber, J; McCotter, O; Cosh, M H

    2017-04-17

    Coccidioidomycosis (also called Valley fever) is caused by a soilborne fungus, Coccidioides spp. , in arid regions of the southwestern United States. Though some who develop infections from this fungus remain asymptomatic, others develop respiratory disease as a consequence. Less commonly, severe illness and death can occur when the infection spreads to other regions of the body. Previous analyses have attempted to connect the incidence of coccidioidomycosis to broadly available climatic measurements, such as precipitation or temperature. However, with the limited availability of long-term, in situ soil moisture data sets, it has not been feasible to perform a direct analysis of the relationships between soil moisture levels and coccidioidomycosis incidence on a larger temporal and spatial scale. Utilizing in situ soil moisture gauges throughout the southwest from the U.S. Climate Reference Network and a model with which to extend those estimates, this work connects periods of higher and lower soil moisture in Arizona and California between 2002 and 2014 to the reported incidence of coccidioidomycosis. The results indicate that in both states, coccidioidomycosis incidence is related to soil moisture levels from previous summers and falls. Stated differently, a higher number of coccidioidomycosis cases are likely to be reported if previous bands of months have been atypically wet or dry, depending on the location.

  15. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  16. Assessment and recommendations for two sites with active and potential aquaculture production in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya has a long history of local fish consumption. The population in the Lake Victoria area (Rift Valley Province) Northwest of Nairobi and coastal communities (Coast Province) have historically included fish in their diet. Migration from villages to urban areas and increasing commerce has created ...

  17. Crop intensification options and trade-offs with the water balance in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debas, Mezegebu

    2016-01-01

    The Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia is a closed basin for which claims on land and water have strongly increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation of the resources. A clear symptom is the declining trend in the water level of the terminal Lake Abyata. The actual

  18. Neotectonics of the Roer Valley rift system; style and rate of crustal deformation inferred from syn-tectonic sedimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.W.

    1995-01-01

    River sediments of the Meuse, Rhine and local Belgian systems have been preserved in various parts of the Roer Valley rift. Age-altitude positions of Meuse terraces provide a detailed record of neotectonic regional uplift. It shows accelerations and decelerations superimposed on a long-term average

  19. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  20. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. There is neither a vaccine nor treatment available for ASF control. Twenty two African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotypes (I - XXII) have been identified based on partial sequencing ...

  1. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  2. STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF FEVER WITH INFLUENZAL VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Elisha; Huang, Wei Cheng

    1958-01-01

    A substance with pyrogenic properties appears in the blood streams of rabbits made febrile by the intravenous inoculation of the PR8 strain of influenza A and Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). By means of a technique involving passive transfer of sera from animals given virus to recipient rabbits, the titer of circulating pyrogen was found to be closely correlated with the course of fever produced by virus. Certain properties of the pyrogen are described which differentiate it from the originally injected virus and suggest that the induced pyrogen is of endogenous origin. These properties resemble those of endogenous pyrogens occurring in other forms of experimental fever. The source of virus-induced pyrogen is unknown. In vitro incubation of virus with various constituents of the circulation did not result in the appearance of endogenous pyrogen. Granulocytopenia induced by HN2 failed to influence either fever or the production of endogenous pyrogen in rabbits injected with NDV. Similarly, the intraperitoneal inoculation of NDV into prepared exudates did not modify the febrile response. These findings do not lend support to the possibility that the polymorphonuclear leukocyte is a significant source of endogenous pyrogen in virus-induced fever. It is concluded that the liberation of an endogenous pyrogen from some as yet undefined source is an essential step in the pathogenesis of fever caused by the influenza group of viruses. PMID:13513908

  3. African Swine Fever Virus Biology and Vaccine Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Yolanda; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Richt, Juergen A

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries. The causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that enters the cell by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-dependent mechanism. African Swine Fever Virus is able to interfere with various cellular signaling pathways resulting in immunomodulation, thus making the development of an efficacious vaccine very challenging. Inactivated preparations of African Swine Fever Virus do not confer protection, and the role of antibodies in protection remains unclear. The use of live-attenuated vaccines, although rendering suitable levels of protection, presents difficulties due to safety and side effects in the vaccinated animals. Several African Swine Fever Virus proteins have been reported to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized pigs, and vaccination strategies based on DNA vaccines and recombinant proteins have also been explored, however, without being very successful. The complexity of the virus particle and the ability of the virus to modulate host immune responses are most likely the reason for this failure. Furthermore, no permanent cell lines able to sustain productive virus infection by both virulent and naturally attenuated African Swine Fever Virus strains exist so far, thus impairing basic research and the commercial production of attenuated vaccine candidates. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection panel for identification of twelve hemorrhagic viruses using real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfr, M; Neubauerová, V; Pajer, P; Kubíčková, P; Růžek, D

    2014-09-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are caused by viruses from four viral families and develop diseases with high fatality rates. However, no commercial diagnostic assay for these pathogens is available. We developed real-time RT-PCR assays for viruses Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Guanarito, Machupo, Junin, Sabiá, Seoul, Puumala, Hantaan, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Rift Valley fever virus. The assays were optimized for identical reaction conditions and can be performed using several types of real-time PCR instruments, both capillary and plate, including a portable Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device (R.A.P.I.D.) (Idaho Technology, Inc.). In combination with primers and probes from previously published studies, we present a simple system for rapid identification of hemorrhagic filoviruses, arenaviruses and bunyaviruses with sufficient sensitivity for first contact laboratory and diagnosis under field conditions.

  5. Simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies associated with viral hemorrhagic fever by a multiplexed Luminex-based immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Qu, Jing; Zhang, Quanfu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jiandong; Jin, Cong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Dexin

    2014-07-17

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are worldwide diseases caused by several kinds of viruses. With the emergence of new viruses, advanced diagnostic methods are urgently needed for identification of VHFs. Based on Luminex xMAP technology, a rapid, sensitive, multi-pathogen and high-throughput method which could simultaneously detect hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) specific IgG antibodies was developed. Recombinant antigens of nine HFVs including Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), Puumala virus (PUUV), Andes virus (ANDV), Sin Nombre virus (SNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) and dengue virus (DENV) were produced and purified from a prokaryotic expression system and the influence of the coupling amount was investigated. Cross-reactions among antigens and their rabbit immune sera were evaluated. Serum samples collected from 51 laboratory confirmed hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) patients, 43 confirmed SFTS patients and 88 healthy donors were analyzed. Results showed that recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the five viruses belonging to the genus Hantavirus, had serological cross-reactivity with their corresponding rabbit immune sera, but not apparent with immune sera of other four viruses. Evaluation of this new method with clinical serum samples showed 98.04% diagnostic sensitivity for HFRS, 90.70% for SFTS detection and the specificity was ranging from 66.67% to 100.00%. The multiplexed Luminex-based immunoassay has firstly been established in our study, which provides a potentially reliable diagnostic tool for IgG antibody detection of VHFs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. REE partitioning between apatite and melt in a peralkaline volcanic suite, Kenya Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R.; Baginski, B.; Belkin, H.E.; Dzierzanowski, P.; Jezak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses are presented for fluorapatite phenocrysts from a benmoreite-peralkaline rhyolite volcanic suite from the Kenya Rift Valley. The rocks have previously been well characterized petrographically and their crystallization conditions are reasonably well known. The REE contents in the M site increase towards the rhyolites, with a maximum britholite component of ~35 mol.%. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are rather flat between La and Sm and then decrease towards Yb. Sodium and Fe occupy up to 1% and 4%, respectively, of the M site. The major coupled substitution is REE3+ + Si4+ ??? Ca2+ + P5+. The substitution REE3+ + Na+ ??? 2Ca2+ has been of minor importance. The relatively large Fe contents were perhaps facilitated by the low fo2 conditions of crystallization. Zoning is ubiquitous and resulted from both fractional crystallization and magma mixing. Apatites in some rhyolites are relatively Y-depleted, perhaps reflecting crystallization from melts which had precipitated zircon. Mineral/glass (melt) ratios for two rhyolites are unusually high, with maxima at Sm (762, 1123). ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  7. Morphometric Change Detection of Lake Hawassa in the Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonas Abebe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes have been subjected to environmental and ecological changes due to recent development endeavors and natural phenomena, which are visible in the alterations to the quality and quantity of the water resources. Monitoring lakes for temporal and spatial alterations has become a valuable indicator of environmental change. In this regard, hydrographic information has a paramount importance. The first extensive hydrographic survey of Lake Hawassa was conducted in 1999. In this study, a bathymetric map was prepared using advances in global positioning systems, portable sonar sounder technology, geostatistics, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS software analysis tools with the aim of detecting morphometric changes. Results showed that the surface area of Lake Hawassa increased by 7.5% in 1999 and 3.2% in 2011 from that of 1985. Water volume decreased by 17% between 1999 and 2011. Silt accumulated over more than 50% of the bed surface has caused a 4% loss of the lake’s storage capacity. The sedimentation patterns identified may have been strongly impacted by anthropogenic activities including urbanization and farming practices located on the northern, eastern and western sides of the lake watershed. The study demonstrated this geostatistical modeling approach to be a rapid and cost-effective method for bathymetric mapping.

  8. Driving force of organic fertilizer use in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: Independent double hurdle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terefe Aemro T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the important factors that influence both adoption and level of use of organic fertilizer among smallholder farmers in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using a primary data collected from 161 sample respondents. An independent double hurdle model was used to address the objectives of the study on the assumption that adoption and level of organic fertilizer use by are two independent decisions influenced by different factors. Empirical estimates of the first hurdle reveals that literacy status of the head, livestock holding, frequency of extension contact, distance to market and slope of the plot are statistically significant decision variables that affect the probability of adopting organic fertilizer. Meanwhile, estimates of the second hurdle revealed that, the extent of use of organic fertilizer was determined by livestock holding, access to credit distance to the market and slope of plot. This indicates that factors that affect adoption are not necessarily the same as those that influence intensity. Therefore, it is important to consider both stages in evaluating strategies aimed at promoting the adoption and use of organic fertilizer.

  9. Functional analysis of replication determinantsin classical swine fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne

    and animal pathogens should facilitate finding new approaches for efficient disease control. The principal aim of this thesis is to characterise determinants involved in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Classical swine fever is a highly contagious virus disease of domestic pigs and wild...... in cell culture. Knowledge of these sequence variations and putative long-range interactions will provide valuable insights into mechanisms underlying virustranslation and replication. In manuscript 3, a selection marker has been inserted into a CSFV-based replicon making it suitable for screening...

  10. Arthropod-borne viral infections associated with a fever outbreak in the northern province of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D M; el-Tigani, A; Botros, B A; Salib, A W; Olson, J G; McCarthy, M; Ksiazek, T G

    1994-08-01

    An outbreak of acute febrile illness occurred during August and September 1989 in the Northern Province of Sudan coinciding with a high population density of phlebotomine sandflies. An investigation was conducted to determine whether arboviruses were associated with human illness during this outbreak. Sera were obtained from 185 febrile individuals and tested for IgG and IgM antibody to selected arboviruses by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The prevalence of IgG antibody was 59% for West Nile (WN), 53% for Sandfly Fever Sicilian (SFS), 32% for Sandfly Fever Naples (SFN), 39% for Yellow Fever (YF), 24% for dengue-2 (DEN-2), 23% for Rift Valley Fever (RVF), 12% for Chikungunya (CHIK) and 5% for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) viruses. Antibody prevalences tended to increase with age for WN and YF viruses. Antibody rates were about the same for males and females for most of the viruses tested. The prevalence of IgM antibody to SFN was 24% and reciprocal IgM titre exceeded 12,800 for some individuals suggesting that this virus was the cause of recent infection. The prevalence of IgM antibody for the other viruses did not exceed 5%. The study indicated that several arboviruses were endemic and some of them may have caused human disease in the Northern Province of Sudan.

  11. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, cDNAs corresponding to the wild type (wt) or mutant forms of the IRES of CSFV strain Paderborn were...... in vitro and electroporated into porcine PK15 cells. Rescued mutant viruses were obtained from RNAs that contained mutations within domain IIIf which retained more than 75% of wt translation efficiency. Sequencing of cDNA generated from these rescued viruses verified the maintenance of the introduced...... changes within the IRES. The growth characteristics of each rescued mutant virus were compared to that of the wt virus. It was shown that viable mutant viruses with reduced translation initiation efficiency can be designed and generated and that viruses containing mutations within domain IIIf of the IRES...

  12. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Bulgaria and Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mertens, M.; Schuster, I.; Sas, M. A.; Vatansever, Z.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Güven, E.; Deniz, A.; Georgiev, G.; Peshev, R.; Groschup, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 9 (2016), s. 619-623 ISSN 1530-3667 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: CCHFV * domestic animals * ELISA * epidemiology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  13. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  14. Development of a broad-spectrum antiviral with activity against Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, M Javad; Kinch, Michael S; Warfield, Kelly; Warren, Travis; Yunus, Abdul; Enterlein, Sven; Stavale, Eric; Wang, Peifang; Chang, Shaojing; Tang, Qingsong; Porter, Kevin; Goldblatt, Michael; Bavari, Sina

    2009-09-01

    We report herein the identification of a small molecule therapeutic, FGI-106, which displays potent and broad-spectrum inhibition of lethal viral hemorrhagic fevers pathogens, including Ebola, Rift Valley and Dengue Fever viruses, in cell-based assays. Using mouse models of Ebola virus, we further demonstrate that FGI-106 can protect animals from an otherwise lethal infection when used either in a prophylactic or therapeutic setting. A single treatment, administered 1 day after infection, is sufficient to protect animals from lethal Ebola virus challenge. Cell-based assays also identified inhibitory activity against divergent virus families, which supports a hypothesis that FGI-106 interferes with a common pathway utilized by different viruses. These findings suggest FGI-106 may provide an opportunity for targeting viral diseases.

  15. Ethiopian Central Rift Valley basin hydrologic modelling using HEC-HMS and ArcSWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Ferrer, Jordi; Candela, Lucila; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí

    2013-04-01

    An Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) shall be applied to achieve a sustainable development, to increase population incomes without affecting lives of those who are highly dependent on the environment. First step should be to understand water dynamics at basin level, starting by modeling the basin water resources. For model implementation, a large number of data and parameters are required, but those are not always available, especially in some developing countries where different sources may have different data, there is lack of information on data collection, etc. The Ethiopian Central Rift Valley (CRV) is an endorheic basin covering an area of approximately 10,000 km2. For the period 1996-2005, the average annual volume of rainfall accounted for 9.1 Mm3, and evapotranspiration for 8 Mm3 (Jansen et al., 2007). From the environmental point of view, basin ecosystems are endangered due to human activities. Also, poverty is widespread all over the basin, with population mainly living from agriculture on a subsistence economy. Hence, there is an urgent need to set an IWRM, but datasets required for water dynamics simulation are not too reliable. In order to reduce uncertainty of numerical simulation, two semi-distributed open software hydrologic models were implemented: HEC-HMS and ArcSWAT. HEC-HMS was developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACoE) Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) to run precipitation-runoff simulations for a variety of applications in dendritic watershed systems. ArcSWAT includes the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, Arnold et al., 1998) model developed for the USDA Agricultural Research Service into ArcGIS (ESRI®). SWAT was developed to assess the impact of land management practices on large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time (Neitsch et al., 2005). According to this, ArcSWAT would be the best option for IWRM implementation in the basin. However

  16. Correlation among fluoride and metals in irrigation water and soils of Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gizaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were determined by fluoride ion selective electrode and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The pH, conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solids in water and soil samples were also determined. Accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated using standard addition (spiking method and an acceptable percentage recovery was obtained. The fluoride concentrations in water samples were found in the range of 0.14-8.0 mg/L which is below the WHO limit of fluoride concentration for irrigation (less than 10 mg/L. The water soluble and total fluorides in soil were 2.3-16 µg/g and 209-1210 µg/g, respectively and are within the ranges recommended by FAO and WHO. The range of metal concentration in soil samples (µg/g dry weight basis and in water samples (mg/L respectively were: Na (684-6703, 8.6-67, Mg (1608-11229, 23-67, K (1776-4394, 1.1-20, Ca (7547-22998, 17-267, Cr (9.8-79, 0.07-0.17, Mn (143-700, 0.05-37, Co (50-112, 0.35-1.5, Ni (446-1288, 0.27-41, Fe (12180-32681, 6.0-48, Cu (8.9-45, 0.09-0.25 and Zn (31-89, 0.14-0.56. Fluoride was found to have significant correlation with major trace metals (Fe, Cu and Cr, but the correlation with other trace metals was not significant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i2.7

  17. Maize Response to Fertilizer Dosing at Three Sites in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Sime

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the agronomic response, efficiency and profitability of fertilizer microdosing in maize. An experiment with the following treatments was conducted: control without fertilizer, microdosing treatments, with the rate of 27 + 27, 53 + 53 and 80 + 80 kg ha−1, and banding of fertilizer with 100 + 100 kg ha−1 of di ammonium phosphate (DAP + urea, applied at planting and jointing, respectively. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The experiment was conducted during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 cropping seasons at Ziway, Melkassa and Hawassa in the semiarid central rift valley region of Ethiopia. Compared to the control, the fertilizer treatments had higher yield and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE profitably. The 27 + 27 kg ha−1 fertilizer rate increased the grain yield by 19, 45 and 46% at Hawassa, Ziway and Melkassa, respectively, and it was equivalent to the higher rates. The value cost ratio (VCR was highest with the lowest fertilizer rate, varying between seven and 11 in the treatment with 27 + 27 kg ha−1, but two and three in the banding treatment. Similarly, FUE was highest with the lowest fertilizer rate, varying between 23 and 34 kg kg−1 but 7 and 8 kg kg−1 in the banding treatment. The improved yield, FUE, VCR and gross margin in maize with microdosing at the 27 + 27 kg ha−1 of DAP + urea rate makes it low cost, low risk, high yielding and profitable. Therefore, application of this particular rate in maize may be an option for the marginal farmers in the region with similar socioeconomic and agroecological conditions.

  18. Land Use-Land Cover dynamics of Huluka watershed, Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Gebreslassie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land Use-Land Cover (LULC dynamic has of human kind age and is one of the phenomenons which interweave the socio economic and environmental issues in Ethiopia. Huluka watershed is one of the watersheds in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia which drains to Lake Langano. Few decades ago the stated watershed was covered with dense acacia forest. But, nowadays like other part of Ethiopia, it is experiencing complex dynamics of LULC. The aim of this research was thus to evaluate the LULC dynamics seen in between 1973–2009. This was achieved through collecting qualitative and quantitative data using Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS technique. Field observations, discussion with elders were also employed to validate results from remotely sensed data. Based on the result, eight major dynamic LULC classes were identified from the watershed. Of these LULC classes, only cultivated and open lands had shown continuous and progressive expansion mainly at the expense of grass, shrub and forest lands. The 25% and 0% of cultivated and open land of the watershed in 1973 expanded to 84% and 4% in 2009 respectively while the 29%, 18% and 22% of grass, shrub and forest land of the watershed in 1973 degraded to 3.5%, 4% and 1.5% in 2009 respectively. As a result, land units which had been used for pastoralist before 1973 were identified under mixed agricultural system after 2000. In the end, this study came with a recommendation of an intervention of concerned body to stop the rapid degradation of vegetation on the watershed.

  19. Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L.M.; Osano, O.; Hecky, R.E.; Dixon, D.G

    2003-09-01

    Mercury concentrations in Kenyan fish vary with tropic position but, in general, do not pose an unacceptable risk to human consumers of wildlife. -Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g{sup -1} wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g{sup -1}. The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g{sup -1}. In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g{sup -1}), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g{sup -1}, THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g{sup -1} for at-risk groups.

  20. Seismic imaging of the metamorphism of young sediment into new crystalline crust in the actively rifting Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Hole, John; Stock, Joann; Fuis, Gary S.; Williams, Colin F.; Delph, Jonathan; Davenport, Kathy; Livers, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Plate-boundary rifting between transform faults is opening the Imperial Valley of southern California and the rift is rapidly filling with sediment from the Colorado River. Three 65–90 km long seismic refraction profiles across and along the valley, acquired as part of the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project, were analyzed to constrain upper crustal structure and the transition from sediment to underlying crystalline rock. Both first arrival travel-time tomography and frequency-domain full-waveform inversion were applied to provide P-wave velocity models down to ∼7 km depth. The valley margins are fault-bounded, beyond which thinner sediment has been deposited on preexisting crystalline rocks. Within the central basin, seismic velocity increases continuously from ∼1.8 km/s sediment at the surface to >6 km/s crystalline rock with no sharp discontinuity. Borehole data show young sediment is progressively metamorphosed into crystalline rock. The seismic velocity gradient with depth decreases approximately at the 4 km/s contour, which coincides with changes in the porosity and density gradient in borehole core samples. This change occurs at ∼3 km depth in most of the valley, but at only ∼1.5 km depth in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We interpret progressive metamorphism caused by high heat flow to be creating new crystalline crust throughout the valley at a rate comparable to the ≥2 km/Myr sedimentation rate. The newly formed crystalline crust extends to at least 7–8 km depth, and it is shallower and faster where heat flow is higher. Most of the active seismicity occurs within this new crust.

  1. Seismic imaging of the metamorphism of young sediment into new crystalline crust in the actively rifting Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Hole, John A.; Stock, Joann M.; Fuis, Gary S.; Williams, Colin F.; Delph, Jonathan R.; Davenport, Kathy K.; Livers, Amanda J.

    2016-11-01

    Plate-boundary rifting between transform faults is opening the Imperial Valley of southern California and the rift is rapidly filling with sediment from the Colorado River. Three 65-90 km long seismic refraction profiles across and along the valley, acquired as part of the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project, were analyzed to constrain upper crustal structure and the transition from sediment to underlying crystalline rock. Both first arrival travel-time tomography and frequency-domain full-waveform inversion were applied to provide P-wave velocity models down to ˜7 km depth. The valley margins are fault-bounded, beyond which thinner sediment has been deposited on preexisting crystalline rocks. Within the central basin, seismic velocity increases continuously from ˜1.8 km/s sediment at the surface to >6 km/s crystalline rock with no sharp discontinuity. Borehole data show young sediment is progressively metamorphosed into crystalline rock. The seismic velocity gradient with depth decreases approximately at the 4 km/s contour, which coincides with changes in the porosity and density gradient in borehole core samples. This change occurs at ˜3 km depth in most of the valley, but at only ˜1.5 km depth in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We interpret progressive metamorphism caused by high heat flow to be creating new crystalline crust throughout the valley at a rate comparable to the ≥2 km/Myr sedimentation rate. The newly formed crystalline crust extends to at least 7-8 km depth, and it is shallower and faster where heat flow is higher. Most of the active seismicity occurs within this new crust.

  2. Development and preliminary evaluation of a multiplexed amplification and next generation sequencing method for viral hemorrhagic fever diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Brinkmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development and evaluation of a novel method for targeted amplification and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS-based identification of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF agents and assess the feasibility of this approach in diagnostics.An ultrahigh-multiplex panel was designed with primers to amplify all known variants of VHF-associated viruses and relevant controls. The performance of the panel was evaluated via serially quantified nucleic acids from Yellow fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF virus, Ebola virus, Junin virus and Chikungunya virus in a semiconductor-based sequencing platform. A comparison of direct NGS and targeted amplification-NGS was performed. The panel was further tested via a real-time nanopore sequencing-based platform, using clinical specimens from CCHF patients.The multiplex primer panel comprises two pools of 285 and 256 primer pairs for the identification of 46 virus species causing hemorrhagic fevers, encompassing 6,130 genetic variants of the strains involved. In silico validation revealed that the panel detected over 97% of all known genetic variants of the targeted virus species. High levels of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the tested virus strains. Targeted amplification ensured viral read detection in specimens with the lowest virus concentration (1-10 genome equivalents and enabled significant increases in specific reads over background for all viruses investigated. In clinical specimens, the panel enabled detection of the causative agent and its characterization within 10 minutes of sequencing, with sample-to-result time of less than 3.5 hours.Virus enrichment via targeted amplification followed by NGS is an applicable strategy for the diagnosis of VHFs which can be adapted for high-throughput or nanopore sequencing platforms and employed for surveillance or outbreak monitoring.

  3. Development and preliminary evaluation of a multiplexed amplification and next generation sequencing method for viral hemorrhagic fever diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Annika; Ergünay, Koray; Radonić, Aleksandar; Kocak Tufan, Zeliha; Domingo, Cristina; Nitsche, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a novel method for targeted amplification and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based identification of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) agents and assess the feasibility of this approach in diagnostics. An ultrahigh-multiplex panel was designed with primers to amplify all known variants of VHF-associated viruses and relevant controls. The performance of the panel was evaluated via serially quantified nucleic acids from Yellow fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus, Ebola virus, Junin virus and Chikungunya virus in a semiconductor-based sequencing platform. A comparison of direct NGS and targeted amplification-NGS was performed. The panel was further tested via a real-time nanopore sequencing-based platform, using clinical specimens from CCHF patients. The multiplex primer panel comprises two pools of 285 and 256 primer pairs for the identification of 46 virus species causing hemorrhagic fevers, encompassing 6,130 genetic variants of the strains involved. In silico validation revealed that the panel detected over 97% of all known genetic variants of the targeted virus species. High levels of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the tested virus strains. Targeted amplification ensured viral read detection in specimens with the lowest virus concentration (1-10 genome equivalents) and enabled significant increases in specific reads over background for all viruses investigated. In clinical specimens, the panel enabled detection of the causative agent and its characterization within 10 minutes of sequencing, with sample-to-result time of less than 3.5 hours. Virus enrichment via targeted amplification followed by NGS is an applicable strategy for the diagnosis of VHFs which can be adapted for high-throughput or nanopore sequencing platforms and employed for surveillance or outbreak monitoring.

  4. [Microbiological surveillance: viral hemorrhagic fever in Central African Republic: current serological data in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakounné, E; Selekon, B; Morvan, J

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted between 1994 and 1997 in forested areas of the Central African Republic (CAR) to determine the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against several haemorrhagic fever viruses present in the region. Sera were obtained from 1762 individuals in two groups (Pygmy and Bantu locuted populations) living in 4 forested areas in the south of the country. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against Ebola, Marburg, Rift Valley fever (RVF), Yellow fever (YF) and Hantaviruses by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and against Lassa virus by immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of IgG antibodies was 5.9% for Ebola, 2% for Marburg, 6.9% pour RVF, 6.5% for YF, 2% for Hantaan. No antibodies were detected against Lassa, Seoul, Puumala and Thottapalayam viruses. No IgM antibodies were detected against RVF and YF viruses. The distribution of antibodies appears to be related to tropical rain forest areas. This study indicates that several haemorrhagic fever viruses are endemic in forested areas of the CAR and could emerge due to environmental modification.

  5. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  6. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should

  7. 3D Coupled Thermal-Hydraulic Model of the Lower Yarmouk Gorge, Jordan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, M.; Magri, F.; Inbar, N.; Möller, P.; Raggad, M.; Rödiger, T.; Rosenthal, E.; Shentsis, I.; Siebert, C.; Volpi, G.

    2017-12-01

    It is supposed that the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG), in the Jordan Rift Valley acts as the mixing zone of two crossing flow pathways: N-S from the Hermon Mountains and from the Ajlun Dome, and E-W from Jebel al Arab Mountain in Syria (also known as Huran Plateau or Yarmouk drainage basin). As a result, several springs can be found within the gorge. These are characterized by widespread temperatures (20 - 60 °C) which indicate that, beside the complex regional flow, also ascending thermal waters control the hydrologic behavior of the LYG. Previous simulations based on a conceptual simplified 3D model (Magri et al., 2016) showed that crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the gorge or in permeable aquifers below Maastrichtian aquiclude, and additional flow fields that are induced by the N-S topographic gradients. Here we present the first 3D hydrogeological model of the entire LYG that includes structural features based on actual logs and interpreted seismic lines from both Israeli and Jordanian territories. The model distinguishes seven units from upper Eocene to the Lower Triassic, accounting for major aquifers, aquicludes and deep-cutting faults. Recharges are implemented based on the numerical representation developed by Shentsis (1990) that considers relationships between mean annual rain and topographic elevation. The model reveals that topography-driven N-S and E-W flows strongly control the location of discharge areas while the anomalous spring temperature is not necessarily linked to the presence of fault convection. Local permeability anisotropy due to aquifers folding or facies changes are features sufficient for the rising of hot fluids. Shentsis, I., 1990. Mathematical models for long-term prediction of mountainous river runoff: methods, information and results, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 35:5, 487-500 Magri, F., Möller, S., Inbar, N., Möller, P., Raggad, M., R

  8. Hydro-meteorological trends in the Gidabo catchment of the Rift Valley Lakes Basin of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Mamuye; Abate, Brook; Tekleab, Sirak; Bewket, Woldeamlak

    2018-04-01

    The global and regional variability and changes of climate and stream flows are likely to have significant influence on water resource availability. The magnitude and impacts of climate variability and change differs spatially and temporally. This study examines the long term hydroclimatic changes, analyses of the hydro-climate variability and detect whether there exist significant trend or not in the Gidabo catchment, rift valley lakes basin of Ethiopia. Precipitation, temperature and stream flow time series data were used in monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. The precipitation and temperature data span is between 1982 and 2014 and that of stream flow is between 1976 and 2006. To detect trends the analysis were done by using Mann Kendal (MK), Sen's graphical method and to detect change point using the Pettit test. The comparison of trend analysis between MK trend test and Sen graphical method results depict mostly similar pattern. The annual rainfall trends exhibited a significant decrease by about 12 mm per year in the upstream, which is largely driven by the significant decrease in the peak season rainfall. The Pettit test revealed that the years 1997 and 2007 were the change points. It is noted that the rise of temperature over a catchment might have decreased the availability of soil moisture which resulted in less runoff. The temperature analyses also revealed that the catchment was getting warmer; particularly in the upstream. The minimum temperature trend showed a significant increase about 0.08°c per annum. There is generally a decreasing trend in stream flow. The monthly stream flow also exhibited a decreasing trend in February, March and September. The decline in annual and seasonal rainfall and the increase in temperature lead to more evaporation and directly affecting the stream flow negatively. This trend compounded with the growth of population and increasing demand for irrigation water exacerbates the competing demand for water resources. It

  9. Nuclear trafficking of proteins from RNA viruses: potential target for antivirals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caly, Leon; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Jans, David A

    2012-09-01

    A key aspect of the infectious cycle of many viruses is the transport of specific viral proteins into the host cell nucleus to perturb the antiviral response. Examples include a number of RNA viruses that are significant human pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, influenza A, dengue, respiratory syncytial virus and rabies, as well agents that predominantly infect livestock, such as Rift valley fever virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Inhibiting the nuclear trafficking of viral proteins as a therapeutic strategy offers an attractive possibility, with important recent progress having been made with respect to HIV-1 and dengue. The results validate nuclear protein import as an antiviral target, and suggest the identification and development of nuclear transport inhibitors as a viable therapeutic approach for a range of human and zoonotic pathogenic viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever viruses: update on filoviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, E; Baize, S; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-04-01

    The Ebola and Marburg viruses are the sole members of the Filoviridae family of viruses. They are characterized by a long filamentous form that is unique in the viral world. Filoviruses are among the most virulent pathogens currently known to infect humans. They cause fulminating disease characterized by acute fever followed by generalized hemorrhagic syndrome that is associated with 90% mortality in the most severe forms. Epidemic outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola viruses have taken a heavy toll on human life in Central Africa and devastated large ape populations in Gabon and Republic of Congo. Since their discovery in 1967 (Marburg) and 1976 (Ebola), more than 2,300 cases and 1,670 deaths have been reported. These numbers pale in comparison with the burden caused by malnutrition or other infectious disease scourges in Africa such as malaria, cholera, AIDS, dengue or tuberculosis. However, due to their extremely high lethality, association with multifocal hemorrhaging and specificity to the African continent, these hemorrhagic fever viruses have given rise to great interest on the part not only of the international scientific community but also of the general public because of their perceived potential as biological weapons. Much research has been performed on these viruses and major progress has been made in knowledge of their ecology, epidemiology and physiopathology and in development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic schemes. The purpose of this review is to present the main developments in these particular fields in the last decade.

  11. Farmers' Perceptions of Land Degradation and their Investments in Land Management: a Case Study in the Cental Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, A.; Yirga, C.

    2013-01-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers’ perceptions of land degradation and

  12. 3D hydrogeological model of the Lower Yarmouk Gorge, Jordan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Möller, Peter; Raggad, Marwan; Rödiger, Tino; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Shentsis, Izabela; Tzoufka, Kalliopi; Siebert, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG) lies on the eastern margin of the lower Jordan Rift Valley (JRV), bounded to the south by the Ajlun and to the north by the Golan Heights. It allows the outflow of the Yarmouk drainage basin and flow into the Jordan River, a few kilometers south of Lake Tiberias. The main aquifer system of the LYG is built mostly of Cretaceous sandstones and carbonates confined by Maastrichtian aquiclude. Fissures allow hydraulic connections between the major water-bearing formations from Quaternary to Upper Cretaceous age. It is supposed that the gorge acts as the mixing zone of two crossing flow pathways: N-S from the Hermon Mountains and from the Ajlun Dome, and E-W from Jebel al Arab Mountain in Syria (also known as Huran Plateau or Yarmouk drainage basin). As a result, several springs can be found within the gorge. These are characterized by widespread temperatures (20 - 60 °C) which indicate that, beside the complex regional flow, also ascending thermal waters control the hydrologic behavior of the LYG. Previous simulations based on a conceptual simplified 3D model (Magri et al., 2016) showed that crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the gorge or in permeable aquifers below Maastrichtian aquiclude, and additional flow fields that are induced by the N-S topographic gradients. Here we present the first 3D hydrogeological model of the entire LYG that includes structural features based on actual logs and interpreted seismic lines from both Israeli and Jordanian territories. The model distinguishes seven units from upper Eocene to the Lower Triassic, accounting for major aquifers, aquicludes and deep-cutting faults. Recharges are implemented based on the numerical representation developed by Shentsis (1990) that considers relationships between mean annual rain and topographic elevation. The model reveals that topography-driven N-S and E-W flows strongly control

  13. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham J.

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, the nucleotides 47 to 427, including the IRES region of the wt CSFV strain Paderborn, were amplified...... and inserted, under T7 promoter control, into mono- and dicistronic plasmids containing the reporter genes rLuc and fLuc. Mutant fragments of the IRES sequence were generated by overlap PCR and inserted into the reporter plasmids. To evaluate IRES functionality, translation of the rLUC was placed under...... viruses were obtained after one cell culture passage from constructs with more than 75 % translation efficiency compared to the wildtype IRES. cDNA was generated from these clones and sequenced to verify the maintenance of the changes in the IRES. These results show that full-length viable mutant viruses...

  14. New structural/tectonical model and its implication on hydrological thinking and groundwater management - the Lake Tiberias, Jordan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian; Guttman, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Lake Tiberias is a fresh water lake located at the Kinneret basin which is approximately 30 km long and 10 km wide. It comprises a link in the chain of pull-apart basins that characterizes the structure of the conspicuous Jordan Rift Valley (JRV). The basin surface is about 200 m below mean sea level (msl) and basin-fill attains a thickness of up to 8 km. Until recently, studies focused mainly on the upper strata of basin fill. Consequently, a complete three dimensional geological model, including clear view of the tectonic framework at the Kinneret Basin was incomplete. This situation imposes great difficulty in understanding the local hydrological system and as consequence enforce constrains on groundwater management of the regional aquifers that flows towards the lake. A recently proposed structural/tectonical model (Inbar, 2012) enables revaluation of several geohydrological aspects at Sea of Galilee and its surroundings and a new hydrological model based on those findings aims to clarify those aspects with relation to groundwater management. The deep-seated stratigraphical units were seismically studied at the Kinnarot Valley (southern part of Kinneret basin) where sufficient information is available (Inbar, 2012). This study shows the subsidence and northwestward tilting of the basin floor (pre-rift formations) and the flow of thick Late Miocene salt accumulation accordingly. Furthermore, shallower seismic data, collected at the lake itself, shows a suspected salt dome close to the western boundary fault of the basin (Resnikov et al., 2004). Salt flow is now suggested to be a substantial factor in the tectonic play. At the lake surroundings there are several springs and boreholes where brine immerges from an estimated depth of about 2-3 kilometers. Significant differences in brine characteristics raised questions regarding the location of brine traps, flow mechanism and the mixture process between the fresh water and the brine. However, the effect of the

  15. Molecular analysis of yellow fever virus 17DD vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Post

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation produces most of the yellow fever (YF vaccine prepared world wide. As part of a broader approach to determine the genetic variability in YF l7D seeds and vaccines and its relevance to viral attenuation the 17DD virus was purifed directly from chick embryo homogenates which is the source of virus used for vaccination of millions of people in Brazil and other countries for half a century. Neutralization and hemagglutination tests showed that the purified virus is similar to the original stock. Furthermore, radioimmune precipitation of 35S-methionine-labeled viral proteins using mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluid revealed identical patterns for the purified 17DD virus and the YF l7D-204 strain except for the 17DD E protein which migrated slower on SDS-PAGE. This difference is likely to be due to N-linked glycosylation. Finally, comparison by northern blot nybridization of virion RNAs of purified 17DD with two other strains of YF virus only fenome-sized molecules for all three viruses. These observations suggest that vaccine phenotype is primarily associated with the accumulation of mutations.

  16. What Does the Future Hold for Yellow Fever Virus? (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Klitting

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America has sparked renewed interest in this infamous arboviral disease. Yellow fever virus had been a human plague for centuries prior to the identification of its urban transmission vector, the Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus mosquito species, and the development of an efficient live-attenuated vaccine, the YF-17D strain. The combination of vector-control measures and vaccination campaigns drastically reduced YFV incidence in humans on many occasions, but the virus never ceased to circulate in the forest, through its sylvatic invertebrate vector(s and vertebrate host(s. Outbreaks recently reported in Central Africa (2015–2016 and Brazil (since late 2016, reached considerable proportions in terms of spatial distribution and total numbers of cases, with multiple exports, including to China. In turn, questions about the likeliness of occurrence of large urban YFV outbreaks in the Americas or of a successful import of YFV to Asia are currently resurfacing. This two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology and transmission dynamics of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at individual, local and global levels.

  17. TRAINING PROGRAM FOR NURSING STAFF REGARDING VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS IN A MILITARY HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Saleh, Halla Ahmed Abdullah; Abdelfattah, Magda Abdelhamid; Morsy, Tosson Aly

    2015-08-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) refer to a group of illnesses caused by several distinct families of viruses. In general, the term "viral hemorrhagic fever" is used to describe a severe multisystem syndrome (multisystem in that multiple organ systems in the bpdy are affected). Characteristically, the overall vascular system is damaged, and the body's ability to regulate itself is impaired. These symptoms are often accompanied by hemorrhage (bleeding); however, the bleeding is it rarely life-threatening. While some types of hemorrhagic fever viruses can cause relatively mild illnesses, many of these viruses cause severe, life-threatening disease. The selected disaster diseases for this study included: 1-Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic Fever, 2-Dengue Fever, 3-Ebola Fever, 4-Hem-orrhagic Fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), 5-Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, 6-Lassa Fever, 7-Marburg Fever, 8-Rift Valley Fever and 9-Yellow Fever. The educational training program was given over ten sessions to a group of Staff Nurses. The results showed that the program succeeded in enhancing nurse' knowledge, awareness, responsibility, and obligations toward patients with the Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers The results showed a significant impact of training sessions illuminated in the follow-up test on the knowledge score of nurses in all types of diseases except for the Congo hemorrhagic fever, while, statistical significance varied in some diseases in the study when it comes to the comparison between pretest and post-test. All results confirmed on the positive impact of the training program in enhancing the knowledge of nurses toward VHFs patients and their relevant. There was a significant positive impact of the training sessions on changing the attitude of nurses toward patients with VHFs. This result was confirmed on the collective level since the total scores on tests revealed significant positive impact of the study on changing the attitude of nurses toward relevant patients. The relationship

  18. Chimpanzee insectivory in the northern half of Uganda's Rift Valley: do Bulindi chimpanzees conform to a regional pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2014-04-01

    Insects are a nutritious food source for many primates. In chimpanzees, insectivory is most prevalent among communities that manufacture tools to harvest social insects, particularly ants and termites. In contrast to other long-term study sites, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest and Kibale National Park, Uganda, rarely eat insects and have small foraging tool kits, supporting speculation that infrequent insectivory--technically aided or otherwise--characterises chimpanzees in this part of Uganda's Rift Valley. To expand the dataset for this region, insect foraging was investigated at Bulindi (25 km from Budongo) over 19 months during two studies in 2007-2008 and 2012-2013. Systematic faecal analysis demonstrated that insectivory is a habitual foraging activity at this site. Overall levels of insect consumption varied considerably across months but were not predicted by monthly changes in rainfall or fruit intake. Unlike their Budongo and Kibale counterparts, Bulindi chimpanzees often consume ants (principally weaver ants, Oecophylla longinoda) and use sticks to dig out stingless bee (Meliponini) ground nests. In other respects, however, insectivory at Bulindi conforms to the pattern observed elsewhere in this region: they do not manufacture 'fishing' or 'dipping' tools to harvest termites and aggressive or hard-to-access ants (e.g., army ants, Dorylus spp.), despite availability of suitable prey. The Bulindi data lend support to the supposition that chimpanzees in this part of the Rift Valley rarely exploit termites and Dorylus ants, apparently lacking the 'cultural knowledge' that would enable them to do so most efficiently (i.e., tool use). The study's findings contribute to current debates about the relative influence of genetics, environment and culture in shaping regional and local variability in Pan foraging ecology.

  19. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Alkhurma (Alkhumra) Virus in Ticks in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Katherine C; Fahmy, Nermeen T; Watany, Noha; Zayed, Alia; Mohamed, Abro; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Rollin, Pierre E; Dueger, Erica L

    2016-10-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Alkhumra virus, not previously reported in Djibouti, were detected among 141 (infection rate = 15.7 per 100, 95% CI: 13.4-18.1) tick pools from 81 (37%) cattle and 2 (infection rate = 0.2 per 100, 95% CI: 0.0-0.7) tick pools from 2 (1%) cattle, respectively, collected at an abattoir in 2010 and 2011.

  20. Molecular Insights into Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zivcec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a tick-borne pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality. Efficacy of vaccines and antivirals to treat human CCHFV infections remains limited and controversial. Research into pathology and underlying molecular mechanisms of CCHFV and other nairoviruses is limited. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of CCHFV replication and pathogenesis in the past decade. Here we review the most recent molecular advances in CCHFV-related research, and provide perspectives on future research.

  1. Structural Features of the Seneca Valley Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) Element: a Picornavirus with a Pestivirus-Like IRES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcocks, Margaret M.; Locker, Nicolas; Gomwalk, Zarmwa

    2011-01-01

    The RNA genome of Seneca Valley virus (SVV), a recently identified picornavirus, contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element which has structural and functional similarity to that from classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and hepatitis C virus, members of the FLAVIVIRIDAE: The SVV IRES...... has an absolute requirement for the presence of a short region of virus-coding sequence to allow it to function either in cells or in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The IRES activity does not require the translation initiation factor eIF4A or intact eIF4G. The predicted secondary structure indicates...

  2. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil of dry areas like the southwestern U.S. You get it ... that expose them to soil dust. These include construction workers, agricultural workers, and military forces doing field ...

  3. Immunofluorescence Plaque Assay for African Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, J.; Hess, W. R.; Pan, I. C.; Trautman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Suitably diluted cell culture adapted African swine fever virus preparations were inoculated on VERO cell monolayers and grown on coverslips. Gum tragacanth was used as an overlay. After three days incubation at 37°C the infected cultures were fixed with acetone and stained with fluorescent antibody conjugate. Fluorescing plaques consisted of 20-30 infected cells. Three statistical criteria for a quantitatively reliable assay were met: the Poisson distribution for plaque counts, linearity of the relationship between the concentration of virus and the plaque count and reproducibility of replicate titrations. The method is suitable for counts up to at least 70 plaques per 5 cm2 coverslip and computed titers are reproducible within 0.16 log units with a total of 300 plaques enumerated. PMID:4279763

  4. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Zúquete, S.T.; Wijnveld, M.; Weesendorp, E.; Jongejan, F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  5. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Tudela Zúquete, Sara; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Jongejan, Frans; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  6. The phylogeny of yellow fever virus 17D vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nina K; Boschetti, Nicola; Herzog, Christian; Appelhans, Marc S; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    In recent years the safety of the yellow fever live vaccine 17D came under scrutiny. The focus was on serious adverse events after vaccinations that resemble a wild type infection with yellow fever and whose reasons are still not known. Also the exact mechanism of attenuation of the vaccine remains unknown to this day. In this context, the standards of safety and surveillance in vaccine production and administration have been discussed. Therein embodied was the demand for improved documentation of the derivation of the seed virus used for yellow fever vaccine production. So far, there was just a historical genealogy available that is based on source area and passage level. However, there is a need for a documentation based on molecular information to get better insights into the mechanisms of pathology. In this work we sequenced the whole genome of different passages of the YFV-17D strain used by Crucell Switzerland AG for vaccine production. Using all other publically available 17D full genome sequences we compared the sequence variance of all vaccine strains and oppose a phylogenetic tree based on full genome sequences to the historical genealogy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non- human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay.Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper.Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus.Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus,Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease.

  8. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Chinikar, Sadegh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Faghihi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper. Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus. Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease. PMID:26623426

  9. Identification of Dengue and Chikungunya Cases Among Suspected Cases of Yellow Fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiala-Mandanda, Sheila; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Abbate, Jessica L; Pukuta-Simbu, Elisabeth; Nsio-Mbeta, Justus; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Becquart, Pierre; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-16

    For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tested negative for yellow fever virus (YFV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were selected for the study. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of dengue, West Nile, Chikungunya, O'nyong-nyong, Rift Valley fever, Zika, and YFV. The average age of patients was 22.1 years. We reported 16 cases (3.5%; confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-5.2) of dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) and 2 cases (0.4%; CI: 0.0-1.0) of Chikungunya. Three patients were co-infected with the two serotypes of dengue virus. Three cases of dengue were found in early July 2010 from the city of Titule (Oriental province) during a laboratory-confirmed outbreak of yellow fever, suggesting simultaneous circulation of dengue and yellow fever viruses. This study showed that dengue and Chikungunya viruses are potential causes of acute febrile jaundice in the DRC and highlights the need to consider dengue and Chikungunya diagnosis in the integrated disease surveillance and response program in the DRC. A prospective study is necessary to establish the epidemiology of these diseases.

  10. Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Rift Valley Fever Vaccine in a 19-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-26

    in general good health. Women of childbearing potential were required to have a negative beta subunit human chorionic gonadotropin (BhCG) pregnancy ...3 of the primary series (Fig. 1). 3.3.1.1. Serological analysis primary series of most prevalent lots uti - lized. When immune response analysis was...reported in one study with sheep that received MP-12 in the first trimester of pregnancy , other studies in ewes and in cattle showed no evidence of

  11. The epidemiology and socio-economic impact of rift valley fever in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania is amongst the countries of the sub-Saharan Africa that have encoutered ... were confined to mainly livestock and mostly affecting northern parts of Tanzania. ... RVF epidemics in Tanzania included farming systems, climatic factors, vector ... was 4,243,250USD whereas that of goats and sheep was 2,202,467 USD.

  12. An eco-health approach to Rift Valley Fever control among ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... The team identified individual, community, and ecological risk ... poor livestock management practices increase the risks of disease. ... critical links between local cultural practices, pastoral livelihoods, ... The findings of a pioneering study linking services to justice and land tenure were presented in Nairobi ...

  13. A comparison of indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy for the diagnosis of some haemorrhagic viruses in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mekki, A A; van der Groen, G

    1981-09-01

    Yellow fever, dengue (types 1, 2 and 4), Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses were inoculated into susceptible cell cultures and daily investigated by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) and electron microscopy (EM) with a view to achieve an early detection-identification of these agents. Compared to the other cell lines tested (Vero, BHK-21 and Aedes albopictus), CV-1 cells were found to be more sensitive. Viral antigens were detected by IFA from a few hours post inoculation (CHIK and RVF) to a maximum of 3 days (YF and EBO). For most of the viruses studied, the cytopathic effect (CPE) commenced 2-3 days after the detection of viral antigens. Virus particles were detected by EM only in the case of EBO, MBG and LAS, before any CPE was observed in cell cultures.

  14. Prevalence of African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asambe, A; Sackey, A K B; Tekdek, L B

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from a total of 460 pigs, including 416 from 74 piggeries and 44 from Makurdi slaughter slab. The samples were analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit to detect the presence of ASFV antibodies, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to detect antibodies to CSFV. Our findings showed a total ASF prevalence of 13 (2.8%), while prevalences of 7 (1.7%) and 6 (13.6%) were observed in piggeries and in Makurdi slaughter slab, respectively. However, no CSFV antibody sera were detected in this study. Relatively higher ASFV antibody-positive pigs were detected in the slaughter slab than in piggeries. The difference in prevalence of ASF between the two locations was significantly associated (p = 0.017). These findings suggest the presence of ASFV antibody-positive pig in Benue State, Nigeria. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of these diseases among pigs in Nigeria to prevent any fulminating outbreak are recommended.

  15. Human Dispersals Along the African Rift Valley in the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate- and tectonic-driven environmental dynamics of the East African Rift System (EARS) during the Quaternary played an important role in the demographic history of early Homo sapiens, including expansions of modern humans across and out of Africa. Human forager population size, geographic range, and behaviors such as hunting strategies and residential mobility likely varied in response to changes in the local and regional environment. Throughout the Quaternary, floral and faunal change was linked at least in part to variations in moisture availability, temperature, and atmospheric CO2, which in addition to uplift and faulting, contributed to the expansion and contraction of a number of large lakes that served as biogeographic barriers to many taxa. This is particularly clear for the Lake Victoria basin, where biogeographic, geological, and paleontological evidence documents repeated expansion and contraction of the ranges of species in response to lake level and vegetation change. Across much of eastern Africa, the topography of the rift facilitated north-south dispersals, the timing of which may have depended in part on the expansion and contraction of the equatorial forest belt. Dispersal potential likely increased during the more arid periods of the late Quaternary, when the roles of lakes and forests as dispersal barriers was reduced and the extent of low net primary productivity dry grasslands increased, the latter requiring large home ranges for human foragers, conditions suitable for range expansions within H. sapiens.

  16. Delineating the Drainage Structure and Sources of Groundwater Flux for Lake Basaka, Central Rift Valley Region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megersa Olumana Dinka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As opposed to most of the other closed basin type rift valley lakes in Ethiopia, Lake Basaka is found to be expanding at an alarming rate. Different studies indicated that the expansion of the lake is challenging the socio-economics and environment of the region significantly. This study result and previous reports indicated that the lake’s expansion is mostly due to the increased groundwater (GW flux to the lake. GW flux accounts for about 56% of the total inflow in recent periods (post 2000 and is found to be the dominant factor for the hydrodynamics and existence of the lake. The analysis of the drainage network for the area indicates the existence of a huge recharge area on the western and upstream side of the catchment. This catchment has no surface outlet; hence most of the incoming surface runoff recharges the GW system. The recharge area is the main source of GW flux to the lake. In addition to this, the likely sources/causes of GW flux to the lake could be: (i an increase of GW recharge following the establishment of irrigation schemes in the region; (ii subsurface inflow from far away due to rift system influence, and (iii lake neotectonism. Overall, the lake’s expansion has damaging effect to the region, owing to its poor water quality; hence the identification of the real causes of GW flux and mitigation measures are very important for sustainable lake management. Therefore a comprehensive and detailed investigation of the parameters related to GW flux and the interaction of the lake with the GW system of the area is highly recommended.

  17. Establishment of recombinase polymerase amplification assay for five hemorrhagic fever-related viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-feng CAO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish a one-step recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA method for pathogen screening and rapid detection in the field targeting for five hemorrhagic fever related viruses (Zaire ebola virus, Sudan ebola virus, Marburg virus, Lassa virus and Yellow fever virus. Methods The specific nucleic acid (NA fragments of each virus were selected as target genes by genome sequence analysis, and the primers and probes for RPA assays were designed according to the sequence. A series of diluted template genes were used for RPA detection to determine the sensitivity. The hemorrhagic fever-related viral nucleic acids were used for RPA detection to determine the specificity. The amplification experiments were carried out at different temperature ranging from 37℃ to 42℃ to validate the reaction temperature range. Results The RPA reaction systems of the five hemorrhagic fever viruses could effectively amplify the target genes, the sensitivities were between 1.5×102 and 1.5×103 copies. No cross reactions existed with the other hemorrhagic fever-related viral genes. Meanwhile, RPA assay could effectively amplify the target genes at 37-42℃. Conclusion The isothermal RPA assays of five hemorrhagic fever viruses are established, which may amply target genes fast and react at a wide temperature range, and be potentially useful for in field pathogens detection. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.06.09

  18. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: Tick-Host-Virus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Papa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is transmitted to humans by bite of infected ticks or by direct contact with blood or tissues of viremic patients or animals. It causes to humans a severe disease with fatality up to 30%. The current knowledge about the vector-host-CCHFV interactions is very limited due to the high-level containment required for CCHFV studies. Among ticks, Hyalomma spp. are considered the most competent virus vectors. CCHFV evades the tick immune response, and following its replication in the lining of the tick's midgut, it is disseminated by the hemolymph in the salivary glands and reproductive organs. The introduction of salivary gland secretions into the host cells is the major route via which CCHFV enters the host. Following an initial amplification at the site of inoculation, the virus is spread to the target organs. Apoptosis is induced via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Genetic factors and immune status of the host may affect the release of cytokines which play a major role in disease progression and outcome. It is expected that the use of new technology of metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics will lead to improved understanding of CCHFV-host interactions and identify potential targets for blocking the CCHFV transmission.

  19. Adapting to climate variability and change: experiences from cereal-based farming in the central rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassie, Belay Tseganeh; Hengsdijk, Huib; Rötter, Reimund; Kahiluoto, Helena; Asseng, Senthold; Van Ittersum, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions-the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20-30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977-2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers' perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new

  20. Adapting to Climate Variability and Change: Experiences from Cereal-Based Farming in the Central Rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassie, Belay Tseganeh; Hengsdijk, Huib; Rötter, Reimund; Kahiluoto, Helena; Asseng, Senthold; Van Ittersum, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions—the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20-30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977-2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers’ perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new

  1. Animal Models of Tick-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Feldmann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses (TBHFV are detected throughout the African and Eurasian continents and are an emerging or re-emerging threat to many nations. Due to the largely sporadic incidences of these severe diseases, information on human cases and research activities in general have been limited. In the past decade, however, novel TBHFVs have emerged and areas of endemicity have expanded. Therefore, the development of countermeasures is of utmost importance in combating TBHFV as elimination of vectors and interrupting enzootic cycles is all but impossible and ecologically questionable. As in vivo models are the only way to test efficacy and safety of countermeasures, understanding of the available animal models and the development and refinement of animal models is critical in negating the detrimental impact of TBHFVs on public and animal health.

  2. Transmission of yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding - Brazil, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    In April, 2009, the state health department of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was notified by the Cachoeira do Sul municipal health department of a case of meningoencephalitis requiring hospitalization in an infant whose mother recently had received yellow fever vaccine during a postpartum visit. The Field Epidemiology Training Program of the Secretariat of Surveillance in Health of the Brazilian Ministry of Health assisted state and municipal health departments with an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that the infant acquired yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding. The mother reported 2 days of headache, malaise, and low fever occurring 5 days after receipt of yellow fever vaccine. The infant, who was exclusively breast-fed, was hospitalized at age 23 days with seizures requiring continuous infusion of intravenous anticonvulsants. The infant received antimicrobial and antiviral treatment for meningoencephalitis. The presence of 17DD yellow fever virus was detected by reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the infant's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); yellow fever--specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies also were present in serum and CSF. The infant recovered completely, was discharged after 24 days of hospitalization, and has had normal neurodevelopment and growth through age 6 months. The findings in this report provide documentation that yellow fever vaccine virus can be transmitted via breast-feeding. Administration of yellow fever vaccine to breast-feeding women should be avoided except in situations where exposure to yellow fever viruses cannot be avoided or postponed.

  3. Functional requirements of the yellow fever virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Chinmay G; Jones, Christopher T; Chang, Yu-hsuan; Warrier, Ranjit; Kuhn, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    Although it is known that the flavivirus capsid protein is essential for genome packaging and formation of infectious particles, the minimal requirements of the dimeric capsid protein for virus assembly/disassembly have not been characterized. By use of a trans-packaging system that involved packaging a yellow fever virus (YFV) replicon into pseudo-infectious particles by supplying the YFV structural proteins using a Sindbis virus helper construct, the functional elements within the YFV capsid protein (YFC) were characterized. Various N- and C-terminal truncations, internal deletions, and point mutations of YFC were analyzed for their ability to package the YFV replicon. Consistent with previous reports on the tick-borne encephalitis virus capsid protein, YFC demonstrates remarkable functional flexibility. Nearly 40 residues of YFC could be removed from the N terminus while the ability to package replicon RNA was retained. Additionally, YFC containing a deletion of approximately 27 residues of the C terminus, including a complete deletion of C-terminal helix 4, was functional. Internal deletions encompassing the internal hydrophobic sequence in YFC were, in general, tolerated to a lesser extent. Site-directed mutagenesis of helix 4 residues predicted to be involved in intermonomeric interactions were also analyzed, and although single mutations did not affect packaging, a YFC with the double mutation of leucine 81 and valine 88 was nonfunctional. The effects of mutations in YFC on the viability of YFV infection were also analyzed, and these results were similar to those obtained using the replicon packaging system, thus underscoring the flexibility of YFC with respect to the requirements for its functioning.

  4. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  5. 230Th/234U dating of the quaternary spring travertines in the Arava Rift Valley of Israel and paleoclimatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, J.

    1988-07-01

    Springs and lake deposits (travertines) sampled along the western margins of the Arava segment of the Dead Sea Rift Valley, Israel, were studied as a potential source of palaeoclimatic information. The 230 Th/ 234 U disequilibrium method was used to determine the age of the investigated deposits. The radiometric dating was supplemented by detailed petrographic and chemical analyses of the collected samples. Detailed petrographic observations of the analysed travertine samples suggest their deposition under moderately-arid conditions, alternating with arid to extremely arid periods. This evidence is consistent with the preliminary conclusions drawn from palynological studies in the area. Dating by the 230 Th/ 234 U disequilibrium method indicates that most travertine ages correspond to oceanic 18 O stages 5 and 7. The good correspondence between apparent ages as deduced from the position of the travertines in vertical and lateral successions and the radiometric ages, lends credibility to the radiometric ages. The clustering of ages during the warm 18 O stages bears similarity to the temporal distribution of middle to late Pleistocene sapropelic horizons in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin which further leads to suspicion that during insolation maxima monsoonal cells originating in the Indian Ocean have shifted northwards reaching the latitude of the Arava and Negev Highlands. Refs and figs

  6. Luminescence characteristics of quartz from the Southern Kenyan Rift Valley: Dose estimation using LM-OSL SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Duller, G.A.T.; Wintle, A.G.; Cheong, C.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Linearly modulated (LM) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements have revealed that some sedimentary quartz samples from the Kenyan Rift Valley do not have a fast OSL component, but contain a medium component and several slow components. It was impossible to recover a known dose for these samples using the conventional single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure. The dose-response curves and continuous wave (CW) OSL decay curves for these samples showed several undesirable properties for dating. We have compared various luminescence characteristics of these samples with other quartz samples from elsewhere in the world for which the SAR procedure has been shown to be appropriate; the latter were dominated by a fast OSL component. The characteristics include photoionisation cross-sections for each component and the relative proportions of the different components in the initial and total OSL signals. It was found that those samples that had greater than 90% of the initial 0.8 s of their OSL signal from the fast component were suitable for dating using the conventional SAR protocol. A novel method of displaying the relative contributions of the different OSL components in a ternary diagram is proposed. The thermal stability of each component was investigated using pulse-annealing experiments. We then examined the possibility of applying an LM-OSL SAR protocol to samples that have a substantial medium component

  7. Ebola haemorrhagic fever virus: pathogenesis, immune responses, potential prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Nazimek, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Ebola zoonotic RNA filovirus represents human most virulent and lethal pathogens, which induces acute hemorrhagic fever and death within few days in a range of 60-90% of symptomatic individuals. Last outbreak in 2014 in West Africa caused panic that Ebola epidemic can be spread to other continents. Number of deaths in late December reached almost 8,000 individuals out of more than 20,000 symptomatic patients. It seems that only a coordinated international response could counteract the further spread of Ebola. Major innate immunity mechanisms against Ebola are associated with the production of interferons, that are inhibited by viral proteins. Activation of host NK cells was recognized as a leading immune function responsible for recovery of infected people. Uncontrolled cell infection by Ebola leads to an impairment of immunity with cytokine storm, coagulopathy, systemic bleeding, multi-organ failure and death. Tested prevention strategies to induce antiviral immunity include: i. recombinant virus formulations (vaccines); ii. cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (serotherapy); iii. alternative RNA-interference-based antiviral methods. Maintaining the highest standards of aseptic and antiseptic precautions is equally important. Present brief review summarizes a current knowledge concerning pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic disease and the virus interaction with the immune system and discusses recent advances in prevention of Ebola infection by vaccination and serotherapy.

  8. Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women 1

    OpenAIRE

    Seligman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease is a rare sequela of live-attenuated virus vaccine. Elderly persons and persons who have had thymectomies have increased susceptibility. A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease among women 19–34 years of age without known immunodeficiency.

  9. Lineage-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR for Yellow Fever Virus Outbreak Surveillance, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carlo; Torres, Maria C; Patel, Pranav; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Gould, Ernest A; Charrel, Rémi N; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Sequeira, Patricia C; Rodrigues, Cintia D S; Kümmerer, Beate M; Drosten, Christian; Landt, Olfert; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2017-11-01

    The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.

  10. Lineage-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR for Yellow Fever Virus Outbreak Surveillance, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Carlo; Torres, Maria C.; Patel, Pranav; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Gould, Ernest A.; Charrel, Rémi N.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Sequeira, Patricia C.; Rodrigues, Cintia D.S.; Kümmerer, Beate M.; Drosten, Christian; Landt, Olfert; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2017-01-01

    The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.

  11. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Maciel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated yellow fever (YF virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE, aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies.

  12. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies.

  13. A DNA Vaccine against Yellow Fever Virus: Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies. PMID:25875109

  14. Infection of Mosquito Cells (C6/36) by Dengue-2 Virus Interferes with Subsequent Infection by Yellow Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrao, Emiliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. Yellow fever is another arthropod-borne disease of great importance to public health that is endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. Both yellow fever and dengue viruses are flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and then, it is reasonable to consider that in a given moment, mosquito cells could be coinfected by both viruses. Therefore, we decided to evaluate if sequential infections of dengue and yellow fever viruses (and vice-versa) in mosquito cells could affect the virus replication patterns. Using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR-based replication assays in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells with single or sequential infections with both viruses, we demonstrated the occurrence of viral interference, also called superinfection exclusion, between these two viruses. Our results show that this interference pattern is particularly evident when cells were first infected with dengue virus and subsequently with yellow fever virus (YFV). Reduction in dengue virus replication, although to a lower extent, was also observed when C6/36 cells were initially infected with YFV followed by dengue virus infection. Although the importance that these findings have on nature is unknown, this study provides evidence, at the cellular level, of the occurrence of replication interference between dengue and yellow fever viruses and raises the question if superinfection exclusion could be a possible explanation, at least partially, for the reported lack of urban yellow fever occurrence in regions where a high level of dengue transmission occurs.

  15. First recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya, 1992-1993. II. Entomologic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, P; Cordellier, R; Ouma, J O; Cropp, C B; Savage, H M; Sanders, E J; Marfin, A A; Tukei, P M; Agata, N N; Gitau, L G; Rapuoda, B A; Gubler, D J

    1998-10-01

    The first recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya occurred from mid-1992 through March 1993 in the south Kerio Valley, Rift Valley Province. We conducted entomologic studies in February-March 1993 to identify the likely vectors and determine the potential for transmission in the surrounding rural and urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected by landing capture and processed for virus isolation. Container surveys were conducted around human habitation. Transmission was mainly in woodland of varying density, at altitudes of 1,300-1,800 m. The abundance of Aedes africanus in this biotope, and two isolations of virus from pools of this species, suggest that it was the principal vector in the main period of the outbreak. A third isolate was made from a pool of Ae. keniensis, a little-known species that was collected in the same biotope. Other known yellow fever vectors that were collected in the arid parts of the valley may have been involved at an earlier stage of the epidemic. Vervet monkeys and baboons were present in the outbreak area. Peridomestic mosquito species were absent but abundant at urban sites outside the outbreak area. The entomologic and epidemiologic evidence indicate that this was a sylvatic outbreak in which human cases were directly linked to the epizootic and were independent of other human cases. The region of the Kerio Valley is probably subject to recurrent wandering epizootics of yellow fever, although previous episodes of scattered human infection have gone unrecorded. The risk that the disease could emerge as an urban problem in Kenya should not be ignored.

  16. Virulence determinants within the E2 glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Camille Melissa; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Lohse, Louise

    Classical Swine Fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a member of the pestivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae. The E2 glycoprotein of CSFV has been shown to be an important factor for the virulence of the virus. In a recent study, we have......Kos (with the SL motif). The results indicate that the E2 residues 763-64 play an important role in CSFV virulence....

  17. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Liu, Wei; Bowden, Thomas A.; Cui, Ning; Zhuang, Lu; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Cao, Wu-Chun; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a novel Bunyavirus, called severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was identified in the vicinity of Huaiyangshan, China. Clinical symptoms of this zoonotic virus included severe fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with a mortality rate of ?10%. By the end of 2011 the disease associated with this pathogen had been reported from eleven Chinese provinces and human-to-human transmission suspected. However, current understanding of the evolution and molecular e...

  18. Identification of pathogens for differential diagnosis of fever with jaundice in the Central African Republic: a retrospective assessment, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Christelle Luce Bobossi; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Tekpa, Gaspard; Konamna, Xavier; Vickos, Ulrich; Nakoune, Emmanuel

    2017-11-29

    Febrile jaundice results clinically in generalized yellow coloration of the teguments and mucous membranes due to excess plasma bilirubin, accompanied by fever. Two types are found: conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin jaundice. Jaundice is a sign in several diseases due to viruses (viral hepatitis and arbovirus), parasites (malaria) and bacteria (leptospirosis). In the Central African Republic (CAR), only yellow fever is included on the list of diseases for surveillance. The aim of this study was to identify the other pathogens that can cause febrile jaundice, for better management of patients. Between 2008 and 2010, 198 sera negative for yellow fever IgM were randomly selected from 2177 samples collected during yellow fever surveillance. Laboratory analyses targeted four groups of pathogens: hepatitis B, C, delta and E viruses; dengue, chikungunya, Zika, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, West Nile and Rift Valley arboviruses; malaria parasites; and bacteria (leptospirosis). Overall, 30.9% sera were positive for hepatitis B, 20.2% for hepatitis E, 12.3% for hepatitis C and 8.2% for malaria. The majority of positive sera (40.4%) were from people aged 16-30 years. Co-infection with at least two of these pathogens was also found. These findings suggest that a systematic investigation should be undertaken of infectious agents that cause febrile jaundice in the CAR.

  19. T Cell-Mediated Immunity towards Yellow Fever Virus and Useful Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan M; Klimstra, William B

    2017-04-11

    The 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines is among the most effective vaccines ever created. The humoral and cellular immunity elicited by 17D has been well characterized in humans. Neutralizing antibodies have long been known to provide protection against challenge with a wild-type virus. However, a well characterized T cell immune response that is robust, long-lived and polyfunctional is also elicited by 17D. It remains unclear whether this arm of immunity is protective following challenge with a wild-type virus. Here we introduce the 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines, describe the current state of knowledge regarding the immunity directed towards the vaccines in humans and conclude with a discussion of animal models that are useful for evaluating T cell-mediated immune protection to yellow fever virus.

  20. T Cell-Mediated Immunity towards Yellow Fever Virus and Useful Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan M.; Klimstra, William B.

    2017-01-01

    The 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines is among the most effective vaccines ever created. The humoral and cellular immunity elicited by 17D has been well characterized in humans. Neutralizing antibodies have long been known to provide protection against challenge with a wild-type virus. However, a well characterized T cell immune response that is robust, long-lived and polyfunctional is also elicited by 17D. It remains unclear whether this arm of immunity is protective following challenge with a wild-type virus. Here we introduce the 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines, describe the current state of knowledge regarding the immunity directed towards the vaccines in humans and conclude with a discussion of animal models that are useful for evaluating T cell-mediated immune protection to yellow fever virus. PMID:28398253

  1. Characterising and comparing animal-health services in the Rift Valley, Kenya: an exploratory analysis (part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, L E; Ongeri, W; Asena, K; Thrusfield, M V

    2016-12-01

    Livestock are of vital importance to the livelihoods of millions of people across the world, playing a pivotal role in income generation, employment, food security, transport and social cohesion. Access to quality animal-health services by livestock owners is critical to sustainable food-animal production; therefore, animal-health practitioners represent key stakeholders within the world food system. A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise and compare existing private animal-health services and to explore perceptions of veterinary services amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal-health outlets, including franchise outlets of 'Sidai Africa Ltd.', and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of a Maasai pastoralist group and members of a dairy-farmer cooperative of their local animal-health services. Results were analysed using descriptive methods and the confidence interval overlap technique. Differences were detected in the characteristics of Sidai outlets, agrovets (agricultural retailers), pharmacies and dukas (general shops). Sidai outlets offered a more professional and diverse portfolio of livestock services. Across all outlet types, staff knowledge and training gaps and a shortage of cold-chain facilities were identified. Farmers have strong preferences for certain products, which may foster the development of drug resistance. There is a disconnection between the sale of veterinary medicines and the provision of quality advice, with many agrovets, pharmacies and dukas selling veterinary medicines but lacking the capacity to provide clinical services. There is a clear demand from livestock keepers for accessible, affordable and quality animal-health services and products in Kenya; therefore, animal-health practitioners have the potential to provide increased support to livestock-based livelihoods.

  2. Speciation of selected trace elements in three Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes (Koka, Ziway, and Awassa) and their major inflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masresha, Alemayehu E.; Skipperud, Lindis; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav; Zinabu, G.M.; Meland, Sondre; Teien, Hans-Christian; Salbu, Brit

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes (ERVLs) are water resources which have considerable environmental, economic and cultural importance. However, there is an increasing concern that increasing human activities around these lakes and their main inflows can result in increased contamination of these water bodies. Information on total concentrations of some trace elements is available for these lakes and their inflows; however, data on the trace element speciation is lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the low molecular mass (LMM) trace element species and also, evaluate the influence of flooding episodes on the LMM trace element fractions. At-site size and charge fractionation system was used for sampling of water from the lakes Koka, Ziway and Awassa and their main inflows during the dry and wet seasons. The results showed that chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) in Lake Koka and its inflows as well as in Lake Ziway were predominantly present as HMM (high molecular mass, i.e., > 10 kDa) forms, while arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd) were more mobile during the dry season. In Lake Awassa, all except Cr and Mn were predominantly found as LMM species (low molecular mass, i.e. < 10 kDa) which can be attributed to the high concentrations of LMM DOC (dissolved organic carbon). During the wet season, results from the Lake Koka and its inflows showed that all trace elements were predominantly associated with HMM forms such as colloids and particles, demonstrating that the mobility of elements was reduced during the wet season. The colloidal fraction of elements such as Cr, Ni, and Cd was also correlated with dissolved Fe. As the concentration of LMM trace element species are very low, the mobility, biological uptake and the potential environmental impact should be low.

  3. Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Brouwer, A; Ramnial, V; Kelly, L; Kosmider, R; Fooks, A R; Snary, E L

    2010-02-01

    Expert opinion was elicited to undertake a qualitative risk assessment to estimate the current and future risks to the European Union (EU) from five vector-borne viruses listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. It was predicted that climate change will increase the risk of incursions of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) into the EU from other parts of the world, with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and West Nile virus (WNV) being less affected. Currently the predicted risks of incursion were lowest for RVFV and highest for ASFV. Risks of incursion were considered for six routes of entry (namely vectors, livestock, meat products, wildlife, pets and people). Climate change was predicted to increase the risk of incursion from entry of vectors for all five viruses to some degree, the strongest effects being predicted for AHSV, CCHFV and WNV. This work will facilitate identification of appropriate risk management options in relation to adaptations to climate change.

  4. Seroprevalence of sandfly fever virus infection in military personnel on the western border of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shiraly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Military troops deployed to endemic areas are at risk of contracting sandfly fever, an arthropod-borne viral infection. Although typically a self-limited disease, sandfly fever can cause significant morbidity and loss of function among soldiers. We conducted this study to determine the extent of past SFV infection in a group of healthy Iranian military personnel in Ilam province on the western border of Iran. A total of 201 serum samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA to detect four common sandfly fever virus serotypes. Demographic data were also collected. Overall, 37 samples (18.4% were positive for specific IgG antibodies to sandfly viruses. Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV and sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV were the most common serotypes. A positive test was inversely related to nativity (P < 0.01 but was not associated with age (P = 0.163, duration of presence in the border region (P = 0.08 or employment status (P = 0.179.Our findings indicate that past SFV infection is common among military personnel in the western border region of Iran, a Leishmania-endemic region. Therefore, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of troops presenting with acute febrile illness in similar settings. Keywords: Sandfly fever, Virus, Past infection, Military personnel

  5. Orthobunyavirus antibodies among humans in selected parts of the Rift Valley and northeastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Collins; Venter, Marietjie; Swanepoel, Robert; Sang, Rosemary

    2015-05-01

    Ngari, Bunyamwera, Ilesha, and Germiston viruses are among the mosquito-borne human pathogens in the Orthobunyavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae, associated with febrile illness. Although the four orthobunyaviruses have been isolated from mosquito and/or tick vectors sampled from different geographic regions in Kenya, little is known of human exposure in such areas. We conducted a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in Kenya. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization tests in 89 (25.8%) of 345 persons tested. Multivariable analysis revealed age and residence in northeastern Kenya as risk factors. Implementation of acute febrile illness surveillance in northeastern Kenya will help to detect such infections.

  6. Differentiation of strains of yellow fever virus in γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgeorge, R.; Bradish, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The mouse sensitized by optimal, sub-lethal γ-irradiation has been used for the differentiation of strains of yellow fever virus and for the resolution of their immunogenicity and pathogenicity as distinct characteristics. For different strains of yellow fever virus, the patterns of antibody-synthesis, regulatory immunity (pre-challenge) and protective immunity (post-challenge) are differentially sensitive to γ-irradiation. These critical differentiations of strains of yellow fever virus in γ-irradiated mice have been compared with those shown in normal athymic and immature mice in order to elucidate the range of quantifiable in vivo characteristics and the course of the virus-host interaction. This is discussed as a basis for the comparisons of the responses of model and principal hosts to vaccines and pathogens. (author)

  7. Virus incidence in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) seed production fields in the Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey was conducted over the course of three years (2014-2016) for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-MAV and BYDV-PAV), Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV), and Cocksfoot mottle virus (CfMV) in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. There was an ...

  8. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also cause fevers. Some examples are: Arthritis or connective tissue illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease Vasculitis or periarteritis nodosa The first symptom of a cancer may be a fever. This is particularly true ...

  9. Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Bartfai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of body temperature remains one of the most common ways to assess health. An increase in temperature above what is considered to be a normal value is inevitably regarded as a sure sign of disease and referred to with one simple word: fever. In this review, we summarize how research on fever allowed the identification of the exogenous and endogenous molecules and pathways mediating the fever response. We also show how temperature elevation is common to different pathologies and how the molecular components of the fever-generation pathway represent drug targets for antipyretics, such as acetylsalicylic acid, the first “blockbuster drug”. We also show how fever research provided new insights into temperature and energy homeostasis, and into treatment of infection and inflammation.

  10. Marburg hemorrhagic fever associated with multiple genetic lineages of virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bausch, D G; Nichol, S T; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J

    2006-01-01

    Background An outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever was first observed in a gold-mining village in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo in October 1998. Methods We investigated the outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever most intensively in May and October 1999. Sporadic cases and short ch...

  11. Detection of yellow fever virus genomes from four imported cases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shujuan; Pan, Yang; Lyu, Yanning; Liang, Zhichao; Li, Jie; Sun, Yulan; Dou, Xiangfeng; Tian, Lili; Huo, Da; Chen, Lijuan; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi

    2017-07-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV), as the first proven human-pathogenic virus, is still a major public health problem with a dramatic upsurge in recent years. This is a report on four imported cases of yellow fever virus into China identified by whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and the results showed that these four viruses were highly homologous with Angola 71 strains (AY968064). In addition, effective mutations of amino acids were not observed in the E protein domain of four viruses, thus confirming the effectiveness of the YFV-17D vaccine (X03700). Although there is low risk of local transmission in most part of China, the increasing public health risk of YF caused by international exchange should not be ignored. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Hiding the evidence: two strategies for innate immune evasion by hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Kathryn M; Bale, Shridhar; Kimberlin, Christopher R; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2012-04-01

    The innate immune system is one of the first lines of defense against invading pathogens. Pathogens have, in turn, evolved different strategies to counteract these responses. Recent studies have illuminated how the hemorrhagic fever viruses Ebola and Lassa fever prevent host sensing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a key hallmark of viral infection. The ebolavirus protein VP35 adopts a unique bimodal configuration to mask key cellular recognition sites on dsRNA. Conversely, the Lassa fever virus nucleoprotein actually digests the dsRNA signature. Collectively, these structural and functional studies shed new light on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of these viruses and provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of a Rio Grande rift subbasin, Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.; Thompson, R.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Anderson, M.; Drenth, B.J.; Rotzien, J.; Lyon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, a structural subbasin of the greater San Luis Basin of the northern Rio Grande rift, is bounded to the north and south by the San Luis Hills and the Red River fault zone, respectively. Surficial mapping, neotectonic investigations, geochronology, and geophysics demonstrate that the structural, volcanic, and geomorphic evolution of the basin involves the intermingling of climatic cycles and spatially and temporally varying tectonic activity of the Rio Grande rift system. Tectonic activity has transferred between range-bounding and intrabasin faults creating relict landforms of higher tectonic-activity rates along the mountain-piedmont junction. Pliocene–Pleistocene average long-term slip rates along the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone range between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/year with late Pleistocene slip rates approximately half (0.06 mm/year) of the longer Quaternary slip rate. During the late Pleistocene, climatic influences have been dominant over tectonic influences on mountain-front geomorphic processes. Geomorphic evidence suggests that this once-closed subbasin was integrated into the Rio Grande prior to the integration of the once-closed northern San Luis Basin, north of the San Luis Hills, Colorado; however, deep canyon incision, north of the Red River and south of the San Luis Hills, initiated relatively coeval to the integration of the northern San Luis Basin.Long-term projections of slip rates applied to a 1.6 km basin depth defined from geophysical modeling suggests that rifting initiated within this subbasin between 20 and 10 Ma. Geologic mapping and geophysical interpretations reveal a complex network of northwest-, northeast-, and north-south–trending faults. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults show dual polarity and are crosscut by north-south– trending faults. This structural model possibly provides an analog for how some intracontinental rift structures evolve through time.

  14. Genotyping of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four of these viruses were isolated directly from serum samples. All the viruses were classified within the domesticpig cycle-associated p72 and p54 genotype IX which also includes viruses responsible for ASF outbreaks in Kenya in 2006 and 2007 and Uganda in 2003. To define virus relationships at higher resolution, ...

  15. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact on the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ...

  16. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  17. Yellow fever virus: genetic and phenotypic diversity and implications for detection, prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, David W C; McAuley, Alexander J; Bente, Dennis A

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototypical hemorrhagic fever virus, yet our understanding of its phenotypic diversity and any molecular basis for observed differences in disease severity and epidemiology is lacking, when compared to other arthropod-borne and haemorrhagic fever viruses. This is, in part, due to the availability of safe and effective vaccines resulting in basic YFV research taking a back seat to those viruses for which no effective vaccine occurs. However, regular outbreaks occur in endemic areas, and the spread of the virus to new, previously unaffected, areas is possible. Analysis of isolates from endemic areas reveals a strong geographic association for major genotypes, and recent epidemics have demonstrated the emergence of novel sequence variants. This review aims to outline the current understanding of YFV genetic and phenotypic diversity and its sources, as well as the available animal models for characterizing these differences in vivo. The consequences of genetic diversity for detection and diagnosis of yellow fever and development of new vaccines and therapeutics are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Zika Virus, a Cause of Fever in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    considered with the isolation of ZIKA Lee, V. H. & Moore, D. L. (1972). Vectors of the virus from a variety of other Aedes of the subgenus 1969 yellow...a vector of the virus . 46, 669-673. Marchette, N. J., Garcia, R. & Rudnick, A. (1969). Acknowledgements Isolation of Zika virus from Aedes aegypti mos...hemagglutination test for the diagnosis of human Twelve isolations of Zika virus from Aedes leptospirosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology

  19. Live Zika virus chimeric vaccine candidate based on a yellow fever 17-D attenuated backbone

    OpenAIRE

    Nougairede, Antoine; Klitting, Raphaelle; Aubry, Fabien; Gilles, Magali; Touret, Franck; De Lamballerie, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) recently dispersed throughout the tropics and sub-tropics causing epidemics associated with congenital disease and neurological complications. There is currently no commercial vaccine for ZIKV. Here we describe the initial development of a chimeric virus containing the prM/E proteins of a ZIKV epidemic strain incorporated into a yellow fever 17-D attenuated backbone. Using the versatile and rapid ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) reverse genetics method, we compared diff...

  20. Uncovering of Classical Swine Fever Virus adaptive response to vaccination by Next Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Orton, Richard; Höper, Dirk

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has rapidly become the preferred technology in nucleotide sequencing, and can be applied to unravel molecular adaptation of RNA viruses such as Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). However, the detection of low frequency variants within viral populations by NGS...... is affected by errors introduced during sample preparation and sequencing, and so far no definitive solution to this problem has been presented....

  1. Small molecule inhibitors of ER α-glucosidases are active against multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinhong; Warren, Travis K; Zhao, Xuesen; Gill, Tina; Guo, Fang; Wang, Lijuan; Comunale, Mary Ann; Du, Yanming; Alonzi, Dominic S; Yu, Wenquan; Ye, Hong; Liu, Fei; Guo, Ju-Tao; Mehta, Anand; Cuconati, Andrea; Butters, Terry D; Bavari, Sina; Xu, Xiaodong; Block, Timothy M

    2013-06-01

    Host cellular endoplasmic reticulum α-glucosidases I and II are essential for the maturation of viral glycosylated envelope proteins that use the calnexin mediated folding pathway. Inhibition of these glycan processing enzymes leads to the misfolding and degradation of these viral glycoproteins and subsequent reduction in virion secretion. We previously reported that, CM-10-18, an imino sugar α-glucosidase inhibitor, efficiently protected the lethality of dengue virus infection of mice. In the current study, through an extensive structure-activity relationship study, we have identified three CM-10-18 derivatives that demonstrated superior in vitro antiviral activity against representative viruses from four viral families causing hemorrhagic fever. Moreover, the three novel imino sugars significantly reduced the mortality of two of the most pathogenic hemorrhagic fever viruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, in mice. Our study thus proves the concept that imino sugars are promising drug candidates for the management of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by variety of viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serological reactions in Rhesus monkeys inoculated with the 17D strain of yellow fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GROOT, H

    1962-01-01

    Haemagglutination-inhibition tests, which depend on the appearance of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in the serum in virus infections, are in common use in the study of arthropod-borne diseases. This paper contains the results of an investigation into the appearance and pattern of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in the serum of rhesus monkeys inoculated intracerebrally with the 17D strain of yellow fever virus during the testing of seed lots of yellow fever vaccine. These antibodies appeared on the tenth day after inoculation, and were still demonstrable four years later. In all of the eight monkeys tested complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever antigens also developed, and in six out of the eight heterologous antigens developed.

  3. Antibodies against Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Healthy Persons, China, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jimin; Yan, Jie; Lv, Huakun; Chai, Chengliang; Sun, Yi; Shao, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, a subclinical infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Zhejiang Province, China, prompting seroprevalence studies in 6 districts within the province. Of 986 healthy persons tested, 71 had IgG antibodies against SFTSV. This finding suggests that most natural infections with SFTSV are mild or subclinical. PMID:25061813

  4. Clinical and laboratory features of dengue virus-infected travellers previously vaccinated against yellow fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, Dieter; Göbels, Klaus; Niedrig, Matthias; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2003-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection endemic throughout the tropics and subtropics. The global prevalence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent years and it has become a major international public health concern. The close taxonomic relationships between yellow fever and dengue viruses

  5. Antibodies against severe fever with Thrombocytopenia syndrome Virus in healthy persons, China, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang Lei, Lei; Sun, J.; Yan, J.; Huakun, L.; Chai, C.Y.; Sun, Y.; Shao, B.; Jiang, J.D.; Chen, Z.; Kortekaas, J.A.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, a subclinical infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Zhejiang Province, China, prompting seroprevalence studies in 6 districts within the province. Of 986 healthy persons tested, 71 had IgG antibodies against SFTSV. This finding

  6. Accelerating vaccine development for African swine fever virus ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Photo: IDRC / Bartay The challenge African swine fever (ASF) is a highly infectious hemorrhagic viral disease that wipes out entire herds of infected pigs. ASF is widespread in at least half of sub-Saharan Africa, and threatens food security due to devastating economic losses.

  7. Complex Virus-Host Interactions Involved in the Regulation of Classical Swine Fever Virus Replication: A Minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su; Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Qian; Naveed Anwar, Muhammad; Yu, Shaoxiong; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2017-07-05

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs in many countries. Viruses are small intracellular parasites and thus rely on the cellular factors for replication. Fundamental aspects of CSFV-host interactions have been well described, such as factors contributing to viral attachment, modulation of genomic replication and translation, antagonism of innate immunity, and inhibition of cell apoptosis. However, those host factors that participate in the viral entry, assembly, and release largely remain to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the virus-host interactions involved in the life cycle of CSFV and analyze the potential mechanisms of viral entry, assembly, and release. We conclude with future perspectives and highlight areas that require further understanding.

  8. Dengue fever (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  9. Case report: probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus to an infant via breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Susan; Twele-Montecinos, Loreto; MacDonald, Judy; Webster, Patricia; Law, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The 17D yellow fever vaccine is a live-virus vaccine that has been in use since the 1940s. The incidence of encephalitis after yellow fever vaccination among young infants is much higher than among children older than nine months of age. Until recently, avoidance of vaccination by breastfeeding women who have received yellow fever vaccine had been based on theoretical grounds only. We report the probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus from a mother to her infant through ...

  10. Hydrothermal circulation, serpentinization, and degassing at a rift valley-fracture zone intersection: Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15[degree]N, 45[degree]W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rona, P.A.; Nelson, T.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States)); Bougault, H.; Charlou, J.L.; Needham, H.D. (Inst. Francais de Recherche pour I' Exploitation de la Mer, Centre de Brest (France)); Appriou, P. (Univ. of Western Brittany, Brest (France)); Trefry, J.H. (Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne (United States)); Eberhart, G.L.; Barone, A. (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A hydrothermal system characterized by high ratios of methane to both manganese and suspended particulate matter was detected in seawater sampled at the eastern intersection of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone. This finding contrasts with low ratios in black smoker-type hydrothermal systems that occur within spreading segments. Near-bottom water sampling coordinated with SeaBeam bathymetry and camera-temperature tows detected the highest concentrations of methane at fault zones in rocks with the appearance of altered ultramafic units in a large dome that forms part of the inside corner high at the intersection. The distinct chemical signatures of the two types of hydrothermal systems are inferred to be controlled by different circulation pathways related to reaction of seawater primarily with ultramafic rocks at intersections of spreading segments with fracture zones but with mafic rocks within spreading segments.

  11. Mastritherium (Artiodactyla, Anthracotheriidae) from Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia; an earliest Miocene age for continental rift-valley volcanic deposits of the Red Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Gary T.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Whitmore, Frank C.

    1983-01-01

    A lower jaw fragment with its last molar (M/3) from the Baid formation in Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia, represents the first recorded occurrence in the Arabian Peninsula of an anthracotheriid artiodactyl (hippo-like, even-toed ungulate). This fossil is identified as a primitive species of Masritherium, a North and East African genus restricted, previously to the later early Miocene. This identification indicates that the age of the Baid formation, long problematical, is early Miocene and, moreover, shows that the age of the fossil site is earliest Miocene (from 25 to 21Ma). The Wadi Sabya anthracothere is the first species of fossil mammal recorded from western Saudi Arabia, and more important, it indicates an early Miocene age for the volcanic deposits of a continental rift-valley that preceded the initial sea-floor spreading of the Red Sea.

  12. Oral receptivity of Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde for yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Yébakima, André; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Andriamahefazafy, Barrysson; Correira, Artur; Rodrigues, Julio Monteiro; Veiga, Antonio; Moreira, Antonio; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Grandadam, Marc; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2009, 21,313 cases of dengue-3 virus (DENV-3) were reported in the islands of Cape Verde, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 570 km from the coast of western Africa. It was the first dengue outbreak ever reported in Cape Verde. Mosquitoes collected in July 2010 in the city of Praia, on the island of Santiago, were identified morphologically as Aedes aegypti formosus. Using experimental oral infections, we found that this vector showed a moderate ability to transmit the epidemic dengue-3 virus, but was highly susceptible to chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.

  13. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in birds: field investigations in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, H G; Cornet, J P; Camicas, J L

    1994-01-01

    In Senegal, wild ground-feeding birds are frequently infested with immature ticks. In two areas where numerous Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus isolations were obtained from Hyalomma marginatum rufipes adult ticks collected on ungulates, 175 birds were captured and sera collected. CCHF antibodies were detected by ELISA in 6/22 red-beaked hornbills (Tockus erythrorhynchus), 2/11 glossy starlings (Lamprotornis sp.) and 1/3 guinea fowls. The virus was isolated from H. m. rufipes nymphs collected on a hornbill. The role of wild ground-feeding birds in CCHF virus ecology in West Africa is discussed.

  14. Reconstructing the highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus strain Koslov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Nielsen, Jens

    -prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase resulting in the majority of circulating forms being non-functional. However, since any infectious virus particle should necessarily be the offspring of a functional virus, we hypothesized that it should be possible to synthesize a highly virulent form...

  15. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Marcel A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, β-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells.

  16. Investigations into yellow fever virus and other arboviruses in the northern regions of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B E; Metselaar, D; Kirya, G B; Timms, G L

    1970-01-01

    Previous studies having shown an appreciable level of yellow fever immunity to exist in northern Kenya, further epidemiological and serological surveys were carried out there in 1968 in an attempt to define more clearly the distribution of yellow fever and to locate possible vector and reservoir hosts of the disease; these surveys also provided information on a number of other arboviruses.Altogether 436 sera from 5 areas in northern Kenya were screened by haemagglutination-inhibition tests with 8 antigens, and 107 of these sera by neutralization tests for Group-B arboviruses. Small numbers of yellow-fever-immune adults were found in Ileret, Garissa, Loglogo and Mikona. At Marsabit high proportions of immune adults and children were found among the Burgi tribe. As the Burgi are permanent agricultural workers on Marsabit Mountain, an entomological investigation was made, over 15 000 mosquitos being collected. From these, 13 strains of Pongola virus, 1 strain of Semliki Forest virus and an unidentified virus were isolated, but no yellow fever strains. Aedes africanus and Aedes simpsoni were not found at Marsabit; small numbers of Aedes aegypti were collected biting man. The vector potential of other mosquitos collected (particularly Mansonia africana, which is present throughout the year) is discussed.

  17. Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Delgado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá. RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

  18. Multilevel Methodology for Simulation of Spatio-Temporal Systems with Heterogeneous Activity; Application to Spread of Valley Fever Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Rajanikanth

    2009-01-01

    This report consists of a dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate College, The University of Arizona, 2008. Spatio-temporal systems with heterogeneity in their structure and behavior have two major problems associated with them. The first one is that such complex real world systems extend over very large spatial and temporal domains and consume so many computational resources to simulate that they are infeasible to study with current computational platforms. The second one is that the data available for understanding such systems is limited because they are spread over space and time making it hard to obtain micro and macro measurements. This also makes it difficult to get the data for validation of their constituent processes while simultaneously considering their global behavior. For example, the valley fever fungus considered in this dissertation is spread over a large spatial grid in the arid Southwest and typically needs to be simulated over several decades of time to obtain useful information. It is also hard to get the temperature and moisture data (which are two critical factors on which the survival of the valley fever fungus depends) at every grid point of the spatial domain over the region of study. In order to address the first problem, we develop a method based on the discrete event system specification which exploits the heterogeneity in the activity of the spatio-temporal system and which has been shown to be effective in solving relatively simple partial differential equation systems. The benefit of addressing the first problem is that it now makes it feasible to address the second problem. We address the second problem by making use of a multilevel methodology based on modeling and simulation and systems theory. This methodology helps us in the construction of models with different resolutions (base and

  19. BCX4430 - A broad-spectrum antiviral adenosine nucleoside analog under development for the treatment of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Raymond; Kotian, Pravin; Warren, Travis; Panchal, Rekha; Bavari, Sina; Julander, Justin; Dobo, Sylvia; Rose, Angela; El-Kattan, Yahya; Taubenheim, Brian; Babu, Yarlagadda; Sheridan, William P

    2016-01-01

    The adenosine nucleoside analog BCX4430 is a direct-acting antiviral drug under investigation for the treatment of serious and life-threatening infections from highly pathogenic viruses, such as the Ebola virus. Cellular kinases phosphorylate BCX4430 to a triphosphate that mimics ATP; viral RNA polymerases incorporate the drug's monophosphate nucleotide into the growing RNA chain, causing premature chain termination. BCX4430 is active in vitro against many RNA viral pathogens, including the filoviruses and emerging infectious agents such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In vivo, BCX4430 is active after intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and oral administration in a variety of experimental infections. In nonclinical studies involving lethal infections with Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Yellow Fever virus, BCX4430 has demonstrated pronounced efficacy. In experiments conducted in several models, both a reduction in the viral load and an improvement in survival were found to be related to the dose of BCX4430. A Phase 1 clinical trial of intramuscular administration of BCX4430 in healthy subjects is currently ongoing. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a TaqMan Array Card for Acute-Febrile-Illness Outbreak Investigation and Surveillance of Emerging Pathogens, Including Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Ochieng, Caroline; Wiersma, Steve; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S; Whitmer, Shannon; Nichol, Stuart T; Moore, Christopher C; Kersh, Gilbert J; Kato, Cecilia; Sexton, Christopher; Petersen, Jeannine; Massung, Robert; Hercik, Christine; Crump, John A; Kibiki, Gibson; Maro, Athanasia; Mujaga, Buliga; Gratz, Jean; Jacob, Shevin T; Banura, Patrick; Scheld, W Michael; Juma, Bonventure; Onyango, Clayton O; Montgomery, Joel M; Houpt, Eric; Fields, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results and can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan and Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and Yersinia pestis), and 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 and bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction and amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, and specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, and the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity and a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Deletion of the thymidine kinase gene induces complete attenuation of the Georgia isolate of African swine fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs. There are no vaccines to control Africa swine fever (ASF). Experimental vaccines have been developed using genetically modified live attenuated ASFVs obtained by specifically de...

  2. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I

    2010-07-01

    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  3. Toscana virus NSs protein promotes degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Birte; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-04-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV), which is transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sandflies, is a major etiologic agent of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in the Mediterranean. Like other members of the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, TOSV encodes a nonstructural protein (NSs) in its small RNA segment. Although the NSs of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been identified as an important virulence factor, which suppresses host general transcription, inhibits transcription from the beta interferon promoter, and promotes the proteasomal degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), little is known about the functions of NSs proteins encoded by less-pathogenic members of this genus. In this study we report that TOSV is able to downregulate PKR with similar efficiency as RVFV, while infection with the other phleboviruses-i.e., Punta Toro virus, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, or Frijoles virus-has no effect on cellular PKR levels. In contrast to RVFV, however, cellular transcription remains unaffected during TOSV infection. TOSV NSs protein promotes the proteasome-dependent downregulation of PKR and is able to interact with kinase-inactive PKR in infected cells.

  4. An Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in the Lassa Fever Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goba, Augustine; Khan, S Humarr; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fullah, Mohamed; Moigboi, Alex; Kovoma, Alice; Sinnah, Vandi; Yoko, Nancy; Rogers, Hawa; Safai, Siddiki; Momoh, Mambu; Koroma, Veronica; Kamara, Fatima K; Konowu, Edwin; Yillah, Mohamed; French, Issa; Mustapha, Ibraham; Kanneh, Franklyn; Foday, Momoh; McCarthy, Helena; Kallon, Tiangay; Kallon, Mustupha; Naiebu, Jenneh; Sellu, Josephine; Jalloh, Abdul A; Gbakie, Michael; Kanneh, Lansana; Massaly, James L B; Kargbo, David; Kargbo, Brima; Vandi, Mohamed; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Gevao, Sahr M; Sandi, John D; Jalloh, Simbirie C; Grant, Donald S; Blyden, Sylvia O; Crozier, Ian; Schieffelin, John S; McLellan, Susan L; Jacob, Shevin T; Boisen, Matt L; Hartnett, Jessica N; Cross, Robert W; Branco, Luis M; Andersen, Kristian G; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Gire, Stephen K; Tariyal, Ridhi; Park, Daniel J; Haislip, Allyson M; Bishop, Christopher M; Melnik, Lilia I; Gallaher, William R; Wimley, William C; He, Jing; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Sullivan, Brian M; Grillo, Sonia; Oman, Scott; Garry, Courtney E; Edwards, Donna R; McCormick, Stephanie J; Elliott, Deborah H; Rouelle, Julie A; Kannadka, Chandrika B; Reyna, Ashley A; Bradley, Benjamin T; Yu, Haini; Yenni, Rachael E; Hastie, Kathryn M; Geisbert, Joan B; Kulakosky, Peter C; Wilson, Russell B; Oldstone, Michael B A; Pitts, Kelly R; Henderson, Lee A; Robinson, James E; Geisbert, Thomas W; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Happi, Christian T; Asogun, Danny A; Sabeti, Pardis C; Garry, Robert F

    2016-10-15

     Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) has developed an advanced clinical and laboratory research capacity to manage the threat of Lassa fever, a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). The 2013-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) outbreak is the first to have occurred in an area close to a facility with established clinical and laboratory capacity for study of VHFs.  Because of its proximity to the epicenter of the EVD outbreak, which began in Guinea in March 2014, the KGH Lassa fever Team mobilized to establish EBOV surveillance and diagnostic capabilities.  Augustine Goba, director of the KGH Lassa laboratory, diagnosed the first documented case of EVD in Sierra Leone, on 25 May 2014. Thereafter, KGH received and cared for numbers of patients with EVD that quickly overwhelmed the capacity for safe management. Numerous healthcare workers contracted and lost their lives to EVD. The vast majority of subsequent EVD cases in West Africa can be traced back to a single transmission chain that includes this first diagnosed case.  Responding to the challenges of confronting 2 hemorrhagic fever viruses will require continued investments in the development of countermeasures (vaccines, therapeutic agents, and diagnostic assays), infrastructure, and human resources. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  6. Protective role of host aquaporin 6 against Hazara virus, a model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Andrea; Mirazimi, Ali; Holm, Angelika; Loitto, Vesa M; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Vikström, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that causes infectious disease with severe hemorrhagic manifestations in vascular system in humans. The proper function of the cells in the vascular system is critically regulated by aquaporins (AQP), water channels that facilitate fluxes of water and small solutes across membranes. With Hazara virus as a model for CCHFV, we investigated the effects of viruses on AQP6 and the impact of AQP6 on virus infectivity in host cells, using transiently expressed GFP-AQP6 cells, immunofluorescent assay for virus detection, epifluorescent imaging of living cells and confocal microscopy. In GFP-AQP6 expressing cells, Hazara virus reduced both the cellular and perinuclear AQP6 distribution and changed the cell area. Infection of human cell with CCHFV strain IbAR 10200 downregulated AQP6 expression at mRNA level. Interestingly, the overexpression of AQP6 in host cells decreased the infectivity of Hazara virus, speaking for a protective role of AQP6. We suggest the possibility for AQP6 being a novel player in the virus-host interactions, which may lead to less severe outcomes of an infection. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Oral infection of Aedes aegypti with yellow fever virus: geographic variation and genetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J; Wallis, G P; Aitken, T H; Miller, B R; Amato, G D; Lorenz, L; Powell, J R; Beaty, B J

    1985-11-01

    Twenty-eight populations representing a worldwide distribution of Aedes aegypti were tested for their ability to become orally infected with yellow fever virus (YFV). Populations had been analyzed for genetic variations at 11 isozyme loci and assigned to one of 8 genetic geographic groups of Ae. aegypti. Infection rates suggest that populations showing isozyme genetic relatedness also demonstrate similarity to oral infection rates with YFV. The findings support the hypothesis that genetic variation exists for oral susceptibility to YFV in Ae. aegypti.

  8. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, M. A.; Devignot, S.; Lattwein, E.; Corman, V. M.; Maganga, G. D.; Gloza-Rausch, F.; Binger, T.; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, P.; Cottontail, V. M.; Tschapka, M.; Oppong, S.; Drexler, J. F.; Weber, F.; Leroy, E. M.; Drosten, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 26637 (2016), č. článku 26637. ISSN 2045-2322 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 260427 - CCH Fever Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : sheep disease virus * family Bunyaviridae * serological relationships * antibody-response * migratory birds * rapid detection * viral load * ticks * nairovirus * genus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  9. Efficient, trans-complementing packaging systems for chimeric, pseudoinfectious dengue 2/yellow fever viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shustov, Alexandr V.; Frolov, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    In our previous studies, we have stated to build a new strategy for developing defective, pseudoinfectious flaviviruses (PIVs) and applying them as a new type of vaccine candidates. PIVs combined the efficiency of live vaccines with the safety of inactivated or subunit vaccines. The results of the present work demonstrate further development of chimeric PIVs encoding dengue virus 2 (DEN2V) glycoproteins and yellow fever virus (YFV)-derived replicative machinery as potential vaccine candidates. The newly designed PIVs have synergistically functioning mutations in the prM and NS2A proteins, which abolish processing of the latter proteins and make the defective viruses capable of producing either only noninfectious, immature and/or subviral DEN2V particles. The PIV genomes can be packaged to high titers into infectious virions in vitro using the NS1-deficient YFV helper RNAs, and both PIVs and helpers can then be passaged as two-component genome viruses at an escalating scale.

  10. Construction and characterization of a recombinant yellow fever virus stably expressing Gaussia luciferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TELISSA C. KASSAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yellow fever is an arthropod-borne viral disease that still poses high public health concerns, despite the availability of an effective vaccine. The development of recombinant viruses is of utmost importance for several types of studies, such as those aimed to dissect virus-host interactions and to search for novel antiviral strategies. Moreover, recombinant viruses expressing reporter genes may greatly facilitate these studies. Here, we report the construction of a recombinant yellow fever virus (YFV expressing Gaussia luciferase (GLuc (YFV-GLuc. We show, through RT-PCR, sequencing and measurement of GLuc activity, that stability of the heterologous gene was maintained after six passages. Furthermore, a direct association between GLuc expression and viral replication was observed (r2=0.9967, indicating that measurement of GLuc activity may be used to assess viral replication in different applications. In addition, we evaluated the use of the recombinant virus in an antiviral assay with recombinant human alfa-2b interferon. A 60% inhibition of GLuc expression was observed in cells infected with YFV-GLuc and incubated with IFN alfa-2b. Previously tested on YFV inhibition by plaque assays indicated a similar fold-decrease in viral replication. These results are valuable as they show the stability of YFV-GLuc and one of several possible applications of this construct.

  11. Screening test for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus, based on a flavivirus pseudotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Mercier-Delarue

    Full Text Available Given the possibility of yellow fever virus reintroduction in epidemiologically receptive geographic areas, the risk of vaccine supply disruption is a serious issue. New strategies to reduce the doses of injected vaccines should be evaluated very carefully in terms of immunogenicity. The plaque reduction test for the determination of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT is particularly time-consuming and requires the use of a confinement laboratory. We have developed a new test based on the use of a non-infectious pseudovirus (WN/YF17D. The presence of a reporter gene allows sensitive determination of neutralizing antibodies by flow cytometry. This WN/YF17D test was as sensitive as PRNT for the follow-up of yellow fever vaccinees. Both tests lacked specificity with sera from patients hospitalized for acute Dengue virus infection. Conversely, both assays were strictly negative in adults never exposed to flavivirus infection or vaccination, and in patients sampled some time after acute Dengue infection. This WN/YF17D test will be particularly useful for large epidemiological studies and for screening for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus.

  12. Seroprevalence of yellow fever virus in selected health facilities in Western Kenya from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwallah, Allan ole; Inoue, Shingo; Thairu-Muigai, Anne Wangari; Kuttoh, Nancy; Morita, Kouichi; Mwau, Matilu

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF), which is caused by a mosquito-borne virus, is an important viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in equatorial Africa and South America. Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of YFV in selected health facilities in Western Kenya during the period 2010-2012. A total of 469 serum samples from febrile patients were tested for YFV antibodies using in-house IgM-capture ELISA, in-house indirect IgG ELISA, and 50% focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT50). The present study did not identify any IgM ELISA-positive cases, indicating absence of recent YFV infection in the area. Twenty-eight samples (6%) tested positive for YFV IgG, because of either YFV vaccination or past exposure to various flaviviruses including YFV. Five cases were confirmed by FRNT50; of these, 4 were either vaccination or natural infection during the YF outbreak in 1992-1993 or another period and 1 case was confirmed as a West Nile virus infection. Domestication and routine performance of arboviral differential diagnosis will help to address the phenomenon of pyrexia of unknown origin, contribute to arboviral research in developing countries, and enhance regular surveillance.

  13. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever with influenzal viruses. I. The appearance of an endogenous pyrogen in the blood following intravenous injection of virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATKINS, E; HUANG, W C

    1958-03-01

    A substance with pyrogenic properties appears in the blood streams of rabbits made febrile by the intravenous inoculation of the PR8 strain of influenza A and Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). By means of a technique involving passive transfer of sera from animals given virus to recipient rabbits, the titer of circulating pyrogen was found to be closely correlated with the course of fever produced by virus. Certain properties of the pyrogen are described which differentiate it from the originally injected virus and suggest that the induced pyrogen is of endogenous origin. These properties resemble those of endogenous pyrogens occurring in other forms of experimental fever. The source of virus-induced pyrogen is unknown. In vitro incubation of virus with various constituents of the circulation did not result in the appearance of endogenous pyrogen. Granulocytopenia induced by HN(2) failed to influence either fever or the production of endogenous pyrogen in rabbits injected with NDV. Similarly, the intraperitoneal inoculation of NDV into prepared exudates did not modify the febrile response. These findings do not lend support to the possibility that the polymorphonuclear leukocyte is a significant source of endogenous pyrogen in virus-induced fever. It is concluded that the liberation of an endogenous pyrogen from some as yet undefined source is an essential step in the pathogenesis of fever caused by the influenza group of viruses.

  14. A Novel Benzodiazepine Compound Inhibits Yellow Fever Virus Infection by Specifically Targeting NS4B Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Wu, Shuo; Julander, Justin; Ma, Julia; Zhang, Xuexiang; Kulp, John; Cuconati, Andrea; Block, Timothy M; Du, Yanming; Guo, Ju-Tao; Chang, Jinhong

    2016-09-21

    Although a highly effective vaccine is available, the number of yellow fever cases has increased over the past two decades, which highlights the pressing need for antiviral therapeutics. In a high throughput screening campaign, we identified an acetic acid benzodiazepine (BDAA) compound, which potently inhibits yellow fever virus (YFV). Interestingly, while treatment of YFV infected cultures with 2 μM of BDAA reduced the virion production by greater than 2 logs, the compound is not active against 21 other viruses from 14 different viral families. Selection and genetic analysis of drug resistant viruses revealed that substitution of proline at amino acid 219 (P219) of the nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) with serine, threonine or alanine confers YFV resistance to BDAA without apparent loss of replication fitness in cultured mammalian cells. However, substitution of P219 with glycine confers BDAA resistance with significant loss of replication ability. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that the P219 localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum lumen side of the fifth putative trans-membrane domain of NS4B and the mutation may render the viral protein incapable of interacting with BDAA. Our studies thus revealed important role and structural basis for NS4B protein in supporting YFV replication. Moreover, in YFV-infected hamsters, oral administration of BDAA protected 90% of the animals from death, significantly reduced viral load by greater than 2 logs and attenuated viral infection-induced liver injury and body weight loss. The encouraging preclinical results thus warrant further development of BDAA or its derivatives as antiviral agents to treat yellow fever. Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease which threatens approximately one billion people living in tropical areas of Africa and Latin America. Although a highly effective yellow fever vaccine has been available for more than seven decades, the low vaccination rate fails to prevent outbreaks in at

  15. Climate Change and the Arboviruses: Lessons from the Evolution of the Dengue and Yellow Fever Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2016-09-29

    The impact of anticipated changes in global climate on the arboviruses and the diseases they cause poses a significant challenge for public health. The past evolution of the dengue and yellow fever viruses provides clues about the influence of changes in climate on their future evolution. The evolution of both viruses has been influenced by virus interactions involving the mosquito species and the primate hosts involved in virus transmission, and by their domestic and sylvatic cycles. Information is needed on how viral genes in general influence phenotypic variance for important viral functions. Changes in global climate will alter the interactions of mosquito species with their primate hosts and with the viruses in domestic cycles, and greater attention should be paid to the sylvatic cycles. There is great danger for the evolution of novel viruses, such as new serotypes, that could compromise vaccination programs and jeopardize public health. It is essential to understand (a) both sylvatic and domestic cycles and (b) the role of virus genetic and environmental variances in shaping virus phenotypic variance to more fully assess the impact of global climate change.

  16. Occurrence and Distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV in the Jordan Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anfoka

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In a survey conducted in 2002 and 2003, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV was detected in the Jordan Valley. The direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA indicated that 12.7 and 15.2% of samples tested in the central and northern Jordan Valley respectively were infected with CTV. Similar results showed that all citrus species grown in the Jordan Valley were susceptible to CTV. DAS-ELISA analysis of samples from a citrus orchard in the Dir Alla area with severe CTV symptoms indicated that 49% of samples were infected with CTV. Using a CTV specific primer pair (CTV1/CTV10, the coat protein gene of the virus was successfully amplified from leaf extracts obtained from CTVinfected trees by IC-RT-PCR. After cloning and sequencing the coat protein gene, the sequence of the amplified product was deposited in the GenBank.

  17. Roles of African swine fever virus structural proteins in viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a large, double-stranded DNA virus and the sole member of the Asfarviridae family. ASFV infects domestic pigs, wild boars, warthogs, and bush pigs, as well as soft ticks (Ornithodoros erraticus, which likely act as a vector. The major target is swine monocyte-macrophage cells. The virus can cause high fever, haemorrhagic lesions, cyanosis, anorexia, and even fatalities in domestic pigs. Currently, there is no vaccine and effective disease control strategies against its spread are culling infected pigs and maintaining high biosecurity standards. African swine fever (ASF spread to Europe from Africa in the middle of the 20th century, and later also to South America and the Caribbean. Since then, ASF has spread more widely and thus is still a great challenge for swine breeding. The genome of ASFV ranges in length from about 170 to 193 kbp depending on the isolate and contains between 150 and 167 open reading frames (ORFs. The ASFV genome encodes 150 to 200 proteins, around 50 of them structural. The roles of virus structural proteins in viral infection have been described. These proteins, such as pp220, pp62, p72, p54, p30, and CD2v, serve as the major component of virus particles and have roles in attachment, entry, and replication. All studies on ASFV proteins lay a good foundation upon which to clarify the infection mechanism and develop vaccines and diagnosis methods. In this paper, the roles of ASFV structural proteins in viral infection are reviewed.

  18. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine ... such as those containing DEET. 3 Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine is a live, weakened virus. It is ...

  19. First international external quality assessment of molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38% met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19% with acceptable performance, while 23 (43% reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean

  20. A fatal yellow fever virus infection in China: description and lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihai; Liu, Lin; Lv, Yanning; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiandong; Zhang, Yi; Di, Tian; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Jingyuan; Li, Jie; Qu, Jing; Hua, Wenhao; Li, Chuan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Quanfu; Xu, Yanli; Jiang, Rongmeng; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Shiwen; Pang, Xinghuo; Liang, Mifang; Ma, Xuejun; Li, Xingwang; Wang, Quanyi; Zhang, Fujie; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease endemic to the tropical regions of Africa and South America. An outbreak of YF has been occurring in Angola, since the beginning of 2016. In March 2016, a 32-year-old Chinese man who returned from Angola was hospitalized and diagnosed with the first case of imported YF in China. Clinical observations, blood viral RNA detection, serological testing and treatments for the patient were performed daily. The virus was isolated in Vero cells, and the complete viral genome was sequenced and analyzed using the next-generation genomic sequencing platform. The patient presented with hemorrhagic fever, jaundice and oliguria at day 3 after onset, which rapidly progressed to multisystem organ failure with extremely elevated liver, pancreatic and myocardial enzymes. The patient died despite the intensive supportive treatments that were performed. A liver biopsy showed severe and multilobular necrosis. Viral RNA was detectable throughout the clinical course of the disease. Whole-genomic sequence analysis revealed that the virus belongs to the Angola71 genotype. Although the virus has been circulating in Angola for 45 years, only 14 amino-acid substitutions and no amino-acid changes were observed in the membrane and envelope proteins compared with the virus collected in 1971. The presence of this imported YF case in China indicated that with the increase in business travel among countries, YF outbreaks in Africa can lead to the international spread of the disease. The production and use of YF vaccines is, therefore, an urgent issue. PMID:27406389

  1. Propagation of classical swine fever virus in vitro circumventing heparan sulfate-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymann-Häni, Rita; Leifer, Immanuel; McCullough, Kenneth C; Summerfield, Artur; Ruggli, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    Amplification of natural virus isolates in permanent cell lines can result in adaptation, in particular enhanced binding to heparan sulfate (HS)-containing glycosaminoglycans present on most vertebrate cells. This has been reported for several viruses, including the pestivirus classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the causative agent of a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease in pigs. Propagation of CSFV in cell culture is essential in virus diagnostics and research. Adaptation of CSFV to HS-binding has been related to amino acid changes in the viral E(rns) glycoprotein, resulting in viruses with altered replication characteristics in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, a compound blocking the HS-containing structures on cell surfaces was employed to monitor conversion from HS-independency to HS-dependency. It was shown that the porcine PEDSV.15 cell line permitted propagation of CSFV within a limited number of passages without adaptation to HS-binding. The selection of HS-dependent CSFV mutants was also prevented by propagation of the virus in the presence of DSTP 27. The importance of these findings can be seen from the altered ratio of cell-associated to secreted virus upon acquisition of enhanced HS-binding affinity, a phenotype proposed previously to be related to virulence in the natural host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different

  3. [Viral encephalitis virus, a new bioterrorist menace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Micol, Romain; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    Often responsible for little known infections, today viral encephalitis viruses appear as a new bioterrorist menace, because of their easy production and their great pathogenic potential. Spraying is the best way to permit the rapid diffusion of certain encephalitis viruses. Diagnosis of viral encephalitis, predominating in tropical surroundings, is difficult. In the majority of cases, symptoms differ little from those of common flu. With supplementary examinations, the biological abnormalities are usually non-specific. There are no characteristic images on scans or MRI. Identification of the virus in the nasopharynx, blood or cerebrospinal fluid, in serology, PCR or RT-PCR permits confirmation of the virus. Treatment is essentially symptomatic and relies on appropriate reanimation measures. Ribavirin can be indicated in some cases such as the Rift Valley fever, but is formally contraindicated in West Nile encephalitis. The aim of terrorist groups who would use this type of weapon is more to provoke panic and disorganisation than to kill as many people as possible.

  4. Understanding the groundwater dynamics in the Southern Rift Valley Lakes Basin (Ethiopia). Multivariate statistical analysis method, oxygen (δ 18O) and deuterium (δ 2H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girum Admasu Nadew; Zebene Lakew Tefera

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is very important to classify waters of different hydrochemical groups. Statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, can provide a powerful tool for analyzing water chemistry data. This method is used to test water quality data and determine if samples can be grouped into distinct populations that may be significant in the geologic context, as well as from a statistical point of view. Multivariate statistical analysis method is applied to the geochemical data in combination with δ 18 O and δ 2 H isotopes with the objective to understand the dynamics of groundwater using hierarchical clustering and isotope analyses. The geochemical and isotope data of the central and southern rift valley lakes have been collected and analyzed from different works. Isotope analysis shows that most springs and boreholes are recharged by July and August rainfalls. The different hydrochemical groups that resulted from the multivariate analysis are described and correlated with the geology of the area and whether it has any interaction with a system or not. (author)

  5. Farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management: a case study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-05-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

  6. Identification of New Protein Interactions between Dengue Fever Virus and Its Hosts, Human and Mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairiang, Dumrong; Zhang, Huamei; Sodja, Ann; Murali, Thilakam; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Malasit, Prida; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Finley, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    The four divergent serotypes of dengue virus are the causative agents of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. About two-fifths of the world's population live in areas where dengue is prevalent, and thousands of deaths are caused by the viruses every year. Dengue virus is transmitted from one person to another primarily by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Recent studies have begun to define how the dengue viral proteins interact with host proteins to mediate viral replication and pathogenesis. A combined analysis of these studies, however, suggests that many virus-host protein interactions remain to be identified, especially for the mosquito host. In this study, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening to identify mosquito and human proteins that physically interact with dengue proteins. We tested each identified host protein against the proteins from all four serotypes of dengue to identify interactions that are conserved across serotypes. We further confirmed many of the interactions using co-affinity purification assays. As in other large-scale screens, we identified some previously detected interactions and many new ones, moving us closer to a complete host – dengue protein interactome. To help summarize and prioritize the data for further study, we combined our interactions with other published data and identified a subset of the host-dengue interactions that are now supported by multiple forms of evidence. These data should be useful for understanding the interplay between dengue and its hosts and may provide candidates for drug targets and vector control strategies. PMID:23326450

  7. Identification of new protein interactions between dengue fever virus and its hosts, human and mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairiang, Dumrong; Zhang, Huamei; Sodja, Ann; Murali, Thilakam; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Malasit, Prida; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Finley, Russell L

    2013-01-01

    The four divergent serotypes of dengue virus are the causative agents of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. About two-fifths of the world's population live in areas where dengue is prevalent, and thousands of deaths are caused by the viruses every year. Dengue virus is transmitted from one person to another primarily by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Recent studies have begun to define how the dengue viral proteins interact with host proteins to mediate viral replication and pathogenesis. A combined analysis of these studies, however, suggests that many virus-host protein interactions remain to be identified, especially for the mosquito host. In this study, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening to identify mosquito and human proteins that physically interact with dengue proteins. We tested each identified host protein against the proteins from all four serotypes of dengue to identify interactions that are conserved across serotypes. We further confirmed many of the interactions using co-affinity purification assays. As in other large-scale screens, we identified some previously detected interactions and many new ones, moving us closer to a complete host - dengue protein interactome. To help summarize and prioritize the data for further study, we combined our interactions with other published data and identified a subset of the host-dengue interactions that are now supported by multiple forms of evidence. These data should be useful for understanding the interplay between dengue and its hosts and may provide candidates for drug targets and vector control strategies.

  8. Identification of new protein interactions between dengue fever virus and its hosts, human and mosquito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumrong Mairiang

    Full Text Available The four divergent serotypes of dengue virus are the causative agents of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. About two-fifths of the world's population live in areas where dengue is prevalent, and thousands of deaths are caused by the viruses every year. Dengue virus is transmitted from one person to another primarily by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Recent studies have begun to define how the dengue viral proteins interact with host proteins to mediate viral replication and pathogenesis. A combined analysis of these studies, however, suggests that many virus-host protein interactions remain to be identified, especially for the mosquito host. In this study, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening to identify mosquito and human proteins that physically interact with dengue proteins. We tested each identified host protein against the proteins from all four serotypes of dengue to identify interactions that are conserved across serotypes. We further confirmed many of the interactions using co-affinity purification assays. As in other large-scale screens, we identified some previously detected interactions and many new ones, moving us closer to a complete host - dengue protein interactome. To help summarize and prioritize the data for further study, we combined our interactions with other published data and identified a subset of the host-dengue interactions that are now supported by multiple forms of evidence. These data should be useful for understanding the interplay between dengue and its hosts and may provide candidates for drug targets and vector control strategies.

  9. The yellow fever 17D virus as a platform for new live attenuated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Myrna C; Sequeira, Patrícia C; Galler, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The live-attenuated yellow fever 17D virus is one of the most outstanding human vaccines ever developed. It induces efficacious immune responses at a low production cost with a well-established manufacture process. These advantages make the YF17D virus attractive as a vector for the development of new vaccines. At the beginning of vector development studies, YF17D was genetically manipulated to express other flavivirus prM and E proteins, components of the viral envelope. While these 17D recombinants are based on the substitution of equivalent YF17D genes, other antigens from unrelated pathogens have also been successfully expressed and delivered by recombinant YF17D viruses employing alternative strategies for genetic manipulation of the YF17D genome. Herein, we discuss these strategies in terms of possibilities of single epitope or larger sequence expression and the main properties of these replication-competent viral platforms.

  10. Alteration of a second putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus alters virus replication and virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2, the major envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), is involved in several critical virus functions including cell attachment, host range susceptibility, and virulence in natural hosts. Functional structural analysis of E2 based on Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity dis...

  11. Ebola virus: the role of macrophages and dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mike; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2005-08-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe viral infection characterized by fever, shock and coagulation defects. Recent studies in macaques show that major features of illness are caused by effects of viral replication on macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected macrophages produce proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and tissue factor, attracting additional target cells and inducing vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability and disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, they cannot restrict viral replication, possibly because of suppression of interferon responses. Infected dendritic cells also secrete proinflammatory mediators, but cannot initiate antigen-specific responses. In consequence, virus disseminates to these and other cell types throughout the body, causing multifocal necrosis and a syndrome resembling septic shock. Massive "bystander" apoptosis of natural killer and T cells further impairs immunity. These findings suggest that modifying host responses would be an effective therapeutic strategy, and treatment of infected macaques with a tissue-factor inhibitor reduced both inflammation and viral replication and improved survival.

  12. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...... viruses under all conditions tested. The implications for disease spread are discussed....

  13. Attenuation of Recombinant Yellow Fever 17D Viruses Expressing Foreign Protein Epitopes at the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Garratt, Richard C.; Marchevsky, Renato S.; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Jabor, Alfredo V.; Almeida, Luís F. C.; Yamamura, Anna M. Y.; Duarte, Adriana S.; Oliveira, Prisciliana J.; Lizeu, Jackeline O. P.; Camacho, Luiz A. B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is a live attenuated virus. Three-dimensional (3D) homology modeling of the E protein structure from YF 17D virus and its comparison with that from tick-borne encephalitis virus revealed that it is possible to accommodate inserts of different sizes and amino acid compositions in the flavivirus E protein fg loop. This is consistent with the 3D structures of both the dimeric and trimeric forms in which the fg loop lies exposed to solvents. We demonstrate here that YF 17D viruses bearing foreign humoral (17D/8) and T-cell (17D/13) epitopes, which vary in sequence and length, displayed growth restriction. It is hypothesized that interference with the dimer-trimer transition and with the formation of a ring of such trimers in order to allow fusion compromises the capability of the E protein to induce fusion of viral and endosomal membranes, and a slower rate of fusion may delay the extent of virus production. This would account for the lower levels of replication in cultured cells and of viremia in monkeys, as well as for the more attenuated phenotype of the recombinant viruses in monkeys. Testing of both recombinant viruses (17D/8 and 17D/13) for monkey neurovirulence also suggests that insertion at the 17D E protein fg loop does not compromise the attenuated phenotype of YF 17D virus, further confirming the potential use of this site for the development of new live attenuated 17D virus-based vaccines. PMID:15956601

  14. A sero-epidemiological study of arboviral fevers in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Andayi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arboviral infections have repeatedly been reported in the republic of Djibouti, consistent with the fact that essential vectors for arboviral diseases are endemic in the region. However, there is a limited recent information regarding arbovirus circulation, and the associated risk predictors to human exposure are largely unknown. We performed, from November 2010 to February 2011 in the Djibouti city general population, a cross-sectional ELISA and sero-neutralisation-based sero-epidemiological analysis nested in a household cohort, which investigated the arboviral infection prevalence and risk factors, stratified by their vectors of transmission. Antibodies to dengue virus (21.8% were the most frequent. Determinants of infection identified by multivariate analysis pointed to sociological and environmental exposure to the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The population was broadly naïve against Chikungunya (2.6% with risk factors mostly shared with dengue. The detection of limited virus circulation was followed by a significant Chikungunya outbreak a few months after our study. Antibodies to West Nile virus were infrequent (0.6%, but the distribution of cases faithfully followed previous mapping of infected Culex mosquitoes. The seroprevalence of Rift valley fever virus was 2.2%, and non-arboviral transmission was suggested. Finally, the study indicated the circulation of Toscana-related viruses (3.7%, and a limited number of cases suggested infection by tick-borne encephalitis or Alkhumra related viruses, which deserve further investigations to identify the viruses and vectors implicated. Overall, most of the arboviral cases' predictors were statistically best described by the individuals' housing space and neighborhood environmental characteristics, which correlated with the ecological actors of their respective transmission vectors' survival in the local niche. This study has demonstrated autochthonous arboviral circulations in the republic of

  15. A sero-epidemiological study of arboviral fevers in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andayi, Fred; Charrel, Remi N; Kieffer, Alexia; Richet, Herve; Pastorino, Boris; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Carrat, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Arboviral infections have repeatedly been reported in the republic of Djibouti, consistent with the fact that essential vectors for arboviral diseases are endemic in the region. However, there is a limited recent information regarding arbovirus circulation, and the associated risk predictors to human exposure are largely unknown. We performed, from November 2010 to February 2011 in the Djibouti city general population, a cross-sectional ELISA and sero-neutralisation-based sero-epidemiological analysis nested in a household cohort, which investigated the arboviral infection prevalence and risk factors, stratified by their vectors of transmission. Antibodies to dengue virus (21.8%) were the most frequent. Determinants of infection identified by multivariate analysis pointed to sociological and environmental exposure to the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The population was broadly naïve against Chikungunya (2.6%) with risk factors mostly shared with dengue. The detection of limited virus circulation was followed by a significant Chikungunya outbreak a few months after our study. Antibodies to West Nile virus were infrequent (0.6%), but the distribution of cases faithfully followed previous mapping of infected Culex mosquitoes. The seroprevalence of Rift valley fever virus was 2.2%, and non-arboviral transmission was suggested. Finally, the study indicated the circulation of Toscana-related viruses (3.7%), and a limited number of cases suggested infection by tick-borne encephalitis or Alkhumra related viruses, which deserve further investigations to identify the viruses and vectors implicated. Overall, most of the arboviral cases' predictors were statistically best described by the individuals' housing space and neighborhood environmental characteristics, which correlated with the ecological actors of their respective transmission vectors' survival in the local niche. This study has demonstrated autochthonous arboviral circulations in the republic of Djibouti, and provides

  16. Entomologic and avian investigations of an epidemic of West Nile fever in Romania in 1996, with serologic and molecular characterization of a virus isolate from mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, H M; Ceianu, C; Nicolescu, G; Karabatsos, N; Lanciotti, R; Vladimirescu, A; Laiv, L; Ungureanu, A; Romanca, C; Tsai, T F

    1999-10-01

    Between July and October 1996, a West Nile (WN) fever epidemic occurred in the southern plain and Danube Valley of Romania and in the capital city of Bucharest, resulting in hundreds of neurologic cases and 17 fatalities. In early October 1996, entomologic and avian investigations of the epidemic were conducted in the city of Bucharest and nearby rural areas. Thirty (41%) of 73 domestic fowl sampled had neutralizing antibody to WN virus, including 5 of 13 ducks (38%), 1 of 1 goose, 19 of 52 chickens (37%), 1 of 1 peahen, and 4 of 6 turkeys (67%). Seroprevalence in domestic fowl (27%, or 7 of 26) from the urban Bucharest site was not significantly different (P = 0.08, by Fisher's exact test) than rates at three rural sites (50%, or 23 of 46). Serum collected from one of 12 Passeriformes, an Erithacus rubecula, was positive for neutralizing antibody to WN virus. A total of 5,577 mosquitoes representing seven taxa were collected. Culex pipiens pipiens accounted for 96% of the mosquitoes collected. A single virus isolate, RO97-50, was obtained from a pool of 30 Cx. p. pipiens females aspirated from the walls and ceiling of a blockhouse located near the center of Bucharest, resulting in a minimum infection rate of 0.19 per 1,000. Antisera prepared against RO97-50 failed to distinguish among RO97-50, WN virus strain Eg101, and Kunjin (KUN) virus strain MRM16. A 2,323-basepair DNA fragment of the envelope (E) glycoprotein gene from RO97-50 and a Romanian WN virus strain obtained from a human cerebrospinal fluid sample, RO96-1030, were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of 23 WN virus strains and one KUN virus strain using the amino acid and nucleotide sequences for a small portion of the E gene suggest the existence of two large lineages of viruses. Bootstrap analysis of the nucleotide alignment indicated strong support (95%) for a lineage composed of WN virus strains from northern Africa, including isolates from Egypt and Algeria, and west, central, and east Africa, all of

  17. Fever versus Fever: the role of host and vector susceptibility and interspecific competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kathryn A.; Monath, Thomas P.; Weaver, Scott C.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Richman, Rebecca L.; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Two different species of flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), that originated in sylvatic cycles maintained in non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes have emerged repeatedly into sustained human-to-human transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sylvatic cycles of both viruses remain active, and where the two viruses overlap in West Africa they utilize similar suites of monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes. These extensive similarities render the differences in the biogeography and epidemiology of the two viruses all the more striking. First, the sylvatic cycle of YFV originated in Africa and was introduced into the New World, probably as a result of the slave trade, but is absent in Asia; in contrast, sylvatic DENV likely originated in Asia and has spread to Africa but not to the New World. Second, while sylvatic YFV can emerge into extensive urban outbreaks in humans, these invariably die out, whereas four different types of DENV have established human transmission cycles that are ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from their sylvatic ancestors. Finally, transmission of YFV among humans has been documented only in Africa and the Americas, whereas DENV is transmitted among humans across most of the range of competent Aedes vectors, which in the last decade has included every continent save Antarctica. This review summarizes current understanding of sylvatic transmission cycles of YFV and DENV, considers possible explanations for their disjunct distributions, and speculates on the potential consequences of future establishment of a sylvatic cycle of DENV in the Americas. PMID:23523817

  18. A century of plant virus management in the Salinas valley of California, 'East of Eden'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisler, G C; Duffus, J E

    2000-11-01

    The mild climate of the Salinas Valley, CA lends itself well to a diverse agricultural industry. However, the diversity of weeds, crops and insect and fungal vectors also provide favorable conditions for plant virus disease development. This paper considers the incidence and management of several plant viruses that have caused serious epidemics and been significant in the agricultural development of the Salinas Valley during the 20th century. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) almost destroyed the newly established sugarbeet industry soon after its establishment in the 1870s. A combination of resistant varieties, cultural management of beet crops to provide early plant emergence and development, and a highly coordinated beet leafhopper vector scouting and spray programme have achieved adequate control of BCTV. These programmes were first developed by the USDA and still operate. Lettuce mosaic virus was first recognized as causing a serious disease of lettuce crops in the 1930s. The virus is still a threat but it is controlled by a lettuce-free period in December and a seed certification programme that allows only seed lots with less than one infected seed in 30000 to be grown. 'Virus Yellows' is a term used to describe a complex of yellows inducing viruses which affect mainly sugarbeet and lettuce. These viruses include Beet yellows virus and Beet western yellows virus. During the 1950s, the complex caused significant yield losses to susceptible crops in the Salinas Valley. A beet-free period was introduced and is still used for control. The fungus-borne rhizomania disease of sugarbeet caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was first detected in Salinas Valley in 1983. Assumed to have been introduced from Europe, this virus has now become widespread in California wherever beets are grown and crop losses can be as high as 100%. Movement of infested soil and beets accounts for its spread throughout the beet-growing regions of the United States. Control of rhizomania

  19. Comparison of two Next Generation sequencing platforms for full genome sequencing of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Höper, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    to the consensus sequence. Additionally, we got an average sequence depth for the genome of 4000 for the Iontorrent PGM and 400 for the FLX platform making the mapping suitable for single nucleotide variant (SNV) detection. The analysis revealed a single non-silent SNV A10665G leading to the amino acid change D......Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is becoming more adopted into viral research and will be the preferred technology in the years to come. We have recently sequenced several strains of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) by NGS on both Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX) and Iontorrent PGM platforms...

  20. Complete Genomes of Classical Swine Fever Virus Cloned into Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, I.; Uttenthal, Åse

    Complete genome amplification of viral RNA provides a new tool for the generation of modified pestiviruses. We have used our full-genome amplification strategy for generation of amplicons representing complete genomes of classical swine fever virus. The amplicons were cloned directly into a stabl...... single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) generating full-length pestivirus DNAs from which infectious RNA transcripts could be also derived. Our strategy allows construction of stable infectious BAC DNAs from a single full-length PCR product....

  1. Isolation and whole-genome sequencing of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Tsioka, Katerina; Kontana, Anastasia; Pappa, Styliani; Melidou, Ageliki; Giadinis, Nektarios D

    2018-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was isolated from a pool of two adult Rhipicephalus bursa ticks removed from a goat in 2015 in Greece. The strain clusters into lineage Europe 2 representing the second available whole-genome sequenced isolate of this lineage. CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in 8 of 19 goats of the farm. Currently CCHFV is not associated with disease in mammals other than humans. Studies in animal models are needed to investigate the pathogenicity level of lineage Europe 2 and compare it with that of other lineages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  3. Calcium Regulation of Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Budding: Mechanistic Implications for Host-Oriented Therapeutic Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziying Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever viruses, including the filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg and arenaviruses (Lassa and Junín viruses, are serious human pathogens for which there are currently no FDA approved therapeutics or vaccines. Importantly, transmission of these viruses, and specifically late steps of budding, critically depend upon host cell machinery. Consequently, strategies which target these mechanisms represent potential targets for broad spectrum host oriented therapeutics. An important cellular signal implicated previously in EBOV budding is calcium. Indeed, host cell calcium signals are increasingly being recognized to play a role in steps of entry, replication, and transmission for a range of viruses, but if and how filoviruses and arenaviruses mobilize calcium and the precise stage of virus transmission regulated by calcium have not been defined. Here we demonstrate that expression of matrix proteins from both filoviruses and arenaviruses triggers an increase in host cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration by a mechanism that requires host Orai1 channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Orai1 regulates both VLP and infectious filovirus and arenavirus production and spread. Notably, suppression of the protein that triggers Orai activation (Stromal Interaction Molecule 1, STIM1 and genetic inactivation or pharmacological blockade of Orai1 channels inhibits VLP and infectious virus egress. These findings are highly significant as they expand our understanding of host mechanisms that may broadly control enveloped RNA virus budding, and they establish Orai and STIM1 as novel targets for broad-spectrum host-oriented therapeutics to combat these emerging BSL-4 pathogens and potentially other enveloped RNA viruses that bud via similar mechanisms.

  4. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever with influenzal viruses. II. The effects of endogenous pyrogen in normal and virus-tolerant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATKINS, E; HUANG, W C

    1958-03-01

    Observations have been made on the fever-inducing properties of an endogenous pyrogen found in the circulation of rabbits after the intravenous inoculation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). When endogenous pyrogen was given to a normal recipient, a biphasic fever was produced which simulated that seen with bacterial endotoxins. With the use of a technique of serial passive transfer, it has been shown that the "double-humped" response results from two separate actions of the injected pyrogen. The first of these appears to be a direct stimulation of the thermoregulatory centers. The second involves the release of further endogenous pyrogen in the normal recipient to cause, in turn, the second fever peak. Since the injection of endogenous pyrogen did not produce a significant change in the number of circulating leukocytes, it is inferred that this substance is different from either bacterial or tissue polysaccharides. In rabbits rendered tolerant by a previous injection of virus the second fever peak failed to appear and the response to endogenous pyrogen was monophasic. Evidence indicates that the absence of a second fever peak in the tolerant recipient was not due to rise in temperature on the preceding day of virus injection or to the development of either serum inhibitors or tolerance to virus itself. It is postulated that prior mobilization of endogenous pyrogen by virus may have modified the ability of the tolerant recipient to liberate further amounts of this substance in response to an injection of endogenous pyrogen.

  5. Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Medeiros, Carlos Roberto de; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged  60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. previously vaccinated healthy persons aged  18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. 46 persons aged  60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear.

  6. Approaches and Perspectives for Development of African Swine Fever Virus Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Arias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a complex disease of swine, caused by a large DNA virus belonging to the family Asfarviridae. The disease shows variable clinical signs, with high case fatality rates, up to 100%, in the acute forms. ASF is currently present in Africa and Europe where it circulates in different scenarios causing a high socio-economic impact. In most affected regions, control has not been effective in part due to lack of a vaccine. The availability of an effective and safe ASFV vaccines would support and enforce control–eradication strategies. Therefore, work leading to the rational development of protective ASF vaccines is a high priority. Several factors have hindered vaccine development, including the complexity of the ASF virus particle and the large number of proteins encoded by its genome. Many of these virus proteins inhibit the host’s immune system thus facilitating virus replication and persistence. We review previous work aimed at understanding ASFV–host interactions, including mechanisms of protective immunity, and approaches for vaccine development. These include live attenuated vaccines, and “subunit” vaccines, based on DNA, proteins, or virus vectors. In the shorter to medium term, live attenuated vaccines are the most promising and best positioned candidates. Gaps and future research directions are evaluated.

  7. Serum neutralization as a differential serological test for classical swine fever virus and other pestivirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutralization tests (SN were performed against classical swine fever virus (CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and border disease virus (BDV on samples of swine serum collected for screening of antibodies to CSFV, in order to determine the SN value as a differential serological test. Ninety-nine sera out of a sample of 16,664 were positive for antibodies to pestiviruses in an ELISA test which did not distinguish antibodies to different pestiviruses. When submitted to SN, 81 sera were positive for CSFV antibodies only. In 17 sera, crossreactive antibodies to either CSFV, BVDV or BDV were detected. In most of these sera (13 out of 17 the differences between SN titres against the three viruses were not sufficient to estimate which was the most likely antibody-inducing virus. It was concluded that, for the SN to be useful in such differentiation, it is essential to examine a sample which must include a representative number of sera from the same farm where suspect animals were detected. When isolated serum samples are examined, such as those obtained with the sampling strategy adopted here, the SN may give rise to inconclusive results.

  8. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Manuel V; Holinka, Lauren G; Berggren, Keith A; Gladue, Douglas P

    2018-02-16

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly contagious disease called African swine fever. This disease is often lethal for domestic pigs, causing extensive losses for the swine industry. ASFV is a large and complex double stranded DNA virus. Currently there is no commercially available treatment or vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. Development of recombinant ASFV for producing live-attenuated vaccines or studying the involvement of specific genes in virus virulence has relied on the relatively rare event of homologous recombination in primary swine macrophages, causing difficulty to purify the recombinant virus from the wild-type parental ASFV. Here we present the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system as a more robust and efficient system to produce recombinant ASFVs. Using CRISPR-Cas9 a recombinant virus was efficiently developed by deleting the non-essential gene 8-DR from the genome of the highly virulent field strain Georgia07 using swine macrophages as cell substrate.

  9. Sequence adaptations during growth of rescued classical swine fever viruses in cell culture and within infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Friis, Martin Barfred; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    RNA could be detected. However, the animals inoculated with these mutant viruses seroconverted against CSFV. Thus, these mutant viruses were highly attenuated in vivo. All 4 rescued viruses were also passaged up to 20 times in cell culture. Using full genome sequencing, the same two adaptations within......Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important disease of swine. Four different viruses were rescued from full-length cloned cDNAs derived from the Paderborn strain of CSFV. Three of these viruses had been modified by mutagenesis (with 7 or 8 nt changes) within stem 2...... each of four independent virus populations were observed that restored the coding sequence to that of the parental field strain. These adaptations occurred with different kinetics. The combination of reverse genetics and in depth, full genome sequencing provides a powerful approach to analyse virus...

  10. Mild Clinical Course of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in an Elderly Japanese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ohagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS is an emerging infectious and hemorrhagic disease recently described in China and western Japan. A 71-year-old healthy Japanese woman noticed a tick biting her after harvesting in an orchard and removed it herself. She developed diarrhea, anorexia, and chills eight days later. Because these symptoms continued, she visited a primary care physician 6 days after the onset. Laboratory data revealed thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was then referred to our hospital. Although not completely fulfilling the diagnostic criteria used in a retrospective study in Japan, SFTS was suspected, and we detected SFTS virus in the patient’s blood using RT-PCR. However, she recovered without intensive treatment and severe complications 13 days after the onset. In this report, we present a mild clinical course of SFTS virus infection in Japan in detail.

  11. Biosafety standards for working with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Manfred; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Bino, Silvia; Bouloy, Michelle; Burt, Felicity; Chinikar, Sadegh; Christova, Iva; Dedushaj, Isuf; El-Sanousi, Ahmed; Elaldi, Nazif; Hewson, Roger; Hufert, Frank T; Humolli, Isme; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Koçak Tufan, Zeliha; Korukluoglu, Gülay; Lyssen, Pieter; Mirazimi, Ali; Neyts, Johan; Niedrig, Matthias; Ozkul, Aykut; Papa, Anna; Paweska, Janusz; Sall, Amadou A; Schmaljohn, Connie S; Swanepoel, Robert; Uyar, Yavuz; Weber, Friedemann; Zeller, Herve

    2016-11-01

    In countries from which Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is absent, the causative virus, CCHF virus (CCHFV), is classified as a hazard group 4 agent and handled in containment level (CL)-4. In contrast, most endemic countries out of necessity have had to perform diagnostic tests under biosafety level (BSL)-2 or -3 conditions. In particular, Turkey and several of the Balkan countries have safely processed more than 100 000 samples over many years in BSL-2 laboratories. It is therefore advocated that biosafety requirements for CCHF diagnostic procedures should be revised, to allow the tests required to be performed under enhanced BSL-2 conditions with appropriate biosafety laboratory equipment and personal protective equipment used according to standardized protocols in the countries affected. Downgrading of CCHFV research work from CL-4, BSL-4 to CL-3, BSL-3 should also be considered.

  12. [Birds, mosquitoes and West Nile virus: little risk of West Nile fever in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Janneke W; Stroo, C J Arjan; Braks, Marieta A H

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased incidence of West Nile fever (WNF) in Europe and the rapid spread of West Nile virus (WNV) in the US, it is commonly thought that it will only be a matter of time before WNV reaches the Netherlands. However, assessing whether WNV is really a threat to the Dutch population is challenging, due to the numerous factors affecting transmission of the virus. Some of these factors are known to limit the risk of WNF in the Netherlands. This risk is determined by the interaction between the pathogen (WNV), the vectors (Culex mosquitoes), the reservoirs (birds) and the exposure of humans to infected mosquitoes. In this paper, we discuss the factors influencing introduction, establishment and spread of WNV in the Netherlands. The probability that each of these three phases will occur in the Netherlands is currently relatively small, as is the risk of WNF infection in humans in the Netherlands.

  13. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J; Scott, Dana P; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-12-15

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF.

  14. Bat airway epithelial cells: a novel tool for the study of zoonotic viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available Bats have been increasingly recognized as reservoir of important zoonotic viruses. However, until now many attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in cell culture have been unsuccessful. Further, experimental studies on reservoir host species have been limited by the difficulty of rearing these species. The epithelium of the respiratory tract plays a central role during airborne transmission, as it is the first tissue encountered by viral particles. Although several cell lines from bats were established recently, no well-characterized, selectively cultured airway epithelial cells were available so far. Here, primary cells and immortalized cell lines from bats of the two important suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera, Carollia perspicillata (Seba's short-tailed bat and Eidolon helvum (Straw-colored fruit bat, were successfully cultured under standardized conditions from both fresh and frozen organ specimens by cell outgrowth of organ explants and by the use of serum-free primary cell culture medium. Cells were immortalized to generate permanent cell lines. Cells were characterized for their epithelial properties such as expression of cytokeratin and tight junctions proteins and permissiveness for viral infection with Rift-Valley fever virus and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana. These cells can serve as suitable models for the study of bat-borne viruses and complement cell culture models for virus infection in human airway epithelial cells.

  15. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenea, Oljira; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2011-06-01

    Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia and elsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables (water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized and analyzed. Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout the study period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only 3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logistic regression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vector species. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquatic vegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly and positively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies. Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintained by perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vector control operations.

  16. Characterising and comparing drug-dispensing practices at animal health outlets in the Rift Valley, Kenya: an exploratory analysis (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, L E; Ongeri, W; Asena, K; Thrusfield, M V

    2016-12-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise drug-dispensing practices amongst staff at animal health outlets and to explore perceptions of veterinary medicines amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal health outlets, including franchise outlets of 'Sidai Africa Ltd.', and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of local animal health services by a Maasai pastoralist group and a dairy farmer cooperative. Differences were detected in the characteristics of Sidai outlets, agrovets, pharmacies and dukas. A greater proportion of Sidai outlet staff selected drugs based on principles of responsible drug use than staff at other types of outlet, and technical qualifications and training were associated with responsible drug use. Across all outlet types, staff knowledge and training gaps were identified, including in the correct administration of medicines. The majority of drug sales are accompanied by verbal advice to farmers. Members of the Maasai pastoralist group were concerned about accidental self-medication, withdrawal periods, drug residues and the misuse of drugs due to a lack of quality information and advice. The dairy farmer group raised similar concerns, reporting under-dosing as a common mistake amongst farmers. This study concludes that current knowledge, attitudes and practices of many service providers and livestock owners in the sale, purchase and use of veterinary medicines present risks of drug misuse and therefore the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. There is a clear demand from livestock keepers for accessible, affordable and quality animal health services and products in Kenya, and animal health practitioners have the potential to provide increased support to livestock-based livelihoods and act as stewards of our existing portfolio of animal and human medicines.

  17. Development of a membrane adsorber based capture step for the purification of yellow fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Tânia P; Souza, Marta Cristina O; Silva, Andréa N M R; Pereira, Renata C; Silva, Marlon V; Caride, Elena; Gaspar, Luciane P; Freire, Marcos S; Castilho, Leda R

    2014-05-19

    Yellow fever (YF) is an endemic disease in some tropical areas of South America and Africa that presents lethality rate between 20 and 50%. There is no specific treatment and to control this disease a highly effective live-attenuated egg based vaccine is widely used for travelers and residents of areas where YF is endemic. However, recent reports of rare, sometimes fatal, adverse events post-vaccination have raised concerns. In order to increase safety records, alternative strategies should be considered, such as developing a new inactivated vaccine using a cell culture based technology, capable of meeting the demands in cases of epidemic. With this goal, the production of YF virus in Vero cells grown on microcarriers and its subsequent purification by chromatographic techniques was studied. In this work we investigate the capture step of the purification process of the YF virus. At first, virus stability was studied over a wide pH range, showing best results for the alkaline region. Considering this result and the pI of the envelope protein previously determined in silico, a strong anion exchanger was considered most suitable. Due to the easy scalability, simplicity to handle, absence of diffusional limitations and suitability for virus handling of membrane adsorbers, a Q membrane was evaluated. The amount of antigen adsorbed onto the membrane was investigated within the pH range for virus stability, and the best pH for virus adsorption was considered to be 8.5. Finally, studies on gradient and step elution allowed to determine the most adequate salt concentration for washing (0.15M) and virus elution (0.30 M). Under these operating conditions, it was shown that this capture step is quite efficient, showing high product recovery (93.2±30.3%) and efficient DNA clearance (0.9±0.3 ng/dose). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antigenic variants of yellow fever virus with an altered neurovirulence phenotype in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, K D; Xie, H; Ledger, T N; Campbell, G A; Barrett, A D

    1997-04-14

    The live-attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine virus, strain 17D-204, has long been known to consist of a heterologous population of virions. Gould et al. (J. Gen. Virol. 70, 1889-1894 (1989)) previously demonstrated that variant viruses exhibiting a YF wild-type-specific envelope (E) protein epitope are present at low frequency in the vaccine pool and were able to isolate representative virus variants with and without this epitope, designated 17D(+wt) and 17D(-wt), respectively. These variants were employed here in an investigation of YF virus pathogenesis in the mouse model. Both the 17D-204 parent and the 17D(+wt) variant viruses were lethal for adult outbred mice by the intracerebral route of inoculation. However, the 17D(-wt) variant was significantly attenuated (18% mortality rate) and replicated to much lower titer in the brains of infected mice. A single amino acid substitution in the envelope (E) protein at E-240 (Ala-->Val) was identified as responsible for the restricted replication of the 17D(-wt) variant in vivo. The 17D(+wt) variant has an additional second-site mutation, believed to encode a reversion to the neurovirulence phenotype of the 17D-204 parent virus. The amino acid substitution in the E protein at E-173 (Thr-->Ile) of the 17D(+wt) variant which results in the appearance of the wild-type-specific epitope or nucleotide changes in the 5' and 3' noncoding regions of the virus are proposed as a candidates.

  19. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernaez, Bruno; Escribano, Jose M.; Alonso, Covadonga

    2006-01-01

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations

  20. A recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Bonney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity. The assay was shown to tolerate the presence of inhibitors in crude preparations of mock field samples, indicating that this assay may be suitable for use in the field with minimal sample preparation. The CCHFV RPA was successfully used to screen and detect CCHFV positives from a panel of clinical samples from Tajikistan.The assay is a rapid, isothermal, simple-to-perform molecular diagnostic, which can be performed on a light, portable real-time detection device. It is ideally placed therefore for use as a field-diagnostic or in-low resource laboratories, for monitoring of CCHF outbreaks at the point-of-need, such as in remote rural regions in affected countries.

  1. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  2. A flow cytometry-based assay for quantifying non-plaque forming strains of yellow fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Hammarlund

    Full Text Available Primary clinical isolates of yellow fever virus can be difficult to quantitate by standard in vitro methods because they may not form discernable plaques or induce a measurable cytopathic effect (CPE on cell monolayers. In our hands, the Dakar strain of yellow fever virus (YFV-Dakar could not be measured by plaque assay (PA, focus-forming assay (FFA, or by measurement of CPE. For these reasons, we developed a YFV-specific monoclonal antibody (3A8.B6 and used it to optimize a highly sensitive flow cytometry-based tissue culture limiting dilution assay (TC-LDA to measure levels of infectious virus. The TC-LDA was performed by incubating serial dilutions of virus in replicate wells of C6/36 cells and stained intracellularly for virus with MAb 3A8.B6. Using this approach, we could reproducibly quantitate YFV-Dakar in tissue culture supernatants as well as from the serum of viremic rhesus macaques experimentally infected with YFV-Dakar. Moreover, the TC-LDA approach was >10-fold more sensitive than standard plaque assay for quantitating typical plaque-forming strains of YFV including YFV-17D and YFV-FNV (French neurotropic vaccine. Together, these results indicate that the TC-LDA technique is effective for quantitating both plaque-forming and non-plaque-forming strains of yellow fever virus, and this methodology may be readily adapted for the study and quantitation of other non-plaque-forming viruses.

  3. Restoration of glycoprotein Erns dimerization via pseudoreversion partially restores virulence of classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucakov, Anna Katharina; Yavuz, Sabine; Schürmann, Eva-Maria; Mischler, Manjula; Klingebeil, Anne; Meyers, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) represents one of the most important pathogens of swine. The CSFV glycoprotein E rns is an essential structural protein and an important virulence factor. The latter is dependent on the RNase activity of this envelope protein and, most likely, its secretion from the infected cell. A further important feature with regard to its function as a virulence factor is the formation of disulfide-linked E rns homodimers that are found in virus-infected cells and virions. Mutant CSFV lacking cysteine (Cys) 171, the residue responsible for intermolecular disulfide bond formation, were found to be attenuated in pigs (Tews BA, Schürmann EM, Meyers G. J Virol 2009;83:4823-4834). In the course of an animal experiment with such a dimerization-negative CSFV mutant, viruses were reisolated from pigs that contained a mutation of serine (Ser) 209 to Cys. This mutation restored the ability to form disulphide-linked E rns homodimers. In transient expression studies E rns mutants carrying the S209C change were found to form homodimers with about wt efficiency. Also the secretion level of the mutated proteins was equivalent to that of wt E rns . Virus mutants containing the Cys171Ser/Ser209Cys configuration exhibited wt growth rates and increased virulence when compared with the Cys171Ser mutant. These results provide further support for the connection between CSFV virulence and E rns dimerization.

  4. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  5. Simultaneous deletion of the 9GL and UK genes from the African swine fever virus Georgia 2007 isolate results in virus attenuation and may be a potential virus vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The control of African Swine Fever (ASF) has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Successful experi...

  6. Hospital-based surveillance for viral hemorrhagic fevers and hepatitides in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Humphrey Kofi Bonney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF are acute diseases associated with bleeding, organ failure, and shock. VHF may hardly be distinguished clinically from other diseases in the African hospital, including viral hepatitis. This study was conducted to determine if VHF and viral hepatitis contribute to hospital morbidity in the Central and Northern parts of Ghana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2009 to 2011, blood samples of 258 patients with VHF symptoms were collected at 18 hospitals in Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Northern, Upper West, and Upper East regions. Patients were tested by PCR for Lassa, Rift Valley, Crimean-Congo, Ebola/Marburg, and yellow fever viruses; hepatitis A (HAV, B (HBV, C (HCV, and E (HEV viruses; and by ELISA for serological hepatitis markers. None of the patients tested positive for VHF. However, 21 (8.1% showed anti-HBc IgM plus HBV DNA and/or HBsAg; 37 (14% showed HBsAg and HBV DNA without anti-HBc IgM; 26 (10% showed anti-HAV IgM and/or HAV RNA; and 20 (7.8% were HCV RNA-positive. None was positive for HEV RNA or anti-HEV IgM plus IgG. Viral genotypes were determined as HAV-IB, HBV-A and E, and HCV-1, 2, and 4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VHFs do not cause significant hospital morbidity in the study area. However, the incidence of acute hepatitis A and B, and hepatitis B and C with active virus replication is high. These infections may mimic VHF and need to be considered if VHF is suspected. The data may help decision makers to allocate resources and focus surveillance systems on the diseases of relevance in Ghana.

  7. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Maria; Chinikar, Sadegh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Noroozi, Mehdi; Faghihi, Faezeh; Jalali, Tahmineh; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Farhadpour, Firoozeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reservoir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investigated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR. Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H. asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11%) in Rh. sanguineus. Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area. PMID:27308296

  8. Immune responses to recombinants of the South African vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus generated by using thymidine kinase gene insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, David B; Viljoen, Gerrit J

    2005-04-27

    The South African vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus (type SA-Neethling) is currently being developed as a vector for recombinant vaccines of economically important livestock diseases throughout Africa. In this study, the feasibility of using the viral thymidine kinase gene as the site of insertion was investigated and recombinant viruses were evaluated in animal trials. Two separate recombinants were generated and selected for homogeneity expressing either the structural glycoprotein gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) or the two structural glycoprotein genes of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Both recombinants incorporate the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a visual marker and the Escherichia coli guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (gpt) gene for dominant positive selection. The LSDV-RVFV recombinant construct (rLSDV-RVFV) protected mice against virulent RVFV challenge. In a small-scale BEFV-challenge cattle trial the rLSDV-BEFV construct failed to fully protect the cattle against virulent challenge, although both a humoral and cellular BEFV-specific immune response was elicited.

  9. Rapid molecular assays for the detection of yellow fever virus in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escadafal, Camille; Faye, Oumar; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Faye, Ousmane; Weidmann, Manfred; Strohmeier, Oliver; von Stetten, Felix; Drexler, Josef; Eberhard, Michael; Niedrig, Matthias; Patel, Pranav

    2014-03-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The causative agent, the yellow fever virus (YFV), is found in tropical and subtropical areas of South America and Africa. Although a vaccine is available since the 1930s, YF still causes thousands of deaths and several outbreaks have recently occurred in Africa. Therefore, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods easy to perform in low-resources settings could have a major impact on early detection of outbreaks and implementation of appropriate response strategies such as vaccination and/or vector control. The aim of this study was to develop a YFV nucleic acid detection method applicable in outbreak investigations and surveillance studies in low-resource and field settings. The method should be simple, robust, rapid and reliable. Therefore, we adopted an isothermal approach and developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay which can be performed with a small portable instrument and easy-to-use lyophilized reagents. The assay was developed in three different formats (real-time with or without microfluidic semi-automated system and lateral-flow assay) to evaluate their application for different purposes. Analytical specificity and sensitivity were evaluated with a wide panel of viruses and serial dilutions of YFV RNA. Mosquito pools and spiked human plasma samples were also tested for assay validation. Finally, real-time RPA in portable format was tested under field conditions in Senegal. The assay was able to detect 20 different YFV strains and demonstrated no cross-reactions with closely related viruses. The RPA assay proved to be a robust, portable method with a low detection limit (<21 genome equivalent copies per reaction) and rapid processing time (<20 min). Results from real-time RPA field testing were comparable to results obtained in the laboratory, thus confirming our method is suitable for YFV detection in low-resource settings.

  10. Rapid molecular assays for the detection of yellow fever virus in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The causative agent, the yellow fever virus (YFV, is found in tropical and subtropical areas of South America and Africa. Although a vaccine is available since the 1930s, YF still causes thousands of deaths and several outbreaks have recently occurred in Africa. Therefore, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods easy to perform in low-resources settings could have a major impact on early detection of outbreaks and implementation of appropriate response strategies such as vaccination and/or vector control. METHODOLOGY: The aim of this study was to develop a YFV nucleic acid detection method applicable in outbreak investigations and surveillance studies in low-resource and field settings. The method should be simple, robust, rapid and reliable. Therefore, we adopted an isothermal approach and developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay which can be performed with a small portable instrument and easy-to-use lyophilized reagents. The assay was developed in three different formats (real-time with or without microfluidic semi-automated system and lateral-flow assay to evaluate their application for different purposes. Analytical specificity and sensitivity were evaluated with a wide panel of viruses and serial dilutions of YFV RNA. Mosquito pools and spiked human plasma samples were also tested for assay validation. Finally, real-time RPA in portable format was tested under field conditions in Senegal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The assay was able to detect 20 different YFV strains and demonstrated no cross-reactions with closely related viruses. The RPA assay proved to be a robust, portable method with a low detection limit (<21 genome equivalent copies per reaction and rapid processing time (<20 min. Results from real-time RPA field testing were comparable to results obtained in the laboratory, thus confirming our method is suitable for

  11. The risk of the introduction of classical swine fever virus at regional level in the European Union: a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de C.J.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics in the European Union (EU) have clearly shown that preventing the introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) deserves high priority. Insight into all the factors contributing to the risk of CSFV introduction is a prerequisite for deciding which preventive actions

  12. Neurovirulence of yellow fever 17DD vaccine virus to rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchevsky, Renato S.; Freire, Marcos S.; Coutinho, Evandro S.F.; Galler, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    The yellow fever 17D virus is attenuated and used for human vaccination. Two of its substrains, 17D-204 and 17DD, are used for vaccine production. One of the remarkable properties of this vaccine is limited viral replication in the host but with significant dissemination of the viral mass, yielding a robust and long-lived neutralizing antibody response. The vaccine has excellent records of efficacy and safety and is cheap, used as a single dose, and there are well-established production methodology and quality control procedures which include the monkey neurovirulence test (MNTV). The present study aims at a better understanding of YF 17DD virus attenuation and immunogenicity in the MNVT with special emphasis on viremia, seroconversion, clinical and histological lesions scores, and their intrinsic variability across the tests. Several MNVTs were performed using the secondary seed lot virus 17DD 102/84 totaling 49 rhesus monkeys. Viremia was never higher than the accepted limits established in international requirements, and high levels of neutralizing antibodies were observed in all animals. None of the animals showed visceral lesions. We found that the clinical scores for the same virus varied widely across the tests. There was a direct correlation between the clinical scores in animals with clinical signs of encephalitis and a higher degree of central nervous system (CNS) histological lesions, with an increase of lesions in areas of the CNS such as the substantia nigra, nucleus caudatus, intumescentia cervicalis, and intumescentia ventralis. The histological scores were shown to be less prone to individual variations and had a more homogeneous value distribution among the tests. Since 17DD 102/84 seed virus has been used for human vaccine production and immunization for 16 years with the vaccine being safe and efficacious, it demonstrates that the observed variations across the MNVTs do not influence its effect on humans

  13. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C E P; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of Y