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Sample records for rifle marksmanship brm

  1. The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors on the Development of Rifle Marksmanship Skills. CRESST Report 753

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…

  2. Statistical Measures of Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... This report describes objective statistical procedures to measure both rifle marksmanship accuracy, the proximity of an array of shots to the center of mass of a target, and marksmanship precision...

  3. Reliance on Simulation in Initial Entry Rifle Marksmanship Training and Future Directions for Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    drills has direct and valuable application to training marksmanship skills, for the novice firers in the assessment, more attention was needed to insure... training in a simulator at real time, actual flight seemed to take place at a much faster time frame. However, pilots reported that after practicing in...who used the EST 2000 (Scholtes & Stapp, 1994), where a concern was raised about less attention paid to weapon safety during EST training than on

  4. Rifle Marksmanship Diagnostic and Training Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    there any techniques you use to help prepare Soldiers to transition to firing with aiming lights (PEQ-2 or PAQ -4) and night vision goggles (ARM 1)? If...firing skills with the PAQ -4? A‐5    15. Are there any other diagnostic techniques you use that we haven’t discussed? a. Think back on your

  5. Prior Mental Fatigue Impairs Marksmanship Decision Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Head

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mental fatigue has been shown to impair subsequent physical performance in continuous and discontinuous exercise. However, its influence on subsequent fine-motor performance in an applied setting (e.g., marksmanship for trained soldiers is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prior mental fatigue influences subsequent marksmanship performance as measured by shooting accuracy and judgment of soldiers in a live-fire scenario.Methods: Twenty trained infantry soldiers engaged targets after completing either a mental fatigue or control intervention in a repeated measure design. Heart rate variability and the NASA-TLX were used to gauge physiological and subjective effects of the interventions. Target hit proportion, projectile group accuracy, and precision were used to measure marksmanship accuracy. Marksmanship accuracy was assessed by measuring bullet group accuracy (i.e., how close a group of shots are relative to center of mass and bullet group precision (i.e., how close are each individual shot to each other. Additionally, marksmanship decision accuracy (correctly shooting vs. correctly withholding shot when engaging targets was used to examine marksmanship performance.Results: Soldiers rated the mentally fatiguing task (59.88 ± 23.7 as having greater mental workload relative to the control intervention [31.29 ± 12.3, t(19 = 1.72, p < 0.001]. Additionally, soldiers completing the mental fatigue intervention (96.04 ± = 37.1 also had lower time-domain (standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals heart rate variability relative to the control [134.39 ± 47.4, t(18 = 3.59, p < 0.001]. Projectile group accuracy and group precision failed to show differences between interventions [t(19 = 0.98, p = 0.34, t(19 = 0.18, p = 0.87, respectively]. Marksmanship decision errors significantly increased after soldiers completed the mental fatigue intervention (48% ± 22.4 relative to the control

  6. Flavonoids from each of the six structural groups reactivate BRM, a possible cofactor for the anticancer effects of flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahali, Bhaskar; Marquez, Stefanie B.; Thompson, Kenneth W.; Yu, Jinlong; Gramling, Sarah J.B.; Lu, Li; Aponick, Aaron; Reisman, David

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids have been extensively studied and are well documented to have anticancer effects, but it is not entirely known how they impact cellular mechanisms to elicit these effects. In the course of this study, we found that a variety of different flavonoids readily restored Brahma (BRM) in BRM-deficient cancer cell lines. Flavonoids from each of the six different structural groups were effective at inducing BRM expression as well as inhibiting growth in these BRM-deficient cancer cells. By blocking the induction of BRM with shRNA, we found that flavonoid-induced growth inhibition was BRM dependent. We also found that flavonoids can restore BRM functionality by reversing BRM acetylation. In addition, we observed that an array of natural flavonoid-containing products both induced BRM expression as well as deacetylated the BRM protein. We also tested two of the BRM-inducing flavonoids (Rutin and Diosmin) at both a low and a high dose on the development of tumors in an established murine lung cancer model. We found that these flavonoids effectively blocked development of adenomas in the lungs of wild-type mice but not in that of BRMnull mice. These data demonstrate that BRM expression and function are regulated by flavonoids and that functional BRM appears to be a prerequisite for the anticancer effects of flavonoids both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24876151

  7. Adequacy of M16A1 Rifle Performance and Its Implications for Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    CEN *FT, 04CCLELLAN ATTMI AYZN-mP-ACE 4AL5A INSTITUITE A A4NMUMT~RATI-Ok- AIT4 RSDM TPA"NIN MA~NAGEMENT 1 4VsA v3WLO APTIL EO,sRt00 "CAO 6RP1 SWOT ...01LITARY ATTACHE -I. CAMAnIAN FORCdES UASE COINNIALLIS LYT~ii OfRSONNEL SELEcT’ION 2 CANAOIAN FOICES PERSONNEL APPL RSCH UNITY I ARMY PERSONNEL

  8. MicroRNA-276 promotes egg-hatching synchrony by up-regulating brm in locusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Chen, Qianquan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Guo, Xiaojiao; Chen, Dahua; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Developmental synchrony, the basis of uniform swarming, migration, and sexual maturation, is an important strategy for social animals to adapt to variable environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental synchrony are largely unexplored. The migratory locust exhibits polyphenism between gregarious and solitarious individuals, with the former displaying more synchronous sexual maturation and migration than the latter. Here, we found that the egg-hatching time of gregarious locusts was more uniform compared with solitarious locusts and that microRNA-276 (miR-276) was expressed significantly higher in both ovaries and eggs of gregarious locusts than in solitarious locusts. Interestingly, inhibiting miR-276 in gregarious females and overexpressing it in solitarious females, respectively, caused more heterochronic and synchronous hatching of progeny eggs. Moreover, miR-276 directly targeted a transcription coactivator gene, brahma (brm), resulting in its up-regulation. Knockdown of brm not only resulted in asynchronous egg hatching in gregarious locusts but also impaired the miR-276–induced synchronous egg hatching in solitarious locusts. Mechanistically, miR-276 mediated brm activation in a manner that depended on the secondary structure of brm, namely, a stem-loop around the binding site of miR-276. Collectively, our results unravel a mechanism by which miR-276 enhances brm expression to promote developmental synchrony and provide insight into regulation of developmental homeostasis and population sustaining that are closely related to biological synchrony. PMID:26729868

  9. Marine Corps Expeditionary Rifle Platoon Energy Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    26  a.  Step 1: The Flight to MRP AOR ............................................26  b...Terrain and Troops MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit MRP Marine Rifle Platoon NVG Night Vision Goggles SAW Squad automatic weapon SPOD Seaport...rifle platoon ( MRP ). The MRP is an infantry unit, which is the core component of the GCE. Each MRP consists of 40–45 Marines and requires energy

  10. Caffeine Effects on Marksmanship During High-Stress Military Training with 72 Hours Sleep Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William J; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lieberman, Harris R

    2003-01-01

    Marksmanship accuracy and sighting time were quantified with 62 male trainees during Navy SEAL Hell Week, which involves the combined stress of sleep loss, operational combat scenarios, and cold-wet...

  11. Sleep restriction and cognitive load affect performance on a simulated marksmanship task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl D; Cooper, Adam D; Merullo, Donna J; Cohen, Bruce S; Heaton, Kristin J; Claro, Pedro J; Smith, Tracey

    2017-11-24

    Sleep restriction degrades cognitive and motor performance, which can adversely impact job performance and increase the risk of accidents. Military personnel are prone to operating under sleep restriction, and previous work suggests that military marksmanship may be negatively affected under such conditions. Results of these studies, however, are mixed and have often incorporated additional stressors (e.g. energy restriction) beyond sleep restriction. Moreover, few studies have investigated how the degree of difficulty of a marksmanship task impacts performance following sleep restriction. The purpose of the current experiment was to study the effects of sleep restriction on marksmanship while minimizing the potential influence of other forms of stress. A friend-foe discrimination challenge with greater or lesser degrees of complexity (high versus low load) was used as the primary marksmanship task. Active duty Soldiers were recruited, and allowed 2 h of sleep every 24 h over a 72-h testing period. Marksmanship tasks, cognitive assessment metrics and the NASA-Task Load Index were administered daily. Results indicated that reaction times to shoot foe targets and signal friendly targets slowed over time. In addition, the ability to correctly discriminate between friend and foe targets significantly decreased in the high-cognitive-load condition over time despite shot accuracy remaining stable. The NASA-Task Load Index revealed that, although marksmanship performance degraded, participants believed their performance did not change over time. These results further characterize the consequences of sleep restriction on marksmanship performance and the perception of performance, and reinforce the importance of adequate sleep among service members when feasible. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Sensorimotor Learning during a Marksmanship Task in Immersive Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hrishikesh M; Khanna, Rajan; Zielinski, David J; Lu, Yvonne; Clements, Jillian M; Potter, Nicholas D; Sommer, Marc A; Kopper, Regis; Appelbaum, Lawrence G

    2018-01-01

    Sensorimotor learning refers to improvements that occur through practice in the performance of sensory-guided motor behaviors. Leveraging novel technical capabilities of an immersive virtual environment, we probed the component kinematic processes that mediate sensorimotor learning. Twenty naïve subjects performed a simulated marksmanship task modeled after Olympic Trap Shooting standards. We measured movement kinematics and shooting performance as participants practiced 350 trials while receiving trial-by-trial feedback about shooting success. Spatiotemporal analysis of motion tracking elucidated the ballistic and refinement phases of hand movements. We found systematic changes in movement kinematics that accompanied improvements in shot accuracy during training, though reaction and response times did not change over blocks. In particular, we observed longer, slower, and more precise ballistic movements that replaced effort spent on corrections and refinement. Collectively, these results leverage developments in immersive virtual reality technology to quantify and compare the kinematics of movement during early learning of full-body sensorimotor orienting.

  13. Engineering Design Handbook: Recoilless Rifle Weapon Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-15

    rifles also creates danger of physiological damage also exists. psychological factors which may be signifi- The extent and nature of the damage caused...the intensity of the bla&st, its disruption often cause psychological effects impulse, the position of the subject with of extreme lethargy and...General. 6. AD 3S 1 905, Capt. L. R. Creelman , A 2. David E. Walters and Edith F. Reilly, Parameiric Study of the Probability of Hit Hitting

  14. Private well/spring position paper, Rifle, Colorado, sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the hydrogeochemical relationship between the New and Old Rifle processing sites and 15 domestic wells in their vicinity. The relationship of the domestic wells to the Old and New Rifle tailings sites requires clarification due to recent advances in understanding of Rifle site conceptual models. In order to form a bridge from the Rifle remedial action plan (RAP) and the recent baseline risk assessment to this position paper, several issues require discussion. First, through analysis of long-term ground water level data, the hydraulic gradient between the former tailings and private wells and springs was assessed. Second, in the Rifle RAP there was not a strong emphasis placed on describing regional influences on water quality in the vicinity of the processing sites. This document uses available information coupled with theory of regional ground water flow to describe regional flow systems north of Rifle. Third, the definition of background water quality from the RAP has been refined in several ways. Also, for the recent baseline risk assessment, all alluvial wells used to define background for the sites were located east of Old Rifle. In the RAP, alluvial background wells were also placed between the sites (downgradient of Old Rifle). Two additional wells were installed for the recent baseline risk assessment upgradient of Old Rifle which verified that several of the older wells (RFO-01-0597 and -0598) were in locations representative of background

  15. Sensorimotor Learning during a Marksmanship Task in Immersive Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishikesh M. Rao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor learning refers to improvements that occur through practice in the performance of sensory-guided motor behaviors. Leveraging novel technical capabilities of an immersive virtual environment, we probed the component kinematic processes that mediate sensorimotor learning. Twenty naïve subjects performed a simulated marksmanship task modeled after Olympic Trap Shooting standards. We measured movement kinematics and shooting performance as participants practiced 350 trials while receiving trial-by-trial feedback about shooting success. Spatiotemporal analysis of motion tracking elucidated the ballistic and refinement phases of hand movements. We found systematic changes in movement kinematics that accompanied improvements in shot accuracy during training, though reaction and response times did not change over blocks. In particular, we observed longer, slower, and more precise ballistic movements that replaced effort spent on corrections and refinement. Collectively, these results leverage developments in immersive virtual reality technology to quantify and compare the kinematics of movement during early learning of full-body sensorimotor orienting.

  16. Marksmanship Requirements From the Perspective of Combat Veterans - Volume I: Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    for training and drill (1), We are falling away from marksmanship in some units who do not go outside the wire. I went from an AVN company to a BCT...we are falling away for this subject in some units who do not go outside the wire. I went from an AVN company to a BCT -- totally different, some

  17. Complex experimental analysis of rifle-shooter interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Taraszewski, M.ScEng, PhD. candidate

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a complex analysis of a man-weapon interaction based on experimental effort is presented. The attention is focused on how a shooter can influence on a rifle, opposite to generally considered in literature rifle's impact on a shooter. It is shown, based on the kbk AKM weapon, that each support point of the rifle has an substantial impact on the system. It is said that identifying human reactions on weapon may let to describe gun movement and thus may be applied to weapon accuracy determination.

  18. A novel investigation of heat transfer characteristics in rifled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegan, C. Dhayananth; Azhagesan, N.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental investigation of heat transfer of water flowing in a rifled tube was explored at different pressures and at various operating conditions in a rifled tube heat exchanger. The specifications for the inner and outer diameters of the inner tube are 25.8 and 50.6 mm, respectively. The working fluids used in shell side and tube side are cold and hot water. The rifled tube was made of the stainless steel with 4 ribs, 50.6 mm outer diameter, 0.775 mm rib height, 58o helix angle and the length 1500 mm. The effect of pressure, wall heat flux and friction factor were discussed. The results confirm that even at low pressures the rifled tubes has an obvious enhancement in heat transfer compared with smooth tube. Results depicts that the Nusselt number increases with Reynolds number and the friction factor decreases with increase in Reynolds number and the heat transfer rate is higher for the rifled tube when compared to smooth tube, because of strong swirl flow due to centrifugal action. It also confirms that, the friction factor obtained from the rifled tube is significantly higher than that of smooth tube.

  19. Investigation of background radiation and associated anomalies in Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.; Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    In addition to examining anomalies and establishing the background gamma exposure rate range, the study presents a formula to convert thousand counts per minute (kcpm) from a gamma scintillator to microroentgen per hour (μRh) for the Rifle region. Also, a method is presented to identify contaminated areas containing excess 226 Ra, by using a GR-410 gamma spectrometer. This method is suggested to be applied to all property surveys in the Rifle area. The Wasatch Formation, which outcrops extensively in the Rifle area, was found to have a major influence on the background radiation. Varying potassium concentrations and naturally occurring uranium in this rock unit reveal varying gamma exposure rates. Examining RaTh ratios from laboratory analysis of soil samples or use of RaTh ratios from GR-410 gamma spectrometer readings on site allows discrimination between mill related contamination and naturally occuring radioactivity. Radioactive coal clinkers were found used as fill material throughout the Rifle region and have been determined to be a product of the mill and subject to remediation. Finally, windblown mill tailings contamination is addressed in some detail. Mill tailings redistributed from the Rifle uranium mill tailings piles by prevailing winds were detected extensively on vicinity properties in Rifle. Some radioactive components of the windblown tailings were found to have leached into the subsurface soil. The combination of Wasatch Formation, radioactive coal clinkers, and windblown tailings accounts for many of the anomalous gamma exposure rates observed by the radiological survey teams. 11 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at the New Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River

  1. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Simulation for M4 Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE ................................................. 34 APPENDIX C: ANALYSIS OF MARKSMANSHIP PERFORMANCE DATA TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL...machine guns and anti- armour weapons. In these simulators, firers aim a modified weapon at a target image on a screen. When the firer pulls the trigger...investigate predictors of live-fire LF6 qualification. Specifically, we examined the utility of LF6 simulator scores and trainee demographic data as

  2. Effect of Various Environmental Stressors on Target Detection, Identification, and Marksmanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    diverses conditions environnementales difficiles, dont l’exposition à la chaleur et au froid, le bruit, l’exercice épuisant et la privation de sommeil...urban scenario used for marksmanship testing. The arrow indicates a walking target and the centrepiece depicting a poster of a soldier was a permanent... poster of a soldier was a permanent display that was used to hide targets. The heating and cooling protocols caused significant separations in core

  3. The Effect of Soldier Marching, Rucksack Load, and Heart Rate on Marksmanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    has demonstrated that marksmanship is a complex task that can be modified by both physiological and psychological processes (Helin, Sihvonen...complete the march with Rucksack load due to an ankle injury sustained on the cross-country march, and par- tial data from his Rucksack visit was...that carrying heavier loads results in physiologic changes. A multilevel logistic regression controlling for the multiple observations (shots

  4. Using human-centered design to improve the assault rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Cheng-Lang; Yuan, Cheng-Kang; Liu, Bor-Shong

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to interview infantry soldiers to determine their preferences with respect to rifle design and to examine the effect of buttstocks on shooting performance. Factor analysis showed that seven main factors should be considered in rifle redesign including tactics necessary, interface design, saving weight, bullpup configuration, sight design, other devices, and bayonet lug. For the shooting experiment, a total of four shooting trials were performed with the T-91 rifle, with buttstock lengths of 26 mm, 34 mm, self-adjusting stock, and bullpup stock. The analysis revealed that buttstock length had a significant effect on shooting performance. The redesigned rifle weight and total length should be reduced to 3.2 kg and 750 mm, respectively. The rifle buttstock should be a non-adjustable bullpup style. The buttstock shape should be curved and the hand-guard type should be more deeply and density seams, while the trigger handle shape should be slanted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Civilian Marksmanship Program Corporation Needs to Fully Comply With the Law on Sales of Firearms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... As required by the Fiscal Year 1996 National Defense Authorization Act, the program was to be transitioned from the Army to the private, nonprofit Corporation for the Promotion of Rifle Practice...

  6. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described

  7. The Use of Caffeine to Enhance Cognitive Performance, Reaction Time, Vigilance, Rifle Marksmanship and Mood States in Sleep-Deprived Navy SEAL (BUD/S) Trainees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William

    1997-01-01

    Caffeine has been shown to improve tasks with a vigilance component. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of caffeine in sleep-deprived individuals exposed to high levels of operational and environmental stress...

  8. 5 CFR 831.206 - Continuation of coverage for former Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individual's retirement records. (d) The Corporation must withhold from the pay of an individual described by paragraph (a) of this section an amount equal to the percentage withheld from the pay of a Federal employee... support the Civilian Marksmanship Program as of the day before the date of the transfer of the Program to...

  9. 5 CFR 890.111 - Continuation of eligibility for former Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pay of an individual described by paragraph (a) of this section an amount equal to the premiums withheld from the pay of a Federal employee for FEHB coverage and, in accordance with procedures... Department of Defense to support the Civilian Marksmanship Program as of the day before the date of the...

  10. 5 CFR 870.510 - Continuation of eligibility for former Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section an amount equal to the premiums withheld from the pay of a Federal employee... procedures established by OPM, pay into the Employees' Life Insurance Fund amounts equal to any agency... Defense to support the Civilian Marksmanship Program as of the day before the date of the transfer of the...

  11. 5 CFR 842.109 - Continuation of coverage for former Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with the individual's retirement records. (d) The Corporation must withhold from the pay of an individual described by paragraph (a) of this section an amount equal to the percentage withheld from the pay... by the Department of Defense to support the Civilian Marksmanship Program as of the day before the...

  12. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: New and Old Rifle sites, Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    This report is a summary of a parent report DOE/UMT--0108. These reports have become necessary as a result of changes that have occurred since 1977 which pertain to the Rifle sites and vicinity, as well as changes in remedial action criteria. The new data reflecting these changes are summarized in this report

  13. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2017-06-01

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  14. Environmental Audit, Rifle, Gunnison and Grand Junction UMTRA Project Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the results of the comprehensive baseline Environmental Audit completed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites at Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. Included in the Audit were the actual abandoned mill sites, associated transportation and disposal cell facilities, and representative examples of the more than 4,000 known vicinity properties. Sites investigated include: Climax Mill Site, Truck/Train Haul Route, Cotter Transfer Station, Cheney Disposal Cell, Rifle Mill Sites (Old and New Rifle), Gunnison Mill Site, Vicinity Properties, and Estes Gulch and Proposed Landfill Site No. 1 Disposal Cells. The UMTRA Audit was a comprehensive baseline audit which considered all environmental programs and the activities associated with ongoing and planned remediation at the UMTRA sites listed above. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was not considered during this investigation. The Audit Team looked at the following technical disciplines: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, soil/sediment/biota, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. 6 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Environmental Audit, Rifle, Gunnison and Grand Junction UMTRA Project Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the results of the comprehensive baseline Environmental Audit completed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites at Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. Included in the Audit were the actual abandoned mill sites, associated transportation and disposal cell facilities, and representative examples of the more than 4,000 known vicinity properties. Sites investigated include: Climax Mill Site, Truck/Train Haul Route, Cotter Transfer Station, Cheney Disposal Cell, Rifle Mill Sites (Old and New Rifle), Gunnison Mill Site, Vicinity Properties, and Estes Gulch and Proposed Landfill Site No. 1 Disposal Cells. The UMTRA Audit was a comprehensive baseline audit which considered all environmental programs and the activities associated with ongoing and planned remediation at the UMTRA sites listed above. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was not considered during this investigation. The Audit Team looked at the following technical disciplines: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, soil/sediment/biota, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. The U.S. M-16 rifle versus the Russian AK-47 rifle. A comparison of terminal ballistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, K G; Swan, R C; Levine, M G; Rocko, J M

    1983-09-01

    The standard U.S. military rifle (M-16) is substantially more destructive than its Russian counterpart (AK-47) when fired at short range into clay blocks, despite the fact that the AK-47 is of larger caliber and fires a much heavier bullet with a kinetic energy (muzzle) 25% greater when compared to the M-16. The decisive factor is the 40% greater muzzle velocity of the M-16.

  17. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado. Summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado. The Phase II - Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 3.1 million tons of tailings at the two Rifle sites, constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The 15 alternative remedial action options presented range from millsite decomtamination and off-site remedial action (Options I and IV), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II, V, VI, and VII), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present sites (Options III and VIII through XV). Cost estimates for the first 14 options range from $224,000 to $20,300,000. Option XV, estimated at $32,200,000, includes the cost for moving both Rifle tailings piles and the Grand Junction tailings pile to DeBeque for long-term storage and site decontamination after removal of the piles. Reprocessing of the tailings for uranium appears to be economically attractive at present

  18. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings new and old Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado. The Phase II--Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 3.1 million tons of tailings at the two Rifle sites, constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The 15 alternative remedial action options presented range from millsite decontamination and off-site remedial action (Options I and IV), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II, V, VI and VII), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present sites (Options III and VIII through XV). Cost estimates for the first 14 options range from $224,000 to $20,300,000. Option XV, estimated at $32,200,000, includes the cost for moving both Rifle tailings piles and the Grand Junction tailings pile to DeBeque for long-term storage and site decontamination after removal of the piles. Reprocessing of the tailings for uranium appears to be economically attractive at present

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings new and old Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado. The Phase II--Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 3.1 million tons of tailings at the two Rifle sites, constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The 15 alternative remedial action options presented range from millsite decontamination and off-site remedial action (Options I and IV), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II, V, VI and VII), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present sites (Options III and VIII through XV). Cost estimates for the first 14 options range from $224,000 to $20,300,000. Option XV, estimated at $32,200,000, includes the cost for moving both Rifle tailings piles and the Grand Junction tailings pile to DeBeque for long-term storage and site decontamination after removal of the piles. Reprocessing of the tailings for uranium appears to be economically attractive at present.

  20. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This volume contains appendices D6 through D8 containing laboratory test data: from MK-F investigation, 1987, Old Rifle and New Rifle sites; on bentonite amended radon barrier material; and from MK-F investigation, 1987, riprap tests

  1. Clinical effects of pranayama on performance of rifle shooters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amte Snehal Shekhar, Mistry Hetal M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga has an enormous scientifically proven effect on man’s physical and psychological functioning. Pranayama constitute the most vital aspects of yoga. Various methods of pranayama have a sound scientific basis and are traditionally believed to produce equilibrium between psychic and somatic aspects of bodily functions. The link between body and mind is obligatory for the better performance of sports persons. Aim: The aim of the study is to find out the effect of pranayama on the performance of Rifle shooters by measuring the parameters like-breath holding time, lung functional capacity and shooting performance. Method: 52 state level shooters subjects were chosen from 2 centres between the age group of 15-30years. Out of them, 26 shooters were given training in the techniques of pranayama for 3weeks.The other 26 subjects served as control i.e. with out Pranayama training. Variables like shooting performance, breath holding time (BHT, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, respiratory rate (RR and pulse rate (PR were measured in both the groups. Results: The study showed highly significant improvement in all the five variables shooting performance (in mm, BHT, PEFR, RR and PR with p value of 3.62E-05, 2.78E-07, 1.31E-09, 0.013, 3.40E-04respectively. Conclusion: So it can be concluded that pranayama is efficacious for better performance of Rifle shooters and should be included in their training practice.

  2. Mystery of the First Russian Rifle Naval Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1859 France completed the first ocean-going ironclad warship, «La Gloire», and changed the definition of naval power completely. Russia, as all the other Powers, found that her most powerful naval gun, the 60-pdr, was insufficient for modern warfare, and realized the future naval armament relied on heavy rifled artillery. Both the Army and Navy began purchasing such cannon from foreign providers until a suitable domestic weapon could be produced. The relationship between the Russian military and Krupp is well known. But there was another provided, the Blakely Ordnance Company in England sold many guns to the Army and Navy, beginning with 8-inch MLR in early 1863 to a large number of 9- and 11-inch guns. Deliveries began in November 1863 and continued until mid-1866. But no sources on the armament of Russian ships and fortresses mentions these guns. What happened to them is a mystery.

  3. Tracking, aiming, and hitting the UAV with ordinary assault rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.

  4. The destabilizing effect of body armour on military rifle bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P J; Sørensen, O H

    1997-01-01

    Soft body armour is designed to give protection against fragments and some low velocity bullets but is not designed to stop high velocity rifle bullets. Reports have claimed that soft body armour might disturb the stability of bullets that penetrate it, and that this might increase the size of the lesions. The reason for such an effect might be early yaw of the bullet, so we studied the behaviour of bullets which had passed through soft body armour. A 7.62 x 39 mm AK-47 rifle was fired from a permanent stand using full metal jacketed lead core bullets at a range of 30 m. Soft body armour composed for 14 and 28 layers of aramid fibres (Kevlar) was placed at 90 degrees and 60 degrees to the line of fire. Yaw was measured by the shadowgraph technique and a TERMA Doppler radar. A total of ten shots without body armour, and ten shots with each of the two types of body armour at the two angles were used. The results of the shadowgraph and Doppler radar measurements showed a proportional correlation between the two methods of determining the bullet yaw. The semiquantitative approach of the Doppler radar measurement was in agreement with the more concise measurement using the photographic technique. Velocity loss and loss of spin rate from penetrating 14 or 28 ply Kevlar was negligible. We observed induced instability after penetration of 14 and particularly 28 ply Kevlar, dependence of yaw with respect to the number of layers of Kevlar as well as to the angle of the body armour with respect to the line of fire.

  5. Influence of Organizational Culture on the Acquisition of the M16 Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    positiv outcome from early attempts at auto loading rifle development was to establish desired specifications for future designs. Though the Armories...The development of the atomic bomb was the most significant example, however, science took on additional significance in o Quantitative analysis and...performance reported in both the ARPA and Comptroller’s evaluation of the rifle. McNamara’s request to be provided a quantitative 63 comparison of the

  6. Simulations and experiments of laminar heat transfer for Therminol heat transfer fluids in a rifled tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiguo; Ren, Depeng; Ye, Qing; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Huilin; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Predicted laminar Nusselt number using regression correlation of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid is in agreement with experiments in the rifled tube. - Highlights: • Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor are measured and predicted in the rifled tube. • Correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor are proposed. • The roughness height of 0.425 mm in transition SST model is suggested as an input parameter. • k–kl–ω transition and transition SST models are recommended for laminar–turbulent transition. • Thermal enhancement factor and synergy angle are predicted in the rifled tube. - Abstract: Simulations and experiments of flow and heat transfer behavior of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid have been conducted in a horizontal rifled tube with outer diameter and inner diameter 25.0 and 20.0 mm, pitch and rib height of 12.0 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional flow behavior of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid are carried out using FLUENT code in the rifled tube. Experimental results show that the heat transfer and thermal performance of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid in the rifled tube are considerably improved compared to those of the smooth tube. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number, and is from 3.5 to 5.1 times over the smooth tube. Also, the pressure drop results reveal that the average friction factor of the ribbed tube is in a range of 2.2 and 4.2 times over the smooth tube. Predictive Nusselt number and friction factor correlations have been presented. The numerical results show that the laminar flow model is valid only at lower Reynolds number in the developed laminar flow of rifled tube. The k–kl–ω transition model and transition SST model with roughness of 0.425 mm are recommended for the predictions of transition process from laminar to turbulent flow in the rifled tube.

  7. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Old and New Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action at the Rifle, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site began in the spring of 1992. Results of water sampling at the Old and New Rifle processing sites for recent years indicate that ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined alluvial aquifer (the uppermost aquifer) and less extensively in the underlying Wasatch Formation. Uranium and sulfate continue to exceed background ground water concentrations and/or maximum concentration limits at and downgradient from the former processing sites. These constituents provide the best indication of changes in contaminant distribution. Contamination in the uppermost (alluvial) aquifer at New Rifle extends a minimum of approximately 5000 feet (ft) (1,524 meters [m]) downgradient. At Old Rifle, the extent of contamination in the alluvial aquifer is much less (a minimum of approximately 1,000 ft [305 m]), partially due to differences in hydrologic regime. For example, the Old Rifle site lies in a relatively narrow alluvial floodplain; the New Rifle site lies in a broad floodplain. Data gathering for the Rifle baseline risk assessment is under way. The purpose of this effort is to determine with greater precision the background ground water quality and extent of ground water contamination at the processing sites. Historical surface water quality indicates that the Colorado River has not been affected by uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring of the Estes Gulch disposal cell has been proposed, because ground water in the underlying Wasatch Formation is limited use (Class 111) ground water and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of the Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS) for the M16, M203, and M72A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    8217 .. = . . - , . . ’ ’ ’- . .’- ’, . -. . ’ -. . . .- . -. .. .. - . . % , -. . REFERENCES * Belier , F. H., Thompson, T. J., &Osborne, A. D. (Draft, 1981). Basic rifle marksmanship

  9. Geologic map of the Rifle Falls quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Egger, Anne

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Rifle Falls 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift. Bedrock strata include the Upper Cretaceous Iles Formation through Ordovician and Cambrian units. The Iles Formation includes the Cozzette Sandstone and Corcoran Sandstone Members, which are undivided. The Mancos Shale is divided into three members, an upper member, the Niobrara Member, and a lower member. The Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and the Entrada Sandstone are present. Below the Upper Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, the easternmost limit of the Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Glen Canyon Sandstone is recognized. Both the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the Lower Triassic(?) and Permian State Bridge Formation are present. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Maroon Formation is divided into two members, the Schoolhouse Member and a lower member. All the exposures of the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Evaporite intruded into the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation, which includes locally mappable limestone beds. The Middle and Lower Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and the Lower Mississippian Leadville Limestone are present. The Upper Devonian Chaffee Group is divided into the Dyer Dolomite, which is broken into the Coffee Pot Member and the Broken Rib Member, and the Parting Formation. Ordovician through Cambrian units are undivided. The southwest flank of the White River uplift is a late Laramide structure that is represented by the steeply southwest-dipping Grand Hogback, which is only present in the southwestern corner of the map area, and less steeply southwest-dipping older strata that flatten to nearly horizontal attitudes in the northern part of the map area. Between these two is a large-offset, mid

  10. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    Results of radiological surveys of two inactive uranium-mill sites near Rifle, Colorado, in May 1976 are presented. These sites are referred to as Old Rifle and New Rifle. The calculated 226 Ra inventory of the latter site is much higher than at the older mill location. Data on above-ground measurements of gamma exposure rates, surface and near-surface concentration of 226 Ra in soil and sediment samples, concentration of 226 Ra in water, calculated subsurface distribution of 226 Ra, and particulate radionuclide concentrations in air samples are given. The data serve to define the extent of contamination in the vicinity of the mill sites and their immediate surrounding areas with tailings particles. Results of these measurements were utilized as technical input for an engineering assessment of these two sites

  11. Acute renal failure according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, G; Landa, M; Masevicius, D; Gianassi, S; San-Román, J E; Silva, L; Gimenez, M; Tejerina, O; Díaz-Cisneros, P; Ciccioli, F; do Pico, J L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) in critically ill patients using the RIFLE and AKIN criteria. A prospective, multicenter observational study with a duration of one year from February 2010 was carried out. RIFLE and AKIN were employed using the urinary (UC) and creatinine criteria (CC) jointly and separately. Nine polyvalent Critical Care Units (CCUs) in Argentina. A total of 627 critical patients over 18 years of age were admitted to the CCU for more than 48h. inability to quantify diuresis, surgical instrumentation of the urinary tract, and need for renal support therapy (RST). Calculated hourly diuresis (CHD) was used to apply the UC. The incidence of ARF was 69.4% and 51.8% according to RIFLE and AKIN, respectively. UC detected ARF in 59.5% of cases, while CC identified ARF in 34.7% (RIFLE) and 25.3% (AKIN). The mortality rate was 40.9% and 44.6% according to RIFLE and AKIN respectively, was significantly higher than in patients without ARF, and increased with disease severity (Data processing: Excel, SQL and SPSS. Levene test, comparison of means with Student t and chi-squared, with 95% confidence interval). RIFLE identified more cases of ARF. UC proved more effective than CC. The presence of ARF and severity levels were correlated to mortality but not to days of stay in the CCU. Implementation of the unified CHD was useful for implementing UC and achieving comparable results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G.; Krone, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to ex......-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected....

  13. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather)

  14. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA project site Rifle, Colorado. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This final audit report summarizes the assessments performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) and its Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) of remedial action compliance with approved plans, specifications, standards, and 40 CFR Part 192 at the Rifle, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. Remedial action construction was directed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC)

  15. Spatial distribution of an uranium-respiring betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO field research site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Koribanics

    Full Text Available The Department of Energy's Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminal electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site.

  16. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Rifle sites. That remedial action consists of removing approximately 4,185,000 cubic yards (cy) of tailings and contaminated materials from their current locations, transporting, and stabilizing the tailings material at the Estes Gulch disposal site, approximately six miles north of Rifle. The tailings and contaminated materials are comprised of approximately 597,000 cy from Old Rifle, 3,232,000 cy from New Rifle, and 322,000 cy from vicinity properties and about 34,000 cy from demolition. The remedial action plan includes specific design requirements for the detailed design and construction of the remedial action. An extensive amount of data and supporting information have been generated for this remedial action and cannot all be incorporated into this document. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents

  17. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  18. An assessment of potential hydrologic and ecologic impacts of constructing mitigation wetlands, Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This-assessment examines the consequences and risks that could result from the proposed construction of mitigation wetlands at the New and Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites near Rifle, Colorado. Remediation of surface contamination at those sites is now under way. Preexisting wetlands at or near the Old and New Rifle sites have been cleaned up, resulting in the loss of 0.7 and 10.5 wetland acres (ac) (0.28 and 4.2 hectares [ha]) respectively. Another 9.9 ac (4.0 ha) of wetlands are in the area of windblown contamination west of the New Rifle site. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has jurisdiction over the remediated wetlands. Before remedial action began, and before any wetlands were eliminated, the USACE issued a Section 404 Permit that included a mitigation plan for the wetlands to be lost. The mitigation plan calls for 34.2 ac (1 3.8 ha) of wetlands to be constructed at the south end and to the west of the New Rifle site. The mitigation wetlands would be constructed over and in the contaminated alluvial aquifer at the New Rifle site. As a result of the hydrologic characteristics of this aquifer, contaminated ground water would be expected to enter the environment through the proposed wetlands. A preliminary assessment was therefore required to assess any potential ecological risks associated with constructing the mitigation wetlands at the proposed location

  19. Radiological, health, and safety, and occurrence reporting system audit report, Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes an audit dated September 14--16, 1993. The performance of the contractors and subcontractors responsible for remedial action work at the former uranium ore processing site at Rifle, Colorado, and the uranium tailings disposal cell at Estes Gulch (Colorado) was reviewed during an audit conducted September 14 through 16, 1993. MK-Ferguson Company (MK-F) is the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) responsible for engineering and construction management of the Rifle operations. The audit focused on radiological issues, occupational safety and health (OS ampersand H) issues, and the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS). The close-out meeting was held on September 16, 1993, which was attended by representatives of MK-F, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC)

  20. Intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety as interpreted by rugby players and rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanton, S; Jones, G; Mullen, R

    2000-04-01

    This study reports the findings of part of an ongoing research program examining sports performers' interpretations of competitive anxiety prior to competition. The notion of 'directional perceptions' has questioned the limited utility of examining only the intensity of competitive anxiety responses as has Jones. The purpose of this study was to examine intensity and direction, i.e., interpretation of intensity as facilitative or debilitative, of anxiety symptoms as a function of two types of sport. The types of sport were explosive (rugby league) versus fine motor skills (target rifle shooting). The sample comprised 50 male rugby league participants and 50 target rifle shooters who completed a modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 prior to competition. Contingency analysis yielded a significant difference in the number of rugby players who reported somatic anxiety as facilitative and the number of rifle shooters who reported somatic states as debilitative. No such differences were evident for cognitive anxiety. Analysis of variance indicated no differences between the two groups on the intensity of cognitive and somatic anxiety, but the performers competing in rugby league interpreted both states as being more facilitative to performance; the rugby league players also had higher scores on self-confidence than the shooters. These findings provide continuing support for the measurement of directional perceptions of competitive anxiety and highlight the importance of examining individual sports.

  1. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James; Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince; Leullen, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  2. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James (PNNL); Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince (PNNL); Leullen, Jon (AECOM)

    2016-02-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  3. Remedial actions at the former Union Carbide Corporation uranium mill sites, Rifle, Garfield County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This appendix provides the information needed to understand the conceptual designs for the remedial action alternatives addressed in this environmental impact statement (EIS). It is intended to provide sufficient details for the reader to evaluate the feasibility and assess the impacts of each remedial action alternative. It is not intended to provide the detailed engineering necessary to implement the alternatives. Details of the preferred remedial action will be presented in the remedial action plan (RAP). The remedial action alternatives addressed in this EIS include no action, stabilization at the New Rifle site, disposal at the Estes Gulch site, and disposal at the Lucas Mesa site. All alternatives include interim actions to remediate existing health and safety hazards to the Rifle community that presently exist at the Old and New Rifle processing sites. It should be noted that the borrow sites included in this EIS were selected as the sources of the necessary borrow materials for impacts analyses purposes only. The borrow sites to be used for the remedial action will be selected during the final design. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  4. Air rifles are more than toys: BB gun-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Blaine; Weibley, Richard; Chapados, Rene

    2014-12-01

    Gunshot wounds are traumatic events that emergency departments around the country treat on a daily basis. An increasing number of these wounds are being caused by air rifles that shoot ball bearings (ie, BB guns) and, although uncommon, the results can be fatal. The general public and most practitioners may not realize the damage these "toys" can inflict. This article highlights an unfortunate event involving a BB gun accidentally discharged at close range and the consequences. Data from recent and older studies are discussed regarding the firepower of these guns and their potential for injury. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Non-lead rifle hunting ammunition: issues of availability and performance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Gremse, Carl; Kanstrup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    companies make non-lead bullets for traditional, rare, and novel rifle calibres. Local retail availability is now a function of consumer demand which relates, directly, to legal requirements for use. Costs of non-lead and equivalent lead-core hunting bullets are similar in Europe and pose no barrier to use......, but there is no advice to hunters yet given on the use of these two bullet types. The non-toxicity of ingested metallic copper, the principal component of non-lead bullets, is scientifically well-established....

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  7. Remedial actions at the former Union Carbide Corporation uranium mill sites, Rifle, Garfield County, Colorado: Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This appendix provides the information needed to understand the conceptual designs for the remedial action alternatives addressed in this environmental impact statement (EIS). It is intended to provide sufficient details for the reader to evaluate the feasibility and assess the impacts of each remedial action alternative. It is not intended to provide the detailed engineering necessary to implement the alternatives. Details of the preferred remedial action will be presented in the remedial action plan (RAP). The remedial action alternatives addressed in this EIS include no action, stabilization at the New Rifle site, disposal at the Estes Gulch site, and disposal at the Lucas Mesa site. All alternatives include interim actions to remediate existing health and safety hazards to the Rifle community that presently exist at the Old and New Rifle processing sites. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  8. Prevention of noise damages causes by shooting fire of Kalashnikov (AK-47) rifle by regulation of suitable distance

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhossein Pourtaghi; Hamidreza Mokarami; Firouz Valipour; Mohammad Ghasemi

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were control of rifle shooting noise by regulation of suitable distance and investigation of frequency characteristic of the noise caused by single Kalashnikov rifle (AK-47) in an open shooting field. Due to the condition of the trainees and other people in the shooting fields, the measurements were done in 2 stages of individual and groups of 20 individuals and at 1, 30 and 50 meters distance, respectively. At each stage of the experiment the sound pressure level and p...

  9. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  10. Axial-Symmetry Numerical Approaches for Noise Predicting and Attenuating of Rifle Shooting with Suppressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The moving bullet out of a rifle barrel is propelled by a fired explosive charge. Subsequently, a disturbed muzzle blast wave is initiated which lasts several milliseconds. In this study, axially symmetric, unsteady, Large Eddy Simulation (LES, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkins (FWH equations were solved by the implicit-time formulation. For the spatial discretization, second order upwind scheme was employed. In addition, dynamic mesh model was used to where the ballistic domain changed with time due to the motion of bullet. Results obtained for muzzle flow field and for noise recorded were compared with those obtained from experimental data; these two batches of results were in agreement. Five cases of gunshot including one model of an unsuppressed rifle and four models of suppressors were simulated. Besides, serial images of species distributions and velocity vectors-pressure contours in suppressors and near muzzle field were displayed. The sound pressure levels (dB in far field that were post-processed by the fast Fourier transform (FFT were compared. The proposed physical model and the numerical simulations used in the present work are expected to be extended to solve other shooting weapon problems with three-dimensional and complex geometries.

  11. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetjuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials.

  12. An epidemiology of homicidal deaths due to rifled firearms in Peshawar Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Murad Zafar; Bashir, Muhammad Zahid

    2010-02-01

    To determine the pattern of homicidal deaths caused by rifled weapons in Peshawar as regards the parameters of age, gender, place of occurrence and the number and location of injuries on the body. Descriptive study. The study was conducted at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, from June 2005 to February 2006. The subjects were selected from victims presenting for autopsy at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar. One hundred cases were selected where the weapon of offence was a rifled weapon and the manner of death was homicide on the basis of the police inquest, the autopsy and an interview with the relatives of the victim. After the autopsy, the findings were tabulated and analyzed. Homicides predominantly occurred in young males residing in a rural locality. The peak incidence was between 20-29 years in males and in females the age group most prone was 30-39 years. Male to female ratio was 6:1. The chest (33.8%) followed by the head and abdomen were the areas primarily targeted. High velocity automatic weapons are primarily being used to kill young people in rural areas. Prevention can be through strict gun control laws coupled with education and awareness.

  13. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.M.; Latham, K.; Mann, D.L.; Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Myint, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle,

  14. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This radiologic characterization of tho two inactive uranium millsites at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junction Projects Office, in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. (Jacobs). The purpose of this project is to define the extent of radioactive contamination at the Rifle sites that exceeds US Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) standards for UMTRA sites. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. An orientation visit to the study area was conducted on 31 July--1 August 1984, in conjunction with Jacobs, to determine the approximate extent of contaminated area surrounding tho piles. During that visit, survey control points were located and baselines were defined from which survey grids would later be established; drilling requirements were assessed; and radiologic and geochemical data were collected for use in planning the radiologic fieldwork. The information gained from this visit was used by Jacobs, with cooperation by Bendix, to determine the scope of work required for the radiologic characterization of the Rifle sites. Fieldwork at Rifle was conducted from 1 October through 16 November 1984

  15. A comparison of observed versus estimated baseline creatinine for determination of RIFLE class in patients with acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagshaw, Sean M.; Uchino, Shigehiko; Cruz, Dinna; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Etienne; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A.; French, Craig; Mulder, John; Pinder, Mary; Roberts, Brigit; Botha, John; Mudholkar, Pradeen; Holt, Andrew; Hunt, Tamara; Honoré, Patrick Maurice; Clerbaux, Gaetan; Schetz, Miet Maria; Wilmer, Alexander; Yu, Luis; Macedo, Ettiene V.; Laranja, Sandra Maria; Rodrigues, Cassio José; Suassuna, José Hermógenes Rocco; Ruzany, Frederico; Campos, Bruno; Leblanc, Martine; Senécal, Lynne; Gibney, R. T. Noel; Johnston, Curtis; Brindley, Peter; Tan, Ian K. S.; Chen, Hui De; Wan, Li; Rokyta, Richard; Krouzecky, Ales; Neumayer, Hans-Helmut; Detlef, Kindgen-Milles; Mueller, Eckhard; Tsiora, Vicky; Sombolos, Kostas; Mustafa, Iqbal; Suranadi, Iwayan; Bar-Lavie, Yaron; Nakhoul, Farid; Ceriani, Roberto; Bortone, Franco; Zamperetti, Nereo; Pappalardo, Federico; Marino, Giovanni; Calabrese, Prospero; Monaco, Francesco; Liverani, Chiara; Clementi, Stefano; Coltrinari, Rosanna; Marini, Benedetto; Fuke, Nobuo; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Kurasako, Toshiaki; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Tanigawa, Koichi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Oudemans-van Straaten, Helena Maria; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie J. M.; Bugge, Jan Frederik; Riddervold, Fridtjov; Nilsen, Paul Age; Julsrud, Joar; Teixeira e Costa, Fernando; Marcelino, Paulo; Serra, Isabel Maria; Yaroustovsky, Mike; Grigoriyanc, Rachik; Lee, Kang Hoe; Loo, Shi; Singh, Kulgit; Barrachina, Ferran; Llorens, Julio; Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Toral-Vazquez, Darío; Wizelius, Ivar; Hermansson, Dan; Gaspert, Tomislav; Maggiorini, Marco; Davenport, Andrew; Lombardi, Raúl; Llopart, Teresita; Venkataraman, Ramesh; Kellum, John; Murray, Patrick; Trevino, Sharon; Benjamin, Ernest; Hufanda, Jerry; Paganini, Emil; Warnock, David; Guirguis, Nabil

    2009-01-01

    The RIFLE classification scheme for acute kidney injury (AKI) is based on relative changes in serum creatinine (SCr) and on urine output. The SCr criteria, therefore, require a pre-morbid baseline value. When unknown, current recommendations are to estimate a baseline SCr by the MDRD equation.

  16. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  17. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  18. Impact of real-time electronic alerting of acute kidney injury on therapeutic intervention and progression of RIFLE class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpaert, Kirsten; Hoste, Eric A; Steurbaut, Kristof; Benoit, Dominique; Van Hoecke, Sofie; De Turck, Filip; Decruyenaere, Johan

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate whether a real-time electronic alert system or "AKI sniffer," which is based on the RIFLE classification criteria (Risk, Injury and Failure), would have an impact on therapeutic interventions and acute kidney injury progression. Prospective intervention study. Surgical and medical intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 951 patients having in total 1,079 admission episodes were admitted during the study period (prealert control group: 227, alert group: 616, and postalert control group: 236). Three study phases were compared: A 1.5-month prealert control phase in which physicians were blinded for the acute kidney injury sniffer and a 3-month intervention phase with real-time alerting of worsening RIFLE class through the Digital Enhanced Cordless Technology telephone system followed by a second 1.5-month postalert control phase. A total of 2593 acute kidney injury alerts were recorded with a balanced distribution over all study phases. Most acute kidney injury alerts were RIFLE class risk (59.8%) followed by RIFLE class injury (34.1%) and failure (6.1%). A higher percentage of patients in the alert group received therapeutic intervention within 60 mins after the acute kidney injury alert (28.7% in alert group vs. 7.9% and 10.4% in the pre- and postalert control groups, respectively, p μ .001). In the alert group, more patients received fluid therapy (23.0% vs. 4.9% and 9.2%, p μ .01), diuretics (4.2% vs. 2.6% and 0.8%, p μ .001), or vasopressors (3.9% vs. 1.1% and 0.8%, p μ .001). Furthermore, these patients had a shorter time to intervention (p μ .001). A higher proportion of patients in the alert group showed return to a baseline kidney function within 8 hrs after an acute kidney injury alert "from normal to risk" compared with patients in the control group (p = .048). The real-time alerting of every worsening RIFLE class by the acute kidney injury sniffer increased the number and timeliness of early therapeutic interventions

  19. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices D and E: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  20. Change in muzzle velocity due to freezing and water immersion of .22, long rifle, K.F. cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, M; Chatterjee, S M; Ghosh, P K

    1975-01-01

    A study of change in muzzle velocity due to freezing and water immersion of .22, long rifle, K. F. cartridges has been presented. A statistical criterion has been formulated to ascertain whether or not a cartridge undergoes a change in muzzle velocity due to a particular treatment. The muzzle velocity data of .22, long rifle, K. F. cartridges, obtained by an electronic timer before and after the various treatments, have been analyzed in the light of this criterion. These cartridges have generally been found to suffer considerable loss in muzzle velocity when immersed in water for three weeks and also when immersed in water for three days and simultaneously cooled to 0 degrees C. The forensic significance of this loss in muzzle velocity has been discussed.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  2. Mitigation action plan for remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailing Sites and Disposal Site, Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Estes Gulch disposal site is approximately 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of the town of Rifle, off State Highway 13 on Federal land administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The Department of Energy (DOE) will transport the residual radioactive materials (RRM) by truck to the Estes Gulch disposal site via State Highway 13 and place it in a partially below-grade disposal cell. The RRM will be covered by an earthen radon barrier, frost protection layers, and a rock erosion protection layer. A toe ditch and other features will also be constructed to control erosion at the disposal site. After removal of the RRM and disposal at the Estes Gulch site, the disturbed areas at all three sites will be backfilled with clean soils, contoured to facilitate surface drainage, and revegetated. Wetlands areas destroyed at the former Rifle processing sites will be compensated for by the incorporation of now wetlands into the revegetation plan at the New Rifle site. The UMTRA Project Office, supported by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC), oversees the implementation of the MAP. The RAC executes mitigation measures in the field. The TAC provides monitoring of the mitigation actions in cases where mitigation measures are associated with design features. Site closeout and inspection compliance will be documented in the site completion report

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  4. Revised preliminary geologic map of the Rifle Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    The Rifle quadrangle extends from the Grand Hogback monocline into the southeastern part of the Piceance basin. In the northeastern part of the map area, the Wasatch Formation is nearly vertical, and over a distance of about 1 km, the dip decreases sharply from about 70-85o to about 15-30o toward the southwest. No evidence of a fault in this zone of sharp change in dip is observed but exposures in the Shire Member of the Wasatch Formation are poor, and few marker horizons that might demonstrate offset are distinct. In the central part of the map area, the Shire Member is essentially flat lying. In the south and southwest part of the map area, the dominant dip is slightly to the north, forming an open syncline that plunges gently to the northwest. Evidence for this fold also exists in the subsurface from drill-hole data. According to Tweto (1975), folding of the early Eocene to Paleocene Wasatch Formation along the Grand Hogback reqired an early Eocene age for the last phase of Laramide compression. We find the attitude of the Wasatch Formation to be nearly horizontal, essentially parallel to the overlying Anvil Points Member of the Eocene Green River Formation; therefore, we have no information that either confirms or disputes that early Eocene was the time of the last Laramide event. Near Rifle Gap in the northeast part of the map area, the Mesaverde Group locally dips about 10o less steeply than the overlying Wasatch Formation, indicating that not only had the formation of the Hogback monocline not begun by the time the Wasatch was deposited at this locality, but the underlying Mesaverde Group was locally tilted slightly toward the present White River uplift. Also the basal part of the Atwell Gulch Member of the Wasatch Formation consists of fine-grained mudstones and siltstones containing sparse sandstone and rare conglomerates, indicating that the source of sediment was not from erosion of the adjacent Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. The most likely source of

  5. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Hubbard, Susan S

    2009-07-15

    Injection of organic carbon into the subsurface as an electron donor for bioremediation of redox-sensitive contaminants like uranium often leads to mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation efficacy. This work combines reactive transport modeling with a column experiment and field measurements to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/accumulation during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. We use the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to explicitly simulate microbial community dynamics of iron and sulfate reducers, and their impacts on reaction rates. The column experiment shows clear evidence of mineral precipitation, primarily in the form of calcite and iron monosulfide. At the field scale, reactive transport simulations suggest that the biogeochemical reactions occur mostly close to the injection wells where acetate concentrations are highest, with mineral precipitate and biomass accumulation reaching as high as 1.5% of the pore space. This work shows that reactive transport modeling coupled with field data can bean effective tool for quantitative estimation of mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, thus improving the design of bioremediation strategies.

  6. BISPHOSPHONATE - RELATED MUCOSITIS (BRM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Stanimirov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates (BPs are the most widely used and effective antiresorptive agents for the treatment of diseases in which there is an increase in osteoclastic resorption, including post-menopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, and tumor-associated osteolysis. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are well aware of the side effects of bisphosphonates and mainly with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ. Less known are the mucosal lesions associated with the use of these agents. In the scientific literature, there are only few reports of mucosal lesions due to the direct contact of the oral form of BPs with the mucosa (bisphosphonate-related mucositis. They are mostly related to improper use of bisphosphonate tablets that are chewed, sucked or allowed to melt in the mouth before swallowing. Lesions are atypical and need to be differentiated from other mucosal erosions. We present a case of bisphosphonate-related mucositis due to the improper use of alendronate.

  7. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  10. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediments from a former mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.P.; Fox, P.M.; Davis, J.A.; Campbell, K.M.; Hayes, K.F.; Long, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A study of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediment samples from a former uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted under oxic conditions as a function of pH, U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed using tailings site at Naturita, Colorado, indicated that possible calcite nonequilibrium of dissolved calcium concentration should be evaluated. The modeling results also illustrate the importance of the range of data used in deriving the best fit model parameters. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11.  Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Aortic Dissection Following Rifle Butt Recoil Chest Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Valiath

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  12. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  13. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project

  14. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  15. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions

  16. Wounding effects of the AK-47 rifle used by Patrick Purdy in the Stockton, California, schoolyard shooting of January 17, 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, M L; Malinowski, J A; Hoxie, S W; Jason, A

    1990-09-01

    The limited disruption produced in tissue simulant by the rifle and bullets used in the Stockton, California, schoolyard shooting is entirely consistent with the autopsy reports on the five children who died of their wounds. It is also entirely consistent with well-documented battlefield studies and with previous tissue-simulant studies from many laboratories. It is inconsistent with many exaggerated accounts of assault-rifle wounding effects described by the media in the aftermath of this incident. This information should be documented for the historical record. However, the critical reason for correcting the misconceptions produced by media reaction to this incident is to prevent inappropriate gunshot-wound treatment.

  17. Design of Vibration Absorber using Spring and Rubber for Armored Vehicle 5.56 mm Caliber Rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of vibration absorber using spring and rubber for 5.56 mm caliber rifle armored vehicle. Such a rifle is used in a Remote-Controlled Weapon System (RCWS or a turret where it is fixed using a two degree of freedom pan-tilt mechanism. A half car lumped mass dynamic model of armored vehicles was derived. Numerical simulation was conducted using fourth order Runge Kutta method. Various types of vibration absorbers using spring and rubber with different configurations are installed in the elevation element. Vibration effects on horizontal direction, vertical direction and angular deviation of the elevation element was investigated. Three modes of fire were applied i.e. single fire, semi-automatic fire and automatic fire. From simulation results, it was concluded that the parallel configuration of damping rubber type 3, which has stiffness of 980,356.04 (N/m2 and damping coefficient of 107.37 (N.s/m, and Carbon steel spring whose stiffness coefficient is 5.547 x 106 (N/m2 provides the best vibration absorption. 

  18. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects's New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup

  19. Waste minimization opportunities at the U.S. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Rifle, Colorado, site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.L.; Arp, S.; Hempill, H.

    1993-01-01

    At two uranium mill sites in Rifle, Colorado, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is removing uranium mill tailings and contaminated subgrade soils. This remediation activity will result in the production of groundwater contaminated with uranium, heavy metals, ammonia, sulfates, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The initial remediation plan called for a wastewater treatment plant for removal of the uranium, heavy metals, and ammonia, with disposal of the treated water, which still includes the sulfates and TDSS, to the Colorado River. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit issued by the Colorado Department of Health for the two Rifle sites contained more restrictive discharge limits than originally anticipated. During the detailed review of alternate treatment systems to meet these more restrictive limits, the proposed construction procedures were reviewed emphasizing the methods to minimize groundwater production to reduce the size of the water treatment facility, or to eliminate it entirely. It was determined that with changes to the excavation procedures and use of the contaminated groundwater for use in dust suppression at the disposal site, discharge to the river could be eliminated completely

  20. Impact of glycemic control on the incidence of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a comparison of two strategies using the RIFLE criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Araújo de Azevedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the renal outcome in patients submitted to two different regimens of glycemic control, using the RIFLE criteria to define acute kidney injury. INTRODUCTION: The impact of intensive insulin therapy on renal function outcome is controversial. The lack of a criterion for AKI definition may play a role on that. METHODS: Included as the subjects were 228 randomly selected, critically ill patients engaged in intensive insulin therapyor in a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy. Renal outcome was evaluated through the comparison of the last RIFLE score obtained during the ICU stay and the RIFLE score at admission; the outcome was classified as favorable, stable or unfavorable. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable regarding demographic data. AKI developed in 52% of the patients and was associated with a higher mortality (39.4% compared with those who did not have AKI (8.2% (p60, acute kidney injury and hypoglycemia were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Intensive insulin therapy and a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy were comparable regarding the incidence of acute kidney injury evaluated using RIFLE criteria.

  1. Comparacao dos criterios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO quanto a capacidade de predicao de mortalidade em pacientes graves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Machado Levi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A lesão renal aguda é uma complicação comum em pacientes gravemente enfermos, sendo os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO utilizados para sua classificação. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo a comparação dos critérios citados quanto à capacidade de predição de mortalidade em pacientes gravemente enfermos. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva, utilizando como fonte de dados prontuários médicos. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes admitidos na unidade de terapia intensiva. Os critérios de exclusão foram tempo de internamento menor que 24 horas e doença renal crônica dialítica. Os pacientes foram acompanhados até a alta ou óbito Para análise dos dados, foram utilizados os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado, regressão logística multivariada e curva ROC. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 64 anos, com mulheres e afrodescendentes representando maioria. Segundo o RIFLE, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 22,58%, 24,19% e 35,48% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda e em estágios Risk, Injury e Failure, respectivamente. Quanto ao AKIN, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 12,90% e 40,32% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. Considerando o KDIGO 2012, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 11,29% e 41,94% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. As três classificações apresentaram resultados de curvas ROC para mortalidade semelhantes. Conclusão: Os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO apresentaram-se como boas ferramentas para predição de mortalidade em pacientes graves, não havendo diferença relevante entre os mesmos.

  2. Use of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution to Form Hydroxyapatite for Uranium Stabilization of Old Rifle Sediments: Laboratory Proof of Principle Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szescody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vermeul, Vincent R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Luellen, Jon [AECOM, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Old Rifle Site is a former vanadium and uranium ore-processing facility located adjacent to the Colorado River and approximately 0.3 miles east of the city of Rifle, CO. The former processing facilities have been removed and the site uranium mill tailings are interned at a disposal cell north of the city of Rifle. However, some low level remnant uranium contamination still exists at the Old Rifle site. In 2002, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) concurred with United States Department of Energy (US DOE) on a groundwater compliance strategy of natural flushing with institutional controls to decrease contaminant concentrations in the aquifer. In addition to active monitoring of contaminant concentrations, the site is also used for DOE Legacy Management (LM) and other DOE-funded small-scale field tests of remediation technologies. The purpose of this laboratory scale study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment in Old Rifle sediments. Phosphate treatment impact was evaluated by comparing uranium leaching and surface phase changes in untreated to PO4-treated sediments. The impact of the amount of phosphate precipitation in the sediment on uranium mobility was evaluated with three different phosphate loadings. A range of flow velocity and uranium concentration conditions (i.e., uranium flux through the phosphate-treated sediment) was also evaluated to quantify the uranium uptake mass and rate by the phosphate precipitate.

  3. Data Validation Package November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0659 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0304. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920), with one exception: New Rifle location 0635 could not be sampled because it was inaccessible; a fence installed by the Colorado Department of Transportation prevents access to this location. DOE is currently negotiating access with the Colorado Department of Transportation. Analytes measured at the New Rifle site included contaminants of concern (COCs) (arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen, selenium, uranium, and vanadium) ammonia as nitrogen, major cations, and major anions. Field measurements of total alkalinity, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, and temperature were made at each location, and the water level was measured at each sampled well. A proposed alternate concentration limit (ACL) for vanadium of 50 milligrams per liter (mg/L), specific to the compliance (POC) wells (RFN-0217, -0659, -0664, and -0669) is included in the New Rifle GCAP. Vanadium concentrations in the POC wells were below the proposed ACL as shown in the time-concentration graphs in the Data Presentation section (Attachment 2). Time-concentration graphs from all other locations sampled are also included in Attachment 2. Sampling location RFN-0195 was misidentified for the June/August 2014

  4. The Use of a Magnetic Port Finder in the Retrieval of Air Rifle BBs to the Upper Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Hsieh, Sun; Roussel, Lauren Ouellet; Jehle, Charles Christopher; Mehrzad, Raman; Schmidt, Scott

    2018-04-03

    Air-powered rifles shoot ball bearings with enough kinetic energy to penetrate skin and fracture underlying bones. In addition, there are reports of these ball bearings embolizing within the vascular network, causing serious injuries such as ischemic stroke with resultant blindness. The severity of these complications warrants occasional removal of these foreign bodies; however, they can be difficult to localize. In this case report, we describe the use of a magnetic port finder, a sterilizable tool used in breast reconstruction, to localize the foreign body in situ. We believe that this tool is effective at locating ferrous foreign bodies precisely, allowing for surgical retrieval while minimizing damage to surrounding tissue. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential effects of suppressors on hazardous sound pressure levels generated by AR-15 rifles: Considerations for recreational shooters, law enforcement, and the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobarinas, Edward; Scott, Ryan; Spankovich, Christopher; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    Firearm discharges produce hazardous levels of impulse noise that can lead to permanent hearing loss. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of suppression, ammunition, and barrel length on AR-15 rifles. Sound levels were measured left/right of a user's head, and 1-m left of the muzzle, per MIL-STD-1474-D, under both unsuppressed and suppressed conditions. Nine commercially available AR-15 rifles and 14 suppressors were used. Suppressors significantly decreased peak dB SPL at the 1-m location and the left ear location. However, under most rifle/ammunition conditions, levels remained above 140 dB peak SPL near a user's right ear. In a subset of conditions, subsonic ammunition produced values near or below 140 dB peak SPL. Overall suppression ranged from 7-32 dB across conditions. These data indicate that (1) suppressors reduce discharge levels to 140 dB peak SPL or below in only a subset of AR-15 conditions, (2) shorter barrel length and use of muzzle brake devices can substantially increase exposure level for the user, and (3) there are significant left/right ear sound pressure differences under suppressed conditions as a function of the AR-15 direct impingement design that must be considered during sound measurements to fully evaluate overall efficacy.

  6. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during biostimulation experiments at Rifle, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Kowalsky, Michael B; Englert, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S

    2010-03-01

    Electron donor amendment for bioremediation often results in precipitation of secondary minerals and the growth of biomass, both of which can potentially change flow paths and the efficacy of bioremediation. Quantitative estimation of precipitate and biomass distribution has remained challenging, partly due to the intrinsic heterogeneities of natural porous media and the scarcity of field data. In this work, we examine the effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on the spatial distributions of mineral precipitates and biomass accumulated during a biostimulation field experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Field bromide breakthrough data were used to infer a heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity through inverse transport modeling, while the solid phase Fe(III) content was determined by assuming a negative correlation with hydraulic conductivity. Validated by field aqueous geochemical data, reactive transport modeling was used to explicitly keep track of the growth of the biomass and to estimate the spatial distribution of precipitates and biomass. The results show that the maximum mineral precipitation and biomass accumulation occurs in the vicinity of the injection wells, occupying up to 5.4vol.% of the pore space, and is dominated by reaction products of sulfate reduction. Accumulation near the injection wells is not strongly affected by heterogeneities present in the system due to the ubiquitous presence of sulfate in the groundwater. However, accumulation in the down-gradient regions is dominated by the iron-reducing reaction products, whose spatial patterns are strongly controlled by both physical and geochemical heterogeneities. Heterogeneities can lead to localized large accumulation of mineral precipitates and biomass, increasing the possibility of pore clogging. Although ignoring the heterogeneities of the system can lead to adequate prediction of the average behavior of sulfate-reducing related products, it can also lead to an

  7. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  8. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions (coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)) over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the 'fines' fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  9. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An

  10. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  11. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, February 2011 to January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Banfield, Jill [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chandler, Darrell P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, James A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hettich, Bob [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); VerBerkmoes, Nathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kerkhof, Lee J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peacock, Aaron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Rifle IFRC continued to make excellent progress during the last 12 months. As noted above, a key field experiment (Best Western) was performed during 2011 as a logical follow-on to the Super 8 field experiment preformed in 2010. In the Super 8 experiment, we successfully combined desorption and bioreduction and deployed a number of novel tracer techniques to enhance our ability to interpret the biogeochemistry of the experiment. In the Best Western experiment, we used the same experimental plot (Plot C) as was used for Super 8. The overarching objective of the Best Western field experiment was to compared the impacts of abiotic vs. biotic increases in alkalinity and to assess the mass of the sorbed pool of U(VI) at Rifle at the field scale. Both of these objectives were met. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the underlying biogeochemical data sets were obtained that will support a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes, including remarkable insight into previously unrecognized microbial processes taking place during acetate amendment of the subsurface for a second time.

  12. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  13. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  14. The effects of Fe-oxidizing microorganisms on post-biostimulation permeability reduction and oxidative processes at the Rifle IFRC site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara Sze-Yue [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-07-02

    Fe oxidation and biomineral formation is important in aquifers because the highly-reactive oxides can control the mobility of nutrients (e.g. phosphate, C) and metals (e.g. arsenic, uranium). Mineral formation also has the potential to affect hydrology, depending on the volume and distribution in pore spaces. In this exploratory study, we sought to understand how microbial Fe-oxidizers and their biominerals affect, and are affected by groundwater flow. As part of work at the Rifle aquifer in Colorado, we initially hypothesized that Fe-oxidizers were contributing to aquifer clogging problems associated with enhanced bioremediation. To demonstrate the presence of Fe-oxidizers in the Rifle aquifer, we enriched FeOM from groundwater samples, and isolated two novel chemolithotrophic, microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, Hydrogenophaga sp. P101 and Curvibacter sp. CD03. To image cells and biominerals in the context of pores, we developed a “micro-aquifer,” a sand-filled flow-through culture chamber that allows for imaging of sediment pore space with multiphoton confocal microscopy. Fe oxide biofilms formed on sand grains, demonstrating that FeOM produce Fe oxide sand coatings. Fe coatings are common on aquifer sands, and tend to sequester contaminants; however, it has never previously been shown that microbes are responsible for their formation. In contrast to our original hypothesis, the biominerals did not clog the mini-aquifer. Instead, Fe biofilm distribution was dynamic: they grew as coatings, then periodically sloughed off sand grains, with some flocs later caught in pore throats. This has implications for physical hydrology, including pore scale architecture, and element transport. The sloughing of coatings likely prevents the biominerals from clogging wells and aquifers, at least initially. Although attached biomineral coatings sequester Fe-associated elements (e.g. P, As, C, U), when biominerals detach, these elements are transported as particles

  15. Use of Minicameras to Improve Operative Procedure in Security Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; Diaz-Manzano, Montaña; Robles-Pérez, José Juan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze pistol and compact rifle marksmanship in close quarter combat (CQC). There is currently a controversy about what weapon is most appropriate to use in CQC, short weapon as pistols or long weapons as rifle. Forty two participants conducted two close quarter combat simulations, one with pistol and one with compact rifle. Marksmanship and time to cover the simulation were measured. Data obtained showed no significant differences between pistol and compact rifle. In addition, it was observed a tendency to obtain higher scores with compact rifle, probably be due to the higher stability provided in the shot action. Compact rifle could be an effective election in actual theaters of operation in which asymmetrical and symmetrical combat are combined and also in police interventions due to compact rifle provide higher fire power and range and obtained the same shooting performance than pistol. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that provides empirical data to solve the discussion about the efficiency of the use of rifle and pistol in close quarter combat in military and police interventions. These results could be used to improve the military and police interventions efficiency.

  16. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Jeff; Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  17. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  18. Assessment of New Marksmanship Strategies in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and 4N (CCO used during the day; Night vision device/goggles and AN/ PAQ -4 aiming light used at night)   DAY FIRING PRONE SUPPORTED  PRONE...Boresighting/zeroing an aiming light ( PAQ / PEQ) Y N Did not perform b. Boresighting/zeroing a CCO % Soldiers responding to each option OSUT 1 OSUT...magazines while engaging targets Y N g. Engaging targets at night with an aiming light ( PAQ /PEQ) and night vision goggles/device Y N h. Engaging

  19. Increasing Realism in Virtual Marksmanship Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Since Edward Thorndike published his seminal work on educational research over 90 years ago, there has been debate about whether a certain type of...media used in training or education is qualitatively superior to other methods ( Thorndike , 1912). A virtual environment trainer can be viewed as...in educational games. Toronto, Canada: ACM. Thorndike , E. L. Education. New York: MacMillan, 1912. 44 Torre, J. P., Maxey, J. L., & Piper, A

  20. The Study of Microbial Environmental Processes Related to the Natural Attenuation of Uranium at the Rifle Site using Systems-level Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methe, Barbara [J. Craig Venter Inst. (JCVI), Rockville, MD (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahadevan, Krishna [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-08-31

    Microbes exist in communities in the environment where they are fundamental drivers of global carbon, nutrient and metal cycles. In subsurface environments, they possess significant metabolic potential to affect these global cycles including the transformation of radionuclides. This study examined the influence of microbial communities in sediment zones undergoing biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nutrients and metals including natural attenuation of uranium. This study examined the relationship of both the microbiota (taxonomy) and their metabolic capacity (function) in driving carbon, nutrient and metal cycles including uranium reduction at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (RIFRC). Objectives of this project were: 1) to apply systems-level biology through application of ‘metaomics’ approaches (collective analyses of whole microbial community DNA, RNA and protein) to the study of microbial environmental processes and their relationship to C, N and metals including the influence of microbial communities on uranium contaminant mobility in subsurface settings undergoing natural attenuation, 2) improve methodologies for data generation using metaomics (collectively metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and proteomics) technologies and analysis and interpretation of that data and 3) use the data generated from these studies towards microbial community-scale metabolic modeling. The strategy for examining these subsurface microbial communities was to generate sequence reads from microbial community DNA (metagenomics or whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS)) and RNA (metatranscriptomcs or RNAseq) and protein information using proteomics. Results were analyzed independently and through computational modeling. Overall, the community model generated information on the microbial community structure that was observed using metaomic approaches at RIFRC sites and thus provides an important framework for continued community modeling

  1. United States Army Officer Development And Procurement During World War I and II: How The Army Grew Its Officer Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    rifle marksmanship, the use of artillery, cavalry, medical, and signal. The camp’s series of challenges culminated with a sixty- five mile hike . Upon...camps. I believe the students attending will derive not only a great deal of physical benefit from the healthful, open-air life, but also they will... benefit from discipline, habits of regularity and the knowledge of personal and camp sanitation which the experience in camp will give them. The camps

  2. METHODS OF ESTIMATION OF COMPLEX FREQUENCY DESCRIPTIONS OF LTM AND BRM BEARING KNOTS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pohrebnyak

    2015-01-01

    The method of studying bearing units (ball bearings) of handling and construction of road machines in the low-frequency range of vibration-acoustic signal is presented. It includes: the choice of the method and place of vibration sensors installation, vibration signals registration modes, instruments, algorithms of processing and formation of diagnostic features of the signal, determination of the threshold values of the diagnostic parameter. The characteristic spectra of vibration velocities...

  3. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    index-eng.asp retrieved 9 February 2010 2 http://www.armee.forces.gc.ca/land-terre/cr-rc/history- histoire -eng.asp retrieved 9 February 2010 3 http... histoire -eng.asp Department of National Defence. (2010). Canadian Ranger Patrol (CRPG). Retrieved June 3, 2010, from http://www.army.forces.gc.ca

  4. Usability and Utility of a Mobile Application for Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity, and colour vision data were collected under protocol 2013-073: Automated Target Cueing in Scene Search (Dr. Mackenzie Glaholt, DRDC Toronto... Psychological Science, 1(3), 181- 210. Ryu, Y. S., & Smith-Jackson, T. L. (2006). Reliability and Validity of the Mobile Phone Usability Questionnaire

  5. Effects of Body Armor Fit on Marksmanship Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    SIMULATORS SIZES(DIMENSIONS) IOTV(IMPROVED OUTER TACTICAL VEST ) U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center...configurations were counterbalanced to control for order effect. Body Armor. The U.S. Army, standard issue Improved Outer Tactical Vest (IOTV) Generation III...targets at that great of an arc (≥50°) was not operationally realistic. Fig. 2 Improved outer tactical vest (IOTV) Gen III Table 1 Distribution of

  6. Texturas de los minerales del grupo de la sílice de la manifestación epitermal El Rifle-Hato Viejo, región de Moa: clasificación, descripción e implicaciones genéticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leduar Ramayo-Cortés

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la región de Moa, Cuba oriental, se localizan varias manifestaciones hidrotermales. Se trata de sistemas vetiformes y brechas hidrotermales con contenidos significativos de metales nobles. La manifestación hidrotermal El Rifle-Hato Viejo se destaca por su extensión, y está formada por brechas y vetas de cuarzo mineralizadas, vinculadas preferentemente a fracturas correspondientes al sistema de fallas NW-SE y se hospeda en rocas sedimentarias del Campaniense Tardío-Daniense. El estudio textural de los minerales del grupo de la sílice permitió el reconocimiento de varias texturas, las cuales fueron clasificadas en tres grupos: 1 texturas de crecimiento primario (calcedonia maciza, costriforme, en peine, cristales zonados, y maciza, 2 texturas de recristalización (mosaico, plumosa y llameante, y 3 texturas de reemplazo (en enrejado, paralelo y radiado. Sobre la base de este análisis se estableció la secuencia deposicional de los diferentes minerales del grupo de la sílice y se reveló la presencia de la paragénesis de alteración adularia-sericita, lo cual indicaría el desarrollo de un sistema epitermal de baja sulfuración. Estas texturas también se usaron para indicar el nivel de emplazamiento dentro del sistema epitermal; en este caso, el emplazamiento de la manifestación El Rifle-Hato Viejo se corresponde con el nivel intermedio o coloiforme-costriforme, el cual se encuentra por encima de la zona propicia para la deposición del oro, por lo que podría esperarse la presencia de contenidos más elevados en profundidad.

  7. Modification of radiation therapy by RP-170, hypoxic cell sensitizer and OK-432, biological response modifier (BRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Chieko; Mori, Tomoyuki; Tamauchi, Hidekazu

    1995-01-01

    Studies have shown that the combination therapy with RP-170, irradiation and OK-432 could produce significantly higher antitumor effect. The multiple local administration of OK-432 showed superior sensitizing effect in tumor growth delay, tumor control and survival rate. DMF from TCD 50 assay was 2.09 which might be equivalent to that from irradiation with over several hundred mg/kg of RP-170. Additionally combined with 50 mg/kg RP-170, nearly available dose in clinical use, the combined treatment with RP-170, irradiation and OK-432 produced DMF of 1.4, which could be gotten by over 100 mg/kg of RP-170. The success of this combination therapy on murine tumors might also suggest a possibility for a great benefit in clinical radiotherapy. More detailed investigations, histological and immunological research, are under progress. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Anvil Points oil shale tailings management in Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, R.; Galli LaBerge, C.; McClurg, J. [Ecology and Environment Inc., Lancaster, NY (United States); Walsh Integrated, Lachine, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation summarized the oil shale tailings management program used at the Anvil Points mining site in Colorado. Decommissioning and reclamation of the site occurred between 1984 and 1986. The geology of the region is comprised of Tertiary bedrock sedimentary formations and Quaternary formations on the surface. Oil shales mined at the facility are from the Eocene Green River formation. While the site lies within big game winter ranges, the areas around the shale pile supports are not a significant nesting or feeding habitat for wildlife. No sensitive plants are located on the waste shale pile. The program currently includes revegetation test plots and the reclamation of an area where heating oil storage tanks were located. The dumping area is currently being monitored, and geophysical surveys are being conducted. Documents produced by mining activities are also being reviewed. Results of the study to date have indicated the presence of asbestos-containing materials, significant physical hazards, and significant cultural resources. An engineering evaluation and cost analysis has demonstrated that arsenic, beryllium, and iron exceed established soil screening levels. It was concluded that off-site removal actions will be conducted to prevent or reduce human exposure to the metals of concern. tabs., figs.

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Method for Basic Marksmanship Training on an Australian Army Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    in DSTO’s Land Division. He holds a Bachelor of Science Degree and First Class Honours Degree in Psychology from the University of Adelaide. He...also holds a Master of Psychology Degree from the University of South Australia and is a Registered Psychologist in Australia. He joined DSTO in 2002...including LF6 qualification. There was no evidence of negative training associated with using different colour targets in the simulator and live-fire

  10. Predicting Individual Physiological Responses During Marksmanship Field Training Using an Updated SCENARIO-J Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yokota, Miyo

    2004-01-01

    ...)) for individual variation and a metabolic rate (M) correction during downhill movements. This study evaluated the updated version of the model incorporating these new features, using a dataset collected during U.S. Marine Corps (USMC...

  11. Marksmanship Requirements from the Perspective of Combat Veterans - Volume 2: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    M. McInroy who provided input to the questionnaire and insured that the Army’s Centers of Excellence were aware of the importance of their students ...combat gear Qualify with weapon in combat gear Hit targets at night using aiming lights & night vision goggles Hit targets at night with thermal ...conditions, the junior and some of the senior enlisted were not comfortable under these conditions making it unsatisfactory. 10 Engineer. Different

  12. Identifying the Method for Effective Combat Marksmanship Training Using Site Optics and Packaged Sensor Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    accurately displaying the point of aim to a precision of two minutes of angle. • At the distance of approximately 240 inches from the muzzle of the SRS...line, rapid stage, shooters will engage a static Dog (D)-target firing ten rounds, referenced in Figure 12. Shooters will prepare for this stage by

  13. Effect of Various Environmental Stressors on Target Detection, Identification, and Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tikuisis, Peter; Keefe, Allan A

    2007-01-01

    .... Using a small arms trainer (SAT), the detection, identification, and engagement of targets were tested under a variety of environmentally stressful conditions including heat and cold exposure, noise, fatiguing exercise, and sleep...

  14. Target Detection, Identification, and Marksmanship Under Various Types of Physiological Strain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tikuisis, Peter

    2006-01-01

    .... Using a small arms trainer (SAT), target detection, identification, and engagement were tested under a variety of conditions including heat and cold exposure, fatiguing exercise, and sleep deprivation, with caffeine intervention...

  15. Revision Of Career Marksmanship Training Requirements For The United States Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    shooting an explosive cartridge, research should shift toward the improvement of interactions between the weapon and the shooter. The use of flash ... suppressors and noise dampening technologies have been proven to reduce the level of impact on a shooter or group of shooters by allowing steady...engagement without the loud noises and blinding flashes produced by conventional weapons without the aid of such devises (Personal correspondence with

  16. Using Motion Capture to Determine Marksmanship Shooting Profiles: Teaching Soldiers to Shoot Better Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    gigantic “Thank You.” You all are consummate professionals. Your hard work and dedication to our research was imperative and made our lives ten...Are you recovering from any cold or flu symptoms , or are you under any current medical treatment? ______Yes ______No 107 APPENDIX E

  17. The Impact of Caffeine on Cognitive and Physical Performance and Marksmanship During Sustained Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLellan, Tom

    2004-01-01

    .... It is well documented that sleep loss impairs cognitive performance, and both physical and cognitive performance alone or in combination are critical for the successful outcome across the full...

  18. Interaction of HP1 and Brg1/Brm with the globular domain of histone H3 is required for HP1-mediated repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lavigne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The heterochromatin-enriched HP1 proteins play a critical role in regulation of transcription. These proteins contain two related domains known as the chromo- and the chromoshadow-domain. The chromo-domain binds histone H3 tails methylated on lysine 9. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that the affinity of HP1 proteins to native methylated chromatin is relatively poor and that the opening of chromatin occurring during DNA replication facilitates their binding to nucleosomes. These observations prompted us to investigate whether HP1 proteins have additional histone binding activities, envisioning also affinity for regions potentially occluded by the nucleosome structure. We find that the chromoshadow-domain interacts with histone H3 in a region located partially inside the nucleosomal barrel at the entry/exit point of the nucleosome. Interestingly, this region is also contacted by the catalytic subunits of the human SWI/SNF complex. In vitro, efficient SWI/SNF remodeling requires this contact and is inhibited in the presence of HP1 proteins. The antagonism between SWI/SNF and HP1 proteins is also observed in vivo on a series of interferon-regulated genes. Finally, we show that SWI/SNF activity favors loading of HP1 proteins to chromatin both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, our data suggest that HP1 chromoshadow-domains can benefit from the opening of nucleosomal structures to bind chromatin and that HP1 proteins use this property to detect and arrest unwanted chromatin remodeling.

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Clothing and Individual Equipment on Marksmanship Performance Using a Novel Five Target Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    operationally relevant and address the key factors for Warfighter performance. N ot s ub je ct to U .S . c op yr ig ht re st ric tio ns . D...11B) from the 75th Ranger Regiment. Two TPs were Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) Contractors as Representative Soldiers (CARS). One of the CARS is

  20. Universal Infantry Weapons Trainer (UIWT). Volume 1. M-16 Rifle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    t power supply provides o!)erating %olta es f(r thE UIWT is well as for the pre-amp receiver in the UIWT,-ifle. A single ;diniature dry cell forty... NT1 ;IF NOT TME CON I1NE ,,i5 9 F .54 101 1 t,#131D , 1TTOP OF QUEUE R b, 19 55 CONrI: IC tt NCMEIENT WRITE IOINTER REG E FB 󈧼 UE:UL: MN R3 ,’ESTORE

  1. U.S. Army Rifle and Carbine Adoption between 1865 and 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    end-strength of 11,043. General in Chief of the Army General Ulysses S. Grant wanted to increase the Regular Army to 80,000 men , but neither...the weapon to stand. The shooter placed a primer on the nipple and cocked the hammer making the arm ready to fire. When the shooter pulled the...another change to the barrel bands, setting the nipple bolster out a bit further, incorporating a clean out screw instead of an angled flash hole, and

  2. The Inertial Reticle Technology (IRT) Applied to a Remington 700 Sniper Rifle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brosseau, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    Motion of the muzzle of a shoulder-fired weapon occurs during firing because of many factors, such as breathing, trigger pull, and flinching, and can also be introduced as a result of offhand shooting...

  3. Hunting The Ghost Gun: An Analysis Of The U.S. Army Infantry Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT HUNTING THE GHOST GUN : AN ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. ARMY......LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HUNTING THE GHOST GUN : AN ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. ARMY INFANTRY

  4. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-10

    28th and 29th as well as non-mission activities on the 30th and 31st of August 2013. The environmental conditions the Marines operated in were warm and...expenditure in healthy individuals. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 51(2): 241-247. 12. Minard D, Belding HS, and Kingston JR (1957...expenditure in free-living humans by using doubly labeled water. The Journal of Nutrition , 118(11): 1278-1289. 18. Tharion WJ, Lieberman HR

  5. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) Gun Barrel Bore and Rifling Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    11 I + | , + + in cri es sss asa f^piis aisa -^ nro^ HH^ S I I + VD 1X> ^3 Wfl ^mvo ^00...and high erosion rates encountered in high performance gun designs such as the GAU-7/A DD , :°N RM73 1473 EDITION OF 1 NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP

  7. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the

  8. A Project Officer’s Guide for Elementary Excellence-in-Competition Rifle and Pistol Matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    content by HQ AFMPC. Force pamphlet MAJUR VIC MARTIN Air Command and Staff College Class of 1984 iii ■: ,5 en For GFU&I TAB ;iicatlon_ G...profession o-f arms! In this age o-f computerized war-fare and electronic wizardry it seems that this is often over- looked. Technology has forced ...for individual combat is still the firearm - probably the type on which we qualified when we first came into the Air Force . In order to re-emphasize

  9. Darnton’s Cats, Bacon’s Rifle, and History of Science 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Harun

    2016-12-01

    Many of us who teach History of Science 101 courses face a situation where we must tell our story without relying on students’ prior knowledge of, say, the significance of ancient Greece and China, premodern and modern colonialism, or Marx. This leaves us needing a clear and punchy basic message, supported by a solid, well-structured, and inclusive story line that also doubles as world history. This response takes a look at the prospects and problems of longue durée histories of science from the perspective of cultural history. It voices sympathy toward Frans van Lunteren’s project and presents a small sample of potential difficulties involved in matching machines with historical periods.

  10. Lightening the Load of a USMC Rifle Platoon Through Robotics Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Boston Dynamics (from Knowles, 2013) 12 Another robot under the M3 development program at DARPA is the Cheetah robot. The Cheetah robot looks nearly...untethered and free-standing in comparison to its predecessor the Cheetah . DARPA is still conducting outdoor testing on the WildCat, but this free...running version of the Cheetah can run up to 16 mph and is expected to eventually gain speed up to 50 mph and still be capable to do so over different

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments

  13. Optimization of the biological process using flat membrane bioreactors. Maximum treatment performance with minimum reactor volume; Optimizacion del proceso biologico con BRM de membrana plana. Maximo rendimiento de depuracion con minimo volumen de reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lluch Vallmithana, S.; Lopez Gavin, A.

    2006-07-01

    In a conventional activated sludge process, the membranes are inside the biological reactor where they drain the water through suction or a water column. This system can be operated with heavy loads and sludge of 12-14 g/l or more, and is not affected by problems of bulking or foaming. This makes it suitable for treating difficult industrial waste waters, providing treated water that is free of bacteria and viruses. Micro filtration membranes are flat without any rubbing between them. The membranes require infrequent chemical cleaning and do not need back washing. As no final sedimented is needed, the waste water treatment plant occupies less space. (Author)

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in MBR process fed with settled wastewater from Valdebebas WWTP; Eliminacion de nitrogeno y fosforo en proceso BRM alimentado con agua decantada de EDAR de Valdebebas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, C.; Casares, B.; Larrea, L.; Paz Cobos, E. de la

    2008-07-01

    The MBR pilot plant (described in Tecnologia del Agua in February 2007) was fed with steeld wastewater from June 2006 to February 2007, maintaining both the hydraulic retention time(HRT) as low as possible in the range between 5-7 hours depending on the temperature and the solids retention time (SRT) around 20 days. The process behaviour showed significant variations but they were described by daily dynamic simulations, thereby allowing a deep analysis. In the final period (winter-February) very satisfactory results were obtained (N{sub T}<10 mg/l y P{sub T}<1 mg/l) thanks to the appropriate definition of the design and operational conditions. The research has concluded that the design and operation with minimum HRT and SRT requires the optimum utilization of the membrane tank as well as of the aerobic reactor, promoting the occurrence of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Weapon Simulator Test Methodology Investigation: Comparison of Live Fire and Weapon Simulator Test Methodologies and the Effects of Clothing and Individual Equipment on Marksmanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    variables analyzed included shot group tightness, radial error from the center of the target, and multiple time variables. The weapon simulator and...performance could be analyzed to determine if the weapon simulator data aligns with live fire data (i.e., if similar performance decrements appear in the...Analysis and Reporting The Noptel NOS4 software records shot performance data real-time and presents multiple statistical calculations as well as

  16. Mutation of C/EBPalpha predisposes to the development of myeloid leukemia in a retroviral insertional mutagenesis screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasemann, Marie S; Damgaard, Inge; Schuster, Mikkel B

    2008-01-01

    and incomplete penetrance, suggesting that accumulation of secondary mutations is necessary for disease progression. Here, we use SRS19-6-driven retroviral insertional mutagenesis to compare the phenotypes of leukemias arising in Cebpa(+/+), Cebpa(+/BRM2), and Cebpa(BRM2/BRM2) mice, with respect to disease type...

  17. The Rhodesian African Rifles: The Growth and Adaptation of a Multicultural Regiment through the Rhodesian Bush War, 1965-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    thousands of black Rhodesians stood outside the gates of Depot RAR to fill an advertised 200 open billets. 23 candidates, “often 100 per cent more...to find the rest of ZIPRA’s forces: The armoured cars were sent down to Essexvale battle camp to deal with ZIPRA’s armoured battle group but soon

  18. Summary of the East Africa Training Consortium Biorisk Management Practices and Training Needs Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Julie; Mancini, Giulio M.; Wakabi, Timothy; Boggs, Susan E.

    2017-03-01

    A survey was designed to query former Biorisk management (BRM) trainees in the East Africa region about their practices post-training and their perceived future training needs. A subset of those surveyed had been trained as BRM trainers. The survey was conducted to obtain a baseline of BRM practices that can serve as a benchmark for performance monitoring, to identify priorities for future BRM training and to gauge local BRM trainers' abilities to deliver effective training. The survey revealed that less than 50% of the respondents could identify evidence of a BRM system in their institute. Coaching and mentoring by BRM experts was identified as being of highest benefit to enable success as BRM practitioners. Local trainers reached 1538 trainees in the previous year and reported that trainings positively correlated with desired BRM behavior. Acknowledgements The authors wish to sincerely thank all of the former biorisk management trainees in East Africa who agreed to participate in this survey. Their candid and honest input was extremely insightful. We also thank Lora Grainger (06826) and Ben Brodsky (Manager, 06824) for careful and critical review of the report. We are grateful for the financial support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Cooperative Biological Engagement Program.

  19. Report of the M16 Rifle Review Panel. Volume 10, Appendix 9. Audit Trail of Chief of Staff, Army Actions and Decisions Concerning the M16

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-06-01

    VIEWFINDERS CAMERAS CAMOUFLAGE CAMS CANADA CANADIAN EQUIPMENT CANALS CANARD CONFIGURATION CANARY ISLANDS CANCELLATION CANCER CANDIDA CANDLES...CANISTER PROJECTILES CANISTERS CANNABINOLS CANNABIS CANNED FOODS CANNING CANNULATION CANOPIES CANTED NOZZLES CANTILEVER BEAMS CANTON ISLAND...MECHANICAL WORKING MECHANICS MECHANIZATION MEDIA MEDICAL CAMERAS MEDICAL COMPUTER APPLICATIONS MEDICAL ENGINEERING MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MEDICAL

  20. Report of the M16 Rifle Review Panel. Volume 3, Appendix 2. Audit Trail and Analysis of M16A1 Weapon and Ammunition System Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-06-01

    Jt CO 11 I- « — i *- N «S.S IS 2 S b COM o S. u Q, *■ c ic www u £ o w $ *J S in e :|| « n n td ki u < « 60 ii 2...s flJ -’ O W 4J atiii«» a c J c a « £ i 5 2 -o •4 >ML: a...ae ü C - E 3 W *. - a — *J »J i© £ 5 • S a ■5 » 5 U td b - u — s "o w w eg u- £ £ r c £ c li* 5^35 s» ’ . 2 li (A i D X i .S Si

  1. Be aware of the rifle but do not forget the stench: differential effects of fear and disgust on lexical processing and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Haro, Juan; Hinojosa, José Antonio

    2017-08-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of discrete emotions in lexical processing and memory, focusing on disgust and fear. We compared neutral words to disgust-related words and fear-related words in three experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT), and in Experiment 3 an affective categorisation task. These tasks were followed by an unexpected memory task. The results of the LDT experiments showed slower reaction times for both types of negative words with respect to neutral words, plus a higher percentage of errors, this being more consistent for fear-related words (Experiments 1 and 2) than for disgust-related words (Experiment 2). Furthermore, only disgusting words exhibited a higher recall accuracy than neutral words in the memory task. Moreover, the advantage in memory for disgusting words disappeared when participants carried out an affective categorisation task during encoding (Experiment 3), suggesting that the superiority in memory for disgusting words observed in Experiments 1 and 2 could be due to greater elaborative processing. Taken together, these findings point to the relevance of discrete emotions in explaining the effects of the emotional content on lexical processing and memory.

  2. Characterization and bioremediation potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from tunisian phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifi, Houda

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is often limited in agricultural soils. In this work, two bacteria were isolated from Tunisian phosphogypsum (PG). These ones have the capacity to dissolve inorganic phosphate (CaHPO 4 and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ). This capacity is determined by the clear halo formation around colonies in NBRIP agar medium. To confirm the solubilization phenotype, the concentration of solubilized phosphate by isolates cultivated in NBRIP broth containing PG was measured. These two bacteria noted BRM17 and BRM18 are identified as Pantoea sp. and Pseudomonas sp, respectively. The results show that BRM17 solubilizes about 2 times more phosphate in broth NBRIP medium after 48 hours of incubation than BRM18. Tunisian phosphogypsum contains 1100 ppm of strontium (Sr). Sr toxicity on bacteria was determined by concentration that gives half-maximal inhibition of bacteria (IC 50 ). Compared with Cupriavidus metallidurans (bacteria tolerant to most of heavy metals), BRM17 and BRM18 cultivated in broth medium containing increasing concentrations of Sr were found tolerant to Sr. The potential of bioremediation is tested by the rate evaluation of Sr adsorption by these bacteria. The results show the high ability of BRM18 to adsorb Sr. The resistance of isolates to ionizing radiation is also determined by the exposure of bacterial cultures to various doses of gamma radiation. BRM17 is considered radioresistant while BRM18 is radiosensitive. The effect on seed germination of wheat and pea inoculated with bacteria was tested. No positive effect was detected. This study is considered with the use of BRM17 and BRM18 in a bioremediation process and the improvement of phosphate uptake by plants cultivated in polluted environments.

  3. Business research methods: From information chaos to competences in the mind of students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom; Esbjerg, Lars; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates a competence and knowledge type framework for teaching business research (BRM) methods on large group teaching of social science students. The view of BRM is to represent a multi-methodological approach to knowledge. Quantitative and qualitative methods are natural...

  4. Rehabilitation of Upper Extremity Casualties via Firearms Training Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Karolina; Yancosek, Karthleen E

    2005-01-01

    ...%ty to remain vital assets to the American fighting force. The FATS supports training for both individual marksmanship skills and squad level skills, to include tactical exercises with a variety...

  5. Cranial irradiation in patients with brain metastasis. A retrospective study of timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampil, F.L.; Burton, G.V.; Mills, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the importance of the interval between diagnosis of brain metastasis (BRM) and cranial irradiation (CI). The charts of 92 patients with a known diagnosis of cancer and suspected BRM as shown on radioimaging studies were reviewed retrospectively. The median interval between diagnosis and the onset of CI for BRM was five days; one group of 48 individuals received CI within an interval of five days, and another group of 44 patients after an interval of five days. Symptom palliation, objective responses to CI and survival were evaluated in both groups. Neither symptomatic and objective responses to treatment nor overall survival differed significantly between the patient groups. These observations suggest that while CI is beneficial to most patients with BRM, its timing after the diagnosis of BRM may not seriously affect patient outcome. (author)

  6. Downregulation of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor subunits modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Kahali, Bhaskar; Reisman, David; Patrick, Steve M.

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF plays important roles in many cellular processes including transcription, proliferation, differentiation and DNA repair. In this report, we investigated the role of SWI/SNF catalytic subunits Brg1 and Brm in the cellular response to cisplatin in lung cancer and head/neck cancer cells. Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhanced cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Repair kinetics of cisplatin DNA adducts revealed that downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impeded the repair of both intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Cisplatin ICL-induced DNA double strand break repair was also decreased in Brg1 and Brm depleted cells. Altered checkpoint activation with enhanced apoptosis as well as impaired chromatin relaxation was observed in Brg1 and Brm deficient cells. Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm did not affect the recruitment of DNA damage recognition factor XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions, but affected ERCC1 recruitment, which is involved in the later stages of DNA repair. Based on these results, we propose that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity by facilitating efficient repair of the cisplatin DNA lesions. -- Highlights: ► Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhances cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. ► Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impedes the repair of cisplatin intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks. ► Brg1 and Brm deficiency results in impaired chromatin relaxation, altered checkpoint activation as well as enhanced apoptosis. ► Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm affects recruitment of ERCC1, but not XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions.

  7. A Neuro-oncologist's Perspective on Management of Brain Metastases in Patients with EGFR Mutant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, Tresa; Nagpal, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis (BrM) has been revolutionized by identification of molecular subsets that have targetable oncogenes. Historically, survival for NSCLC with symptomatic BrM was weeks to months. Now, many patients are surviving years with limited data to guide treatment decisions. Tumors with activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRact+) have a higher incidence of BrM, but a longer overall survival. The high response rate of both systemic and BrM EGFRact+ NSCLC to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has led to the rapid incorporation of new therapies but is outpacing evidence-based decisions for BrM in NSCLC. While whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was the foundation of management of BrM, extended survival raises concerns for the subacute and late effects radiotherapy. We favor the use of TKIs and delaying the use of WBRT when able. At inevitable disease progression, we consider alternative dosing schedules to increase CNS penetration (such as pulse dosing of erlotinib) or advance to next generation TKI if available. We utilize local control options of surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for symptomatic accessible lesions based on size and edema. At progression despite available TKIs, we use pemetrexed-based platinum doublet chemotherapy or immunotherapy if the tumor has high expression of PDL-1. We reserve the use of WBRT for patients with more than 10 BrM and progression despite TKI and conventional chemotherapy, if performance status is appropriate.

  8. 75 FR 60304 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... are available online free of charge. Visit http://www.nfdc.faa.gov to register. Additionally... (RNP) Z RWY 26, Amdt 1 Rifle, CO, Garfield County Rgnl, SQUAT THREE GRAPHIC OBSTACLE DP Rifle, CO...

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... include revolvers, self-loading pistols, rifles, carbines, assault rifles, submachine .... This section provides related theory on spring that was modelled in the .... Zhong-Xian L. Development and experimental verification of a.

  10. Breach Risk Magnitude: A Quantitative Measure of Database Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnoff, William A

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative methodology is described that provides objective evaluation of the potential for health record system breaches. It assumes that breach risk increases with the number of potential records that could be exposed, while it decreases when more authentication steps are required for access. The breach risk magnitude (BRM) is the maximum value for any system user of the common logarithm of the number of accessible database records divided by the number of authentication steps needed to achieve such access. For a one million record relational database, the BRM varies from 5.52 to 6 depending on authentication protocols. For an alternative data architecture designed specifically to increase security by separately storing and encrypting each patient record, the BRM ranges from 1.3 to 2.6. While the BRM only provides a limited quantitative assessment of breach risk, it may be useful to objectively evaluate the security implications of alternative database organization approaches.

  11. Performance Indicators for Business Rule Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline de Haan; dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit

    2016-01-01

    From the article: With increasing investments in business rules management (BRM), organizations are searching for ways to value and benchmark their processes to elicitate, design, accept, deploy and execute business rules. To realize valuation and benchmarking of previously mentioned processes,

  12. Benomyl-resistant mutant strain of Trichoderma sp. with increased mycoparasitic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejníková, P; Ondrusová, Z; Krystofová, S; Hudecová, D

    2010-01-01

    Application of UV radiation to the strain Trichoderma sp. T-bt (isolated from lignite) resulted in the T-brm mutant which was resistant to the systemic fungicide benomyl. The tub2 gene sequence in the T-brm mutant differed from the parent as well as the collection strain (replacing tyrosine with histidine in the TUB2 protein). Under in vitro conditions this mutant exhibited a higher mycoparasitic activity toward phytopathogenic fungi.

  13. Bioinformatics resource manager v2.3: an integrated software environment for systems biology with microRNA and cross-species analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that direct post-transcriptional regulation of protein coding genes. Recent studies have shown miRNAs are important for controlling many biological processes, including nervous system development, and are highly conserved across species. Given their importance, computational tools are necessary for analysis, interpretation and integration of high-throughput (HTP) miRNA data in an increasing number of model species. The Bioinformatics Resource Manager (BRM) v2.3 is a software environment for data management, mining, integration and functional annotation of HTP biological data. In this study, we report recent updates to BRM for miRNA data analysis and cross-species comparisons across datasets. Results BRM v2.3 has the capability to query predicted miRNA targets from multiple databases, retrieve potential regulatory miRNAs for known genes, integrate experimentally derived miRNA and mRNA datasets, perform ortholog mapping across species, and retrieve annotation and cross-reference identifiers for an expanded number of species. Here we use BRM to show that developmental exposure of zebrafish to 30 uM nicotine from 6–48 hours post fertilization (hpf) results in behavioral hyperactivity in larval zebrafish and alteration of putative miRNA gene targets in whole embryos at developmental stages that encompass early neurogenesis. We show typical workflows for using BRM to integrate experimental zebrafish miRNA and mRNA microarray datasets with example retrievals for zebrafish, including pathway annotation and mapping to human ortholog. Functional analysis of differentially regulated (p<0.05) gene targets in BRM indicates that nicotine exposure disrupts genes involved in neurogenesis, possibly through misregulation of nicotine-sensitive miRNAs. Conclusions BRM provides the ability to mine complex data for identification of candidate miRNAs or pathways that drive phenotypic outcome and, therefore, is a useful hypothesis

  14. Systematic Review of Brain Metastases in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in the United States, European Union, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, D Christian; Price, Gregory L; Hess, Lisa M; John, William J; Kim, Edward S

    2017-11-01

    Brain metastases (BRM) occur frequently in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and present a substantial unmet medical need. Previous literature on global BRM prevalence, treatment patterns, costs, and outcomes typically has described a subset of these factors. The primary objective of this systematic literature review was to summarize BRM-related epidemiology, treatment patterns, costs, and survival of patients with NSCLC in the United States, European Union, and Japan. The study was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Ovid MedLine, and Embase to identify studies published between 2003 and 2014. Peer-reviewed, English language, and human observational studies of patients with NSCLC and BRM were identified. Demographic characteristics, treatment patterns, histology subtype, costs, and survival data were extracted into Microsoft Excel and descriptively analyzed using SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc). Of 8257 studies, 243 were eligible. Data from 46,422 patients with NSCLC and 27,907 patients with BRM were summarized. Radiation therapy was used by 70.7% (n = 19,736) of the total BRM population, followed by systemic therapy (8.9%, n = 2497), and surgery (6.1%, n = 1690). Reported median survival was 9.78 months ranging from 2.5 to 38 months. Radiation therapy had the best outcome at 10.0 months with 41.6% (n = 101) of the studies reporting the use of stereotactic radiosurgery. Highly variable median survival and treatment patterns were reported between countries. Costs and histology subtype data were not reported for most countries, highlighting the need for additional research to describe the economic burden of BRM and improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and prescription of effective therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioinformatics resource manager v2.3: an integrated software environment for systems biology with microRNA and cross-species analysis tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilton Susan C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding RNAs that direct post-transcriptional regulation of protein coding genes. Recent studies have shown miRNAs are important for controlling many biological processes, including nervous system development, and are highly conserved across species. Given their importance, computational tools are necessary for analysis, interpretation and integration of high-throughput (HTP miRNA data in an increasing number of model species. The Bioinformatics Resource Manager (BRM v2.3 is a software environment for data management, mining, integration and functional annotation of HTP biological data. In this study, we report recent updates to BRM for miRNA data analysis and cross-species comparisons across datasets. Results BRM v2.3 has the capability to query predicted miRNA targets from multiple databases, retrieve potential regulatory miRNAs for known genes, integrate experimentally derived miRNA and mRNA datasets, perform ortholog mapping across species, and retrieve annotation and cross-reference identifiers for an expanded number of species. Here we use BRM to show that developmental exposure of zebrafish to 30 uM nicotine from 6–48 hours post fertilization (hpf results in behavioral hyperactivity in larval zebrafish and alteration of putative miRNA gene targets in whole embryos at developmental stages that encompass early neurogenesis. We show typical workflows for using BRM to integrate experimental zebrafish miRNA and mRNA microarray datasets with example retrievals for zebrafish, including pathway annotation and mapping to human ortholog. Functional analysis of differentially regulated (p Conclusions BRM provides the ability to mine complex data for identification of candidate miRNAs or pathways that drive phenotypic outcome and, therefore, is a useful hypothesis generation tool for systems biology. The miRNA workflow in BRM allows for efficient processing of multiple miRNA and mRNA datasets in a single

  16. Drying enhances immunoactivity of spent brewer's yeast cell wall β-D-glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepins, Janis; Kovačova, Elena; Shvirksts, Karlis; Grube, Mara; Rapoport, Alexander; Kogan, Grigorij

    2015-07-20

    Due to immunological activity, microbial cell wall polysaccharides are defined as 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). Cell walls of spent brewer's yeast also have some BRM activity. However, up to date there is no consensus on the use of spent brewer's yeast D-glucan as specific BRM in humans or animals. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of spent brewer's yeast β-D-glucans as BRM, and drying as an efficient pretreatment to increase β-D-glucan's immunogenic activity. Our results revealed that drying does not change spent brewer's yeast biomass carbohydrate content as well as the chemical structure of purified β-D-glucan. However, drying increased purified β-D-glucan TNF-α induction activity in the murine macrophage model. We presume drying pretreatment enhances purity of extracted β-D-glucan. This is corroborated with FT-IR analyses of the β-D-glucan spectra. Based on our results, we suggest that dry spent brewer's yeast biomass can be used as a cheap source for high-quality β-D-glucan extraction. Drying in combination with carboxylmethylation (CM), endows spent brewer's yeast β-D-glucan with the immunoactivity similar or exceeding that of a well-characterized fungal BRM pleuran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multilevel Association Rule Mining for Bridge Resource Management Based on Immune Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of multilevel association rule mining for bridge resource management (BRM which is announced by IMO in 2010. The goal of this paper is to mine the association rules among the items of BRM and the vessel accidents. However, due to the indirect data that can be collected, which seems useless for the analysis of the relationship between items of BIM and the accidents, the cross level association rules need to be studied, which builds the relation between the indirect data and items of BRM. In this paper, firstly, a cross level coding scheme for mining the multilevel association rules is proposed. Secondly, we execute the immune genetic algorithm with the coding scheme for analyzing BRM. Thirdly, based on the basic maritime investigation reports, some important association rules of the items of BRM are mined and studied. Finally, according to the results of the analysis, we provide the suggestions for the work of seafarer training, assessment, and management.

  18. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  19. Gene expression of hematoregulatory cytokines is elevated endogenously after sublethal gamma irradiation and is differentially enhanced by therapeutic administration of biologic response modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.M.; Adamovicz, J.J.; Madonna, G.S.; Gause, W.C.; Elliott, T.B.; Moore, M.M.; Ledney, G.D.; Jackson, W.E. III

    1994-01-01

    Prompt, cytokine-mediated restoration of hematopoiesis is a prerequisite for survival after irradiation. Therapy with biologic response modifiers (BRMs), such as LPS, 3D monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), and synthetic trehalose dicrynomycolate (S-TDCM) presumably accelerates hematopoietic recovery after irradiation are poorly defined. One hour after sublethal (7.0 Gy) 60 Co gamma irradiation, B6D2F1/J female mice received a single i.p. injection of LPS, MPL, S-TDCM, an extract from Serratia marcescens (Sm-BRM), or Tween 80 in saline (TS). Five hours later, a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay demonstrated marked splenic gene expression for IL-1β, IL-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF). Enhanced gene expression for TNF-α, macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) was not detected. Injection of any BRM further enhanced cytokine gene expression and plasma levels of CSF activity within 24 h after irradiation and hastened bone marrow recovery. Mice injected with S-TDCM or Sm-BRM sustained expression of the IL-6 gene for at least 24 h after irradiation. Sm-BRM-treated mice exhibited greater gene expression for IL-1β, IL-3, TNF-α, and G-CSF at day 1 than any other BRM. When challenged with 2 LD 50/30 of Klebsiella pneumoniae 4 days after irradiation, 100% of Sm-BRM-treated mice and 70% of S-TDCM-treated mice survived, whereas ≤30% of mice treated with LPS, MPL, or TS survived. Thus, sublethal irradiation induces transient, splenic cytokine gene expression that can be differentially amplified and prolonged by BRMs. BRMs that sustained and/or enhanced irradiation-induced expression of specific cytokine genes improved survival after experimental infection. 67 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Effects of the neuroprotective drugs somatostatin and brimonidine on retinal cell models of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Elena; Lopatina, Tatiana; Mazzeo, Aurora; Arroba, Ana I; Valverde, Angela M; Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael; Porta, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is considered a microvascular disease, but recent evidence has underlined early involvement of the neuroretina with interactions between microvascular and neural alterations. Topical administration of somatostatin (SST), a neuroprotective molecule with antiangiogenic properties, prevents diabetes-induced retinal neurodegeneration in animals. The α 2 -adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine (BRM) decreases vitreoretinal vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibits blood-retinal barrier breakdown in diabetic rats. However, SST and BRM effects on microvascular cells have not yet been studied. We investigated the behaviour of these drugs on the crosstalk between microvasculature and neuroretina. Expression of SST receptors 1-5 in human retinal pericytes (HRP) was checked. We subsequently evaluated the effects of diabetic-like conditions (high glucose and/or hypoxia) with/without SST/BRM on HRP survival. Endothelial cells (EC) and photoreceptors were maintained in the above conditions and their conditioned media (CM) used to culture HRP. Vice versa, HRP-CM was used on EC and photoreceptors. Survival parameters were assessed. HRP express the SST receptor 1 (SSTR1). Glucose fluctuations mimicking those occurring in diabetic subjects are more damaging for pericytes and photoreceptors than stable high glucose and hypoxic conditions. SST/BRM added to HRP in diabetic-like conditions decrease EC apoptosis. However, neither SST nor BRM changed the response of pericytes and neuroretina-vascular crosstalk under diabetic-like conditions. Retinal pericytes express SSTR1, indicating that they can be a target for SST. Exposure to SST/BRM had no adverse effects, direct or mediated by the neuroretina, suggesting that these molecules could be safely evaluated for the treatment of ocular diseases.

  1. [Survival in acute renal failure with conventional therapy or continuous replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibáñez-Velázquez, Martín; Sánchez-Montoya, Felipe; Alvirde-Gutiérrez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To know the survival rate in patients with RIFLE I and II stages on acute renal failure, treated with supportive care or continuous renal replacement therapy with PRISMA machine, at an intensive care unit. There were included patients of both sexes, aged 16 to 69 years, with acute renal failure in RIFLE I and II stages and score of scale APACHE II lower than 36 points. The sample studied was divided in two groups: a group was treated with supportive care, and the other group received continuous renal replacement therapy via PRISMA machine. We compared mortality between both groups and the association with the RIFLE stages with Pearson's chi-squared test. The average score of the scale APACHE I was 14 points, and the probability of death was 15 %. The patients with acute renal failure RIFLE I were 54.5 % and RIFLE II 45.5 %, with mortality of 30.4 % and 38.8 %, respectively. Patients in RIFLE I stage who received supportive care and continuous replacement therapy had non-statistical differences in mortality (p = 0.356). The mortality in patients with acute renal failure in RIFLE II stage treated with continuous replacement therapy was higher (p = 0.000). Because of its accessibility and lower mortality, supportive care should be the initial procedure in patients with acute renal failure in RIFLE I and II stages.

  2. TH : ACTIO~ AT ZOUT()A~S[)RIFTf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with Martini-Henry rifles with the result that a position cannot be successfully concealed.' That soldiers should in 1914 still be using an obsolete weapon and black powder cartrid- ges may occasion surprise; but it is a little- known fact that Defence Rifle Associations, to which the men of the Rustenburg Commando belonged ...

  3. Riflery: A Specialty Opportunity for Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Campers at the Virginia 4-H Shooting Education Camp receive intensive training from certified range coaches in shotgun, rifle, air rifle, air pistol, and archery. Such programs teach campers responsibility; develop character and self-concept; and promote safety, sportsmanship, and ethical behavior. Includes resources for developing a shooting…

  4. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  5. Thermo hydraulics of a steam boiler forced circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucakovic, Dragan; Zivanovic, Titoslav; Stevanovic, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimize the dryout at the steam boiler furnace in the Thermal Power Plant Kolubara B, designed are inner rifled wall tubes. This type of tubes, with many spiral grooves cut into the bore, prevents film boiling and enables the nucleate boiling be still maintained under the condition of vapour quality being app. 1. To verify the choice of the rifled tubes instead of the cheaper, smooth tubes type being justified, analyzed is the change of the actual and critical vapour quality with the furnace height, under uniform and non-uniform heat flu through evaporator walls. Furthermore, made are hydraulic calculations for various steam boiler loads, in case of both rifled and smooth tubes types, with the purpose to check the rifles influence to pressure drop increase in comparison with the smooth tubes. Also, checked is the selection of the circulation pump. Key words: evaporator, forced circulation, rifled tubes, critical vapour quality, pressure drop

  6. Assessing the reliability of the borderline regression method as a standard setting procedure for objective structured clinical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mortaz Hejri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the methods used for standard setting is the borderline regression method (BRM. This study aims to assess the reliability of BRM when the pass-fail standard in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was calculated by averaging the BRM standards obtained for each station separately. Materials and Methods: In nine stations of the OSCE with direct observation the examiners gave each student a checklist score and a global score. Using a linear regression model for each station, we calculated the checklist score cut-off on the regression equation for the global scale cut-off set at 2. The OSCE pass-fail standard was defined as the average of all station′s standard. To determine the reliability, the root mean square error (RMSE was calculated. The R2 coefficient and the inter-grade discrimination were calculated to assess the quality of OSCE. Results: The mean total test score was 60.78. The OSCE pass-fail standard and its RMSE were 47.37 and 0.55, respectively. The R2 coefficients ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. The inter-grade discrimination score varied greatly among stations. Conclusion: The RMSE of the standard was very small indicating that BRM is a reliable method of setting standard for OSCE, which has the advantage of providing data for quality assurance.

  7. 75 FR 29893 - Business Reply Mail Online Application Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Business Reply Mail Online Application Option AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service TM will revise the Mailing Standards of the... option to obtain a Business Reply Mail[supreg] (BRM) permit online. Additionally, the electronic version...

  8. Dynamisch cloudsourcen van bedrijfsprocessen, gebruik van business rules management bij transitie en exit van BPO uit de cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolf Liefers; Jeroen van Grondelle; Johan Versendaal

    2015-01-01

    Dit artikel beschrijft een onderzoek waarbij gekeken is naar mogelijkheden die Business Rules Management-concepten bieden bij het aanbieden van bedrijfsprocessen as a service via een cloud-dienst. BRM helpt bedrijven door het gestructureerd vastleggen van organisatorische keuzes en regels waaraan

  9. 76 FR 77133 - Domestic Shipping Services Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... advantage of Regional Rate boxes. Box C is not available for mailers using Business Reply Mail (BRM) or... by Business Mailer Support. Parcel Select Machinable Dimensions The Postal Service has explored the... an Intelligent Mail[supreg] package barcode (IMpb), a unique tracking barcode, or an extra services...

  10. A Predictive and Follow-Up Study of Abusive and Neglectful Families by Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Kari Killen

    1991-01-01

    A case analysis, predictive study, and follow-up study of 17 abused and/or neglected children found that the prognosis for abusive and/or neglectful parents is poorer when they are scored high on immaturity than when they are scored high on emotional problems. (BRM)

  11. Assess Malnutrition Risk Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit; Matthijs Berkhout

    2016-01-01

    Decisions are used by organizations to manage and execute their coordinated, value-adding decision-making and are thereby among an organization’s most important assets. To be able to manage deci-sions and underlying business rules, Decision Management (DM) and Business Rules Management (BRM) are

  12. Padres Maltratadores: Grupos de Autoayuda (Abusive Parents: Self-Help Groups).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intebi, Irene V.; Groisman, Adriana E.

    1991-01-01

    Causes of child abuse by parents are discussed. A therapy program in Buenos Aires (Argentina) for abusive parents is described. The program utilizes self-help groups as part of the therapeutic plan and has found them to be promising. Referral, types of interactions with the groups, and short-, medium-, and long-term objectives are discussed. (BRM)

  13. Return on Investment: Ensuring Special Forces Can Fight Another Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    De Oppresso Liber! 1 I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE GREEN BERET INVESTMENT The cost in time, money and the national treasure of the nation’s young men...that must be conducted by the individual Green Beret: annual suicide training, airborne and special skills sustainment, marksmanship training, medical...instated for a SF Soldier who may find himself delinquent in a standard. This six-month period can and should coincide with a bar from reenlistment as

  14. Grip Strength and Its Relationship to Police Recruit Task Performance and Injury Risk: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Pope, Rodney; Stierli, Michael; Hinton, Benjamin

    2017-08-21

    Suitable grip strength is a police occupational requirement. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between grip strength, task performance and injury risk in a police population. Retrospective data of police recruits (n = 169) who had undergone basic recruit training were provided, including handgrip strength results, occupational task performance measures (consisting of police task simulations [SIM], tactical options [TACOPS] and marksmanship assessments) and injury records. Left hand grip strength (41.91 ± 8.29 kg) measures showed a stronger correlation than right hand grip strength (42.15 ± 8.53 kg) with all outcome measures. Recruits whose grip strength scores were lower were significantly more susceptible to failing the TACOPS occupational task assessment than those with greater grip strength scores, with significant ( p ≤ 0.003) weak to moderate, positive correlations found between grip strength and TACOPS performance. A significant ( p performance, with those performing better in marksmanship having higher grip strength. Left hand grip strength was significantly associated with injury risk ( r = -0.181, p = 0.018) but right hand grip strength was not. A positive association exists between handgrip strength and police recruit task performance (notably TACOPS and marksmanship) with recruits who scored poorly on grip strength being at greatest risk of occupational assessment task failure.

  15. Nutritional management of acute kidney injury in the critically ill: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-08

    Jul 8, 2013 ... urea nitrogen appearance (UNA) of 6 g or less nitrogen loss than the nitrogen ... The AKIN criteria have similar urine output criteria to the RIFLE classification .... Whole body protein synthesis increases by 15-37% in critically.

  16. Transformation for Disaster Relief: Developing a Hastily Formed Network during Operation Vigilant Relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epperly, John M

    2007-01-01

    ... in Louisiana on August 29, 2005. The study explores the problem of establishing a hastily formed network during a complex humanitarian disaster scenario by focusing on the difficulties of establishing a network at the rifle...

  17. Satellite Tags- Guam/CNMI EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  18. 75 FR 55730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist the Gray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Safari Club International, Safari Club International Foundation and the National Rifle Association of... threatened species. In a June 30, 2010, letter to the Safari Club International we responded that we received...

  19. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cragin, Kim; Hoffman, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    ... to traditional definitions of a security threat. For this analysis, the term "small arms" refers to man-portable personal and military weapons, ranging from handguns to assault rifles to surface-to-air missiles (SAMs...

  20. 36 CFR 261.58 - Occupancy and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rifle, or gas gun. (n) Possessing or operating a motorboat. (o) Water skiing. (p) Storing or leaving a...) Possessing a beverage which is defined as an alcoholic beverage by State law. (cc) Possessing or storing any...

  1. THE BATTLE OF SANDFONTEIN: THE ROLE AND LEGACY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    Nongqui, the 'inhouse' monthly publication for the SA Mounted Rifles, Police, and .... With added maturity and material comfort, the veterans were able to reflect .... Although anti-British feelings still smouldered amongst many Afrikaners in the.

  2. THE POST-NATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPRODUCTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TRACT OF THE SPRINGBOK RAM LAMB ANTI DORCAS ... Material was provided by 73 springbok lambs allocated at random into groups for slaughter ... The animals were shot in the neck with a high velocity rifle and immediately afterwards.

  3. Staying Sharp: Retention of Military Knowledge and Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wisher, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Memory for psychomotor skills varies, depending on whether the task is continuous, such as riding a bicycle, or discrete, such as executing the separate performance steps involved in disassembling a rifle...

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 11, November 1987

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    .... The articles are By the Course Indicated by Lenin, Outstanding Victory of Soviet Army, Strategic Soviet Troop Regroupings in Preparation of 1942-1943 Winter Campaign, Combat of 87th Rifle Division...

  5. Marine Corps Semper Fit Program Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-08

    issue, badminton , basketball, boxing, calisthenics, cardiovascular training, gymnastics, handball, jogging, martial arts, physical fitness training...cooler Hunting & Fishing Equipment - bow & arrows - quiver - rifle - shotgun - rod & reel - tacklebox - creel Sports Equipment - badminton set

  6. A Method for Testing the Dynamic Accuracy of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Magnetic, Angular Rate, and Gravity (MARG) Sensors for Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Human Motion Tracking Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    swinging, while the game software translates these actions into on-screen game play. Games like tennis , golf, bowling, fishing and more are controlled...reality, as in [20], sensors may be placed on the wrists, elbows , shoulders, head, and elsewhere to track the orientation of the individual. When...below. When pointing an arm or a rifle, the elbow or shoulder act as the pivot and the arm or rifle may swing horizontally about that point. These

  7. Changing Face of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    soldiers who had to use these shabby guns referred to them contemptuously as " pumpkin slingers.ൔ As with the Austrian rifled musket the Belgian rifle...Confederate forces divided. Part of the army detached to neutralize a Union garrison at Harpers Ferry while another part of the army was spread out heading...movements. The manual introduced squad tactics that spread out advancing infantrymen in loose-order formations. In theory, the attackers would be less

  8. Cystatin C as an early marker of acute kidney injury in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño-Andériz, F; Cabello-Clotet, N; Vidart-Simón, N; Postigo-Hernández, C; Domingo-Marín, S; Sánchez-García, M

    2015-03-01

    To describe the utility of determining plasma cystatinC concentrations in the diagnosis of acute incident kidney injury in septic shock. Prospective series of 50 patients with septic shock and plasma creatinine levels <2mg/dL hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Clinical and laboratory follow-ups were conducted, with measurements of cystatinC, urea and plasma creatinine levels from the diagnosis of septic shock to 5days later. The severity of the septic shock was assessed with the RIFLE scale. Twenty patients (40%) developed acute kidney injury: 8 (16%) were categorized as RIFLE-R, 5 (10%) as RIFLE-I and 7 (14%) as RIFLE-F. All patients categorized as RIFLE-F required extracorporeal renal clearance. Eighteen (36%) patients died, 8 (20%) of whom had developed acute kidney injury in their evolution. There was poor correlation between plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels (r=.501; P=.001), which disappeared upon reaching any degree of renal impairment on the RIFLE scale. CystatinC levels increased earlier and were better able to identify patients who would develop serious renal function impairment (RIFLE-F) than creatinine and urea levels. The initial cystatinC levels were related to mortality at 30days (OR=1.16; 95%CI: 03-.85). For patients who developed acute septic kidney injury, the plasma cystatinC levels increased before the classical markers of renal function. CystatinC also constitutes a severity biomarker that correlates with progression to RIFLE-F, the need for extrarenal clearance and, ultimately, mortality. This precocity could be useful for starting measures that prevent the progression of renal dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Weapons Effects in Cities. Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    reenforced 1st Division’s defense of the compound, its manpower decimated by the roadblock fight which had also cost it 12 AFCs destroyed. On coming...CONFIDENTIAL). 159. Calfee, Dewey , E. Limited Range Test of the M-16 Rifle with Eight Types of Rifle and Hand Grenades. (AD458570), Eglin Air...30 September 1954. 165. Defense Documentation Center. Propellant Flashes. A DDC Biblio- graphy (U). (AD516700), Alexandria, Virginia: Defense

  10. The role of socio-technical principles in leveraging meaningful benefits from IT investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Neil F

    2014-03-01

    In recent years there has been a great deal of academic and practitioner interest in the role of 'benefits realisation management' [BRM] approaches, as a means of proactively leveraging value from IT investments. This growing body of work owes a very considerable, but as yet unacknowledged, debt to the work of Ken Eason, and other early socio-technical theorists. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate, using the literature, how many of the principles, practices and techniques of BRM have evolved either directly or indirectly from socio-technical approaches to systems design. In so doing, this article makes a further important contribution to the literature by explicitly identifying the underlying principles and key practices of benefits realisation management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Feed intake and urinary excretion of nitrogen and purine derivatives in pregnant suckler cows fed alternative roughage-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jardstedt, M.; Hessle, A.; Nørgaard, P.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared intake of alternative roughage-based diets and of common late-cut grass silage and related intake to urinary nitrogen (N), urea-N and purine derivative (PD) excretion, where PD is an indicator of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis. Total urine was collected from 36...... Hereford cows, blocked into three groups based on expected calving date. Cows within calving groups were randomly assigned to one of four roughage diets: common mixed grass silage (MGS), festulolium silage plus urea (FLS), reed canarygrass silage (RCS) and barley straw plus urea and rapeseed meal (BRM...... diets stimulated rumen MCP production to a greater extent than the BRM diet, as indicated by the higher urinary output of PD in cows fed the grass silage-based diets (P

  12. Bioengineered Bruch's-like extracellular matrix promotes retinal pigment epithelial differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel McLenachan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the eye, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE adheres to a complex protein matrix known as Bruch's membrane (BrM. The aim of this study was to provide enriched conditions for RPE cell culture through the production of a BrM-like matrix. Our hypothesis was that a human RPE cell line would deposit an extracellular matrix (ECM resembling BrM. The composition and structure of ECM deposited by ARPE19 cells (ARPE19-ECM was characterized. To produce ARPE19-ECM, ARPE19 cells were cultured in the presence dextran sulphate. ARPE19-ECM was decellularized using deoxycholate and characterized by immunostaining and western blot analysis. Primary human RPE and induced pluripotent stem cells were seeded onto ARPE19-ECM or geltrex coated surfaces and examined by microscopy or RT-PCR. Culture of ARPE19 cells with dextran sulphate promoted nuclear localization of SOX2, formation of tight junctions and deposition of ECM. ARPE19 cells deposited ECM proteins found in the inner layers of BrM, including fibronectin, vitronectin, collagens IV and V as well as laminin-alpha-5, but not those found in the middle elastic layer (elastin or the outer layers (collagen VI. ARPE19-ECM promoted pigmentation in human RPE and pluripotent stem cell cultures. Expression of RPE65 was significantly increased on ARPE19-ECM compared with geltrex in differentiating pluripotent stem cell cultures. ARPE19 cells deposit ECM with a composition and structure similar to BrM in the retina. Molecular cues present in ARPE19-ECM promote the acquisition and maintenance of the RPE phenotype. Together, these results demonstrate a simple method for generating a BrM-like surface for enriched RPE cell cultures.

  13. Theory and practice of Auto CAD, computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Si Won; Choe, Hong Yeong; Shin, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ryong Cheol

    1990-08-01

    This book describes theory and practice of Auto CAD, computer graphics, which deals with peripheral of computer, occurrence of digital line by DDA, BRM, theory of conversion, data base and display and shape modeling. This book gives descriptions of outline of CAD system, Auto CAD, basic function practice, simple figure practice, the third angle projection drawing a little complex single object, machine drawing I, function practice of improved Auto CAD, edit, set up layer, and 3D, and 3D display function.

  14. A Method to Improve Test Process in Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework Using ISTQB Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Mahdavifar; Ramin Nassiri; Alireza Bagheri

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a framework for description, coordination and alignment of all activities across the organization in order to achieve strategic goals using ICT enablers. A number of EA-compatible frameworks have been developed. We, in this paper, mainly focus on Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) since its reference models are plentiful. Among these models we are interested here in its business reference model (BRM). The test process is one important subject of a...

  15. Neuronal M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are essential for somatotroph proliferation and normal somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Dinesh; Jeon, Jongrye; Starost, Matthew F; Han, Sung-Jun; Hamdan, Fadi F; Cui, Yinghong; Parlow, Albert F; Gavrilova, Oksana; Szalayova, Ildiko; Mezey, Eva; Wess, Jürgen

    2009-04-14

    The molecular pathways that promote the proliferation and maintenance of pituitary somatotrophs and other cell types of the anterior pituitary gland are not well understood at present. However, such knowledge is likely to lead to the development of novel drugs useful for the treatment of various human growth disorders. Although muscarinic cholinergic pathways have been implicated in regulating somatotroph function, the physiological relevance of this effect and the localization and nature of the receptor subtypes involved in this activity remain unclear. We report the surprising observation that mutant mice that selectively lack the M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype in the brain (neurons and glial cells; Br-M3-KO mice) showed a dwarf phenotype associated with a pronounced hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary gland and a marked decrease in pituitary and serum growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. Remarkably, treatment of Br-M3-KO mice with CJC-1295, a synthetic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog, rescued the growth deficit displayed by Br-M3-KO mice by restoring normal pituitary size and normal serum GH and IGF-1 levels. These findings, together with results from M(3) receptor/GHRH colocalization studies and hypothalamic hormone measurements, support a model in which central (hypothalamic) M(3) receptors are required for the proper function of hypothalamic GHRH neurons. Our data reveal an unexpected and critical role for central M(3) receptors in regulating longitudinal growth by promoting the proliferation of pituitary somatotroph cells.

  16. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Shattuck, Lawrence G

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. TRAINEES: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment.

  17. Comparing the Effects of Different Body Armor Systems on the Occupational Performance of Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Hinton, Ben; Norris, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    Policing duties may inherently be dangerous due to stab, blunt trauma and ballistic threats. The addition of individual light armor vests (ILAVs) has been suggested as a means to protect officers. However, the addition of the extra load of the ILAV may affect officer ability to conduct occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing any of three different ILAVs made by different companies with their preferred materials and designs (ILAV A, 4.68 percent body weight, ILAV B, 4.05 percent body weight, & ILAV C, 3.71 percent body weight) affected occupational task performance when compared to that in normal station wear. A prospective, within-subjects repeated measures design was employed, using a counterbalanced randomization in which each ILAV was worn for an entire day while officers completed a variety of occupationally relevant tasks. These tasks included a victim drag, car exit and 5-meter sprint, step down and marksmanship task. To compare the effects of the ILAVs on these tasks, a multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted, with post hoc pairwise comparisons using a Bonferroni adjustment. Results showed that performance in each task did not vary between any of the ILAV or normal station wear conditions. There was less variability in the marksmanship task with ILAV B, however. The results suggest that none of the ILAVs used in this study were heavy enough to significantly affect task performance in the assessed tasks when compared to wearing normal station wear. PMID:29723995

  18. Atypical gunshot injury to the right side of the face with the bullet lodged in the carotid sheath: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ongom, Peter A; Kijjambu, Stephen C; Jombwe, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gunshot injuries of the head and neck from the AK-47 rifle (a common assault rifle, submachine gun type) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among civilians in Sub-Saharan Africa. They may cause significant damage to the closely arranged structures in this region, and the bullet’s trajectory can be very difficult to determine. We present an unusual case of gunshot injury with an atypical bullet entry wound, profound injury to the face, lodgment in the right c...

  19. Blyfri riffelammunition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels

    -effective in hunting are available in most calibers. This study focuses on the extent to which non-lead rifle ammunition is available to Danish hunters in the retail sector of Denmark. The study is based on an electronic survey of Danish hunting stores, supplemented by market research via the Internet and telephone......, but is clearly increasing. Focus from regulatory authorities and hunting organizations via a plan to phase out lead rifle ammunition could strengthen development and increase the supply of non-lead types....

  20. Deep learning for media analysis in defense scenariosan evaluation of an open source framework for object detection in intelligence related image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Community scikit-learn [4] Feb 2010 University of Montreal LISA Lab Theano [5] Mar 2010 Berkley Vision and Learning Center Caffe [6] Oct 2013 Google...Institute at Carnegie Mellon University summarize these frustrations well: “It is disturbing, however, that many problems associated with the...2 Score Cat. 3 Score Mob . Home(-) mobile home 0.946 revolver 0.002 boathouse 0.001 Mob . Home(+) assault rifle 0.586 mobile home 0.159 rifle 0.158

  1. An unusual characteristic “flower-like” pattern: flash suppressor burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcan, Altun

    2012-01-01

    The case on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor is rare. When a rifle fitted with a flash suppressor is fired, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. If the shot is contact or near contact, the flash suppressor will produce a characteristic “flower-like” pattern of seared, blackened zones around the entrance. This paper presents the injury pattern of the flash suppressor in a 29-year-old man who committed suicide with a G3 automatic infantry rifle. PMID:23935280

  2. An unusual characteristic "flower-like" pattern: flash suppressor burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcan, Altun

    2012-04-01

    The case on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor is rare. When a rifle fitted with a flash suppressor is fired, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. If the shot is contact or near contact, the flash suppressor will produce a characteristic "flower-like" pattern of seared, blackened zones around the entrance. This paper presents the injury pattern of the flash suppressor in a 29-year-old man who committed suicide with a G3 automatic infantry rifle.

  3. Brotos de linhagens genéticas de soja: avaliação das propriedades físico-químicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli Cristina Cantelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Brotos de soja são vegetais de consumo direto, obtidos de grãos germinados, que são utilizados há séculos nos países orientais. Suas características nutritivas e a facilidade de produção têm chamado a atenção de consumidores do Ocidente. Sementes pequenas com alto poder germinativo e vigor são qualidades inerentes para produção de brotos. Na Embrapa, essas características têm sido contempladas no programa de melhoramento genético para obtenção de cultivares de soja especiais para o consumo humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir e caracterizar a qualidade de brotos de soja obtidos a partir das linhagens BRM09-10505, BRM10-60599 e PF133002, em comparação com a cultivar BRS 216, desenvolvida para ser utilizada como brotos ou natto. Os brotos foram produzidos em bandejas dispostas em câmara de germinação (25°C e 99% de umidade relativa. Sementes e brotos foram avaliados nos seguintes aspectos: teor de proteínas, lipídios, cinzas, isoflavonas, inibidor de tripsina Kunitz, ácido fítico, comprimento e peso dos brotos. As sementes da BRM09-10505 apresentaram 95% de poder germinativo, seguida pela BRS 216 (93% e pelas outras linhagens (88%, em média. A germinação pela mobilização dos compostos químicos aumentou os teores de proteínas (8,96% e de isoflavonas (56,00% e reduziu os teores de inibidor de tripsina Kunitz (26,91% e de ácido fítico (13,78%. A cultivar BRS 216 apresentou o maior teor de proteína nas sementes (41,96 g.100 g-1 e nos brotos (47,70 g.100 g-1. A linhagem BRM09-10505 apresentou maior teor de inibidor de tripsina nas sementes (27,56 mg IT g-1 e nos brotos (19,62 mg. IT g-1; maior concentração de isoflavonas totais nas sementes (340,10 mg.100 g-1 e nos brotos (406,38 mg.100 g-1, e menor teor de ácido fítico nos brotos (1,13 g.100 g-1. Após quatro dias de germinação, destacaram-se, quanto ao comprimento e ao peso, a linhagem BRM09-10505 (8,03 cm e 214,36 g e a cultivar BRS 216

  4. Management of coccidioidomycosis in patients receiving biologic response modifiers or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroumian, Sara; Knowles, Susan L; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Yanes, James; Ampel, Neil M; Vaz, Austin; Galgiani, John N; Hoover, Susan E

    2012-12-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is an endemic fungal infection of the American Southwest, an area with a large population of patients with rheumatic diseases. There are currently no guidelines for management of patients who develop coccidioidomycosis while under treatment with biologic response modifiers (BRMs) or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). We conducted a retrospective study of how both concurrent diseases were managed and the patient outcomes at 2 centers in Tucson, Arizona. A retrospective chart review identified patients who developed coccidioidomycosis during treatment with DMARDs or BRMs. Patients were seen at least once in a university-affiliated or Veterans Affairs outpatient rheumatology clinic in Tucson, Arizona, between 2007 and 2009. Forty-four patients were identified. Rheumatologic treatment included a BRM alone (n = 11), a DMARD alone (n = 8), or combination therapy (n = 25). Manifestations of coccidioidomycosis included pulmonary infection (n = 29), disseminated disease (n = 9), and asymptomatic positive coccidioidal serologies (n = 6). After the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis, 26 patients had BRMs and DMARDs stopped, 8 patients had BRMs stopped but DMARD therapy continued, and 10 patients had no change in their immunosuppressive therapy. Forty-one patients had antifungal therapy initiated for 1 month or longer. Followup data were available for 38 patients. BRM and/or DMARD therapy was continued or resumed in 33 patients, only 16 of whom continued concurrent antifungal therapy. None of the patients have had subsequent dissemination or complications of coccidioidomycosis. Re-treating rheumatic disease patients with a BRM and/or a DMARD after coccidioidomycosis appears to be safe in some patients. We propose a management strategy based on coccidioidomycosis disease activity. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. [Effect of tumour necrosis factor α blockade on bone metabolism in chronic inflammatory joint diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Del Rey, Francisco Javier; García Portales, Rosa; Haro Liger, Manuel; Rodríguez Andreu, José; Casals Sánchez, José Luis; Pérez González, Rita

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF treatments on bone mineral density (BMD), bone remodelling markers (BRM) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with chronic inflammatory joint diseases. A longitudinal prospective study was performed under clinical practice conditions on 31 patients diagnosed of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthropathy and ankylosing spondylitis who had received treatment with anti-TNF alpha drugs for one year. BMD, OPG and RANKL soluble form (sRANKL) were studied at the onset and end of the study. During the study (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 month), disease activity (SDAI, BASDAI and CRP), functional capacity (HAQ, BASFI), BRM and vitamin D were studied. BMD was not modified after one year of treatment. The patients who took corticosteroids had a mean bone mass loss of 3% in the lumbar spine (±1.6, P=.02). In regards to the BRM, did not experience significant changes over the course of the study. Disease activity, both SDAI (P=.002) and BASDAI (P=.002), decreased. OPG was maintained without changes during the year of treatment while both the sRANKL (0.28±0.22, P=.013) and sRANKL/OPG ratio significantly decreased (0.04±0.03, P=.031). The patients being treated with anti-TNF did not present with a significant loss of DMO during the study (one year), at the same time experiencing an improvement in disease activity. This protection has been clearer in the responding patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Taking Stock of Project Value Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus; Svejvig, Per

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a literature review through classifying and analyzing 59 publications in project value creation literature. The analysis led to five distinct categories: Benefit Realization Management (BRM) and techniques, broad value perspective, value time frame, engineering...... requirements and product development. These five categories cover a wide selection of value creation literature in project contexts. The project types reported in empirical studies are mainly IS/IT and construction and a variety of other types such as R&D and strategy implementation. The literature dates back...

  7. Radio-adjuvant effects of ginsan on murine breast carcinoma xenografted model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ji Young; Son, Hyeog Jin; Kim, Hyung Doo; Han, Young Soo; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In a number of studies, polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, ginsan has been demonstrated to be a potent promising biological response modifier (BRM), including proliferation of lymphocyte, generation of lymphokine activated killer cells, and production of several cytokines. Macrophages are the first line of defense to infections or pathogens in host innate immunity. In addition, it plays a prominent role as a professional antigen presenting cells to trigger cellular immunity. In the light of that, the current study was designed to evaluate whether ginsan exhibits anti-tumor effect as well as synergistic function with chemo- or radio-therapy.

  8. FIRE: an SPSS program for variable selection in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J

    2011-03-01

    We provide an SPSS program that implements currently recommended techniques and recent developments for selecting variables in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors. The approach consists of: (1) optimally splitting the data for cross-validation, (2) selecting the final set of predictors to be retained in the equation regression, and (3) assessing the behavior of the chosen model using standard indices and procedures. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  9. Comparative Demonstration and Evaluation of Classification Technologies: Closed Castner Range, Fort Bliss, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    reflecting the official policy or position of the Department of Defense. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by...Former Camp Ellis Military Range (CEMR), which is a site known to contain evidence of 2.36-inch practice rockets , hand grenades, and rifle grenades

  10. 75 FR 67210 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ..., ensure navigation aid coverage that is adequate for safe flight operations and free of frequency... Federal Airway V8 is Amended To Read in Part GRAND JUNCTION, CO VOR/DME....... *SQUAT, CO FIX **10500 *11700--MRA *11700--MCA SQUAT, CO FIX, NE BND. **9600--MOCA *SQUAT, CO FIX RIFLE, CO VOR/DME....... 13200...

  11. Om at blive skudt med hagl. En "Crime Scene Investigation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2009-01-01

    Rifle contra shotgun shots are considered in relation to an X-mas goose and shooting accident. Depending on the size of shots, material and velocity, the effect in the body may vary considerably. Myocardial infarction, secondary to accidental shotgun shot, may be caused by 1) thrombosis secondary...

  12. Infantry Instructors’ Conference. 15-19 July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    with his rifle always ready, backed by. courage, resolution, and capability, is the one who0 has the Nation’ a destiny 1 in his charge. As you know...Army is more than 180 years old, our physical training program is still in the embryo stage. New developments may be expected in this field. These-new

  13. 49 CFR 173.56 - New explosives-definition and procedures for classification and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agency the ranges of composition of ingredients and compounds, showing the intended manufacturing... was produced to an explosives testing range if— (1) It is not a primary (a 1.1A initiating) explosive...) Ammunition with inert projectile or blank ammunition; and (4) Ammunition not exceeding 50 caliber for rifle...

  14. Hot Spots and Hot Moments of Nitrogen in a Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Arora, Bhavna; Steefel, Carl I.; Dafflon, Baptiste; Versteeg, Roelof

    2018-01-01

    We use 3-D high-resolution reactive transport modeling to investigate whether the spatial distribution of organic-carbon-rich and chemically reduced sediments located in the riparian zone and temporal variability in groundwater flow direction impact the formation and distribution of nitrogen hot spots (regions that exhibit higher reaction rates when compared to other locations nearby) and hot moments (times that exhibit high reaction rates as compared to longer intervening time periods) within the Rifle floodplain in Colorado. Groundwater flows primarily toward the Colorado River from the floodplain but changes direction at times of high river stage. The result is that oxic river water infiltrates the Rifle floodplain during these relatively short-term events. Simulation results indicate that episodic rainfall in the summer season leads to the formation of nitrogen hot moments associated with Colorado River rise and resulting river infiltration into the floodplain. The results further demonstrate that the naturally reduced zones (NRZs) present in sediments of the Rifle floodplain have a higher potential for nitrate removal, approximately 70% greater than non-NRZs for typical hydrological conditions. During river water infiltration, nitrate reduction capacity remains the same within the NRZs, however, these conditions impact non-NRZs to a greater extent (approximately 95% less nitrate removal). Model simulations indicate chemolithoautotrophs are primarily responsible for the removal of nitrate in the Rifle floodplain. These nitrogen hot spots and hot moments are sustained by microbial respiration and the chemolithoautotrophic oxidation of reduced minerals in the riparian zone.

  15. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 65, Number 3, September 1926

    Science.gov (United States)

    1926-09-01

    until July 2, 1927 (Under previously existing legislation , July 2, 1926, had been set as the terminal date); second, the extension of time for completion...Queen’s Westminister and Civil Service Rifles, Admiral of the Fleet Lord Jellico acted as chief umpire. The teams were also received by the King, and were

  16. The time course of temporal preparation in an applied setting: a study of gaming behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, S.A.; Hoorn, J.F.; Grin, M.; van den Burg, E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the time course of temporal preparation in the practice of computer gaming. Participants held an infrared rifle to shoot animated figures ("terrorists") that appeared from an elevator that opened briefly after the sound of a bell. The sound was either loud or soft and the interval

  17. THE HUNTER OF MAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as 1755, in which year the British Government, licking their wounds after an ... were adept at sniping from behind rocks and any .... ing rifles in the world, incredibly had no effective .... awarded third prize for the above contribution to the Military.

  18. Colleges Grapple with the "Behavioral Broken Arm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    After the fatal shootings at Virginia Tech last April, colleges went shopping for hardware. They bought sirens, mass-messaging systems, surveillance cameras, and door locks. Some colleges armed their police departments for the first time. Others added assault rifles to their arsenals. "Active shooter" drills happened everywhere. As administrators…

  19. Firing Range Contaminants and Climate Change Tool: Spreadsheet User Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    Chief, CEERD-EPR; Mr. Warren Lorenz was Branch Chief, CEERD-EP; and Dr. Elizabeth Ferguson, CEERD- EM -J was the Technical Director for Environmental...changes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bombing and gunnery ranges, Rifle-ranges, Pollutants, Soil pollution-- Climatic factors, Climatic changes 16. SECURITY

  20. 78 FR 44965 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to leave a... provide law enforcement officers to work at the event. The temporary closure and temporary restrictions...) Weapon means a firearm, compressed gas or spring powered pistol or rifle, bow and arrow, cross bow...

  1. 77 FR 48529 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... week, to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will receive a reply during normal... Department. Pershing County has limited ability to provide additional law enforcement officers to work at the..., compressed gas or spring powered pistol or rifle, bow and arrow, cross bow, blowgun, spear gun, hand-thrown...

  2. Radiography with neutrons: use in inspection of hydrogenated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Assuncao, M.P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron radiography technique is used for showing the viability of inspecting hydrogenated materials. The experimental disposition is installed in irradiation radial channel n. 10 from IEA-R1 (IPEN-CNEN-SP). The inspetionated materials were munitions for gun and rifle. (C.G.C.)

  3. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-12-31

    This report contains environmental monitoring information for the following UMTRA sites for the 1992 Calendar Year: Lakeview, OR; Lowman, ID; Mexican Hat, UT; Monument Valley, AZ; Rifle, CO; Riverton, WY; Shiprock, NM; Spook, WY; Tuba City, AZ. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information.

  4. 78 FR 2430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service...: Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, telephone (801... fragments, 13 pieces of horse tack, 3 saddle fragments, 1 knife sheath, 1 rifle and barrel, 1 lot of bullet...

  5. East Asia: Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-18

    group is publishing the general daily SEGYE ILBO. In addition, this church group owns two Spanish-lan- guage papers—the (NOTICIAS DEL MUNDO ) and the...AKM-65 auto - matic rifles and ammunition that had been requested by the Peruvian Government for stepping up its sweeping operations against the

  6. U. S. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Summary for April 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-06-13

    psyops literature. The medcap missions were well r- el ’ .ve. ...... The MDR units, LCPL units, and the I.ICN units, conducted oat:c 1, daily suept the...rifle rounds, and one grenade booby trap. The RSSZ MLO and ASA RSSZ provided overhead coordination for the operation in an OV-10 Bronco aircraft. The last

  7. Mega, February 1941: The role of the 1st South African Irish Regiment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Bn Natal Mounted Rifles (Lt Col N.D. McMillan). Field Force Brigade .... by Mr West, in the following extract from his memoirs4: ..... rian and Gold Coast battalions), in which the. European ...... they arrived near the bottom of the ridge which.

  8. Securing the Aviation Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    additional 100,000 airport workers who perform duties in sterile areas (the indoor gate area past the security check point).197 These same...containing thirteen handguns, an assault rifle and eight pounds of marijuana .270 However, two Federal Air Marshals were also onboard the aircraft.271

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains environmental monitoring information for the following UMTRA sites for the 1992 Calendar Year: Lakeview, OR; Lowman, ID; Mexican Hat, UT; Monument Valley, AZ; Rifle, CO; Riverton, WY; Shiprock, NM; Spook, WY; Tuba City, AZ. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information

  10. 75 FR 71737 - Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Facilities Pacific Proving Ground Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (now 1946-1962. Republic of the Marshall Islands... Facilities Exclusively Facility name Location Dates Alaska DOE Facilities Amchitka Nuclear Explosion Site... Nuclear Explosion Site.. Rifle 1973-1976. Project Rulison Nuclear Explosion Site..... Grand Valley 1969...

  11. 78 FR 20950 - Department of Energy Facilities Covered Under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... 1946-1962. Enewetak Atolls (now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands), Johnston Island and... Exclusively Facility name Location Dates Amchitka Island Nuclear Amchitka Island... 1965-9/1973; 5/25... Nuclear Rifle 1973-1976. Explosion Site. Project Rulison Nuclear Grand Valley...... 1969-1971; 1972...

  12. Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…

  13. Blown Away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    The number of students killed or injured by gunfire while at schools is increasing. The National Rifle Association, the nation's powerful gun lobby, has a gun safety program; however, children's advocates say stricter gun-control laws are necessary. Briefly cites 24 gun incidents and describes 4 semiautomatic pistols that were among the firearms…

  14. Acute kidney injury in septua- and octogenarians after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Christof

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of septua- and octogenarians undergo cardiac surgery. Acute kidney injury (AKI still is a frequent complication after surgery. We examined the incidence of AKI and its impact on 30-day mortality. Methods A retrospective study between 01/2006 and 08/2009 with 299 octogenarians, who were matched for gender and surgical procedure to 299 septuagenarians at a university hospital. Primary endpoint was AKI after surgery as proposed by the RIFLE definition (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage kidney disease. Secondary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Perioperative mortality was predicted with the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE. Results Octogenarians significantly had a mean higher logistic EuroSCORE compared to septuagenarians (13.2% versus 8.5%; p -1 × 1.73 m-2. In contrast, septuagenarians showed a slightly higher median body mass index (28 kg × m-2 versus 26 kg × m-2 and were more frequently active smoker at time of surgery (6.4% versus 1.6%, p The RIFLE classification provided accurate risk assessment for 30-day mortality and fair discriminatory power. Conclusions The RIFLE criteria allow identifying patients with AKI after cardiac surgery. The high incidence of AKI in septua- and octogenarians after cardiac surgery should prompt the use of RIFLE criteria to identify patients at risk and should stimulate institutional measures that target AKI as a quality improvement initiative for patients at advanced age.

  15. Does the Leadership Style and Command Method of General Sir John Monash Remain Relevant to the Contemporary Commander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    expected to advertise the fact that the greatest strategist in the Army was a civilian when the war began, and that they were surpassed by a man who...Monash enlisted into D Company (University Company), 4th Battalion, Victorian Rifles, where he rose to the rank of Colour -Sergeant. Military service

  16. Training Aids for Basic Combat Skills: A Procedure for Training-Aid Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    either the M16 or M4 that allows for easy adjustment of the front sight post. The device should be durable. Rifle Qualification “ Nintendo game...Per some DSs, a Nintendo -type device that allows a Soldier to practice shooting record qualification already exists and is located in the museum at

  17. The American Defense of Long Island 1776: Destined for Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Smallwood’s Md. Cont., Col. William Smallwood Haslet’s Del. Cont., Col. John Haslet Pa. State Rifle Rgt., Col. Samuel Miles Pa. State Bn. ofMusketry, Col...Foot, Maj. Norman Lamont ofLamont 16th Light Dragoons, Lt. Col. William Harcourt 17th Light Dragoons, Lt. Col. Samuel Birch Corps de Reserve: Lt. Gen

  18. Nation Before Service: The Evolution of Joint Operations to a Capabilities-Based Mindset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    of Defense, JOAC 2012, 36. 101 Consider the lone Marine mentioned earlier. While he may appear to be an individual human with a rifle, he... planet within reach to which the nation can reasonably move, option two is also out. That leaves only the option to adapt to the new environment; again

  19. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  20. Special issue on Military Operations Research Society (MORS) Symposium (80th): Expanding the Boundaries of National Security Analysis (Phalanx: The Bulletin of Military Operations Research. Volume 45, Number 2, June 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    probability from rifles. He also served with the ORO field teams in Korea , was liaison from RAC and the Army to the Federal Republic of Germany military...Gunny_Sack writes: WHAT! WHAT! WHAT! VIDEO GAMER ! PUNK! JOIN NAVY! WHAT! WHAT! CDRQueeg writes: need someone to run your seabase? I’m an experienced SWO

  1. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. USAF Control of Airstrikes in Support of Indigenous Lao Ground Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-07-19

    I I 411 I & ECRIT • 299/ than the location did not require encryption.---- Up to mid-1969 the Ravens carried captured communist AK-47 rifles...intelligence briefing (including a thorough repeat of Rules of Engagement), and a comprehensive briefing by the Chief FAC on the rules of the

  2. Considerations for Operations on Urban Terrain by Light Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    mandarins with wispy beard! and porcelain teacups anJ a commission from the emperor on the wall; the echoing gongs of the pagodas, filled with * gray-robed... Chinese .12umm and 82.m and captured 60mm mortars, 57mm reeJilless rifles and 8-40 rockets. Although all of the systems.were effectiver the

  3. The Joint Tactical Aerial Resupply Vehicle Impact on Sustainment Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Artificial Intelligence , Sustainment Operations, Rifle Company, Autonomous Aerial Resupply, Joint Tactical Autonomous Aerial Resupply System 16...Integrations and Development System AI Artificial Intelligence ARCIC Army Capabilities Integration Center ARDEC Armament Research, Development and...Government Printing Office, 2016), 176. 3 HQDA, TRADOC Pam 525-3-1, 11-12. 3 combat team types, such as the Armored Brigade Combat Team and Stryker

  4. Miniaturized day/night sight in Soldato Futuro program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Alberto; Cocchi, Alessandro; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Sardelli, Mauro; Puntri, Stefano

    2013-06-01

    The market of the sights for the 5.56 mm assault rifles is dominated by mainly three types of systems: TWS (Thermal Weapon Sight), the Pocket Scope with Weapon Mount and the Clip-on. The latter are designed primarily for special forces and snipers use, while the TWS design is triggered mainly by the DRI (Detection, Recognition, Identification) requirements. The Pocket Scope design is focused on respecting the SWaP (Size, Weight and Power dissipation) requirements. Compared to the TWS systems, for the last two years there was a significant technological growth of the Pocket Scope/Weapon Mount solutions, concentrated on the compression of the overall dimensions. The trend for the assault rifles is the use of small size/light weight (SWaP) IR sights, suitable mainly for close combat operations but also for extraordinary use as pocket scopes - handheld or helmet mounted. The latest developments made by Selex ES S.p.A. are responding precisely to the above-mentioned trend, through a miniaturized Day/Night sight embedding state-of-the art sensors and using standard protocols (USB 2.0, Bluetooth 4.0) for interfacing with PDAs, Wearable computers, etc., while maintaining the "shoot around the corner" capability. Indeed, inside the miniaturized Day/Night sight architecture, a wireless link using Bluetooth technology has been implemented to transmit the video streaming of the rifle sight to an helmet mounted display. The video of the rifle sight is transmitted only to the eye-piece of the soldier shouldering the rifle.

  5. Role of thin-layer chromatography in ascertaining Kashaya Rasa (astringent taste) in medicinal plants on the concept of Samana and Vichitra Pratyayarabdha principles of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhe, Rasika H; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, Vinay J

    2014-04-01

    Pharmacodynamics, in Ayurveda has been described in terms of Rasadipanchaka. Rasa, on one side indicates the Bhautika composition of the drug and on the other side predicts the action. Different analytical techniques, pharmaceutical processes are being used in Ayurveda for the purpose of standardization of raw drugs. In this study an attempt has been made to apply chromatographic technique in determination of Kashaya (astringent) Rasa (taste). Two important Kashaya dominant drugs Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) and Kanchanara (Bauhinia variegata Linn.), falling under Vichitra and Samana Pratyayarabdha category respectively, were subjected to physicochemical parameters and qualitative tests followed by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). In light of chromatographic fingerprinting; sample preparation protocol is modified to incorporate taste threshold in correlation. Column chromatography is used for first-level discrimination technique followed by HPTLC. Kashaya Rasa Dominant Zone (KsRDZ) was separated and subjected to TLC fingerprinting. The KsRDZ fraction was designated as Botanical Reference Material (BRM) in further analysis. Ash value, Alcohol and water soluble extract value were more in B variegata as compared to D biflorus. Presence of tannin in both the samples was confirmed through qualitative test. The KsRDZ fraction separated at Rf 0.46 and 0.48 for Kulattha and Kanchanara respectively. The results showed that the planner chromatography technique seems very useful when BRM hypothesis was adjunct to method that explains the categorization according to traditional Rasa domain classification method.

  6. A brief symptom index for advanced renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cella David

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to test a brief, symptom index for advanced renal cell carcinoma, a disease affecting over 38,000 Americans each year and often diagnosed in late stages. Methods We conducted secondary data analyses on patient-reported outcomes of 209 metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients participating in a Phase III clinical trial. Patient-reported outcomes, obtained from the FACT-Biological Response Modifier (FACT-BRM scale, were available at baseline, 2, and 8 weeks. We analyzed data from eight FACT-BRM items previously identified by clinical experts to represent the most important symptoms of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Items comprising this index assess nausea, pain, appetite, perceived sickness, fatigue and weakness, with higher scores indicating fewer symptoms. We determined reliability and validity of the index and estimated a minimally important difference. Results The index had excellent internal reliability at all three time points (alphas ≥ 0.83. Baseline scores were able to discriminate patients across Karnofsky performance status, number of metastatic sites, and risk group categories (ps Conclusion The 8-item index of patient-reported symptoms of renal cell carcinoma appears to be a psychometrically sound measure. It is a brief, reliable, and valid measure that can easily be adapted for use in clinical trials and observational studies.

  7. Inhibitory effect of Lentinan entrapped in liposomes on hepatic metastasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, I.; Masuyama, K.; Yoshida, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Kasagi, T.; Tazawa, K.; Fujimaki, M.; Kawagoshi, T.; Maeda, M.; Honda, T.; Ochiai, H.

    1988-01-01

    Using the technique of Drug Delivery System, we experimentally attempted to examine whether the preventive i.v. administration of BRM entrapped in liposomes is useful or not for the cancer metastasis to the liver. As a BRM, we used Lentinan. The liposome used as a carrier in our study showed high stability both in vivo and in vitro with the mol ratio of phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol of 1. Also, high accumulation to reticuloendothelial system was evidenced. NK cell activity in the spleen and the liver on the day of the administration of AH60C hepatoma cells (2x10 6 cells) was higher by 1.3-2.3 times than those of the other groups. The survival ratio of tumor cells in the liver 8 h of tumor cells administration was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in the other groups. Rats with cancer metastasis to the liver on 30th day after the tumor cells administration were significantly decreased (P<0.01). These results suggested the usefulness of the i.v. administration of Lentinan entrapped in liposomes. (orig.)

  8. An integrated probabilistic risk analysis decision support methodology for systems with multiple state variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Tan, John K.G.; Spencer, David

    1999-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) methods have been proven to be valuable in risk and reliability analysis. However, a weak link seems to exist between methods for analysing risks and those for making rational decisions. The integrated decision support system (IDSS) methodology presented in this paper attempts to address this issue in a practical manner. In consists of three phases: a PRA phase, a risk sensitivity analysis (SA) phase and an optimisation phase, which are implemented through an integrated computer software system. In the risk analysis phase the problem is analysed by the Boolean representation method (BRM), a PRA method that can deal with systems with multiple state variables and feedback loops. In the second phase the results obtained from the BRM are utilised directly to perform importance and risk SA. In the third phase, the problem is formulated as a multiple objective decision making problem in the form of multiple objective reliability optimisation. An industrial example is included. The resultant solutions of a five objective reliability optimisation are presented, on the basis of which rational decision making can be explored

  9. APLICACIÓN DE MEMBRANAS DINÁMICAS AUTO-FORMANTES PARA EL TRATAMIENTO BIOLÓGICO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vergara Ojeda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los precios de las membranas han experimentado una reducción notable, estas siguen siendo parte importante del costo asociado a la implementación de biorreactores de membrana (BRM para el tratamiento de aguas residuales. La operación de BRM con membranas dinámicas auto-formantes permitiría una reducción considerable en los costos de inversión y operación asociados. Una membrana auto-formante requiere solo de un soporte sobre el cual se forma un queque de filtración, el que actúa como membrana, rechazando los sólidos contenidos en el biorreactor. Durante la presente investigación se probaron mallas de tamizado de 20 y 100 µm como soportes para la formación de membranas dinámicas. Los resultados muestran que es posible sostener la operación del reactor en el tiempo y obtener un permeado de elevada calidad, con niveles de turbiedad inferiores a 3 NTU. El empleo de una malla de 100 µm permite aumentar el flujo, pero compromete la retención de sólidos y la remoción de materia orgánica.

  10. HIC1 interacts with a specific subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, ARID1A/BAF250A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Leprince, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    HIC1, a tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced in many human cancers encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in regulatory loops modulating p53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival and stress responses. HIC1 is also implicated in growth control since it recruits BRG1, one of the two alternative ATPases (BRM or BRG1) of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to repress transcription of E2F1 in quiescent fibroblasts. Here, through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identify ARID1A/BAF250A, as a new HIC1 partner. ARID1A/BAF250A is one of the two mutually exclusive ARID1-containing subunits of SWI/SNF complexes which define subsets of complexes endowed with anti-proliferative properties. Co-immunoprecipitation assays in WI38 fibroblasts and in BRG1-/- SW13 cells showed that endogenous HIC1 and ARID1A proteins interact in a BRG1-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HIC1 does not interact with BRM. Finally, sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-reChIP) experiments demonstrated that HIC1 represses E2F1 through the recruitment of anti-proliferative SWI/SNF complexes containing ARID1A.

  11. Bringing Agility to Business Process Management: Rules Deployment in an SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbili, Marwane; Keil, Tobias

    Business process management (BPM) has emerged as paradigm for integrating business strategies and enterprise architecture (EA). In this context, BPM implementation on top of web-service-based service oriented architectures is an accepted approach as shown by great amount of literature. One concern in this regard is how-to make BPs reactive to change. Our approach to the problem is the integration of business rule management (BRM) and BPM by allowing modeling of decisions hard-coded in BPs as separate business rules (BRs). These BRs become EA assets and need to be exploited when executing BPs. We motivate why BPM needs agility and discuss what requirements on BPM this poses. This paper presents prototyping work conducted at a BP modeling and analysis vendor which weeks to showcase how using business rule management (BRM) as a mean for modeling decisions can help achieve a much sought-after agility to BPM. This prototype relies on the integrated modeling of business rules (BRs) and BPs, and rule deployment as web services part of an SOA.

  12. Investigating students’ mental models about the nature of light in different contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özcan, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated pre-service physics teachers’ mental models of light in different contexts, such as blackbody radiation, the photoelectric effect and the Compton effect. The data collected through the paper-and-pencil questionnaire (PPQ) were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Sampling of this study consists of a total of 110 physics education students who were taking a modern physics course at two different state universities in Turkey. As a result, three mental models, which were called the beam ray model (BrM), hybrid model (HM) and particle model (PM), were being used by the students while explaining these phenomena. The most model fluctuation was seen in HM and BrM. In addition, some students were in a mixed-model state where they use multiple mental models in explaining a phenomenon and used these models inconsistently. On the other hand, most of the students who used the particle model can be said to be in a pure model state. (paper)

  13. Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during U.S. Navy SEAL training. Sea-Air-Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Tharion, William J; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Speckman, Karen L; Tulley, Richard

    2002-11-01

    When humans are acutely exposed to multiple stressors, cognitive performance is substantially degraded. Few practical strategies are available to sustain performance under such conditions. This study examined whether moderate doses of caffeine would reduce adverse effects of sleep deprivation and exposure to severe environmental and operational stress on cognitive performance. Volunteers were 68 U.S. Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) trainees, randomly assigned to receive either 100, 200, or 300 mg caffeine or placebo in capsule form after 72 h of sleep deprivation and continuous exposure to other stressors. Cognitive tests administered included scanning visual vigilance, four-choice visual reaction time, a matching-to-sample working memory task and a repeated acquisition test of motor learning and memory. Mood state, marksmanship, and saliva caffeine were also assessed. Testing was conducted 1 and 8 h after treatment. Sleep deprivation and environmental stress adversely affected performance and mood. Caffeine, in a dose-dependent manner, mitigated many adverse effects of exposure to multiple stressors. Caffeine (200 and 300 mg) significantly improved visual vigilance, choice reaction time, repeated acquisition, self-reported fatigue and sleepiness with the greatest effects on tests of vigilance, reaction time, and alertness. Marksmanship, a task that requires fine motor coordination and steadiness, was not affected by caffeine. The greatest effects of caffeine were present 1 h post-administration, but significant effects persisted for 8 h. Even in the most adverse circumstances, moderate doses of caffeine can improve cognitive function, including vigilance, learning, memory, and mood state. When cognitive performance is critical and must be maintained during exposure to severe stress, administration of caffeine may provide a significant advantage. A dose of 200 mg appears to be optimal under such conditions.

  14. [Surgical peculiarities of gunshot injuries to arteries of the extremities caused by modern small arms and light weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, I M; Reva, V A; Denisov, A V; Ozeretskovskiĭ, L B; Pronchenko, A A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the given study was development of surgical tactics in case of femoral artery injury, caused by medium-calibre bullet, on the basis acute experiment on large biological objects. Experimental animals were shot into mid third of the femora by a rifle cartridge in 7,62-mm calibre (AK-47 made in 1943). The analysis of microstructure, made in 5 cross-sections performed every 1-centimetre way from the wound canal, showed that there were no any damages of arterial wall. Authors came to conclusion that the surgical debridement of the gunshot wound, made by a rifle cartridge in 7,62-mm calibre of AK-47, should consist of exsection of devitalized section of artery.

  15. In-Well Sediment Incubators to Evaluate Microbial Community Stability and Dynamics following Bioimmobilization of Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Brett R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Gan, M.; Resch, Charles T.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Smithgall, A.N.; Pfiffner, S.; Freifeld, Barry M.; White, D.C.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-01-01

    An in-situ incubation device (ISI) was developed in order to investigate the stability and dynamics of sediment associated microbial communities to prevailing subsurface oxidizing or reducing conditions. Here we describe the use of these devices at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site. During the 7 month deployment oxidized Rifle aquifer background sediments (RABS) were deployed in previously biostimulated wells under iron reducing conditions, cell densities of known iron reducing bacteria including Geobacteraceae increased significantly showing the microbial community response to local subsurface conditions. PLFA profiles of RABS following in situ deployment were strikingly similar to those of adjacent sediment cores suggesting ISI results could be extrapolated to the native material of the test plots. Results for ISI deployed reduced sediments showed only slight changes in community composition and pointed toward the ability of the ISIs to monitor microbial community stability and response to subsurface conditions.

  16. Denying Al Qaeda Safe Haven in a Weak State: An Analysis of U.S. Strategy in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    known prior to the three formative periods mentioned above. Yemen was not only an ancient crossroads for trade , but it was also a producer of...this zone was known to the Romans and later to European cartographers as Arabia Felix.”21 Despite the well traveled trade route and profitable coffee...121 Floor Beuming, “The Merger of the Dagger and the Rifle: Failing Intergration of Former South Yemen into the Unified Republic of Yemen,” quoted

  17. Patching the Wetware: Addressing the Human Factor in Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    and encryption in the world will never stop a gifted social engineer from rifling a corporate database or an irate employee form crashing a system... response to the loss freedoms, property, or in the case of scarce resources Figure 4.1 Mitnick’s Psychological Insights of Social Engineering (2005...Kitty Genovese murder in which social proof was at play through dispersion of responsibility . Social engineers often prey on this social proof

  18. Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen: The Huthi Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    attacked areas of Zaydi sacred geography, including mosques and Hashimi tombs . Likewise, over time, GoY forces have targeted moun- tainous areas...tribes in the north. Observers have noted that some Soviet-era assault rifles, pistols, and small-caliber mor- tars go back to the period of Egyptian ...both to one’s identity as a tribesman 26 Adra, in “Qabyala,” 188, notes cases where prorepublican qaba’ il fought with the royalists due to Egyptian

  19. Swarming and the Future of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    and Plans DIVARTY Division Artillery DoD Department of Defense EO Electro-Optical EXFOR Experimental Force FLIR Forward-Looking Infrared FOFA Follow-on...HUMINT Human Intelligence xiii IED Improvised Explosive Device IFV Infantry Fighting Vehicle 10 Information Operations IR Infrared ISR Intelligence...and the rifles of WW2 (9 out of 1,000). 37 No longer could artillery unlimber within 300 yards and shoot at infantry with relative impunity since

  20. The Journal of Public Inquiry. Spring/Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics and Health Policy at John Hopkins and Georgetown Universities. Personal interview. January 20, 2010. 24 Journal of Public Inquiry...the arrests in these cases, inves­ tigators encountered and seized weapons and ammunition, including assault rifles, submachine guns, and handguns...prescribe their products and services. Specifically, Sec­ tion 6002 requires all U.S. manufactur­ ers of drug, device, biologics , and medi­ cal supplies

  1. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 80, Number 5, September-October 1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    1937-10-01

    controls the issue, may be called the god of war"? That is surely good, yet it antedates by more than 2,000 years a brilliant Corsican’s remorseful...number of ::> ’£ 1automatic rifles per oraanization has 1l0t vet been deCi ed.::> • \\Vhen this is determined it will be announced through the medium of

  2. Comparación de los sistemas de clasificación del fracaso renal agudo en la sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    Conclusiones: Un porcentaje elevado de pacientes con sepsis grave desarrolla FRA que se puede clasificar según los distintos métodos propuestos. Los estadios de las clasificaciones RIFLE, AKIN y KDIGO se relacionan con un mayor riesgo de muerte intrahospitalaria. Por el contrario, la nueva definición de CK no se relaciona con una mayor mortalidad y no se debería usar en estos pacientes con sepsis grave sin confirmar su utilidad en estudios posteriores.

  3. Emerging Regulation and Function of Betatrophin

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Jan; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Betatrophin, also known as TD26/RIFL/lipasin/ANGPTL8/C19orf80, is a novel protein predominantly expressed in human liver. To date, several betatrophin orthologs have been identified in mammals. Increasing evidence has revealed an association between betatrophin expression and serum lipid profiles, particularly in patients with obesity or diabetes. Stimulators of betatrophin, such as insulin, thyroid hormone, irisin and caloric intake, are usually relevant to energy expenditure or thermogenes...

  4. A dual role of lipasin (betatrophin) in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis: consensus and controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ren; Abou-Samra, Abdul B

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome includes glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, both of which are strong risk factors for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Recently, multiple groups independently studied a previously uncharacterized gene, officially named C19orf80 (human) and Gm6484 (mouse), but more commonly known as RIFL, Angptl8, betatrophin and lipasin. Both exciting and conflicting results have been obtained, and significant controversy is ongoing. Accumulating evidence ...

  5. Architectural Survey of Laramie Armory, Wyoming Army National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    Militia Act of 1903 and the National Defense Acts of June 16, 1916, and June 4, 1920. These acts essentially pulled the National Guard of each of the...environment. If the various materials, features, and spaces that give a building its visual character are not recognized and preserved, then essential ...individual classrooms and offices, a kitchen , supply rooms, storage rooms, boiler room, rifle range, and a latrine with adjacent locker rooms. All of

  6. Uranium speciation and stability after reductive immobilization in sediments.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp J.O

    2011-01-01

    It has generally been assumed that the bioreduction of hexavalent uranium in groundwater systems will result in the precipitation of immobile uraninite (UO2). In order to explore the form and stability of uranium immobilized under these conditions we introduced lactate (15 mM for 3 months) into flow through columns containing sediments derived from a former uranium processing site at Old Rifle CO. This resulted in metal reducing conditions as evidenced by concurrent uranium uptake and iron re...

  7. Uranium speciation and stability after reductive immobilization in sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Jonathan O.; Schofield, Eleanor J.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Webb, Sam; Ulrich, Kai-Uwe; Blue, Lisa; Chinni, Satyavani; Veeramani, Harish; Junier, Pilar; Margot-Roquier, Camille; Suvorova Buffat, Elena; Tebo, Bradley M.; Giammar, Daniel E.; Bargar, John R.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2011-01-01

    It has generally been assumed that the bioreduction of hexavalent uranium in groundwater systems will result in the precipitation of immobile uraninite (UO2). In order to explore the form and stability of uranium immobilized under these conditions, we introduced lactate (15 mM for 3 months) into flow-through columns containing sediments derived from a former uranium-processing site at Old Rifle, CO. This resulted in metal-reducing conditions as evidenced by concurrent uranium uptake and iron ...

  8. Gas gun dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The mechanics and thermodynamics of one- and two-stage gas guns are developed. Very high projectile muzzle speed can be obtained by the two-stage version. The physics of simple gas guns, such as air rifles, is accessible to undergraduates and the same level of presentation is used here to understand more complex designs. Numerical solutions to the equations of motion are shown, along with insightful analytic approximations. (paper)

  9. Chinese Lessons from Other Peoples’ Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    as the lessons “not learned” or not adopted, the so-called “ dogs that do not bark.” While it may be difficult to parse real lessons learned from...under the barrel of the Type 95 5.8mm assault rifle. There is no muzzle brake or flash suppressor fitted and it is fed from a box magazine that

  10. Comparing India’s Counterinsurgency Approaches in Sri Lanka and Against the Naxalites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Rifles,” Contemporary South Asia 13, no. 1 (March 2004): 29. 105 Ibid. 106 Ibid. 107 Banerjee, "The Indian Army’s Counterinsurgency Doctrine," 195...Communist Party of India-Maoist EPRLF Ealam People’s Revolutionary Liberation Front FM Field Manual IPKF Indian Peace Keeping Force JP Joint Publication...midgrade officer during the Malaysian Emergency, a senior officer in Ireland, and eventually become the Commander-in-Chief of all United Kingdom Land

  11. The Ghosts of Omdurman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    up, and the Allies played babysitter .’" The limited land warfare that occurred offered nothing really new . Despite talk of operational innovations in...certainly had an edge in firepower. Though outnumbered, the allies made the most of contemporary technology , thanks to training with bolt action rifles...nor will a US armored division much concern the New People’s Army. To meet future challenges, America’s Army must tum from the warm and well-deserved

  12. Lessons Learned from the Use of the Machine Gun during the Russo-Japanese War and the Application of Those Lessons by the Protagonists of World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-17

    remain the master of the 9 battlefield. The influential military theorist Spencer Wilkinson, founder of the Manchester Tactical Society, clearly stated...yards, 473 Zulus . They lay in groups, in some places, of fourteen to thirty dead, mowed down by the fire of the Gatlings, which tells upon them more...than the fire of the rifles.”10 Lord Chelmsford was so impressed with their usefulness as an infantry support weapon that after the Zulu campaign he said

  13. The Soviet Soldier - Premilitary and Political Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    instruction relates to weapons training, including the care and maintenance of the light machine gun, the automatic rifle and the anti -tank grenade. Where...practice in firing these weapons. Finally, he acquires kowledge and skill in a particular military-technical specialty - as a motor vehicle driver... Power and Performnce, Hamden, Conn.: Shoe String Press, Inc., 1979 Flyagin, A. P., "Patriotic Indoctrination Is The Center of Attention", Sovetskiy

  14. Experimental closure of gunshot wounds by fibrin glue with antibiotics in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Đenić Nebojša; Višnjić Milan; Dragović Saša; Bojanić Vladmila; Bojanić Zoran; Đurđević Dragan; Đinđić Boris; Kostov Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47) 7.62 mm, after the primary surgical management, were closed with delayed primary suture during the next four to seven days. This period coincides with the fibroblastic phase of wound healing. Fibrin glue is used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for the local dosed release of antibiotics. Antibiotics addition to fibrin glue resulted in continuous diffusion into the surrounding n...

  15. Heavy-metal contamination on training ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.

    1993-05-01

    Large quantities of lead and other heavy metals are deposited in the environment of weapons ranges during training exercises. This study was conducted to determine the type, degree, and extent of heavy-metal contamination on selected handgun, rifle, and hand-grenade ranges at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. Soil, vegetation, and surface-water samples were collected and analyzed using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method and the toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP). The ICP-AES results show that above-normal levels of lead and copper are in the surface soil at the handgun range, high concentrations of lead and copper are in the berm and soil surface at the rifle range, and elevated levels of cadmium and above-normal concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc are present in the surface soil at the hand-grenade range. The TCLP results show that surface soils can be considered hazardous waste because of lead content at the rifle range and because of cadmium concentration at the hand-grenade range. Vegetation at the handgun and rifle ranges has above-normal concentrations of lead. At the hand-grenade range, both vegetation and surface water have high levels of cadmium. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer was used to measure lead concentrations in soils in a field test of the method. Comparison of XRF readings with ICP-AES results for lead indicate that the accuracy and precision of the hand-held XRF unit must improve before the unit can be used as more than a screening tool. Results of this study show that heavy-metal contamination at all three ranges is limited to the surface soil; heavy metals are not being leached into the soil profile or transported into adjacent areas.

  16. Injury and Illness Among Deer Hunters

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Shelagh M.

    1989-01-01

    General practice and out-patient emergency records for a five-year period were reviewed for injuries and illnesses that occurred during the week of deer rifle hunting on Manitoulin Island. Of 65 hunters who were identified, most had lacerations secondary to knife injuries. There were two deaths (one shooting and one in a motor vehicle accident), and 19 persons required hospitalization. More than half of these serious accidents occurred on the weekends immediately preceding or following the hu...

  17. Blessures et maladies chez les chasseurs de chevreuil

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Shelagh M.

    1990-01-01

    General practice and out-patient emergency records for a five-year period were reviewed for injuries and illnesses that occurred during the week of deer rifle hunting on Manitoulin Island. Of 65 hunters who were identified, most had lacerations secondary to knife injuries. There were two deaths (one shooting and one in a motor vehicle accident), and 19 persons required hospitalization. More than half of these serious accidents occurred on the weekends immediately preceding or following the hu...

  18. Horské růžencové toky v arkto-alpínské tundře Krkonoš, Vysoké Sudety

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štursa, J.; Jeník, J.; Dvořák, I.J.; Harčarik, J.; Jankovská, Vlasta; Soukupová, L.; Vaněk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 49 (2012), s. 145-172 ISSN 0139-925X R&D Projects: GA MŽP SE/610/3/00; GA ČR GA205/06/0587; GA ČR GAP209/10/0519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : pool-rifle sequence * summit etchplain * geobiodiversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  19. Staff Ride Handbook for Dade’s Battle, Florida, 28 December 1835. A Study of Leadership in Irregular Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    rifles when these malfunctioned or broke. They relied on traders and settlers for all their metalworking needs, which of course, ceased when...History Center and the nearby Tampa Marriot Waterside Hotel have areas for bus drop off. In addition, there is parking available at the historic...center as well as across the street at the Tampa Bay Times Forum. On the west side of the park near the hotel , is a Fort Brooke Plaque in the walkway

  20. Frequency of Loaded Road March Training and Performance on a Loaded Road March

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    heart rate through the use of beta - blockers can substantially improve shooting accuracy (29, 44). Post road march decrements in the grenade throw may...the road march. An Increase in body tremors due to fatigue or an elevated post exercise heart rate may account for this. Whole body sway while aiming...a rifle is substantially increased even after a short period of exercise (39) and this may effect accuracy. Muscle tremors increase after brief or

  1. Prognosis and serum creatinine levels in acute renal failure at the time of nephrology consultation: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Irala Jokin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between acute serum creatinine changes in acute renal failure (ARF, before specialized treatment begins, and in-hospital mortality, recovery of renal function, and overall mortality at 6 months, on an equal degree of ARF severity, using the RIFLE criteria, and comorbid illnesses. Methods Prospective cohort study of 1008 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed as having ARF, and had been admitted in an university-affiliated hospital over 10 years. Demographic, clinical information and outcomes were measured. After that, 646 patients who had presented enough increment in serum creatinine to qualify for the RIFLE criteria were included for subsequent analysis. The population was divided into two groups using the median serum creatinine change (101% as the cut-off value. Multivariate non-conditional logistic and linear regression models were used. Results A ≥ 101% increment of creatinine respect to its baseline before nephrology consultation was associated with significant increase of in-hospital mortality (35.6% vs. 22.6%, p Conclusion In this cohort, patients who had presented an increment in serum level of creatinine of ≥ 101% with respect to basal values, at the time of nephrology consultation, had increased mortality rates and were discharged from hospital with a more deteriorated renal function than those with similar Liano scoring and the same RIFLE classes, but with a

  2. New Technique for Speciation of Uranium in Sediments Following Acetate-Stimulated Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-22

    Acetate-stimulated bioremediation is a promising new technique for sequestering toxic uranium contamination from groundwater. The speciation of uranium in sediments after such bioremediation attempts remains unknown as a result of low uranium concentration, and is important to analyzing the stability of sequestered uranium. A new technique was developed for investigating the oxidation state and local molecular structure of uranium from field site sediments using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and was implemented at the site of a former uranium mill in Rifle, CO. Glass columns filled with bioactive Rifle sediments were deployed in wells in the contaminated Rifle aquifer and amended with a hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) stock solution to increase uranium concentration while maintaining field conditions. This sediment was harvested and XAS was utilized to analyze the oxidation state and local molecular structure of the uranium in sediment samples. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) data was collected and compared to known uranium spectra to determine the local molecular structure of the uranium in the sediment. Fitting was used to determine that the field site sediments did not contain uraninite (UO{sub 2}), indicating that models based on bioreduction using pure bacterial cultures are not accurate for bioremediation in the field. Stability tests on the monomeric tetravalent uranium (U(IV)) produced by bioremediation are needed in order to assess the efficacy of acetate-stimulation bioremediation.

  3. Reactivity of Uranium and Ferrous Iron with Natural Iron Oxyhydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandy D; Cismasu, A Cristina; Williams, Kenneth H; Peyton, Brent M; Nico, Peter S

    2015-09-01

    Determining key reaction pathways involving uranium and iron oxyhydroxides under oxic and anoxic conditions is essential for understanding uranium mobility as well as other iron oxyhydroxide mediated processes, particularly near redox boundaries where redox conditions change rapidly in time and space. Here we examine the reactivity of a ferrihydrite-rich sediment from a surface seep adjacent to a redox boundary at the Rifle, Colorado field site. Iron(II)-sediment incubation experiments indicate that the natural ferrihydrite fraction of the sediment is not susceptible to reductive transformation under conditions that trigger significant mineralogical transformations of synthetic ferrihydrite. No measurable Fe(II)-promoted transformation was observed when the Rifle sediment was exposed to 30 mM Fe(II) for up to 2 weeks. Incubation of the Rifle sediment with 3 mM Fe(II) and 0.2 mM U(VI) for 15 days shows no measurable incorporation of U(VI) into the mineral structure or reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). Results indicate a significantly decreased reactivity of naturally occurring Fe oxyhydroxides as compared to synthetic minerals, likely due to the association of impurities (e.g., Si, organic matter), with implications for the mobility and bioavailability of uranium and other associated species in field environments.

  4. Fast beam conditions monitor BCM1F for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.; Castro, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.

    2009-10-01

    The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System, BRM, will support beam tuning, protect the CMS detector from adverse beam conditions, and measure the accumulated dose close to or inside all sub-detectors. It is composed of different sub-systems measuring either the particle flux near the beam pipe with time resolution between nano- and microseconds or the integrated dose over longer time intervals. This paper presents the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, BCM1F, which is designed for fast flux monitoring measuring both beam halo and collision products. BCM1F is located inside the CMS pixel detector volume close to the beam-pipe. It uses sCVD diamond sensors and radiation hard front-end electronics, along with an analog optical readout of the signals. The commissioning of the system and its successful operation during the first beams of the LHC are described. (orig.)

  5. A new measurement of the $K^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} \\gamma \\gamma$ decay at the NA48/2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J.R.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P.L.; Gersabeck, E.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Calvetti, M.; Celeghini, E.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M.D.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M.C.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Derre, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F.; Bifani, S.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NA48/2 experiment at CERN collected two data samples with minimum bias trigger conditions in 2003 and 2004. A measurement of the rate and dynamic properties of the rare decay $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\gamma\\gamma$ from these data sets based on 149 decay candidates with an estimated background of $15.5\\pm0.7$ events is reported. The model-independent branching ratio in the kinematic range $z=(m_{\\gamma\\gamma}/m_K)^2>0.2$ is measured to be ${\\cal B}_{\\rm MI}(z>0.2) = (0.877 \\pm 0.089) \\times 10^{-6}$, and the branching ratio in the full kinematic range assuming a particular Chiral Perturbation Theory description to be ${\\cal B}(K_{\\pi\\gamma\\gamma}) = (0.910 \\pm 0.075) \\times 10^{-6}$.

  6. Finite-range Coulomb gas models of banded random matrices and quantum kicked rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Akhilesh; Kumar, Avanish; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-11-01

    Dyson demonstrated an equivalence between infinite-range Coulomb gas models and classical random matrix ensembles for the study of eigenvalue statistics. We introduce finite-range Coulomb gas (FRCG) models via a Brownian matrix process, and study them analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations. These models yield new universality classes, and provide a theoretical framework for the study of banded random matrices (BRMs) and quantum kicked rotors (QKRs). We demonstrate that, for a BRM of bandwidth b and a QKR of chaos parameter α, the appropriate FRCG model has the effective range d=b^{2}/N=α^{2}/N, for large N matrix dimensionality. As d increases, there is a transition from Poisson to classical random matrix statistics.

  7. Fast beam conditions monitor BCM1F for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Univ. (Switzerland); Castro, E. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany); Hall-Wilton, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (US)] (and others)

    2009-10-15

    The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System, BRM, will support beam tuning, protect the CMS detector from adverse beam conditions, and measure the accumulated dose close to or inside all sub-detectors. It is composed of different sub-systems measuring either the particle flux near the beam pipe with time resolution between nano- and microseconds or the integrated dose over longer time intervals. This paper presents the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, BCM1F, which is designed for fast flux monitoring measuring both beam halo and collision products. BCM1F is located inside the CMS pixel detector volume close to the beam-pipe. It uses sCVD diamond sensors and radiation hard front-end electronics, along with an analog optical readout of the signals. The commissioning of the system and its successful operation during the first beams of the LHC are described. (orig.)

  8. Study of the $K^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} \\gamma \\gamma$ decay by the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00100355; Romano, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Frabetti, P.L.; Gersabeck, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; Di, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kholodenko, S.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retiere, F.

    2014-05-01

    A study of the dynamics of the rare decay $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\gamma\\gamma$ has been performed on a sample of 232 decay candidates, with an estimated background of $17.4\\pm1.1$ events, collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2007. The results are combined with those from a measurement conducted by the NA48/2 collaboration at CERN. The combined model-independent branching ratio in the kinematic range $z=(m_{\\gamma\\gamma}/m_K)^2>0.2$ is ${\\cal B}_{\\rm MI}(z>0.2) = (0.965 \\pm 0.063) \\times 10^{-6}$, and the combined branching ratio in the full kinematic range assuming a Chiral Perturbation Theory description is ${\\cal B}(K_{\\pi\\gamma\\gamma}) = (1.003 \\pm 0.056) \\times 10^{-6}$. A detailed comparison of the results with the previous measurements is performed.

  9. Two SPSS programs for interpreting multiple regression results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J; Chico, Eliseo

    2010-02-01

    When multiple regression is used in explanation-oriented designs, it is very important to determine both the usefulness of the predictor variables and their relative importance. Standardized regression coefficients are routinely provided by commercial programs. However, they generally function rather poorly as indicators of relative importance, especially in the presence of substantially correlated predictors. We provide two user-friendly SPSS programs that implement currently recommended techniques and recent developments for assessing the relevance of the predictors. The programs also allow the user to take into account the effects of measurement error. The first program, MIMR-Corr.sps, uses a correlation matrix as input, whereas the second program, MIMR-Raw.sps, uses the raw data and computes bootstrap confidence intervals of different statistics. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  10. TETRA-COM: a comprehensive SPSS program for estimating the tetrachoric correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J

    2012-12-01

    We provide an SPSS program that implements descriptive and inferential procedures for estimating tetrachoric correlations. These procedures have two main purposes: (1) bivariate estimation in contingency tables and (2) constructing a correlation matrix to be used as input for factor analysis (in particular, the SPSS FACTOR procedure). In both cases, the program computes accurate point estimates, as well as standard errors and confidence intervals that are correct for any population value. For purpose (1), the program computes the contingency table together with five other measures of association. For purpose (2), the program checks the positive definiteness of the matrix, and if it is found not to be Gramian, performs a nonlinear smoothing procedure at the user's request. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  11. SPSS programs for the measurement of nonindependence in standard dyadic designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferes, Valentim R; Kenny, David A

    2009-02-01

    Dyadic research is becoming more common in the social and behavioral sciences. The most common dyadic design is one in which two persons are measured on the same set of variables. Very often, the first analysis of dyadic data is to determine the extent to which the responses of the two persons are correlated-that is, whether there is nonindependence in the data. We describe two user-friendly SPSS programs for measuring nonindependence of dyadic data. Both programs can be used for distinguishable and indistinguishable dyad members. Inter1.sps is appropriate for interval measures. Inter2.sps applies to categorical variables. The SPSS syntax and data files related to this article may be downloaded as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  12. Alteration to the SWI/SNF complex in human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Gordon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The SWI/SNF complex is a key catalyst for gene expression and regulates a variety of pathways, many of which have anticancer roles. Its central roles in cellular growth control, DNA repair, differentiation, cell adhesion and development are often targeted, and inactivated, during cancer development and progression. In this review, we will discuss what is known about how SWI/SNF is inactivated, and describe the potential impact of abrogating this complex. BRG1 and BRM are the catalytic subunits which are essential for SWI/SNF function, and thus, it is not surprising that they are lost in a variety of cancer types. As neither gene is mutated when lost, the mechanism of suppression, as well as the impact of potential gene activity restoration, are reviewed.

  13. Nitrogen deposition outweighs climatic variability in driving annual growth rate of canopy beech trees: Evidence from long-term growth reconstruction across a geographic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilesca, Tiziana; Rita, Angelo; Brunetti, Michele; Giammarchi, Francesco; Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; van Noije, Twan; Tonon, Giustino; Borghetti, Marco

    2018-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of climatic variability and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in driving long-term tree growth in canopy beech trees along a geographic gradient in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula, from the Alps to the southern Apennines. We sampled dominant trees at different developmental stages (from young to mature tree cohorts, with tree ages spanning from 35 to 160 years) and used stem analysis to infer historic reconstruction of tree volume and dominant height. Annual growth volume (G V ) and height (G H ) variability were related to annual variability in model simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition and site-specific climatic variables, (i.e. mean annual temperature, total annual precipitation, mean growing period temperature, total growing period precipitation, and standard precipitation evapotranspiration index) and atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including tree cambial age among growth predictors. Generalized additive models (GAM), linear mixed-effects models (LMM), and Bayesian regression models (BRM) were independently employed to assess explanatory variables. The main results from our study were as follows: (i) tree age was the main explanatory variable for long-term growth variability; (ii) GAM, LMM, and BRM results consistently indicated climatic variables and CO 2 effects on G V and G H were weak, therefore evidence of recent climatic variability influence on beech annual growth rates was limited in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula; (iii) instead, significant positive nitrogen deposition (N dep ) effects were repeatedly observed in G V and G H ; the positive effects of N dep on canopy height growth rates, which tended to level off at N dep values greater than approximately 1.0 g m -2  y -1 , were interpreted as positive impacts on forest stand above-ground net productivity at the selected study sites. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A structural study of the interaction between the Dr haemagglutinin DraE and derivatives of chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, David M.; Roversi, Pietro; Davies, Stephen G.; Russell, Angela J.; Lea, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The structures of two Dr adhesin (DraE) complexes with chloramphenicol derivatives, namely chloramphenicol succinate and bromamphenicol, have been solved. The structures reveal important functional groups for small-molecule binding and imply possible modifications to the molecule that would permit a more wide-ranging interaction without the toxic side effects associated with chloramphenicol. Dr adhesins are expressed on the surface of uropathogenic and diffusely adherent strains of Escherichia coli. The major adhesin subunit (DraE/AfaE) of these organelles mediates attachment of the bacterium to the surface of the host cell and possibly intracellular invasion through its recognition of the complement regulator decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and/or members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. The adhesin subunit of the Dr haemagglutinin, a Dr-family member, additionally binds type IV collagen and is inhibited in all its receptor interactions by the antibiotic chloramphenicol (CLM). In this study, previous structural work is built upon by reporting the X-ray structures of DraE bound to two chloramphenicol derivatives: chloramphenicol succinate (CLS) and bromamphenicol (BRM). The CLS structure demonstrates that acylation of the 3-hydroxyl group of CLM with succinyl does not significantly perturb the mode of binding, while the BRM structure implies that the binding pocket is able to accommodate bulkier substituents on the N-acyl group. It is concluded that modifications of the 3@@hydroxyl group would generate a potent Dr haemagglutinin inhibitor that would not cause the toxic side effects that are associated with the normal bacteriostatic activity of CLM

  15. Novel marker for the onset of frontotemporal dementia: early increase in activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP in the face of Tau mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulie Schirer

    Full Text Available Tauopathy, a major pathology in Alzheimer's disease, is also found in ~50% of frontotemporal dementias (FTDs. Tau transcript, a product of a single gene, undergoes alternative splicing to yield 6 protein species, each with either 3 or 4 microtubule binding repeat domains (tau 3R or 4R, associated with dynamic and stable microtubules, respectively. While the healthy human brain shows a 1/1 ratio of tau 3R/4R, this ratio may be dramatically changed in the FTD brain. We have previously discovered that activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP is essential for brain formation in the mouse, with ADNP+/- mice exhibiting tauopathy, age-driven neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. Here, in transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated tau 4R species, in the cerebral cortex but not in the cerebellum, we showed significantly increased ADNP expression (~3-fold transcripts in the cerebral cortex of young transgenic mice (~disease onset, but not in the cerebellum, as compared to control littermates. The transgene-age-related increased ADNP expression paralleled augmented dynamic tau 3R transcript level compared to control littermates. Blocking mutated tau 4R transgene expression resulted in normalization of ADNP and tau 3R expression. ADNP was previously shown to be a member of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Here, Brahma (Brm, a component of the SWI/SNF complex regulating alternative splicing, showed a similar developmental expression pattern to ADNP. Immunoprecipitations further suggested Brm-ADNP interaction coupled to ADNP - polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF-binding, with PSF being a direct regulator of tau transcript splicing. It should be noted that although we have shown a correlation between levels of ADNP and tau isoform expression three months of age, we are not presenting evidence of a direct link between the two. Future research into ADNP/tau relations is

  16. The perceived effects and comfort of various body armour systems on police officers while performing occupational tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, B; Hinton, B; Orr, R; Pope, R; Norris, G

    2018-01-01

    The nature of police work often necessitates use of Individual Light Armour Vests (ILAVs) for officer protection. Previous research has demonstrated various biomechanical and physical performance impacts of ILAVs, however, little knowledge exists on the individual officer's perceptions of ILAV. The aim of this study was to investigate officers' perceptions of the impacts of three different ILAVs and normal station wear whilst performing police occupational tasks. A prospective, within subjects, repeated measures design was employed in which 11 serving police officers wore each of three different types of body armour (ILAV A, ILAV B or ILAV C) and normal station wear for a full day while performing tasks including a simulated victim drag, a patrol vehicle exit and a marksmanship shoot. Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS; - 10 to + 10) were used to examine officer perceptions of each ILAV. Finally, officers were asked to indicate areas of both discomfort and comfort of each ILAV on a mannequin chart. Officers perceived less effort was required for the victim drag whilst wearing ILAV B (RPE = 3.6/10) when compared to ILAV A, ILAV C and even station wear (RPE = 4.7/10, 4.0/10, 3.8/10, respectively). A positive impact on performance was perceived for ILAV B (VAS = + 0.26) when performing a patrol vehicle exit and sprint task but not for the other two ILAVs (VAS = - 3.58, - 0.55, - 0.85, respectively). Officers perceived a positive impact of ILAV B (VAS = + 2.7) and station wear (VAS = + 1.4) and a negative impact of ILAVs A and C (VAS = - 2.1, - 1.7 respectively) on marksmanship. Despite all armour types being criticized for discomfort, ILAV B received lower ratings of discomfort overall, and some positive comments regarding both comfort and performance. Officers perceived ILAV B to have positive effects on task performance. It was also rated more comfortable than the other two, possibly due to a longer

  17. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  18. Civil gymnastics associations and sports in the Kingdom of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enable insight and systemization of data relevant for the appearance of sports in the Kingdom of Serbia through reviews of adequate monographs and series of publications. Primary assumption was founded on the expectation to determine a direct link between gymnastics and the falcon system of exercising with sports that was rising. The historic method has been used for the research. Work results indicate a significant role of civil gymnastics associations - falcons (the falcon and knight (Dusan the Mighty as a phenomenon in popularization and development of modern sports at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century in Serbia. All these associations, no matter what their name was, had intentions to maintain their existing and attract new membership, and they foresaw with their rules and statutes acceptance and the introduction of other sports activities and forming of clubs, apart from gymnastics which was the skeleton of exercising curriculum. Newly founded gymnastics - sports departments in fighting, marksmanship, skating, riding, swimming, rowing, velocipede, football developed and grew into sports clubs. Their separation from core gymnastics associations enabled faster development of individual sports branches, which stood for the first modern sports in Serbia.

  19. Incidência de insuficiência renal aguda na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital paulista Incidencia de insuficiencia renal crónica aguda en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal de un hospital de Sao Paulo Incidence of acute renal failure in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a incidência de insuficiência renal aguda (IRA como motivo de admissão de pacientes na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN de um hospital paulista, e o uso da classificação de RIFLE na alocação destes pacientes. MÉTODOS: Levantamento de prontuários no período de 04 a 25/04/2008. RESULTADOS: Das 19 admissões de neonatos por diagnósticos diversos, 10% foram geradas por IRA (RIFLE, sendo os pacientes encaminhados à programas de diálise. CONCLUSÃO: Este levantamento realizado, com um número reduzido de indivíduos, demonstrou que a IRA representou 10% das causas de internação primária em UTIN. Maior tempo de observação seria importante para avaliar a progressão para IRA dos outros diagnósticos. Trabalhos com maior número de indivíduos e maior tempo de observação seriam importantes para se obter a real incidência desta complicação como causa de internação em UTIN.OBJETIVOS: Verificar la incidencia de insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA como motivo de admisión de pacientes en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN de un hospital de Sao Paulo, y el uso de la clasificación de RIFLE en la asignación de estos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un levantamiento de historias clínicas en el período comprendido ente el 04 al 25/04/2008. RESULTADOS: De las 19 admisiones de neonatos por diversos diagnósticos, el 10% fueron generadas por IRA (RIFLE, siendo los pacientes encaminados a los programas de diálisis. CONCLUSIÓN: Este levantamiento realizado, con un número reducido de individuos, demostró que la IRA representó el 10% de las causas de internamiento primario en la UCIN. Sería importante un mayor tiempo de observación para evaluar el progreso de los otros diagnósticos hacia la IRA. Trabajos con mayor número de individuos así como de mayor tiempo de observación serían importantes para obtenerse la incidencia real de esta complicación como causa de internamiento en la UCIN

  20. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters' Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years), and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%), while 23/202 (11%) exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19%) had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%), had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  1. Reactive transport of uranium in a groundwater bioreduction study: Insights from high-temporal resolution 238U/235U data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, A. E.; Johnson, T. M.; Lundstrom, C. C.; Laubach, P. G.; Long, P. E.; Williams, K. H.

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a detailed investigation of U isotopes in conjunction with a broad geochemical investigation during field-scale biostimulation and desorption experiments. This investigation was carried out in the uranium-contaminated alluvial aquifer of the Rifle field research site. In this well-characterized setting, a more comprehensive understanding of U isotope geochemistry is possible. Our results indicate that U isotope fractionation is consistently observed across multiple experiments at the Rifle site. Microbially-mediated reduction is suggested to account for most or all of the observed fractionation as abiotic reduction has been demonstrated to impart much smaller, often near-zero, isotopic fractionation or isotopic fractionation in the opposite direction. Data from some time intervals are consistent with a simple model for transport and U(VI) reduction, where the fractionation factor (ε = +0.65‰ to +0.85‰) is consistent with experimental studies. However, during other time intervals the observed patterns in our data indicate the importance of other processes in governing U concentrations and 238U/235U ratios. For instance, we demonstrate that departures from Rayleigh behavior in groundwater systems arise from the presence of adsorbed species. We also show that isotope data are sensitive to the onset of oxidation after biostimulation ends, even in the case where reduction continues to remove contaminant uranium downstream. Our study and the described conceptual model support the use of 238U/235U ratios as a tool for evaluating the efficacy of biostimulation and potentially other remedial strategies employed at Rifle and other uranium-contaminated sites.

  2. Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in medical, surgical, and intensive care unit: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T B Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in hospitalized patients. There are few comparative studies on hospital-acquired AKI (HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU patients. This study was conducted to compare the epidemiological characteristics, clinical profiles, and outcomes of HAAKI among these three units. All adult patients (>18 years of either gender who developed AKI based on RIFLE criteria (using serum creatinine, 48 h after hospitalization were included in the study. Patients of acute on chronic renal failure and AKI in pregnancy were excluded. Incidence of HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU wards were 0.54%, 0.72%, and 2.2% respectively ( P < 0.0001. There was no difference in age distribution among the groups, but onset of HAAKI was earliest in the medical ward ( P = 0.001. RIFLE-R was the most common AKI in medical (39.2% and ICU (50% wards but in the surgical ward, it was RIFLE-F that was most common (52.6%. Acute tubular necrosis was more common in ICU ( P = 0.043. Most common etiology of HAAKI in medical unit was drug induced (39.2%, whereas in surgical and ICU, it was sepsis (34% and 35.2% respectively. Mortality in ICU, surgical and medical units were 73.5%, 43.42%, and 37.2%, respectively ( P = 0.003. Length of hospital stay in surgical, ICU and medical units were different ( P = 0.007. This study highlights that the characters of HAAKI are different in some aspects among different hospital settings.

  3. Toward a Science of Autonomy for Physical Systems: Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Arkin, Ronald C.; Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    2016-01-01

    Militaries around the world have long been cognizant of the potential benefits associated with autonomous systems both in the conduct of warfare and in its prevention. This has lead to the declaration by some that this technology will lead to a fundamental change in the ways in which war is conducted, i.e., a revolution in military affairs (RMA) not unlike gunpowder, the long bow, the rifled bullet, the aircraft carrier, etc. Indeed the United States has created roadmaps for robotics with eve...

  4. Performance testing of lead free primers: blast waves, velocity variations, and environmental testing

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Elya; Courtney, Amy; Summer, Peter David; Courtney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for lead free primers based on diazodinitrophenol (DDNP)compared with tests on lead styphnate based primers. First, barrel friction measurements in 5.56 mm NATO are presented. Second, shot to shot variations in blast waves are presented as determined by detonating primers in a 7.62x51mm rifle chamber with a firing pin, but without any powder or bullet loaded and measuring the blast wave at the muzzle with a high speed pressure transducer. Third, variations in primer blas...

  5. SKOTTSTÄLLNING AV ÖVNINGSVAPEN TILL GRANATGEVÄR CARL GUSTAF

    OpenAIRE

    Elshani, Triumf

    2013-01-01

    This 15 point thesis is carried out at Saab Dynamics AB in Karlskoga. The company produces defense material aimed at the Swedish market and for export. The task was to make a survey of the current zeroing procedure for Sub Caliber Adapter for 84 mm recoilless rifle Carl Gustaf, and to examine the accuracy of the tools used today for zeroing. Measurements performed show that some of the tools has good accuracy for zeroing of Sub Caliber Adapter 20 mm withe other tools are not so good. The accu...

  6. Steel Spans,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-31

    the - market and, piling on the table the purchased products, she shared the heard news. - they say, that the drunk cossacks stole from your menege...transport value. The 84th battalion which served it began to fight as rifle unit. Major P. M. 4P -’ IV U.-% *.’ %I. IV W.a* -. iV ’* * 7.. . - DOC -83052710...be prepared for the war is necessary persistantly, rationally, taking into account the contemporary means of destruction, tactics and strategy . V. I

  7. A Systems Analysis View of the Vietnam War: 1965-1972 Volume 7. Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-18

    asfollows: ,AL rollows.TABLE 9 FY 68 FY 69 FY 70 FY 71 Bidget (millions of dollars) R.5 2-6a/ 2.9a/ 2. a/ Cost determined by type training; ’not student...twelve year term of dervice which is served in three equal increments : - in ARVN for the first 4 yeare - with the Regional Forces (RF) for the middle 4...To overcome the firepower inferiority, M16 rifles will be issued to PF in two increments . The first phase is scheduled to provide 9 M16s per PF

  8. Effect of shrapnel penetration on lithium-carbon monofluoride and lithium-manganese dioxide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, W. N. C.

    National BR2/3A lithium-carbon monofluoride and Duracell DL2/3A lithium-manganese dioxide batteries were subjected to simulated shrapnel penetration using a projectile from an M16 rifle. Trials were conducted on batteries in various states of charge (0, 50, and 100 percent discharged) in both wet and dry environments. Only one fully charged Duracell Battery (under wet conditions) caught fire during the test. The effects of environmental conditions, the chemical reactions involved, and the state of charge of the batteries on the probability of the batteries igniting are discussed.

  9. Konstantin Naktanov, About Hunting

    OpenAIRE

    Gedeeva, Darina

    2016-01-01

    Konstantin’s grandfather hunted wolves and foxes by using traps. Konstantin’s father, in contrast, hunted with a rifle. In his youth Konstantin went with his father on hunting trips. They hunted hares and steppe birds (seagulls, ducks), except for swans. Konstantin recalls that the seagull’s meat smelled of fish. Killed wolves were skinned in the same way as people skinned sheep. The Kalmyks did not use the fur of foxes or ferrets, because (ordinary) people were not supposed to use or wear wh...

  10. Elevated circulating lipasin/betatrophin in human type 2 diabetes and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiyao Fu; Feven Berhane; Alemu Fite; Berhane Seyoum; Abdul B. Abou-Samra; Ren Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Lipasin (also known as C19ORF80, RIFL, ANGPTL8 and betatrophin) is a newly discovered circulating factor that regulates lipid metabolism and promotes pancreatic ?-cell proliferation. Whether circulating levels of lipasin in humans are altered in a) type 2 diabetes; b) obesity and c) the postprandial state, however, is unknown. The current study aimed to compare serum lipasin levels in those who were a) non-diabetic (N = 15) or diabetic (BMI- and age-matched; N = 14); b) lean or obese (N = 53 ...

  11. Atypical gunshot injury to the right side of the face with the bullet lodged in the carotid sheath: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongom, Peter A; Kijjambu, Stephen C; Jombwe, Josephat

    2014-01-27

    Gunshot injuries of the head and neck from the AK-47 rifle (a common assault rifle, submachine gun type) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among civilians in Sub-Saharan Africa. They may cause significant damage to the closely arranged structures in this region, and the bullet's trajectory can be very difficult to determine. We present an unusual case of gunshot injury with an atypical bullet entry wound, profound injury to the face, lodgment in the right carotid sheath, and 'wandering'; a first of its kind in East Africa. A 27-year-old African-Ugandan woman of Nilotic ethnicity was referred to the Accident and Emergency Department of a tertiary hospital in Uganda, having sustained complex injuries due to an inadvertent AK-47 rifle gunshot injury. The gunshot injury was to the right side of her face with a large ragged entry wound and no exit wound. Prior basic wound care and radiological imaging showed a comminuted fracture of her mandible with lodgment of the bullet in her neck, anterior to her sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae. Standard debridement of her wound was done. A computed tomography scan showed an apparent cephalad shift ('wandering') of the bullet, leaving it lying partially anterior to her fifth cervical vertebra as well as within her carotid sheath. Other injuries were to her facial and trigeminal nerves, and her middle ear. The 'wandering' bullet was successfully removed surgically. It had caused no damage to any part of her neck structure. AK-47 rifle bullet injuries may present with uncharacteristically large entry wounds and cause complex structural injuries at the area of impact. The consequent trajectory is difficult to predict making regional examination and radiological investigations essential in management. Bullets may be retained, leaving no exit wound. Securing the airway, controlling hemorrhage and identifying other injuries are the first vital steps. This case illustrates all these interventions and the

  12. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized

  13. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized

  14. Cold Steel, Weak Flesh: Mechanism, Masculinity and the Anxieties of Late Victorian Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael

    2017-03-15

    This article considers the reception and representation of advanced military technology in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Britain. It argues that technologies such as the breech-loading rifle and the machine gun existed in an ambiguous relationship with contemporary ideas about martial masculinities and in many cases served to fuel anxieties about the physical prowess of the British soldier. In turn, these anxieties encouraged a preoccupation in both military and popular domains with that most visceral of weapons, the bayonet, an obsession which was to have profound consequences for British military thinking at the dawn of the First World War.

  15. Adjustments Recommended in Fiscal Year 1982 Ammunition Procurement and Modernization Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-30

    No comment 4.8 No comment Cartridge, 7.6 2-mm., all types Cartridge, .45 caliber ball 31.9 58.3 -0.8 2.9 Cartridge, 1.6 30-mm., TP...4.5 - 1.6 57.5 Inventory exceeds re- quirements for rifle grenade cartridge 2.8 No comment 77.1 No comment - Inventory exceeds re...quirements 10.7 Inventory exceeds re- quirements Premature buy Premature buy 4.5 No comment 38 APPENDIX I APPENDIX

  16. The Impact of Deep Versus Moderate Hypothermia on Postoperative Kidney Function After Elective Aortic Hemiarch Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutakis, George J; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth; Bavaria, Joseph E; Sultan, Ibrahim; Siki, Mary; Naidu, Suveeksha; Milewski, Rita K; Williams, Matthew L; Hargrove, W Clark; Desai, Nimesh D; Szeto, Wilson Y

    2016-10-01

    There remains concern that moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA) with antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) may provide suboptimal distal organ protection compared with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). We compared postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in in patients who underwent elective hemiarch repair with either DHCA/RCP or MHCA/ACP. This was a retrospective review of all patients undergoing elective aortic hemiarch reconstruction for aneurysmal disease between 2009 and 2014. Patients were stratified according to the use of DHCA/RCP versus MHCA/ACP. The primary outcome was the occurrence of AKI at 48 hours, as defined by the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage (RIFLE ) criteria. A multivariable logistic regression identified risk factors for AKI. One hundred eighteen patients who underwent ACP and 471 patients who underwent RCP were included. The mean lowest temperature was 26.4°C in patients who underwent MHCA/ACP and 17.5°C in patients who underwent DHCA/RCP. Baseline demographics were similar except that patients who underwent DHCA/RCP were more likely to have peripheral arterial disease or bicuspid aortic valves. Cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were shorter in the MHCA/ACP group. AKI occurred in 19 (16.2%) patients who underwent MHCA/ACP and 67 (14.3%) patients who underwent DHCA/RCP. Four (0.8%) patients who underwent DHCA/RCP required postoperative dialysis. In-hospital mortality tended to increase with increasing RIFLE classification (RIFLE class-0 (No AKI) = 0.41%; Risk = 1.35%, and Injury = 10.0%; p = 0.09). On multivariable analysis, the lowest temperature and cerebral perfusion strategy were not significant predictors of AKI. Lower baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR), lower preoperative ejection fraction, and longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time were independently associated with higher AKI. We applied the sensitive RIFLE criteria to examine AKI in

  17. An unusual characteristic “flower-like” pattern: flash suppressor burns

    OpenAIRE

    Gurcan, Altun

    2012-01-01

    The case on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor is rare. When a rifle fitted with a flash suppressor is fired, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. If the shot is contact or near contact, the flash suppressor will produce a characteristic “flower-like” pattern of seared, blackened zones around the entrance. This paper presents the injury pattern of the flash suppressor in a 29-year-old man who committed suicide with a G3 aut...

  18. [Contact shot from infantry weapons with a flash-suppressor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Braunwarth, Roland; Schmidt, Ulrike; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pollak, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    The number of reports on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor attached to the muzzle is small. On the basis of a case report (suicidal shot to the forehead with a Kalschnikow AKMS 47 assault rifle) the morphological peculiarities (characteristics soot pattern, relatively small powder cavity and only minor skin tears in the presence of a bony support) are presented and the conclusions to be drawn from the findings regarding the flash-suppressor, the shot distance, the angle of the shot and the way of holding the weapon are discussed.

  19. Medicolegal aspects of atypical firearm injuries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Murat Serdar; Akan, Okan; Eren, Bülent; Durak, Dilek; Türkmen, Nursel; Cetin, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    Our case was a twenty year-old man, who was injured during the military duty with G3 infantry rifle in the training area. An atypical firearm entry wound on the left side of sternum which was 4.5 cm in diameter, and was surrounded by six irregular skin burn wounds by a flash-suppressor and a 0.7 cm diameter firearm exit wound at space on the left midscapular line. Our case emphasizes that the interpretation of properties of these atypical firearm entry wounds need to be carefully assessed by physicians.

  20. Mental imagery and the third dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, S

    1980-09-01

    What sort of medium underlies imagery for three-dimensional scenes? In the present investigation, the time subjects took to scan between objects in a mental image was used to infer the sorts of geometric information that images preserve. Subjects studied an open box in which five objects were suspended, and learned to imagine this display with their eyes closed. In the first experiment, subjects scanned by tracking an imaginary point moving in a straight line between the imagined objects. Scanning times increased linearly with increasing distance between objects in three dimensions. Therefore metric 3-D information must be preserved in images, and images cannot simply be 2-D "snapshots." In a second experiment, subjects scanned across the image by "sighting" objects through an imaginary rifle sight. Here scanning times were found to increase linearly with the two-dimensional separations between objects as they appeared from the original viewing angle. Therefore metric 2-D distance information in the original perspective view must be preserved in images, and images cannot simply be 3-D "scale-models" that are assessed from any and all directions at once. In a third experiment, subjects mentally rotated the display 90 degrees and scanned between objects as they appeared in this new perspective view by tracking an imaginary rifle signt, as before. Scanning times increased linearly with the two-dimensional separations between objects as they would appear from the new relative viewing perspective. Therefore images can display metric 2-D distance information in a perspective view never actually experiences, so mental images cannot simply be "snapshot plus scale model" pairs. These results can be explained by a model in which the three-dimensional structure of objects is encoded in long-term memory in 3-D object-centered coordinate systems. When these objects are imagined, this information is then mapped onto a single 2-D "surface display" in which the perspective

  1. Biotransformation involved in sustained reductive removal of uranium in contaminant aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes progress made from August 2004 to July 2005. During this period research focused primarily on obtaining a better understanding of the factors controlling the reduction of U(VI) during in situ uranium bioremediation as well as investigating the potential for using electrodes as an alternative electron donor to promote in situ uranium reduction. Analysis of the 2003 experiment at the field study site in Rifle, CO was completed. The results demonstrated the substantial heterogeneity of the zone undergoing bioremediation, both in terms of geochemistry and microbiology. The lack of U(VI) reduction under sulfate-reducing conditions was clearly documented. The need for more detailed sampling both with time and with depth in the aquifer was demonstrated. For the first time a comparison between the composition of the microbial community in the sediments and the microbes in the corresponding groundwater was attempted. The findings from this study are important not only in further demonstrating the potential for in situ uranium bioremediation, but also for indicating how methods and sampling approaches should be improved in the future. A manuscript summarizing these findings has been accepted for publication in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. In summer of 2004 a new field experiment was conducted at the Rifle site. A novel feature of this study was much more intensive sampling in order to better define the progression of microbial processes during in situ uranium bioremediation. The results demonstrated that stimulation of in situ uranium bioremediation with added acetate was a repeatable phenomenon and that U(VI) reduction was clearly linked to the presence and activity of microorganisms in the family Geobacteraceae. A manuscript summarizing these results is in preparation. A surprising result of the field studies at the Rifle site was that although Geobacter species actively reduced U(VI) in the groundwater, removing it from solution, a high

  2. Observations of ’Economical’ Fixed Prosthodontic Alloys,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Office) 15. SECURITY CLASS. (of this ,.portj Ia. OS7RI~fl3 ~TATM~T1of5sA. DECLASSIFICATION/OO44GRAUTIV S Unlimited 17. 0137 PI3UT10ON STATEMENT (of the...however, the silver-palladium and silver-indium materials require ~DA~3 47 EOfl4O tO’/SfOBOLTE UNCLASSIFIED 8 2’ 02 R -/ SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...ous grain boundary netowrk , whereas those of Salivan revealed large grains, discontinuous grain boundaries and prominent subgrains. Microstructures

  3. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Kristina [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Slater, Lee [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  4. Novel antibody conjugates for enhanced tumor uptake. Final report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.

    1997-01-01

    Progress in three areas of research is summarized. These are as follows: Labeling Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with Tc-99m and Re-186; human melanoma tumors and specific MAbs; evaluation of biological response modifiers (BRM). The techniques of labeling MAbs (IgM, IgG, F(ab') 2 or F(ab')) with Tc-99m was developed in the author's laboratory in 1989 and that with Re-186 in 1992. The techniques are in daily use in the laboratory since then and are adapted to a convenient kit formulation. The metal ions are bound at MAb sulfhydryls generated by a controlled reduction of a pair of disulfide groups. At least two types of MAbs labeled with Tc-99m by this method have been administered into patients and excellent diagnostic results have been obtained. Over the past two and a half years the author has been successfully growing human melanoma tumors in athymic Balb/c nude mice. The cell LINE, WM-9, was obtained from Dr. D Herlyn's laboratory at Wistar Institute in Philadelphia. Sufficient quantities of antihuman melanoma specific antibodies ME 31.3 (Wistar, IgG-1) and MEM-136 (Hybritech, IgG-2A) and their F(ab') 2 fragments are also available in the laboratory. The use of BRM is a rapidly evolving field. Over the past four years, the author has evaluated a number of BRMs in a quest for agents that may augment MAb tumor uptake. These included interferon-α; a pokeweed mitogen and Ukrain, an alkaloid separated from a plant Chelideonium Majis. In these preliminary studies, normal Balb/c mice were used and the BRMs were given i.p. one hour prior to the i.v. administration of tumor necrosis factor or an MAb (TNT-F(ab') 2 ) labeled with Tc-99m which served as an imaging agent. Animals were sacrificed at 1.5 hr or 4 hrs post-injection. Highlights of the work are given here in a table

  5. Fortification of Yogurts with Vitamin D and Calcium Enhances the Inhibition of Serum Parathyroid Hormone and Bone Resorption Markers: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial in Women over 60 Living in a Community Dwelling Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, J-P; Benoit, V; Atkin, S; Walrand, S

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate whether fortification of yogurts with vitamin D and calcium exerts an additional lowering effect on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone resorption markers (BRM) as compared to iso-caloric and iso-protein dairy products in aged white women at risk of fragility fractures. A randomized double-blind controlled trial. A community dwelling home. Forty-eight women over 60 years (mean age 73.4). Consumption during 84 days of two 125 g servings of either vitamin D and calcium-fortified yogurts (FY) at supplemental levels of 10 µg vitamin D3/d and 520 mg/d of calcium (total=800 mg/d), or non fortified control yogurts (CY) providing 280 mg/d of calcium. Serum changes from baseline (D0) to D28, D56 and D84 in 25OHD, PTH and in two BRM: Tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase-isoform-5b (TRAP5b) and carboxy-terminal-cross-linked-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (CTX). The 10 years risk of major and hip fractures were 13.1 and 5.0%, and 12.9 and 4.2 %, in FY and CY groups, respectively. From D0 to D84, serum 25OHD increased (mean±SE) from 34.3±2.4 to 56.3±2.4 nmol/L in FY (n=24) and from 35.0±2.5 to 41.3±3.0 nmol/L in CY (n=24), (P=0.00001). The corresponding changes in PTH were from 64.1±5.1 to 47.4±3.8 ng/L in FY and from 63.5±4.6 to 60.7±4.2 ng/L in CY (P=0.0011). After D84, TRAP5b was reduced significantly (P=0.0228) and CTX fell though not significantly (P=0.0773) in FY compared to CY. This trial in aged white women living in a community dwelling home at risk for osteoporotic fractures confirms that fortification of dairy products with vitamin D3 and calcium should provide a greater prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism and accelerated bone resorption as compared to non-fortified equivalent foods.

  6. Novel antibody conjugates for enhanced tumor uptake. Final report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, M.

    1997-12-31

    Progress in three areas of research is summarized. These are as follows: Labeling Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with Tc-99m and Re-186; human melanoma tumors and specific MAbs; evaluation of biological response modifiers (BRM). The techniques of labeling MAbs (IgM, IgG, F(ab{prime}){sub 2} or F(ab{prime})) with Tc-99m was developed in the author`s laboratory in 1989 and that with Re-186 in 1992. The techniques are in daily use in the laboratory since then and are adapted to a convenient kit formulation. The metal ions are bound at MAb sulfhydryls generated by a controlled reduction of a pair of disulfide groups. At least two types of MAbs labeled with Tc-99m by this method have been administered into patients and excellent diagnostic results have been obtained. Over the past two and a half years the author has been successfully growing human melanoma tumors in athymic Balb/c nude mice. The cell LINE, WM-9, was obtained from Dr. D Herlyn`s laboratory at Wistar Institute in Philadelphia. Sufficient quantities of antihuman melanoma specific antibodies ME 31.3 (Wistar, IgG-1) and MEM-136 (Hybritech, IgG-2A) and their F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragments are also available in the laboratory. The use of BRM is a rapidly evolving field. Over the past four years, the author has evaluated a number of BRMs in a quest for agents that may augment MAb tumor uptake. These included interferon-{alpha}; a pokeweed mitogen and Ukrain, an alkaloid separated from a plant Chelideonium Majis. In these preliminary studies, normal Balb/c mice were used and the BRMs were given i.p. one hour prior to the i.v. administration of tumor necrosis factor or an MAb (TNT-F(ab{prime}){sub 2}) labeled with Tc-99m which served as an imaging agent. Animals were sacrificed at 1.5 hr or 4 hrs post-injection. Highlights of the work are given here in a table.

  7. Understanding Uranium Behavior in a Reduced Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, N.; Lezama-Pacheco, J. S.; Williams, K. H.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Long, P. E.; Davis, J. A.; Fox, P. M.; Yang, L.; Giammar, D.; Cerrato, J. M.; Bargar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwater is a concern at several US Department of Energy sites, such Old Rifle, CO. Uranium transport in the environment is mainly controlled by its oxidation state, since oxidized U(VI) is relatively mobile, whereas U(IV) is relatively insoluble. Bio-remediation of contaminated aquifers aims at immobilizing uranium in a reduced form. Previous laboratory and field studies have shown that adding electron donor (lactate, acetate, ethanol) to groundwater stimulates the activity of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which promotes U(VI) reduction in contaminated aquifers. However, obtaining information on chemical and physical forms of U, Fe and S species for sediments biostimulated in the field, as well as kinetic parameters such as U(VI) reduction rate, is challenging due to the low concentration of uranium in the aquifers (typically bio-remediation experiment at the Old Rifle site, CO, from early iron-reducing conditions to the transition to sulfate-reducing conditions. Several in-well chromatographic columns packed with sediment were deployed and were sampled at different days after the start of bio-reduction. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microscopy were used to obtain information on Fe, S and U speciation and distribution. Chemical extractions of the reduced sediments have also been performed, to determine the rate of Fe(II) and U(IV) accumulation.

  8. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT ammunition accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Corriveau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  9. Physical protection of nuclear materials in transit. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.

    1978-12-01

    A computer model, SOURCE, has been developed to study the impact of convoy configuration and tactics upon personnel survival and emergency signal generation during an initial armed attack. During this quarter, several improvements were made to the SOURCE code. These improvements include (1) the capability to model an ambush in which the adversaries set up a roadblock, (2) upgraded data on aiming accuracies and human vulnerabilities, and (3) two output formats for examining the locations of the surviving guards. To support the conflict analysis task, several complementary conflict modeling efforts are undergoing parallel development. These methodologies include the SABRES computerized conflict simulation models, the AMBUSH conflict board game, and an alternative methodology being developed by Vector Research, Inc. (VRI). The SABRES I combat model can be used to study the relative value of alternative defender tactics and the relative value of different weapon systems. AMBUSH is a tactical board game which provides a hypothetical conflict between a truck convoy and an adversary group attempting a hijacking. ORINCON Corporation developed network models to be used in determining the cost implications of alternative transportation regulations. SRI International provided weapon characterization data from representative types and calibers of sporting rifles, assault rifles, machine guns, submachine guns, shotguns, and handguns. The alternative methodology for conflict modeling being developed by VRI is the engagement model, CONVOY. SAI is under contract to model the communication system for transporters of SNM

  10. Acute kidney injury in critically burned patients resuscitated with a protocol that includes low doses of Hydroxyethyl Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, M; Garcia-de-Lorenzo, A; Cachafeiro, L; Herrero, E; Asensio, M J; Agrifoglio, A; Flores, E; Estebanez, B; Extremera, P; Iglesias, C; Martinez, J R

    2016-09-30

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in burn patients. Recently, it has been recommended that hydroxyethyl starch (HES) be avoided in burn patients because it increases the incidence of AKI. Our purpose was to study incidence of AKI in critically ill burn patients resuscitated with Ringer's solution and supplements of HES. We conducted an observational study of 165 patients admitted to the critical care burn unit (with 30 ± 15% TBSA burned). The main outcome measures were incidence of AKI, contributions of colloids and crystalloids, various severity scores, comorbidities, complications and mortality. According to the RIFLE criteria, 10 (6.1%) patients presented with Risk, 11 (6.7%) presented with Injury and 11 (6.7%) presented with Failure. According to the AKIN criteria, 9.7% presented stage I, 3% stage II and 10.3% stage III. Replacement therapy (RRT) was performed in 15 patients (9.1%), but in 6 of them RRT was employed in the final stages of multi-organ failure. The incidence of AKI in severe burn patients is high according to the RIFLE or AKIN criteria and these patients experience more complications and higher mortality. Our study suggests that the use of HES in low doses in the burn resuscitation phase does not cause more AKI than resuscitation without HES, but further evaluation is required. Further studies should be conducted.

  11. Acute kidney injury in visceral leishmaniasis: a cohort of 10 patients admitted to a specialized intensive care unit in northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Daher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe co-infections, clinical manifestations, comorbidities and outcome of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and AKI. Methods: This is a case study with ten patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL admitted to the reference ICU of Northeast of Brazil during 6 years, with renal injury. Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated in admission, period of hospitalization and outcome. Results: This study found 10 patients with VL in a group of 253 patients admitted to the ICU with AKI. The main signs and symptoms presented at admission were weight loss, fever, splenomegaly, jaundice, anorexia, asthenia, bleeding and vomits. The main co-infections were: AIDS, tuberculosis and leprosy. Patients were classified in RIFLE criteria. RIFLE-F patients were younger and had a longer time between onset of symptoms and hospital admission. Death was observed in 60% of cases. The causes of death were septic shock, respiratory insufficiency and multiple organ dysfunction. Conclusions: AKI is an important complication in VL. The progression of the disease and their complications can achieve high level of severity, even in the absence of comorbidities or co-infections. The high mortality in this group alerts to the importance of adequate management of these patients.

  12. Betatrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnfelt-Rønne, Jonas; Madsen, Ole D

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative therapy in diabetes with the capacity to reconstitute a functional β-cell mass sufficient for glycemic control holds the promise to effectively prevent the development of devastating late complications due to the unique ability of the β-cell to sense and regulate blood-glucose levels. An ability that cannot be mimicked by insulin replacement therapy or any other means of current treatment regiments for very large patient populations. Recently, Douglas A. Melton's group from Harvard University reported the identification of a circulating protein secreted from the liver under insulin resistant states which is sufficient to dramatically and specifically increase the replication rate of β-cells in the mouse resulting in an increased functional β-cell mass over time. They re-named the factor betatrophin and described a number of exciting features of this molecule which suggested that it could be a potential candidate for development as a regenerative medicine in diabetes. The official name of the gene encoding mouse betatrophin is Gm6484, but it has been annotated a number of times under different names: EG624219, RIFL, Lipasin and ANGPTL8. The official human gene name is C19orf80, but it has also been annotated as TD26, LOC55908, as well as RIFL, Lipasin, ANGPTL8 and betatrophin.

  13. Seasonal Hydrologic Controls on Uranium and Iron Biogeochemistry in a Riparian Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, M.; Williams, K. H.; Danczak, R. E.; Yabusaki, S.; Fang, Y.; Hobson, C.

    2015-12-01

    The maintenance of geochemically reducing conditions is generally optimal for the formation and preservation of reduced metals and mineral phases that can limit contaminant fate and transport. At a riparian aquifer near Rifle, CO, we tracked over six months the biogeochemical response within the aquifer to an annual pulse of dissolved oxygen (DO) that results from snowmelt-driven changes in Colorado River stage. In reduced portions of the aquifer (naturally reduced zones; NRZs) the re-oxidation of abundant iron sulfide minerals was the dominant oxygen-consuming process, and resulted in little DO intrusion into the deeper aquifer. In less reduced areas, DO intruded through the entire vertical profile of the aquifer. Across both regions, these perturbations resulted in changes to the microbial community structure, and aqueous metal pools. Two potentially different mechanisms of uranium mobilization were observed; (1) re-oxidation of reduced U(IV) phases in response to DO intrusion, and (2) mobilization of U(VI) from the vadose zone during water table rise. This high-resolution, long-term monitoring of aquifer biogeochemistry at the Rifle site has revealed dynamic microbial and geochemical responses to predictable, annual hydrologic perturbations, and offers an opportunity to further refine modeling approaches for such regions.

  14. Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E.; O'Neil, Regina A.; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'Guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll , Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2007-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants.

  15. Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition: Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; Callister, S.J.; Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; Nicora, C.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Long, P.E.; Lipton, M.S.

    2010-02-15

    Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

  16. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work

  17. Impact of acute kidney injury on long-term mortality and progression to chronic kidney disease among critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa G. Al-Otaibi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the 2-year outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI following admission to pediatric critical care units (PICU. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2012 and December 2013. We followed 131 children admitted to PICU, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with a diagnosis of AKI, based on pRIFLE (pediatric risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease, for 2 years. During the study period, 46 children died and 38 of survivors completed the follow-up. Factors affecting long-term progression to chronic kidney disease were also evaluated. Results: The 2-year mortality was more than 40%. The main determinant of the 2-year mortality was the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM score, which increased the risk of mortality by 6% per each one score (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06: 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.11. By the end of the 2 years, 33% of survivors had reduction in the glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, and 73% were hypertensive. Patients with more severe renal impairment at admission, based on the pRIFLE criteria, had higher mortality rate. This association, however, was not independent since it was influenced by baseline disease severity (PRISM score. Conclusion: Large proportion of patients admitted to PICU with AKI either died during the first 2 months of follow-up or developed long-term complications. The severity of AKI, however, was not an independent risk factor for mortality.

  18. Neutron activation and the JFK assassination. Part 2. Extended benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturdivan, L.M.; Rahn, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    The NAA of the bullets and fragments from the JFK assassination not only demonstrated that U.S. President John F. Kennedy and Texas Governor John B. Connally were hit by two and only two bullets, both from Lee Harvey Oswald's rifle, but offered a considerable number of extended benefits for understanding the assassination as well. The NAA eliminated all conspiracy theories that involved additional shooters or planted bullets. The NAA proved that none of the fragments were planted, that the rifle was fired that day (not planted), and that the locations of Kennedy's head wounds and back wound were not needed in order to get the right answer for the assassination. It supported the single-bullet theory and thus helped to provide the best-documented shooting scenario to date. It knits together the core physical evidence into an airtight case against Lee Oswald. It is, thus, the key to resolving the major controversies in the JFK assassination and putting the matter to rest. (author)

  19. Ibuprofen-associated acute kidney injury in dehydrated children with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestracci, Alejandro; Ezquer, Mauricio; Elmo, María Eugenia; Molini, Andrea; Thorel, Claudia; Torrents, Milagros; Toledo, Ismael

    2015-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce acute kidney injury (AKI) in volume-depleted patients; however the prevalence of this complication is likely underestimated. We assessed the impact of ibuprofen exposure on renal function among dehydrated children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) to further characterize NSAID-associated AKI. Over a 1-year period dehydrated children with AGE (n = 105) were prospectively enrolled and grouped as cases, presenting with AKI (n = 46) or controls, not presenting with AKI (n = 59). AKI was defined by pediatric RIFLE (pRIFLE) criteria. Among the children enrolled in the study, AKI prevalence was 44 %, and 34 (54 %) of the 63 patients who received ibuprofen developed renal impairment. Relative to the controls, children presenting with AKI were younger (median age 0.66 vs. 1.74 years; p dehydration, ibuprofen exposure remained an independent risk factor for AKI (p dehydrated children with AGE. Drug exposure increased the risk for developing AKI by more than twofold, independent of the magnitude of the dehydration.

  20. Methodology for teaching technical pattern of lying, sport shooting. Mistakes often.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaydel Avila Gómez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The next album we set out a summary of the key technical elements for a good development of the prone position, bearing in mind that sometimes violate some methodological steps for teaching the same in athletes who play sports Shooting sports Rifle mode, which creates bad habits in the teaching of the position are difficult to eradicate later. We proceeded to perform the following steps. Criteria for experts to determine methodological steps to be taken into account in the teaching of technical pattern prone position; query bibliographic elements of the sport, the explanation of the basic technical elements; survey a group of coaches in the form of Rifle for the determination of the most common mistakes in the process of teaching the technical pattern of the prone position. It came to the conclusion that teaching the correct technical pattern that position must be taken into account methodological steps which do not allow making any error that would create a dynamic stereotype wrong in athletes who subsequently would be difficult to resolve.

  1. Geophysical Monitoring of Coupled Microbial and Geochemical Processes During Stimulated Subsurface Bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Kemna, Andreas; Wilkins, Michael J.; Druhan, Jennifer L.; Arntzen, Evan V.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Long, Philip E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how microorganisms alter their physical and chemical environment during bioremediation is hindered by our inability to resolve subsurface microbial activity with high spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate the use of a minimally invasive geophysical technique to monitor stimulated microbial activity during acetate amendment in an aquifer near Rifle, Colorado. During electrical induced polarization (IP) measurements, spatiotemporal variations in the phase response between imposed electric current and the resultant electric field correlated with changes in groundwater geochemistry accompanying stimulated iron and sulfate reduction and sulfide mineral precipitation. The magnitude of the phase response varied with measurement frequency (0.125 and 1 Hz) and was dependent upon the dominant metabolic process. The spectral effect was corroborated using a biostimulated column experiment containing Rifle sediments and groundwater. Fluids and sediments recovered from regions exhibiting an anomalous phase response were enriched in Fe(II), dissolved sulfide, and cell-associated FeS nanoparticles. The accumulation of mineral precipitates and electroactive ions altered the ability of pore fluids to conduct electrical charge, accounting for the anomalous IP response and revealing the usefulness of multifrequency IP measurements for monitoring mineralogical and geochemical changes accompanying stimulated subsurface bioremediation

  2. Role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Lopez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly important to understand how epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression during neurodevelopment. Two epigenetic mechanisms that have received considerable attention are DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have linked several neurobiological disorders to genes whose products actively regulate DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, a third major epigenetic mechanism, nucleosome remodeling, has been implicated in human developmental and intellectual disability disorders. Nucleosome remodeling is driven primarily through nucleosome remodeling complexes with specialized ATP-dependent enzymes. These enzymes directly interact with DNA or chromatin structure, as well as histone subunits, to restructure the shape and organization of nucleosome positioning to ultimately regulate gene expression. Of particular interest is the neuron-specific Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor (nBAF complex. Mutations in nBAF subunit genes have so far been linked to Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, schizophrenia, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Together, these human developmental and intellectual disability disorders are powerful examples of the impact of epigenetic modulation on gene expression. This review focuses on the new and emerging role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders and whether nucleosome remodeling affects gene expression required for cognition independently of its role in regulating gene expression required for development.

  3. Neuron-specific chromatin remodeling: a missing link in epigenetic mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity, memory, and intellectual disability disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Wood, Marcelo A

    2014-05-01

    Long-term memory formation requires the coordinated regulation of gene expression. Until recently nucleosome remodeling, one of the major epigenetic mechanisms for controlling gene expression, had been largely unexplored in the field of neuroscience. Nucleosome remodeling is carried out by chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) that interact with DNA and histones to physically alter chromatin structure and ultimately regulate gene expression. Human exome sequencing and gene wide association studies have linked mutations in CRC subunits to intellectual disability disorders, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, how mutations in CRC subunits were related to human cognitive disorders was unknown. There appears to be both developmental and adult specific roles for the neuron specific CRC nBAF (neuronal Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor). nBAF regulates gene expression required for dendritic arborization during development, and in the adult, contributes to long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We propose that the nBAF complex is a novel epigenetic mechanism for regulating transcription required for long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and memory processes and that impaired nBAF function may result in human cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Objective age of acquisition for 223 Italian words: norms and effects on picture naming speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Lorella; Surian, Luca; Job, Remo

    2010-02-01

    The present study provides a set of objective age of acquisition (AoA) norms for 223 Italian words that may be useful for conducting cross-linguistic studies or experiments on Italian language processing. The data were collected by presenting children from the ages of 2 to 11 with a normed picture set (Lotto, Dell'Acqua, & Job, 2001). Following the study of Morrison, Chappell, and Ellis (1997), we report two measures of objective AoA. Both measures strongly correlated with each other, and they also showed a good correlation with the rated AoA provided by adult participants. Furthermore, we assessed the relationship between the AoA measures and other variables used in psycholinguistic experiments. Regression analyses showed that familiarity, typicality, and word frequency were significant predictors of AoA. AoA, but not word frequency, was found to determine naming latencies. Finally, we present a path model in which AoA is a mediator in predicting speed in picture naming. The norms and the picture set can also be downloaded from http://dpss.psy.unipd.it/files/strumenti.php and from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  5. Anti-fibrotic effects of Ginsan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ji-young; Lee, Jung-woo; Son, Hyeog-jin; Kim, Hyung-doo; Han, Young-soo; Yun, Yeon-sook; Song, Jie-young [Korea institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is the consequence of a variety of diseases with no satisfying treatment option. Therapy induced fibrosis also limits the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in numerous cancers. It has been proposed that fibrogenesis is not a unique pathologic process but rather, is due to an excess of the same biologic events involved in normal tissue repair. Persistent and exaggerated wound healing ultimately leads to an excess of fibroblast replication and matrix deposition. Several studies revealed that TGF-{beta}1, collagen 1, fibronectin, various chemokine and some anti-oxidant are overexpressed in radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis. A number of studies were performed that polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, ginsan, has been demonstrated to be a potent promising biological response modifier (BRM), including proliferation of lymphocytes, generation of lymphokine activated killer cells, and production of several cytokines. On the basis of several results of the ability of ginsan on modulation of redox system and cytokine balance, we examined whether ginsan directly regulates fibroblast proliferation, differentiation factors, and also investigated the mechanism of the antifibrotic effects of ginsan.

  6. Proinflammatory cytokines and CD14 expression in mammary tissue of cows following intramammary inoculation of Panax ginseng at drying off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalle, C; Dallard, B E; Cadoche, M C; Pereyra, E A L; Neder, V E; Ortega, H H; Calvinho, L F

    2011-11-15

    The lack of efficacy of conventional strategies for the maintenance of healthy udders in domestic cattle has prompted studies on the use of immunomodulators or biological response modifiers (BRM) for this purpose. These compounds are agents that modify the host's response to pathogens leading to beneficial effects on disease outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng (GS) extract on the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the number of monocytes/macrophages present in bovine mammary tissues at drying off. Eight mammary quarters from six nonpregnant cows in late lactation were infused with 10 mL of GS (3mg/mL), six quarters were treated with 10 mL of placebo (vehicle alone) and six quarters were maintained as uninoculated controls. The analyses of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by immunohistochemistry revealed that the production of this proinflammatory cytokine significantly increased (Pmastitis at drying off, either alone or in conjunction with dry cow antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Malay Lexicon Project: a database of lexical statistics for 9,592 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J; Liow, Susan J Rickard; Jalil, Sajlia Binte; Faizal, Siti Syuhada Binte

    2010-11-01

    Malay, a language spoken by 250 million people, has a shallow alphabetic orthography, simple syllable structures, and transparent affixation--characteristics that contrast sharply with those of English. In the present article, we first compare the letter-phoneme and letter-syllable ratios for a sample of alphabetic orthographies to highlight the importance of separating language-specific from language-universal reading processes. Then, in order to develop a better understanding of word recognition in orthographies with more consistent mappings to phonology than English, we compiled a database of lexical variables (letter length, syllable length, phoneme length, morpheme length, word frequency, orthographic and phonological neighborhood sizes, and orthographic and phonological Levenshtein distances) for 9,592 Malay words. Separate hierarchical regression analyses for Malay and English revealed how the consistency of orthography-phonology mappings selectively modulates the effects of different lexical variables on lexical decision and speeded pronunciation performance. The database of lexical and behavioral measures for Malay is available at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  8. Performance of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor BCM1F of CMS in the first running periods of LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R S; Hempel, M; Lohmann, W; Bell, A J; Hall-Wilton, R; Mueller, S; Ryjov, V; Stickland, D; Castro, E; Lange, W; Walsh, R

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System, BRM, is implemented in CMS to protect the detector and provide an interface to the LHC. Seven sub-systems monitor beam conditions and the radiation level inside the detector on different time scales. They detect adverse beam conditions, facilitate beam tuning close to CMS, and measure the doses accumulated in different detector components. Data are taken and analysed independently of the CMS data acquisition, displayed in the control room, and provide inputs to the trigger system and the LHC operators. In case of beam conditions dangerous to the CMS detector, a beam abort is induced. The Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, BCM1F, is a flux counter close to the beam pipe inside the tracker volume. It uses single-crystal CVD diamond sensors, radiation-hard FE electronics, and optical signal transmission to measure the beam halo as well as collision products bunch by bunch. The system has been operational during the initiatory runs of LHC in September 2008. It works reliably since the restart in 2009 and is invaluable to CMS for everyday LHC operation. A characterisation of the system on the basis of data collected during LHC operation is presented.

  9. Performance of the fast beam conditions monitor BCM1F of CMS in the first running periods of LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.S.; Bell, A.J.; Castro, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System, BRM, is implemented in CMS to protect the detector and provide an interface to the LHC. Seven sub-systems monitor beam conditions and the radiation level inside the detector on different time scales. They detect adverse beam conditions, facilitate beam tuning close to CMS, and measure the doses accumulated in different detector components. Data are taken and analysed independently of the CMS data acquisition, displayed in the control room, and provide inputs to the trigger system and the LHC operators. In case of beam conditions dangerous to the CMS detector, a beam abort is induced. The Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, BCM1F, is a flux counter close to the beam pipe inside the tracker volume. It uses single-crystal CVD diamond sensors, radiation-hard FE electronics, and optical signal transmission to measure the beam halo as well as collision products bunch by bunch. The system has been operational during the initiatory runs of LHC in September 2008. It works reliably since the restart in 2009 and is invaluable to CMS for everyday LHC operation. A characterisation of the system on the basis of data collected during LHC operation is presented. (orig.)

  10. What's in a name? The role of graphics, functions, and their interrelationships in icon identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Siné; Isherwood, Sarah

    2009-05-01

    Communication using icons is now commonplace. It is therefore important to understand the processes involved in icon comprehension and the stimulus cues that individuals utilize to facilitate identification. In this study, we examined predictors of icon identification as participants gained experience with icons over a series of learning trials. A dynamic pattern of findings emerged in which the primary predictors of identification changed as learning progressed. In early learning trials, semantic distance (the closeness of the relationship between icon and function) was the best predictor of performance, accounting for up to 55% of the variance observed, whereas familiarity with the function was more important in later trials. Other stimulus characteristics, such as our familiarity with the graphic in the icon and its concreteness, were also found to be important for icon design. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, with particular emphasis on the parallels with picture naming. The icon identification norms from this study may be downloaded from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  11. Adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana P; Costa, Ana; Frade, Carla Sofia; Comesaña, Montserrat; Pureza, Rita

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the results of the adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese (EP). Following the original procedure of Lang et al., 2000 native speakers of EP rated the 1,182 pictures of the last version of the IAPS set on the three affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Results showed that the normative values of the IAPS for EP are properly distributed in the affective space of valence and arousal, showing the typical boomerang-shaped distribution observed in previous studies. Results also point to important differences in the way Portuguese females and males react to affective pictures that should be taken into consideration when planning and conducting research with Portuguese samples. Furthermore, the results from the cross-cultural comparisons between the EP ratings and the ratings from the American, Spanish, Brazilian, Belgian, Chilean, Indian, and Bosnian-Herzegovinian standardizations, showed that in spite of the fact that IAPS stimuli elicited affective responses that are similar across countries and cultures (at least in Western cultures), there are differences in the way Portuguese individuals react to IAPS pictures that strongly recommend the use of the normative values presented in this work. They can be downloaded as a supplemental archive at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental or at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases.

  12. Gated listmode acquisition with the QuadHIDAC animal PET to image mouse hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, K.P.; Lang, N.; Stegger, L.; Schober, O.; Schaefers, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: the aim of this study was to develop ECG and respiratory gating in combination with listmode acquisition for the quadHIDAC small-animal PET scanner. Methods: ECG and respiratory gating was realized with the help of an external trigger device (BioVET) synchronized with the listmode acquisition. Listmode data of a mouse acquisition (injected with 6.5 MBq of 18 F-FDG) were sorted according to three different gating definitions: 12 cardiac gates, 8 respiratory gates and a combination of 8 cardiac and 8 respiratory gates. Images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (ramp filter), and parameters like left ventricular wall thickness (WT), wall-to-wall separation (WS) and blood to myocardium activity ratios (BMR) were calculated. Results: cardiac gated images show improvement of all parameters (WT 2.6 mm, WS 4.1 mm, BRM 2.3) in diastole compared to ungated images (WT 3.0 mm, WS 3.4 mm, BMR 1.3). Respiratory gating had little effect on calculated parameters. Conclusion: ECG gating with the quadHIDAC can improve myocardial image quality in mice. This could have a major impact on the calculation of an image-derived input function for kinetic modelling. (orig.)

  13. Modelo de estado para el estudio de las descargas parciales en el aislamiento principal de las máquinas eléctricas rotatorias de gran potencia; Big Rotating Machines State Model for Partial Discharges Studies in Main Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago A Dorrbercker Drake

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un modelo de estado que caracteriza la tensión de ignición de las descargas parciales (DP enel aislamiento principal de las máquinas eléctricas rotatorias de gran potencia (MERGP.  Los objetivos delmodelamiento se dirigieron en dos vertientes:  la primera a conocer el comportamiento del menor nivel detensión que produce DP y la segunda destinada al comportamiento del tamaño de las cavidades, en lasque puede aparecer DP, atendiendo al nivel instantáneo de la tensión de corriente alterna (CA aplicada alas mismas. El presente trabajo se propone, proveer de una herramienta capaz de modelar el comportamientode algunos parámetros característicos de las DP en el aislamiento principal de las MERGP, cuando elaislamiento principal es sometido a diferentes condiciones de trabajo.  This paper describes a state model for PD inception voltage in main insulation of big rotating machines(BRM.  Intends of the present paper were:  to show the behaviour of PD inception voltage under differentfactors; and to know the relationships between the size of cavities and the instantaneous value of ACapplied voltage to the insulation. The objective of this paper is offer a computational tool able to model theperformance of some PD characteristic parameters when main insulation is under operation conditions.

  14. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  15. Enhancement of antitumor activity of OK-432 (picibanil) by Triton X-114 phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masahito; Takashige, Katsuhiro; Furuyashiki, Maiko; Yoshidome, Keitaro; Sano, Ryoko; Kawamura, Yutaka; Ijichi, Shinji; Morioka, Hirofumi; Koide, Hiroyuki; Oku, Naoto; Moriya, Yoichiro; Kusumoto, Shoich; Suda, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    OK-432 (Picibanil), a Streptococcal immunotherapeutic agent, has been used for immunotherapy of various cancers as a biological response modifier (BRM). However, OK-432 contains multiple components consisting of immunotherapeutic ones and contaminants which may weaken the effects or exert side-effects. In this study, we investigated extraction of contaminants from OK-432 using Triton X-114 (TX-114)-water phase partitioning and examined an antitumor effect of the resulting preparation. OK-432 was subjected to TX-114 partitioning to give residual precipitate designated as OK-TX-ppt. OK-TX-ppt exerted no TLR2-mediated activity, but induced interleukin (IL)-6 in human PBMC. OK-TX-ppt also induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-gamma in PBMC. Moreover, IFN-gamma-inducing activity of OK-TX-ppt was significantly higher and IL-10 production was lower than that of OK-432. In tumor-bearing mice model, administration of OK-TX-ppt i.p. extended the survival time of Meth-A-bearing mice compared to OK-432. OK-TX-ppt also increased the levels of IL-12 and IFN-gamma in mouse spleen cells in vitro. These results indicated that TX-114 partitioning removed some contaminants, which attenuates the antitumor effect, from OK-432 and increase the immunotherapeutic effects of OK-432.

  16. Fanconi anemia protein, FANCA, associates with BRG1, a component of the human SWI/SNF complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, T; Furukawa, Y; Ikeda, K; Endo, H; Yamashita, T; Shinohara, A; Iwamatsu, A; Ozawa, K; Liu, J M

    2001-11-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder that predisposes to hematopoietic failure, birth defects and cancer. We identified an interaction between the FA protein, FANCA and brm-related gene 1 (BRG1) product. BRG1 is a subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, which remodels chromatin structure through a DNA-dependent ATPase activity. FANCA was demonstrated to associate with the endogenous SWI/SNF complex. We also found a significant increase in the molecular chaperone, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) among BRG1-associated factors isolated from a FANCA-mutant cell line, which was not seen in either a normal control cell line or the mutant line complemented by wild-type FANCA. Despite this specific difference, FANCA did not appear to be absolutely required for in vitro chromatin remodeling. Finally, we demonstrated co-localization in the nucleus between transfected FANCA and BRG1. The physiological action of FANCA on the SWI/SNF complex remains to be clarified, but our work suggests that FANCA may recruit the SWI/SNF complex to target genes, thereby enabling coupled nuclear functions such as transcription and DNA repair.

  17. Forward-backward multiplicity correlations in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; 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Segato, Gianfranco; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokohama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-05-20

    The strength of forward-backward (FB) multiplicity correlations is measured by the ALICE detector in proton-proton (pp) collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=0.9$, 2.76 and 7 TeV. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region ($|\\eta| 0.3$ GeV/$c$. Two separate pseudorapidity windows of width ($\\delta \\eta$) ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 are chosen symmetrically around $\\eta=0$. The multiplicity correlation strength ($b_{\\rm cor}$) is studied as a function of the pseudorapidity gap ($\\eta_{\\rm gap}$) between the two windows as well as the width of these windows. The correlation strength is found to decrease with increasing $\\eta_{\\rm gap}$ and shows a non-linear increase with $\\delta\\eta$. A sizable increase of the correlation strength with the collision energy, which cannot be explained exclusively by the increase of the mean multiplicity inside the windows, is observed. The correlation coefficient is also measured for multiplicities in different configurations of two azimuthal sectors selected within the sy...

  18. Chromatin-regulating proteins as targets for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oike, Takahiro; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Kohno, Takashi; Amornwichet, Napapat; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin-regulating proteins represent a large class of novel targets for cancer therapy. In the context of radiotherapy, acetylation and deacetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks generated by ionizing irradiation, and are therefore attractive targets for radiosensitization. Small-molecule inhibitors of HATs (garcinol, anacardic acid and curcumin) and HDACs (vorinostat, sodium butyrate and valproic acid) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to ionizing irradiation in preclinical models, and some of these molecules are being tested in clinical trials, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy. Meanwhile, recent large-scale genome analyses have identified frequent mutations in genes encoding chromatin-regulating proteins, especially in those encoding subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, in various human cancers. These observations have driven researchers toward development of targeted therapies against cancers carrying these mutations. DOT1L inhibition in MLL-rearranged leukemia, EZH2 inhibition in EZH2-mutant or MLL-rearranged hematologic malignancies and SNF5-deficient tumors, BRD4 inhibition in various hematologic malignancies, and BRM inhibition in BRG1-deficient tumors have demonstrated promising anti-tumor effects in preclinical models, and these strategies are currently awaiting clinical application. Overall, the data collected so far suggest that targeting chromatin-regulating proteins is a promising strategy for tomorrow's cancer therapy, including radiotherapy and molecularly targeted chemotherapy. (author)

  19. Chromatin Remodeling BAF (SWI/SNF Complexes in Neural Development and Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Sokpor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-dependent BRG1/BRM associated factor (BAF chromatin remodeling complexes are crucial in regulating gene expression by controlling chromatin dynamics. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that during neural development in mammals, distinct ontogenetic stage-specific BAF complexes derived from combinatorial assembly of their subunits are formed in neural progenitors and post-mitotic neural cells. Proper functioning of the BAF complexes plays critical roles in neural development, including the establishment and maintenance of neural fates and functionality. Indeed, recent human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have revealed that mutations in BAF complex subunits are linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, Kleefstra's syndrome spectrum, Hirschsprung's disease, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia. In this review, we focus on the latest insights into the functions of BAF complexes during neural development and the plausible mechanistic basis of how mutations in known BAF subunits are associated with certain neurodevelopmental disorders.

  20. Role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alberto J; Wood, Marcelo A

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to understand how epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression during neurodevelopment. Two epigenetic mechanisms that have received considerable attention are DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have linked several neurobiological disorders to genes whose products actively regulate DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, a third major epigenetic mechanism, nucleosome remodeling, has been implicated in human developmental and intellectual disability (ID) disorders. Nucleosome remodeling is driven primarily through nucleosome remodeling complexes with specialized ATP-dependent enzymes. These enzymes directly interact with DNA or chromatin structure, as well as histone subunits, to restructure the shape and organization of nucleosome positioning to ultimately regulate gene expression. Of particular interest is the neuron-specific Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor (nBAF) complex. Mutations in nBAF subunit genes have so far been linked to Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS), Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NBS), schizophrenia, and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Together, these human developmental and ID disorders are powerful examples of the impact of epigenetic modulation on gene expression. This review focuses on the new and emerging role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and ID disorders and whether nucleosome remodeling affects gene expression required for cognition independently of its role in regulating gene expression required for development.

  1. Exome sequencing unravels unexpected differential diagnoses in individuals with the tentative diagnosis of Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramswig, Nuria C; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Alanay, Yasemin; Albrecht, Beate; Barthelmie, Alexander; Boduroglu, Koray; Braunholz, Diana; Caliebe, Almuth; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H; Czeschik, Johanna Christina; Endele, Sabine; Graf, Elisabeth; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Kiper, Pelin Özlem Simsek; López-González, Vanesa; Parenti, Ilaria; Pozojevic, Jelena; Utine, Gulen Eda; Wieland, Thomas; Kaiser, Frank J; Wollnik, Bernd; Strom, Tim M; Wieczorek, Dagmar

    2015-06-01

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) are rare intellectual disability/congenital malformation syndromes that represent distinct entities but show considerable clinical overlap. They are caused by mutations in genes encoding members of the BRG1- and BRM-associated factor (BAF) complex. However, there are a number of patients with the clinical diagnosis of CSS or NCBRS in whom the causative mutation has not been identified. In this study, we performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) in ten previously described but unsolved individuals with the tentative diagnosis of CSS or NCBRS and found causative mutations in nine out of ten individuals. Interestingly, our WES analysis disclosed overlapping differential diagnoses including Wiedemann-Steiner, Kabuki, and Adams-Oliver syndromes. In addition, most likely causative de novo mutations were identified in GRIN2A and SHANK3. Moreover, trio-based WES detected SMARCA2 and SMARCA4 deletions, which had not been annotated in a previous Haloplex target enrichment and next-generation sequencing of known CSS/NCBRS genes emphasizing the advantages of WES as a diagnostic tool. In summary, we discuss the phenotypic and diagnostic challenges in clinical genetics, establish important differential diagnoses, and emphasize the cardinal features and the broad clinical spectrum of BAF complex disorders and other disorders caused by mutations in epigenetic landscapers.

  2. Chromatin Remodeling BAF (SWI/SNF) Complexes in Neural Development and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokpor, Godwin; Xie, Yuanbin; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Tuoc, Tran

    2017-01-01

    The ATP-dependent BRG1/BRM associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complexes are crucial in regulating gene expression by controlling chromatin dynamics. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that during neural development in mammals, distinct ontogenetic stage-specific BAF complexes derived from combinatorial assembly of their subunits are formed in neural progenitors and post-mitotic neural cells. Proper functioning of the BAF complexes plays critical roles in neural development, including the establishment and maintenance of neural fates and functionality. Indeed, recent human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have revealed that mutations in BAF complex subunits are linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, Kleefstra's syndrome spectrum, Hirschsprung's disease, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia. In this review, we focus on the latest insights into the functions of BAF complexes during neural development and the plausible mechanistic basis of how mutations in known BAF subunits are associated with certain neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28824374

  3. Dynamic Recruitment of Functionally Distinct Swi/Snf Chromatin Remodeling Complexes Modulates Pdx1 Activity in Islet β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McKenna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pdx1 is a transcription factor of fundamental importance to pancreas formation and adult islet β cell function. However, little is known about the positive- and negative-acting coregulators recruited to mediate transcriptional control. Here, we isolated numerous Pdx1-interacting factors possessing a wide range of cellular functions linked with this protein, including, but not limited to, coregulators associated with transcriptional activation and repression, DNA damage response, and DNA replication. Because chromatin remodeling activities are essential to developmental lineage decisions and adult cell function, our analysis focused on investigating the influence of the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeler on Pdx1 action. The two mutually exclusive and indispensable Swi/Snf core ATPase subunits, Brg1 and Brm, distinctly affected target gene expression in β cells. Furthermore, physiological and pathophysiological conditions dynamically regulated Pdx1 binding to these Swi/Snf complexes in vivo. We discuss how context-dependent recruitment of coregulatory complexes by Pdx1 could impact pancreas cell development and adult islet β cell activity.

  4. Chromatin Remodeling BAF (SWI/SNF) Complexes in Neural Development and Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokpor, Godwin; Xie, Yuanbin; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Tuoc, Tran

    2017-01-01

    The ATP-dependent BRG1/BRM associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complexes are crucial in regulating gene expression by controlling chromatin dynamics. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that during neural development in mammals, distinct ontogenetic stage-specific BAF complexes derived from combinatorial assembly of their subunits are formed in neural progenitors and post-mitotic neural cells. Proper functioning of the BAF complexes plays critical roles in neural development, including the establishment and maintenance of neural fates and functionality. Indeed, recent human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have revealed that mutations in BAF complex subunits are linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, Kleefstra's syndrome spectrum, Hirschsprung's disease, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia. In this review, we focus on the latest insights into the functions of BAF complexes during neural development and the plausible mechanistic basis of how mutations in known BAF subunits are associated with certain neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. Prompt and non-prompt J/$\\psi$ production and nuclear modification at mid-rapidity in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartsch, Esther; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhaduri, Partha Pratim; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Soto Camacho, Rabi; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chang, Wan; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choudhury, Subikash; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Delsanto, Silvia; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Arteche Diaz, Raul; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Ding, Yanchun; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dudi, Sandeep; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dukhishyam, Mallick; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Ersdal, Magnus Rentsch; Espagnon, Bruno; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faggin, Mattia; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Jhuma; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guittiere, Manuel; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Habib, Michael Karim; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Haque, Md Rihan; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hassan, Hadi; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Gonzalez Hernandez, Emma; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hills, Christopher; Hippolyte, Boris; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hornung, Sebastian; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hughes, Charles; Huhn, Patrick; Humanic, Thomas; Hushnud, Hushnud; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Iddon, James Philip; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Shaista; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Varga-kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kreis, Lukas; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kruger, Mario; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lai, Yue Shi; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Larionov, Pavel; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xing Long; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lim, Bong-hwi; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lindsay, Scott William; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Liu, Alwina; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Luhder, Jens Robert; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Masson, Erwann; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Toledo Matuoka, Paula Fernanda; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Micheletti, Luca; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar Lubomirov; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mischke, Andre; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Auro Prasad; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Arratia Munoz, Miguel Ignacio; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Myrcha, Julian Wojciech; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Narayan, Amrendra; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Neskovic, Gvozden; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Hoonjung; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Paic, Guy; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pisano, Silvia; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Rana, Dhan Bahadur; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogalev, Roman; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Roslon, Krystian; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; Rumyantsev, Boris; Rustamov, Anar; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sarkar, Amal; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schaefer, Brennan; Scheid, Horst Sebastian; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schmidt, Nicolas Vincent; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimomura, Maya; Shirinkin, Sergey; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silaeva, Svetlana; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stocco, Diego; Storetvedt, Maksim Melnik; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Thoresen, Freja; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Topilskaya, Nataliya; Toppi, Marco; Rojas Torres, Solangel; Tripathy, Sushanta; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Tropp, Lukas; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Trzcinski, Tomasz Piotr; Trzeciak, Barbara Antonina; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vermunt, Luuk; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wegrzynek, Adam; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Witt, William Edward; Xu, Ran; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yun, Eungyu; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Ya; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    A measurement of beauty hadron production at mid-rapidity in proton-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV is presented. The semi-inclusive decay channel of beauty hadrons into J/$\\psi$ is considered, where the J/$\\psi$ mesons are reconstructed in the dielectron decay channel at mid-rapidity down to transverse momenta of 1.3 GeV/$c$. The b$\\rm{\\overline b}$ production cross section at mid-rapidity, ${\\rm d}\\sigma_{\\rm{b\\overline b}}/{\\rm d}y$ , and the total cross section extrapolated over full phase space, $\\sigma_{\\rm{b\\overline b}}$, are obtained. This measurement is combined with results on inclusive J/$\\psi$ production to determine the prompt J/$\\psi$ cross sections. The results in p-Pb collisions are then scaled to expectations from pp collisions at the same centre-of-mass energy to derive the nuclear modification factor $R_{\\rm pPb}$, and compared to models to study possible nuclear modifications of the production induced by cold nuclear matter effects...

  6. The impact of body armor on physical performance of law enforcement personnel: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Colin; Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    The law enforcement officer profession requires performance of arduous occupational tasks while carrying an external load, consisting of, at minimum, a chest rig, a communication system, weaponry, handcuffs, personal protective equipment and a torch. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to identify and critically appraise the methodological quality of published studies that have investigated the impacts of body armour on task performance and to synthesize and report key findings from these studies to inform law enforcement organizations. Several literature databases (Medline, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBAS) were searched using key search words and terms to identify appropriate studies. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were critically evaluated using the Downs and Black protocol with inter-rater agreement determined by Cohen's Kappa. Sixteen articles were retained for evaluation with a mean Downs and Black score of 73.2 ± 6.8% (k = 0.841). Based on the research quality and findings across the included studies, this review determined that while effects of body armour on marksmanship and physiological responses have not yet been adequately ascertained, body armour does have significant physical performance and biomechanical impacts on the wearer, including: a) increased ratings of perceived exertion and increased time to complete functional tasks, b) decreased work capability (indicated by deterioration in fitness test scores), c) decreased balance and stability, and d) increased ground reaction forces. Given the physical performance and biomechanical impacts on the wearer, body armour should be carefully selected, with consideration of the physical fitness of the wearers and the degree to which the armour systems can be ergonomically optimized for the specific population in question.

  7. A Way to Avoid Muscular Fibrosis in the First Dorsal Interosseous Muscle after Acupuncture Injection Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Ming Wong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis of skeletal muscle following acupuncture is an iatrogenic disorder. The present case illustrates a patient with a unilateral fibrotic formation on a thumb muscle after acupuncture injection therapy with red sage. The patient in the present case was a counter-terrorism police officer with right-handedness; he noted a palpable nodule three months after injection therapy at his left first dorsal interosseous in which the acupuncture point LI4 (He Gu is located. He also found a reduction in the strength of his left pinch grip that noticeably affected his left handgun marksmanship. However, being ambidextrous in single-hand pistol shooting is an essential requirement for counter-terrorism police officers. Based on the patient’s medical history and claims, no underlying disease or trauma was found to be associated with his current complaint. During physical examination, a fibrotic formation in his left first dorsal interosseous muscle was visualized by using diagnostic ultrasound; also, as confirmed with dynamometry, the strength of his left pinch grip was significantly lower than that of the right counterpart. Because acupuncture injection therapy has three components, antiseptic practices, the mechanical action of syringe insertion, and the pharmacological effect of the sterile herb extract, any one of the components may have contributed to the present adverse event. The first dorsal interosseous muscle is small in dimension and rather vascular; thus, it is not an ideal site for intramuscular injection. When a clinician needs to treat a patient by performing acupuncture at the LI4 acupoint and injecting a herbal extract simultaneously, the clinician should only mechanically stimulate the LI4 acupoint while injecting the herbal medicine into the LI14 (Bi Noe acupoint on the same meridian, the LI14 acupoint being located in the distal portion of the deltoid muscle and being fairly close to the universally agreed upon site on the upper arm

  8. Modeling temporal sequences of cognitive state changes based on a combination of EEG-engagement, EEG-workload, and heart rate metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eStikic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of physiological metrics such as ECG-derived heart rate and EEG-derived cognitive workload and engagement as potential predictors of performance on different training tasks. An unsupervised approach based on self-organizing neural network (NN was utilized to model cognitive state changes over time. The feature vector comprised EEG-engagement, EEG-workload, and heart rate metrics, all self-normalized to account for individual differences. During the competitive training process, a linear topology was developed where the feature vectors similar to each other activated the same NN nodes. The NN model was trained and auto-validated on combat marksmanship training data from 51 participants that were required to make deadly force decisions in challenging combat scenarios. The trained NN model was cross validated using 10-fold cross-validation. It was also validated on a golf study in which additional 22 participants were asked to complete 10 sessions of 10 putts each. Temporal sequences of the activated nodes for both studies followed the same pattern of changes, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of the approach. Most node transition changes were local, but important events typically caused significant changes in the physiological metrics, as evidenced by larger state changes. This was investigated by calculating a transition score as the sum of subsequent state transitions between the activated NN nodes. Correlation analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the transition scores and subjects’ performances in both studies. This paper explored the hypothesis that temporal sequences of physiological changes comprise the discriminative patterns for performance prediction. These physiological markers could be utilized in future training improvement systems (e.g., through neurofeedback, and applied across a variety of training environments.

  9. The description of a method for accurately estimating creatinine clearance in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellas, John

    2016-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition encountered in hospitalized patients. The severity of kidney injury is defined by the RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO criteria which attempt to establish the degree of renal impairment. The KDIGO guidelines state that the creatinine clearance should be measured whenever possible in AKI and that the serum creatinine concentration and creatinine clearance remain the best clinical indicators of renal function. Neither the RIFLE, AKIN, nor KDIGO criteria estimate actual creatinine clearance. Furthermore there are no accepted methods for accurately estimating creatinine clearance (K) in AKI. The present study describes a unique method for estimating K in AKI using urine creatinine excretion over an established time interval (E), an estimate of creatinine production over the same time interval (P), and the estimated static glomerular filtration rate (sGFR), at time zero, utilizing the CKD-EPI formula. Using these variables estimated creatinine clearance (Ke)=E/P * sGFR. The method was tested for validity using simulated patients where actual creatinine clearance (Ka) was compared to Ke in several patients, both male and female, and of various ages, body weights, and degrees of renal impairment. These measurements were made at several serum creatinine concentrations in an attempt to determine the accuracy of this method in the non-steady state. In addition E/P and Ke was calculated in hospitalized patients, with AKI, and seen in nephrology consultation by the author. In these patients the accuracy of the method was determined by looking at the following metrics; E/P>1, E/P1 and 0.907 (0.841, 0.973) for 0.95 ml/min accurately predicted the ability to terminate renal replacement therapy in AKI. Include the need to measure urine volume accurately. Furthermore the precision of the method requires accurate estimates of sGFR, while a reasonable measure of P is crucial to estimating Ke. The present study provides the

  10. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  11. Experimental closure of gunshot wounds by fibrin glue with antibiotics in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenić Nebojša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47 7.62 mm, after the primary surgical management, were closed with delayed primary suture during the next four to seven days. This period coincides with the fibroblastic phase of wound healing. Fibrin glue is used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for the local dosed release of antibiotics. Antibiotics addition to fibrin glue resulted in continuous diffusion into the surrounding next 4 to 7 days. The aim of this study was to create the preconditions for gunshot wounds closing without complications by the application of fibrin glue with antibiotics 24 h after primary surgical treatment. Methods. A total of 14 pigs were wounded in the gluteofemoral region by the bullet M67, initial velocity of 720 m/s. All wounded animals were surgically treated according to the principles of the warsurgery doctrine. Seven wounds were closed with primary delayed suture four days after the primary surgical treatment (traditional approach. Fibrin glue with antibiotics was introduced in seven wounds during the primary surgical treatment and primary delayed suture was done after 24 h. The macroscopic appearance and the clinical assessment of the wound were done during the primary surgical treatment and during its revision after 24 h, as well as histopathological findings at the days 4 and 7 after wounding. Results. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47 7.62 mm, and treated with fibrin glue with antibiotics after primary surgical management, were closed with primary delayed suture after 24 h. In further wound evolution there were no complications. Conclusion. Uncomplicated soft-tissue wounds caused by an automatic M70AB2 rifle may be closed primarily with delayed suture without the risk of developing complications if on revision, 24 h after primary surgery, there were no present necrotic tissues, hematoma, and any signs of infection when fibrin glue with antibiotics

  12. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan E.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steve B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 μg/L or 0.126 μmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (oxidation of naturally reduced, contaminant U(IV) in the saturated zone and a continuous influx of U(VI) from natural, up-gradient sources influence plume persistence. Rate-limited mass transfer and surface complexation also control U(VI) migration velocity in the sub-oxic Rifle groundwater. Flux of U(VI) from the vadose zone at the Rifle site may be locally important, but it is not the dominant process that sustains the plume. A wide range in microbiologic functional diversity exists at both sites. Strains of Geobacter and other metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences between the sites include the geochemical nature of

  13. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, John M; Long, Philip E; Bargar, John; Davis, James A; Fox, Patricia; Fredrickson, Jim K; Freshley, Mark D; Konopka, Allan E; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P; Rockhold, Mark L; Williams, Kenneth H; Yabusaki, Steve B

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 μg/L or 0.126 μmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (oxidation of naturally reduced, contaminant U(IV) in the saturated zone and a continuous influx of U(VI) from natural, up-gradient sources influence plume persistence. Rate-limited mass transfer and surface complexation also control U(VI) migration velocity in the sub-oxic Rifle groundwater. Flux of U(VI) from the vadose zone at the Rifle site may be locally important, but it is not the dominant process that sustains the plume. A wide range in microbiologic functional diversity exists at both sites. Strains of Geobacter and other metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences between the sites include the geochemical nature of

  14. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  15. Subsurface Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities at Uranium Contaminated Sites in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, E.; Bargar, J.; Williams, K. H.; Dam, W. L.; Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River Basin (CRB), uranium (U) persists as a relic contaminant of former ore processing activities. Elevated solid-phase U levels exist in fine-grained, naturally-reduced zone (NRZ) sediments intermittently found within the subsurface floodplain alluvium of the following Department of Energy-Legacy Management sites: Rifle, CO; Naturita, CO; and Grand Junction, CO. Coupled with groundwater fluctuations that alter the subsurface redox conditions, previous evidence from Rifle, CO suggests this resupply of U may be controlled by microbially-produced nitrite and nitrate. Nitrification, the two-step process of archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidation followed by bacterial nitrite oxidation, generates nitrate under oxic conditions. Our hypothesis is that when elevated groundwater levels recede and the subsurface system becomes anoxic, the nitrate diffuses into the reduced interiors of the NRZ and stimulates denitrification, the stepwise anaerobic reduction of nitrate/nitrite to dinitrogen gas. Denitrification may then be coupled to the oxidation of sediment-bound U(IV) forming mobile U(VI), allowing it to resupply U into local groundwater supplies. A key step in substantiating this hypothesis is to demonstrate the presence of nitrogen-cycling organisms in U-contaminated, NRZ sediments from the upper CRB. Here we investigate how the diversity and abundances of nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations change throughout the NRZs of the subsurface by using functional gene markers for ammonia-oxidation (amoA, encoding the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, encoding nitrite reductase). Microbial diversity has been assessed via clone libraries, while abundances have been determined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), elucidating how relative numbers of nitrifiers (amoA) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS) vary with depth, vary with location, and relate to uranium release within NRZs in sediment

  16. Albumin administration is associated with acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery: a propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Anne Julie; Bouchard, Josée; Bernier, Pascaline; Charbonneau, Annie; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Rioux, Jean-Philippe; Troyanov, Stéphan; Williamson, David R

    2014-11-14

    The risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the use of albumin-containing fluids compared to starches in the surgical intensive care setting remains uncertain. We evaluated the adjusted risk of AKI associated with colloids following cardiac surgery. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery in a tertiary care center from 2008 to 2010. We assessed crystalloid and colloid administration until 36 hours after surgery. AKI was defined by the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss and end-stage kidney disease) risk and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 1 serum creatinine criterion within 96 hours after surgery. Our cohort included 984 patients with a baseline glomerular filtration rate of 72 ± 19 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Twenty-three percent had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), thirty-one percent were diabetics and twenty-three percent underwent heart valve surgery. The incidence of AKI was 5.3% based on RIFLE risk and 12.0% based on the AKIN criterion. AKI was associated with a reduced LVEF, diuretic use, anemia, heart valve surgery, duration of extracorporeal circulation, hemodynamic instability and the use of albumin, pentastarch 10% and transfusions. There was an important dose-dependent AKI risk associated with the administration of albumin, which also paralleled a higher prevalence of concomitant risk factors for AKI. To address any indication bias, we derived a propensity score predicting the likelihood to receive albumin and matched 141 cases to 141 controls with a similar risk profile. In this analysis, albumin was associated with an increased AKI risk (RIFLE risk: 12% versus 5%, P = 0.03; AKIN stage 1: 28% versus 13%, P = 0.002). We repeated this methodology in patients without postoperative hemodynamic instability and still identified an association between the use of albumin and AKI. Albumin administration was associated with a dose-dependent risk of AKI and remained significant using a propensity

  17. Keep your Sox on: Community genomics-directed isolation and microscopic characterization of the dominant subsurface sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in a sediment aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, S. W.; Wrighton, K. C.; Luef, B.; Wilkins, M. J.; Handley, K. M.; Williams, K. H.; Banfield, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Community genomics and proteomics (proteogenomics) can be used to predict the metabolic potential of complex microbial communities and provide insight into microbial activity and nutrient cycling in situ. Inferences regarding the physiology of specific organisms then can guide isolation efforts, which, if successful, can yield strains that can be metabolically and structurally characterized to further test metagenomic predictions. Here we used proteogenomic data from an acetate-stimulated, sulfidic sediment column deployed in a groundwater well in Rifle, CO to direct laboratory amendment experiments to isolate a bacterial strain potentially involved in sulfur oxidation for physiological and microscopic characterization (Handley et al, submitted 2012). Field strains of Sulfurovum (genome r9c2) were predicted to be capable of CO2 fixation via the reverse TCA cycle and sulfur oxidation (Sox and SQR) coupled to either nitrate reduction (Nap, Nir, Nos) in anaerobic environments or oxygen reduction in microaerobic (cbb3 and bd oxidases) environments; however, key genes for sulfur oxidation (soxXAB) were not identified. Sulfidic groundwater and sediment from the Rifle site were used to inoculate cultures that contained various sulfur species, with and without nitrate and oxygen. We isolated a bacterium, Sulfurovum sp. OBA, whose 16S rRNA gene shares 99.8 % identity to the gene of the dominant genomically characterized strain (genome r9c2) in the Rifle sediment column. The 16S rRNA gene of the isolate most closely matches (95 % sequence identity) the gene of Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1, a genome-sequenced deep-sea sulfur oxidizer. Strain OBA grew via polysulfide, colloidal sulfur, and tetrathionate oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Strain OBA also grew heterotrophically, oxidizing glucose, fructose, mannose, and maltose with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Over the range of oxygen concentrations tested, strain OBA was not

  18. Correlative Cryo-Tem Cryo-Stxm and Cryo-Shxm Investigation of Selenium Bioreduction in a Contaminated Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, S.; Luef, B.; Tyliszczak, T.; Castelle, C. J.; Mullin, S. W.; Hug, L. A.; Williams, K. H.; Marcus, M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate mapping of the composition and ultrastructure of minerals and cells is key to understanding biogeochemical process in contaminated environments. Here we developed two apparatus that allow correlation of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron hard X-ray microprobe (SHXM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) datasets. These cryogenic methods enabled precise determination of the distribution, valence state and structure of selenium in intact biofilms sampled during a biostimulation experiment in a contaminated aquifer near Rifle, CO, USA. Results were replicated in the laboratory via anaerobic selenate-reducing enrichment cultures. 16S rRNA analyses of field-derived biofilm indicated the dominance of Betaproteobacteria from the Comamonadaceae family, and uncultivated members of the Simplicispira genus. The major product in field and culture-derived biofilms consists of ~25-300 nm red amorphous Se0 aggregates of colloidal nanoparticles. Correlative analyses of the cultures provided direct evidence for microbial dissimilatory reduction of Se(VI) to Se(IV) to Se0. X-ray diffraction and Se K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy revealed red amorphous Se0 with a first shell Se-Se interatomic distance of 2.339 ± 0.003 Å. STXM showed that these aggregates are strongly associated with a protein-rich biofilm matrix containing acidic polysaccharides. From Rifle groundwater, we isolated a strain that shares 98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Dechloromonas aromatica RCB and grows anaerobically by oxidizing acetate and reducing selenate. We refer to this isolate as Dechloromonas selenatis strain RGW99. 3D cryo-electron tomography showed that Se0 particles do not form inside the cytoplasm but rather originate in the cell membrane. The end product of selenate reduction by D. selenatis is 240 ± 66 nm diameter red amorphous Se0 colloidal aggregates. This product was found to be stable for months. Overall

  19. [Injury patterns and roentgen findings in gunshot wounds with rare flint ammunition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, S; Lindermann, A

    1990-01-01

    Smoothbore shotgun barrels can fire cartridges with common pellet loads as well as shotgun slugs and rubber bullets. Other than conventional shot, the cylindrical Brenneke-type rifled shotgun slugs sometimes cause perforating wounds. The shotgun ammunition for use in self-defence can have a single projectile or several rubber pellets. Where the propellant is black powder, short range shots will probably leave searing marks and intensive soot deposits. Fired at close range, rubber bullets can penetrate through the skin into the body, fired at greater distance they cause contusions. A case of homicide (repeated firing with a 12-ga. pump gun) is used to present and discuss the injury patterns and X-ray findings after impact of Brenneke-type slugs and rubber bullets as well as of "classical" shot pellets.

  20. Radon: a case for public persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of reducing individual to elevated levels of radon is well understood by radiation protection specialists, and successful methods of locating the areas most at risk have been developed. However, less attention has been paid to informing the general public about the health rifles and encouraging those in radon-prone areas to take action. In the United Kingdom, techniques have been developed to persuade householders in high radon areas to take advantage of a government scheme that provides free long-term measurements of radon in the home. Improvements in the methods of contacting householders in the target areas and in the presentation of the facts has resulted in a twofold increase in the rate of take-up of measurements since the first large-scale surveys. (author)

  1. Acoustic and Perceptual-Cognitive Factors in the Identification of 41 Environmental Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-20

    buoy 1912 2.81 I 9. Foghorn 2135 2.24 10. Water bubbling 2325 2.75 11. Bugle charge 2356 2.19 12. Rifle shot indoors 2371 2.97 13. Lawn mower 2596 3.65...1.2374 -1.4659 13. Lawn mower -0.2245 0.5973 0.1640 14. Church bell 0.9158 0.0325 -1.4782 15. Oar rowing 0.7036 -1.3898 -0.2945 16. Door knock 0.4689...600 Time (ms) I Lawn mower DBV RMS 30 + 20 +I * * 10 + * 0 + -10 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0000 0 00 0 C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C F F F F F F F F F F F F F

  2. Pilot study of association of catechol-O-methyl transferase rs4680 genotypes with acute kidney injury and tubular stress after open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Christian; Kube, Johanna; Haase-Fielitz, Anja; Dittrich, Annemarie; Schanze, Denny; Zenker, Martin; Kuppe, Hermann; Hetzer, Roland; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mertens, Peter R; Haase, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To assess the association of genetic variants of catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotypes with acute kidney injury (AKI) and tubular stress after open heart surgery. We genotyped 195 patients for the COMT-Val158Met polymorphism and measured creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and midkine. We analyzed the association between such polymorphisms and these kidney-related variables. Nonsignificantly more COMT LL patients developed RIFLE-AKI compared with non-LL patients (p = 0.11). Compared with HL and HH patients, LL patients who developed AKI had lower increases in serum creatinine. COMT LL patients had less pronounced release of tubular stress biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin: p = 0.045, midkine: p = 0.072). COMT genotype may associate with different patterns of renal functional changes and tubular stress biomarker release response after open heart surgery.

  3. High-velocity facial gunshot wounds: multidisciplinary care from prehospital to discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, J D; Morris, G; Medland, P J; Porter, K

    2016-01-28

    A case is presented in which a high velocity rifle (shotgun) was fired into the inferior part of a patient's face in an attempted suicide causing widespread trauma to the inferior and left side of the patient's face. He presented to his general practitioner where an ambulance was called. The patient is followed from prehospital care (air ambulance) to resuscitation in accident and emergency and through the first stages of reconstructive surgery. The article focuses on the multidisciplinary approach to the patient's prehospital care and initial resuscitation at a major trauma centre. CT reconstruction images of the patient's skull allow visualisation of the extent of bone damage at presentation. Medical photography allows visualisation of the extent of the initial damage and shows how reconstructive surgery was undertaken early and in progressive stages. A literature review was performed allowing discussion of the current evidence and best practice in the management of facial gunshot wounds. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Tyske våben og øvrige udrustning i Danmark efter 2. verdenskrig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel Rasmussen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When the Second World War ended in May 1945 the German armed forces left a very large stock of weapons and military equipment in Denmark. For the Danish army this presented a welcome opportunity to used left German arms and military equipment for a limited period in the training of the first Danish...... of Denmark. So when peace came in spring 1945 the Danish Army was without any weapons and more or less without any foreign currency to buy new weapons. The destruction took its start in late summer 1945; guns, tanks, rifles, machine-guns, helmets etc. were turned into scrap by the Army´s Technical corps...... of German weapons and military equipment for use by the Norwegian Army. A special problem constituted the large German air bases in Denmark, constructed in the second part of the war as part of the German air defence against the allied bomber offensive against Germany. There was evidence that former Danish...

  5. Testing the Immunity of the Firearm Industry to Tort Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Donohue, John J; Mello, Michelle M

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of congressional action to reinstate the federal ban on assault weapons, tort litigation offers an alternative strategy for regulating what have become the weapons of choice in mass shootings. However, opportunities to bring successful claims are limited. To prevail, plaintiffs must show that their suit fits within exceptions to the broad immunity from tort actions that Congress gave the firearm industry in the 2005 Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act. In one particularly high-profile lawsuit, families of victims of the school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 sued the makers and sellers of the military-style rifle used in the attack, alleging negligence and deceptive marketing. The trial court dismissed the case on October 14, 2016, but the plaintiffs plan to appeal. We review the history of tort litigation against the firearm industry, outline the Newtown families' claims, and describe the decision.

  6. The Insight of Industrialised Building System (IBS By Bumiputera Construction Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad W. M. N. W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Industrialised Building System (IBS is widely recognised by construction players in Malaysia since its first implementation since 1960s for IBS pilot projects of Pekeliling Flats and Rifle Range Flats. The aim for the implementation is to promote better system in delivering construction end-products which offers efficiency and effectiveness. At the same time, Bumiputera construction players are the majority of parties in construction industry especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify the perception and awareness of IBS implementation among Bumiputera players. It is found that, Bumiputera construction players have sound knowledge on the IBS and optimistic towards further implementation for future projects. Nonetheless, issues on payment methods and coordination of IBS project delivery are found to be the negative perceptions which are considered as hindrance for Bumiputera construction players’ involvement in IBS project.

  7. CONSTRUCTION AND PARTIAL VALIDATION OF AN ANIMAL USE INVENTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald I. Templer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 78-item Animal Use Inventory was constructed. Previous animal attitude scales have centered on affection, bonding, companion animal ownership, animal-human continuity, and general attitudes toward animals, but not use of animals. The present inventory has six scales: Sports and Entertainment, Hunting, Working and Service, Research, Fur, and Loving and Affection. Men scored higher on the Hunting, Research, Entertainment, and Service scales. National Rifle Association members scored higher than animal protection society members on the Hunting and Fur scales. In general, the scales correlated positively with each other but negatively with the Loving and Affection scale. Nevertheless, caution was urged because of the unimpressive Cronbach’s alphas on some of the scales. Further development is recommended.

  8. Emerging Regulation and Function of Betatrophin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsin Tseng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Betatrophin, also known as TD26/RIFL/lipasin/ANGPTL8/C19orf80, is a novel protein predominantly expressed in human liver. To date, several betatrophin orthologs have been identified in mammals. Increasing evidence has revealed an association between betatrophin expression and serum lipid profiles, particularly in patients with obesity or diabetes. Stimulators of betatrophin, such as insulin, thyroid hormone, irisin and caloric intake, are usually relevant to energy expenditure or thermogenesis. In murine models, serum triglyceride levels as well as pancreatic cell proliferation are potently enhanced by betatrophin. Intriguingly, conflicting phenomena have also been reported that betatrophin suppresses hepatic triglyceride levels, suggesting that betatrophin function is mediated by complex regulatory processes. However, its precise physiological role remains unclear at present. In this review, we have summarized the current findings on betatrophin and their implications.

  9. A dual role of lipasin (betatrophin) in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis: consensus and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren; Abou-Samra, Abdul B

    2014-09-13

    Metabolic syndrome includes glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, both of which are strong risk factors for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Recently, multiple groups independently studied a previously uncharacterized gene, officially named C19orf80 (human) and Gm6484 (mouse), but more commonly known as RIFL, Angptl8, betatrophin and lipasin. Both exciting and conflicting results have been obtained, and significant controversy is ongoing. Accumulating evidence from genome wide association studies and mouse genetic studies convincingly shows that lipasin is involved in lipid regulation. However, the mechanism of action, the identity of transcription factors mediating its nutritional regulation, circulating levels, and relationship among lipasin, Angptl3 and Angptl4, remain elusive. Betatrophin represents a promising drug target for replenishing β-cell mass, but current results have not been conclusive regarding its potency and specificity. Here, we summarize the consensus and controversy regarding functions of lipasin/betatrophin based on currently available evidence.

  10. Emerging regulation and function of betatrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Jan; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2014-12-18

    Betatrophin, also known as TD26/RIFL/lipasin/ANGPTL8/C19orf80, is a novel protein predominantly expressed in human liver. To date, several betatrophin orthologs have been identified in mammals. Increasing evidence has revealed an association between betatrophin expression and serum lipid profiles, particularly in patients with obesity or diabetes. Stimulators of betatrophin, such as insulin, thyroid hormone, irisin and caloric intake, are usually relevant to energy expenditure or thermogenesis. In murine models, serum triglyceride levels as well as pancreatic cell proliferation are potently enhanced by betatrophin. Intriguingly, conflicting phenomena have also been reported that betatrophin suppresses hepatic triglyceride levels, suggesting that betatrophin function is mediated by complex regulatory processes. However, its precise physiological role remains unclear at present. In this review, we have summarized the current findings on betatrophin and their implications.

  11. Elevated circulating lipasin/betatrophin in human type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyao; Berhane, Feven; Fite, Alemu; Seyoum, Berhane; Abou-Samra, Abdul B; Zhang, Ren

    2014-05-23

    Lipasin (also known as C19ORF80, RIFL, ANGPTL8 and betatrophin) is a newly discovered circulating factor that regulates lipid metabolism and promotes pancreatic β-cell proliferation. Whether circulating levels of lipasin in humans are altered in a) type 2 diabetes; b) obesity and c) the postprandial state, however, is unknown. The current study aimed to compare serum lipasin levels in those who were a) non-diabetic (N=15) or diabetic (BMI- and age-matched; N=14); b) lean or obese (N=53 totally) and c) fasting and 2 hours following a defined meal (N=12). Serum lipasin levels were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lipasin levels [mean±SEM] were increased by more than two fold (Plipasin levels were positively correlated with BMI (rho=0.49, Plipasin/betatrophin is nutritionally-regulated hepatokine that is increased in human type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  12. The effect of firearm muzzle gases on the backspatter of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael C; Laber, Terry L; Epstein, Barton P; Zamzow, Dan S; Baldwin, David P

    2011-09-01

    Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as "backspatter." Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from the firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.

  13. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram Benny Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Renal injury and dysfunction are serious complications after major surgery, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of our study was to identify the possible risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement surger...... creatinine. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, high BMI, gender, and duration of surgery were not identified as significant risk factors........ METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted among 599 consecutive primary hip joint replacements performed between January 2011 and December 2013. According to the RIFLE criteria, increased postoperative serum creatinine was considered indicative of postoperative renal injury. The Welch two-sample test......, hypertension, general anesthesia, high ASA scores, low intra-operative systolic BP, and prophylactic dicloxacillin as significant risk factors. Low baseline systolic BP, low baseline diastolic blood pressure, and hip fracture diagnosis were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum...

  14. Asynchronous data-driven classification of weapon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xin; Mukherjee, Kushal; Gupta, Shalabh; Ray, Asok; Phoha, Shashi; Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2009-01-01

    This communication addresses real-time weapon classification by analysis of asynchronous acoustic data, collected from microphones on a sensor network. The weapon classification algorithm consists of two parts: (i) feature extraction from time-series data using symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF), and (ii) pattern classification based on the extracted features using the language measure (LM) and support vector machine (SVM). The proposed algorithm has been tested on field data, generated by firing of two types of rifles. The results of analysis demonstrate high accuracy and fast execution of the pattern classification algorithm with low memory requirements. Potential applications include simultaneous shooter localization and weapon classification with soldier-wearable networked sensors. (rapid communication)

  15. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information

  16. Surgical advances during the First World War: the birth of modern orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Arul; Eardley, W G P; Edwards, D S; Clasper, J C; Stewart, M P M

    2016-02-01

    The First World War (1914-1918) was the first truly industrial conflict in human history. Never before had rifle fire and artillery barrage been employed on a global scale. It was a conflict that over 4 years would leave over 750,000 British troops dead with a further 1.6 million injured, the majority with orthopaedic injuries. Against this backdrop, the skills of the orthopaedic surgeon were brought to the fore. Many of those techniques and systems form the foundation of modern orthopaedic trauma management. On the centenary of 'the War to end all Wars', we review the significant advances in wound management, fracture treatment, nerve injury and rehabilitation that were developed during that conflict. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. A study of gunshot suicides in Northern Ireland from 1989 to 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, A

    1996-01-01

    A study of 104 gunshot suicides, including six women, in Northern Ireland over a 5-year period. Forty-five suicides in the security forces are compared with 59 which took place in the civilian population. The former were commonly associated with marital problems and overwhelmingly occurred in young males under the age of 40, whereas the civilian deaths were predominantly associated with mental ill health, with a wider age range distribution. The security forces used rifled weapons in 44 cases, whereas civilians used shotguns in 46 cases. Twelve out of the 45 were witnessed, compared to one in the civilian population. The security forces favoured the head as site of entry in 40 cases compared to 35 in the civilian population. Alcohol consumption was involved in 23 of the security forces suicides and 18 civilian. Of the 6 women, one was in the security forces and 4 had a history of mental illness.

  18. Human death caused by a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Vidal; Reckziegel, Guilherme C; Neto, Domingos G; Pimentel, Fábio L

    2014-12-01

    The fatal outcome of a defensive attack by a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is reported. The attack occurred while the victim was hunting, and his dogs cornered the adult anteater, which assumed an erect, threatening position. The hunter did not fire his rifle because of concern about accidentally shooting his dogs. He approached the animal armed with a knife, but was grabbed by its forelimbs. When his sons freed him, he had puncture wounds and severe bleeding in the left inguinal region; he died at the scene. Necroscopic examination showed femoral artery lesions and a large hematoma in the left thigh, with death caused by hypovolemic shock. A similar case is cited, and recommendations are made that boundaries between wildlife and humans be respected, especially when they coinhabit a given area. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Annual report to the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer on the US Department of Energy's cultural resource activities at Colorado UMTRA Project sites, January--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report is a summary of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) cultural resource investigations for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in Colorado. This report is intended to fulfill the DOE's obligation for an annual report as stated in the Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement executed between the DOE, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer in December 1984. Summaries of the cultural resource surveys and identified resources are provided for the UMTRA Project sites in the vicinities of Durango, Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock. This report covers all UMTRA Project cultural resource activities in Colorado from January through December 1991

  20. Plant Equipment Packages: Are they a Credible Deterrent to War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    PEP# TYPE CONTRACTOR/FACILITY NAME LOCATION 0112 WARHEAD CHAPARRAL M250 0112 WARHEAD HELFIRE MISSILE SYSTEM 0112 WARHEAD HE M225 LAP (DRAGON) 0112...0149 GRENADE SMK SCRN RP UKL8A3 F/ M250 LAUNCHER 0149 ROCKET 66MM INCEND TPA 4RD CLIP M74 0149 WARHEAD RKT 2.75IN SMK WP M156 W/FZ PD M427 0149 ROCKET...M25A2 (COMPLETE) 0149 GRENADE HAND/RIFLE SMK WP M34 W/F M206A2. 0149 GRENADE HAND RIOT CS ABC-M7A3 W/FZ M201AI 0149 GRENADE SMK SCRN RP UKL8A3 F/ M250

  1. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, Kirk [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under

  2. The Effect of Firearm Muzzle Gases on the Backspatter of Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.C.; Laber, T.L.; Epstein, B.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Baldwin, D.P.

    2010-05-12

    Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as 'backspatter.' Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from the firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.

  3. The development of the northern European fishery for north Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus during 1900-1950

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    North Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, used to migrate to northern European waters (Norwegian Sea, North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Øresund) where it supported important commercial and sportfisheries. The species disappeared from the region in the early 1960s and the species is now still...... increasing. The species was frequently sighted while fishermen were targeting other species (herring, mackerel) and occasionally was caught as bycatch with these and other species. Information from scientifically trained observers demonstrate that tuna schools were common in the North Sea for 2–3 months...... during the summers of 1923–1931. As fishermen realized that the species had market value, new catch methods were developed and employed. These included harpoon-rifle, improved hook and line methods, and hydraulically operated purse seines. Landings rose sharply as did the number of vessels...

  4. Ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia as a life-threatening complication of antibiotic treatment of 'chronic Lyme disease'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Maarten; Speeckaert, Marijn; Callens, Rutger; Van Biesen, Wim

    2017-04-01

    'Chronic Lyme disease' is a controversial condition. As any hard evidence is lacking that unresolved systemic symptoms, following an appropriately diagnosed and treated Lyme disease, are related to a chronic infection with the tick-borne spirochaetes of the Borrelia genus, the term 'chronic Lyme disease' should be avoided and replaced by the term 'post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.' The improper prescription of prolonged antibiotic treatments for these patients can have an impact on the community antimicrobial resistance and on the consumption of health care resources. Moreover, these treatments can be accompanied by severe complications. In this case report, we describe a life-threatening ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia with an acute kidney injury (RIFLE-stadium F) due to a pigment-induced nephropathy in a 76-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with a so-called 'chronic Lyme disease.'

  5. Design of Instantaneous High Power Supply System with power distribution management for portable military devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kiho; Kwak, Dongmin; Yoon, Joohong

    2015-08-01

    A design of an Instantaneous High Power Supply System (IHPSS) with a power distribution management (PDM) for portable military devices is newly addressed. The system includes a power board and a hybrid battery that can not only supply instantaneous high power but also maintain stable operation at critical low temperature (-30 °C). The power leakage and battery overcharge are effectively prevented by the optimal PDM. The performance of the proposed system under the required pulse loads and the operating conditions of a Korean Advanced Combat Rifle employed in the battlefield is modeled with simulations and verified experimentally. The system with the IHPSS charged the fuse setter with 1.7 times higher voltage (8.6 V) than the one without (5.4 V) under the pulse discharging rate (1 A at 0.5 duty, 1 ms) for 500 ms.

  6. Comparação de critérios diagnósticos de insuficiência renal aguda em cirurgia cardíaca Comparison of diagnostic criteria for acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Campos Sampaio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Há grande controvérsia quanto ao diagnóstico de Insuficiência Renal Aguda (IRA, existindo mais de 30 diferentes definições. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência e os fatores de risco para desenvolvimento de IRA no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca de acordo com os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO, e comparar o poder prognóstico desses critérios. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal que incluiu 321 pacientes (62 [53 - 71] anos, 140 homens consecutivamente submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca entre junho de 2011 e janeiro de 2012. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por 30 dias, com vistas ao desenvolvimento de um desfecho composto (mortalidade, necessidade de diálise e internação prolongada. RESULTADOS: A incidência de IRA variou de 15% - 51%, conforme o critério diagnóstico adotado. Enquanto a idade se associou ao risco de IRA nos três critérios, houve variação nos demais determinantes. Durante o acompanhamento, 89 pacientes apresentaram o desfecho e todos os critérios se associaram ao risco aumentado na análise Cox univariada e após o ajuste para idade, sexo, diabetes e tipo de cirurgia. Contudo, após novo ajuste para tempo de circulação extracorpórea e presença de baixo débito cardíaco, apenas o diagnóstico de IRA pelo critério KDIGO manteve esta associação significativa (HR= 1,89 [95% IC: 1,18 - 3,06]. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência e os fatores de risco para IRA pós-cirurgia cardíaca têm grande variação de acordo com os critérios diagnósticos utilizados. Em nossa análise, o critério KDIGO se mostrou superior ao AKIN e ao RIFLE quanto ao seu poder prognóstico.BACKGROUND: There is considerable controversy regarding the diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI, and there are over 30 different definitions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for the development of AKI following cardiac surgery according to the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, and compare the prognostic power of these criteria

  7. Fatigue does not conjointly alter postural and cognitive performance when standing in a shooting position under dual-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, José Luis; García-Massó, Xavier; Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of fatigue on balance control and cognitive performance in a standing shooting position. Nineteen soldiers were asked to stand while holding a rifle (single task - ST). They also had to perform this postural task while simultaneously completing a cognitive task (dual task - DT). Both the ST and DT were performed in pre- and post-fatigue conditions. In pre-fatigue, participants achieved better balance control in the DT than in the ST, thus suggesting that the increased cognitive activity associated with the DT improves balance control by shifting the attentional focus away from a highly automatised activity. In post-fatigue, balance control was degraded in both the ST and DT, while reaction time was enhanced in the first minutes following the fatiguing exercise without affecting the accuracy of response in the cognitive task, which highlights the relative independent effects of fatigue on balance control and cognitive performance.

  8. Arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass is not associated with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, K; Jensen, M E; Nilsson, J C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is common and is associated with increased mortality. We wanted to investigate if the arterial pressure or the use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with AKI. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who...... underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with or without concomitant procedures was conducted. AKI was defined using the RIFLE criteria. Data on arterial pressure and use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were entered in a binary logistic regression model to control for possible perioperative...... and in higher amounts, during cardiopulmonary bypass, in patients who developed AKI. These differences in arterial pressures and use of norepinephrine between the groups were not found to be significant when entered in the binary logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: No independent relationship between...

  9. Lightweight engine containment. [Kevlar shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. T.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar fabric styles and weaves were studied, as well as methods of application for advanced gas turbine engines. The Kevlar material was subjected to high speed impacts by simple projectiles fired from a rifle, as well as more complex shapes such as fan blades released from gas turbine rotors in a spin pit. Just contained data was developed for a variety of weave and/or application techniques, and a comparative containment weight efficiency was established for Kevlar containment applications. The data generated during these tests is being incorporated into an analytical design system so that blade containment trade-off studies between Kevlar and metal case engine structures can be made. Laboratory tests and engine environment tests were performed to determine the survivability of Kevlar in a gas turbine environment.

  10. Automating the AFROTC Four-Year Scholarship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    ATCH 2 b1 C -d C4 4" %C N 0" cl4 es C4 CN 1 onin %DG C1 06 0 -0 40 V 44-4 LIU-4- c4 A: U. -4 La 4 E vt a-’ iv El "l 04 0 0.I t b U El 4 V do v 0 CoU. -4...CEEB CLAS~S BOARD 1ST 2ND DCF QEP/ STRT,"’ HWFADC CfI3; PEL SCORES SCORE COMP SCOPE STAND RAMK".,H~DC ’ PREF PREF RACE PREY" rTL B1 = 46/1 C hiroms...A/N 88 Fencing 4 AIN 89 La Crosse 4 AIN 90 Rifle/Pistol 4 AIN 91 Rugby 4 AIN 92 Track 4 A/N 93 Wrestling 4 A/N 94 Others (Name and Codes) 15 A/N 95

  11. Potential benefits of the recovery of strategic/critical materials from mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, C.F.; Hofman, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The United States is currently dependent on foreign suppliers for many of its strategic and critical materials. Chrome, platinum, and manganese are primarily supplied by South Africa and the Soviet Union. Zaire and Zambia are the major sources of cobalt. Budgetary cutbacks over the last 20 yr have reduced the stockpiles maintained for defense use. Many are currently in deficit. Considering the tenuous relationships the United States maintains with many of the countries relied on for these strategic materials, an alternative source of materials would be welcomed. One potential source of some of these strategic and critical materials is uranium mill tailings. Substantial quantities of uranium, vanadium, molybdenum, and cobalt have been successfully recovered from uranium mill tailings at Durango, Old Rifle, Grand Junction, Colorado, and Mexican Hat, Utah. The national defense stockpile currently has a deficit of cobalt and vanadium. Other strategic materials currently in deficit (nickel, platinum, palladium, etc.) also may be recoverable from mill tailings

  12. X-ray investigations of lead shot pellets in the tissues of various species of birds found dead in Northern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbeck, C.; Kempen, E.; Petermann, S.; Prueter, J.; Vaur, G.; Visse, C.

    1990-01-01

    Within the period 1985-1988 467 specimens of dead or moribund birds including 51 species were collected in northern Germany, and x-rayed to ascertain lead pellet damage. In 15.8% of the cases evidence of lead bullets was found in the tissues. In over 80% of the cases lead pellets were found, and in 11 (14.9%) of the animals air rifle ammunition was discovered. Along with wood cock, greylag geese, and eider ducks several species of sea gulls were especially affected. The exact causes of death of the lead damaged birds could usually not be determined. The problems with lead pellet ammunition are presented and a legally designated maximum shooting distance is recommended. The replacement of lead pellets with small caliber ammunition for hunting from blinds is also discussed. Bullets are considered more effective for the hunting of knob-billed swans

  13. Three-dimensional Structure of a Viral Genome-delivery Portal Vertex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Olia; P Prevelige Jr.; J Johnson; G Cingolani

    2011-12-31

    DNA viruses such as bacteriophages and herpesviruses deliver their genome into and out of the capsid through large proteinaceous assemblies, known as portal proteins. Here, we report two snapshots of the dodecameric portal protein of bacteriophage P22. The 3.25-{angstrom}-resolution structure of the portal-protein core bound to 12 copies of gene product 4 (gp4) reveals a {approx}1.1-MDa assembly formed by 24 proteins. Unexpectedly, a lower-resolution structure of the full-length portal protein unveils the unique topology of the C-terminal domain, which forms a {approx}200-{angstrom}-long {alpha}-helical barrel. This domain inserts deeply into the virion and is highly conserved in the Podoviridae family. We propose that the barrel domain facilitates genome spooling onto the interior surface of the capsid during genome packaging and, in analogy to a rifle barrel, increases the accuracy of genome ejection into the host cell.

  14. Linking deposit morphology and clogging in subsurface remediation: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, David C. [University of Colorado Denver

    2013-12-11

    Groundwater is a crucial resource for water supply, especially in arid and semiarid areas of the United States west of the 100th meridian. Accordingly, remediation of contaminated groundwater is an important application of science and technology, particularly for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which oversees a number of groundwater remediation sites from Cold War era mining. Groundwater remediation is complex, because it depends on identifying, locating, and treating contaminants in the subsurface, where remediation reactions depend on interacting geological, hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological factors. Within this context, permeability is a fundamental concept, because it controls the rates and pathways of groundwater flow. Colloid science is intimately related to permeability, because when colloids are present (particles with equivalent diameters between 1 nanometer and 10 micrometers), changes in hydrological or geochemical conditions can trigger a detrimental reduction in permeability called clogging. Accordingly, clogging is a major concern in groundwater remediation. Several lines of evidence suggest that clogging by colloids depends on (1) colloid deposition, and (2) deposit morphology, that is, the structure of colloid deposits, which can be quantified as a fractal dimension. This report describes research, performed under a 2-year, exploratory grant from the DOE’s Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program. This research employed a novel laboratory technique to simultaneously measure flow, colloid deposition, deposit morphology, and permeability in a flow cell, and also collected field samples from wells at the DOE’s Old Rifle remediation site. Field results indicate that suspended solids at the Old Rifle site have fractal structures. Laboratory results indicate that clogging is associated with colloid deposits with smaller fractal dimensions, in accordance with previous studies on initially clean granular media. Preliminary

  15. In Situ Community Control of the Stability of Bioreduced Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, David C.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of this research is to understand the mechanisms for maintenance of bio-reduced uranium in an aerobic to microaerophylic aquifer under actual field conditions after electron donor addition for biostimulation has ended. Primary Objectives: (1) Determine the relative importance of microbial communities and/or chemical and physical environments mediating uranium reduction/oxidation after cessation of donor addition in an aerobic aquifer. (2) Determine, after cessation of donor addition, the linkages between microbial functions and abiotic processes mediating. Initial Hypotheses: (1) The typical bio-reduced subsurface environments that maintain U(VI) reduction rates after biostimulation contain limited amounts of oxidized iron on mineral surfaces. Therefore, the non sulfate-reducing dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria will move to more conducive areas or be out-competed by more versatile microbes. (2) Microbes capable of sulfate reduction play an important role in the post-treatment maintenance of bio-reduced uranium because these bacteria either directly reduce U(VI) or generate H2S, and/or FeS0.9 which act as oxygen sinks maintaining U(IV) in a reduced state. (3) The presence of bioprecipitated amorphous FeS0.9 in sediments will maintain low U(IV) reoxidation rates under conditions of low biomass, but FeS0.9 by itself is not sufficient to remove U(VI) from groundwater by abiotic reduction. FIELD SCALE EXPERIMENTS: Field-scale electron donor amendment experiments were conducted in 2002, 2003, and 2004 at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in Rifle, Colorado

  16. In situ Microbial Community Control of the Stability of Bio-Reduced Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Phillip E.; McKinley, James P.; White, David C.

    2006-01-01

    In aerobic aquifers typical of many Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites, uranium is present in the oxidized U(VI) form which is soluble and thus mobile compared to U(IV). Previous work at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site demonstrated that biostimulation by acetate injection promoted growth of Geobacteraceae and stimulated the microbial reduction of U(VI) to less soluble U(IV) (1, 4). Despite the potential for oxidative dissolution of bio-reduced U(IV), field experiments at the Old Rifle site show that although the rate of U(VI) reduction decreases following the on-set of sulfate reduction, U(VI) reduction continues even following the cessation of acetate injection (1, 4). However, U(VI) reduction is reversible and the basis for the observed maintenance of U(VI) reduction post-stimulation is a critical but as yet unresolved issue for the application of biostimulation as a treatment technology. The continued U(VI) reduction and the maintenance of reduced U(IV) may result from many factors including U(VI) reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), generation of H2S or FeS0.9 which serves as an oxygen sink, or the preferential sorption of U(VI) by microbial cells or biopolymers. The overall goal of the project is to develop an understanding of the mechanisms for the maintenance of bio-reduced uranium in an aerobic aquifer under field conditions following the cessation of electron donor addition

  17. Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwell, Amy [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis, E-mail: asitchle@mines.edu [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Prugue, Rodrigo [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Spear, John R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hering, Amanda S. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Maxwell, Reed M. [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Carroll, Rosemary W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512 (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict potential elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial “hotspots”) in subsurface environments by correlating microbial DNA and aspects of the community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Multiple linear regression models of simulated precipitation leachate, HCl and hydroxylamine extractable iron and manganese, total organic carbon (TOC), and microbial community structure were used to identify sample characteristics indicative of biogeochemical hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments and overlying soils. The method has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 16 alluvial samples were taken from 8 sediment cores, and at the East River, 46 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders and an oxbow meander. Regression models using TOC and TOC combined with extractable iron and manganese results were determined to be the best fitting statistical models of microbial DNA (via 16S rRNA gene analysis). Fitting these models to observations in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits, and their associated alluvial aquifers, demonstrates the broad applicability of the geochemical indicator based approach. - Highlights: • Biogeochemical characterization of alluvial floodplain soils and sediments was performed to investigate parameters that may indicate microbial hot spot formation. • A correlation between geochemical parameters (total organic carbon and

  18. Evaluation of estimated creatinine clearance before steady state in acute kidney injury by creatinine kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Masatomo; Ochiai, Miyuki; Fujisawa, Nao; Kadoya, Yuko; Kamata, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    A simple method to calculate estimated creatinine clearance using two serum creatinine concentration (Cr) values in acute kidney injury (AKI) was developed (eCrCl-AKI). We aimed to evaluate its accuracy and to clarify its contribution to the classification of AKI. We validated the errors in eCrCl-AKI in a simulation study after various reductions in creatinine clearance (CrCl) at various levels of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared the eCrCl-AKI-based classification of RIFLE criteria with the Cr-based classification or that proposed by Waikar and Bonventre. The regression equations of eCrCl-AKI on time were determined and Cr values were reconstructed by creatinine kinetics substituting CrCl with eCrCl-AKI in actual patients. Most errors in eCrCl-AKI were relatively small (from -13.6 to +7.9%) with the exception of two Cr values that straddled the changing trend of Cr. The classification according to RIFLE criteria based on Cr was unstable and did not enable adequate classification, especially in milder reductions of CrCl with advanced CKD. The classification based on eCrCl-AKI was stable and enabled adequate classification. There were good agreements between measured Cr and reconstructed Cr with eCrCl-AKI. The regression equations of eCrCl-AKI revealed changes of renal function that were unexpected only from fluctuations of Cr. eCrCl-AKI can provide relatively accurate estimates for fluctuating CrCl. eCrCl-AKI enables more stable and earlier classification of AKI than Cr, at least in the simulation study. The more widespread use of eCrCl-AKI in actual clinical settings of AKI is necessary to evaluate this formula.

  19. Biotransformations Involved in Sustained Reductive Removal of Uranium in Contaminated Aquifers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2008-01-01

    The studies completed under this grant significantly advanced the understanding and design of strategies for in situ uranium bioremediation. Novel strategies identified show promise to make in situ uranium bioremediation technically simpler and less expensive. As detailed, important findings included: (1) Development of an electron donor delivery strategy to prolong the in situ activity of Geobacter species and enhance the removal of uranium from the groundwater; (2) Demonstration that reproducible year-to-year field experiments were possible at the ERSP study site in Rifle, CO, making hypothesis-driven field experimentation possible; (3) Elucidation of the geochemical and microbiological heterogeneities with the subsurface during in situ uranium bioremediation, which must be accounted for to accurately model the bioremediation process; (4) The discovery that most of the U(VI) contamination at the Rifle site is sediment-associated rather than mobile in the groundwater, as previously considered; (5) The finding that unlike soluble U(VI), sediment-associated U(VI) is not microbially reducible; (6) The demonstration that electrodes may be an effective alternative to acetate as an electron donor to promote microbial U(VI) reduction in the subsurface with the added benefit that electrode-promoted microbial U(VI) reduction offers the possibility of removing the immobilized uranium from the subsurface; and (7) The finding that, after extended acetate inputs, U(VI) continues to be removed from groundwater long after the introduction of acetate into the subsurface is terminated and that this appears to be due to adsorption onto biomass. This potentially will make in situ uranium bioremediation much less expensive than previously envisioned.

  20. Porosity and Organic Carbon Controls on Naturally Reduced Zone (NRZ) Formation Creating Microbial ';Hotspots' for Fe, S, and U Cycling in Subsurface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. E.; Janot, N.; Bargar, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have illustrated the importance of Naturally Reduced Zones (NRZs) within saturated sediments for the cycling of metals and redox sensitive contaminants. NRZs can provide a source of reducing equivalents such as reduced organic compounds or hydrogen to stimulate subsurface microbial communities. These NRZ's are typically characterized by low permeability and elevated concentrations of organic carbon and trace metals. However, both the formation of NRZs and their importance to the overall aquifer carbon remineralization is not fully understood. Within NRZs the hydrolysis of particulate organic carbon (POC) and subsequent fermentation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to form low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon (LMW-DOC) provides electron donors necessary for the respiration of Fe, S, and in the case of the Rifle aquifer, U. Rates of POC hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation have been poorly constrained and rates in excess and deficit to the rates of subsurface anaerobic respiratory processes have been suggested. In this study, we simulate the development of NRZ sediments in diffusion-limited aggregates to investigate the physical and chemical conditions required for NRZ formation. Effects of sediment porosity and POC loading on Fe, S, and U cycling on molecular and nanoscale are investigated with synchrotron-based Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (NEXAFS). Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to characterize the transformations in POC and DOC. Sediment aggregates are inoculated with the natural microbial biota from the Rifle aquifer and population dynamics are monitored by 16S RNA analysis. Overall, establishment of low permeability NRZs within the aquifer stimulate microbial respiration beyond the diffusion-limited zones and can limit the transport of U through a contaminated aquifer. However, the long-term stability of

  1. In Situ Microbial Community Control of the Stability of Bio-reduced Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Brett R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Resch, Charles T.; Arntzen, Evan; Smithgall, Amanda N.; Pfiffner, Susan; Gan, M.; McKinley, James P.; Long, Philip E.; White, David C.

    2008-01-01

    In aerobic aquifers typical of many Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites, uranium is present in the oxidized U(VI) form which is more soluble and thus more mobile. Field experiments at the Old Rifle UMTRA site have demonstrated that biostimulation by electron donor addition (acetate) promotes biological U(VI) reduction (2). However, U(VI) reduction is reversible and oxidative dissolution of precipitated U(IV) after the cessation of electron donor addition remains a critical issue for the application of biostimulation as a treatment technology. Despite the potential for oxidative dissolution, field experiments at the Old Rifle site have shown that rapid reoxidation of bio-reduced uranium does not occur and U(VI) concentrations can remain at approximately 20% of background levels for more than one year. The extent of post-amendment U(VI) removal and the maintenance of bioreduced uranium may result from many factors including U(VI) sorption to iron-containing mineral phases, generation of H2S or FeS0.9, or the preferential sorption of U(VI) by microbial cells or biopolymers, but the processes controlling the reduction and in situ reoxidation rates are not known. To investigate the role of microbial community composition in the maintenance of bioreduced uranium, in-well sediment incubators (ISIs) were developed allowing field deployment of amended and native sediments during on-going experiments at the site. Field deployment of the ISIs allows expedient interrogation of microbial community response to field environmental perturbations and varying geochemical conditions.

  2. Linking AS, SE, V, and MN Behavior to Natural Biostimulated Uranium Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keimowitz, Alison [Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States); Ranville, James [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mailloux, Brian [Barnard College, New York, NY (United States); Figueroa, Linda [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The project “Linking As, Se, V, and Mn behavior to Natural and Biostimulated Uranium Cycling” successfully investigated Arsenic cycling the Rifle Colorado IFRC. This project trained undergraduate and graduate students at the Colorado School of Mines, Vassar College, and Barnard College. This resulted in both undergraduate theses and a PhD thesis and multiple publications. The science was highly successful and we were able to test the main hypotheses. We have shown that (H1) under reducing conditions that promote uranium immobilization arsenic is readily mobilized, that (H2) thioarsenic species are abundant during this mobilization, and (H3) we have examined arsenic mobilization for site sediment. At the Rifle IFRC Acetate was added during experiments to immobilize Uranium. These experiments successfully immobilized uranium but unfortunately would mobilize arsenic. We developed robust sampling and analysis methods for thioarsenic species. We showed that the mobilization occurred under sulfate reducing conditions and the majority of the arsenic was in the form of thioarsenic species. Previous studies had predicted the presence of thioarsenic species but this study used robust field and laboratory methods to quantitatively determine the presence of thioarsenic species. During stimulation in wells with high arsenic the primary species were trithioarsenate and dithioarsenate. In wells with low levels of arsenic release thioarsenates were absent or minor components. Fortunately after the injection of acetate ended the aquifer would become less reducing and the arsenic concentrations would decrease to pre-injection levels. In aquifers where organic carbon is being added as a remedial method or as a contaminant the transient mobility of arsenic during sulfidogenesis should be considered especially in sulfate rich aquifers as this could impact downgradient water quality.

  3. In Situ Microbial Community Control of the Stability of Bio-reduced Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Brett, R.; Peacock, Aaron, D.; Resch, Charles, T.; Arntzen, Evan; Smithgall, Amanda, N.; Pfiffner, Susan; Gan, M.; McKinley, James, P.; Long, Philip, E.; White, David, C.

    2008-03-28

    In aerobic aquifers typical of many Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites, uranium is present in the oxidized U(VI) form which is more soluble and thus more mobile. Field experiments at the Old Rifle UMTRA site have demonstrated that biostimulation by electron donor addition (acetate) promotes biological U(VI) reduction (2). However, U(VI) reduction is reversible and oxidative dissolution of precipitated U(IV) after the cessation of electron donor addition remains a critical issue for the application of biostimulation as a treatment technology. Despite the potential for oxidative dissolution, field experiments at the Old Rifle site have shown that rapid reoxidation of bio-reduced uranium does not occur and U(VI) concentrations can remain at approximately 20% of background levels for more than one year. The extent of post-amendment U(VI) removal and the maintenance of bioreduced uranium may result from many factors including U(VI) sorption to iron-containing mineral phases, generation of H2S or FeS0.9, or the preferential sorption of U(VI) by microbial cells or biopolymers, but the processes controlling the reduction and in situ reoxidation rates are not known. To investigate the role of microbial community composition in the maintenance of bioreduced uranium, in-well sediment incubators (ISIs) were developed allowing field deployment of amended and native sediments during on-going experiments at the site. Field deployment of the ISIs allows expedient interrogation of microbial community response to field environmental perturbations and varying geochemical conditions.

  4. Drug-related acute renal failure in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavecchia, Lujan; Cereza García, Gloria; Sabaté Gallego, Mònica; Vidal Guitart, Xavier; Ramos Terrades, Natalia; de la Torre, Judith; Segarra Medrano, Alfons; Agustí Escasany, Antònia

    2015-01-01

    The information available on the incidence and the characteristics of patients with acute renal failure (ARF) related to drugs is scarce. To estimate the incidence of drug-related ARF in hospitalised patients and to compare their characteristics with those of patients with ARF due to other causes. We selected a prospective cohort of patients with ARF during hospital admission (July 2010-July 2011). Information on patients' demographics, medical antecedents, ARF risk factors, ARF severity according to the RIFLE classification and hospital drug administration was collected. We analysed the relationship of drugs with the ARF episodes using Spanish Pharmacovigilance System methods and algorithm. A total of 194 cases had an episode of hospital-acquired ARF. The median age of patients was 72 years [IQR 20]; 60% were men. The ARF incidence during hospitalization was 9.6 per 1,000 admissions. According to the RIFLE classification, a risk of kidney damage or kidney injury was present in 77.8% of cases. In 105 (54.1%) cases, ARF was drug-related; the drugs most frequently involved were diuretics, agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system, immunosuppressants, β-blocking agents, calcium channel blockers, contrast media and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients with drug-related ARF had more multi-morbidity, fewer ARF risk factors and lower mortality. Half of ARF episodes during hospitalisation were drug related. Patients with drug-related ARF had higher cardiovascular morbidity than those with ARF related to other causes, but they had a lower frequency of ARF risk factors and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Treated With Normal Saline after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sheybani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common postoperative complication of cardiac surgery, which is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the frequency of postoperative AKI in low risk adult patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Materials & Methods: All consecutive adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class II and III, who were transferred to the post-operative cardiac surgery ICU after off-pump CABG and were low risk for AKI from October 2013 to September 2014 at Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran were enrolled in this prospective cohort study at a teaching hospital. The patients were explored for AKI development, based on risk-injury-failure-loss- end stage kidney disease (RIFLE and acute kidney injury network (AKIN criteria, frequency of metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, and length of stay in ICU.Results: According to the results of the present study, 479 patients with the mean age of 60.8±10.75 yrs were included. AKI occurred in 22 (4.4% and23 (4.8% patients, based on both the RIFLE and AKIN criteria, respectively with the highest rate of AKI, reported on the third and fourth post-operative days. Additionally, hyperchloremia and hypernatremia were observed in 71 (14.8% and 76 (15.9% patients, respectively. Only one case of mortality occurred during the study. Metabolic acidosis was reported in 112 (23.4% patients with a high anion gap in 60 (12.5% cases.Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that hypernatremia and metabolic acidosis but not AKI are frequently seen in patients receiving normal saline following off pump CABG with low risk for AKI.

  6. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  7. Inclusion and definition of acute renal dysfunction in critically ill patients in randomized controlled trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Hora Passos, Rogerio; Ramos, Joao Gabriel Rosa; Gobatto, André; Caldas, Juliana; Macedo, Etienne; Batista, Paulo Benigno

    2018-04-24

    In evidence-based medicine, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for evaluating treatment benefits and ensuring the effectiveness of interventions. Patient-centered outcomes, such as mortality, are most often the preferred evaluated outcomes. While there is currently agreement on how to classify renal dysfunction in critically ill patients , the application frequency of this new classification system in RCTs has not previously been evaluated. In this study, we aim to assess the definition of renal dysfunction in multicenter RCTs involving critically ill patients that included mortality as a primary endpoint. A comprehensive search was conducted for publications reporting multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs) that included mortality as a primary outcome. MEDLINE and PUBMED were queried for relevant articles in core clinical journals published between May 2004 and December 2017. Of 418 articles reviewed, 46 multicenter RCTs with a primary endpoint related to mortality were included. Thirty-six (78.3%) of the trial reports provided information on renal function in the participants. Only seven articles (15.2%) included mean or median serum creatinine levels, mean creatinine clearance or estimated glomerular filtration rates. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was the most commonly used definition of renal dysfunction (20 studies; 43.5%). Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria were used in five (10.9%) trials. In thirteen trials (28.3%), no renal dysfunction criteria were reported. Only one trial excluded patients with renal dysfunction, and it used urinary output or need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) as criteria for this diagnosis. The presence of renal dysfunction was included as a baseline patient characteristic in

  8. Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenwell, Amy; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Prugue, Rodrigo; Spear, John R.; Hering, Amanda S.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Carroll, Rosemary W.H.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict potential elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial “hotspots”) in subsurface environments by correlating microbial DNA and aspects of the community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Multiple linear regression models of simulated precipitation leachate, HCl and hydroxylamine extractable iron and manganese, total organic carbon (TOC), and microbial community structure were used to identify sample characteristics indicative of biogeochemical hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments and overlying soils. The method has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 16 alluvial samples were taken from 8 sediment cores, and at the East River, 46 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders and an oxbow meander. Regression models using TOC and TOC combined with extractable iron and manganese results were determined to be the best fitting statistical models of microbial DNA (via 16S rRNA gene analysis). Fitting these models to observations in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits, and their associated alluvial aquifers, demonstrates the broad applicability of the geochemical indicator based approach. - Highlights: • Biogeochemical characterization of alluvial floodplain soils and sediments was performed to investigate parameters that may indicate microbial hot spot formation. • A correlation between geochemical parameters (total organic carbon and

  9. Microbial Community Structure of an Alluvial Aquifer Treated to Encourage Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, J.; Saneiyan, S.; Lee, J.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Burns, S.; Colwell, F. S.

    2017-12-01

    An oligotrophic aquifer in the Colorado River floodplain (Rifle, CO) was treated with molasses and urea to encourage microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP). This would stabilize the soil mass by reducing porosity and strengthening the mineral fabric. Over the course of a 15-day treatment period, microbial biomass was collected from monitoring well groundwater for DNA extraction and sequencing. Bromide, a conservative tracer, was co-injected and subsequently detected in downgradient wells, confirming effective nutrient delivery. Conductivity increased during the injection regime and an overall decrease in pH was observed. Groundwater chemistry showed a marked increase in ammonia, suggesting urea hydrolysis - a process catalyzed by the enzyme urease - the primary enzyme implicated in MICP. Additionally, soluble iron was detected, suggesting a general increase in microbial activity; possibly as iron-reducing bacteria changed insoluble ferric oxide to soluble ferrous hydroxide in the anoxic aquifer. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of iron reducing bacteria, including Shewanella and Desulfuromonadales. Generally, a decrease in microbial community diversity was observed when pre-injection community taxa were compared with post-injection community taxa. Phyla indicative of anoxic aquifers were represented in accordance with previous literature at the Rifle site. Linear discriminant analysis showed significant differences in representative phyla over the course of the injection series. Geophysical monitoring of the site further suggested changes that could be due to MICP. Induced polarization increased the phase shift in the primary treated area, in agreement with laboratory experiments. Cross-hole seismic testing confirmed that the shear wave velocities increased in the treated soil mass, implying the soil matrix became more stable. Future investigations will help elucidate the viability and efficacy of MICP treatment in changing

  10. Lesão renal aguda em crianças: incidência e fatores prognósticos em pacientes gravemente enfermos Acute kidney injury in children: incidence and prognostic factors in critical ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Machado Souza Freire

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Lesão renal aguda caracteriza-se pela redução súbita e, em geral, reversível da função renal com perda da capacidade de manutenção da homeostase do organismo. Em pediatria, as principais causas de lesão renal aguda são sepse, uso de drogas nefrotóxicas e isquemia renal nos pacientes criticamente enfermos. Nesses pacientes, a incidência de lesão renal aguda varia de 20 a 30%, resultando em aumento da taxa de morbi-mortalidade de 40 a 90%. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a incidência de lesão renal aguda nos pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, classificar a gravidade da lesão renal aguda de acordo com o Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage (pRIFLE, analisar a relação entre lesão renal aguda e a gravidade através do Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM e estudar os fatores prognósticos associados. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo entre julho de 2008 a janeiro de 2009 dos pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica do Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão - Florianópolis (SC - Brasil. Todos os pacientes foram analisados diariamente através do débito urinário e creatinina sérica e classificados de acordo com pRIFLE. RESULTADOS: No período de acompanhamento foram internadas 235 crianças. A incidência de lesão renal aguda foi de 30,6%, sendo que o pRIFLE máximo durante a internação foi de 12,1% para R, 12,1% para I e 6,4% para F. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 12,3%. Os pacientes que evoluíram com lesão renal aguda apresentaram risco dez vezes maior de óbito em relação aos não expostos. CONCLUSÃO: Lesão renal aguda é uma entidade comum nos pacientes críticos. O diagnóstico precoce a e instituição imediata de medidas terapêuticas adequadas a cada situação clínica podem alterar o curso e a gravidade do envolvimento renal reduzindo a morbi-mortalidade do paciente.OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury is characterized by sudden and generally

  11. Experiências Internacionais e Desafios dos Governos dos Países na Transição da Contabilidade Pública para o Regime de Competência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenno Carvalho Botelho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo apresentar experiências internacionais e os desafios enfrentados pelos Governos dos países na transição da contabilidade pública para o regime contábil de competência. Sua contribuição está na atualização da literatura no que tange ao posicionamento dos governos de economias mundiais quanto à adoção do accrual basis em sua contabilidade e, principalmente, por evidenciar os principais procedimentos observados durante o processo de transição. Para tratar a questão da pesquisa, são discutidos os procedimentos recomendados pelo Study 14, desenvolvido pela International Federation of Accountants (IFAC, e pelo Modelo de Requerimentos Básicos (BRM, em inglês, proposto por Ouda (2008, e analisadas as experiências monitoradas pelo IFAC nos Governos da Malásia, Malta e Suíça; as experiências relatadas na literatura (Romênia, Nova Zelândia e Austrália; e a experiência vivenciada pelo Governo brasileiro, por meio de informações coletadas no sítio da Secretaria do Tesouro Nacional do Brasil e em artigos acadêmicos. Os resultados mostram que os Governos da Suiça, Austrália e Nova Zelândia já adotam o regime de competência integral e seguiram todos os procedimentos recomendados pelo Study 14 e pelo BRM. No caso da Romênia, apesar de utilizar o regime de competência integral, não adotou a maior parte dos procedimentos recomendados, o que pode explicar o fato de as informações geradas em sua contabilidade não serem utilizadas nem pelos gestores e nem pelas autoridades governamentais. No caso dos Governos da Malásia e de Malta, definiram o ano de 2019 como data limite para a transição para o regime de competência integral. Quanto ao Brasil, adota-se o regime de competência modificado, sem previsão para adoção integral do regime de competência. Com relação aos desafios observados no processo de transição, destaca-se, nessa ordem, carência de pessoal treinado, exig

  12. Screening and Establishment of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines 
with Organ-specific Metastasis Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua ZHOU

    2014-03-01

    lines which only metastasized to brian, lung, bone and mediastinal lymph node were successfully established through repeating reinoculatation, live animal imaging in nude mice, and screening and identification in vitro. We named the four cell lines as L9981-BoM, L9981-LuM, L9981-BrM and L9981-LnM, respectively. The L9981-BoM cell was only metastasized to bone. The l9981-LuM cell was only metastasized to lung. The L9981-BrM only metastasized to brain. The L9981-LnM cell was only metastasized to midiastinal lymph nodes. Conclusions A human large cell lung cancer cell model with bone, lung, brain and lymph node-specific metastasis potential was successfully established. It will be helpful to further study the molecular mechanisms and signal regulation of lung cancer organ- specific metastasis. It will be to also provide reliable cell model for developing new techniques and molecular targeting drugs of inhibiting or reversing lung cancer metastasis.

  13. THE BASES OF THE MANAGEMENT OF SOCIAL PROJECTS OF BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zilberstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article on wide material the author opens basic approaches to formation of the theoretical base of management of social projects of business.The purpose of work is generalization of theoretical bases of project management of business which have social character. The logic of a statement of material is under construction as follows. In water part of article authors do the assumption that at the heart of an object of research three basic elements are put: project management, social management and management of social projects. Proceeding from this assumption in work further reasonings are under construction. The main part of article contains three subsections. In the fi rst subsection of article defi nition of the concept «project management» is formulated and methodological approaches to project management (PRINCE2, PERT, the Model Agile, Lean Management, BRM are generalized. In the second subsection the author's understanding of entity of social management is presented and the main techniques of social management are considered, and also the characteristic of methodology of management of social projects is given. In the third subsection the author's concept of entity of management of social projects of business is formulated. In fi nal part of article authors draw a conclusion about the importance of management of social projects of business. This article, fi rst of all, has theoretical and methodological value for formation of eff ective methods and instruments of management of social projects of business, and also for development of the theory and practice of corporate social responsibility.

  14. Acute effects of transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation on respiratory pattern in COPD patients: cross-sectional and comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS has been used to improve respiratory muscle strength in patients with respiratory muscle weakness. However, this physical therapy resource has not been studied in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory pattern during one session of TEDS in COPD patients. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients participated in one TEDS session for plethysmographic analysis and assessment of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and heart rate (HR. After the session, patients were divided into two groups: Responder (R; n=9 and Non-Responder (NR; n=6 to TEDS. Statistic analysis was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and two-way ANOVA. For the parameters that showed interaction, the Student t test was used (P<0.05. RESULTS: R group consisted mainly of men, with lower SpO2 and higher HR than NR group. When time (before and during and groups (R and NR were compared (interaction, there were differences in the parameters minute ventilation (Vent, inspiratory tidal volume (ViVol, expiratory tidal volume (VeVol, and respiratory rate (Br/M. In the intergroup comparison, differences were observed in the parameters Vent, ViVol, and VeVol. A significant effect was also observed for time in change in end-expiratory lung volume level (qDEEL, phase relation during inspiration (PhRIB; phase relation during expiration (PhREB; phase relation of entire breath (PhRTB, and phase angle (PhAng. During TEDS, there was an increase in SpO2 and a reduction in HR in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The most hypoxemic group with greater HR responded to TEDS and there was interaction between group and time of analysis for the pulmonary volumes. The time factor had an influence on the two groups with an increase in thoracoabdominal asynchrony.

  15. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  16. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  17. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  18. Evaluation of breast implants with breast magnetic resonance: Practical utility in comparison with other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez, Florencia; Blejman, Oscar; Lamattina Mariano; Villamea, Victoria; Sarquis, Flavio; Torrillo, Fabiana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility of Breast Magnetic Resonance (BMR) in the evaluation of breast implants comparing Mammography and Breast ultrasound in an ambulatory private institute setting. Method: Between May 2008 and April 2010, 729 BRM were performed in patients between 22 and 77 years of age, 474 were evaluated for implant integrity. The studies were performed in a high field equipment (1.5T) with T1, T2, fat Sat, Silicone only and silicone suppression sequences. Results: Of the 474 patients that were evaluated for implant integrity: 291 patients (61.39%) presented with intact implants, 252 (86.6%) showed concordant findings with mammography and or ultrasound and 39 (13.4%) showed discordant findings. Then, 116 patients (24.47%) presented signs of intracapsular rupture, 82 (70.7%) were concordant with ultrasound findings and 34 (29.3%) had normal ultrasound evaluation. 44 patients (9.28%) presented extracapsular rupture, 40 (90.9%) were concordant with mammography and ultrasound and 4 (9.10%) were discordant. Finally, 23 patients (4.85%) presented residual silicone granulomas, with history of previous implant rupture and explanted surgery, 13 (56.52%) concordant with mammography and ultrasound and 10 (43.48%) were discordant. Conclusion: Non contrast BMR, using multiples planes and sequences is very useful in the evaluation of the internal structure of the implants and extracapsular silicone. It's the most sensible study to demonstrate intra and extracapsular rupture. BMR exceeds mammography and ultrasound in the detection of implant rupture and residual granulomas following explanted surgery.

  19. Effects of OK-432 (picibanil) on the estrogen receptors of MCF-7 cells and potentiation of antiproliferative effects of tamoxifen in combination with OK-432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, H; Iino, Y; Takeo, T; Horii, Y; Morishita, Y; Horiuchi, R

    1997-01-01

    OK-432 (picibanil), a streptococcal preparation, has a strong biological response modifier (BRM) function and is expected to produce clinical improvement and prolongation of survival in treated cancer patients in Japan. We were interested in whether OK-432 augments estrogen receptor (ER) levels in breast cancer. To investigate the effect of the BRMs on cellular growth and the characteristics of ER and progesterone receptors (PgR) in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, we used OK-432, Krestin (PSK), a protein-bound polysaccharide extracted from Coriolus versicolor, and lentinan, a fungal branched (1...3)-beta-D-glycan. OK432 and PSK dose dependently inhibited DNA synthesis of MCF-7 cells, and the 50% inhibitory concentrations of OK-432 and PSK were 1.2 KE (klinische Einheit, clinical unit)/ml and 200 micrograms/ml, respectively. Lentinan showed no direct anticancer effect in vitro. We found that OK-432 induced a 2-fold increase in ER levels in MCF-7 cells at 0.005 KE/ml, but not in PgR. Lentinan and low-dose PSK did not change ER or PgR levels, but high-dose PSK decreased ER and PgR. We also studied the combined effect of OK-432 and antiestrogens, tamoxifen (TAM) and DP-TAT-59. The combined treatment with OK-432 and TAM showed an additive inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that OK-432 may augment the therapeutic effect of TAM in breast cancer.

  20. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudagov, R.; Uljanova, L.; Makarov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  1. MLL5, a trithorax homolog, indirectly regulates H3K4 methylation, represses cyclin A2 expression, and promotes myogenic differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Soji; Sreenivas, Prethish; Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Kandalla, Prashanth; Pavlath, Grace K.; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2009-01-01

    Most cells in adult tissues are nondividing. In skeletal muscle, differentiated myofibers have exited the cell cycle permanently, whereas satellite stem cells withdraw transiently, returning to active proliferation to repair damaged myofibers. We have examined the epigenetic mechanisms operating in conditional quiescence by analyzing the function of a predicted chromatin regulator mixed lineage leukemia 5 (MLL5) in a culture model of reversible arrest. MLL5 is induced in quiescent myoblasts and regulates both the cell cycle and differentiation via a hierarchy of chromatin and transcriptional regulators. Knocking down MLL5 delays entry of quiescent myoblasts into S phase, but hastens S-phase completion. Cyclin A2 (CycA) mRNA is no longer restricted to S phase, but is induced throughout G0/G1, with activation of the cell cycle regulated element (CCRE) in the CycA promoter. Overexpressed MLL5 physically associates with the CCRE and impairs its activity. MLL5 also regulates CycA indirectly: Cux, an activator of CycA promoter and S phase is induced in RNAi cells, and Brm/Brg1, CCRE-binding repressors that promote differentiation are repressed. In knockdown cells, H3K4 methylation at the CCRE is reduced, reflecting quantitative global changes in methylation. MLL5 appears to lack intrinsic histone methyl transferase activity, but regulates expression of histone-modifying enzymes LSD1 and SET7/9, suggesting an indirect mechanism. Finally, expression of muscle regulators Pax7, Myf5, and myogenin is impaired in MLL5 knockdown cells, which are profoundly differentiation defective. Collectively, our results suggest that MLL5 plays an integral role in novel chromatin regulatory mechanisms that suppress inappropriate expression of S-phase-promoting genes and maintain expression of determination genes in quiescent cells. PMID:19264965

  2. Discovery of a 105-ms X-ray Pulsar in Kesteven-79: On the Nature of Compact Central Objects in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Seward, F. D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of 105-ms X-ray pulsations from the compact central object (CCO) in the supernova remnant \\snr\\ using data acquired with the {\\it Newton X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission). Using two observations of the pulsar taken 6-days apart we derive an upper limit on its spin-down rate of $\\dot P 18.5$-kyr. The latter exceeds the remnant's estimated age, suggesting that the pulsar was born spinning near its current period. The X-ray spectrum of \\psr\\ is best characterized as a blackbody of temperature $kT {BB) =, 0.43\\pm0.02$ keV, radius $R-{BB) \\approx 1.3$-km, and $I{\\rm bol) = 5.2 \\times 10A{33)$ ergs-sSA{-1)$ at $d = 7.1$-kpc. The sinusoidal light curve is modulated with a pulsed fraction of $>45\\%$, suggestive of a small hot spot on the surface of the rotating neutron star. The lack of a discernible pulsar wind nebula is consistent with an interpretation of \\psr\\ as a rotation-powered pulsar whose spin-down luminosity falls below the empirical threshold for generating bright wind nebulae, $\\dot E-{\\rm c) = 4 \\times 10A{36)$-ergs-sSA{-I)$. The age discrepancy suggests that its $\\dot E$ has always been below $\\dot E c$, perhaps a distinguishing property of the CCOs. Alternatively, the X-ray spectrum of \\psr\\ suggests a low-luminosity AXP, but the weak inferred $B-{\\rm p)$ field is incompatible with a magnetar theory of its X-ray luminosity. The ordinary spin parameters discovered from \\psr\\ highlight the inability of existing theories to explain the high luminosities and temperatures of CCO thermal X-ray spectra.

  3. Potential effects of climate change on the distribution range of the main silicate sinker of the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkernell, Stefan; Beszteri, Bánk

    2014-08-01

    Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, a dominant diatom species throughout the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, is coined to be one of the main drivers of the biological silicate pump. Here, we study the distribution of this important species and expected consequences of climate change upon it, using correlative species distribution modeling and publicly available presence-only data. As experience with SDM is scarce for marine phytoplankton, this also serves as a pilot study for this organism group. We used the maximum entropy method to calculate distribution models for the diatom F. kerguelensis based on yearly and monthly environmental data (sea surface temperature, salinity, nitrate and silicate concentrations). Observation data were harvested from GBIF and the Global Diatom Database, and for further analyses also from the Hustedt Diatom Collection (BRM). The models were projected on current yearly and seasonal environmental data to study current distribution and its seasonality. Furthermore, we projected the seasonal model on future environmental data obtained from climate models for the year 2100. Projected on current yearly averaged environmental data, all models showed similar distribution patterns for F. kerguelensis. The monthly model showed seasonality, for example, a shift of the southern distribution boundary toward the north in the winter. Projections on future scenarios resulted in a moderately to negligibly shrinking distribution area and a change in seasonality. We found a substantial bias in the publicly available observation datasets, which could be reduced by additional observation records we obtained from the Hustedt Diatom Collection. Present-day distribution patterns inferred from the models coincided well with background knowledge and previous reports about F. kerguelensis distribution, showing that maximum entropy-based distribution models are suitable to map distribution patterns for oceanic planktonic organisms. Our scenario projections indicate

  4. Serum starvation of ARPE-19 changes the cellular distribution of cholesterol and Fibulin3 in patterns reminiscent of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Dinusha; Peterson, Katherine; Mishra, Sanghamitra; Wistow, Graeme

    2017-12-15

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) has been implicated as key source of cholesterol-rich deposits at Bruch's membrane (BrM) and in drusen in aging human eye. We have shown that serum-deprivation of confluent RPE cells is associated with upregulation of cholesterol synthesis and accumulation of unesterified cholesterol (UC). Here we investigate the cellular processes involved in this response. We compared the distribution and localization of UC and esterified cholesterol (EC); the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) associated EFEMP1/Fibulin3 (Fib3); and levels of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA): cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) ACAT1, ACAT2 and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in ARPE-19 cells cultured in serum-supplemented and serum-free media. The results were compared with distributions of these lipids and proteins in human donor eyes with AMD. Serum deprivation of ARPE-19 was associated with increased formation of FM dye-positive membrane vesicles, many of which co-labeled for UC. Additionally, UC colocalized with Fib3 in distinct granules. By day 5, serum-deprived cells grown on transwells secreted Fib3 basally into the matrix. While mRNA and protein levels of ACTA1 were constant over several days of serum-deprivation, ACAT2 levels increased significantly after serum-deprivation, suggesting increased formation of EC. The lower levels of intracellular EC observed under serum-deprivation were associated with increased formation and secretion of ApoB. The responses to serum-deprivation in RPE-derived cells: accumulation and secretion of lipids, lipoproteins, and Fib3 are very similar to patterns seen in human donor eyes with AMD and suggest that this model mimics processes relevant to disease progression. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) agonists show potential as interventive agents during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roy G; Sun, Yuxiang; Jiang, Hong; Albarran-Zeckler, Rosie; Timchenko, Nikolai

    2007-11-01

    Administration of an orally active agonist (MK-0677) of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) to elderly subjects restored the amplitude of endogenous episodic growth hormone (GH) release to that of young adults. Functional benefits include increased lean mass and bone density and modest improvements in strength. In old mice, a similar agonist partially restored function to the thymus and reduced tumor cell growth and metastasis. Treatment of old mice with the endogenous GHS-R1a agonist ghrelin restored a young liver phenotype. The mechanism involves inhibition of cyclin D3:cdk4/cdk6 activity and increased protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) activity in liver nuclei, which stabilizes the dephosphorylated form of the transcription factor C/EBPalpha preventing the age-dependent formation of the C/EBPalpha-Rb-E2F4-Brm nuclear complex. By inhibiting formation of this complex, repression of E2F target genes is de-repressed and C/EBPalpha regulated expression of Pepck, a regulator of gluconeogenesis, is normalized, thereby restoring a young liver phenotype. In the brain, aging is associated with decline in dopamine function. We investigated the potential neuromodulatory role of GHS-R1a on dopamine action. Neurons were identified in the hippocampus, cortex, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental areas that coexpressed GHS-R1a and dopamine receptor subtype-1 (D1R). Cell culture studies showed that, in the presence of ghrelin and dopamine, GHS-R and D1R form heterodimers, which modified G-protein signal transduction resulting in amplification of dopamine signaling. We speculate that aging is associated with deficient endogenous ghrelin signaling that can be rescued by intervention with GHS-R1a agonists to improve quality of life and maintain independence.

  6. Lesão renal aguda após revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea Lesión renal aguda post-revascularización del miocardio con circulación extracorpórea Acute kidney injury after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Nassau Machado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A lesão renal aguda (LRA é uma doença complexa para a qual, atualmente, não há uma definição padrão aceita. A AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network representa uma tentativa de padronização dos critérios para diagnóstico e estadiamento da LRA, baseando-se nos critérios RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, e end-stage kidney disease, publicados recentemente. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a incidência e mortalidade associada à LRA em pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio (RM com circulação extracorpórea (CEC. MÉTODOS: O total de 817 pacientes foi dividido em dois grupos: LRA negativa (-, com 421 pacientes (51,5%, e LRA positiva (+, com 396 pacientes (48,5%. Foi considerado LRA a elevação da creatinina em 0,3 mg/dl ou aumento em 50% da creatinina em relação a seu valor basal. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade em 30 dias dos pacientes com e sem LRA foi de 12,6 % e 1,4%, respectivamente (p 14 dias - 14% vs. 2%; p FUNDAMENTO: Lesión renal aguda (LRA es una compleja enfermedad, la que, actualmente, no tiene definición patrón acepta. AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network representa una tentativa de estandardización de criterios para el diagnostico y estadiamiento de LRA basado en los criterios RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, y end-stage kidney disease publicados recientemente. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la incidencia y mortalidad asociada a LRA en pacientes sometidos a revascularización del miocardio (RM con circulación extracorpórea (CEC. MÉTODOS: El total de 817 pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos: LRA negativa (-, con 421 pacientes (51,5%, y LRA positiva (+, con 396 pacientes (48,5%. LRA fue considerada la elevación de creatinina en 0,3 mg/dl el aumento en 50% de creatinina en relación a su valor basal. RESULTADOS: La mortalidad dentro de 30 días de los pacientes con y sin LRA ha sido de 12,3 y 1,4%, respectivamente (p14 días, 14 versus 2%; pBACKGROUND: The acute kidney injury (AKI is a complex disease for which

  7. Clinical Risk Scoring Models for Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury after Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Hye Park

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of liver transplantation and is associated with increased mortality. We identified the incidence and modifiable risk factors for AKI after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT and constructed risk scoring models for AKI prediction. We retrospectively reviewed 538 cases of LDLT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for the prediction of AKI as defined by the RIFLE criteria (RIFLE = risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage. Three risk scoring models were developed in the retrospective cohort by including all variables that were significant in univariate analysis, or variables that were significant in multivariate analysis by backward or forward stepwise variable selection. The risk models were validated by way of cross-validation. The incidence of AKI was 27.3% (147/538 and 6.3% (34/538 required postoperative renal replacement therapy. Independent risk factors for AKI by multivariate analysis of forward stepwise variable selection included: body-mass index >27.5 kg/m2 [odds ratio (OR 2.46, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.32-4.55], serum albumin 20 (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.17-3.44, operation time >600 min (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.07-3.06, warm ischemic time >40 min (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.55-4.38, postreperfusion syndrome (OR 2.96, 95%CI 1.55-4.38, mean blood glucose during the day of surgery >150 mg/dl (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.01-2.70, cryoprecipitate > 6 units (OR 4.96, 95%CI 2.84-8.64, blood loss/body weight >60 ml/kg (OR 4.05, 95%CI 2.28-7.21, and calcineurin inhibitor use without combined mycophenolate mofetil (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.14-3.06. Our risk models performed better than did a previously reported score by Utsumi et al. in our study cohort. Doses of calcineurin inhibitor should be reduced by combined use of mycophenolate mofetil to decrease postoperative AKI. Prospective randomized trials are required to address whether artificial modification of hypoalbuminemia, hyperglycemia

  8. Acute kidney injury in critically ill child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jboor, Wejdan; Almardini, Reham; Al Bderat, Jwaher; Frehat, Mahdi; Al Masri, Hazem; Alajloni, Mohammad Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in patients in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). We conducted this study to estimate the incidence and the mortality rate of AKI in critically ill children as well as to describe some other related factors. A retrospective study was conducted at PICU of Queen Rania Abdulla Children Hospital, Amman, Jordan for the period extending from May 2011 to June 2013. The medical records of all patients admitted during this period, and their demographic data were reviewed. Patients with AKI were identified, and management and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. AKI was evaluated according to modified RIFLE criteria. Of the 372 patients admitted to PICU, 64 (17.2%) patients developed AKI. Of these 64 patients who had AKI, 28 (43.7%) patients reached RIFLE max of risk, 21 (32.8%) patients reached injury, and 15 (23.4%) reached failure. Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality II score at admission was significantly higher in patients with AKI than those without P <0.001. The age ranged between one month and 14 years with the median age as 5.4 year. Thirty-five (54.7%) were males. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI. The mortality rate in critically ill children without AKI was 58.7%, whereas increased in children with AKI to 73.4%. The mortality rate in patients who received renal replacement therapy was 71.4% and was higher (81.5%) in patients who received mechanical ventilation (95%, [confidence interval (CI)] 79.3-83.4%) and was significantly higher in patients with multi-organ system dysfunction 90.3% (95%, [CI] 88.7-92.5%). The incidence of AKI in critically ill children is high and increased their mortality rate and higher mortality seen in the younger age group, especially those below one year. High mortality rate was associated with multi-organ system dysfunction and the need for mechanical ventilation.

  9. Epidemiology and outcomes of children with renal failure in the pediatric ward of a tertiary hospital in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Marie Patrice; Lapsap, Carine Tsou; Barla, Esther; Fouda, Hermine; Djantio, Hilaire; Moudze, Beatrice Kaptue; Akazong, Christophe Adjahoung; Priso, Eugene Belley

    2017-12-06

    Pediatric nephrology is challenging in developing countries and data on the burden of kidney disease in children is difficult to estimate due to absence of renal registries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of children with renal failure in Cameroon. We retrospectively reviewed 103 medical records of children from 0 to 17 years with renal failure admitted in the Pediatric ward of the Douala General Hospital from 2004 to 2013. Renal failure referred to either acute kidney injury (AKI) or Stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI was defined and graded using either the modified RIFLE criteria or the Pediatrics RIFLE criteria, while CKD was graded using the KDIGO criteria. Outcomes of interest were need and access to dialysis and in-hospital mortality. For patients with AKI renal recovery was evaluated at 3 months. Median age was 84 months (1QR:15-144) with 62.1% males. Frequent clinical symptoms were asthenia, anorexia, 68.8% of participants had anuria. AKI accounted for 84.5% (n = 87) and CKD for 15.5% (n = 16). Chronic glomerulonephritis (9/16) and urologic malformations (7/16) were the causes of CKD and 81.3% were at stage 5. In the AKI subgroup, 86.2% were in stage F, with acute tubular necrosis (n = 50) and pre-renal AKI (n = 31) being the most frequent mechanisms. Sepsis, severe malaria, hypovolemia and herbal concoction were the main etiologies. Eight of 14 (57%) patients with CKD, and 27 of 40 (67.5%) with AKI who required dialysis, accessed it. In-hospital mortality was 50.7% for AKI and 50% for CKD. Of the 25 patients in the AKI group with available data at 3 months, renal recovery was complete in 22, partial in one and 2 were dialysis dependent. Factors associated to mortality were young age (p = 0.001), presence of a coma (p = 0.021), use of herbal concoction (p = 0.024) and acute pulmonary edema (p = 0.011). Renal failure is severe and carries a high mortality in hospitalized children in Cameroon

  10. Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za broj 4-2014/Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 4-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen R. Tišma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nova radarska tehnologija za unapređeni RS PVD patriot PAC-3 MSE; Precizno vođena avio-bomba AASM debitovala na nefrancuskoj letelici; Pokrenut projekat novog latinoameričkog školskog aviona; Erbas planira osposobljavanje evrofajtera za protivbrodsku borbu; Kina planira izgradnju domaćeg nosača aviona do 2017. godine; Boing otkrio detalje o letelici fantom svift za program VTOL X-Plane; IOMAX nudi koncept lakog aviona arkeindžel; U planu „pojednostavljena“ verzija transportnog helikoptera NH90; Prototip helikoptera S-97 rejder bliže prvom letu; Ruski T-50 PAK-FA u fazi letnih ispitivanja sa naoružanjem; Laki prenosni raketni sistem za PVD verba ušao u naoružanje ruskih padobranaca; Iran lansirao novu verziju rakete nazeat; Reno predstavio demonstrator vozila 6x6 pod oznakom BMX-01; Izraelski IWI nudi novu snajpersku pušku dan .338; Kolt prikazao jurišnu pušku CK901; Nosač aviona „Vikramaditja“ uveden u naoružanje indijske mornarice; Patrolni brod Mornarice Vojske Crne Gore „Kotor“ ponovo plovi. / New radar technology for enhanced air defence missile system Patriot PAC-3 MSE; Precision-guided air bomb AASM debuted on non-French aircraft; Project for the new Latin American training aircraft; Airbus plans to give Eurofighter maritime strike capability; China plans to build domestic carriers by 2017; Boeing revealed details about Phantom Swift for VTOL X-Plane; Iomax offers the concept of a light aircraft Arckangel; "Simplified" version of the NH90 transport helicopter planned; A prototype S-97 helicopter Raider closer to first flight; Russian T-50 PAK-FA in the phase of weapons flight tests; MANPADS Verba entered service with of Russian paratroopers; Iran launched a new version of the Nazeat rocket; Renault presented demonstrator vehicles 6x6 under the designation BMX-01; Israeli IWI offers a new sniper rifle Day .338; Colt showed assault rifle CK901; Aircraft carrier "Vikramaditya" commisioned with the Indian Navy; The

  11. Using 238U/235U ratios to understand the formation and oxidation of reduced uranium solids in naturally reduced zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemison, N.; Johnson, T. M.; Druhan, J. L.; Davis, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Uranium occurs in groundwater primarily as soluble and mobile U(VI), which can be reduced to immobile U(IV), often observed in sediments as uraninite. Numerous U(VI)-contaminated sites, such as the DOE field site in Rifle, CO, contain naturally reduced zones (NRZ's) that have relatively high concentrations of organic matter. Reduction of heavy metals occurs within NRZ's, producing elevated concentrations of iron sulfides and U(IV). Slow, natural oxidation of U(IV) from NRZ's may prolong U(VI) contamination of groundwater. The reduction of U(VI) produces U(IV) with a higher 238U/235U ratio. Samples from two NRZ sediment cores recovered from the Rifle site revealed that the outer fringes of the NRZ contain U(IV) with a high 238U/235U ratio, while lower values are observed in the center . We suggest that as aqueous U(VI) was reduced in the NRZ, it was driven to lower 238U/235U values, such that U(IV) formed in the core of the NRZ reflects a lower 238U/235U. Two oxidation experiments were conducted by injecting groundwater containing between 14.9 and 21.2 mg/L dissolved O2 as an oxidant into the NRZ. The oxidation of U(IV) from this NRZ increased aqueous U(VI) concentrations and caused a shift to higher 238U/235U in groundwater as U(IV) was oxidized primarily on the outer fringes of the NRZ. In total these observations suggest that the stability of solid phase uranium is governed by coupled reaction and transport processes. To better understand various reactive transport scenarios we developed a model for the formation and oxidation of NRZ's utilizing the reactive transport software CrunchTope. These simulations suggest that the development of isotopically heterogeneous U(IV) within NRZ's is largely controlled by permeability of the NRZ and the U(VI) reduction rate. Oxidation of U(IV) from the NRZ's is constrained by the oxidation rate of U(IV) as well as iron sulfides, which can prevent oxidation of U(IV) by scavenging dissolved oxygen.

  12. Investigating Uranium Mobility Using Stable Isotope Partitioning of 238U/235U and a Reactive Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjack, M.; Johnson, T. M.; Druhan, J. L.; Shiel, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    We report a numerical reactive transport model which explicitly incorporates the effectively stable isotopes of uranium (U) and the factors that influence their partitioning in bioactive systems. The model reproduces trends observed in U isotope ratios and concentration measurements from a field experiment, thereby improving interpretations of U isotope ratios as a tracer for U reactive transport. A major factor contributing to U storage and transport is its redox state, which is commonly influenced by the availability of organic carbon to support metal-reducing microbial communities. Both laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that biogenic reduction of U(VI) fractionates the stable isotope ratio 238U/235U, producing an isotopically heavy solid U(IV) product. It has also been shown that other common reactive transport processes involving U do not fractionate isotopes to a consistently measurable level, which suggests the capacity to quantify the extent of bioreduction occurring in groundwater containing U using 238U/235U ratios. A recent study of a U bioremediation experiment at the Rifle IFRC site (Colorado, USA) applied Rayleigh distillation models to quantify U stable isotope fractionation observed during acetate amendment. The application of these simplified models were fit to the observations only by invoking a "memory-effect," or a constant source of low-concentration, unfractionated U(VI). In order to more accurately interpret the measured U isotope ratios, we present a multi-component reactive transport model using the CrunchTope software. This approach is capable of quantifying the cycling and partitioning of individual U isotopes through a realistic network of transport and reaction pathways including reduction, oxidation, and microbial growth. The model incorporates physical heterogeneity of the aquifer sediments through zones of decreased permeability, which replicate the observed bromide tracer, major ion chemistry, U concentration, and U

  13. Fast Oxidation Processes in a Naturally Reduced Aquifer Zone Caused by Dissolved Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Jemison, N. E.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is quite common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. The naturally reduced zones are heterogeneously dispersed in such aquifers and are characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon and reduced phases, including iron sulfides and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases that are found in association with these natural reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Three field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO wherein groundwater associated with naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in these field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Small concentrations of nitrate were also observed in the previously nitrate-free groundwater, and Fe(II) decreased to the detection limit. These results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS) rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table, and seasonal variations

  14. Oxidation of naturally reduced uranium in aquifer sediments by dissolved oxygen and its potential significance to uranium plume persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Smith, R. L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Jemison, N.; Xiang, H.; Repert, D. A.; Yuan, X.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. Such reduced zones are usually heterogeneously dispersed in these aquifers and characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon, reduced mineral phases, and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases found in association with these reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Four field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO, wherein groundwater associated with the naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in such field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations decreased to the detection limit, but increases in sulfate could not be detected due to high background concentrations. Changes in nitrogen species concentrations were variable. The results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS), rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table

  15. Renal Dysfunction after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery- Risk Factors and Preventive Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Maitra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative renal dysfunction is a relatively common and one of the serious complications of cardiac surgery. Though off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery technique avoids cardiopulmonary bypass circuit induced adverse effects on renal function, multiple other factors cause postoperative renal dysfunction in these groups of patients. Acute kidney injury is generally defined as an abrupt and sustained decrease in kidney function. There is no consen-sus on the amount of dysfunction that defines acute kidney injury, with more than 30 definitions in use in the literature today. Although serum creatinine is widely used as a marker for changes in glomerular filtration rate, the criteria used to define renal dysfunction and acute renal failure is highly variable. The variety of definitions used in clinical studies may be partly responsible for the large variations in the reported incidence. Indeed, the lack of a uniform definition for acute kidney injury is believed to be a major impediment to research in the field. To establish a uniform definition for acute kidney injury, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative formulated the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney (RIFLE classification. RIFLE , defines three grades of increasing severity of acute kidney injury -risk (class R, injury (class I and failure (class F - and two outcome classes (loss and end-stage kidney disease. Various perioperative risk factors for postoperative renal dysfunction and failure have been identified. Among the important preoperative factors are advanced age, reduced left ventricular function, emergency surgery, preoperative use of intraaortic balloon pump, elevated preoperative serum glucose and creatinine. Most important intraoperative risk factor is the intraoperative haemodynamic instability and all the causes of postoperative low output syndrome com-prise the postoperative risk factors. The most important preventive strategies are the identification of the

  16. Comparison of Rates of Nephrotoxicity Associated with Vancomycin in Combination with Piperacillin-Tazobactam Administered as an Extended versus Standard Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Mariam; Zapolskaya, Tanya; Scipione, Marco R; Louie, Eddie; Papadopoulos, John; Dubrovskaya, Yanina

    2017-03-01

    Despite recent reports of relatively high rates (16-37%) of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving the combination of intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) and vancomycin, data are limited evaluating the impact of PTZ infusion strategy on the occurrence of nephrotoxicity. The objective of this study was to compare the rates of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving vancomycin in combination with PTZ administered as an extended infusion (EI) versus a standard infusion (SI). Single-center, retrospective, matched-cohort study. Large academic tertiary care hospital. Two hundred eighty adults with a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 40 ml/minute or higher who received at least 96 hours of vancomycin plus PTZ EI (140 patients) or vancomycin plus PTZ SI (140 patients) between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011, and between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014 (year 2012 was skipped due the closure of inpatient units following Superstorm Sandy); 48 patients in each group were admitted to the intensive care unit. The median age of all patients was 67 (interquartile range [IQR] 54-77) years, and CrCl was 75 (IQR 55-107) ml/minute. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by the risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Rates of AKI, according to these criteria, were similar between groups: 17.9% versus 17.1% (p=1) and 32.9% versus 29.3% (p=0.596) for the PTZ EI and PTZ SI groups, respectively. When controlling for residual differences between groups in a conditional logistic regression analysis, no association was observed between receipt of PTZ EI and RIFLE-defined AKI (odds ratio 0.522, 95% confidence interval 0.043-6.295, p=0.609). Time to onset of nephrotoxicity was 4 (IQR 3-6) days, with no significant difference noted between groups (p=0.887). Our findings suggest a similar rate of nephrotoxicity between patients who received vancomycin in combination with PTZ EI versus PTZ SI. These results need

  17. Acetate availability and its influence on sustainable bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Davis, James A.; Wilkins, Michael J.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Steefel, Carl I.; Yang, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Spane, Frank A.; Kerkhof, L.; McGuinness, L.; Dayvault, Richard; Lovley, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Field biostimulation experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado, have demonstrated that uranium concentrations in groundwater can be decreased to levels below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) drinking water standard (0.126 (micro)M). During successive summer experiments - referred to as 'Winchester' (2007) and 'Big Rusty' (2008) - acetate was added to the aquifer to stimulate the activity of indigenous dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria capable of reductively immobilizing uranium. The two experiments differed in the length of injection (31 vs. 110 days), the maximum concentration of acetate (5 vs. 30 mM), and the extent to which iron reduction ('Winchester') or sulfate reduction ('Big Rusty') was the predominant metabolic process. In both cases, rapid removal of U(VI) from groundwater occurred at calcium concentrations (6 mM) and carbonate alkalinities (8 meq/L) where Ca-UO2-CO3 ternary complexes constitute >90% of uranyl species in groundwater. Complete consumption of acetate and increased alkalinity (>30 meq/L) accompanying the onset of sulfate reduction corresponded to temporary increases in U(VI); however, by increasing acetate concentrations in excess of available sulfate (10 mM), low U(VI) concentrations (0.1-0.05 (micro)M) were achieved for extended periods of time (>140 days). Uniform delivery of acetate during 'Big Rusty' was impeded due to decreases in injection well permeability, likely resulting from biomass accumulation and carbonate and sulfide mineral precipitation. Such decreases were not observed during the short-duration 'Winchester' experiment. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that Geobacter sp. and Geobacter-like strains dominated the groundwater community profile during iron reduction, with 13C stable isotope probing (SIP) results confirming these strains were actively utilizing acetate to

  18. Acetate availability and its influence on sustainable bioremediation of Uranium-contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; Davis, J.A.; Wilkins, M.J.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Steefel, Carl; Yang, L.; Newcomer, D.; Spane, F.A.; Kerkhof, L.J.; Mcguinness, L.; Dayvault, R.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Field biostimulation experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado, have demonstrated that uranium concentrations in groundwater can be decreased to levels below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) drinking water standard (0.126??M).During successive summer experiments - referred to as "Winchester" (2007) and "Big Rusty" (2008) - acetate was added to the aquifer to stimulate the activity of indigenous dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria capable of reductively immobilizing uranium. The two experiments differed in the length of injection (31 vs. 110 days), the maximum concentration of acetate (5 vs. 30 mM),and the extent to which iron reduction ("Winchester") or sulfate reduction("Big Rusty") was the predominant metabolic process. In both cases, rapid removal of U(VI) from groundwater occurred at calcium concentrations (6 mM) and carbonate alkalinities (8 meq/L) where Ca-UO2-CO3 ternary complexes constitute >90% of uranyl species in groundwater. Complete consumption of acetate and increased alkalinity (>30 meq/L) accompanying the onset of sulfate reduction corresponded to temporary increases in U(VI);however, by increasing acetate concentrations in excess of available sulfate (10 mM), low U(VI) concentrations (0.1-0.05 ??M) were achieved for extended periods of time (>140 days). Uniform delivery of acetate during "Big Rusty" was impeded due to decreases in injection well permeability, likely resulting from biomass accumulation and carbonate and sulfide mineral precipitation. Such decreases were not observed during the short-duration "Winchester" experiment. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that Geobacter sp. and Geobacter-like strains dominated the groundwater community profile during iron reduction, with 13C stable isotope probing (SIP) results confirming these strains were actively utilizing acetate to replicate their

  19. Massive transfusion: an overview of the main characteristics and potential risks associated with substances used for correction of a coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Samama, Meyer Michel

    2012-10-01

    activation of coagulation, platelets, complement and vascular endothelial cells, where haemolysis, microvesiculation, exposure of phosphatidyl serine positive cells, altered red cells with reduced adhesive proteins and the presence of some BRM, could play a pivotal role in the coagulopathy and untoward effects. The challenges of improving the safety of massive transfusion remain as numerous and as varied as ever. The answer may reside in appropriate studies on designer whole blood, combined with new innovative tools to diagnosis a coagulopathy and an evidence based mode of therapy to establish the optimal survival benefit of patients, always taking into account the concept of harm reduction and reduction of collateral damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFarquhar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9–10 October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors' concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process

  1. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sednev, I.; Menon, S.; McFarquhar, G.

    2009-07-01

    The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9-10 October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors' concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase initiation

  2. Time Trends of High Blood Pressure Prevalence, Awareness and Control in the Italian General Population : Surveys of the National Institute of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lonardo, Anna; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palmieri, Luigi; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona

    2017-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The urgency of the problem was underlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which recommends a 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised BP by 2020. A surveillance system represents a useful tool to monitor BP in the general population. Since 1980s, the National Institute of Health has conducted several surveys of the adult general population, measuring cardiovascular risk factors by standardized procedures and methods. To describe mean BP levels and high BP prevalence from 1978 to 2012 by sex and quinquennia of age. Data were derived from the following three studies: (i) Risk Factors and Life Expectancy (RIFLE), conducted between 1978 and 2002 in 13 Italian regions (>70,000 persons); (ii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare (OEC), conducted between 1998-2002 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons); and (iii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey (OEC/HES), conducted between 2008-2012 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons). A significant decrease in mean systolic and diastolic BP levels and prevalence of high BP from 1978 to 2012 was observed both in men and women. BP and high BP increased by age classes in all considered periods. BP awareness and control also improved. Our data suggest that BP control could be achieved by 2020, as recommended by WHO.

  3. Adsorption isotherm special study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The study was designed to identify methods to determine adsorption applicable to Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, and to determine how changes in aquifer conditions affect metal adsorption, resulting retardation factors, and estimated contaminant migration rates. EPA and ASTM procedures were used to estimate sediment sorption of U, As, and Mo under varying groundwater geochemical conditions. Aquifer matrix materials from three distinct locations at the DOE UMTRA Project site in Rifle, CO, were used as the adsorbents under different pH conditions; these conditions stimulated geochemical environments under the tailings, near the tailings, and downgradient from the tailings. Grain size, total surface area, bulk and clay mineralogy, and petrography of the sediments were characterized. U and Mo yielded linear isotherms, while As had nonlinear ones. U and Mo were adsorbed strongly on sediments acidified to levels similar to tailings leachate. Changes in pH had much less effect on As adsorption. Mo was adsorbed very little at pH 7-7.3, U was weakly sorbed, and As was moderately sorbed. Velocities were estimated for metal transport at different pHs. Results show that the aquifer materials must be characterized to estimate metal transport velocities in aquifers and to develop groundwater restoration strategies for the UMTRA project

  4. Uranium interaction with soil minerals in the presence of co-contaminants: Case Study- subsurface sediments at or below the water table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartman, Brandy N.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2016-03-09

    Uranium (U) contaminated subsurface systems are common on a global scale mainly because of its essential role in the production of plutonium for nuclear weapons and other nuclear energy and research activities. Studying the behavior and fate of U in these systems is challenging because of heterogeneities of different types (i.e., physical, chemical and mineralogical) and a complex network of often time-dependent hydrological, biological and chemical reactions and processes that occur sequentially or simultaneously, affecting and/or controlling U mobility. A U contaminated site, i.e., the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Rifle, CO, USA (a former U mill site) is the focus of this discussion. The overall objectives of this chapter are to 1) provide an overview of the contamination levels (U and other co-contaminants) at this field site; 2) review and discuss different aspects of mineral-U contaminant interactions in reduced and oxidized environments, and in the presence of co-contaminants; 3) present results from a systematic macroscopic, microscopic, and spectroscopic study as an example of the current research efforts and the state-of-knowledge in this important research area; and 4) offer insightful conclusive remarks and future research needs about reactions and processes that control U and other contaminants’ fate and behavior under hydraulically saturated conditions. The implications and applications presented in this chapter are valid for U contaminated sites across the world.

  5. “Something More Than a Rifle”: Firearms in and around Thomas Pynchon’s Mason & Dixon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Rossi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to carry out a multidisciplinary reading of 'Mason & Dixon' starting from the apparitions of what might only look like a "stage prop", a rifle in four more or less important moments of the novel. By applying a stereoscopic reading of the novel, which may achieve depth by means of comparing different textual objects and a wider historical context (that of the history of firearms in the 17th and 18th century, plus other works by Pynchon featuring firearms, it will be shown how literary (textual avatars of "real", "historical" objects (firearms may at the same time be verbal constructs but refer to the technical, material features of those objects, establishing multi-dimensional and complex relations between technology, science, economics (early forms of globalization, politics (colonialism and colonial wars within and outside 'Mason & Dixon', and the rest of Pynchon's oeuvre. Moreover, this reading allows us to better understand how Pynchon may use the historical documents and literature he has found while researching his novels.

  6. Incidence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury associated with scrub typhus: a retrospective study of 510 consecutive patients in South Korea (2001-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyungo; Jang, Ha Nee; Lee, Tae Won; Cho, Hyun Seop; Bae, Eunjin; Chang, Se-Ho; Park, Dong Jun

    2017-03-15

    Renal involvement in scrub typhus ranges from simple urinary abnormalities to acute kidney injury (AKI) leading to death. This study evaluated the incidence, predictors and prognosis of AKI associated with scrub typhus according to the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease) criteria. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients diagnosed with scrub typhus from January 2001 to November 2013 in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. During the study period, 510 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus and the incidence of AKI was 35.9%. There were 132 (25.9%) patients at risk, 37 (7.3%) with injury and 14 (2.7%) with failure. In comparison with the non-AKI group, the AKI group was older (73.9 vs 63.4 years, pscrub typhus. Our current results suggest that the presence of underlying CKD, older age, lower serum albumin level and time to hospital presentation after symptom onset were important risk factors to determine occurrence of AKI. Whether earlier diagnosis and treatment in patients with the above risk factors reduce the incidence and severity of AKI deserves to be investigated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Clinical significance of NGAL and KIM-1 for acute kidney injury in patients with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, In O; Shin, Sung Hye; Cho, A Young; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Chang, Mi Yok; Lee, Kwang Young

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with scrub typhus. From 2014 to 2015, 145 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Of these, we enrolled 138 patients who were followed up until renal recovery or for at least 3 months. We measured serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels and evaluated prognostic factors affecting scrub typhus-associated AKI. Of the 138 patients, 25 had scrub typhus-associated AKI. The incidence of AKI was 18.1%; of which 11.6%, 4.3%, and 2.2% were classified as risk, injury, and failure, respectively, according to RIFLE criteria. Compared with patients in the non-AKI group, patients in the AKI group were older and showed higher total leukocyte counts and hypoalbuminemia or one or more comorbidities such as hypertension (72% vs 33%, pscrub typhus-associated AKI.

  8. Proteogenomic monitoring of Geobacter physiology during stimulated uranium bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Williams, K.H.; Callister, S.J.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Thomas, B.C.; Nicora, C.D.; Shah, M.B.; Lipton, M.S.; Lovley, D.R.; Hettich, R.L.; Long, P.E.; Banfield, J.F.; Abraham, P.

    2009-08-01

    Implementation of uranium bioremediation requires methods for monitoring the membership and activities of the subsurface microbial communities that are responsible for reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Here, we report a proteomics-based approach for simultaneously documenting the strain membership and microbial physiology of the dominant Geobacter community members during in situ acetate amendment of the U-contaminated Rifle, CO, aquifer. Three planktonic Geobacter-dominated samples were obtained from two wells down-gradient of acetate addition. Over 2,500 proteins from each of these samples were identified by matching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry spectra to peptides predicted from seven isolate Geobacter genomes. Genome-specific peptides indicate early proliferation of multiple M21 and Geobacter bemidjiensis-like strains and later possible emergence of M21 and G. bemidjiensis-like strains more closely related to Geobacter lovleyi. Throughout biostimulation, the proteome is dominated by enzymes that convert acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate for central metabolism, while abundant peptides matching tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins and ATP synthase subunits were also detected, indicating the importance of energy generation during the period of rapid growth following the start of biostimulation. Evolving Geobacter strain composition may be linked to changes in protein abundance over the course of biostimulation and may reflect changes in metabolic functioning. Thus, metagenomics-independent community proteogenomics can be used to diagnose the status of the subsurface consortia upon which remediation biotechnology relies.

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.` different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  10. [Gunshot wounds caused by non-lethal ammunition on the porcine model post-mortem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabrocký, Peter; Pivko, Juraj; Vondráková, Mária; Tažký, Boris

    2013-10-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of so called non-lethal ammunition. We studied possible mechanism of firearm injury formation as a consequence of using firearm on the body, to present a more comprehensive material in wound ballistics. We pointed out possible actions of a projectile causes on human, respectively other animal organisms, as well as to a manner in which an injury is caused by rifles or shotguns using non-lethal ammunition with rubber projectiles. In the experiment, we have focused on macroscopic analysis of the tissue penetrated by a rubber projectile fired from a long firearm and pump-action shotgun while focusing on the anatomical-morphological analysis of entry wounds to determine the effectiveness respectively, the wounding potential of the projectile. The results of the experiment based on the macroscopic analysis of entry wounds, cavities and exit wounds, show that when a rubber projectile penetrates the body it causes loss of the tissue (i.e. the minus effect) and mechanical disruption of the tissue similar to lethal projectile. Based on the measures and ballistic computations we concluded that in specific cases, like for example in a close range hit, a penetration of vital organs can cause serious or even lethal injuries.

  11. The effect of range and ammunition type on fracture patterns in porcine postcranial flat bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Al Hakeem, Eyad; Bulut, Ozgur; Simmons, Tal

    2018-01-01

    Pig half-carcasses were shot in scapulae, ribs and mandibles with either 0.243 hunting rifle using high velocity expanding ammunition (N = 30) or AK47 using full metal jacketed (FMJ) ammunition (N = 12) from a range of either 5 or 20 m. Fracture patterns related to distance of fire and ammunition type were compared on de-fleshed, macerated, and reconstructed bones. For expanding ammunition, location of fracture on ribs affected the resulting pattern. Scapulae shot from 5 m presented a comminuted pattern different from those shot from 20 m. Mandibles shot from 20 m showed a characteristic radiating pattern at entrance with the opposite ramus un-fractured; those shot from 5 m exhibited fractures to both rami. Using decision tree analysis provided accuracies of 93.8% for scapulae and 87.5% for mandibles. For FMJ, no distance dependent fracture differences were apparent in any bone. Decision tree analysis facilitated the interpretation of fracture patterns caused by projectile trauma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.' different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments

  13. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Reeves, T.L.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-11-01

    The scope of the original research program and of its continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large-scale testing sufficient to describe commercial-scale embankment behavior. The large-scale testing was accomplished by constructing five lysimeters, each 7.3x3.0x3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process (Schmalfield 1975). Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was placed in the lysimeter cells. This report discusses and summarizes results from scientific efforts conducted between October 1991 and September 1992 for Fiscal Year 1992

  14. Mountford Joseph Bramley: A pioneering thyroidologist and the first principal of Asia′s oldest medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountford Joseph Bramley was one of the educationists whose sincere efforts are undeniable in the making of modern India. After achieving the Member of the Royal College of Surgeons diploma, he joined the Malta Garrison as a Hospital Assistant and was soon promoted to the rank of Assistant Surgeon of the Rifle Brigade. Following his arrival in India in 1826, he held several important medical posts in the British service. He was one of the early researchers to investigate the role of iodine in the causation of goitre. He was appointed as the first Principal of the Medical College of Bengal, the oldest medical college in Asia, in 1835. Bramley was an educationist from the very core of his heart, and he always wished for the betterment of his students. He died early at the age of 34 years. His legacy as a pioneer in the fields of medical education and endocrinology, specifically thyroidology, has largely been shrouded in a miasma of time.

  15. A longitudinal ecological study of household firearm ownership and firearm-related deaths in the United States from 1999 through 2014: A specific focus on gender, race, and geographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Geier, Mark R

    2017-06-01

    Firearms have a longstanding tradition in the United States (US) and are viewed by many with iconic stature with regards to safety and personal freedom. Unfortunately, from a public health point of view, firearm-related deaths (FRDs) in the US have reached a crisis point with an estimated > 31,000 deaths and 74,000 nonfatal injuries resulting from firearms each year. This longitudinal ecological study analyzed variations in FRDs following firearm assaults (FAs) and law enforcement incidents involving a firearm (LEIF) in comparison to variations in household firearm ownership (HFO) among different geographic and demographic groups in the US from 1999 to 2014. The Underlying Cause of Death database was examined on the CDC Wonder online interface. Records coded with ICD-10 codes: FA (X93 - assault by handgun discharge, X94 - assault by rifle, shotgun, and larger firearm discharge, or X95 - assault by other and unspecified firearm discharge) and LEIF (Y35.0) were examined, and the prevalence of HFO was determined using the well-established proxy of the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm. Gender, ethnicity, Census Division, and urbanization significantly impacted the death rates from FA and LEIF. Significant direct correlations between variations in HFO and death rates from FAs and LEIF were observed. Understanding the significant impacts of gender, race, Census Division, and urbanization status may help shape future public health policy to promote increased firearm safety.

  16. Pathophysiological effects and changes in potassium, ionised calcium, glucose and haemoglobin early after severe blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocksén, David; Gryth, Dan; Druid, Henrik; Gustavsson, Jenny; Arborelius, Ulf P

    2012-05-01

    Severe lung contusion is often observed after blunt chest trauma due to traffic accidents or fall from heights, but may also occur after a non-penetrating ballistic impact against body armour. Such trauma has been designated behind armour blunt trauma (BABT). Our aim in the present study has been to evaluate pathophysiological changes and compensatory mechanisms that occur early after such severe lung contusion. Twelve pigs wearing body armour were shot with a 7.62mm assault rifle to produce a standardised pulmonary contusion. Exposed animals were compared with five control animals shot with blank ammunition. Physiological parameters and levels of potassium, glucose, haemoglobin, calcium, lactate and pH were monitored for two hours after the shot. The impact induced severe pulmonary contusion with apnoea, desaturation and hypotension in all exposed animals. Increased haemoglobin, glucose and severe hyperkalaemia were seen shortly after impact. Seven of twelve animals died due to the trauma. Dense cardiac tissue was observed during post mortem examination in six of the animals that died during the experimental course. In conclusion, this study has shown that life-threatening hyperkalaemia occurs early after severe lung contusion. Moreover, dense cardiac tissue and early increase of haemoglobin and glucose are intriguing findings that should be investigated in future studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  18. High frame-rate neutron radiography of dynamic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Robinson, A.H.; Barton, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    A system has been developed to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events having a duration of several milliseconds. The system has been operated in the range of 2000 to 10,000 frames/second. Synchronization has provided high-speed-motion neutron radiographs for evaluation of the firing cycle of 7.62 mm munition rounds within a steel rifle barrel. The system has also been used to demonstrate the ability to produce neutron radiographic movies of two-phase flow. The equipment uses the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor capable of pulsing to 3000 MW peak power, a neutron beam collimator, a scintillator neutron conversion screen coupled to an image intensifier, and a 16 mm high speed movie camera. The peak neutron flux incident at the object position is approximately 4 x 10 11 n/cm 2 s with a pulse, full width at half maximum, of 9 ms. Special studies have been performed on the scintillator conversion screens and on the effects of statistical limitations on the image quality. Modulation transfer function analysis has been used to assist in the evaluation of the system performance

  19. Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services: the GAPS in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne; Bennett, Shannon; Young, Margaret; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2003-05-01

    Pre- and post-Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) comparison of outcomes gathered via chart audit. A rural hospital-based general pediatric clinic. Adolescents who underwent annual examinations between April 1, 1998, and March 31, 2001. A random sample of 441 medical records was reviewed. Training in the GAPS model and use of the questionnaire began in April 1998. Detection of, discussion of, and referrals for GAPS-related risk behavior. The medical records of 162 younger adolescents (aged 11-15 years) and 279 older adolescents (aged 16-19 years) were audited. Detection of risk behaviors increased from 19% at baseline to 95% with the initial GAPS and 87% with the periodic GAPS. The most prevalent risk factor was having a rifle or gun in the home (younger adolescents, 47% and older adolescents, 39%). The mean number of risk behaviors and health concerns documented was higher in the initial GAPS (4.8 and 1.3, respectively) than in the periodic GAPS (3.8 and 0.7) (P =.01 and.006). The GAPS questionnaires detected lower levels of risk behavior compared with a local Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Controlling for sex, age, and clinician, discussion of psychosocial topics increased during the study period; however, there was considerable variation among clinicians regarding the topics addressed. The GAPS-related referral rate did not change significantly. The GAPS model increases clinicians' detection and discussion of risk behaviors.

  20. Mortality disparities among groups participating in an East Africa surveying expedition: the Herbert Henry Austin expedition of 1900-1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C

    2013-10-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims. In 1900-1901, Major Herbert Henry Austin led a British expedition down to the lake from Khartoum in the north. Of the 62 African, Arab, and European members of this expedition, only 18 (29 %) arrived at its final destination at Lake Baringo in Kenya. Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April 1901. For the next 4 months, the members of the expedition struggled down the west side of the lake and beyond. The greatest mortality (91 %) occurred among the 32 African transport drivers who were the most marginally nourished at the outset of the trip. The lowest mortality among the Africans on the expedition (15 %) occurred among the members of the Tenth Sudanese Rifles Battalion, who had an excellent nutritional status at the start of the expedition. Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye. An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation.