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  1. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices D and E: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  2. Hydrogen Peroxide in Groundwater at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Nico, P. S.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Davis, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as a reactive transient presenting ubiquitously in natural surface waters, can react with a large suite of biologically important and redox-sensitive trace elements. The dominant source of H2O2 in natural waters has long been thought to be photo-oxidation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by molecular oxygen to produce superoxide radical, which then proceeds via dismutation to generate H2O2. However, recent studies have indicated that dark production of H2O2 in deep seawater, principally by biological production, is potentially on par with photochemical generation. Here, we present evidence for abiotic dark generation of H2O2 in groundwater in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO. Background H2O2 concentrations were determined in situ using a sensitive chemiluminescence-based method. Our results suggest H2O2 concentrations ranged from lower than the detection limit (1 nM) to 54 nM in different monitoring wells at the site, and the concentrations exhibited close correlations with profiles of dissolved oxygen and iron concentrations in the wells, indicating a possible metal redox cycling mechanism. In addition, dissolved natural organic matter, which could potentially coordinate the interconversion of ferric and ferrous species, might also play an important role in H2O2 formation. While biologically mediated activities have been recognized as the major sink of H2O2, the detected H2O2 pattern in groundwater suggests the existence of a balance between H2O2 source and decay, which potentially involves a cascade of biogeochemically significant processes, including the interconversion of ferrous/ferric species, the generation of more reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radical, the depletion of dissolved oxygen and further transformation of natural organic matter and other chemical pollutants.

  3. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 5, Addenda D6--D8 to Appendix D: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This volume contains appendices D6 through D8 containing laboratory test data: from MK-F investigation, 1987, Old Rifle and New Rifle sites; on bentonite amended radon barrier material; and from MK-F investigation, 1987, riprap tests.

  4. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-02-01

    This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Rifle sites. That remedial action consists of removing approximately 4,185,000 cubic yards (cy) of tailings and contaminated materials from their current locations, transporting, and stabilizing the tailings material at the Estes Gulch disposal site, approximately six miles north of Rifle. The tailings and contaminated materials are comprised of approximately 597,000 cy from Old Rifle, 3,232,000 cy from New Rifle, and 322,000 cy from vicinity properties and about 34,000 cy from demolition. The remedial action plan includes specific design requirements for the detailed design and construction of the remedial action. An extensive amount of data and supporting information have been generated for this remedial action and cannot all be incorporated into this document. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents.

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado: Final report. Volume 4, Addenda D1--D5 to Appendix D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James W.

    1990-02-01

    This radiologic characterization of tho two inactive uranium millsites at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junction Projects Office, in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. (Jacobs). The purpose of this project is to define the extent of radioactive contamination at the Rifle sites that exceeds US Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) standards for UMTRA sites. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. An orientation visit to the study area was conducted on 31 July--1 August 1984, in conjunction with Jacobs, to determine the approximate extent of contaminated area surrounding tho piles. During that visit, survey control points were located and baselines were defined from which survey grids would later be established; drilling requirements were assessed; and radiologic and geochemical data were collected for use in planning the radiologic fieldwork. The information gained from this visit was used by Jacobs, with cooperation by Bendix, to determine the scope of work required for the radiologic characterization of the Rifle sites. Fieldwork at Rifle was conducted from 1 October through 16 November 1984.

  6. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  7. Geologic map of the Rifle Falls quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Egger, Anne

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Rifle Falls 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift. Bedrock strata include the Upper Cretaceous Iles Formation through Ordovician and Cambrian units. The Iles Formation includes the Cozzette Sandstone and Corcoran Sandstone Members, which are undivided. The Mancos Shale is divided into three members, an upper member, the Niobrara Member, and a lower member. The Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and the Entrada Sandstone are present. Below the Upper Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, the easternmost limit of the Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Glen Canyon Sandstone is recognized. Both the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the Lower Triassic(?) and Permian State Bridge Formation are present. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Maroon Formation is divided into two members, the Schoolhouse Member and a lower member. All the exposures of the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Evaporite intruded into the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation, which includes locally mappable limestone beds. The Middle and Lower Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and the Lower Mississippian Leadville Limestone are present. The Upper Devonian Chaffee Group is divided into the Dyer Dolomite, which is broken into the Coffee Pot Member and the Broken Rib Member, and the Parting Formation. Ordovician through Cambrian units are undivided. The southwest flank of the White River uplift is a late Laramide structure that is represented by the steeply southwest-dipping Grand Hogback, which is only present in the southwestern corner of the map area, and less steeply southwest-dipping older strata that flatten to nearly horizontal attitudes in the northern part of the map area. Between these two is a large-offset, mid

  8. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This volume contains appendices D6 through D8 containing laboratory test data: from MK-F investigation, 1987, Old Rifle and New Rifle sites; on bentonite amended radon barrier material; and from MK-F investigation, 1987, riprap tests.

  9. Economic evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings, Old Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teel, J H [Mountain States Research and Development, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Mountain States Research and Development was contracted on March 1, 1981 to make an economic evaluation study at each of 12 abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the western states. The objective of this work was to obtain the data necessary at each site to determine the possible revenue that could be derived from reprocessing the tailings. To accomplish this objective a drilling and sampling program was established for each site to determine the total amount of tailings and subbase material available for treatment and the amount of recoverable uranium, vanadium and molybdenum. These three metals were selected due to their common occurrence in uranium ores and common extractability in the leaching process. Laboratory leaching was then conducted on the samples obtained to determine the extractability of each of these metals and the optimum plant process to be applied. As the metal contents were generally low and represented mineral that had not been leached during previous processing, the economic evaluation is limited to consideration of the direct capital and operating costs required in connection with processing of each respective site material. Excavating, transportation and disposal of the material from each site in an environmentally acceptable location and manner was not within the scope of this project. It will be necessary to complete a separate study of these areas in order to determine the total costs involved. This report contains the results of the investigations of the Old Rifle Site.

  10. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  11. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects`s New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup.

  12. Clay Mineralogy of Soils and Sediments from an Alluvial Aquifer, Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Lim, D.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Alluvial aquifers along the Colorado River corridor in central to western Colorado contain legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial aquifers host important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface that are both significant on their own, but also influence contaminant behavior. Mineral phases likely active in the sequestration of metal contaminants are chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite, and smectite. These minerals are also important biogeofacies markers. The Colorado alluvial sediments include lenses of silt and clay that are commonly more reduced than coarser grained materials. The clay minerals that make up the alluvial aquifer sediments include these mineral phases important for metal sequestration (chlorite, smectite, illite), as well as kaolinite and quartz. More specifically, the clay mineralogy of soils derived from these sediments at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the alluvial sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade. The vermiculite-smectite intergrade is a weathering product of illite. The presence of illite and chlorite in both the sediments and the soils at Rifle reflect a mineralogically immature character of the source rocks. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate, indicative of mixed provence of immature (chlorite, smectite, illite) and mature (kaolinite) minerals relative to their source areas.

  13. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James (PNNL); Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince (PNNL); Leullen, Jon (AECOM)

    2016-02-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  14. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  15. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediments from a former mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.P.; Fox, P.M.; Davis, J.A.; Campbell, K.M.; Hayes, K.F.; Long, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A study of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediment samples from a former uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted under oxic conditions as a function of pH, U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed using tailings site at Naturita, Colorado, indicated that possible calcite nonequilibrium of dissolved calcium concentration should be evaluated. The modeling results also illustrate the importance of the range of data used in deriving the best fit model parameters. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  17. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2009-04-20

    Injection of organic carbon into the subsurface as an electron donor for bioremediation of redox-sensitive contaminants like uranium often leads to mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation efficacy. This work combines reactive transport modeling with a column experiment and field measurements to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/accumulation during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. We use the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to explicitly simulate microbial community dynamics of iron and sulfate reducers, and their impacts on reaction rates. The column experiment shows clear evidence of mineral precipitation, primarily in the form of calcite and iron monosulfide. At the field scale, reactive transport simulations suggest that the biogeochemical reactions occur mostly close to the injection wells where acetate concentrations are highest, with mineral precipitate and biomass accumulation reaching as high as 1.5% of the pore space. This work shows that reactive transport modeling coupled with field data can be an effective tool for quantitative estimation of mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, thus improving the design of bioremediation strategies.

  18. Near-surface seismic surveys at Rifle, Colorado for shallow groundwater contamination risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Zelt, C. A.; Levander, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August 2012, we carried out a series of seismic surveys at a site located approximately 0.3 mile east of the city of Rifle in Garfield County, Colorado. The ground water beneath this site was contaminated by former vanadium and uranium ore-processing operations from 1924 through 1958. The site is on an alluvial terrace created by a flood-plain meander of the Colorado River. On the south side, the terrace is bounded by a steep descending slope to the Colorado River; on the other sides, it is bounded by ascending slopes of the more resistant sedimentary rocks of the Wasatch Formation. Although remedial actions have been taken to remove the contaminated surface materials, there are still potential risks from residual materials and redistribution of the contaminated water harming human health. This seismic project, funded by The U.S. Department of Energy, was designed to provide hydrogeologic information through sub-surface velocity model building and imaging of the water aquifer. A 3D compressional wave seismic survey covers an area that is 96 m in the N-S direction by 60 m in the E-W direction. An orthogonal, symmetric receiver and source template was used with 24 receiver lines, 96 channels per receiver line, and 2.5 m between lines. The inline shot and receiver spacing is 2 m and 1 m, respectively. The source was an accelerated weight drop striking a metal plate. The source has a dominant frequency at ~60 Hz, and is down by 20 db at 20 Hz and 150 Hz, providing data suitable for seismic tomography and seismic migration methods. Besides this 3D survey, three other seismic experiments were performed: (1) a 2D multi-component source and receiver survey, (2) a 3D surface wave experiment using 4.5 Hz geophones, and (3) an ambient noise experiment using 4.5 Hz geophones to record passing vehicles and trains. Preliminary results of the data analysis will be presented.

  19. Tracking transport and transformation of dissolved organic matter using fluorescence spectroscopy at Rifle vadose zone, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Gilbert, B.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents the most mobile and active form of natural organic matter. It plays important roles in terrestrial C transport and biogeochemical cycles. Its reactivity makes it sensitive to seasonal variations and climate change. The objective of this study is to investigate the transport and transformation of DOM by tracking the spatial and seasonal variations of DOM concentrations and characteristics throughout the vadose zone and groundwater within a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. Three sets of vertically stratified pore water samplers were installed along a groundwater flow transect, and allowed collection of temporally resolved pore water samples from different depths. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy was used to trace changes in DOM characteristics. The humification index (HIX) was applied to evaluate variations in humification extent of DOM. EEM analysis identified fulvic-like, humic-like, tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like substances as the major fluorescent components of DOM in pore waters. Tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like compounds are typically considered as the recent microbial by-products, and they showed higher concentrations in the deeper vadose zone in late spring, and decrease from spring to winter. HIX values are smaller within the deeper vadose zone (1.5 ̶ 3.5 m) than in the overlying 1.0 m soil water and underlying groundwater samples (≥ 3.5 m), suggesting that some non- or less-humified DOM (or "fresh" microbial-derived DOM) was transferred during late spring. HIX value at each depth increased continuously from late spring to winter, with rapid humification occurring in late spring to early summer. These results suggest an annual cycle in which less humified soil organic matter is transferred into the deeper vadose zone during snowmelt/rainfall events, and then humified further through microbial transformation.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  1. Uranium Bioreduction Rates Across Scales During a Biostimulation Field Experiments at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehikhoo, F.; Bao, C.; Li, L.; Wu, H.; Williams, K. H.; Newcomer, D.; Long, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial evolution of biogeochemical processes at different spatial scales is important (and challenging) for complex, heterogeneous subsurface systems. In this work, we aim to understand the dynamic propagation of uranium bioreduction rates across scales during a field biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected as an electron donor to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and reduce mobile U(VI) to immobile U(IV). Bicarbonate was co-injected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI) to investigate the impact of bicarbonate on the bioreduction of mobile U(VI). We use reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic conductivity and aqueous geochemistry data and to quantify bioreduction rates from the local grid block scale (approximately 0.25 meters) to the field scale (10s of meters). The modeling results showed good agreement with the geochemical measurements in the 17 monitoring wells. The good match indicates that the model has captured the dynamics of the system given our conceptual model of an inverse relationship between bioavailable oxidized Fe and permeability, providing constraints for the estimation of aqueous species, mineral precipitates, and biomass. Our results shows that although the local rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude with the biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, the maximum rates remained at the a few 'hot spots' right at the down gradient of the injection wells where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maximum. These local rates dominated the ';field-scale' rates (10's of m2). At particular locations, the 'hot moments' with maximum bioreduction rates positively corresponded to their distance from the wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced the local bioreduction rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 41.9%, its effect at the field-scale was limited to a maximum of 15.7%, with majority of the domain unaffected. The field-scale rates calculated

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  3. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  4. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  5. Uranium and Strontium Isotopic Study of the Hydrology of the Alluvial Aquifer at the Rifle Former U Mine Tailings Site, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. N.; Shiel, A. E.; Conrad, M. E.; Williams, K. H.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Rifle Site consists of a floodplain along the Colorado River that was remediated through the removal of surface material underlying former uranium-vanadium mill tailings. The semi-arid (precip. = ~30 cm/year) catchment for the site has an area of ~1km2. The Rifle Site provides an excellent field laboratory for the study of the fluxes of water and carbon from the vadose zone to groundwater (LBNL SFA2.0, http://esd.lbl.gov/research/projects/sssfa2/). A network of monitoring wells, particularly a set instrumented in the vadose zone, provide the opportunity to closely sample groundwater and vadose zone porewater both in space and time. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variation of vadose zone interaction with groundwater within the Rifle floodplain and provide constraints for a Rifle hydrological model, we have analyzed the Sr isotopic compositions, 234U/238U activity ratios, and d238U of groundwater, vadose zone porewater (sampled through depth-distributed lysimeters) and surface water including the Colorado River. Significant contrasts in 87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U allow the identification of different sources contributing to Rifle groundwater, while d238U provides an additional tracer and insights into redox processes. Vadose zone porewater is characterized by high 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentrations and falls at one end of a mixing line with Rifle groundwater, while upgradient groundwater with lower 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentrations falls at the other end. A mixing model using vadose zone porewater and upgradient groundwater as endmembers suggests that the contribution of vertical recharge through the floodplain increases to ~20% systematically across the floodplain towards the Colorado River. An exception to this pattern is a well located 150m from the river with recent high U concentrations (>300 ppb) and U and Sr isotopic compositions consistent with a 38% vadose zone contribution. U and Sr isotopes show that an irrigation-return ditch that cuts

  6. Data Validation Package November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0659 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0304. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920), with one exception: New Rifle location 0635 could not be sampled because it was inaccessible; a fence installed by the Colorado Department of Transportation prevents access to this location. DOE is currently negotiating access with the Colorado Department of Transportation. Analytes measured at the New Rifle site included contaminants of concern (COCs) (arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen, selenium, uranium, and vanadium) ammonia as nitrogen, major cations, and major anions. Field measurements of total alkalinity, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, and temperature were made at each location, and the water level was measured at each sampled well. A proposed alternate concentration limit (ACL) for vanadium of 50 milligrams per liter (mg/L), specific to the compliance (POC) wells (RFN-0217, -0659, -0664, and -0669) is included in the New Rifle GCAP. Vanadium concentrations in the POC wells were below the proposed ACL as shown in the time-concentration graphs in the Data Presentation section (Attachment 2). Time-concentration graphs from all other locations sampled are also included in Attachment 2. Sampling location RFN-0195 was misidentified for the June/August 2014

  7. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  8. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during biostimulation experiments at Rifle, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Kowalsky, Michael B; Englert, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S

    2010-03-01

    Electron donor amendment for bioremediation often results in precipitation of secondary minerals and the growth of biomass, both of which can potentially change flow paths and the efficacy of bioremediation. Quantitative estimation of precipitate and biomass distribution has remained challenging, partly due to the intrinsic heterogeneities of natural porous media and the scarcity of field data. In this work, we examine the effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on the spatial distributions of mineral precipitates and biomass accumulated during a biostimulation field experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Field bromide breakthrough data were used to infer a heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity through inverse transport modeling, while the solid phase Fe(III) content was determined by assuming a negative correlation with hydraulic conductivity. Validated by field aqueous geochemical data, reactive transport modeling was used to explicitly keep track of the growth of the biomass and to estimate the spatial distribution of precipitates and biomass. The results show that the maximum mineral precipitation and biomass accumulation occurs in the vicinity of the injection wells, occupying up to 5.4vol.% of the pore space, and is dominated by reaction products of sulfate reduction. Accumulation near the injection wells is not strongly affected by heterogeneities present in the system due to the ubiquitous presence of sulfate in the groundwater. However, accumulation in the down-gradient regions is dominated by the iron-reducing reaction products, whose spatial patterns are strongly controlled by both physical and geochemical heterogeneities. Heterogeneities can lead to localized large accumulation of mineral precipitates and biomass, increasing the possibility of pore clogging. Although ignoring the heterogeneities of the system can lead to adequate prediction of the average behavior of sulfate-reducing related products, it can also lead to an

  9. CO2 production rate maxima in the deeper unsaturated zone of a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Hobson, C.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Fluxes of CO2 from soils are important to understand in order to predict subsurface feedbacks to the atmosphere and responses to climate change. Such fluxes are commonly monitored at the soil surface and generally assumed to largely originate within shallow depths. Relatively little is understood on the depth distribution of CO2 production below the rhizosphere. We monitored CO2 fluxes at the soil surface, and measured vertical profiles of vadose CO2 concentrations, matric potentials, and temperatures at the Rifle Site, a saline semi-arid floodplain along the Colorado River in order to determine the significance of deeper vadose zone respiration. Vadose zone CO2 profiles exhibit temperature-dependent seasonal variations, and are consistent with CO2 fluxes measured at the soil surface. The measured vadose zone CO2 concentration profiles combined with gas diffusion coefficients estimated from soil properties indicated that local maxima in rates of CO2 production persist in the deeper vadose zone, about 1 m below the rhizosphere, and above the water table (~3.5 m below the soil surface). We hypothesized that water and oxygen activities, nutrient levels, and temperatures remain favorable for microbial respiration throughout the year in the subrhizosphere, unlike overlying drier soils and the underlying poorly aerated aquifer. Using soils and sediments from the field site, the hypothesized existence of deeper subsurface maxima in CO2 production rate is currently being tested in the laboratory through sediment incubation experiments and in 2.0 m tall vadose zone columns. Initial results from the laboratory support the hypothesized persistence of a subrhizosphere "hot zone" for microbial respiration, partly sustained through seasonal pulses of dissolved and labile organic carbon originating from the rhizosphere. These findings suggest that similar sustained deeper local maxima in respiration rates may occur in many other regions where near-surface conditions are

  10. Organic Carbon Inventories and Vertical Fluxes Through the Vadose Zone into Groundwater at the Rifle, Colorado River Floodplain Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Kim, Y.; Faybishenko, B.; Conrad, M. E.; Christensen, J. N.; Gilbert, B.; Dayvault, R. D.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding carbon inventories and fluxes within the vadose zone and groundwater of semi-arid regions is challenging because of their typically deep profiles, moderately low soil organic carbon (SOC) inventories, low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes, and slow changes in soil inorganic carbon (SIC) inventories. The remediated uranium/vanadium mill tailings site situated on a floodplain at Rifle, Colorado possesses a number of characteristics that facilitate investigation of subsurface carbon fluxes. These include locally derived fill soil having SOC and SIC concentrations representative of the region, established vegetation cover (perennial grasses and shrubs) on the fill, boundaries between the fill and underlying alluvium distinguishable through concentrations of SIC and other chemical components, predictable groundwater flow and interaction with the adjacent Colorado River, and a clearly delineated impermeable lower boundary (Wasatch Formation shale) at depths ranging from 6 to 7.5 m. Environmental characteristics of this site permit year-round sampling of both pore water and pore gas throughout most of the moderately deep (~ 3.5 m) vadose zone. Within this well-defined hydrological system, we recently installed a suite of tensiometers, pore water (vadose zone and groundwater) samplers, gas samplers, and neutron probe access tubes at three sites along a transect aligned with the groundwater flow direction in order to determine inventories and fluxes of water, carbon, and other components. The tensiometer and piezometer measurements are revealing impacts of infiltration and groundwater recharge events, evapotranspiration, and capillary fringe-groundwater interactions. The results of pore water analyses are showing relatively high concentrations of DOC (up to 4 mM) in the vadose zone, and particulate organic carbon (POC) mobile in the capillary fringe. Differences in DOC characteristics are being determined using a variety of analytical techniques. Hydraulic

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  12. Near-Real-Time Geophysical and Biological Monitoring of Bioremediation Methods at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrell, A. N.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    Bioremediation has been utilized on subsurface uranium contamination at the Rifle IRFC site in Colorado by injecting acetate as an electron donor. However, successfully monitoring the progress of subsurface bioremediation over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship considerations to ensure cost effective treatment due to biological, chemical, and hydrological heterogeneity. In order to better understand the complex heterogeneities of the subsurface and the resultant effect on microbial activity, innovative subsurface monitoring techniques must be investigated. The key hypothesis of this work is that a combination of data from electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential, and water level sensors will provide sufficient information for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and will provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve the redox activity from other electric potential changing events involved in bioremediation, a 2D tank (2.4m x 1.2m x 0.6m) experiment has been developed. Field material obtained from the Rifle IRFC site will be packed in the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through constant-head boundaries. The experiment will utilize sensors for electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation-reduction potential, and water level monitoring. Electrode-based microbial monitoring will be used to estimate microbial activity by measuring how much electrical current indigenous bacteria are producing. Self potential monitoring will be used to measure the natural electrical voltage potential between sampled points, providing indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring; such as reduction of radionuclides. In addition to the application of sensing technologies, this work will explore the application of a wireless sensor

  13. Experimental Study of U(VI) Release Kinetics from Aquifer Sediments from a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Rifle, Colorado, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Campbell, K. M.; Hayes, K. F.; Davis, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Uranium(VI) release kinetics from aquifer sediments from a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado was studied to understand uranium distribution within the sediments. The sediments were sampled at depths of 3.5-3.8 m in December 2004. The samples were air-dried, sieved, and the uranium content in the sediments, determined by gamma-radiometry, was 4.1 μg/g sediment. The labile fraction of U(VI) in the sediments was determined using carbonate/bicarbonate extractions, which should cause complete desorption of U(VI) in the absence of mass transfer limitations. Carbonate/bicarbonate extraction of the sediments showed very slow release kinetics, with only 12 % of the labile U(VI) in the sediments being released during the first 96 hours of extraction. This is much less than found in a previous study at a different mill tailings site (Naturita, Colorado), in which more than 80 % of labile U(VI) was released during the same period of extraction. Up to two months of carbonate/bicarbonate extraction released 1 μg U(VI) per gram of Rifle sediment, which is 25 % of the total U in the sediment. Extraction with an artificial groundwater prepared to simulate the field groundwater chemistry showed 0.26 μg U/g sediment was released during the initial 94 hours of extraction, with a gradual increase of released U(VI) with time, while other major and minor elements (except Si) rapidly reached steady-state concentrations during the first few hours of reaction. Two hypotheses are under consideration to explain the slow U(VI) release kinetics: 1) colloidal clay fraction particles cementing larger grains of the sediments are creating nanoscale interparticle pores that act as a diffusion barrier to U(VI) desorption, and 2) a U(IV) solid phase exists whose oxidation and dissolution control the U(VI) release rate. To test the hypotheses, oxidation and extraction of the sediments have been conducted using oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide. The results of this study are

  14. Water and Carbon Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Region Floodplain: Multiple Approaches to Constrain Estimates of Seasonal- and Depth Dependent Fluxes at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.; Conrad, M. E.; Christensen, J. N.; Bill, M.; Faybishenko, B.; Hobson, C.; Dayvault, R.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of floodplains as links between watersheds and rivers highlights the need to understand water and carbon fluxes within floodplain profiles, from their surface soil, through the vadose zone and underlying groundwater. Here, we present results of field and laboratory measurements conducted to quantify fluxes at a remediated uranium/vanadium mill tailings site on a floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. This semi-arid site has a vegetated, locally derived fill soil that replaced the original milling-contaminated soil to a depth of about 1.5 m. The fill soil overlies about 4.5 m of native sandy and cobbly alluvium containing the shallow aquifer. The aquifer generally drains into the Colorado River and is underlain by low permeability Wasatch Formation shale. Within this system, key issues being investigated include water and carbon fluxes between the vadose zone and aquifer, and CO2 fluxes through the vadose zone soil out to the atmosphere. Magnitudes of these fluxes are typically low, thus challenging to measure, yet increasingly important to quantify given the expansion of arid and semi-arid regions under changing climate. The results of field investigations demonstrated that the annual water table rise and fall are driven by snowmelt runoff into the Colorado River in late spring to early summer. Tensiometer data indicate that net recharge from the deeper part of the vadose zone into groundwater occurs later in summer, after water table decline. The effectiveness of summer evapotranspiration in limiting groundwater recharge is reflected in water potentials decreasing to as low as -3 MPa within the upper 1.5 m of the vadose zone. Examination of the historical precipitation record further indicates that net recharge only occurs in years with above-average precipitation during winter and spring. These short intervals of net recharge also facilitate C transport into groundwater because of higher organic C concentrations in the vadose zone. Fluxes of CO2 measured

  15. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, February 2011 to January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Banfield, Jill [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chandler, Darrell P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, James A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hettich, Bob [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); VerBerkmoes, Nathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kerkhof, Lee J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peacock, Aaron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Rifle IFRC continued to make excellent progress during the last 12 months. As noted above, a key field experiment (Best Western) was performed during 2011 as a logical follow-on to the Super 8 field experiment preformed in 2010. In the Super 8 experiment, we successfully combined desorption and bioreduction and deployed a number of novel tracer techniques to enhance our ability to interpret the biogeochemistry of the experiment. In the Best Western experiment, we used the same experimental plot (Plot C) as was used for Super 8. The overarching objective of the Best Western field experiment was to compared the impacts of abiotic vs. biotic increases in alkalinity and to assess the mass of the sorbed pool of U(VI) at Rifle at the field scale. Both of these objectives were met. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the underlying biogeochemical data sets were obtained that will support a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes, including remarkable insight into previously unrecognized microbial processes taking place during acetate amendment of the subsurface for a second time.

  16. Ultraviolet-Visible and Fluorescence Analyses Reveal the Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Dissolved Organic Matter through the Vadose Zone to Groundwater at the Rifle, Colorado River Floodplain Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Gilbert, B.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex and poorly understood mixture of natural organic compounds that play important roles in terrestrial C transport and biogeochemical cycles, and its reactivity makes it sensitive to seasonal variations and longer term climate change. As a component within the LBNL Science Focus Area 2.0, this study is designed to determine the spatial and temporal variability of DOM concentrations and characteristics throughout the vadose zone and groundwater within a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. Three sets of vertically stratified pore water samplers and wells were installed along a groundwater flow transect. These installations allowed acquisition of vertically- and temporally-resolved pore water samples from the vadose zone, capillary fringe, and saturated zone from April 2013 to May 2014. Ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UVA) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy are being applied to trace the changes in DOM characteristics. Initial results indicate that the aromatic C contents (%) of DOM vary with depth and season and exhibit patterns distinct from groundwater. EEM analysis identified fulvic- and humic-like substances as the major fluorescent components of DOM in pore water samples. The concentrations of fulvic- and humic-like matter decreases with depth within the vadose zone, and increases from Spring and Summer to Fall, then decreases in Winter. The trend is consistent with UVA results. Microbial by-product-like components in DOM show higher concentrations in the vadose zone, and decrease from Spring to Winter. Fulvic- and humic-like substances are the only detectable fluorophore components in the groundwater samples. The results from both UVA and EEM suggest that (1) aromatic C or fulvic- and humic-like matter are preferentially adsorbed within shallower sediments during transport; and (2) microbial transformations of DOM composition may occur in the vadose zone, particularly during late Spring

  17. Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rodríguez Quiroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la biodiversidad cuenta, entre sus principales mecanismos de intervención, con las áreas naturales protegidas. En el alto Golfo de California (AGC se ubica la Reser-va de la Biosfera del Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado, en la que subsisten especies de alto valor económico, así como especies en peligro de extinción. Este último factor justificó el establecimiento de la reserva. El estudio analiza la efectividad de la Reserva del Alto Golfo como mecanismo de protección de los recursos naturales, en particular de las que están en riesgo de desaparecer, así como de comprobar si los pescadores han mejorado sus condiciones de vida tras la operación de esa área natural. La exploración se llevó a cabo mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a los pescadores. Se sugiere que es indispensable un gran esfuerzo, de autoridades y grupos organizados, para encontrar soluciones al manejo de la Reserva, a fin fijar un programa que permita la recuperación de las especies en peligro de extinción, elevar la calidad de vida de los pescadores y con ello garantizar un equilibrio entre la conservación y la sustentabilidad de la pesca y de los pescadores en el Alto Golfo de California.

  18. Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An early-season snowfall accents the Rocky Mountains through western and central Colorado. This true-color image made from data collected by MODIS on October 26, 2001, highlights the contrast between various irrigated areas and the otherwise dry environment at the foothills of the Rockies. One such example is the city of Denver and its outlying suburbs, which can be seen best in the high-resolution image. In areas that would normally harbor drought-tolerant grasses, shrubs and trees, humans are living, watering their lawns, and farming; those watered, green areas differ substantially from the surrounding hues of brown. Numerous National Parks and Monuments dot the Southwestern U.S. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument is one such park. Running along the western base the Sangre de Cristo Range(just below the image's center), a subsection of the Rockies, the monument possesses some of the highest inland sand dunes in the U.S., with crests reaching over 700 feet.

  19. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Waldo Canyon Burn Area near Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon fire near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and potential volume of debris flows along the drainage network of the burned area and to estimate the same for 22 selected drainage basins along U.S. Highway 24 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (29 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (42 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (48 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 54 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from less than 1 to 74 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from less than 1 to 82 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the southern and southeastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Nine of the 22 drainage basins of interest have greater than a 40-percent probability of producing a debris flow in response to the 10-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 1,500 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce

  20. Gyroscopic Stability of Open Tipped Match Style Rifle Bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya R

    2014-01-01

    Earlier work has produced formulas for predicting stability of rifle bullets of near uniform density and also for plastic-tipped rifle bullets. These formulas have been shown to be accurate to within 5%. However, the original Miller twist formula for metal bullets of near uniform density underestimates the stability of match style open tipped rifle bullets having a significant empty volume in the tip. This paper presents a new formula for accurately estimating the stability of these open tipped match style rifle bullets from parameters easily obtained such as the bullet mass, length, and depth of the empty space in the tip. The formula is tested by measuring the aerodynamic drag vs. predicted stability of several bullets over a range of stabilities.

  1. Analysis of gun barrel rifling twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Chen, Guangsong; Qian, Linfang; Liu, Taisu

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem of gun barrel rifling twist, the constraint relation between rifling and projectile is investigated. The constraint model of rifling and projectile is established and the geometric relation between the twist and the motion of projectile is analyzed. Based on the constraint model, according to the rotating band that is fired, the stress and the motion law of the rotating band in bore are analyzed. The effects to rotating band (double rotating band or wide driving band) caused by different rifling (rib rifling, increasing rifling and combined rifling) are also investigated. The model is demonstrated by several examples. The results of numerical examples and the constraint mode show that the uncertainty factors will be brought in the increasing rifling and combined rifling during the projectile move in the bore. According to the amplitude and the strength of the twist acting on rotating band, the steady property of rotational motion of the projectile, the rib rifling is a better choose.

  2. Basic Rifle Markmanship Trainer’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Effeotiveness of Improved Dealo Rifle IHarksmanihiy Training Proreams, ARI/Litton-4ellonlos Drift Rese~roh Report, January iWO. 3. Osborne, Horsy , and Smith, op...alt. 4. Smith, Thompson, Evans, Osborne, Maxey, and Horsy , Zffaots of Down-Rwa6 Feedbaok and the ARI Zeroing Target in Rifle Harksmanshi Training...Rifle and Rifle Harksmansho, June 1974. 8. Osborne, Horsy , and Smith, op. cit. 9. Thompson, et. al., op. ait. c-i

  3. Latinos in Colorado: A Profile of Culture, Changes, and Challenges. Volume V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    It is projected that the population of Colorado will increase by 25% between 1990 and 2000. The Latino community will experience a slight increase in the proportion of Colorado's population, and will remain the largest ethnic group over the next 30 years. The chapters in this profile describe the Latino population of Colorado. The following essays…

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Environmental Audit, Rifle, Gunnison and Grand Junction UMTRA Project Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the results of the comprehensive baseline Environmental Audit completed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites at Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. Included in the Audit were the actual abandoned mill sites, associated transportation and disposal cell facilities, and representative examples of the more than 4,000 known vicinity properties. Sites investigated include: Climax Mill Site, Truck/Train Haul Route, Cotter Transfer Station, Cheney Disposal Cell, Rifle Mill Sites (Old and New Rifle), Gunnison Mill Site, Vicinity Properties, and Estes Gulch and Proposed Landfill Site No. 1 Disposal Cells. The UMTRA Audit was a comprehensive baseline audit which considered all environmental programs and the activities associated with ongoing and planned remediation at the UMTRA sites listed above. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was not considered during this investigation. The Audit Team looked at the following technical disciplines: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, soil/sediment/biota, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Ballistics examination of air rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  7. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  8. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  9. Spatial Distribution of an Uranium-Respiring Betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO Field Research Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koribanics, Nicole M.; Tuorto, Steven J.; Lopez-Chiaffarelli, Nora; McGuinness, Lora R.; Häggblom, Max M.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC) at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI) bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminal electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site. PMID:25874721

  10. A Guide to Instruction in the Shooting Sports-Rifles; Air Rifles; Shotguns; Pistols; Hunter Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Roy K.; And Others

    Prepared for instruction in the use of rifles, air guns, shotguns, pistols, and hunter safety, this guide supplements other materials which are available from the National Rifle Association of America, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, industry, and other sources. The…

  11. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 High Park Burn Area near Fort Collins, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins in Larimer County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and to estimate the same for 44 selected drainage basins along State Highway 14 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (25 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (43 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (51 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities along the drainage network and throughout the drainage basins of interest ranged from 1 to 84 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; from 2 to 95 percent in response to the 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; and from 3 to 97 in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the eastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Estimated debris-flow volumes range from a low of 1,600 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce substantial volumes of material. The predicted probabilities and some of the volumes predicted for the modeled storms indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow impacts on structures, roads, bridges, and culverts located both within and

  12. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  13. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  14. 75 FR 18403 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO AGENCY... E airspace at Rifle, CO. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Rifle, CO...

  15. CFD Studies on Multi Lead Rifled [MLR] Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr T C Mohankumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the merits of multi lead rifled [MLR] tubes in vertical water tube boiler using CFD tool. Heat transfer enhancement of MLR tubes was mainly taken in to consideration. Performance of multi lead rifled tube was studied by varying its influencing geometrical parameter like number of rifling, height of rifling, length of pitch of rifling for a particular length. The heat transfer analysis was done at operating conditions of an actual coal fired water tube boiler situated at Apollo Tyres LTD, Chalakudy, India for saturated process steam production. The results showed that the heat transfer increased when compared with existing inner plane wall water tubes.

  16. Marine Corps Expeditionary Rifle Platoon Energy Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    18  Figure 2.  Typical Platoon Flashlight and NVGs .............................................................33  x THIS...Terrain and Troops MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit MRP Marine Rifle Platoon NVG Night Vision Goggles SAW Squad automatic weapon SPOD Seaport...conditions may be such that pickup from a central point is impossible, and supplies are therefore delivered by helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft (HQ USMC

  17. Marine Corps expeditionary rifle platoon energy burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...

  18. Recurrent posterior shoulder instability after rifle shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Chung, Nam-Su; Song, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2012-11-01

    Rifle shooting produces a sudden counterforce against the body thorough the anterior shoulder, which may produce a traumatic injury in soldiers. Posterior instability of the shoulder can occur in soldiers who practice rifle shooting. To the authors' knowledge, few reports have examined shooting-related injuries in soldiers. This article describes the case of a 27-year-old male soldier who presented with left shoulder pain and instability after rifle training. He developed symptoms, and presented radiographic findings consistent with a posterior Bankart lesion. Intraoperatively, while in the lateral decubitus position, a posterior portal was created 3 cm inferior and 2 cm lateral to the posterolateral corner of acromion for making a proper angle for inserting anchors. A reverse bony Bankart lesion and adjacent cartilage breakdown at the glenoid rim were noted. An arthroscopic capsulolabral repair was performed with 3-mm bioabsorbable anchors to the glenoid rim. No gross reverse Hill-Sachs lesion or hyaline cartilage lesion was noted. Postoperatively, the arm was supported in a sling with an abduction pillow for 5 weeks. Codman's exercises, scapular protraction exercises, and elbow and wrist exercises were started. Physical therapy focused on reestablishing glenohumeral range of motion and rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength. Six months postoperatively, the patient had normal scapular kinesis and reported no shoulder pain or symptoms of instability associated with a reverse bony Bankart lesion. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Colorado economic impact study on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-12

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1993. To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are: Direct employment was estimated at 894 workers; An estimated 89 percent of all direct employment was local; Secondary employment resulting from remedial action at the active Colorado UMTRA Project sites and the Grand Junction vicinity property program is estimated at 546 workers. Total employment (direct and secondary) is estimated at 1440 workers for the period of study (July 1, 1992, to June 30, 1993). An estimated $24.1 million was paid in wages to UMTRA workers in Colorado during FY1993; Direct and secondary wage earnings were estimated at $39.9 million; Income tax payments to the state of Colorado were estimated at $843,400 during FY1993; The gross economic impact of UMTRA Project activities in the state of Colorado is estimated at $70 million during the 1-year study period; and the net economic benefit to the state of Colorado was estimated at $57.5 million, or $5.90 per dollar of funding provided by Colorado. This figure includes both direct and secondary benefits but does not include the impact of alternative uses of the state funding.

  20. Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mononen, K; Konttinen, N; Viitasalo, J; Era, P

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shooting accuracy and shooters' behavioral performance, i.e., postural balance and gun barrel stability, among novice rifle shooters in intra- and inter-individual levels. Postural balance and rifle stability were assessed in terms of anteroposterior (VEL(AP)) and mediolateral (VEL(ML)) sway velocity of the movement of center of pressure, and horizontal (DEV(H)) and vertical (DEV(V)) deviation of the aiming point. The participants (n=58) performed 30 shots in the standing position at a distance of 10 m from the target. The data showed that shooting accuracy was related to postural balance and rifle stability, but only at the inter-individual level. The correlation coefficients between shooting score and behavioral performance variables ranged from -0.29 to -0.45. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the VEL(ML) and the DEV(H) as independent variables accounted for 26% of the variance in the shooting score. The results also suggested that postural balance is related to the shooting accuracy both directly and indirectly through rifle stability. As the role of postural balance appeared to be important in shooting performance, the use of additional balance training programs to improve a shooter's postural skills should be encouraged.

  1. Review of Rifle Marksmanship Training Research. CRESST Report 783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Lee, John J.; Wainess, Richard; Baker, Eva L.

    2011-01-01

    The UCLA National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) is under contract from the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to conduct research on assessment models and tools designed to support Marine Corps rifle marksmanship. In this deliverable, we first review the literature on known-distance rifle marksmanship…

  2. Using human-centered design to improve the assault rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Cheng-Lang; Yuan, Cheng-Kang; Liu, Bor-Shong

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to interview infantry soldiers to determine their preferences with respect to rifle design and to examine the effect of buttstocks on shooting performance. Factor analysis showed that seven main factors should be considered in rifle redesign including tactics necessary, interface design, saving weight, bullpup configuration, sight design, other devices, and bayonet lug. For the shooting experiment, a total of four shooting trials were performed with the T-91 rifle, with buttstock lengths of 26 mm, 34 mm, self-adjusting stock, and bullpup stock. The analysis revealed that buttstock length had a significant effect on shooting performance. The redesigned rifle weight and total length should be reduced to 3.2 kg and 750 mm, respectively. The rifle buttstock should be a non-adjustable bullpup style. The buttstock shape should be curved and the hand-guard type should be more deeply and density seams, while the trigger handle shape should be slanted.

  3. Using NMR, SIP, and MS measurements for monitoring subsurface biogeochemical reactions at the Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, C. L.; Keating, K.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Grunewald, E.; Walsh, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site is located on a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado (USA). Although removal of tailings and contaminated surface materials was completed in 1996, residual uranium contamination of groundwater and subsurface sediments remains. Since 2002, research at the site has primarily focused on quantifying uranium mobility associated with stimulated and natural biogeochemical processes. Uranium mobility at the Rifle IFRC site is typically quantified through direct sampling of groundwater; however, direct sampling does not provide information about the solid phase material outside of the borehole and continuous measurements are not always possible due to multiple constraints. Geophysical methods have been suggested as a minimally invasive alternative approach for long term monitoring of biogeochemical reactions associated with uranium remediation. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectral induced polarization (SIP), and magnetic susceptibility (MS) are considered as potential geophysical methods for monitoring the biogeochemical reactions occurring at the Rifle IFRC site. Additionally, a pilot field study using an NMR borehole-logging tool was carried out at the Rifle IFRC site. These methods are sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical subsurface properties that occur as a result of bioremediation efforts; specifically, changes in the redox state and chemical form of iron, production of iron sulfide minerals, production of the magnetic mineral magnetite, and associated changes in the pore geometry. Laboratory experiments consisted of monitoring changes in the NMR, SIP and MS response of an acetate-amended columns packed with sediments from the Rifle IFRC site over the course of two months. The MS values remained relatively stable throughout the course of the experiment suggesting negligible production of magnetic phases (e.g. magnetite, pyrrhotite) as a result of enhanced

  4. Oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite in groundwater at Old Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Veeramani, Harish; Ulrich, Kai-Uwe; Blue, Lisa Y.; Giammar, Dianiel E.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Suvorova, Elena; Yabusaki, Steve; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Mehta, Apurva; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Reductive bioremediation is currently being explored as a possible strategy for uranium-contaminated aquifers such as the Old Rifle site (Colorado). The stability of U(IV) phases under oxidizing conditions is key to the performance of this procedure. An in situ method was developed to study oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite (UO2), a desirable U(VI) bioreduction product, in the Old Rifle, CO, aquifer under different variable oxygen conditions. Overall uranium loss rates were 50–100 times slower than laboratory rates. After accounting for molecular diffusion through the sample holders, a reactive transport model using laboratory dissolution rates was able to predict overall uranium loss. The presence of biomass further retarded diffusion and oxidation rates. These results confirm the importance of diffusion in controlling in-aquifer U(IV) oxidation rates. Upon retrieval, uraninite was found to be free of U(VI), indicating dissolution occurred via oxidation and removal of surface atoms. Interaction of groundwater solutes such as Ca2+ or silicate with uraninite surfaces also may retard in-aquifer U loss rates. These results indicate that the prolonged stability of U(IV) species in aquifers is strongly influenced by permeability, the presence of bacterial cells and cell exudates, and groundwater geochemistry.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Meteorological Data to Assess Evapotranspiration and Infiltration at the Rifle Site, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Long, P. E.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Christensen, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Net infiltration to the vadose zone, especially in arid or semi-arid climates, is an important control on microbial activity and solute and green house gas fluxes. To assess net infiltration, we performed a statistical analysis of meteorological data as the basis for hydrological and climatic investigations and predictions for the Rifle site, Colorado, USA, located within a floodplain in a mountainous region along the Colorado River, with a semi-arid climate. We carried out a statistical analysis of meteorological 30-year time series data (1985-2015), including: (1) precipitation data, taking into account the evaluation of the snowmelt, (2) evaluation of the evapotranspiration (reference and actual), (3) estimation of the multi-time-scalar Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), (4) evaluation of the net infiltration rate, and (5) corroborative analysis of calculated net infiltration rate and groundwater recharge from radioisotopic measurements from samples collected in 2013. We determined that annual net infiltration percentage of precipitation varies from 4.7% to ~18%, with a mean of ~10%, and concluded that calculations of net infiltration based on long-term meteorological data are comparable with those from strontium isotopic investigations. The evaluation of the SPEI showed the intermittent pattern of droughts and wet periods over the past 30 years, with a detectable decreasein the duration of droughts with time. Local measurements within the floodplain indicate a recharge gradient with increased recharge closer to the Colorado River.

  6. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information.

  7. Rifle Pits at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the rifle pits used by the 7th Cavalry at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI)....

  8. The effects of Fe-oxidizing microorganisms on post-biostimulation permeability reduction and oxidative processes at the Rifle IFRC site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara Sze-Yue [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-07-02

    Fe oxidation and biomineral formation is important in aquifers because the highly-reactive oxides can control the mobility of nutrients (e.g. phosphate, C) and metals (e.g. arsenic, uranium). Mineral formation also has the potential to affect hydrology, depending on the volume and distribution in pore spaces. In this exploratory study, we sought to understand how microbial Fe-oxidizers and their biominerals affect, and are affected by groundwater flow. As part of work at the Rifle aquifer in Colorado, we initially hypothesized that Fe-oxidizers were contributing to aquifer clogging problems associated with enhanced bioremediation. To demonstrate the presence of Fe-oxidizers in the Rifle aquifer, we enriched FeOM from groundwater samples, and isolated two novel chemolithotrophic, microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, Hydrogenophaga sp. P101 and Curvibacter sp. CD03. To image cells and biominerals in the context of pores, we developed a “micro-aquifer,” a sand-filled flow-through culture chamber that allows for imaging of sediment pore space with multiphoton confocal microscopy. Fe oxide biofilms formed on sand grains, demonstrating that FeOM produce Fe oxide sand coatings. Fe coatings are common on aquifer sands, and tend to sequester contaminants; however, it has never previously been shown that microbes are responsible for their formation. In contrast to our original hypothesis, the biominerals did not clog the mini-aquifer. Instead, Fe biofilm distribution was dynamic: they grew as coatings, then periodically sloughed off sand grains, with some flocs later caught in pore throats. This has implications for physical hydrology, including pore scale architecture, and element transport. The sloughing of coatings likely prevents the biominerals from clogging wells and aquifers, at least initially. Although attached biomineral coatings sequester Fe-associated elements (e.g. P, As, C, U), when biominerals detach, these elements are transported as particles

  9. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work.

  10. [The determination of the ballistics of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Nagornov, M N

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to determine the shooting range of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet from the specific features of gunshot injuries inflicted by container-type Poleba-3 bullets for hunting rifles.

  11. 77 FR 71493 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airway V-8 in the Vicinity of Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Vicinity of Rifle, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule, technical... Rifle, CO, to correct the description contained in part 71 to ensure it matches the information... realigned over the Rifle, CO, VHF Omnidirectional Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation...

  12. An Experimental Review of Basic Combat Rifle Marksmanship: MARKSMAN, Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, James W.; And Others

    Commanding officers in Vietnam and others have indicated that individual rifle marksmanship training needed attention. Furthermore, no comprehensive, systematic study of Army rifle marksmanship has been conducted since the Work Unit TRAINFIRE studies conducted by HumRRO in 1954. Phase 1 of the MARKSMAN research dealt with basic rifle marksmanship.…

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 1, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume one contains calculations for: embankment design--embankment material properties; Union Carbide site--bedrock contours; vicinity properties--origin of contamination; North Continent and Union Carbide sites contaminated materials--excavation quantities; and demolition debris--quantity estimate.

  14. Prospecting for natural attenuation: Coupled geophysical-biogeochemical studies at DOE's Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Long, P. E.; Flores Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.

    2011-12-01

    Research activities at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado (USA) are designed to integrate geochemical, biological, and hydrological studies to enhance our understanding of subsurface uranium mobility. While much of the research activities at the site have focused on stimulating subsurface microbial activity through acetate amendment, there is growing interest in the role that natural biogeochemical processes play in constraining uranium mobility in the aquifer. Such processes constitute a form of natural uranium attenuation in the subsurface and are inferred to result from elevated concentrations of natural organic matter associated with alluvial sediments. Referred to as naturally reduced zones (NRZ's), they are characterized by the presence of reduced and/or magnetic mineral phases (e.g. FeS, FeS2, and Fe3O4), elevated Fe(II), and refractory organic carbon compounds (e.g. roots, twigs, and cones). Elevated rates of microbial activity associated with NRZ's and their mineralogical makeup act to sequester uranium from groundwater at levels higher that background alluvium. Their unique composition within a matrix of relatively oxidized, low-bioactivity sediments constitutes a potential target for a variety of exploration geophysical techniques, such as induced polarization and magnetic susceptibility. Both methods have been successfully applied at the Rifle IFRC site to delineate the ubiquity and extent of NRZ's across the floodplain. Sediments recovered from drilling targets identified through the use of exploration geophysical techniques have identified elevated uranium concentrations associated with both magnetite and framboid pyrite; however, the extent to which such minerals are the direct product of in situ microbial activity remains unknown. While diverse, the microbial community composition of NRZ's suggest dominance by fermentative organisms capable of degrading lignitic carbon to low molecular weight organic

  15. Energy development in the Southwest: problems of water, fish, and wildlife in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spofford, W.O. Jr.; Parker, A.L.; Kneese, A.V. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    This two-volume set is based primarily on an RFF forum held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in October 1976. Most of the papers in the book were presented at this forum. All of them were revised and updated after the forum; some were partly or even wholly rewritten. Some of the papers depend directly on research results reported in others, and therefore major revisions were necessary to integrate these papers. Two new papers were added after the forum was held, as was the appendix and five new discussions. This volume, Vol. I, contains the introductory chapter, 6 other papers (chapters), and an appendix; a separate abstract was prepared for each.

  16. Energy development in the Southwest: problems of water, fish, and wildlife in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spofford, W.O. Jr.; Parker, A.L.; Kneese, A.V. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    The two-volume set is based primarily on an RFF forum held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in October 1976. Most of the papers in the book were presented at this forum. All of them were revised and updated after the forum; some were partly or even wholly rewritten. Some of the papers depend directly on research results reported in others, and therefore major revisions were necessary to integrate these papers. Two new papers were added after the forum was held, as was the appendix, and five new discussions. This volume, Vol. II, contains the 10 other papers (chapters) of the set; a separate abstract was prepared for each.

  17. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 3. Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume three contains calculations for: site hydrology--rainfall intensity, duration, and frequency relations; site hydrology-- probable maximum precipitation; erosion protection--rock quality evaluation; erosion protection--embankment top and side slope; erosion protection--embankment toe apron; erosion protection-- gradations and layer thicknesses; Union Carbide site--temporary drainage ditch design; Union Carbide site--retention basin sediment volume; Union Carbide site--retention basin sizing; Burro Canyon site temporary drainage--temporary drainage facilities; and Union Carbide site temporary drainage--water balance.

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth.

  19. Floods of May 1959 in the Au Gres and Rifle River basins, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenoff, L.E.

    1960-01-01

    The floods of May 1959 in the Au Gres and Rifle River basins, Michigan, resulted from heavy rainfall during the night of May 19-20. Peak unit discharges for small drainage areas (less than about 15 square miles) were the highest ever measured in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, and for very small areas (about one square mile) were of the same order of magnitude as those for the record Ontonagon River flood of August 1942 in the Upper Peninsula.Because the flood area is sparsely populated, damages were largely confined to farm lands and facilities and to secondary roads and their appurtenant drainage structures.The U. S. Geological Survey, through the district office in Lansing, Michigan, operates a network of streamgaging stations and crest-stage stations in the area affected by this flood. Six recording rain gages are operated in the upper Rifle River basin. Most of the gaging stations have been in operation for 7 to 9 years giving systematic records of stage, discharge, and volume of flow covering the range from drought to flood. This report contains records of-stage and discharge at 9 gaging stations for the floodperiod, peak discharges at 7 crest-stage stationsand 2 miscellaneous sites within the flood area, andother data pertinent to the flood.

  20. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colordao, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR-3) located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 1 (NOSR-1) and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 (NOSR-3) located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 (NOSR-2) located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment.

  1. Estimated probabilities, volumes, and inundation areas depths of potential postwildfire debris flows from Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks, near Marble, Gunnison County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gunnison County, initiated a study to estimate the potential for postwildfire debris flows to occur in the drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble, Colorado. Currently (2010), these drainage basins are unburned but could be burned by a future wildfire. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of postwildfire debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble. Data for the postwildfire debris-flow models included drainage basin area; area burned and burn severity; percentage of burned area; soil properties; rainfall total and intensity for the 5- and 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration-rainfall; and topographic and soil property characteristics of the drainage basins occupied by the four creeks. A quasi-two-dimensional floodplain computer model (FLO-2D) was used to estimate the spatial distribution and the maximum instantaneous depth of the postwildfire debris-flow material during debris flow on the existing debris-flow fans that issue from the outlets of the four major drainage basins. The postwildfire debris-flow probabilities at the outlet of each drainage basin range from 1 to 19 percent for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 3 to 35 percent for 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The largest probabilities for postwildfire debris flow are estimated for Raspberry Creek (19 and 35 percent), whereas estimated debris-flow probabilities for the three other creeks range from 1 to 6 percent. The estimated postwildfire debris-flow volumes at the outlet of each creek range from 7,500 to 101,000 cubic meters for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 9,400 to 126,000 cubic meters for

  2. Determinants of elite-level air rifle shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, S; Kuitunen, S; Mononen, K; Linnamo, V

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on identifying the most important factors determining performance in elite-level air rifle shooting technique. Forty international- and national-level shooters completed a simulated air rifle shooting competition series. From a total of 13 795 shots in 319 tests, shooting score and 17 aiming point trajectory variables were measured with an optoelectronic device and six postural balance variables were measured with force platform. Principal component analysis revealed six components in the air rifle shooting technique: aiming time, stability of hold, measurement time, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering. Multiple regression analysis identified four of those, namely stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering as the most important predictors of shooting performance, accounting for 81% of the variance in shooting score. The direct effect of postural balance on performance was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in shooting score. Indirectly, the effect can be greater through a more stable holding ability, to which postural balance was correlated significantly (R = 0.55, P < 0.001). The results of the present study can be used in assessing athletes' technical strengths and weaknesses and in directing training programs on distinct shooting technical components. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The forensic aspects of contemporary disintegrating rifle bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2013-03-01

    A relatively new type of rifle bullet has appeared in the last few years that contains no lead and rapidly disintegrates into very small particles and jacket fragments immediately upon entry into soft tissue. These bullets are intended for use by 'varmint' hunters in high-velocity centerfire rifles where the effect on such animals as prairie dogs, gophers, ground hogs, and other similarly sized animals is nothing short of explosive. The shooting of much larger animals to include human beings will typically result in nonperforating wounds with short wound paths. X-ray views of a decedent or gunshot victim will lack any recognizable bullet or projectile. Only 1 jacket fragment among the many present in the wound tract is suitable for subsequent firearms identification purposes, namely, the small copper disc that represents the base or heel of the bullet jacket. This small circular fragment bears vestiges of the rifling marks of the responsible firearm.This article will aid the forensic pathologist in recognizing gunshot wounds produced by these atypical bullets and the importance of recovering the base portion of the disintegrated bullet jacket.

  4. Physico-Chemical Heterogeneity of Organic-Rich Sediments in the Rifle Aquifer, CO: Impact on Uranium Biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Noémie; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Pham, Don Q; O'Brien, Timothy M; Hausladen, Debra; Noël, Vincent; Lallier, Florent; Maher, Kate; Fendorf, Scott; Williams, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Bargar, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Rifle alluvial aquifer along the Colorado River in west central Colorado contains fine-grained, diffusion-limited sediment lenses that are substantially enriched in organic carbon and sulfides, as well as uranium, from previous milling operations. These naturally reduced zones (NRZs) coincide spatially with a persistent uranium groundwater plume. There is concern that uranium release from NRZs is contributing to plume persistence or will do so in the future. To better define the physical extent, heterogeneity and biogeochemistry of these NRZs, we investigated sediment cores from five neighboring wells. The main NRZ body exhibited uranium concentrations up to 100 mg/kg U as U(IV) and contains ca. 286 g of U in total. Uranium accumulated only in areas where organic carbon and reduced sulfur (as iron sulfides) were present, emphasizing the importance of sulfate-reducing conditions to uranium retention and the essential role of organic matter. NRZs further exhibited centimeter-scale variations in both redox status and particle size. Mackinawite, greigite, pyrite and sulfate coexist in the sediments, indicating that dynamic redox cycling occurs within NRZs and that their internal portions can be seasonally oxidized. We show that oxidative U(VI) release to the aquifer has the potential to sustain a groundwater contaminant plume for centuries. NRZs, known to exist in other uranium-contaminated aquifers, may be regionally important to uranium persistence.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  6. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  7. Development of Sensor-Based Measures of Rifle Marksmanship Skill and Performance. CRESST Report 756

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Paul D.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Parks, Daniel; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of rifle marksmanship skill and performance were developed using a prototype instrumented laser-based training system. Measures of performance were derived from laser strikes on a video-projected target. Measures of rifle marksmanship skill--breath control, trigger control, and muzzle wobble--were developed from shooters' breathing and…

  8. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  9. Does Polishing a Rifle Bore Reduce Bullet Drag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    thus lower drag. A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat...drag on the bullets. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic coefficient, aerodynamic drag, rifle bore, bore polishing, Remington 700 5R 16. SECURITY...A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat Tail and a 125

  10. Estimated probabilities and volumes of postwildfire debris flows—A prewildfire evaluation for the Pikes Peak area, El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John G.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast-moving, high-density slurries of water, sediment, and debris that can have enormous destructive power. Although debris flows, triggered by intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt on steep hillsides covered with erodible material, are a common geomorphic process in some unburned areas, a wildfire can transform conditions in a watershed with no recent history of debris flows into conditions that pose a substantial hazard to residents, communities, infrastructure, aquatic habitats, and water supply. The location, extent, and severity of wildfire and the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known in advance; however, hypothetical scenarios based on empirical debris-flow models are useful planning tools for conceptualizing potential postwildfire debris flows. A prewildfire study to determine the potential for postwildfire debris flows in the Pikes Peak area in El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado, was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities. The study was conducted to provide a relative measure of which subwatersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall.

  11. Clinical effects of pranayama on performance of rifle shooters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amte Snehal Shekhar, Mistry Hetal M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga has an enormous scientifically proven effect on man’s physical and psychological functioning. Pranayama constitute the most vital aspects of yoga. Various methods of pranayama have a sound scientific basis and are traditionally believed to produce equilibrium between psychic and somatic aspects of bodily functions. The link between body and mind is obligatory for the better performance of sports persons. Aim: The aim of the study is to find out the effect of pranayama on the performance of Rifle shooters by measuring the parameters like-breath holding time, lung functional capacity and shooting performance. Method: 52 state level shooters subjects were chosen from 2 centres between the age group of 15-30years. Out of them, 26 shooters were given training in the techniques of pranayama for 3weeks.The other 26 subjects served as control i.e. with out Pranayama training. Variables like shooting performance, breath holding time (BHT, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, respiratory rate (RR and pulse rate (PR were measured in both the groups. Results: The study showed highly significant improvement in all the five variables shooting performance (in mm, BHT, PEFR, RR and PR with p value of 3.62E-05, 2.78E-07, 1.31E-09, 0.013, 3.40E-04respectively. Conclusion: So it can be concluded that pranayama is efficacious for better performance of Rifle shooters and should be included in their training practice.

  12. RIFLE classification in geriatric patients with acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Ji; Rhee, Harin; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Seong, Eun Young

    2016-06-01

    The RIFLE classification is widely used to assess the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI), but its application to geriatric AKI patients complicated by medical problems has not been reported. We investigated 256 geriatric patients (≥65 years old; mean age, 74.4 ± 6.3 years) who developed AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the RIFLE classification. Etiologic, clinical, and prognostic variables were analyzed. They were categorized into RIFLE-R (n = 53), RIFLE-I (n = 102), and RIFLE-F (n = 101) groups. The overall in-hospital mortality was 39.8 %. There were no significant differences in RIFLE category between survivors and non-survivors. Survivors had significantly less needs for a ventilator and vasopressor, and lower number of failing organs. Survivors had higher systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and serum albumin levels. We performed a logistic regression analysis to identify the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. In a univariate analysis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, RIFLE classification, number of failing organs, need for a ventilator and vasopressor, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and serum albumin levels were identified as prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. However, in a multivariate analysis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, number of failing organs, and serum albumin levels were independent risk factors, with no significant difference for in-hospital mortality with the RIFLE classification. The RIFLE classification might not be associated with mortality in geriatric AKI patients in the ICU. In geriatric patients with AKI, various factors besides severity of AKI should be considered to predict mortality.

  13. Mystery of the First Russian Rifle Naval Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1859 France completed the first ocean-going ironclad warship, «La Gloire», and changed the definition of naval power completely. Russia, as all the other Powers, found that her most powerful naval gun, the 60-pdr, was insufficient for modern warfare, and realized the future naval armament relied on heavy rifled artillery. Both the Army and Navy began purchasing such cannon from foreign providers until a suitable domestic weapon could be produced. The relationship between the Russian military and Krupp is well known. But there was another provided, the Blakely Ordnance Company in England sold many guns to the Army and Navy, beginning with 8-inch MLR in early 1863 to a large number of 9- and 11-inch guns. Deliveries began in November 1863 and continued until mid-1866. But no sources on the armament of Russian ships and fortresses mentions these guns. What happened to them is a mystery.

  14. Air rifle ammunition and its influence on wounding potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W D

    1985-03-01

    Two new types of air rifle pellet have been introduced; Prometheus, made from steel and nylon, and 'Sabo', made from lead alloy and plastic. Both have radio-opaque and radio-lucent components and their manufacturers claim better penetration. To establish their capabilities and the clinical implications a comparison of penetration was made between diablo, Prometheus and 'Sabo' pellets using gelatin 20% as a tissue simulant. Prometheus penetrated no further than diablo pellets but fragmented in up to 70% of cases. 'Sabo' penetrated 46% further than diablo (p = 0.001) and its plastic component did not penetrate at ranges greater than 0.5 m. Prometheus penetrated steel, unlike the other pellets, and is therefore potentially more dangerous in head injury. Because of fragmentation after impact it should be remembered that the radio-lucent sleeve is likely to be lying in the wound track. 'Sabo' would appear to be the most dangerous in soft and medium density materials.

  15. High-speed measurement of rifle primer blast waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of rifle primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Our key findings are: 1) Most of the primer models tested show 5-12% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) For most primer types tested, peak pressure magnitudes are well correlated with measured primer masses so that significant reductions in standard deviation are expected to result from sorting primers by mass. 3) A range of peak pressures from below 200 psi to above 500 psi is available in different primer types.

  16. Investigation into the fabrication of a composite top attack recoilless rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kevin R.

    1990-01-01

    The fabrication of a lightweight, expendable recoilless rifle using composite materials was investigated. Filament winding and braiding were successfully employed in the construction of several of these shoulder-fired weapons.

  17. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  18. The influence of rifle carriage on the kinetics of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, S A; Haslam, R A

    2008-06-01

    The influence that rifle carriage has on human gait has received little attention in the published literature. Rifle carriage has two main effects, to add load to the anterior of the body and to restrict natural arm swing patterns. Kinetic data were collected from 15 male participants, with 10 trials in each of four experimental conditions. The conditions were: walking without a load (used as a control condition); carrying a lightweight rifle simulator, which restricted arm movements but applied no additional load; wearing a 4.4 kg diving belt, which allowed arms to move freely; carrying a weighted (4.4 kg) replica SA80 rifle. Walking speed was fixed at 1.5 m/s (+/-5%) and data were sampled at 400 Hz. Results showed that rifle carriage significantly alters the ground reaction forces produced during walking, the most important effects being an increase in the impact peak and mediolateral forces. This study suggests that these effects are due to the increased range of motion of the body's centre of mass caused by the impeding of natural arm swing patterns. The subsequent effect on the potential development of injuries in rifle carriers is unknown.

  19. Association between eye dominance and training for rifle marksmanship: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L F; Classe, J G; Hester, M; Harris, K

    1996-02-01

    This pilot study was performed to determine the effect, if any, exerted by crossed dominance (contralateral hand and eye dominance) on the ability of novice riflemen to learn how to accurately shoot a rifle. Sighting dominance was used to determine the dominant eye. Hand dominance was determined by the arm used to shoulder the rifle in the shooting position. Subjects were 308 military recruits at the Fort Benning Army Base in Columbus, Georgia, who had undergone basic training in rifle marksmanship. Qualification scores obtained at the base rifle range were used to measure the subjects' ability to learn marksmanship skills. The subjects with right-hand/right-eye and left-hand/left-eye (uncrossed) dominance had qualification scores that were significantly higher (p = .009) than the subjects with right hand/left-eye and left-hand/right-eye (crossed) dominance. A significantly higher percentage of subjects with uncrossed dominance achieved rifle qualification (86.1 percent) than subjects with crossed dominance (56.5 percent) (p = .000). The learning of rifle marksmanship is influenced by eye dominance. Individuals who shoot right handed and are left-eye dominant or who shoot left handed and are right-eye dominant do not learn marksmanship skills as readily as individuals who have matched eye and hand dominance. Since crossed hand and eye dominance can be easily determined, it should be possible to identify cross dominant individuals and provide them with special training so that they can perform at a higher level of skill.

  20. 78 FR 73886 - Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification... Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal... workers at Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado were engaged in activities related to...

  1. Colorado's forest resources, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson; Joseph A. Duda; Larry T. DeBlander; John D. Shaw; Chris Witt; Todd A. Morgan; Michael C. Amacher

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory information for Colorado's forest lands. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, number of trees, biomass, volume, growth, mortality, and removals. Most of the tables are organized by forest type, species, diameter class, or owner group. The report also describes inventory design,...

  2. Geologic and production characteristics of the Tight Mesaverde Group: Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myal, F.R.; Price, E.H.; Hill, R.E.; Kukal, G.C.; Abadie, P.A.; Riecken, C.C.

    1989-07-01

    The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over 20 years. This study provides a critical comparison of the geologic, production and reservoir characteristics of existing Mesaverde gas producing areas within the basin to those same characteristics at the MWX site near Rifle, Colorado. As will be discussed, the basin has been partitioned into three areas having similar geologic and production characteristics. Stimulation techniques have been reviewed for each partitioned area to determine the most effective stimulation technique currently used in the Mesaverde. This study emphasizes predominantly the southern Piceance Basin because of the much greater production and geologic data there. There may be Mesaverde gas production in northern areas but because of the lack of production and relatively few penetrations, the northern Piceance Basin was not included in the detailed parts of this study. 54 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango A, B, C, and D, Colorado. Volume I. Detail area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    An airborne combined radiometric and magnetic survey was performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) over the Durango A, Durango B, Durango C, and Durango D Detail Areas of southwestern Colorado. The Durango A Detail Area is within the coverage of the Needle Mountains and Silverton 15' map sheets, and the Pole Creek Mountain, Rio Grande Pyramid, Emerald Lake, Granite Peak, Vallecito Reservoir, and Lemon Reservoir 7.5' map sheets of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). The Durango B Detail Area is within the coverage of the Silverton 15' map sheet and the Wetterhorn Peak, Uncompahgre Peak, Lake City, Redcloud Peak, Lake San Cristobal, Pole Creek Mountain, and Finger Mesa 7.5' map sheets of the NTMS. The Durango C Detail Area is within the coverage of the Platoro and Wolf Creek Pass 15' map sheets of the NTMS. The Durango D Detail Area is within the coverage of the Granite Lake, Cimarrona Peak, Bear Mountain, and Oakbrush Ridge 7.5' map sheets of the NTMS. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, gridded, and contoured to produce maps of the radiometric variables, uranium, potassium, and thorium; their ratios; and the residual magnetic field. These maps have been analyzed in order to produce a multi-variant analysis contour map based on the radiometric response of the individual geological units. A geochemical analysis has been performed, using the radiometric and magnetic contour maps, the multi-variant analysis map, and factor analysis techniques, to produce a geochemical analysis map for the area.

  4. Remedial actions at the former Climax Uranium Company, Uranium Mill site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-12-01

    This statement evaluates and compares the environmental impacts associated with the remedial actions of the residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site and associated vicinity properties at Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. This statement is also intended to aid the BLM in amending their management framework plans and final resource management plan, as well as assisting in compliance with the withdrawal application as appropriate. The site is a 114-acre tract of private and state owned land which contains approximately 3.1 million cubic yards of tailings and associated contaminated soils. The vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as building material. An estimated 3465 vicinity properties would be cleaned up during remedial action of the tailings pile. The tailings were produced by the former Climax Uranium Company which processed uranium ore, which it sold to the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1951 to 1966 and to private sources from 1966 to 1970. This statement evaluates six alternatives for stabilization and disposal of the tailings and other contaminated materials: (1) No action. (2) Stabilization at the Grand Junction site. (3) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with truck transport. (4) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with train and truck transport. (5) Disposal at the Two Road site with truck transport. (6) Disposal at the Two Road site with train and truck transport. All of the alternatives except no action include remedial action at an estimated 3465 vicinity properties. Alternative 3 is DOE`s preferred alternative.

  5. Acute Renal Failure in Patients with Severe Falciparum Malaria: Using the WHO 2006 and RIFLE Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipa Thanachartwet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on the application of the RIFLE criteria among patients with severe malaria. This retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 257 medical records of adult hospitalized patients with severe falciparum malaria at the Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak province in the northern part of Thailand. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF in patients with severe falciparum malaria and its association with RRT as well as in-hospital mortality. Using the WHO 2006 criteria, ARF was the second most common complication with incidence of 44.7% (115 patients. The requirement for RRT was 45.2% (52 patients and the in-hospital mortality was 31.9% (36 patients. Using the RIFLE criteria, 73.9% (190 patients had acute kidney injury (AKI. The requirement for RRT was 11.6% (5 patients in patients with RIFLE-I and 44.9% (48 patients in patients with RIFLE-F. The in-hospital mortality gradually increased with the severity of AKI. The requirement for RRT (P<0.05 and the in-hospital mortality (P<0.05 were significantly higher in ARF patients with severe falciparum malaria using both criteria. In conclusion, the RIFLE criteria could be used for diagnosing AKI and predicting outcomes in patients with severe malaria similar to the WHO 2006 criteria.

  6. Acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting: assessment using RIFLE and AKIN criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius José da Silva Nina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage Renal Failure and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria for diagnosis of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Retrospective cohort. 169 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting from January 2007 through December 2008 were analyzed. Information was entered into a database and analyzed using STATA 9.0. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 63.43 1 9.01 years old. Predominantly male patients (66.86% were studied. Acute Kidney Injury was present in 33.14% by AKIN and in 29.59% by RIFLE. Hemodialysis was required by 3.57% and 4.0% of the patients when AKIN and RIFLE were applied respectively. There was 4.0% and 3.57% mortality of patients with Acute Kidney Injury according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria, respectively. In 88.76% of the cases, there was good agreement between the two methods in the detection (kappa=0.7380 and stratification (kappa=0.7515 of Acute Kidney Injury. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the RIFLE and AKIN criteria have a good agreement in the detection and stratification of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting.

  7. Predictive value of RIFLE classification on prognosis of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xiong; CHEN Hui-de; WANG Xiao-wen; ZHAO Song; CHEN Xiu-kai; ZHENG Yue; SONG Yang

    2009-01-01

    Background The optimal timing to start continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for acute kidney injury (AKI) patients has not been accurately established. The recently proposed risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria for diagnosis and classification of AKI may provide a method for clinicians to decide the "optimal timing" for starting CRRT under uniform guidelines. The present study aimed: (1) to analyze the correlation between RIFLE stage at the start of CRRT and 90-day survival rate after CRRT start, (2) to further investigate the correlation of RIFLE stage with the malignant kidney outcome in the 90-day survivors, and (3) to determine the influence of the timing of CRRT defined by RIFLE classification on the 90-day survival and malignant kidney outcome in 90-day survivors. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on the data of 106 critically ill patients with AKI, treated with CRRT during a 6-year period in a university affiliated surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Information such as sex, age, RIFLE stage, sepsis, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, number of organ failures before CRRT, CRRT time during SiCU, survival, and kidney outcome conditions at 90 days after CRRT start was collected. According to their baseline severity of AKI at the start of CRRT, the patients were assigned to three groups according to the increasing severity of RIFLE stages: RIFLE-R (risk of renal dysfunction, R), RIFLE-I (injury to the kidney, I) and RIFLE-F (failure of kidney function, F) using RIFLE criteria. The malignant kidney outcome was classified as RIFLE-L (loss of kidney function, L) or RIFLE-E (end-stage kidney disease, E) using RIFLE criteria. The correlation between RIFLE stage and 90-day survival rate was analyzed among these three RIFLE-categorized groups. Additionally, the association between RIFLE stage and the malignant kidney outcome (RIFLE-L+RIFLF-E) in the 90-day survivors was analyzed

  8. Remedial actions at the former Climax Uranium Company, Uranium Mill site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices: Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-12-01

    This volume contains Appendix F--hydrology report, and Appendix G--flood plain and wetland assessment. Contents of the hydrology report include: surface water; ground water; potentially affected hydrogeologic environment-processing site; potentially affected hydrogeologic environment-Cheney reservoir site; potentially affected hydrogeologic environment-Two Road site; and conclusions-ground water.

  9. 33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek and Broad River, S.C.; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot rifle and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Broad River, S.C.; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot rifle and pistol ranges, Parris Island. 334.480..., S.C.; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot rifle and pistol ranges, Parris Island. (a) During periods when the rifle and pistol ranges on Parris Island are in use, the following areas will be restricted to...

  10. An Exploratory Investigation of the Effect of Individualized Computer-Based Instruction on Rifle Marksmanship Performance and Skill. CRESST Report 754

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, researchers examined whether individualized multimedia-based instruction would influence the development of rifle marksmanship skills in novice shooters with little or no prior rifle marksmanship experience. Forty-eight novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to shoot at an 8-inch target at a simulated distance…

  11. 33 CFR 334.100 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic...

  12. The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors on the Development of Rifle Marksmanship Skills. CRESST Report 753

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…

  13. Incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury in acute myocardial infarction patients: a comparison between AKIN and RIFLE criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Yacov; Leshem-Rubinow, Eran; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Gal-Oz, Amir; Steinvil, Arie; Ben Assa, Eyal; Keren, Gad; Roth, Arie; Arbel, Yaron

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with adverse outcomes after acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The recently proposed AKI network (AKIN) suggested modifications to the consensus classification system for AKI known as the risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage (RIFLE) criteria. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence and mortality (early and late) of AKI diagnosed by RIFLE and AKIN criteria in the STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous intervention (PCI). We retrospectively studied 1,033 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Recruited patients were admitted between January 2008 and November 2012 to the cardiac intensive care unit with the diagnosis of acute STEMI. We compared the utilization of RIFLE and AKIN criteria for the diagnosis, classification, and prediction of mortality. The AKIN criteria allowed the identification of more patients as having AKI (9.6 vs. 3.9 %, p RIFLE) (7.6 vs. 1.9 %, p RIFLE criteria. Mortality was higher in AKI population defined by either RIFLE (46.3 vs. 6.8 %, OR 11.9, 95 % CI 6.15-23.1; p RIFLE and AKIN was an independent predictor of both 30-day and up to 5-year all-cause mortality. However, there was no significant statistical difference in the risk provided by these two scoring systems. AKIN criteria are more sensitive in defining AKI compared with the RIFLE criteria in STEMI. However, no difference exists in the mortality risk provided by these two scoring systems.

  14. Incidence and Mortality of Acute Kidney Injury after Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison between KDIGO and RIFLE Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando B.; Bruetto, Rosana G.; Torres, Ulysses S.; Otaviano, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) increases the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recently, a new AKI definition was proposed by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) organization. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence and the early and late mortality of AKI diagnosed by RIFLE and KDIGO criteria in the first 7 days of hospitalization due to an AMI. Methods and Results In total, 1,050 AMI patients were prospectively studied. AKI defined by RIFLE and KDIGO occurred in 14.8% and 36.6% of patients, respectively. By applying multivariate Cox analysis, AKI was associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for 30-day death of 3.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35–5.25, pRIFLE and 3.99 (CI 2.59–6.15, pRIFLE and 2.43 (CI 1.62–3.62, pRIFLE but as AKI by KDIGO criteria had also an increased AHR for death of 2.55 (1.52–4.28) at 30 days and 2.28 (CI 1.46–3.54) at 1 year (pRIFLE among AMI patients. Patients diagnosed as AKI by KDIGO but not RIFLE criteria had a significantly higher early and late mortality. In this study KDIGO criteria were more suitable for AKI diagnosis in AMI patients than RIFLE criteria. PMID:23894572

  15. Acute renal failure according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, G; Landa, M; Masevicius, D; Gianassi, S; San-Román, J E; Silva, L; Gimenez, M; Tejerina, O; Díaz-Cisneros, P; Ciccioli, F; do Pico, J L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) in critically ill patients using the RIFLE and AKIN criteria. A prospective, multicenter observational study with a duration of one year from February 2010 was carried out. RIFLE and AKIN were employed using the urinary (UC) and creatinine criteria (CC) jointly and separately. Nine polyvalent Critical Care Units (CCUs) in Argentina. A total of 627 critical patients over 18 years of age were admitted to the CCU for more than 48h. inability to quantify diuresis, surgical instrumentation of the urinary tract, and need for renal support therapy (RST). Calculated hourly diuresis (CHD) was used to apply the UC. The incidence of ARF was 69.4% and 51.8% according to RIFLE and AKIN, respectively. UC detected ARF in 59.5% of cases, while CC identified ARF in 34.7% (RIFLE) and 25.3% (AKIN). The mortality rate was 40.9% and 44.6% according to RIFLE and AKIN respectively, was significantly higher than in patients without ARF, and increased with disease severity (Data processing: Excel, SQL and SPSS. Levene test, comparison of means with Student t and chi-squared, with 95% confidence interval). RIFLE identified more cases of ARF. UC proved more effective than CC. The presence of ARF and severity levels were correlated to mortality but not to days of stay in the CCU. Implementation of the unified CHD was useful for implementing UC and achieving comparable results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and predicting short-term prognosis of early cardiorenal syndrome type 1: KDIGO is superior to RIFLE or AKIN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilian Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. METHODS: The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9% cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN or Stage Risk (RIFLE. They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI 1.97-5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+R(-+K(+A(-] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank P<0.001. CONCLUSION: KDIGO criteria identified significantly more CRS type 1 episodes than RIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1.

  17. U.S. Army Rifle and Carbine Adoption between 1865 and 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    which remained the standard for U.S. military rifles well into the 1960s. The .30-caliber rifle has resurfaced during the current war on terrorism as...the hip and the time limit was reduced to one minute for the second and third trials. The Krag proved capable of firing 15 shots in 32 seconds as a...magazine empty.” Rapidity at will – “Same as test I, except that piece will be fired from the hip , without aim at stop butt at short range; hits

  18. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  19. Water resources data, Texas water year 1998, volume 3. Colorado River basin, Lavaca River basin, Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  20. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  1. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  2. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-10

    TECHNICAL REPORT NO. T15-7 DATE August 2015 ADA THERMAL-WORK STRAIN AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE ...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T15-7 THERMAL-WORK STRAIN AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING MARINE RIFLE SQUAD OPERATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN...0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  3. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather) condition

  4. Marksmanship for Young Shooters: The Air Rifle as an Instructional Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julian W., Ed.

    The purposes of this manual, which is part of a series on outdoor education, are: (1) to show some ways in which the spring-type air rifle can be used as an instructional tool in the school curriculum (especially in the elementary school) and in recreational and agency programs involving young shooters and (2) to provide information on the…

  5. Effect of carrying a rifle on physiology and biomechanical responses in biathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Bishop, Phil; Höök, Martina; Willis, Sarah; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of carrying a rifle on the physiological and biomechanical responses of well-trained biathletes. Ten elite biathletes (five men and five women) performed ski skating with (R) or without a rifle (NR) on a treadmill using the V2 (5° incline) and V1 techniques (8°) at 8 and 6 km·h(-1), respectively, as well as at racing intensity (approximately 95% of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), 10.7 ± 0.8 and 7.7 ± 0.9 km·h(-1), respectively). V˙O2, ventilation (V˙(E)), HR, blood lactate concentration (BLa), and cycle characteristics as well as pole and leg kinetics were evaluated during these trials. Metabolic data were all higher for R than for NR, as follows: V˙O2, +2.5%; V˙(E), +8.1%; RER, +4.2%; all P rifle reduced cycle time and length, poling and arm swing times, and leg ground contact time and increased cycle rate, the peak and impulse of leg force, average cycle force, and impulse of forefoot force (all P rifle elevated physiological responses, accelerated cycle rate, and involved greater leg work, with no differences between the V1 and V2 techniques.

  6. Assessment of Rifle Marksmanship Skill Using Sensor-Based Measures. CRESST Report 755

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this report was to test the use of sensor-based skill measures in evaluating performance differences in rifle marksmanship. Ten shots were collected from 30 novices and 9 experts. Three measures for breath control and one for trigger control were used to predict skill classification. The data were fitted with a logistic regression…

  7. Effects of Shivering on Rifle Shooting Performance in U. S. Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    M-16A2 rifle [Fig. 1 (B)], and a control switch interfaced with a desktop computer. The subjects aimed and fired at a solid black bull’s-eye...shivering response, as noted by an increase in myoelectric activity and visual observation, began 5 to 30 min after exposure to the cold environment

  8. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather)

  9. Identification and predicting short-term prognosis of early cardiorenal syndrome type 1: KDIGO is superior to RIFLE or AKIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhilian; Cai, Lu; Liang, Xinling; Du, Zhiming; Chen, Yuanhan; An, Shengli; Tan, Ning; Xu, Lixia; Li, Ruizhao; Li, Liwen; Shi, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9%) cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN) or Stage Risk (RIFLE). They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases) of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR)3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI) 1.97-5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+)R(-)+K(+)A(-)] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank PRIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1.

  10. Does the RIFLE Classification Improve Prognostic Value of the APACHE II Score in Critically Ill Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. Wahrhaftig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The RIFLE classification defines three severity criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI: risk, injury, and failure. It was associated with mortality according to the gradation of AKI severity. However, it is not known if the APACHE II score, associated with the RIFLE classification, results in greater discriminatory power in relation to mortality in critical patients. Objective. To analyze whether the RIFLE classification adds value to the performance of APACHE II in predicting mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. An observational prospective cohort of 200 patients admitted to the ICU from July 2010 to July 2011. Results. The age of the sample was 66 (±16.7 years, 53.3% female. ICU mortality was 23.5%. The severity of AKI presented higher risk of death: class risk (RR = 1.89 CI:0.97–3.38, , grade injury (RR = 3.7 CI:1.71–8.08, , and class failure (RR = 4.79 CI:2.10–10.6, . The APACHE II had C-statistics of 0.75, 95% (CI:0.68–0.80, and 0.80 (95% CI:0.74 to 0.86, after being incorporated into the RIFLE classification in relation to prediction of death. In the comparison between AUROCs, . Conclusion. The severity of AKI, defined by the RIFLE classification, was a risk marker for mortality in critically ill patients, and improved the performance of APACHE II in predicting the mortality in this population.

  11. Automated QA/QC For Data Management, Curation, And Standardization Of Hydrological, Meteorological, And Biogeochemical Datasets at the Rifle Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Faybishenko, B.; Varadharajan, C.; Agarwal, D.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) "Genomes to Watershed" Science Focus Area field effort at the Rifle site in Colorado, USA, sensor-based hydrological and meteorological datasets and data from laboratory characterization of groundwater samples have been curated and archived in a database (http://ifrcrifle.org). We have developed automated quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) methods to detect and identify errors made while recording, manipulating, formatting, transmitting and archiving data, or due to the malfunctioning of sensors. The focus was on developing and implementing basic QA/QC for the DOE Legacy Management installed SOARS network that collects data from the water-level pressure transducers, vadose zone and groundwater thermistors, as well as the meteorological stations. We developed and implemented QA/QC procedures to identify and flag the sources of erroneous data and cleaned up the water-level time series data using outlier filtering methods. Based on the analysis of field water-level data, we provided recommendations on the reinstallation and calibration of pressure transducers installed in monitoring wells. Additionally, in support of the QC of the geochemical dataset, we developed an approach of flagging the samples based on the evaluation of ionic balance of water samples. We also advanced a visualization system to allow users to plot and download raw data and perform QA/QC of time series data masked by the quality flags.

  12. Incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury after myocardial infarction: a comparison between KDIGO and RIFLE criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI increases the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Recently, a new AKI definition was proposed by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO organization. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence and the early and late mortality of AKI diagnosed by RIFLE and KDIGO criteria in the first 7 days of hospitalization due to an AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 1,050 AMI patients were prospectively studied. AKI defined by RIFLE and KDIGO occurred in 14.8% and 36.6% of patients, respectively. By applying multivariate Cox analysis, AKI was associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio (AHR for 30-day death of 3.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35-5.25, p<0.001 by RIFLE and 3.99 (CI 2.59-6.15, p<0.001 by KDIGO and with an AHR for 1-year mortality of 1.84 (CI 1.12-3.01, p=0.016 by RIFLE and 2.43 (CI 1.62-3.62, p<0.001 by KDIGO. The subgroup of patients diagnosed as non-AKI by RIFLE but as AKI by KDIGO criteria had also an increased AHR for death of 2.55 (1.52-4.28 at 30 days and 2.28 (CI 1.46-3.54 at 1 year (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: KDIGO criteria detected substantially more AKI patients than RIFLE among AMI patients. Patients diagnosed as AKI by KDIGO but not RIFLE criteria had a significantly higher early and late mortality. In this study KDIGO criteria were more suitable for AKI diagnosis in AMI patients than RIFLE criteria.

  13. Annual report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s cultural resource activities at Colorado UMTRA Project sites for October 1995--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of cultural resource activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in Colorado for the period of October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. The inactive uranium mill tailings sites in Colorado are at Durango, Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock. On December 6, 1984, the DOE, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) entered into a programmatic memorandum of understanding (PMOU). This PMOU requires the DOE to fulfillment of its obligations under various state and federal regulations for the protection and preservation of cultural resources. This report provides the state of Colorado with an annual report on the cultural resource activities performed for all UMTRA Project sites in Colorado. Due to the completion of surface activities at the UMTRA Project sites, this will be the last annual report to the state of Colorado. Cultural resources activities subsequent to this report will be reported to the state through site-specific correspondence.

  14. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  15. Colorado's Singular "No"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedeman, Reeves

    2008-01-01

    Supporters of affirmative action may have finally found a way to defeat state ballot measures that would ban such programs: Latch onto an inspirational presidential candidate with piles of cash and an unprecedented voter-turnout machine. Those activists won a narrow victory in Colorado this month, when 50.7 percent of voters made the state the…

  16. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  17. Game Birds of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)

  18. Non-lead rifle hunting ammunition: issues of availability and performance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Gremse, Carl; Kanstrup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Non-lead hunting rifle bullets were developed to make superior quality ammunition, and the need to reduce lead exposure of wildlife and humans. European and US hunters’ concerns about non-lead bullets involve perceptions of availability, costs, efficacy, accuracy, toxicity, and barrel fouling...... companies make non-lead bullets for traditional, rare, and novel rifle calibres. Local retail availability is now a function of consumer demand which relates, directly, to legal requirements for use. Costs of non-lead and equivalent lead-core hunting bullets are similar in Europe and pose no barrier to use....... Efficacy of non-lead bullets is equal to that of traditional lead-core bullets. Perceptions of reduced accuracy and greater barrel fouling must be addressed by industry and hunter organizations and, if verified, resolved. Non-lead bullets are made in fragmenting and non-fragmenting versions...

  19. Clinical characteristics of acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in mass rifle drills without ear protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, In Seok; Park, Sang-Yong; Park, Hyun Jin; Yang, Hoon-Shik; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Won-Sang

    2011-10-01

    One of the major occupational hazards of working in military service is being subjected to intense impulse noise. We analyzed the clinical presentation of acoustic traumas, induced by mass rifle gunshot noise during military training, in unprotected patients. We evaluated 189 soldiers who had otologic symptoms after rifle shooting exercises without using any hearing protection. All soldiers had been training on the K2 rifle. We took medical histories; conducted physical examinations and hearing evaluations (pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and impedence audiometry); and distributed the Newmann's Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) survey. In addition, we evaluated a normal control group of 64 subjects of similar age who had never fired a rifle. In the patient group, the most common and irritating reported symptom was tinnitus (94.2%), and the average THI score in the patient group was 39.51 ± 14.87, which was significantly higher than the control group score (0.56 ± 3.94) (p < 0.001). Average outcomes of post-exposure air conduction thresholds were 21.33 ± 13.25 dB HL in the affected ears. These levels also were significantly higher than those of the control group (9.16 ± 4.07dB HL) (p < 0.001). Hearing loss was most prominent at high frequencies. An asymmetry of hearing loss related to head position during shooting was not observed. Acoustic trauma induced by gunshot noise can cause permanent tinnitus and hearing loss. Hearing protection (bilateral earplugs) and environmental reform are necessary.

  20. Effects of Rifle Handling, Target Acquisition, and Trigger Control on Simulated Shooting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    performance with the M16A1 rifle. Study 1. A validation of the artificial intelligence direct fire weapons research test bed. Orlando, FL: U.S...communication and superior performance in skilled marksmen: An EEG coherence analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 25(2... PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  1. Stress fractures of forearm bones in military recruits of rifle drill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Lin; Pan, Ru-Yu; Wu, Jia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Shyu-Jye

    2009-10-01

    Stress fractures rarely occur in the forearms. These injuries usually occur in healthy young patients, which are usually neglected by patients or physicians. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid late complications of these fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyze a case series of military recruits who participated in rifle drill training and presented with forearm stress fractures at our institution. We evaluated 216 military recruits of rifle drill training. Twelve patients were diagnosed with forearm stress fractures by typical history, physical examination, laboratory studies, serial radiographs, and bone scan examinations. Eighteen fractures were found in 12 patients. On initial radiographs, 11 had periosteal reactions, 4 had callus formation with complete fracture lines, and 3 were normal. All 18 fractures had increase radioactivity in the involved middle (15 of 18) or distal (2 of 18) ulnae and one middle radius (1 of 18). Stress fractures of the forearms in military rifle drill training usually occur in middle ulnae. Fifty percent of them were bilateral fractures. A high index of suspicion is the key to diagnosis. Early diagnosis with conservative treatment can achieve satisfactory results and avoid late complications of stress fractures.

  2. Fatal laryngeal oedema in an adult from an air rifle injury, and related ballistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Cukic, Dragana; Curovic, Ivana; Golubovic, Mileta

    2015-01-01

    Air guns (air pistols and rifles) are already recognized as being potentially lethal. The diabolo pellet has a calibre of .177 (4.5 mm), a 1250 fps velocity, is high energetic, and is most commonly used in such weapons. In the presented case, the victim sustained an air rifle injury to the neck. The pellet passed through the thyroid cartilage, subsequently causing the extensive laryngeal swelling with haematoma around the pellet channel which fatally obstructed the airway. It is estimated microscopically that at least a number of hours must have passed from the injury to the time of death. For this case, a shooting distance was estimated by using experimental shooting values compared to physics formulas for accelerated motion. The case under question has confirmed an applicable legal approach that can be utilized by countries to classify air rifles as being as harmful as other firearms, especially those with high muzzle velocities. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Real-time biomechanical biofeedback effects on top-level rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullineaux, David R; Underwood, Stacy M; Shapiro, Robert; Hall, John W

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of training with real-time biomechanical biofeedback on technique and performance of rifle shooters. Top-level shooters were randomly assigned to biofeedback- (n = 5) and control- (n = 4) groups. Bi-weekly training of 20 shots air-rifle for 4 weeks, with pre- and post-tests of 20 shots air-rifle and smallbore, were performed. The biofeedback group received individualized real-time auditory biofeedback on postural- and barrel-stabilities. Results revealed a technique of reducing postural- and barrel-stabilities towards triggering (e.g. barrel speed 8.0 ± 1.2 mm/s at 3.0-1.0 s reducing to 5.4 ± 0.8 mm/s at 0.3-0.1 s). There were no changes pre- to post-tests and no differences between groups in these measures of stability. The biofeedback group showed meaningful improvements in performance measures, whereas the control group showed no improvement (e.g. smallbore shot group diameter change: biofeedback group -2.6 mm; control group 0.1 mm). Biomechanical biofeedback is proposed to have improved performance, possibly through training better decision making, but the actual cause requires further research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Universal Infantry Weapons Trainer (UIWT). Volume 1. M-16 Rifle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    source used in the system is a semiconductor, gallium arsenide laser. The laser is collimated by a simple plano convex lens. The laser is attached where...UfSATSOATA LITE~tlY ’%.CH’, /s PIF#, 3-48 OF 80/2P MAUAL U5MRTSSTATUS LITERALLY 6ED9’, /* PiE 3-44 *./ EcC LITERALLY ’±R; /* AS(I I "EsCFm * ZERO LITERALLY...H EI E CHIP CT 9026 15 1 EN I E6t E EXTEIEI INTEPRUPTS 41? A 2 WRIT: NOY R,R2 ,GET PIE STATUS *218 627 93 JZ WRIT ,IF 0lJETE ENPTY NO ACTION 𔄁 𔄂

  5. Defining acute kidney injury in dengue viral infection by conventional and novel classification systems (AKIN and RIFLE): a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sarriff, Azmi; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Khan, Yusra Habib; Jummaat, Fauziah

    2016-02-01

    Several criteria have been used to stratify acute kidney injury (AKI) in dengue infection and have resulted in variations in its incidence as well as clinic-laboratory characteristics. The current study was aimed to compare three commonly used criteria of AKI among patients with dengue. 667 patients with dengue were defined and staged according to the conventional definition (CD), the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, End stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria. Appropriate statistical methods were used to compare these three criteria. The incidence of AKI during dengue infection was 14.2% by AKIN criteria, 12.6% by RIFLE criteria and 4.2% by CD. AKIN and RIFLE criteria were comparable while AKIN-I identified 11 more patients with AKI than RIFLE-R (76.8% vs. 73.8%, p=0.023). CD was found to be less sensitive than AKIN and RIFLE due to stratification of only severe AKI cases with serum creatinine ≥176.8 µmol/L. Overall mortality was 1.2% and severe stages of AKI were associated with increased mortality (pRIFLE identified six and CD identified three risk factors. Old age, severe dengue and the use of nephrotoxic drugs were found to be independent predictors identified by all criteria while hypertension was only identified by AKIN. The incidence of AKI in dengue infection, the risk factors for its development and clinico-laboratory characteristics vary significantly according to the diagnostic criteria used. In our analysis, AKIN and RIFLE were comparable to each other and superior to CD with regard to early diagnosis and sensitivity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Acute kidney injury after infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a comparison of AKIN and RIFLE criteria for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, J-Y; Lee, J B; Yoon, Y; Seo, H-S; Song, J-G; Hwang, G S

    2014-12-01

    Although both Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage (RIFLE) kidney disease criteria are frequently used to diagnose acute kidney injury (AKI), they have rarely been compared in the diagnosis of AKI in patients undergoing surgery for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study investigated the incidence of, and risk factors for, AKI, defined by AKIN and RIFLE criteria, and compared their ability to predict mortality after infrarenal AAA surgery. This study examined 444 patients who underwent infrarenal AAA surgery between January 1999 and December 2011. Risk factors for AKI were assessed by multivariable analyses, and the impact of AKI on overall mortality was assessed by a Cox's proportional hazard model with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was used to assess the performance of AKIN and RIFLE criteria in predicting overall mortality. AKI based on AKIN and RIFLE criteria occurred in 82 (18.5%) and 55 (12.4%) patients, respectively. The independent risk factors for AKI were intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and chronic kidney disease (CKD) by AKIN criteria, and age, intraoperative RBC transfusion, preoperative atrial fibrillation, and CKD by RIFLE criteria. After IPTW adjustment, AKI was related to 30 day mortality and overall mortality. NRI was 15.2% greater (P=0.04) for AKIN than for RIFLE criteria in assessing the risk of overall mortality. Although AKI defined by either AKIN or RIFLE criteria was associated with overall mortality, AKIN criteria showed better prediction of mortality in patients undergoing infrarenal AAA surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Libraries in Colorado: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library → Libraries in Colorado URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/colorado.html Libraries in Colorado ... Room 2106C Aurora, CO 80045 303-724-2111 http://hslibrary.ucdenver.edu/ Denver National Jewish Health Library ...

  8. Silverton folio, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Whitman; Howe, Ernest; Ransome, F. L.

    1905-01-01

    The term San Juan region, or simply "the San Juan," used with variable meaning by early explorers, and naturally with indefinite limitation during the period of settlement, is now quite generally applied to a large tract of mountainous country in southwestern Colorado, together with an undefined zone of lower country bordering it on the north, west, and south.  The Continental Divide traverses this area in a great bow.  The principal part of the district is a deeply scored volcanic plateau, more than 3000 square miles in extent, drained on the north by the tributaties of the Gunnison River, on the west by those of the Dolores and San Miguel rivers, on the south by numerous branches of the San Juan, and on the east by the Rio Grande.  ALl but the latter drainage finds its way to the Gulf of California through the Colorado River.

  9. RIFLE classification and mortality in obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit with acute kidney injury: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ebtesam M; Behery, Manal M El; Sayed, Gamal Abbas El; Abdulatif, Howaida K

    2014-10-01

    This study is to assess the correlation of risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE) classification with hospital mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) obstetric patients and to evaluate the relation of acute kidney injury (AKI) to other risk factors. The 4 stages of RIFLE (nonacute renal failure, risk, injury, and failure) were scored from 0 to 3 points, respectively. The prognostic performance of the RIFLE score was compared to the general ICU models. AKI occurred in 30 (5.88%) of patients admitted to ICU. The main causes of AKI were hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet syndrome 13 (43%), pregnancy-related hypertension 9 (30%), puerperal sepsis 3 (10%), abruption placentae 2 (6.6%), disseminated intravascular coagulopathy 2 (6.6%), and anesthetic complications 1 (3.3%). According to the RIFLE criteria, patients were classified into Risk (3.3%), Injury (16.6%), Failure (33.3%), and Loss (46.6%). Maternal mortality from total ICU admission occurred in 51 (10%) cases, of these 16 (31.3%) cases were due to AKI. Independent risk factors associated with mortality were hyperbilirubinemia, low levels of HCO3, and RIFLE. Receiver-operator characteristic curves for ICU patients according to RIFLE score showed area under the curve = 0.824. The RIFLE classification system could predict the risk of mortality from AKI in obstetric ICU patients and mortality was positively associated with high RIFLE classes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Influence of acute kidney injury on short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: risk factors and prognostic value of a modified RIFLE classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Delgado, Juan C; Esteve, Francisco; Torrado, Herminia; Rodríguez-Castro, David; Carrio, Maria L; Farrero, Elisabet; Javierre, Casimiro; Ventura, Josep L; Manez, Rafael

    2013-12-13

    The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcome. The modified RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure) classification for AKI, which classifies patients with renal replacement therapy needs according to RIFLE failure class, improves the predictive value of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Our aim was to assess risk factors for post-operative AKI and the impact of renal function on short- and long-term survival among all AKI subgroups using the modified RIFLE classification. We prospectively studied 2,940 consecutive cardiosurgical patients between January 2004 and July 2009. AKI was defined according to the modified RIFLE system. Pre-operative, operative and post-operative variables usually measured on and during admission, which included main outcomes, were recorded together with cardiac surgery scores and ICU scores. These data were evaluated for association with AKI and staging in the different RIFLE groups by means of multivariable analyses. Survival was analyzed via Kaplan-Meier and a risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model. A complete follow-up (mean 6.9 ± 4.3 years) was performed in 2,840 patients up to April 2013. Of those patients studied, 14% (n = 409) were diagnosed with AKI. We identified one intra-operative (higher cardiopulmonary bypass time) and two post-operative (a longer need for vasoactive drugs and higher arterial lactate 24 hours after admission) predictors of AKI. The worst outcomes, including in-hospital mortality, were associated with the worst RIFLE class. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed survival of 74.9% in the RIFLE risk group, 42.9% in the RIFLE injury group and 22.3% in the RIFLE failure group (P RIFLE injury (Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.347, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.122 to 4.907, P = 0.023) and RIFLE failure (HR = 3.093, 95% CI 1.460 to 6.550, P = 0.003) were independent predictors for long-term patient mortality

  11. Vibration transmissibility on rifle shooter: A comparison between accelerometer and laser Doppler vibrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, L.; Casacanditella, L.; Santolini, C.; Martarelli, M.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2014-05-01

    The transmission of mechanical vibrations from tools to human subjects is known to be potentially dangerous for the circulatory and neurological systems. It is also known that such damages are strictly depending on the intensity and the frequency range of the vibrational signals transferred to the different anatomical districts. In this paper, very high impulsive signals, generated during a shooting by a rifle, will be studied, being such signals characterised by a very high acceleration amplitude as well as high frequency range. In this paper, it will be presented an experimental setup aimed to collect experimental data relative to the transmission of the vibration signals from the rifle to the shoulder of subject during the shooting action. In particular the transmissibility of acceleration signals, as well as of the velocity signals, between the rifle stock and the subject's back shoulder will be measured using two piezoelectric accelerometers and a single point laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Tests have been carried out in a shooting lab where a professional shooter has conducted the experiments, using different experimental configurations: two different types of stocks and two kinds of bullets with different weights were considered. Two uniaxial accelerometers were fixed on the stock of the weapon and on the back of the shoulder of the shooter respectively. Vibration from the back shoulder was also measured by means of a LDV simultaneously. A comparison of the measured results will be presented and the pros and cons of the use of contact and non-contact transducers will be discussed taking into account the possible sources of the measurement uncertainty as unwanted sensor vibrations for the accelerometer.

  12. Evaluation of acute kidney injury (AKI) with RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO in critically ill trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülger, F; Pehlivanlar Küçük, M; Küçük, A O; İlkaya, N K; Murat, N; Bilgiç, B; Abanoz, H

    2017-07-17

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of AKI development on mortality with four different classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, KDIGO) in critically ill trauma patients followed in the intensive care unit. A retrospective review of 2034 patients in our intensive care unit was conducted between July 2010 and August 2013. A total of 198 patients with primary trauma were included in the study to evaluate the development of AKI. When the presence of AKI was investigated according to the four criteria (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO), the highest incidence of AKI was found according to the KDIGO classification (74.2%), followed by AKIN (72.2%), RIFLE (69.7%), and CK (59.1%). It was observed that more AKI developed according to KDIGO in patients with multiple trauma and thoracic trauma (p = 0.031, p = 0.029). Sixty-two (31%) of the 198 trauma patients monitored in the intensive care unit died; mortality was frequently found high in AKI stage 2 and 3 patients. According to the CK classification, there was a significant increase in mortality in patients with AKI on the first day (p = 0.045). AKI classifications by RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO were independently associated with the risk of in-hospital death. In this study, the presence of AKI was found to be an independent risk factor in the development of in-hospital mortality according to all classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO) in critically traumatic patients followed in ICU, and the compatibility between RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO was the highest among the classification systems.

  13. Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection following rifle butt recoil chest injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mamatha; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed; Al-Jufaili, Mahmood; Valiath, John

    2011-11-01

    Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  14. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G.; Krone, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting......The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged...

  15. Using GRIN to save 50% lens weight for an 8x rifle scope design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, R. A.; Beadie, G.

    2017-05-01

    Starting with a literature-based design for a rifle scope, we demonstrate the potential to replace large, heavy glass lenses with polymer-based GRIN lenses with little optical penalty, while saving 50% of the lens weight in the system. Several properties of the primary design are chosen to favor manufacturability, such as leaving glass for the external surfaces and choosing polymers and GRIN geometries based on proven fabrication techniques. Compared to the reference design which weighed 154 g, the GRIN-substituted design weighed 78 g while maintaining visually constant performance from 0-40°C.

  16. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs..., Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone... as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the Denver Museum of...

  17. 77 FR 23498 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs..., Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone... Fine Arts Center (formerly known as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center)...

  18. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  19. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetjuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials.

  20. Relation of Elite Rifle Shooters' Technique-Test Measures to Competition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Simo; Linnamo, Vesa; Mononen, Kaisu; Kuitunen, Sami

    2016-07-01

    To describe the long-term changes in shooting technique in relation to competition performances in elite air-rifle shooters. Seventeen elite shooters completed simulated air-rifle shooting-competition series in 3 consecutive seasons, participating on 15 ± 7 testing occasions. Shooting score and aiming-point-trajectory variables were obtained with an optoelectronic shooting device, and postural-balance variables were measured with force platform. Shooters' competition results were collected from all international and national competitions during the 3-y period. Mean test score, stability of hold, aiming accuracy, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance improved during the 3-y period (ANOVA, time, P < .05-.01). Seasonal mean test results in stability of hold (R = -.70, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.75, P = .000) were related to competition performances. Changes in stability of hold (R = -.61, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.39, P = .022) were also related to the changes in competition performances. Postural balance in shooting direction was more related to cleanness of triggering (R = .57, P = .000), whereas balance in cross-shooting direction was more related to stability of hold (R = .70, P = .000). The shooting-technique testing used in the current study seems to be a valid and useful tool for long-term performance assessment. Stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance can be further developed even at the elite level, resulting in improved competition performances.

  1. Numerical simulation of multi-rifled tube drawing - finding proper feedstock dimensions and tool geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, P.; Buček, P.; Ridzoň, M.; Mojžiš, M.; Parilák, L.'

    2017-02-01

    Production of multi-rifled seamless steel tubes is quite a new technology in Železiarne Podbrezová. Therefore, a lot of technological questions emerges (process technology, input feedstock dimensions, material flow during drawing, etc.) Pilot experiments to fine tune the process cost a lot of time and energy. For this, numerical simulation would be an alternative solution for achieving optimal parameters in production technology. This would reduce the number of experiments needed, lowering the overall costs of development. However, to claim the numerical results to be relevant it is necessary to verify them against the actual plant trials. Searching for optimal input feedstock dimension for drawing of multi-rifled tube with dimensions Ø28.6 mm × 6.3 mm is what makes the main topic of this paper. As a secondary task, effective position of the plug - die couple has been solved via numerical simulation. Comparing the calculated results with actual numbers from plant trials a good agreement was observed.

  2. Lead-free hunting rifle ammunition: product availability, price, effectiveness, and role in global wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George

    2013-10-01

    Proposals to end the use of lead hunting ammunition because of the established risks of lead exposure to wildlife and humans are impeded by concerns about the availability, price, and effectiveness of substitutes. The product availability and retail prices of different calibers of lead-free bullets and center-fire rifle ammunition were assessed for ammunition sold in the USA and Europe. Lead-free bullets are made in 35 calibers and 51 rifle cartridge designations. Thirty-seven companies distribute internationally ammunition made with lead-free bullets. There is no major difference in the retail price of equivalent lead-free and lead-core ammunition for most popular calibers. Lead-free ammunition has set bench-mark standards for accuracy, lethality, and safety. Given the demonstrated wide product availability, comparable prices, and the effectiveness of high-quality lead-free ammunition, it is possible to phase out the use of lead hunting ammunition world-wide, based on progressive policy and enforceable legislation.

  3. Axial-Symmetry Numerical Approaches for Noise Predicting and Attenuating of Rifle Shooting with Suppressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The moving bullet out of a rifle barrel is propelled by a fired explosive charge. Subsequently, a disturbed muzzle blast wave is initiated which lasts several milliseconds. In this study, axially symmetric, unsteady, Large Eddy Simulation (LES, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkins (FWH equations were solved by the implicit-time formulation. For the spatial discretization, second order upwind scheme was employed. In addition, dynamic mesh model was used to where the ballistic domain changed with time due to the motion of bullet. Results obtained for muzzle flow field and for noise recorded were compared with those obtained from experimental data; these two batches of results were in agreement. Five cases of gunshot including one model of an unsuppressed rifle and four models of suppressors were simulated. Besides, serial images of species distributions and velocity vectors-pressure contours in suppressors and near muzzle field were displayed. The sound pressure levels (dB in far field that were post-processed by the fast Fourier transform (FFT were compared. The proposed physical model and the numerical simulations used in the present work are expected to be extended to solve other shooting weapon problems with three-dimensional and complex geometries.

  4. Colorado State Capitol Geothermal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Lance [Colorado Department of Personnel and Adminstration, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Colorado State Capitol Geothermal Project - Final report is redacted due to space constraints. This project was an innovative large-scale ground-source heat pump (GSHP) project at the Colorado State Capitol in Denver, Colorado. The project employed two large wells on the property. One for pulling water from the aquifer, and another for returning the water to the aquifer, after performing the heat exchange. The two wells can work in either direction. Heat extracted/added to the water via a heat exchanger is used to perform space conditioning in the building.

  5. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  6. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

  7. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  8. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  9. Colorados asutati rohelise ehituse toetusprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    USA Colorado osariigi rohelised arhitektid ja projekteerijad asutasid koos ehitusfirmadega programmi "Ehita rohelist Coloradot", mille raames pakutakse rohelise maja või korteri ehitamise väljaõpet

  10. Colorados asutati rohelise ehituse toetusprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    USA Colorado osariigi rohelised arhitektid ja projekteerijad asutasid koos ehitusfirmadega programmi "Ehita rohelist Coloradot", mille raames pakutakse rohelise maja või korteri ehitamise väljaõpet

  11. Numerical Study of Modular 5.56 mm Standard Assault Rifle Referring to Dynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Płatek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes investigations carried out to verify a loading mechanism of a newly designed modular assault rifle MSBS-5.56. A complex character of interaction between its elements during a reloading process encouraged the authors implement a numerical approach based on the multibody system to specify the essential dynamic characteristics. The achieved results were compared to the data recorded during the experimental tests on the shooting range. Owing to the proposed modelling methodology, a good agreement between experimental and numerical studies has been achieved.A numerical model presented in the paper will be applied in further investigations to analyse strength parameters of the reloading mechanism and to conduct additional optimisation studies.

  12. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  13. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected.

  14. Subsurface Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities at Uranium Contaminated Sites in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, E.; Bargar, J.; Williams, K. H.; Dam, W. L.; Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River Basin (CRB), uranium (U) persists as a relic contaminant of former ore processing activities. Elevated solid-phase U levels exist in fine-grained, naturally-reduced zone (NRZ) sediments intermittently found within the subsurface floodplain alluvium of the following Department of Energy-Legacy Management sites: Rifle, CO; Naturita, CO; and Grand Junction, CO. Coupled with groundwater fluctuations that alter the subsurface redox conditions, previous evidence from Rifle, CO suggests this resupply of U may be controlled by microbially-produced nitrite and nitrate. Nitrification, the two-step process of archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidation followed by bacterial nitrite oxidation, generates nitrate under oxic conditions. Our hypothesis is that when elevated groundwater levels recede and the subsurface system becomes anoxic, the nitrate diffuses into the reduced interiors of the NRZ and stimulates denitrification, the stepwise anaerobic reduction of nitrate/nitrite to dinitrogen gas. Denitrification may then be coupled to the oxidation of sediment-bound U(IV) forming mobile U(VI), allowing it to resupply U into local groundwater supplies. A key step in substantiating this hypothesis is to demonstrate the presence of nitrogen-cycling organisms in U-contaminated, NRZ sediments from the upper CRB. Here we investigate how the diversity and abundances of nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations change throughout the NRZs of the subsurface by using functional gene markers for ammonia-oxidation (amoA, encoding the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, encoding nitrite reductase). Microbial diversity has been assessed via clone libraries, while abundances have been determined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), elucidating how relative numbers of nitrifiers (amoA) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS) vary with depth, vary with location, and relate to uranium release within NRZs in sediment

  15. 78 FR 53783 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO..., Chief of Staff, President's Office, Colorado College, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903... Springs, CO, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This...

  16. 78 FR 19304 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs... College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone (719) 389... Center (formerly known as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the...

  17. Survey for bats in Jackson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a targeted bat survey of Jackson County in north-central Colorado to better understand the abundance and distribution of bats in Colorado. The...

  18. Geologic map of the Silt Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Silt 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift, the Grand Hogback, and the eastern Piceance Basin. The Wasatch Formation was subdivided into three formal members, the Shire, Molina, and Atwell Gulch Members. Also a sandstone unit within the Shire Member was broken out. The Mesaverde Group consists of the upper Williams Fork Formation and the lower Iles Formation. Members for the Iles Formation consist of the Rollins Sandstone, the Cozzette Sandstone, and the Corcoran Sandstone Members. The Cozzette and Corcoran Sandstone Members were mapped as a combined unit. Only the upper part of the Upper Member of the Mancos Shale is exposed in the quadrangle. From the southwestern corner of the map area toward the northwest, the unfaulted early Eocene to Paleocene Wasatch Formation and underlying Mesaverde Group gradually increase in dip to form the Grand Hogback monocline that reaches 45-75 degree dips to the southwest (section A-A'). The shallow west-northwest-trending Rifle syncline separates the northern part of the quadrangle from the southern part along the Colorado River. Geologic hazards in the map area include erosion, expansive soils, and flooding. Erosion includes mass wasting, gullying, and piping. Mass wasting involves any rock or surficial material that moves downslope under the influence of gravity, such as landslides, debris flows, or rock falls, and is generally more prevalent on steeper slopes. Locally, where the Grand Hogback is dipping greater than 60 degrees and the Wasatch Formation has been eroded, leaving sandstone slabs of the Mesa Verde Group unsupported over vertical distances as great as 500 m, the upper part of the unit has collapsed in landslides, probably by a process of beam-buckle failure. In

  19. The Colorado Plateau IV: shaping conservation through science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.; van Riper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado Plateau, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  20. The RIFLE versus AKIN classification for incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury in critical ill patients: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiachuan; Tang, Xi; Hu, Zhangxue; Nie, Ling; Wang, Yiqin; Zhao, Jinghong

    2015-12-07

    The sensitivity and accuracy of the Risk/Injury/Failure/Loss/End-stage (RIFLE) versus acute kidney injury Network (AKIN) criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients remains uncertain. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the incidence and prognostic value of the RIFLE versus AKIN criteria for AKI in critically ill patients. Literatures were identified by searching Medline, Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database. Nineteen studies with 171,889 participants were included. The pooled estimates of relative risk (RR) were analyzed. We found that the RIFLE and AKIN criteria is different for the incidence of AKI in intensive care unit (ICU) patients (P = 0.02, RR = 0.88), while not for cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.30, RR = 0.93). For AKI-related hospital mortality, the AKIN criteria did not show a better ability in predicting hospital mortality in either ICU (P = 0.19, RR = 1.01) or cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.61, RR = 0.98) compared to RIFLE criteria. Our findings supported that the AKIN criteria can identify more patients in classifying AKI compared to RIFLE criteria, but not showing a better ability in predicting hospital mortality. Moreover, both RIFLE and AKIN criteria for AKI in cardiac surgery patients had better predictive ability compared with the ICU patients.

  1. 小口径火炮数控拉线机床设计与研究%Design and research on CNC rifle broaching machine for small caliber piece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胜龙; 王新科; 景富军

    2012-01-01

    膛线是火炮身管的命脉线,膛线的加工质量决定了火炮的有效射程、命中率和寿命.针对国内外火炮膛线加工技术差距,结合小口径火炮膛线加工工艺,设计了小口径火炮数控拉线机床,并对机床关键结构与控制系统进行了描述.%The rifle is a key factor for rifled barrel , and the rifle processing quality decided the effective firing range, shooting accuracy and lifetime. Aiming at the rifle processing technology gap at home and a-broad, and considering the rifle processing technology for small caliber piece, we designed the CNC rifle broaching machine for small caliber piece, and described its key structures and control system.

  2. JANNAF 30th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Meeting. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. L. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 30th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee Meeting, held on 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The papers presented herein reflect work performed in the areas of green energetic materials (GEM) development; liquid and gel propellant development; propellant surveillance and aging; and propellant chemistry test methods.

  3. Predictive value of the RIFLE urine output criteria on contrast-induced nephropathy in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Aldjia; Defrance, Pierre; Lalmand, Jacques; Delcour, Christian; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michaël

    2016-03-28

    To investigate the predictive value of decreased urine output based on the Risk of renal dysfunction, Injury to the kidney, Failure of kidney function, Loss of kidney function and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) classification on contrast- induced acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) in intensive care (ICU) patients. All patients who received contrast media (CM) injection for CT scan or coronary angiography during a 3-year period in a 24 bed medico-surgical ICU were reviewed. Daily serum creatinine concentrations and diuresis were measured for 3 days after CM injection. We identified 23 cases of CA-AKI in the 149 patients included (15.4 %). Patients who developed CA-AKI were more likely to require renal replacement therapy and had higher ICU mortality rates. At least one RIFLE urine output criteria was observed in 45 patients (30.2 %) and 14 of these 45 patients (31.1 %) developed CA-AKI based on creatinine concentrations. In 30 % of these cases, urine output decreased or didn't change after the increase in creatinine concentrations. The RIFLE urine output criteria had low sensitivity (39.1 %) and specificity (67.9 %) for prediction of CA-AKI, a low positive predictive value of 50 % and a negative predictive value of 87.2 %. The maximal dose of vasopressors before CM was the only independent predictive factor for CA-AKI. CA-AKI is a frequent pathology observed in ICU patients and is associated with increased need for renal replacement therapy and increased mortality. The predictive value of RIFLE urine output criteria for the development of CA-AKI based on creatinine concentrations was low, which limits its use for assessing the effects of therapeutic interventions on the development and progression of AKI.

  4. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In criminology, there are actual problems of determining the type (machine gun, rifle, large caliber, pistol and a particular model of small rifle for its ammunition, in particular, discovered in the use of weapons. The article proposes a solution to this problem with the use of a new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis and its programmatic toolkit – a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the system of "Eidos", we have implemented a software interface that provides input to the system images, and the identification of their external contours on the basis of luminance and color contrast. Typing by multiparameter contour images of specific ammunition, we create and verify the system-cognitive model, with the use of which (if the model is sufficiently reliable, we can solve problems of system identification, classification, study of the simulated object by studying its model and others. For these tasks we perform the following steps: 1 enter the images of ammunitions into the system of "Eidos" and create mathematical models of their contours; 2 synthesis and verification of models of the generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multivariate typology; 3 quantification of the similarities-differences of the specific ammunition with generalized images of ammunition of various types and models of small rifle (system identification; 4 quantification of the similarities-differences of the types of munitions, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis

  5. Ferroelectrics Volume 122 Numbers 1-4 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (3rd) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 23-28 June, 1991, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    another could not be made ready in time for inclusion in these volumes. Such papers will be published in future issues of Ferroelectrics either as...Fot6nica - ETSI Telecomunicaci6n Ciudad Universitaria , 28040 Madrid Spain ABSTRACT An accurate description of spectral and angular optical

  6. The Colorado Plateau III: integrating research and resources management for effective conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers an area of 130,000 square miles. The relatively high semi-arid province boasts nine national parks, sixteen national monuments, many state parks, and dozens of wilderness areas. With the highest concentration of parklands in North America and unique geological and ecological features, the area is of particular interest to researchers. Derived from the Eighth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, this third volume in a series of research on the Colorado Plateau expands upon the previous two books. This volume focuses on the integration of science into resource management issues, summarizes what criteria make a successful collaborative effort, outlines land management concerns about drought, provides summaries of current biological, sociological, and archaeological research, and highlights current environmental issues in the Four Corner States of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as historical aspects of pronghorn antelope movement patterns through calculating watershed prescriptions to the role of wind-blown sand in preserving archaeological sites on the Colorado River, this volume stands as a compendium of cuttingedge management-oriented research on the Colorado Plateau. The book also introduces, for the first time, tools that can be used to assist with collaboration efforts among landowners and managers who wish to work together toward preserving resources on the Colorado Plateau and offers a wealth of insights into land management questions for many readers, especially people interested in the natural history, biology, anthropology, wildlife, and cultural management issues of the region.

  7. Importance of RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Renal Failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) in Hemodialysis Initiation and Intensive Care Unit Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Iskender; Yildirim, Fatma; Kayacan, Esra; Bilaloğlu, Burcu; Turkoglu, Melda; Aygencel, Gülbin

    2017-07-01

    Our study evaluated the differences between early and late hemodialysis (HD) initiation in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications. On the assumption that early initiation of HD in critical patients according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria decreases mortality, we retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 68 patients in our medical ICU and divided the patients into 2 groups: Those undergoing HD in no risk, risk, or injury stage according to RIFLE and in stage 0, I, or II according to AKIN were defined as early HD and those in failure stage according to RIFLE and in stage III according to AKIN were defined as late HD. The median age of the patients was 66.5 years, and 56.5% were male. HD was started in 25% and 39.7% of the patients in the early stage in the RIFLE and AKIN classification, respectively. According to RIFLE, HD was started in 61.5% of the surviving patients in the early stage; this rate was 16.4% in the deceased patients (P=0.001). HD was commenced in 69.2% of the surviving patients in AKIN stages 0, I, and II and in 32.7% of the deceased patients (P=0.026). Sepsis (61.5% vs. 94.5%; P=0.001) and mechanical ventilation (30.8% vs. 87.3%; PRIFLE decreased ICU mortality (61.5% vs. 16.4%; P=0.001). In conclusion, in critically ill patients, HD initiation in the early stages according to the RIFLE classification decreased our ICU mortality.

  8. Bathymetry of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mohrmann, Jacob S.

    2017-03-06

    To better characterize the water supply capacity of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pueblo Board of Water Works and Colorado Mountain College, carried out a bathymetry survey of Clear Creek Reservoir. A bathymetry map of the reservoir is presented here with the elevation-surface area and the elevation-volume relations. The bathymetry survey was carried out June 6–9, 2016, using a man-operated boat-mounted, multibeam echo sounder integrated with a Global Positioning System and a terrestrial survey using real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems. The two collected datasets were merged and imported into geographic information system software. The equipment and methods used in this study allowed water-resource managers to maintain typical reservoir operations, eliminating the need to empty the reservoir to carry out the survey.

  9. The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

  10. Sorption of U(VI) to G. uraniireducens and A. palmae under Old Rifle Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Howe, K.; Comolli, L.; Long, P.; Stucker, V.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial reduction as a remediation method for uranium contaminated Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been explored with promising results. Although transport models have been improved to include variations in geochemical concentration, reductive microbial processes and adsorption of uranium to minerals, they do not incorporate the presence of microbes as possible sorption surfaces that may influence the overall transport of uranium. Our overall objective is to examine U(VI) sorption to biomass by determining partition coefficients between U(VI) and the microbial species of Geobacter uraniireducens and Acholeplasma palmae. Once these partition coefficients are obtained, they will be incorporated into a thermodynamic model with the geochemical parameters of the Old Rifle Site. Preliminary results indicate that U(VI) sorbs 1000X more strongly to bacteria under atmospheric pCO2 conditions than under 2% pCO2 conditions. U(VI) sorption to the surface of G. uraniireducens is 4X stronger than to the surface of A. Palmae and in high-DIC waters is comparable in strength to reported U(VI)-mineral surface sorption. While the concentration of G. uraniireducens during and after remediation results in relatively small sorption site density, the possibility persists that sorption to G. uraniireducens may retard uranium transport at the geochemical gradients which exist in nature.

  11. The impact of bed temperature on heat transfer characteristic between fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczuk, Artur; Nowak, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the heat transfer study focuses on assessment of the impact of bed temperature on the local heat transfer characteristic between a fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes (38mm-O.D.) in a commercial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Heat transfer behavior in a 1296t/h supercritical CFB furnace has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameter of 0.219 and 0.246mm. The heat transfer experiments were conducted for the active heat transfer surface in the form of membrane tube with a longitudinal fin at the tube crest under the normal operating conditions of CFB boiler. A heat transfer analysis of CFB boiler with detailed consideration of the bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient and the contribution of heat transfer mechanisms inside furnace chamber were investigated using mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach. The predicted values of heat transfer coefficient are compared with empirical correlation for CFB units in large-scale.

  12. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 171 (Friday, September 3, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 54085] [FR Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio...

  13. Estimating groundwater dynamics at a Colorado River floodplain site using historical hydrological data and climate information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinsong; Hubbard, Susan S.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Ficklin, Darren L.

    2016-03-01

    Long-term prediction of groundwater dynamics is important for assessing water resources and their impacts on biogeochemical cycling. However, estimating future groundwater dynamics is challenging due to the wide range of spatiotemporal scales in hydrological processes and uncertainty in future climate conditions. In this study, we develop a Bayesian model to combine small-scale historical hydrological data with large-scale climate information to estimate groundwater dynamics at a floodplain site in Rifle, Colorado. Although we have only a few years of groundwater elevation measurements, we have 47 years of streamflow data from a gaging station approximately 43 km upstream and long-term climate prediction on the Upper Colorado River Basin. To estimate future daily groundwater dynamics, we first develop a time series model to downscale the monthly streamflow derived from climate information to daily streamflow, and then transform the daily streamflow to groundwater dynamics at the downstream floodplain site. We use Monte Carlo methods to estimate future groundwater dynamics at the site through sampling from the joint posterior probability distribution. The results suggest that although future groundwater levels are expected to be similar to the current levels, the timing of the high groundwater levels is predicted to occur about 1 month earlier. The developed framework is extendable to other sites to estimate future groundwater dynamics given disparate data sets and climate projections. Additionally, the obtained estimates are being used as input to a site-specific watershed reactive transport models to predict how climate-induced changes will influence future biogeochemical cycling relevant to a variety of ecosystem services.

  14. Effects of Gender, Load, and Backpack on Easy Standing and Vertical Jump Performance. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    OOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOO NUMBER «. TITLE (md Subtitl.) VOLUME II, EFFECTS OF GENDER, LOAD, AND BACKPACK ON EASY STANDING AND...worn or carried and the type of backpack used on parameters of the easy standing and vertical jumping performance of men ajnd women. Fourteen men and...3 - combat gear (Load 2 plus PASGT helmet, PASGT armor vest, simulated M16 rifle); Load A - combat gear and 20-lb backpack oo,; JAM 7» 1473

  15. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de

  16. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de esta

  17. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO... College, Colorado Springs, CO. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from...

  18. [The forensic medical characteristic of the factors associated with a shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and the inflicted injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raĭzberg, S A; Makarov, I Iu; Lorents, A S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to elucidate the structural characteristics of the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and three regular types of the bullets differing in the head shape fired from it. Morphological features of the injuries inflicted by such bullets are described in conjunction with the peculiarities of precipitation of the shot products in their projection as the prerequisites for their objective differentiation. Results: The study allowed to reveal the composition of the gunshot residues and to determine the maximum distance of their distribution. The specific features of experimental damage inflicted by the shots from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle to the coarse white calico fabric targets were shown to depend on the shot range. The objective signs of the so-called "short-range" shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle were described for the first time.

  19. Importance of Organic Matter-Uranium Biogeochemistry to Uranium Plume Persistence in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, J.; Janot, N.; Jones, M. E.; Bone, S. E.; Lezama-Pacheco, J.; Fendorf, S. E.; Long, P. E.; Williams, K. H.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that biologically driven redox reactions, fueled by sedimentary lenses enriched in detrital organic matter, play major roles in maintaining the persistent uranium groundwater plume in the subsurface at the U.S. Department of Enery's Rifle, CO field research site. Biogeochemical cycling of C, N, Fe, and S is highly active in these organic-rich naturally reduced zones (NRZs), and uranium is present as U(IV). The speciation of these elements profoundly influences the susceptibility of uranium to be reoxidized and remobiliized and contribute to plume persistence. However, uranim speciation in particular is poorly constrained in these sytems. To better evaluate the importance of NRZs to uranium mobility and plume persistence at the Rifle site, the DOE-BER-funded SLAC SFA team has characterized vertical concentration profiles and speciation of uranium, iron, sulfur, and NOM in well bores at high spatial resolution (4 inch intervals). Up to 95% of the sedimentary uranium pool was found to be concentrated in NRZs, where it occurs dominantly as non-crystalline forms of U(IV). Uranium accumulation and the presence of the short-lived sulfide mackinawite (FeS) at NRZ-aquifer interfaces indicate that NRZs actively exchange solutes with the surrounding aquifer. Moreover, sediment textures indicate that NRZs are likely to be abundant in riparian zones throughout the upper Colorado River basin (U.S.A.), which contains most of the contaminated DOE legacy uranium ore processing sites in the U.S. These results suggest that NRZ-uranium interactions may be important to plume persistence regionally and emphasize the importance of understanding molecular-scale processes.

  20. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  1.  Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Aortic Dissection Following Rifle Butt Recoil Chest Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Valiath

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  2. 78 FR 52600 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Colorado dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Black Forest Fire. Incident Period: 06/11/2013 through 06/21/2013. Effective Date:...

  3. 75 FR 60151 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of COLORADO dated 09/23/2010. Incident: Fourmile Canyon Fire. Incident Period: 09/06/2010 through 09/18/2010. Effective...

  4. Design of Vibration Absorber using Spring and Rubber for Armored Vehicle 5.56 mm Caliber Rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of vibration absorber using spring and rubber for 5.56 mm caliber rifle armored vehicle. Such a rifle is used in a Remote-Controlled Weapon System (RCWS or a turret where it is fixed using a two degree of freedom pan-tilt mechanism. A half car lumped mass dynamic model of armored vehicles was derived. Numerical simulation was conducted using fourth order Runge Kutta method. Various types of vibration absorbers using spring and rubber with different configurations are installed in the elevation element. Vibration effects on horizontal direction, vertical direction and angular deviation of the elevation element was investigated. Three modes of fire were applied i.e. single fire, semi-automatic fire and automatic fire. From simulation results, it was concluded that the parallel configuration of damping rubber type 3, which has stiffness of 980,356.04 (N/m2 and damping coefficient of 107.37 (N.s/m, and Carbon steel spring whose stiffness coefficient is 5.547 x 106 (N/m2 provides the best vibration absorption. 

  5. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire.

  6. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: II. Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 ??g/g from Horsethief, 46 ??g/g from Adobe Creek, 38 ??g/g from North Pond, and 6.0 ??g/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  7. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado II. Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A

    2005-05-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 microg/g from Horsethief, 46 microg/g from Adobe Creek, 38 microg/g from North Pond, and 6.0 microg/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  8. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  9. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K. J.; Rathburn, S. L.; Friedman, J. M.; Mangano, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  10. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  11. Debris flow occurrence and sediment persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Kyle J; Rathburn, Sara L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  12. Pursue or shoot? Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursuit task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Cañal-Bruland, R.; Wurff, P. van der; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop th

  13. Impact of glycemic control on the incidence of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a comparison of two strategies using the RIFLE criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Araújo de Azevedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the renal outcome in patients submitted to two different regimens of glycemic control, using the RIFLE criteria to define acute kidney injury. INTRODUCTION: The impact of intensive insulin therapy on renal function outcome is controversial. The lack of a criterion for AKI definition may play a role on that. METHODS: Included as the subjects were 228 randomly selected, critically ill patients engaged in intensive insulin therapyor in a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy. Renal outcome was evaluated through the comparison of the last RIFLE score obtained during the ICU stay and the RIFLE score at admission; the outcome was classified as favorable, stable or unfavorable. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable regarding demographic data. AKI developed in 52% of the patients and was associated with a higher mortality (39.4% compared with those who did not have AKI (8.2% (p60, acute kidney injury and hypoglycemia were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Intensive insulin therapy and a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy were comparable regarding the incidence of acute kidney injury evaluated using RIFLE criteria.

  14. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitchell, John M. [Program Administrator; Palmer, Adam L. [Program Manager

    2014-03-31

    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  15. USGS Colorado Water Science Center bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-12-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center conducts its water-resources activities primarily in Colorado in cooperation with more than 125 different entities. These activities include extensive data-collection efforts and studies of streamflow, water quality, and groundwater to address many specific issues of concern to Colorado water-management entities and citizens. The collected data are provided in the National Water Information System, and study results are documented in reports and information served on the Internet.

  16. Metatranscriptomic Evidence of Chemolithoautotrophy in the Rifle (CO) Subsurface Relevant to C, S, N, and Fe Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, H. R.; Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Thomas, B. C.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although there is a limited understanding of the chemolithoautotrophic activity of aquifer microorganisms, such subsurface microbial activity could greatly influence the cycling of elements such as C, S, N, and Fe. Here, we present transcriptional (RNA-Seq) evidence of the emergence of such chemolithoautotrophic activities in groundwater filter samples from a 2-month experiment in which up to 1.5 mM nitrate (a native electron acceptor) was injected into a perennially suboxic/anoxic aquifer (Rifle, CO) containing a large reservoir of reduced Fe- and S-containing compounds. Illumina sequence data from rRNA-subtracted cDNA libraries was assembled and mapped to phylogenetically binned Rifle metagenome data. Indicative of the activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, many high-abundance transcripts mapped to the Gallionellaceae family, whose known members are chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that catalyze Fe(II) oxidation. For example, included among the most abundant transcripts were a cold-shock protein and an acyl carrier protein with 96-98% protein sequence identity to Gallionella capsiferriformans and a nitrite reductase (nirS) gene likely belonging to a Sideroxydans relative. The apparent activity of Gallionellaceae members is consistent with 16S rRNA iTag analyses of these samples, which indicated that Gallionella-related taxa accounted for up to ~50% of these communities. Evidence of sulfide oxidation also was apparent in these samples. For example, highly expressed subunits of APS reductase were very similar to those of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic S- and Fe(II)-oxidizing Thiobacillus denitrificans in terms of sequence identity (98-99%) and synteny of the mapped scaffold. Also highly expressed were a ß-Proteobacterial Form II RubisCO gene and a hydrazine oxidoreductase gene (93% identity to the planctomycete KSU-1), the latter strongly indicative of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) activity, which has seldom been reported in aquifer environments. Such

  17. Comparacao dos criterios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO quanto a capacidade de predicao de mortalidade em pacientes graves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Machado Levi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A lesão renal aguda é uma complicação comum em pacientes gravemente enfermos, sendo os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO utilizados para sua classificação. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo a comparação dos critérios citados quanto à capacidade de predição de mortalidade em pacientes gravemente enfermos. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva, utilizando como fonte de dados prontuários médicos. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes admitidos na unidade de terapia intensiva. Os critérios de exclusão foram tempo de internamento menor que 24 horas e doença renal crônica dialítica. Os pacientes foram acompanhados até a alta ou óbito Para análise dos dados, foram utilizados os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado, regressão logística multivariada e curva ROC. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 64 anos, com mulheres e afrodescendentes representando maioria. Segundo o RIFLE, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 22,58%, 24,19% e 35,48% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda e em estágios Risk, Injury e Failure, respectivamente. Quanto ao AKIN, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 12,90% e 40,32% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. Considerando o KDIGO 2012, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 11,29% e 41,94% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. As três classificações apresentaram resultados de curvas ROC para mortalidade semelhantes. Conclusão: Os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO apresentaram-se como boas ferramentas para predição de mortalidade em pacientes graves, não havendo diferença relevante entre os mesmos.

  18. Colorado geology then and now: following the route of the Colorado Scientific Society's 1901 trip through central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 1901, Charles Van Hise asked Samuel Emmons and Whitman Cross to organize a grand excursion across Colorado as part of the combined meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, GSA, and the Colorado Scientific Society (CSS). This trip replays part of that 10-day excursion across Colorado. Shortened to three days, this trip takes in some of the same sites as the 1901 trip, plus adds others of interest along the route where CSS members are reinventing geological interpretations. The trip will follow the precedent set in 1901; CSS members will serve as “site or stop hosts” in addition to the trip leader and drivers. While walking in the steps of the most famous of our profession we will also see some of the most magnificent scenery of Colorado.

  19. Professional Orientation of Colorado PR Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Dan L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Findings indicate that a majority of public relations practitioners are highly educated, have professional media backgrounds as part of their professional experience, and are paid better than newspaper personnel in Colorado. (RB)

  20. Notes and comments on Colorado Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of actual management actions, and plant community responses on Colorado refuges during 1992. It is part of the moist-soil expert system...

  1. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  2. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  3. Uranium Desorption From Contaminated Sediments at the USDOE IFC Research Site in Rifle, CO: From Batch to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. M.; Hyun, S. P.; Davis, J. A.; Hayes, K.; Dayvault, R.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Uranium contamination in the subsurface is a part of the legacy of nuclear weapons and energy production, resulting from both mining activities and nuclear waste disposal. The Rifle IFC project focuses on gaining a better mechanistic understanding of U mobility in the subsurface and the use of bioremediation to achieve groundwater U concentrations below the MCL at a former U mill tailings site, integrating biological, geochemical, and hydrological studies. As a part of this project we have performed a series of experiments to better understand the U(VI) sorption-desorption and transport behavior under oxidizing conditions at this site. A series of U(VI) desorption experiments on aquifer sediment was conducted at the batch, column, and field scales. As one proceeds from the batch to the field scale, there is an increase in complexity and heterogeneity in both the geochemical and hydrological conditions. A surface-complexation model for U(VI) developed using batch adsorption and desorption experiments on homogenized sediments was applied to describe U(VI) desorption and transport behavior under high alkalinity conditions in a column experiment with the same sediments. An array of multi-level samplers was installed at the Rifle field site in order to investigate U behavior in both 3-dimensional spatial and temporal scales. A high degree of geochemical and hydrological heterogeneity was observed through the investigation of sediment core samples, nonreactive tracer tests, and geochemical groundwater sampling. A U(VI) desorption tracer test was performed in the field under high alkalinity conditions to compare with the batch and column work. The results from these multiple scales investigations are being integrated to assess the impact of the observed field-scale heterogeneities on U reactive transport in contaminated aquifers.

  4. Carrying a rifle with both hands affects upper body transverse plane kinematics and pelvis-trunk coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Joseph F; Hasselquist, Leif; Bensel, Carolyn K

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how carrying a rifle in both hands affects upper body motion and coordination during locomotion. In total, 11 male soldiers walked (1.34 m/s) and ran (2.46 m/s) with a weapon (M4 condition) and without a weapon (NW condition) while kinematic pelvis and trunk data were collected. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare segmental ranges of motion (ROM), pelvis-trunk coordination (continuous relative phase) and coordination variability between gait mode and weapon combinations. Carrying a weapon decreased sagittal plane trunk ROM at both speeds and increased trunk rotation during running. Mean (±SD) transverse plane coordination was more in-phase while carrying a weapon (M4 = 83°±31, NW = 60°±36, p = 0.027) and transverse plane coordination variability decreased (M4 = 23°±3.6, NW = 15°±4.4, p = 0.043). Coordination differences between M4 and NW were similar to differences reported in the literature between individuals with and without back pain. Long-term injury implications due to decreased coordination variability are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Knowledge of the effects of rifle carriage on pelvis-trunk coordination may provide insight into short-term protective strategies and long-term injury mechanisms. These should be considered in occupations requiring individuals to carry torso loads in combination with holding an object in both hands that restricts arm swing.

  5. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In forensics there is an urgent need to determine the type of rifle (automatic, rifle, large caliber pistol depending on its used ammunition found at the scene of the use of weapons. We offer a solution to this problem with the use of new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis and its program toolkitwhich is a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the "Eidos" system we have implemented the software interface that allows posting of images and identifying their outer contours. By multivariable typing, the system creates a systemic-cognitive model, the use of which, if the model is sufficiently accurate, may be helpful in solving problems of system identification, prediction, classification, decision support and research of the modeled object by studying its model. For this task the following stages: 1 input images of ammunitions into the "Eidos" system and creation of their mathematical models; 2 the synthesis and verification of the models of generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multiparameter typing; 3 improving the quality of the model by separating classes for typical and atypical parts; 4 quantification of the similarities-the differences between specific types of munitions with generic images of different types of ammunition of the weapon (system identification; 5 quantification of the similarity-differences between types of ammunition, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis of generalized images of ammunition. A numerical example is given. We also possess a successful experience of solving similar problems in other subject areas

  6. Pattern and mortality in Colorado Desert plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S J; Howe, H F

    1987-10-01

    We tested for intraspecific interference among Colorado Desert shrubs using an integrated analysis of spatial pattern and juvenile mortality. The data set included 7,000 woody perennials of 24 species in a mapped hectare of Joshua Tree National Monument, California. The site is dominated by Ambrosia dumosa (62.0% of the stems), with Larre tridentata a conspicuous secondary species (2.3% of the stems). Analyses of static pattern for common species showed: (1) aggregated adults and juveniles for Ambrosia dumosa, Erigonum fasciculatum, Mirabilis bigelovii, and Sphaeralcea ambigua, with more aggregation among juveniles than adults; (2) randomly distributed adults and juveniles for Krameria grayi, Opuntia rasmosissima, Simondsia chinensis, and Yucca schidigera. The summed volumes and distances between nearest conspecific neighbors were positively correlated for Ambrosia dumosa and Larrea tridentata, but not significantly correlated for eight remaining species with ≥100 individuals. Static pattern suggests only weak evidence for negative interactions in Ambrosia and Larrea, and little evidence for other species. Alternative mechanisms other than negative interaction that could give rise to these static patterns are discussed. Juvenile mortality was documented for four common species (Ambrosia dumosa, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Mirabilis bigelovii, and Sphaeralcea ambigua) that experienced substantial mortality. Analyses show: (1) the proportion of individuals that died was independent of the initial density of conspecifics; (2) distance to conspecific adults did not differ for juveniles that died versus those that survived; and (3) death was no more likely for juveniles that contacted other plants than for those that were isolated. The exception was a vine, Mirabilis bigelovii, whose juveniles survived better in contact with other plants. In sum, neither spatial pattern nor patterns of mortality showed clear evidence of negative intraspecific interference.

  7. Understanding controls on redox processes in floodplain sediments of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noël, Vincent; Boye, Kristin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Bone, Sharon; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Cardarelli, Emily; Janot, Noémie; Fendorf, Scott; Williams, Kenneth H.; Bargar, John R.

    2017-12-01

    River floodplains, heavily used for water supplies, housing, agriculture, mining, and industry, may have water quality jeopardized by native or exogenous metals. Redox processes mediate the accumulation and release of these species in groundwater. Understanding the physicochemical, hydrological, and biogeochemical controls on the distribution and variability and variability of redox conditions is therefore critical to developing conceptual and numerical models of contaminants transport within floodplains. The distribution and intensity of redox activity at the Rifle, CO, site within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), are believed to be controlled by textural and compositional heterogeneities. Regionally, the UCRB is impacted by former uranium and vanadium ore processing, resulting in contaminations by U, Mo, V, As, Se, and Mn. Floodplains throughout the UCRB share sediment and groundwater characteristics, making redox activity regionally important to metal and radionuclide mobility. In this study, Fe and S speciation were used to track the distribution and stability of redox processes in sediment cores from three floodplain sites covering a 250 km range in the central portion of the UCRB. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that Fe(III) and sulfate reducing sediments are regionally important in the UCRB. The presence of organic carbon together with pore saturation were the key requirements for reducing conditions, dominated by sulfate-reduction. Sediment texture moderated the response of the system to external forcing, such as oxidant infusion, making fine-grain sediments resistant to change in comparison to coarser-grained sediments. Exposure to O2 and NO3- mediates the reactivity and longevity of freshly precipitated sulfides creating the potential for release of sequestered radionuclides and metals. The physical and chemical parameters of reducing zones evidenced in this study are thus thought to be key parameters on the dynamic exchange

  8. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  9. A Comparison of Traditional and Novel Definitions (RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO) of Acute Kidney Injury for the Prediction of Outcomes in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K.; Mc Gorrian, Catherine; Treacy, Cecelia; Kavanaugh, Edel; Brennan, Alice; Mahon, Niall G.; Murray, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if newer criteria for diagnosing and staging acute kidney injury (AKI) during heart failure (HF) admission are more predictive of clinical outcomes at 30 days and 1 year than the traditional worsening renal function (WRF) definition. Methods We analyzed prospectively collected clinical data on 637 HF admissions with 30-day and 1-year follow-up. The incidence, stages, and outcomes of AKI were determined using the following four definitions: KDIGO, RIFLE, AKIN, and WRF (serum creatinine rise ≥0.3 mg/dl). Receiver operating curves were used to compare the predictive ability of each AKI definition for the occurrence of adverse outcomes (death, rehospitalization, dialysis). Results AKI by any definition occurred in 38.3% (244/637) of cases and was associated with an increased incidence of 30-day (32.3 vs. 6.9%, χ2 = 70.1; p < 0.001) and 1-year adverse outcomes (67.5 vs. 31.0%, χ2 = 81.4; p < 0.001). Most importantly, there was a stepwise increase in primary outcome with increasing stages of AKI severity using RIFLE, KDIGO, or AKIN (p < 0.001). In direct comparison, there were only small differences in predictive abilities between RIFLE and KDIGO and WRF concerning clinical outcomes at 30 days (AUC 0.76 and 0.74 vs. 0.72, χ2 = 5.6; p = 0.02) as well as for KDIGO and WRF at 1 year (AUC 0.67 vs. 0.65, χ2 = 4.8; p = 0.03). Conclusion During admission for HF, the benefits of using newer AKI classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO) lie with the ability to identify those patients with more severe degrees of AKI who will go on to experience adverse events at 30 days and 1 year. The differences in terms of predictive abilities were only marginal. PMID:23801998

  10. Implementation of RIFLE criteria and assessment of factors that affect the prognosis in patients with acute renal failure in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Alper Usluoğulları

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute renal failure (ARF was seen in 5-20%of patients in intensive care unit (ICU. The disturbancesof metabolic and hormonal functions contribute to increasethe rate of mortality and morbidity in the patientswhose have ARF. In our study, firstly we separated thepatients, have ARF, into the groups as RIFLE classificationafter that we compared the collected data from clinicand laboratory, at the same time we evaluated the factorsmay effects the prognosis of patients.Methods: The fifty patients that have ARF in the intensivecare unit of Başkent Universty Hospital were included.The patients divided into three groups, which are calledrisk, injury and failure according to RIFLE classification.The grouped patients are compared as laboratory andclinical features. We planned that divide the patients intotwo groups as died and alive according to prospective followup, when we put diagnosis, we record the vital signsand laboratory values.Results: There is a considerable difference as statisticalbetween RIFLE groups about insulin resistance (HOMAIR.(p =0,034, p =0,004. When we compare the patientwhether they needs hemodialysis or not, during the patientbeing at intensive care unit, and mortality rate, wesaw considerable difference as statistical (p =0,017, p=0,010, p =0,001. Glucose, insulin level, and HOMA-IRobserved meaningful as statistical in the exitus groups. (p=0,040, p=0.048, p =0,001.Conclusion: We think that the close monitoring of bloodglucose and the controlled insulin treatment may be beneficialby taking into consideration of high mortality rate inthe patient with ARF accompanying hyperglycemia andinsulin resistance.Key words: ARF, RIFLE classification, hyperglycemia,prognosis

  11. 77 FR 11524 - Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 1, 2012, Town of Walden, Colorado (Walden) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... area within which Walden may, without further Commission authorization, provide natural...

  12. Ecological Integrity Assessment for Colorado Wetlands, Field Manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A quick reviewed survey protocol framework developed by the Colorado Natural Heritage program on performing an Ecological Integrity Assessment (EIA) for Colorado...

  13. Pre-mancos gas fields in Northwest Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaker, R.; Jedlicka, J.

    1968-01-01

    Pre-Mancos gas fields of northwestern Colorado are on the N.-plunging Douglas Creek arch and E.-W.-trending Axial uplift. Most of the fields produce from sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Group and the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. Gas also is produced from the Frontier, Entrada, Shinarump, and Weber, of Late Cretaceous, Jurassic, Traissic, and Permian ages, respectively. Dakota and Morrison gas accumulations are controlled primarily by stratigraphic variations of the sandstone reservoirs. Most of the gas being sold is from fields on the Douglas Creek arch because of the availability of pipelines. The total volume of gas sold in 1964 was 1,993 million cu ft and cumulative production was 33,789 million cu ft. The Elk Springs-Winter Valley Field is cited as typical of the area's pre-Mancos gas fields.

  14. Prognosis of acute kidney injury in dogs using RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage renal failure)-like criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-J; Chang, C-C; Chan, J P-W; Hsu, W-L; Lin, K-W; Wong, M-L

    2011-03-12

    A retrospective case-series study evaluated the prognosis of 853 dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) based on the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage renal failure) criteria, derived from human medicine. The 30-day mortality of dogs with AKI in each class was found to be 23.8 per cent (40 of 168) dogs for Risk, 41.0 per cent (107 of 261) dogs for Injury and 78.5 per cent (333 of 424) dogs for Failure. Using the dogs in the Risk class as the reference, the mortality of dogs in either the Injury or Failure class was significantly higher than that of dogs in the Risk class (PFailure class (three days). Using a multiple logistic regression model, a new score that simultaneously considered RIFLE class, diarrhoea status and serum phosphorus level was calculated to predict prognosis. Evaluation using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) indicated that the new scoring method (AUROC 0.80) was a better prognostic indicator than using RIFLE criteria alone (AUROC 0.73).

  15. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laurie T.; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C.; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colo...

  16. 75 FR 52935 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... notice that on August 12, 2010, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... appurtenant facilities located in Douglas County, Colorado. Specifically, CIG states that it proposes: (1) To... adjacent to CIG's existing Spruce Hill Meter Station. CIG estimates the cost of the facilities will be $15...

  17. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  18. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  19. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ....20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  20. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  1. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  3. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  4. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  5. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  6. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  7. The instrumental climate history of southwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doesken, N.J.; McKee, T.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental observations of the climate of southwestern Colorado date back to about 1880. Climatic conditions since the late 19th century will be described with emphasis on temperatures, temperature ranges and observed precipitation. Typical seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation will be shown, and variations and apparent trends over time will be discussed. Drought characteristics will be described based on a standardized precipitation index developed for Colorado. Finally, brief comments on the challenge of collecting accurate and consistent long-term data will be given.

  8. An investigation into the behaviour of air rifle pellets in ballistic gel and their interaction with bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Beard, J; Allison, R

    2010-07-15

    Although air weapons are considerably lower in power than other firearms, there is increasing concern that serious injuries can result from their misuse. The present study was therefore carried out to improve understanding of the terminal ballistic behaviour of air rifle pellets. Pellets were fired into ballistic gel under a variety of conditions. The pellets penetrated further than anticipated from their low cross-sectional density, and Bloom number was not necessarily a good guide to gel behaviour. Pellet penetration into the gel decreased with increasing gel concentration, and appeared to be linear at higher concentrations. Pointed pellets penetrated up to 50% further than rounded pellets. Power and range affect penetration, but other factors are also important, and power alone is not a simple guide to potential penetration. Test firings were also carried out firing pellets into ballistic gel that contained sections of animal bone. Computed tomography (CT) and visual observation were employed to record the interactions. CT scanning showed potential as a tool for examining pellet damage. The bone appeared to be undamaged, but the pellets were severely deformed on impact. If the pellet strikes the bone at an angle, less energy is absorbed by the impact and the pellet fragments may ricochet and cause further damage in the gel. A tentative model is proposed for estimating the energy absorbed by the impact.

  9. The Colorado Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.; Fuchs, B.

    2012-12-01

    A fifteen station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was installed in northern Colorado in the spring of 2012. While the driving force for the array was to produce 3-dimensional lightning data to support the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Experiment (Barth, this conference), data from the array are being used for several other projects. These include: electrification studies in conjunction with the CSU CHILL radar (Lang et al, this conference); observations of the parent lightning discharges of sprites (Lyons et al, this conference); trying to detect upward discharges triggered by wind turbines, characterizing conditions in which aircraft flying through clouds produce discharges which can be detected by the LMA, and other opportunities, such as observations of lightning in pyrocumulus clouds produced by the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO. All the COLMA stations are solar-powered, and use broadband cellular modems for data communications. This makes the stations completely self-contained and autonomous, allowing a station to be installed anywhere a cellular signal is available. Because most of the stations were installed well away from anthropogenic noise sources, the COLMA is very sensitive. This is evidenced by the numerous plane tracks detected in its the vicinity. The diameter, D, of the COLMA is about 100 km, significantly larger than other LMAs. Because the error in the radial distance r is proportional to (r/D)2, and the error in the altitude z is proportional to (z/D)2, the larger array diameter greatly expands the usable range of the COLMA. The COLMA is able to detect and characterize lighting flashes to a distance of about 350 km from the array center. In addition to a web-based display (lightning.nmt.edu/colma), geo-referenced images are produced and updated at one-minute intervals. These geo-referenced images can be used to overlay the real-time lightning data on Google Earth and other mapping software. These displays were used by the DC3

  10. 78 FR 47815 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00060

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00060 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  11. Effectiveness of the AHEC Concept in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Colorado's area health education program, the SEARCH program, designed to alleviate the maldistribution of health manpower, is described. It recruits new professionals to underserved areas through student/resident rotations and retains those professionals already there by providing accessible continuing education. (Author/MLW)

  12. Is Colorado's Voucher System Worth Vouching for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 Colorado passed legislation enacting the nation's first voucher-based approach to financing higher education, known as the College Opportunity Fund (COF). The work of an unusual coalition that included higher education leaders, generally conservative policymakers, and others, COF completely replaced the traditional approach of subsidizing…

  13. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  14. 76 FR 36039 - Colorado Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its... for the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations in accordance with the... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 906 Colorado Regulatory Program AGENCY...

  15. Besnoitiosis in rodents from Colorado. [Parasitic infestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G E; Winsor, T F; Adee, R R

    1976-01-01

    Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rodent and was disseminated in several organs from one Peromyscus. The ultrastructural appearance of the merozoites and the cyst wall formed by the host cell were studied.

  16. Drivers of annual to decadal streamflow variability in the lower Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth-Beagles, R. S.; Troch, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Colorado River is the main water supply to the southwest region. As demand reaches the limit of supply in the southwest it becomes increasingly important to understand the dynamics of streamflow in the Colorado River and in particular the tributaries to the lower Colorado River. Climate change may pose an additional threat to the already-scarce water supply in the southwest. Due to the narrowing margin for error, water managers are keen on extending their ability to predict streamflow volumes on a mid-range to decadal scale. Before a predictive streamflow model can be developed, an understanding of the physical drivers of annual to decadal streamflow variability in the lower Colorado River Basin is needed. This research addresses this need by applying multiple statistical methods to identify trends, patterns and relationships present in streamflow, precipitation and temperature over the past century in four contributing watersheds to the lower Colorado River. The four watersheds selected were the Paria, Little Colorado, Virgin/Muddy, and Bill Williams. Time series data over a common period from 1906-2007 for streamflow, precipitation and temperature were used for the initial analysis. Through statistical analysis the following questions were addressed: 1) are there observable trends and patterns in these variables during the past century and 2) if there are trends or patterns, how are they related to each other? The Mann-Kendall test was used to identify trends in the three variables. Assumptions regarding autocorrelation and persistence in the data were taken into consideration. Kendall’s tau-b test was used to establish association between any found trends in the data. Initial results suggest there are two primary processes occurring. First, statistical analysis reveals significant upward trends in temperatures and downward trends in streamflow. However, there appears to be no trend in precipitation data. These trends in streamflow and temperature speak to

  17. RIFLE 评分评价妊娠并发急性肾损伤的发生和预后%The evaluation value of RIFLE scoring for occurance and outcomes of acute kidney injury in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩云宏; 顾勤; 刘宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:采用RIFLE评分评价重症监护室(ICU)收治的重症孕产妇妊娠并发急性肾损伤(AKI)的发生情况及临床预后情况。方法采用回顾性分析的方法研究2009年6月至2012年6月三年间南京大学医学院附属鼓楼医院ICU收治重症孕产妇的临床资料。采用2004年急性透析质量指导组(ADQI)推荐诊断标准,将入组患者分为非妊娠并发AKI组及妊娠并发AKI组,AKI组组内按RIFLE评分的分期标准分为严重程度不同的“风险期(R)”、“损伤期(I)”、“衰竭期(F)”,比较各期患者住院期间急性生理学和慢性健康状况评分系统Ⅱ(APACHEⅡ)评分、肾功能转归、需要肾脏替代治疗例数、住ICU和住院时间及死亡率等指标。结果3年内共有81例重症孕产妇收住ICU,妊娠并发AKI的发生率为23.5%(19/81),其中10例患者需要肾脏替代治疗,转出ICU时11例患者肾功能完全恢复,4例患者肾功能部分恢复,4例患者肾功能未恢复。根据RIFLE评分的分期标准对妊娠并发AKI患者分组,其中7例符合R期,6例符合Ⅰ期,6例符合F期。R期患者中无发展到F期,Ⅰ期患者中1例发展到F期。F期患者APACHEⅡ评分[(14.5±6.72)分]明显高于R期患者[(6.86±2.79)分](P=0.008),三亚组组间肾功能转归(完全恢复、部分恢复、未恢复)有显著性差异(P=0.026),F期患者住ICU时间[(10.17±5.81)d]较R期[(4.00±4.12)d]患者明显延长(P=0.039)。结论危重孕产妇发生妊娠并发AKI的概率较高,RIFLE评分的不同分期与患者APACHEⅡ评分、肾功能转归及住ICU时间均有关。%Objective Using RIFLE scoring to evaluate the occurance and outcomes of acute kidney injury(AKI) in pregnancy of critically ill obstetric patients who admitted to the intensive care unit(ICU). Methods A retrospective analysis of critically ill obstetric patients who admitted to

  18. Snowmelt and streamflow trends in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfohl, A. K. D.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Using the Center of Volume technique has been the most common practice for examining trends in snowmelt contribution to streamflow in snow-dominated watersheds. The dates when 20% and 80% (tQ20 and tQ80, respectively) of the annual flow has passed a gauging station are used as proxies for the start and end of snowmelt contribution. We developed a method to measure streamflow timing using the cumulative hydrograph and applied it to 39 high elevation watersheds across the Southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado for a 40-year study period. We identified other variables related to snowmelt timing to streamflow, including the percent of annual flow and volume at the estimated tstart and tend, as well as the total duration of contribution. After identifying these different values, we used the Mann Kendall Test and Thiel-Sen's Slope to calculate trends in the timing variables. We used the correlation coefficient to explain the variance in the observed trends of the different snowmelt timing variables, using different physiographic characteristics (mean slope, mean elevation, mean winter solar radiation, latitude, and longitude) as well as trends in winter precipitation and summer NDVI. Most of these trends were not statistically significant, but mean slope was best able to explain the variance in trends for tend, Q100, Qend, Qduration, %Qtend, and tQ80 (p < 0.05).

  19. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  20. Analysis about Rifling Grooves of Small-caliber Ammunition on the Flow Field%膛线沟槽对小口径弹体流场的影响分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵缧; 董富强

    2015-01-01

    早期弹体滚转力矩和马格努斯效应数值计算中多采用简化弹体模型,没有考虑膛线沟槽的影响。但对小口径弹体而言,分析亚音速条件下膛线沟槽的影响对弹道计算至关重要。文中采用Fluent[1]软件对不同攻角和不同滚转速度的流场进行计算,对比光滑弹体和带沟槽弹体的流场差异,得到膛线沟槽对流场的影响规律。分析发现膛线沟槽使得滚转力矩和马格努斯力矩减小。结论认为弹体上的膛线沟槽影响较大,需要在实际工程计算中给予考虑。%In previous studies, rifling grooves generally ignored in simplified model of ammunition when calculating Magnus effect and roll-ing moment of ammunition. However, due to high requirement trajectory of small caliber ammunition, effect of rifling grooves should be studied. With the help of Fluent software, the effect of rifling groove on flow field over small caliber ammunition by comparing CFD results of smooth bullet and rifling grooves bullet. Flow fields for three different angles of attack and three different rolling rates were studied. Re-sults show that the rolling moment and Magnus moment of the bullet smaller if the effect of rifling grooves considered. So the effect of rifling grooves should be considered in practical engineering calculation.

  1. "Assessment of RIFLE and AKIN criteria to define acute renal dysfunction for HIPEC procedures for ovarian and non ovarian peritoneal malignances".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Sánchez, A; Cadenas-Febres, A; Cabrera-Bermon, J; Muñoz-Casares, F C; Casado-Adam, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, J M; López-Andreu, M; Briceño-Delgado, J; Rufián-Peña, S

    2016-06-01

    The acute renal dysfunction (ARD) is a common complication in cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Our aim is evaluate the ARD post-HIPEC procedures using the RIFLE and AKIN criteria. Evaluate the risk factors and analyze ARD's impact on postoperative course. From 2011 to 2014, in a retrospective way using a prospective database were operated by HIPEC procedure. The ARD was analyzed by RIFLE and AKIN criteria. The perioperative features were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to define the risk factors to develop the ARD. 141 patients were treated and analyzed. The ARD was detected in 30.5% (Injury 18.4% and Failure 12.1%) when RIFLE criteria were applied. The multivariate analysis detected that decrease of pH during HIPEC [OR = 29.39 (5.09-169.76)], PCI [OR = 1.07 (1.01-1.15)] and ureteral catheters [OR = 12.71 (1.44-111.85)] were associated to the development of acute renal injury (ARI) post-HIPEC. Decrease of Na during HIPEC [OR = 1.15 (1.01-1.30)], intraoperative inotrope use [OR = 3.83 (1.12-13.09)] and PCI [OR = 1.06 (1.0-1.14)] were associated to acute renal failure (ARF) post-HIPEC. The ARD was related to a higher length of stay hospital (17.2 ± 11 vs. 13.8 ± 8 days) (p = 0.05) but no impact in early survival was observed in ARD group. The widespread use of RIFLE criteria for ARD would have major benefits in terms of accurately diagnosing patients undergone HIPEC procedures. The ARD has a detrimental impact in length of stay hospital. The knowledge of risk factors helps us to prevent the ARD post-HIPEC by means of an aggressive and multidisciplinary perioperative management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [The specific features of the damage to the non-biological and biological simulators of the human body inflicted by the shots from a 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajzberg, S A; Makarov, I Ju; Lorents, A S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the specific constructional features of a 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle designed to use three types of bullets differing in the head shape. Also, the morphological signs of the injuries inflicted by such bullets that can serve as the prerequisites for objective differentiation of the damages are considered. The study revealed peculiarities of experimental damage to the non-biological (plasticine blocks) and biological (bio-mannequins) simulators of homogeneous human tissues inflicted by the shots from the pneumatic rifle from different distances.

  3. 75 FR 23288 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... will be held on June 4, 2010, in Dolores, Colorado; August 13, 2010, in Gunnison, Colorado; and October... 184, Dolores, Colorado 81323; August 13, 2010, at the Holiday Inn Express at 910 E. Tomichi,...

  4. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  5. Comparison of precipitation chemistry in the Central Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, K.; Tonnessen, K.A.; Ingersoll, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Volume-weighted mean concentrations of nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulfate (SO42-) in precipitation were compared at high-elevation sites in Colorado from 1992 to 1997 to evaluate emission source areas to the east and west of the Rocky Mountains. Precipitation chemistry was measured by two sampling methods, the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) and snowpack surveys at maximum accumulation. Concentrations of NO3- and SO42- in winter precipitation were greater on the western slope of the Rockies, and concentrations of NO3- and NH4+ in summer precipitation were greater on the eastern slope. Summer concentrations in general were almost twice as high as winter concentrations. Seasonal weather patterns in combination with emission source areas help to explain these differences. This comparison shows that high-elevation ecosystems in Colorado are influenced by air pollution emission sources located on both sides of the Continental Divide. It also suggests that sources of nitrogen and sulfur located east of the Divide have a greater influence on precipitation chemistry in the Colorado Rockies. Copyright (C) 2000.

  6. The Colorado Plateau V: research, environmental planning, and management for collaborative conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Carena J.; Johnson, Matthew J.; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This volume, the fifth from the University of Arizona Press and the tenth overall, focuses on adaptation of resource management and conservation to climate change and water scarcity, protecting biodiversity through restructured energy policies, ensuring wildlife habitat connectivity across barriers, building effective conservation networks, and exploring new opportunities for education and leadership in conservation science. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  7. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daesslé, L.W., E-mail: walter@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Geldern, R. van [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Orozco-Durán, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Barth, J.A.C. [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132 × 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area. - Highlights: • Isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen quantify water lost through evaporation. • Evaporation losses between 16.1 and 17.3% during the 2014 Colorado River • Larger water volumes are required to influence the estuary ecosystem.

  8. 基于ADAMS的自动步枪自动机数值仿真研究%Numerical Simulation Based on ADAMS for Automatic Rifle Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋超杰; 姚养无

    2014-01-01

    An automatic rifle was taken as study object ,the simulation model of the automatic rifle automata was set up by UG and ADAMS ,and the virtual prototype model of the automata was realized in ADAMS/View environment .Through ADAMS simulation analysis function ,the dynamic characteristic curves of the automata were obtained .This study may provide a basis for the design and test of firearms .%以某自动步枪为研究对象,利用 UG 和 ADAMS 软件联合建立了其三维仿真模型,将其导入ADAMS/View环境中得到虚拟样机模型,通过ADAMS自身的仿真分析功能得到了自动机的动力学特性曲线。为枪械设计提供了依据,并大大降低了枪械试验的费用和时间。

  9. A study on the effect of different rifle calibres in euthanisation of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in seal traps in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, Torsten; Malmsten, Jonas; Bernodt, Karin; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar

    2013-11-13

    In recent years, the euthanasia of seals has been discussed internationally and concern has been raised regarding the use of rifles, the effect of different calibres, and which calibres are sufficient for humane euthanasia. This study therefore investigated the effect of different firearm calibres on euthanasia of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in traps, and provides information for the development and refinement of regulations for hunting seals in the wild. The effect of different calibres was studied in 19 seals shot in the head and neck at close range. All seals were necropsied and radiographed to characterize the injuries caused by the bullets. All tested calibres, 5.6 mm bullet diameter or larger, and .12 shotgun, were sufficiently effective to cause severe skull fractures, meningeal haemorrhages and instant death. Rifles with 5.6 mm bullet diameter or larger, and a .12 shotgun loaded with a slug fired at close range to the head and neck of grey seals all caused instant death and can therefore be recommended for hunting seals in the wild.

  10. Redox Fluctuation Influences Viral Abundance in the Reduced Zone of a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer in Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Weber, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally reduced zones (NRZs) within alluvial aquifers contain naturally elevated concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and can play a role in controlling the fate of redox-active contaminants. OC in NRZs stimulates microbial activity through coupling of OC oxidation to reduction of subsurface electron acceptors. Stimulation of the indigenous microbial community also results in the stimulation of the viral community. Viruses are the most abundant biological entity on Earth and can indirectly influence carbon cycling by infecting and lysing host cells, resulting in release of OC bound in biomass. In the alluvial aquifer near Rifle, CO, prior acetate injection resulted in reductive immobilization of U and a reduced zone simulating a NRZ, with elevated ferrous iron and sulfide (53.2-62.5 µM and 0.2-3.1 µM, respectively). To study the effects of redox fluctuations in a RZ, oxygenated groundwater was injected. Prior to injection, groundwater was suboxic (0.05-0.11 mg/L). Amended O2 was immediately consumed in the RZ. While cell numbers didn't significantly increase, viruses increased from 1.1x106-2.1x106 mL-1 to 2.3x106-4.6x106 mL-1. VCR increased 1.8-3.4 fold from 3.9-10.1 to 11.0-17.9, demonstrating microbial activity. These changes were associated with large fluctuations of groundwater dissolved OC, suggesting viral release of OC from cellular biomass. Groundwater ORP decreased from an initial -146 mV - -132 mV to -317 mV - -304 mV, indicating an increase in the supply of available electron donors. Thus, rather than expected oxidative solubilization of U following amendment of O2, soluble U decreased, suggesting likely U reduction in the RZ. Fe and S fluctuated, but changes were not associated with aqueous U. Across the whole floodplain, viral abundance is correlated to groundwater dissolved OC, suggesting that viruses may be contributing to the liberalization of dissolved OC from biomass in NRZs, allowing turnover of carbon and reduction of contaminants of

  11. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  12. Colorado Fathers' Resource Guide = Guia de Recursos para los Padres en Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, Denver.

    Developed through the Colorado Fatherhood Connection, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions and resources for fathers as well as tips on discipline, communication, and activities fathers can do with their children. Topics addressed in the guide include characteristics of responsible fatherhood, characteristics…

  13. Soil moisture ground truth: Steamboat Springs, Colorado, site and Walden, Colorado, site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs and Walden, Colorado in support of the NASA missions in these areas during the period March 8, 1976 through March 11, 1976 was presented. This includes the following information: snow course data for Steamboat Springs and Walden, snow pit and snow quality data for Steamboat Springs, and soil moisture report.

  14. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the human remains...: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural affiliation with the human remains should... of History Colorado, Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Suncor Energy USA Pipeline...

  15. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Howiri Ruin (LA 71), Taos County, NM...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico; Pueblo of Tesuque,...

  16. 76 FR 28071 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Canyon de Chelly, AZ. This notice is... Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New...

  17. 78 FR 72700 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... 1973, he brought the human remains to the Department of Anthropology at the University of Southern Colorado. In 2000, when the University closed its anthropology lab, the remains were taken into custody by.... 3001(9), the human remains described in this notice represent the physical remains of one individual of...

  18. Colorado Hispanics: A Report of Selected Social Concerns, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    This publication offers a compilation of 12 reports on selected social concerns pertaining to the Hispanic community in Colorado and provides a comprehensive overview of demographic information and information on health, education, and social welfare issues. The first report looks at Colorado's multicultural population through a demographic…

  19. Colorado River Basin Hover Dam - Review of Flood Control Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Percichthyidae Striped bass 1ile sxiiis Pocilldae Mosquito fish Cainbusia affnus Sailfin mollie Poecilia latipin a Mexican mollie Poecila mexicana Salmonidae...Colorado River Basin Progress Report No. 8, 195 pp. Vitt, L.J. and R.D. Ohmart, 1978. Herpetofauna of the Lower Colorado River: Davis Dam to the

  20. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  1. Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

  2. 77 FR 21803 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Creek East Tract described below in Gunnison County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by... lease sale will be held at 10 a.m., May 15, 2012. The sealed bid must be submitted on or before 10...

  3. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  4. Colorado Front Range Surface Ozone Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kofler, J.; Petron, G.; Cothrel, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range is a unique geographical region for air quality studies, including research of surface level ozone. Not only does surface ozone play a critical role in regulating the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, but is a primary contributor to local smog and leads to public health complications and altered ecosystem functioning. The high frequency of sunny days, increasing population and pollution, and Mountain/Valley air dynamics of this region provide atmospheric conditions suitable for production and accumulation of ozone at the surface. This region of Colorado is currently in an ozone non-attainment status due to an assortment of contributing factors. Precursor emissions from pollution, wild-fires, and gas and oil production; along with stratosphere-troposphere exchange, can all result in high ozone episodes over the Colorado Front Range. To understand the dynamics of ozone accumulation in this region, Thermo-Scientific ozone monitors have been continuously sampling ozone from 4 different altitudes since the early 2000s. Analysis of ozone data in relation to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO), wind-conditions and back-trajectory air mass origins help to address local ozone precursor emissions and resulting high ozone episodes. Increased ozone episodes are scrutinized with regards to dominant wind direction to determine main precursor emission sources. Analysis of this data reveals a strong influence of precursor emissions from the North-East wind sector, with roughly 50% of ozone exceedances originating from winds prevailing from this direction. Further, correlation with methane is enhanced when prevailing winds are from the North-East; indicative of influence from natural gas processes and feedlot activity. Similar analysis is completed for the North-West wind sector exceedances, with strong correlation to carbon monoxide; likely related to emissions from biomass burning events and forest fires. In depth analysis of

  5. Rawhide Energy Station, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    The staff of Platte River Power Authority's Rawhide Energy Station have been racking up operating stats and an environmental performance record that is the envy of other plant managers. In the past decade Rawhide has enjoyed an equivalent availability factor in the mid to high 90s and an average capacity factor approaching 90%. Still not content with this performance, Rawhide invested in new technology and equipment upgrades to further optimise performance, reduce emissions, and keep cost competitive. The Energy Station includes four GE France 7EA natural gas-fired turbines totalling 260 MW and a 274 MW coal-fired unit located in northeastern Colorado. 7 figs.

  6. Associação do RIFLE com letalidade e tempo de internação em pacientes críticos com lesão renal aguda RIFLE: association with mortality and length of stay in critically ill acute kidney injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Rosso dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a classificação do RIFLE com a letalidade e tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva e no hospital. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo, observacional e longitudinal aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Instituição. Foram coletados os dados de todos os pacientes internados por mais de 24 horas na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Universitário Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina de setembro de 2007 a março de 2008 e com seguimento até a alta ou óbito. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: com lesão renal aguda e sem lesão renal aguda. O grupo com lesão renal aguda foi classificado conforme o RIFLE e subdividido de acordo com a classe máxima alcançada: risco, injúria ou falência. Não foram incluídas as classes loss e end-stage no estudo. Analisou-se também APACHE II e SOFA. Utilizaram-se os testes t Student e Qui-Quadrado, principalmente. Um pOBJECTIVE: To correlate the RIFLE classification with mortality and length of stay both in the intensive care unit and hospital. METHODS: A prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study, approved by the Institution's Ethics Committee. Data were collected for all patients staying longer than 24 hours in the intensive care unit of Hospital Universitário Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina from September 2007 to March 2008, followed-up either until discharge or death. Patients were divided in two groups: with or without acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injury group was additionally divided according to the RIFLE and sub-divided according to the maximal score in Risk, Injury of Failure. Loss and End-stage classes were not included in the study. APACHE II and SOFA were also evaluated. The t Student and Chi-Square tests were used. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The sample included 129 patients, 52 (40.3% with acute kidney injury

  7. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  8. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  9. 77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY... airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black... controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  10. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  11. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daesslé, L W; van Geldern, R; Orozco-Durán, A; Barth, J A C

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132×10(6) m(3) were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area.

  12. Report of the M16 Rifle Review Panel. Volume 10, Appendix 9. Audit Trail of Chief of Staff, Army Actions and Decisions Concerning the M16

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-06-01

    REPTILES REQUIREMENTS RESCUE BEACONS RESCUE EQUIPMENT RESCUE VEHICLES RESCUES RESEARCH AIRCRAFT RESEARCH FACILITIES RESEARCH MANAGEMENT...REGULATORS SPERMATOGENESIS SPHERES SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY SPHERICAL WAVES SPHEROMETERS SPHERULITES SPIDERS SPIKES SPILLING SPILLWAYS SPIN DOWN SPIN

  13. Airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping of snow depth and albedo in the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, USA by the NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Operational hydrologic simulation and forecasting in snowmelt-dominated watersheds currently relies on indices of snow accumulation and melt from measurements at a small number of point locations or geographically-limited manual surveys. These data sources cannot adequately characterize the spatial distribution of snow depth/water equivalent, which is the primary determinant of snowpack volume and runoff rates. The NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory's airborne laser scanning system maps snow depth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, and is paired with a hyperspectral imager to provide an unprecedented snowpack monitoring capability and enabling a new operational paradigm. We present the initial results from this new application of multi-temporal LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping. During the snowmelt seasons of 2013 and 2014, the ASO mapped snow depth and albedo in the Uncompahgre River Basin in Colorado's Upper Colorado River Basin on a nominally monthly basis. These products enable an assessment and comparison of spatial snow accumulation and melt processes in two years with very different snowmelt hydrographs.

  14. Pursue or shoot? Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursuit task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Wurff, Peter; Daanen, Hein A M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop the treadmill and shoot at the target. Fatigue increased progressively throughout the 20-minute test. Results indicated that shooting accuracy was not affected by fatigue. However, the distance to the target at which participants decided to shoot showed a U-shaped relationship with fatigue, R(2) = 0.884, p = 0.013. At low fatigue levels (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]  6.5) shooting distance increased again. At high levels of fatigue, participants stopped running sooner, aimed at the target longer and shot less often. Findings indicate that physiological parameters influence not only perception but also actual transitions between different actions.

  15. Health hazard evaluation determination report No. 78-128-549, Nixon Power Plant, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1978-12-01

    Asbestos (CAS 1332-21-4) concentrations during sanding and buffing operations were measured at the Nixon Power facility (SIC-4911) in Colorado Springs, Colorado on September 29, 1978. The evaluation was requested by the vice president of the Watkin Construction Company on behalf of plumbers engaged in sanding asbestos joints and connections. Breathing zone asbestos concentrations of fibers greater than five microns in length ranged from 0.02 to 0.187 fibers per cubic centimeter. The OSHA asbestos standard of 2 fibers per cubic centimeter was not exceeded, however, the author concludes that a potential asbestos hazard does exist. He recommends that respirators be used by workers until exhaust ventilation is provided.

  16. Conifer health classification for Colorado, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Curry, Stacy E.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Colorado has undergone substantial changes in forests due to urbanization, wildfires, insect-caused tree mortality, and other human and environmental factors. The U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center evaluated and developed a methodology for applying remotely-sensed imagery for assessing conifer health in Colorado. Two classes were identified for the purposes of this study: healthy and unhealthy (for example, an area the size of a 30- x 30-m pixel with 20 percent or greater visibly dead trees was defined as ?unhealthy?). Medium-resolution Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper imagery were collected. The normalized, reflectance-converted, cloud-filled Landsat scenes were merged to form a statewide image mosaic, and a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Renormalized Difference Infrared Index (RDII) were derived. A supervised maximum likelihood classification was done using the Landsat multispectral bands, the NDVI, the RDII, and 30-m U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (NED). The classification was constrained to pixels identified in the updated landcover dataset as coniferous or mixed coniferous/deciduous vegetation. The statewide results were merged with a separate health assessment of Grand County, Colo., produced in late 2008. Sampling and validation was done by collecting field data and high-resolution imagery. The 86 percent overall classification accuracy attained in this study suggests that the data and methods used successfully characterized conifer conditions within Colorado. Although forest conditions for Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) are easily characterized, classification uncertainty exists between healthy/unhealthy Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa), Pi?on (Pinus edulis), and Juniper (Juniperus sp.) vegetation. Some underestimation of conifer mortality in Summit County is likely, where recent (2008) cloud-free imagery was unavailable. These classification uncertainties are primarily due to the spatial and

  17. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  18. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey, Colorado-Arizona area: Salton Sea NI II-9, Phoenix NI 12-7, El Centro NI II-12, AJO NI 12-10, Lukeville NH 12-1 quadrangles. Volume I. Narrative report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    A rotary-wing reconnaissance high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey, encompassing several 1:250,000 quadrangles in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California, was performed. The surveyed area consisted of approximately 9300 line miles. The radiometric data were corrected and normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The data were identified as to rock type by correlating the data samples with existing geologic maps. Statistics defining the mean and standard deviation of each rock type are presented as listings in Volume I of this report. The departure of the data from its corresponding mean rock type is computed in terms of standard deviation units and is presented graphically as anomaly maps in Volume II and as computer listings in microfiche form in Volume I. Profiles of the normalized averaged data are contained in Volume II and include traces of the potassium, uranium and thorium count rates, corresponding ratios, and several ancilliary sensor data traces, magnetometer, radio altimeter and barometric pressure height. A description of the local geology is provided, and a discussion of the magnetic and radiometric data is presented together with an evaluation of selected uranium anomalies.

  19. Quality of life on the Colorado Plateau: a report to the respondents in southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea

    2001-01-01

    During the fall of 1998, scientists from the Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) a?? sent a survey by mail to residents in southwest Colorado and northwest New Mexico to better understand quality of life issues in this area of the Colorado Plateau. Collaborators in this study included the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service offices located in Durango, Colorado. The information was collected to determine: *what elements of the community and surrounding landscapes contribute to the quality of like among resident populations, and *what critical areas, elements, and special places are essential to retain quality of life.

  20. High elaeophorosis prevalence among harvested Colorado moose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, Ivy K; Fox, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Elaeophora schneideri, a filarial parasite, occurs commonly in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), but seemingly less so in moose (Alces alces). Of 109 carotid artery samples from moose harvested throughout Colorado, USA, in 2007, 14 (13%; 95% binomial confidence interval [bCI]=7-21%) showed gross and 91 (83%; 95% bCI=75-90%) showed histologic evidence of elaeophorosis. Although neither blindness nor other clinical signs associated with elaeophorosis were reported among the harvested moose we examined, the pervasiveness of this parasite may motivate further study of the potential effects of elaeophorosis on moose survival and population performance in the southern Rocky Mountains. Our data suggest histopathology may be more sensitive than gross examination in detecting elaeophorosis in harvested moose.

  1. SANGRE DE CRISTO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys were undertaken of a wilderness study area which includes most of the Sangre de Cristo Range of south-central Colorado. Four areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, and base metals lie along a northwest structural trend which follows the western margin of the range north of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and crosses the range south of the monument. An area of probable mineral-resource potential for similar minerals plus tungsten has been identified east of Blanca Peak at the extreme southern end of the study area. Another area of probable mineral-resource potential includes molybdenum mineralization associated with the Rito Alto stock. A small area of probable geothermal resource potential exists on the west side of the area around the Valley View Hot Springs. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas resources.

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  3. Ecosystem trends in the Colorado Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Baron, J. S.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Binkley, D.

    1995-01-01

    Biological conservation is increasingly moving toward an ecosystem and landscape approach, recognizing the prohibitive cost and difficulty of a species-by-species approach (LaRoe 1993). Also, statewide (e.g., Gap Analysis Program) and national surveys (e.g., Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program or EMAP) are conducted at a scale and level of resolution that do not meet the needs of most small land-management units that require detailed information at the ecosystem and landscape scale (Stohlgren 1994). The Colorado Rockies are an ideal outdoor laboratory for ecosystem science and management. The escalating environmental threats described in this article compelled us to design a landscape-scale assessment of the status and trends of biotic resources.

  4. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Colorado. This EA and public comments received on it will be used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the project. This document provides a detailed description of the proposed project and an assessment of potential impacts associated with its construction and operations. Resources and conditions considered in the analysis include streams; wetlands; floodplains; water quality; soils; vegetation; air quality; socioeconomic conditions; energy resources; noise; transportation; cultural resources; visual and land use resources; public health and safety; wildlife; threatened, endangered, and candidate species; and cumulative impacts. The analysis found that the project would have minimal impacts on these resources and conditions, and would not create impacts that exceed the significance criteria defined in this document. 90 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Acute kidney injury in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: a comparison between the ‘Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease’ (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta; Rodrigues, Natacha; Godinho, Iolanda; Gameiro, Joana; Neves, Marta; Gouveia, João; Costa e Silva, Zélia; Lopes, José António

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) systems, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and their ability to predict in-hospital mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock was compared. Materials and methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 457 critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock hospitalized between January 2008 and December 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO systems with in-hospital mortality. Model fit was assessed by the goodness-of-fit test and discrimination by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Statistical significance was defined as P RIFLE (84.2%) and KDIGO (87.5%) identified more patients with AKI than AKIN (72.8%) (P RIFLE was not [adjusted OR 2.0 (95% CI 1–4), P = 0.063]. The AUROC curve for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three classifications (RIFLE 0.652, P RIFLE and KDIGO diagnosed more patients with AKI than AKIN, but the prediction ability for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three systems. PMID:28616211

  6. Acute kidney injury in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: a comparison between the 'Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease' (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta; Rodrigues, Natacha; Godinho, Iolanda; Gameiro, Joana; Neves, Marta; Gouveia, João; Costa E Silva, Zélia; Lopes, José António

    2017-06-01

    Using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) systems, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and their ability to predict in-hospital mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock was compared. We performed a retrospective analysis of 457 critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock hospitalized between January 2008 and December 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO systems with in-hospital mortality. Model fit was assessed by the goodness-of-fit test and discrimination by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Statistical significance was defined as P RIFLE (84.2%) and KDIGO (87.5%) identified more patients with AKI than AKIN (72.8%) (P RIFLE was not [adjusted OR 2.0 (95% CI 1-4), P = 0.063]. The AUROC curve for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three classifications (RIFLE 0.652, P RIFLE and KDIGO diagnosed more patients with AKI than AKIN, but the prediction ability for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three systems.

  7. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Colorado Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www that depicts the boundaries of Roadless Areas designated by the Colorado Roadless Rule of 2012 and managed by the US Forest...

  8. Final Critical Habitat for the Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata) occur based on the description provided...

  9. The Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpstdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. The study area outline was drawn on the county lines that most closely outline the...

  10. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Lewis children graves (site # 5JA1478) on...

  11. Photographs of historical mining operations in Colorado and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A collection of photographs of mine sites, mining operations, and tailings taken prior to 1980 at a variety of sites throughout Colorado and Utah. A database of...

  12. Mahogany Ledge Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale Assessment.

  13. Final Critical Habitat for the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) occur based on the description provided...

  14. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  15. Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162895.html Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado Doctors say problem may become more ... Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term heavy marijuana use can cause chronic vomiting and abdominal pain ...

  16. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  17. Mean-annual erosion potential for Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Data Series provides raster data representing an estimate of the mean-annual erosion potential of a 30-meter raster cell in Colorado and...

  18. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard Ranch (site # 5JA784, temporary #...

  19. Final Critical Habitat for the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) occur based on the description provided...

  20. Final Critical Habitat for the Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata) occur based on the description provided...

  1. Corbiculae fluminea as a bioindicator on the Lower Colorado River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tissue samples from Asiatic clam (Corbimla fluminea) from the lower Colorado River were analyzed for trace element concentrations. Selenium and arsenic were elevated...

  2. Sediment delivery by ungaged tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Melis, Theodre S.; Hartley, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment input to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, is a valuable resource required to sustain both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. A total of 768 ungaged tributaries deliver sediment to the river between Glen Canyon Dam and the Grand Wash Cliffs (river miles -15 to 276). The 32 tributaries between the dam and Lee's Ferry produce only streamflow floods, whereas 736 tributaries in Grand Canyon produce streamflow floods and debris flows. We used three techniques to estimate annual streamflow sediment yield from ungaged tributaries to the Colorado River. For the Glen Canyon and Marble Canyon reaches (river miles -15 to 61.5), respectively, these techniques indicate that 0.065.106 and 0.610.106 Mg/yr (0.68.106 Mg/yr of total sediment) enters the river. This amount is 20 percent of the sediment yield of the Paria River, the only gaged tributary in this reach and a major sediment contributor to the Colorado River. The amount of sand delivered ranges from 0.10.106 to 0.51.106 Mg/yr, depending on the sand content of streamflow sediment. Sand delivered in Glen Canyon is notably coarser (D50 = 0.24 mm) than sand in other reaches (D50 = 0.15 mm). A relation is given for possible variation of this sediment delivery with climate. Debris flows transport poorly-sorted sediment onto debris fans in the Colorado River. In the pre-dam era, debris fans were completely reworked during Colorado River floods, liberating all fine-grained sediment to the river; in the post-dam river on average only 25 percent of debris-fan volume is reworked, leading to storage of sand in the matrix of debris fans. We develop a sediment-yield model for debris flows that uses a logistic-regression model of debris-flow frequency in Grand Canyon, a regression model of debris-flow volumes, particle- size distributions of intact debris-flow deposits, and debris-fan reworking. On average, debris flows deliver between 0.14.106 and 0.30.106 Mg/yr of sediment to debris fans throughout Grand Canyon

  3. Raton basin coalbed methane production picking up in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemborg, H. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Coalbed methane production in the Raton basin of south-central Colorado and northeast New Mexico has gone over pilot testing and entered the development stage which is expected to last several years. The development work is restricted to roughly a 25 mile by 15 mile wide `fairway' centered about 20 miles west of Trinidad, Colorado. At last count, 85 wells were producing nearly 17.5 MMcfd of coalbed methane from the basin's Raton and Vermejo formation coals.

  4. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm

    2015-03-20

    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colorado Health Foundation commissioned the RAND Corporation to conduct a study to better understand why these individuals are not enrolled in health insurance coverage and to develop recommendations for how Colorado can strengthen its outreach and enrollment efforts during the next open enrollment period, which starts in November 2014. RAND conducted focus groups with uninsured and newly insured individuals across the state and interviews with local stakeholders responsible for enrollment efforts in their regions. The authors identified 11 commonly cited barriers, as well as several that were specific to certain regions or populations (such as young adults and seasonal workers). Collectively, these barriers point to a set of four priority recommendations that stakeholders in Colorado may wish to consider: (1) Support and expand localized outreach and tailored messaging; (2) Strengthen marketing and messaging to be clear, focused on health benefits of insurance (rather than politics and mandates), and actionable; (3) Improve the clarity and transparency of insurance and health care costs and enrollment procedures; and (4) Revisit the two-stage enrollment process and improve Connect for Health Colorado website navigation and technical support.

  5. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 3. Colorado River basin, Lavaca River basin, Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1997-02-01

    Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 110 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging station; stage and contents at 12 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 53 gaging stations; and data for 38 partial-record stations comprised of 9 flood-hydrograph, 17 low-flow, and 12 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations.

  6. Observations of Two Sprite-Producing Storms in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Lyons, Walter A.; Cummer, Steven A.; Fuchs, Brody R.; Dolan, Brenda; Rutledge, Steven A.; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Stanley, Mark; Ashcraft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Two sprite-producing thunderstorms were observed on 8 and 25 June 2012 in northeastern Colorado by a combination of low-light cameras, a lightning mapping array, polarimetric and Doppler radars, the National Lightning Detection Network, and charge moment change measurements. The 8 June event evolved from a tornadic hailstorm to a larger multicellular system that produced 21 observed positive sprites in 2 h. The majority of sprites occurred during a lull in convective strength, as measured by total flash rate, flash energy, and radar echo volume. Mean flash area spiked multiple times during this period; however, total flash rates still exceeded 60 min(sup 1), and portions of the storm featured a complex anomalous charge structure, with midlevel positive charge near 20degC. The storm produced predominantly positive cloud-to-ground lightning. All sprite-parent flashes occurred on the northeastern flank of the storm, where strong westerly upper level flow was consistent with advection of charged precipitation away from convection, providing a pathway for stratiform lightning. The 25 June event was another multicellular hailstorm with an anomalous charge structure that produced 26 positive sprites in less than 1 h. The sprites again occurred during a convective lull, with relatively weaker reflectivity and lower total flash rate but relatively larger mean flash area. However, all sprite parents occurred in or near convection and tapped charge layers in adjacent anvil cloud. The results demonstrate the sprite production by convective ground strokes in anomalously charged storms and also indicate that sprite production and convective vigor are inversely related in mature storms.

  7. Observations of two sprite-producing storms in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Lyons, Walter A.; Cummer, Steven A.; Fuchs, Brody R.; Dolan, Brenda; Rutledge, Steven A.; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Stanley, Mark; Ashcraft, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Two sprite-producing thunderstorms were observed on 8 and 25 June 2012 in northeastern Colorado by a combination of low-light cameras, a lightning mapping array, polarimetric and Doppler radars, the National Lightning Detection Network, and charge moment change measurements. The 8 June event evolved from a tornadic hailstorm to a larger multicellular system that produced 21 observed positive sprites in 2 h. The majority of sprites occurred during a lull in convective strength, as measured by total flash rate, flash energy, and radar echo volume. Mean flash area spiked multiple times during this period; however, total flash rates still exceeded 60 min-1, and portions of the storm featured a complex anomalous charge structure, with midlevel positive charge near -20°C. The storm produced predominantly positive cloud-to-ground lightning. All sprite-parent flashes occurred on the northeastern flank of the storm, where strong westerly upper level flow was consistent with advection of charged precipitation away from convection, providing a pathway for stratiform lightning. The 25 June event was another multicellular hailstorm with an anomalous charge structure that produced 26 positive sprites in less than 1 h. The sprites again occurred during a convective lull, with relatively weaker reflectivity and lower total flash rate but relatively larger mean flash area. However, all sprite parents occurred in or near convection and tapped charge layers in adjacent anvil cloud. The results demonstrate the sprite production by convective ground strokes in anomalously charged storms and also indicate that sprite production and convective vigor are inversely related in mature storms.

  8. Injuria Renal Aguda aplicando escala de pRifle en Niños del Hospital Universitario del Valle: características clínicas, manejo y evolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Restrepo de Rovetto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: to know the epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in the pediatric population at Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV, a tertiary University Hospital in Cali, Colombia. Methods: We obtained a series of cases through daily surveillance for a seven-month period (June 1 to December 31, 2009 in patients older than 30 days and under 18 years at HUV. We excluded patients with previous diagnosis of chronic renal failure. The new pRIFLE scale was used to define AKI. Results: 27 patients were detected, with mean age of 36 months. Incidence of AKI was 0.38% from pediatric admissions and 6.2% from the pediatric intensive care unit (pICU admissions. The pRIFLE scale at study entrance was: Risk: 2 patients, Injury: 8, Failure: 17. Etiology of AKI was: pre-renal in 89%, primary renal disease in 3.7%, and post-renal in 7.4%. There was an association of AKI with sepsis in 66.7% and 48.2% progressed to septic shock. Six patients required renal replacement therapy, all required peritoneal dialysis. The AKI was multi-factorial in 59.3% and associated with systemic multi-organ failure in 59.3%. At study entry, 63% patients were in pICU. The average hospital stay was 21.3 ± 9.2 days. Six children died, 16 resolved AKI, and nine were left with renal sequelae. Conclusions: We recommended pRIFLE scale for early diagnosis of AKI in all pediatric services. Education in pRIFLE scale, prevention of AKI, and early management of sepsis and hypovolemia is recommended.

  9. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  10. Colorado Better Buildings Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strife, Susie; Yancey, Lea

    2013-12-30

    The Colorado Better Buildings project intended to bring new and existing energy efficiency model programs to market with regional collaboration and funding partnerships. The goals for Boulder County and its program partners were to advance energy efficiency investments, stimulate economic growth in Colorado and advance the state’s energy independence. Collectively, three counties set out to complete 9,025 energy efficiency upgrades in 2.5 years and they succeeded in doing so. Energy efficiency upgrades have been completed in more than 11,000 homes and businesses in these communities. Boulder County and its partners received a $25 million BetterBuildings grant from the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in the summer of 2010. This was also known as the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants program. With this funding, Boulder County, the City and County of Denver, and Garfield County set out to design programs for the residential and commercial sectors to overcome key barriers in the energy upgrade process. Since January 2011, these communities have paired homeowners and business owners with an Energy Advisor – an expert to help move from assessment to upgrade with minimal hassle. Pairing this step-by-step assistance with financing incentives has effectively addressed many key barriers, resulting in energy efficiency improvements and happy customers. An expert energy advisor guides the building owner through every step of the process, coordinating the energy assessment, interpreting results for a customized action plan, providing a list of contractors, and finding and applying for all available rebates and low-interest loans. In addition to the expert advising and financial incentives, the programs also included elements of social marketing, technical assistance, workforce development and contractor trainings, project monitoring and verification, and a cloud-based customer data system to coordinate among field

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Naturita site, Naturita, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Naturita, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings, the performance of radiometric measurements to determine the extent of radium contamination, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 704,000 tons of tailings at the Naturita site constitutes the most significant environmental impact although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. Ranchers Exploration and Development Company has been licensed by the State of Colorado to reprocess the tailings at a location 3 mi from the present site where they will be stabilized for long-term storage. The remedial action options include remedial action for structures in Naturita and Nucla (Option I) at an estimated cost of $270,000 and remedial action for structures and open land adjacent to the tailings site (Option II) at an estimated cost of $950,000.

  12. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3}(420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}).

  13. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  14. Puente Río Colorado - Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulka, F.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado River bridge is located in a 95 m deep canyon, with a 122 m span. To choose the type of bridge, it has been endeavoured to use the largest possible number of national building materials which, together with the difficulty of reaching the site, meant that a series of classical solutions had to be rejected. That of an arch bridge was adopted, with a reversed support on prestressed cables, on which the road passes. The system is based on the hanging bridge principle, but with the rolling track resting on the cables, instead of hanging from them. There is a first cover, made up of prefabricated components, on the cables, which strengthens the bridge's stability. This cover supports three portal-columns, the pillars of the final roadway. The cables were prestressed from the heads of the two sloping pillars. The two side spans were designed with prefabricated T girders.El puente Río Colorado está situado en un cañón de 95 m de profundidad, salvando una luz de 122 m. Para la elección del tipo de puente se ha procurado emplear el mayor número posible de materiales de construcción nacionales, lo que, unido a la dificultad de acceso a la obra, hizo que se rechazaran una serie de soluciones clásicas. Se adoptó la de un puente-arco con un soporte invertido sobre cables pretensados, encima del cual descansa la calzada. El sistema está basado en los principios del puente colgante, pero apoyando el camino de rodadura en los cables, en lugar de colgarlo de ellos. Sobre los cables existe una primera cubierta, integrada por elementos prefabricados, que refuerza la estabilidad del puente. Esta cubierta soporta tres pórticos-columna, pilares de la calzada definitiva. El pretensado de los cables se realizó desde las cabezas de dos pilares inclinados. Los dos vanos laterales se proyectaron con vigas en T prefabricadas.

  15. Cultural Resources Survey of Smithville Lake, Missouri. Volume 1: Archeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    seeds from plants of the goosefoot family. Clinkers — a pumice-like stone which erodes from the South Dakota area and is carried (it floats) down the...Excavation of the Moore Site, Yampa, Colorado. 1973 Non-metric analysis work in South and East Africa and Israel. 1974 Director of Kansas State...PROGRAM ELEMENT NO. PROJECT NO. TASK NO. WORK UNIT ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) VOLUME 1: ARCHEOLOGY

  16. Design and Simulation of Muzzle Brake in Anti-materiel Rifle%反器材步枪膛口装置设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卓; 王刚; 周峰

    2014-01-01

    某反器材步枪膛口装置为两腔冲击式制退器,由于结构设计原因,枪手在射击时,制退器后喷的火药燃气会产生较大的冲击波﹑声响及火焰,对射手容易造成伤害。为了解膛口装置制退效率的影响因素,优化其结构使其在相同制退效率下,减小冲击波等对射手的伤害,根据三维非定常 Euler 方程,利用 Fluent软件对弹丸飞离改进后膛口装置时的流场建模并进行仿真,并利用 Matlab软件编程对其制退效率进行了数值计算,两者结果相符。结果分析表明:优化后制退器可在保证相同制退效率下,有效地减小冲击波大小,可为解决同类问题提供有价值的借鉴。%The muzzle brake of an anti-materiel rifle is the impacted muzzle brake with two ca-vities.Due to its structural design,when the shooter is shooting,gunpowder gas backfired by the muzzle brake will produce a lot of the shock waves,noise and flame,this will be harm to the shooter.In order to understand the effect factors of the recoil efficiency of the rifle muzzle brake,and optimize its structure to decrease the harm to the shooter under condition of the same recoil efficiency,the process of proj ectile flying away from a three-dimensional muzzle brake was simulated by use of the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations and the Fluent software.Moreover,the recoil efficiency of the muzzle brake was calculated by means of the Matlab software,and the two results were consistent.The results showed that the improved muzzle brake of the equal efficiency can effectively reduce the shock wave,and can also provide valuable reference for solving the similar problems.

  17. Relationships between land-use and forced-pool characteristics in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Jaime R.; Wohl, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Land use practices in Colorado during the last two centuries altered the supply of sediment and water to many channels in the upper South Platte Basin. As a result of increased supply of sediment and mobility and reduced peak flows, the characteristics of pools associated with channel constrictions, referred to as forced pools, may have been altered. Increased supply of sediment and reduced transport capacity of high flows could lead to aggradation in forced pools. Channel confined by road corridors could lead to high velocities at normal flows, increased energy dissipation from riprap, or even increased pool frequency resulting from failed riprap. To assess potential alterations, four hypotheses were tested: (1) impacted streams will show significantly different mean volume of pools than a control stream; (2) mean volume of pools on streams where land-use activities increased the supply of sediment will be significantly different from streams solely affected by flow regulation; (3) the strongest change in characteristics of pools of impacted streams will be a reduced volume of pools; (4) streams affected by road corridors will show statistically lower spacing of pools than streams unaffected by roads. The downstream spacing and residual volume of twenty consecutive forced pools were surveyed on five streams in the Colorado Front Range that varied from no contemporary impact to multiple historical and contemporary impacts. ANCOVA with stepwise model selection indicated that degree of land-use (categorical), bankfull spacing of pools, upstream riffle slope and expansion ratio were all significant ( α = 0.1) predictors of volume of pools ( R2 = 0.73). Simple linear regression of mean volume of pools and stream specific variables (gradient, drainage area and discharge) and least square means comparison of mean volume of pools indicated a need to standardize volumes of pools by slope and discharge so that the volumes of pools could be compared among different levels

  18. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  19. Birth outcomes in Colorado's undocumented immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia Catherine

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The birth outcomes of undocumented women have not been systematically studied on a large scale. The growing number of undocumented women giving birth in the United States has important implications for clinical care and public health policy. The objective of this study was to describe birth outcomes of undocumented immigrants in Colorado. Methods Retrospective descriptive study of singleton births to 5961 undocumented women using birth certificate data for 1998–1999. Results Undocumented mothers were younger, less educated, and more likely to be single. They had higher rates of anemia, were less likely to gain enough weight, and less likely to receive early prenatal care. They were much less likely to use alcohol or tobacco. Undocumented women had a lower rate of low birth weight (5.3% v 6.5%, P Conclusion Undocumented women have lower rates of preterm delivery and low birth weight infants, but higher rates of pregnancy related risk factors. Higher prevalence of some risk factors which are amenable to medical intervention reveals the need for improved prenatal care in this group.

  20. Geology of the Gypsum Gap quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Gypsum Gap quadrangle is one eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comparative study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through a arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The core consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  1. Geology of the Davis Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bryner, Leonid

    1953-01-01

    The Davis Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  2. Geology of the Anderson Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Anderson Mesa quadrangle is one of the eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of the southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteenth quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quarternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-tending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive slat and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists of largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  3. Geology of the Hamm Canyon quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Hamm Canyon quadrangle is on eof eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  4. Geology of the Naturita NW quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Vogel, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    The Naturita NW quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles were mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear ro be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  5. US Army hangar, Fort Carson, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The US Army's first solar-ventilated hangar is located at Fort Carson, Colorado. Fumes from the fuel tanks of up to 30 helicopters stored in the building are displaced with solar-warmed fresh air. A conventional gas-heated ventilation system had been specified, but a value engineering analysis done for the Corps of Engineers showed that a solar-heated ventilation system would be comparable in cost to what was specified, so the design was changed. The fans were installed with the original building in 1992, but the solar cladding system was installed later, in 1995. The panels had to be supplied later as a retrofit project because of scheduling concerns at the time of construction. The solar-transpired collectors cover 725 m{sup 2} of the south wall above the hangar doors and heat 107,000 m{sup 3}/h of ventilation air. Cost savings have been calculated at US $14,000 (ECU 12,600) a year based on energy savings of 974,000 kWh a year. (author)

  6. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  7. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  8. Magnetotelluric Data, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2008-01-01

    The San Luis Valley region population is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region?s ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey (called magnetotellurics, or MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. The MT survey primary goal is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. This report does not include any data interpretation. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at 24 stations. Two of the stations were collected near Santa Fe, New Mexico, near deep wildcat wells. Well logs from those wells will help tie future interpretations of this data with geologic units from the Santa Fe Group sediments to Precambrian basement.

  9. 76 FR 14063 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, in care of Jan Bernstein, NAGPRA Consultant...(c)(1) should contact Steve Lekson, Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, in care...

  10. 76 FR 22686 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... notice that on April 8, 2011, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), Post Office Box 1087 Colorado..., comprising of Unit Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 at CIG's Lakin Compressor Station (collectively referred to as...

  11. 78 FR 62657 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... November 15, 2013, in Dolores, Colorado. ADDRESSES: The Southwest Colorado RAC meeting will be held November 15, 2013, at the Dolores Public Lands Center, 29211 Highway 184, Dolores, CO 81323. The...

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  13. 77 FR 12580 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Colorado has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  14. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  15. Uranium Bio-accumulation and Cycling as revealed by Uranium Isotopes in Naturally Reduced Sediments from the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Pierre; Noël, Vincent; Jemison, Noah; Weaver, Karrie; Bargar, John; Maher, Kate

    2016-04-01

    Uranium (U) groundwater contamination following oxidized U(VI) releases from weathering of mine tailings is a major concern at numerous sites across the Upper Colorado River Basin (CRB), USA. Uranium(IV)-bearing solids accumulated within naturally reduced zones (NRZs) characterized by elevated organic carbon and iron sulfide compounds. Subsequent re-oxidation of U(IV)solid to U(VI)aqueous then controls the release to groundwater and surface water, resulting in plume persistence and raising public health concerns. Thus, understanding the extent of uranium oxidation and reduction within NRZs is critical for assessing the persistence of the groundwater contamination. In this study, we measured solid-phase uranium isotope fractionation (δ238/235U) of sedimentary core samples from four study sites (Shiprock, NM, Grand Junction, Rifle and Naturita, CO) using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS). We observe a strong correlation between U accumulation and the extent of isotopic fractionation, with Δ238U up to +1.8 ‰ between uranium-enriched and low concentration zones. The enrichment in the heavy isotopes within the NRZs appears to be especially important in the vadose zone, which is subject to variations in water table depth. According to previous studies, this isotopic signature is consistent with biotic reduction processes associated with metal-reducing bacteria. Positive correlations between the amount of iron sulfides and the accumulation of reduced uranium underline the importance of sulfate-reducing conditions for U(IV) retention. Furthermore, the positive fractionation associated with U reduction observed across all sites despite some variations in magnitude due to site characteristics, shows a regional trend across the Colorado River Basin. The maximum extent of 238U enrichment observed in the NRZ proximal to the water table further suggests that the redox cycling of uranium, with net release of U(VI) to the groundwater by

  16. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

  17. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  18. Geologic map of the Cochetopa Park and North Pass Calderas, northeastern San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    The San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado have long been known as a site of exceptionally voluminous mid-Tertiary volcanism, including at least 22 major ignimbrite sheets (each 150-5,000 km3) and associated caldera structures active at 33-23 Ma. Recent volcanologic and petrologic studies in the San Juan region have focused mainly on several ignimbrite-caldera systems: the southeastern area (Platoro complex), western calderas (Uncompahgre-Silverton-Lake City), and the central cluster (La Garita-Creede calderas). Far less studied has been the northeastern San Juan region, which occupies a transition between earlier volcanism in central Colorado and large-volume younger ignimbrite-caldera foci farther south and west. The present map is based on new field coverage of volcanic rocks in seventeen 7.5' quadrangles in northeastern parts of the volcanic field, high-resolution age determinations for 120 new sites, and petrologic studies involving several hundred new chemical analyses. This mapping and the accompanying lab results (1) document volcanic evolution of the previously unrecognized North Pass caldera and the morphologically beautifully preserved but enigmatic Cochetopa basin, including unique features not previously described from ignimbrite calderas elsewhere; (2) provide evidence for a more rapid recurrence of large ignimbrite eruptions than previously known elsewhere; (3) quantify the regional time-space-volume progression from the earlier Sawatch magmatic trend southward into the San Juan region; and (4) permit more rigorous comparison between the broad mid-Tertiary magmatic belt in the western U.S. Cordillera and the type continental-margin arc volcanism in the central Andes.

  19. Simulation of flow and water quality of the Arroyo Colorado, Texas, 1989-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Timothy H.; Miranda, Roger M.

    2002-01-01

    A model parameter set for use with the Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN watershed model was developed to simulate flow and water quality for selected properties and constituents for the Arroyo Colorado from the city of Mission to the Laguna Madre, Texas. The model simulates flow, selected water-quality properties, and constituent concentrations. The model can be used to estimate a total maximum daily load for selected properties and constituents in the Arroyo Colorado. The model was calibrated and tested for flow with data measured during 1989–99 at three streamflow-gaging stations. The errors for total flow volume ranged from -0.1 to 29.0 percent, and the errors for total storm volume ranged from -15.6 to 8.4 percent. The model was calibrated and tested for water quality for seven properties and constituents with 1989–99 data. The model was calibrated sequentially for suspended sediment, water temperature, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and orthophosphate. The simulated concentrations of the selected properties and constituents generally matched the measured concentrations available for the calibration and testing periods. The model was used to simulate total point- and nonpoint-source loads for selected properties and constituents for 1989–99 for urban, natural, and agricultural land-use types. About one-third to one-half of the biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient loads are from urban point and nonpoint sources, although only 13 percent of the total land use in the basin is urban.

  20. 76 FR 62833 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... 10, 2011. ADDRESSES: Steve Lekson, Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, Campus Box... Colorado Museum's curator of anthropology from 1953 to 1988. In November 2009, the human remains (TIN 0290...(c)(1) should contact Steve Lekson, Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, Campus...

  1. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Colorado River Indian Tribes--Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2... amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor, Section 2-403(12). The... liquor ordinances for the purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian country. The Colorado...

  2. 77 FR 35617 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the Colorado Springs, CO, Class C...) information for the City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport. The operating requirements remain the...

  3. 77 FR 32393 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation... date for the amendment of Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO, until September 20, 2012. The FAA is taking this action to allow additional time...

  4. 76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has...

  5. 76 FR 43715 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... University of Colorado Museum. ] Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects to...

  6. 76 FR 43713 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary...

  7. Wood use in Colorado at the turn of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis L. Lynch; Kurt Mackes

    2001-01-01

    This study estimates the kinds, uses, amount, and retail value of wood products consumed annually in Colorado from 1997 to 2000. Colorado uses tremendous amounts of wood products, but it imports most of it from other states and countries despite the abundant forests in Colorado that are capable of providing many types of wood products.

  8. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  9. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  10. Intracaldera volcanism and sedimentation - Creede Caldera, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Krier, D.; Snow, M.G. [and others

    1997-06-01

    Within the Creede caldera, Colorado, many of the answers to its postcaldera volcanic and sedimentary history lie within the sequence of tuffaceous elastic sedimentary rocks and tuffs known as the Creede Formation. The Creede Formation and its interbedded ash deposits were sampled by research coreholes Creede 1 and 2, drilled during the fall of 1991. In an earlier study of the Creede Formation, based on surface outcrops and shallow mining company coreholes, Heiken and Krier concluded that the process of caldera structural resurgence was rapid and that a caldera lake had developed in an annulus ({open_quotes}moat{close_quotes}) located between the resurgent dome and caldera wall. So far we have a picture of intracaldera activity consisting of intermittent hydrovolcanic eruptions within a caldera lake for the lower third of the Creede Formation, and both magmatic and hydrovolcanic ash eruptions throughout the top two-thirds. Most of the ash deposits interbedded with the moat sedimentary rocks are extremely fine-grained. Ash fallout into the moat lake and unconsolidated ash eroded from caldera walls and the slopes of the resurgent dome were deposited over stream delta distributaries within relatively shallow water in the northwestern moat, and in deeper waters of the northern moat, where the caldera was intersected by a graben. Interbedded with ash beds and tuffaceous siltstones are coarse-grained turbidites from adjacent steep slopes and travertine from fissure ridges adjacent to the moat. Sedimentation rates and provenance for elastic sediments are linked to the frequent volcanic activity in and near the caldera; nearly all of the Creede Formation sedimentary rocks are tuffaceous.

  11. Denitrification in marine shales in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bruce, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Parts of the South Platte River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Colorado are underlain by the Pierre Shale, a marine deposit of Late Cretaceous age that is water in the aquifer is contaminated with NO3/-, and the shale contains abundant potential electron donors for denitrification in the forms of organic carbon and sulfide minerals. Nested piezometers were sampled, pore water was squeezed from cores of shale, and an injection test was conducted to determine if denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/- and to measure denitrification rates in the shale. Measured values of NO3/-, N2, NH4/+, ??15[NO3/-], ??15N[N2], and ??15N[NH4/+] in the alluvial and shale pore water indicated that denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/-. Chemical gradients, reaction rate constants, and hydraulic head data indicated that denitrification in the shale was limited by the slow rate of NO3/- transport (possibly by diffusion) into the shale. The apparent in situ first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale based on diffusion calculations was of the order of 0.04-0.4 yr-1, whereas the potential rate constant in the shale based on injection tests was of the order of 60 yr-1. Chemical data and mass balance calculations indicate that organic carbon was the primary electron donor for denitrification in the shale during the injection test, and ferrous iron was a minor electron donor in the process. Flux calculations for the conditions encountered at the site indicate that denitrification in the shale could remove only a small fraction of the annual agricultural NO3/- input to the alluvial aquifer. However, the relatively large potential first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale indicated that the percentage of NO3/- uptake by the shale could be considerably larger in areas where NO3/- is transported more rapidly into the shale by advection.

  12. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berl.Eggplant cultivations are constantly attacked by a number of serious pests (e.g. the fruit and shoot borer, the Colorado potato beetle, soil-borne fungi)...

  13. 75 FR 45654 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, CO, that meets the definition of object...

  14. 76 FR 34711 - Notice of Hearing; Reconsideration of Disapproval of Colorado State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-034

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Disapproval of Colorado State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-034 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services..., Suite 700, Denver, Colorado 80202-4367 to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Colorado SPA 10-034...: This notice announces an administrative hearing to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Colorado SPA...

  15. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  16. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    This field trip highlights recent research into the Laramide uplift, erosion, and sedimentation on the western side of the northern Colorado Front Range. The Laramide history of the North Park?Middle Park basin (designated the Colorado Headwaters Basin in this paper) is distinctly different from that of the Denver basin on the eastern flank of the range. The Denver basin stratigraphy records the transition from Late Cretaceous marine shale to recessional shoreline sandstones to continental, fluvial, marsh, and coal mires environments, followed by orogenic sediments that span the K-T boundary. Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene strata in the Denver basin consist of two mega-fan complexes that are separated by a 9 million-year interval of erosion/non-deposition between about 63 and 54 Ma. In contrast, the marine shale unit on the western flank of the Front Range was deeply eroded over most of the area of the Colorado Headwaters Basin (approximately one km removed) prior to any orogenic sediment accumulation. New 40Ar-39Ar ages indicate the oldest sediments on the western flank of the Front Range were as young as about 61 Ma. They comprise the Windy Gap Volcanic Member of the Middle Park Formation, which consists of coarse, immature volcanic conglomerates derived from nearby alkalic-mafic volcanic edifices that were forming at about 65?61 Ma. Clasts of Proterozoic granite, pegmatite, and gneiss (eroded from the uplifted core of the Front Range) seem to arrive in the Colorado Headwaters Basin at different times in different places, but they become dominant in arkosic sandstones and conglomerates about one km above the base of the Colorado Headwaters Basin section. Paleocurrent trends suggest the southern end of the Colorado Headwaters Basin was structurally closed because all fluvial deposits show a northward component of transport. Lacustrine depositional environments are indicated by various sedimentological features in several sections within the >3 km of sediment

  17. 步枪实弹发射枪榴弹后坐过载环境仿真方法%Setback Overload Environment Simulation of Rifle Grenade Live Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍帅; 王雨时; 闻泉; 黄建强; 龚显益; 喻新连

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide ballistic environment to fuze design,the process of firing rifle grenade using 5.8 mm and 7.62 mm caliber bullet was simulated with the software ANSYS/LS-DYNA,and then the setback over-load-time curve was obtained,the peak of the setback overload was obtained through experiments using the cop-per cylinder pressure measuring principle,which proved the result of simulation.The peak of the setback over-load of firing rifle grenade using bullet was more than 1 9 000 g,and it’s much higher than that of firing rifle grenade using blank.The time that firing rifle grenade using bullet is as short as 120 μs,and closed to the time of impact when fuze was dropping to steel plate from 1.5 m height.The setback overload of firing rifle grenade using 7.62 mm calber bullet is 80% higher than that of firing rifle grenade using 5.8 mm caliber bullet.The set-back overload was lower when the material of the bullet trap was softer,whereas which was higher.%针对步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载环境特殊,并不是膛压函数的问题,应用 ANSYS/LS-DYNA 有限元仿真软件对5.8 mm 和7.62 mm 口径步枪实弹发射枪榴弹过程进行数值模拟,获得了后坐过载-时间曲线,利用铜柱测压原理实验测得了后坐过载峰值,验证了仿真结果。步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载峰值最小达19000 g ,远大于步枪空包弹发射时的后坐过载。步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载持续时间很短,只有120μs 左右,与1.5 m 落高跌向钢板的跌落冲击持续时间接近。7.62 mm 口径枪弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载比5.8 mm 口径枪弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载大80%左右;捕弹器材料软时后坐过载小,反之则较大。

  18. Streamflow gain-loss characteristics of Elkhead Creek downstream from Elkhead Reservoir near Craig, Colorado, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Barbara C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (UCREFRP), Colorado Division of Water Resources, and City of Craig studied the gain-loss characteristics of Elkhead Creek downstream from Elkhead Reservoir to the confluence with the Yampa River during August through October 2009. Earlier qualitative interpretation of streamflow data downstream from the reservoir indicated that there could be a transit loss of nearly 10 percent. This potential loss could be a significant portion of the releases from Elkhead Reservoir requested by UCREFRP during late summer and early fall for improving critical habitat for endangered fish downstream in the Yampa River. Information on the gain-loss characteristics was needed for the effective management of the reservoir releases. In order to determine streamflow gain-loss characteristics for Elkhead Creek, eight measurement sets were made at four strategic instream sites and at one diversion from August to early October 2009. An additional measurement set was made after the study period during low-flow conditions in November 2009. Streamflow measurements were made using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter to provide high accuracy and consistency, especially at low flows. During this study, streamflow ranged from about 5 cubic feet per second up to more than 90 cubic feet per second with step increments in between. Measurements were made at least 24 hours after a change in reservoir release (streamflow) during steady-state conditions. The instantaneous streamflow measurements and the streamflow volume comparisons show the reach of Elkhead Creek immediately downstream from Elkhead Reservoir to the streamflow-gaging station 09246500, Elkhead Creek near Craig, CO, is neither a gaining nor losing reach. The instantaneous measurements immediately downstream from the dam and the combined measurements of Norvell ditch plus streamflow

  19. Evaluation of Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. A.; Yale, M. S.; Bennett, D. E.; Haugan, M. P.; Bryan, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a widely used instrument designed to measure student attitudes toward physics and learning physics. Previous research revealed a fairly complex factor structure. In this study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data from an undergraduate introductory…

  20. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  1. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...

  2. Construction of calibration pads facility, Walker Field, Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.L.

    1978-08-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer facility was completed at Walker Field Airport, Grand Junction, Colorado, in November 1976. This report describes spectrometers and their calibration, the construction of the spectrometer facility, the radioelement concentrations, procedures for using the facilites, and environmental considerations. (LK)

  3. Colorado's Millennial Generation: Youth Perceptions and Experiences of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses survey and focus group methods to explore attitudes toward and experiences of nature among millennial-aged students in northern Colorado. First, results confirm that young people possess a strong interest in the outdoors yet time, transportation, and new technologies hamper their ability to visit public lands and outdoor spaces.…

  4. Ray D. Nixon plant built below budget. [Colorado Springs, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlasson, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    The Ray D. Nixon plant was built in Colorado Springs at about $250,000 below the $100 million budgeted. Permit and operating deadlines provided important incentives to maintain the construction schedule, requiring intensive management efforts to keep cooperation and productivity high. The plant is also a model for environmental and wildlife protection. (DCK)

  5. Public School-Public Library Cooperation in Sheridan, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelver, Ann E.

    The Arapahoe Regional Library District and the Sheridan School District, in Colorado, cooperated in developing a library to serve both high school students and the general community. Initially funded by a Library Services and Construction Act grant, this cooperative venture succeeded because of the intense preplanning done by school and library…

  6. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the

  7. An Evaluation of Colorado's College Opportunity Fund and Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the State of Colorado enacted legislation that fundamentally changed the mechanisms through which it financed its public higher education system, beginning with the 2005-06 academic year. Rather than appropriating funds directly to institutions, the legislation created the College Opportunity Fund (COF), the principal…

  8. Colorado's Millennial Generation: Youth Perceptions and Experiences of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses survey and focus group methods to explore attitudes toward and experiences of nature among millennial-aged students in northern Colorado. First, results confirm that young people possess a strong interest in the outdoors yet time, transportation, and new technologies hamper their ability to visit public lands and outdoor spaces.…

  9. 78 FR 60008 - Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road.... Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC 20416....

  10. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920,...

  11. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  12. 75 FR 52649 - Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 . Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73...

  13. 78 FR 37474 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Chief, Audio... amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for...

  14. Ammonia sources, transport, and deposition in northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L., Jr.; Benedict, K. B.; Li, Y.; Shao, Y.; Wentworth, G.; Sullivan, A.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Bangs, E.; Murphy, J. G.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Expanded measurements of ammonia in northern Colorado are providing new insight into ammonia sources in the region, their spatial variability, and their contributions to reactive nitrogen deposition in sensitive regions such as Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). Regional ammonia concentrations have been examined through a combination of a passive ammonia monitoring network, through mobile measurements, and through an east-west transect of real-time ammonia monitors stretching from the agricultural source region of NE Colorado through the Rocky Mountain foothills west of the Front Range urban corridor, to Rocky Mountain National Park. Several years of ammonia observations in NE Colorado reveal considerable concentration variability, with the highest concentrations observed near animal feeding observations. Multi-year concentration increases have been observed at some locations and significant decreases at other locations, but most sites exhibit no significant long-term trends. Ammonia concentrations in RMNP are strongly influenced by episodic transport from ammonia-rich NE Colorado, but an imprtant influence is also observed from wildfire emissions. Local recylcing of boundary layer ammonia through formation and evaporation of dew also exerts a strong influence on local concentrations, a phenomenon that has received little prior attention.

  15. USDA-ARS Colorado maize water productivity data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service conducted a water productivity field trial for irrigated maize in northeastern Colorado in 2008 through 2011. The dataset, which is available online from the USDA National Agricultural Library, includes measurements of irrigation, precipitation, soil water sto...

  16. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Gray, S.T.; Meko, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. The Social Work Research Center at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marc A.; Valentine, Deborah P.; Drendel, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Work Research Center is an innovative university-community partnership within the School of Social Work in the College of Applied Human Sciences at Colorado State University. The center is focused on working with county and state child welfare agencies to generate applied research that translates into evidence-based practice for serving…

  18. Colorado Model Content Standards for Theatre: Suggested Grade Level Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This booklet lists six model content standards in theater arts for elementary and secondary school students in the state of Colorado. The six standards cited in the booklet are: (1) Students develop interpersonal skills and problem-solving capabilities through group interaction and artistic collaboration; (2) Students understand and apply the…

  19. Aspects of host-plant relationship of the Colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.

    1970-01-01

    Host plant choice, suitability of and conditioning to the host in Leptinotarsa decemlineata SAY were studied under controlled conditions.

    The literature on historical and geographical distribution of the Colorado beetle has been reviewed and an extensive survey is given of the

  20. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  1. Telehealth: Families Finding Ways to Connect in Rural Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    JFK Partners, at the University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, is currently implementing a study on the use of telehealth (receiving treatment or services using videoconferencing technology, such as Skype) and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety. The study is an exploratory grant from Health Resources and Services…

  2. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  3. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  4. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  5. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Jeff; Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G; Green, Rhys E

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2g for the carcass and 0.2g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Public Library Trustees of Colorado: Responsibilities and Opportunities. A Manual for the Trustees of Colorado Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Library Association, Denver.

    This basic reference on the responsibilities and opportunities of library trustees provides information on the public libraries of Colorado and how they are established, operated, and funded, as well as clues to needed information--i.e., some philosophy, many facts, opinions, recommended practices, and suggestions. Chapters focus on the types of…

  7. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  8. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  9. Geologic map of the Orchard 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Slate, Janet L.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    The Orchard 7.5' quadrangle is located along the South Platte River corridor on the semi-arid plains of eastern Colorado, and contains surficial deposits that record alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes that have operated through environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Front Range, has played a major role in shaping the geology of the quadrangle, which is situated downstream of where the last of the major headwater tributaries (St. Vrain, Big Thompson, and Cache la Poudre) join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing alluvium deposition and terrace formation in the Orchard quadrangle. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks, unglaciated tributaries originating east of the Front Range also have played a major role by periodically delivering large volumes of sediment to the river during flood events, which may have temporarily dammed the river. Eolian sand deposits of the Greeley (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of drought. With the onset of irrigation during historic times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow, and sandy braided river with highly seasonal discharge to a much narrower, deeper river with braided-meandering transition morphology and more uniform discharge. Along this reach, the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, which, although buried by alluvial deposits in Orchard quadrangle, is locally exposed downstream along the South Platte River bluff near the Bijou Creek confluence, in some of the larger draws, and along Wildcat Creek.

  10. Modeling the cliff retreat response to base-level change in layered rocks, Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Sheehan, C.

    2015-12-01

    The retreat of cliffs is an important mode of erosion in layered rocks of variable strength. For example, the iconic Colorado Plateau landscapes of Grand Canyon, Canyonlands, and Monument Valley owe their unique forms to this process. These landscapes are the end result of incision by trunk streams followed by cliff retreat. Local interactions between stochastic rockfall and first-order channels draining a cliff regulate the cliff retreat response to a base-level fall. However, nonlinear transport dynamics, steep slopes, and variable rock strength challenge the modeling of landscape evolution in these settings. Here, we employ structure-from-motion photogrammetry to generate high-resolution DTMs of a natural experiment site on the Colorado Plateau. The site features a simple, sandstone-over-shale stratigraphy with a continuous gradient in cliffband height and evidence for an ongoing transient response to base level fall. The terrain data inform a high-resolution (dx=5 m), 2D numerical model of cliffband erosion. The model simulates the interaction of three primary processes: fluvial erosion and sediment transport; hillslope transport of regolith, including shallow landsliding; and rockfall from resistant units. Crucially, the model allows us to modify stratigraphy arbitrarily to examine the landscape response to parameters such as thickness, spacing, and dip of resistant units. Results indicate that the contrast in fluvial erodibility sets the pattern of emergence of cliffs as a resistant layer is exhumed, while the difference in weathering rates across rock types sets the rate at which cliffs emerge. Once rockfall begins, erosion rates are modified by the thickness of the resistant layer, which sets the volume of rockfall debris reaching the channels below the cliff. The modeling highlights the need for process-based understanding of the conditions for cliff failure by rockfall and redistribution of the debris in very steep, rapidly-eroding landscapes.

  11. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  12. Crustal structure across the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Dieter; Neben, Soenke; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schulze, Albrecht; Stiller, Manfred; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2006-06-01

    The geology of the wide shelves surrounding the South Atlantic is closely linked to the kinematics and history of the opening of the ocean. However, several wide sedimentary basins, which developed along the margins show peculiarities that are not yet understood in the context of the evolution of the South Atlantic. The Colorado Basin, a wide sedimentary basin on the broad shelf of Argentina, extends in EW direction. The basin's evolution oblique or orthogonal to the continent-ocean boundary indicates that it is not a product of simple progressive extension and crustal thinning. In addition a basement high, paralleling the continental margin and separating the Colorado Basin from the deep-sea basin is a common interpretation. These findings are hardly in accordance with the idea that the Colorado Basin is an extensional basin that developed in conjunction with the early E-W opening phase of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous. The composition, type, and structure of the basement, key points for the evaluation of the basins evolution, are widely speculative. In this context multichannel seismic reflection data from the Argentine Shelf and a 665-km-long onshore-offshore refraction profile, running across the Colorado Basin onto the coast are discussed in combination with gravity data. The stratigraphy for the sedimentary successions was adopted from the literature and the reflection seismic marker horizons formed besides the interval velocities the input for the starting model for refraction seismic traveltime modelling. The modelling strategy was an iterative procedure between refraction seismic traveltime and gravity modelling. The preparation of the density models was coarsely orientated on published velocity-density relations. The modelling results are in favour of a continuation of the main onshore geological features beneath the sedimentary infill of the Colorado Basin. We interpret the basement along the line from west to east as offshore

  13. Colorado's Voucher Law:Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality'a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing voucher law. The author concludes that the voucher law was not revenue neutral, even though it attempts to exclude from eligibility those children already enrolled in private schools. In fact, this law, as well as any revised law with similar eligibility provisions, would actually cost taxpayers an additional $10 million per year once fully implemented because the eligibility provision provides little more than a short-term damper on the law's long-term fiscal impact.

  14. Environmental Baseline Survey, Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado. Volume II - Appendices A-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    QUENTIN ST 128 F104 80011 1.28 NNW FINDS C00000710681 ALPHA MFG 3250 QUENTIN ST STE 136 F105 80011 1.28 NNW FINDS m 0000902 CHIPS DISTRIBUTING 2290...COD100711514 CRAWFORD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 1600 FLORENCE ST AURORA 3 80010 COD149382491 DAISY FABRICARE CENTER 9677 MONTVIEW BLVD AURORA 3 80010 C00000077180... FABRICARE CTR 1,3 9677 MONTVIEW BLVD AURORA 80010 COD149382491 ALKE’S LAUNDRY & DRY CLEANING INC. 1,3 8935 E COLFAX AVE AURORA 80010 CO0000077180 DD

  15. Environmental Assessment for Capital Improvement Projects, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado. Volume 1 of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    2001 Final EA for Training Activities and Demolition of the Boresight Antennae and Buildings 440 & 441 Buckley AFB Identification and development...the coyote ( Canis latrans), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). However, since a perimeter fence was erected in...migratorius Robin Lanius ludovicianus Loggerhead shrike Mimus polyglottos Northern Mockingbird Molothrus ater Brown-headed cowbird Passer domesticus

  16. Environmental Assessment for Capital Improvement Projects, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado. Volume 2 of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    E. Sustainable Design Requirements Introduction There are many different conceptions of green or sustainable building design due to the large...many different conceptions of green or sustainable building design due to the large scope of sustainable issues and the novelty of sustainable...There are many different conceptions of green or sustainable building design due to the large scope of sustainable issues and the novelty of

  17. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R., ed.

    2004-05-12

    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

  18. Multicriteria GIS modeling of wind and solar farms in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Jason R. [Metropolitan State College of Denver, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, CB 22 P.O. Box 173362-22, Denver, CO 80217-3362 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The majority of electricity and heat in Colorado comes from coal and natural gas; however, renewable energy sources will play an integral role in the state's energy future. Colorado is the 11th windiest state and has more than 250 sunny days per year. The objectives of this research are to: 1) determine which landcover classes are affiliated with high wind and solar potential; and 2) identify areas that are suitable for wind and solar farms using multicriteria GIS modelling techniques. Renewable potential (NREL wind speed measurements at 50 m above the ground and NREL annual insolation data), landcover, population density, federal lands, and distance to roads, transmission lines, and cities were reclassified according to their suitability. Each was assigned weights based on their relative importance to one another. Superb wind classes are located in high alpine areas. Unfortunately, these areas are not suitable for large-scale wind farm development due to their inaccessibility and location within a sensitive ecosystem. Federal lands have low wind potential. According to the GIS model, ideal areas for wind farm development are located in northeastern Colorado. About 41 850 km{sup 2} of the state has model scores that are in the 90-100% range. Although annual solar radiation varies slightly, inter-mountain areas receive the most insolation. As far as federal lands, Indian reservations have the greatest solar input. The GIS model indicates that ideal areas for solar development are located in northwestern Colorado and east of Denver. Only 191 km{sup 2} of the state had model scores that were in the 90-100% range. These results suggest that the variables used in this analysis have more of an effect at eliminating non-suitable areas for large-scale solar farms; a greater area exists for suitable wind farms. However, given the statewide high insolation values with minimal variance, solar projects may be better suited for small-scale residential or commercial

  19. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  20. Estimated Colorado Golf Course Irrigation Water Use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Golf course irrigation water-use data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program's 2005 compilation to provide baseline information, as no golf course irrigation water-use data (separate from crop irrigation) have been reported in previous compilations. A Web-based survey, designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association (RMGCSA), was electronically distributed by the association to the 237 members in Colorado. Forty-three percent of the members returned the survey, and additional source water information was collected by telephone for all but 20 of the 245 association member and non-member Colorado golf courses. For golf courses where no data were collected at all, an average 'per hole' coefficient, based on returned surveys from that same county, were applied. In counties where no data were collected at all, a State average 'per hole' value of 13.2 acre-feet was used as the coefficient. In 2005, Colorado had 243 turf golf courses (there are 2 sand courses in the State) that had an estimated 2.27 acre-feet per irrigated course acre, and 65 percent of the source water for these courses was surface water. Ground water, potable water (public supply), and reclaimed wastewater, either partially or wholly, were source waters for the remaining courses. Fifty-three of the 64 counties in Colorado have at least one golf course, with the greatest number of courses in Jefferson (23 courses), Arapahoe (22 courses), and El Paso Counties (20 courses). In 2005, an estimated 5,647.8 acre-feet in Jefferson County, 5,402 acre-feet in Arapahoe County, and 4,473.3 acre-feet in El Paso County were used to irrigate the turf grass.

  1. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  2. Zia Taqueria: Building a Local Supply Chain in Southwestern Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Sullins, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Zia Taqueria is a full-service restaurant in Durango, Colorado whose owners have steadily increased the proportion of local vegetables, grains and meats they source and serve to their customers. They created new supply chains that add value to heritage products grown in the Four Corners area, invested in building capacity in local farming operations, and created a restaurant brand known for its commitment to serving high-quality, reasonably priced meals. In addition to operating a profitable ...

  3. [Volume assessment in the acute heart and renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicić, Bozidar; Ruzić, Alen; Zaputović, Luka; Racki, Sanjin

    2012-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical issue, especially in the setting of critical care. It has been shown in multiple studies to be a key independent risk factor for mortality, even after adjustment for demographics and severity of illness. There is wide agreement that a generally applicable classification system is required for AKI which helps to standardize estimation of severity of renal disfunction and to predict outcome associated with this condition. That's how RIFLE (Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-End-stage renal disease), and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications for AKI were found in 2004 and 2007, respectively. In the clinical setting of heart failure, a positive fluid balance (often expressed in the literature as weight gain) is used by disease management programs as a marker of heart failure decompensation. Oliguria is defined as urine output less than 0,3 ml/kg/h for at least 24 h. Since any delay in treatment can lead to a dangerous progression of the AKI, early recognition of oliguria appears to be crucial. Critically ill patients with oliguric AKI are at increased risk for fluid imbalance due to widespread systemic inflammation, reduced plasma oncotic pressure and increased capillary leak. These patients are particulary at risk of fluid overload and therefore restrictive strategy of fluid administration should be used. Objective, rapid and accurate volume assessment is important in undiagnosed patients presenting with critical illness, as errors may result in interventions with fatal outcomes. The historical tools such as physical exam, and chest radiography suffer from significant limitations. As gold standard, radioisolopic measurement of volume is impractical in the acute care enviroment. Newer technologies offer the promise of both rapid and accurate bedside estimation of volume status with the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Blood assessment with bioimpendance vector analysis, and bedside ultrasound seem to be

  4. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  5. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  6. Geologic map of the Clifton Quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Clifton 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Colorado River/I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides interpretations of the Quaternary stratigraphy and geologic hazards in this area of the Grand Valley. The Clifton 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 16 different Quaternary units. Five prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains a large landslide deposit on the southern slopes of Mount Garfield. The landslide developed in the Mancos Shale and contains large blocks of the overlying Mesaverde Group. In addition, the landslide is a source of debris flows that have closed I-70 in the past. The major bedrock unit in the quadrangle is the Mancos Shale of Upper Cretaceous age. The map is accompanied by text containing unit descriptions, and sections on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and economic geology (including sand and gravel). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately 20 references are cited at the end of the report.

  7. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Kimball, Briant A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for developing oil-shale resources in the southeastern Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado has created the need for information on the quantity and quality of water available in the area. This report describes the availability and chemical quality of ground water, which might provide a source or supplement of water supply for an oil-shale industry. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin occurs in three major aquifers. Alluvial aquifers of small areal extent are present in valley-fill deposits of six major drainages. Consolidated-rock aquifers include the bird?s-nest aquifer in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, which is limited to the central part of the study area; and the Douglas Creek aquifer, which includes parts of the Douglas Creek Member of the Green River Formation and parts of the intertonguing Renegade Tongue of the Wasatch Formation; this aquifer underlies most of the study area. The alluvial aquifers are recharged by infiltration of streamflow and leakage from consolidated-rock aquifers. Recharge is estimated to average about 32,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge from alluvial aquifers, primarily by evapotranspiration, also averages about 32,000 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in alluvial aquifers is about 200,000 acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells are less than 1,000 gallons per minute. Recharge to the bird's-nest aquifer, primarily from stream infiltration and downward leakage from the overlying Uinta Formation, is estimated to average 670 acre-feet per year. Discharge from the bird's-nest aquifer, which is primarily by seepage to Bitter Creek and the White River, is estimated to be at 670 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in the bird's-nest aquifer is 1.9 million acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells in some areas may be as much as 5,000 gallons per minute. A digital-computer model of the flow system was used to

  8. Hydrostratigraphic Framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad Aquifers in the Raton Basin, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    Exploration for and production of coalbed methane has increased substantially in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States since the 1990s. During 1999-2004, annual production of natural gas (coalbed methane) from the Raton Basin in Las Animas County, Colorado, increased from 28,129,515 to 80,224,130 thousand cubic feet, and the annual volume of ground water coproduced by coalbed methane wells increased from about 949 million gallons to about 2,879 million gallons. Better definition of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad aquifers in the Raton Basin of southern Colorado is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of coalbed methane development on the availability and sustainability of ground-water resources. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study to evaluate the hydrogeology of the Raton Basin in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado. Geostatistical methods were used to map the altitude of and depths to the bottoms and tops (structure) and the apparent thicknesses of the Trinidad Sandstone, the Vermejo Formation, and the Raton Formation in Las Animas County, based on completion reports and drillers' logs from about 1,400 coalbed methane wells in the Raton Basin. There was not enough subsurface control to map the structural surfaces and apparent thicknesses of the aquifers in Huerfano County. Geostatistical methods also were used to map the regional water table in the northern part of Las Animas County, based on reported depth to water from completion reports of water-supply wells. Although these maps were developed to better define the hydrostratigraphic framework, they also can be used to determine the contributing aquifer(s) of existing water wells and to estimate drilling depths of proposed water wells. These maps of the hydrostratigraphic framework could be improved with the addition of measured sections and mapping of geologic contacts at outcrops

  9. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  10. From Compassion Fatigue to Resilience: Children's Hospital Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelly; Griffin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare is a stressful profession. The executives at Children's Hospital Colorado are well aware of the affects that caring for sick children and the pressure associated with it have on our entire staff. Understanding what compassion fatigue looks like as well as the importance of stress management and its role in overall wellness for each of our employees led to the interest and support of HeartMath/Caritas workshops. Methods: HeartMath/Caritas training transformed into a program to help staff connect with why they got into this profession and provides the tools to help staff members function in the immense stress they are faced with every day. Six-hour workshops are offered to every employee of Children's Hospital Colorado, supported and paid for by the wellness program in the human resource department. These trainings intentionally brought Caritas and HeartMath together with an understanding that the two programs match passion with science, trust with hope, and conviction with confidence. Results: Results illustrate the positive effect the workshops have had on staff. Both qualitative data, in the form of written feedback from participants, and quantitative results (Table) support the continued need for these workshops with more exposure to ensure all employees can attend. Table Quantitative Results of HeartMath/Caritas Workshops at The Children's Hospital, Aurora, Colorado Personal Quality: n = 64 % Pre-Workshop % Post-Workshop % Change My life is deeply fulfilling 56 70 14 Calm 29 45 16 Worried 39 22 17 Cynical 17 6 11 It's difficult for me to calm down after I've been upset 13 4 9 Rapid heartbeats 10 5 5=3ppl Muscle tension 33 23 10 Conclusion: Healthcare providers work in immense levels of stress. HeartMath/Caritas workshops are one way Children's Hospital Colorado supports its staff in dealing with compassion fatigue and burnout. The passion for sustaining this work comes from understanding how these programs have personally affected those

  11. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    As required by the Romer-Twining Agreement of 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this annual economic impact study for the state of Colorado. This report assesses the economic impacts related to the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in Colorado during the state fiscal year (FY) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1995. To estimate net economic benefit, employment, salaries and wages, and other related economic benefits are discussed, quantified, and then compared to the state`s 10 percent share of the remedial action costs. Actual data obtained from sites currently undergoing remedial action were used as the basis for analyses. If data were not available, estimates were used to derive economic indicators. This study describes the types of employment associated with the UMTRA Project and estimates of the numbers of people employed by UMTRA Project subcontractors in Colorado during state FY 1995. Employment totals are reported in estimated average annual jobs; however, the actual number of workers at the site fluctuates depending on weather and on the status of remedial action activities. In addition, the actual number of people employed on the Project during the year may be higher than the average annual employment reported due to the temporary nature of some of the jobs.

  12. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation.

  13. 78 FR 17716 - Notice Seeking Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... land administered by the BLM's San Luis Valley Field Office in Saguache and Conejos counties, Colorado... Principal Meridian, Conejos County, Colorado. This parcel lies three miles west of the town of Romeo...

  14. 78 FR 52758 - Foreign-Trade Zone 123-Denver, Colorado; Application for Subzone, Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board... Pillow Kingdom, Inc. (Pillow Kingdom), located in Aurora, Colorado. The application was...

  15. Migrant Labor Problems in the 1970's. Staff Report to the Colorado General Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State General Assembly, Denver. Legislative Council.

    Updating the findings reported in Colorado Legislative Publication No. 72, "Migratory Labor in Colorado," published in December of 1962, this 1970 staff report describes existing economic conditions of both growers and seasonal farm workers, governmental and private services available to the migrants, and some of the major migrant issues…

  16. 77 FR 13627 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Colorado by the Denver Medical Examiner's Office. They are identified as OAHP Case Number 128. There is no information available as to where or how the remains were recovered. The medical examiner determined that the... Anthropology, the remains were transferred to History Colorado. They are identified as OAHP Case Number 175....

  17. Principals' Understanding of Teacher Evaluations Connected to the Colorado Student Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded analysis involved exploring the knowledge and understanding school principals have on teacher evaluations and the connections to students' scores on the Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP). The problem was that Colorado does not have a comprehensive and consistent standards-based teacher evaluation system managed…

  18. Casa de la Esperanza: A Case Study of Service Coordination at Work in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Hernandez, Carlota Loya

    This chapter describes how a federally funded farmworker housing facility in northern Colorado--Casa de la Esperanza--has changed the lives of migrant students and their families. The history of migrant workers in Colorado is described, as well as the struggle to construct a permanent farmworker housing facility. Casa was built in Boulder County,…

  19. 77 FR 51792 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... that on August 7, 2012, Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C. (CIG), Post Office Box 1087, Colorado... facility; (iii) two new receipt meter stations, and (iv) the modification of existing facilities. Also CIG... facilities that will allow CIG to meet market demand for transportation service on the High Plains System...

  20. 76 FR 2367 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Air Blending Project proposed by Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG) in the above-referenced docket. CIG requests authorization to construct, operate, and maintain a new air blending compressor station in Douglas County, Colorado. This facility would allow CIG to meet the gas quality specifications for...

  1. Guggenheim for Governor: Antisemitism, Race, and the Politics of Gilded Age Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1893 financial panic struck Colorado. The price of silver, in a protracted downward spiral since the conclusion of the Civil War, finally crashed. With economic and political turmoil come angry responses, as people search for scape-goats to explain their new and unexpected poverty. And in Gilded Age Colorado, one of those angry…

  2. Carnations and the Floriculture Industry: Documenting the Cultivation and Marketing of Flowers in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Meyer, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    The Records of the Colorado Flower Growers Association (CFGA) is an archival collection documenting the association prior to its 1979 name change. The CFGA was founded in 1928 to support the production and marketing of greenhouse flowers grown commercially in the state. In 1979, the organization changed its name to the Colorado Greenhouse Growers…

  3. Community-based restoration of desert wetlands: the case of the Colorado River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvel Hinojosa-Huerta; Mark Briggs; Yamilett Carrillo-Guerroro; Edward P. Glenn; Miriam Lara-Flores; Martha Roman-Rodriguez

    2005-01-01

    Wetland areas have been drastically reduced through the Pacific Flyway and the Sonoran Desert, with severe consequences for avian populations. In the Colorado River delta, wetlands have been reduced by 80 percent due to water management practices in the Colorado River basin. However, excess flows and agricultural drainage water has restored some areas, providing...

  4. A Collaborative Approach to Diabetes Management: The Choice Made for Colorado Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…

  5. 75 FR 77655 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Saguache, Alamosa, Rio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, within the TMP, and under the management of... acres of public lands within Saguache, Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, in...

  6. 78 FR 64196 - Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado On August 21... existing activation limit of FTZ 123, on behalf of Pillow Kingdom, Inc., in Aurora, Colorado....

  7. 75 FR 52015 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that...

  8. 75 FR 77898 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the ] University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... CFR 10.11(d). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum,...

  9. 75 FR 28647 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Tribe, Crow Tribe, Fort Belknap Indian Community, and Three Affiliated Tribes (73 FR 8359-8360, February... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The...

  10. 75 FR 45657 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of...

  11. 78 FR 49318 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00055 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00055 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of Colorado, dated 08/06/2013. Incident: Royal Gorge Fire. Incident Period:...

  12. 78 FR 57923 - Colorado Disaster #CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of Colorado, dated 09/12/2013. Incident: West Fork Fire Complex. Incident Period:...

  13. 78 FR 44186 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of Colorado, dated 07/15/2013. Incident: West Fork Fire Complex Incident Period:...

  14. 78 FR 58344 - Proposed Information Collection: Colorado River Total Value Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection: Colorado River Total Value Survey AGENCY: National... Colorado River riparian resource, and on alternative flow release scenarios from Glen Canyon Dam designed to protect canyon flora and fauna. The final survey will provide information for the...

  15. 77 FR 69765 - Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Solid Waste... established by RCRA. Therefore, we grant Colorado Final Authorization to operate its hazardous waste program...

  16. 75 FR 38698 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-08-0115; FV09-948-2 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of Handling... change, an interim rule that relaxed the size requirement prescribed under the Colorado potato marketing order. The interim rule provided for the handling of all varieties of potatoes with a minimum diameter...

  17. 78 FR 66267 - Safety Zone; HITS Triathlon Series; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; HITS Triathlon Series; Colorado River; Lake... establishing a safety zone upon the navigable waters of the Colorado River in support of the HITS Triathlon.... is sponsoring the HITS Triathlon Series, which will involve 1,200 swimmers transiting North...

  18. Olfaction in the Colorado beetle at the onset of host plant selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Long-range olfactory orientation of the adult Colorado beetle was studied in a low- speed wind tunnel. The odour of fully grown potato plants elicits an upwind locomotory response in Colorado beetles (odour-conditioned positive anemotaxis), and increases the beetles' speed of locomotion (direct chem

  19. Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…

  20. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft... Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan (RMP) Amendment and Draft Environmental Impact... related to the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft RMP Amendment/Draft EIS by any of...

  1. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... approximately 3,705 acres of public land in Saguache and Conejos Counties in Colorado. DATES: The BLM will hold... and 12 of T. 34 N., R. 8 E., New Mexico Principal Meridian, Conejos County, Colorado. This parcel lies...., R. 8 E., New Mexico Principal Meridian, Conejos County, Colorado. This parcel lies 3 miles west of...

  2. Environmental Assessment of the Reduce Bird Air Strike Hazards (BASH) Along East Tollgate Creek, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    Arapahoe County, Colorado – Soil Survey. USDA, in cooperation with the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station. Final EA Reduce BASH Along East Tollgate...Environment Water Quality Control Division 4300 Cherry Creek Drive, South Denver, CO 80246-1530 Ms. Eliza Moore Wildlife Manager Colorado Division

  3. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling... comments. SUMMARY: This rule modifies the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado...

  4. Climate Variability: Adaptation Strategies for Colorado River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulp, T. J.; Prairie, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    The importance of the Colorado River system to the western United States and the Republic of Mexico is well documented. Much has been written recently in response to the lingering drought and increasing demands on the system. Questions such as "has the river run out of water?", "how low can it go?", and "will Lake Mead go dry?" express the concern that the river system will be hard-pressed to continue to meet future demands, particularly if droughts tend toward increased magnitudes and longer durations. Reservoirs on the main stream of the Colorado River are managed by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), on behalf of the Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior (Secretary). Over 80% of the 60 million acre-feet of storage capacity is contained in Lake Powell and Lake Mead, large reservoirs that are located in each of the sub-basins (Upper Basin and Lower Basin) defined in the 1922 Colorado River Compact. In response to the worst drought conditions in approximately one hundred years of recorded history and the lack of specific operational guidelines for operation of Lake Powell and Lake Mead for drought and low reservoir conditions, the Secretary adopted new operational guidelines in December 2007 that will be used for an interim period (through 2026). The Interim Guidelines were the result of an intense, three-year effort in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Several alternative operational rules were compared with respect to future potential impacts to Colorado River resources, including lake levels, water delivery, hydropower production, water quality, recreation, and fish and wildlife and published in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Due to the large uncertainty regarding future inflows into the system, particularly in a changing climate, these comparisons were presented in probabilistic terms in order to assess the risk of key events (e.g., the timing and magnitude of water shortages). Because it is

  5. Geologic map of the Frisco quadrangle, Summit County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Bartos, Paul J.; Williams, Cindy L.

    2002-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Frisco quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, K.S., 1999, Neogene basins of the northern Rio Grande rift?partitioning and asymmetry inherited from Laramide and older uplifts: Tectonophysics, v. 305, p. 141-152.), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts the northeastern corner of the quadrangle. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Tenmile Range and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, Ogden, 1987, Rock units of the Precambrian- basement in Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1321-A, 54 p.). The oldest sedimentary unit is the Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The sedimentary rocks are intruded by sills and dikes of dacite porphyry sills of Swan Mountain, dated at 44 Ma (Marvin, R.F., Mehnert, H.H., Naeser, C.W., and Zartman, R.E., 1989, U.S. Geological Survey radiometric ages, compilation ?C??Part five?Colorado, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming: Isochron/West, no. 53, p. 14-19. Simmons, E.C., and Hedge, C.E., 1978, Minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of Tertiary stocks, Colorado mineral belt

  6. Hydrology of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, P.A.; Boettcher, A.J.; Snipes, R.J.; Mcintyre, H.J.

    1969-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Colorado part of the San Luis Valley was begun in 1966 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. (See index map, fig. 1). The purpose of the investigation is to provide information for planning and implementing improved water-development and management practices. The major water problems in the San Luis Valley include (1) waterlogging, (2) waste of water by nonbeneficial evapotranspiration, (3) deterioration of ground-water chemical quality, and (4) failure of Colorado to deliver water to New Mexico and Texas in accordance with the Rio Grande Compact. This report describes the hydrologic environment, extent of water-resource development, and some of the problems related to that development. Information presented is based on data collected from 1966 to 1968 and on previous studies. Subsequent reports are planned as the investigation progresses. The San Luis Valley extends about 100 miles from Poncha Pass near the northeast corner of Saguache County, Colo., to a point about 16 miles south of the Colorado-New Mexico State line. The total area is 3,125 square miles, of which about 3,000 are in Colorado. The valley is nearly flat except for the San Luis Hills and a few other small areas. The Colorado part of the San Luis Valley, which is described in this report, has an average altitude of about 7,700 feet. Bounding the valley on the west are the San Juan Mountains and on the east the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Most of the valley floor is bordered by alluvial fans deposited by streams originating in the mountains, the most extensive being the Rio Grande fan (see block diagram, fig. 2 in pocket). Most of the streamflow is derived from snowmelt from 4,700 square miles of watershed in the surrounding mountains. The northern half of the San Luis Valley is internally drained and is referred to as the closed basin. The lowest part of this area is known locally as the "sump." The

  7. REACTIVE MULTIPHASE BEHAVIOR OF CO2 IN SALINE AQUIFERS BENEATH THE COLORADO PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.G. Allis; J. Moore; S. White

    2003-01-30

    Gas reservoirs developed within the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountains region represent unique natural laboratories for studying the conditions that control long-term storage of CO{sub 2}. Under appropriate conditions, the trapping of CO{sub 2} in mineral phases could equal or exceed the amount of CO{sub 2} sequestered in the pore fluids in deep aquifers. Core samples from the Springerville-St. Johns CO{sub 2} field has allowed investigation of naturally occurring mineral reactions. The presence of travertine deposits over the field provide evidence of the leakage of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere and justify further study. During reporting period covered here (January 1 to March 30, 2003), the main achievements were: (1) Preparation of three papers to be presented at the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestion (May 5-8, Alexandria, Virginia) and (2) Preparation of two papers for submission to a special volume of Chemical Geology on CO{sub 2} Sequestration.

  8. The temporal and spatial relationship between NDVI and climatological parameters in Colorado

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the spatial and temporal relationship between AVHRR/NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and climatological parameters (temperature and precipitation), which, in some sense, is influenced by topographical factors and land-cover types in Colorado. The correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients have been computed pixel by pixel over Colorado in order to analyze the relationship. The temporal variation and correlation of AVHRR/NDVI, temperature and precipitation were analyzed with a sampling method. The study reveals that there exists a close correspondence between monthly NDVI and temperature, which has strong impact from temperature on the changes of NDVI in Colorado. The spatial changes of NDVI are not influenced obviously by the precipitation since these two variables are different from each other in time series in Colorado. The study clearly revealed the spatial variation and its distribution patterns of relationship between NDVI and climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) in Colorado.

  9. An Analysis of The Early Development and Protection of the Colorado River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempts an environmental analysis of the Colorado River in Southwest America.and examines the early issues of economic development and environmental protection on the Colorado River Basin from a historical perspective.The thesis first provides a brief description of the geography of the Colorado River,paying special attention to the early exploration of the Colorado River by Native Americans and later European colonizers as well as their different attitudes toward nature.Then the thesis looks at the forces of economic development and nature preservation in the progressive era against the arid setting of the Southwest.In the conclusion,the author demonstrates the importance and necessity of the environmental protection of the Colorado River in the beginning period of the America West.

  10. Diagnosing Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to Colorado Floods in September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, P.; Patricola, C. M.; Wehner, M. F.; Stone, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Unusually heavy rainfall occurred over the Colorado Front Range during the second week of September 2013, with record or near-record totals recorded in several locations. It was associated predominantly with a stationary large-scale weather pattern (akin to the North American Monsoon, which occurs earlier in the year) that drove a strong plume of deep moisture inland from the Gulf of Mexico and eastern tropical Pacific towards the Front Range foothills. The resulting floods across the South Platte River basin impacted several thousands of people and many homes, roads, and businesses. A recent study using observational-based re-analysis to drive the regional WRF model finds that, given very little change in the large-scale weather pattern, there is an increase in atmospheric water vapour over northeast Colorado under anthropogenic climate warming, with a positive dynamical feedback drawing in moisture from further afield. This leads to a substantial increase in the magnitude and odds of heavy rainfall occurring over northeast Colorado during the rainy week of September 2013. Here we develop this work by including a hydrological modelling component in order to investigate any anthropogenic influence on the actual flood magnitude and occurrence across the South Platte basin during that time. We use WRF precipitation output from the aforementioned study - in both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic configurations for September 2013 - to drive the recently developed high-resolution WRF-Hydro model over the basin and generate river runoff. Thus by comparing changes in runoff under the anthropogenic / non-anthropogenic driving conditions we assess any influence on the magnitude and odds of flood occurrence. Integral to this, we test the sensitivity of our results to hydrological parameters, such as infiltration, base flow, and land use/cover.

  11. Colorado Medical Students' Attitudes and Beliefs About Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael H; Knoepke, Christopher E; Cole, Madeline L; McKinnon, James; Matlock, Daniel D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past two decades, state and local governments across the U.S. have been increasingly reforming marijuana laws. Despite growing support for marijuana as a medical treatment, little is known about medical students' perceptions of marijuana use. To assess Colorado medical students' personal and professional opinions on current and future marijuana use in a healthcare setting. A voluntary, anonymous, online cross-sectional survey. Medical students (n = 624) at the University of Colorado School of Medicine between January and February 2014 were invited to participate. Numerical responses were quantified using counts and percentages, and Likert scale responses were collapsed for bivariate analysis. Items were gathered thematically and additively scored for each subscale. Internal consistency reliability statistics were calculated for each subscale to ensure that items were assessing similar constructs. Unadjusted t tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to calculate mean differences in subscale scores between subgroups. We received 236 responses (37%). Students indicated support for marijuana legalization (64%), and few believed that physicians should be penalized for recommending marijuana to patients (6%). Nearly all (97%) believed that further marijuana research should be conducted, and believed marijuana could play a role in the treatment of various medical conditions. Seventy-seven percent reported that they believed marijuana use had the potential for psychological harm, and 68% indicated concern for potential physical harm. Only a minority of students would recommend marijuana to a patient under current law (29%), or if it were legally available (45%). Acceptability of marijuana for treatment of approved conditions was not correlated with age or gender, but was positively correlated with living in Colorado prior to medical school (p Medical students support marijuana legal reform, medicinal uses of marijuana, and increased research

  12. Opportunities to protect instream flows in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembly, Terrence L.

    1987-01-01

    This document combines the efforts of several individuals, agencies, and organizations toward a common objective: the identification, description, and preliminary evaluation of promising opportunities for protecting instream uses of water under existing laws in Colorado and Wyoming. This report is intended for the use of State and Federal planning and management personnel who need an overview of potential opportunities for preserving instream flows. It is not intended to replace or challenge the advice of agency counsel, nor it is written to provide legal advice. Instead, it is designed as a guide for the person trying to find his or her way among sometimes bewildering State statues and administrative practices. This report is not, and should not be taken as, official policy or prediction of future actions by any agency. It is simply a summary of some potential opportunities for protecting instream uses. Toward these objectives, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through its Water Resources Analysis Project, contracted in 1977 with Richard Dewsnup and Dallin Jensen to identify available strategies under State and Federal laws, interstate compacts, and water quality laws. A second firm, Enviro Control, Inc., was contracted to evaluate the most promising strategies. Two of the resulting documents were Instream Flow Strategies for Colorado and Instream Flow Strategies for Wyoming, which have been revised, updated, and combined in this report. Discussion of instream flow programs ad opportunities for each State--Colorado and Wyoming-- are written so that each report can be read independently, with minimal cross referencing from one State report to another.

  13. Final Environmental Assessment: For Construction at the Colorado Army National Guard Army Aviation Support Facility Complex, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    energy resource efficient design (e.g., a southeast orientation to the building would allow for solar exposure to the hangar doors and apron area, which... solar effects into the design. Communications. Buckley AFB is well served by fiber-optic lines and other communication facilities. There would be a...Box 737 Ignacio , CO 8113 7 From: Colorado Army National Guard 6846 S. Revere Pkwy. Centennial, CO 80112 Dear Mr. Frazier, 12 May2004 The Colorado

  14. The people vote on abortion funding: Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1985-01-01

    On Election Day 1984, Colorado voters narrowly approved an amendment to the state constitution cutting off all public funds for abortion. That same Election Day saw an effort to end abortion funding in the state of Washington fail decisively. In both states, the effort to terminate funding was led by antiabortion activists who sought to characterize the issue as an economic one. Failure of the Colorado Taxpayers for Choice to emphasize the economic impact of the amendment appears to have been a fatal mistake. The coalition, for example, never publicized the fact that the state pays US$400 for prenatal care and US$1,400 for normal delivery, compared with an average of US$269 for an abortion. It emphasized more than any other theme that the amendment would threaten the rights of all women in Colorado to obtain an abortion--claims that were perceived by the public to be exaggerated, even hysterical. The Washington Taxpayers for Choice, on the other hand, confronted the cost issue directly and provided convincing evidence that that the new law would ultimately cost taxpayers millions of dollars. In addition, some political experts believe that that a "grass roots" network of local political activists who go door-to-door canvassing, public speaking and telephoning is essential to prevailing in a referendum. This appears to have been the case in Washington, where abortion foes did not have nearly as extensive a grass roots organization as Washington Taxpayes for Choice. In Colorado, grass roots support for abortion rights has never been fully developed, largely because the governor has maintained a strong prochoice stand for the past 11 years. Groups in California, Oregon, Washington and Massachusetts have announced their intention to terminate public funding for abortions through voter initiatives in the 1986 elections. In any antifunding referendum, voters must be shown clearly that a cutoff of abortion funds could actually cost taxpayers millions of dollars for

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell`s construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site.

  16. Origin of the late quaternary dune fields of northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, T.W.; Cowherd, S.D.; Mahan, S.A.; Kihl, R.; Maat, P.B.; Bush, C.A.; Nehring, J.

    1996-01-01

    Stabilized eolian deposits, mostly parabolic dunes and sand sheets, cover much of the landscape of northeastern Colorado and adjacent parts of southwestern Nebraska in four geographically distinct dune fields. Stratigraphic and soil-geomorphic relations and accelerator radiocarbon dating indicate that at least three episodes of eolian sand movement occurred between 27 ka and 11 ka, possibly between 11 ka and 4 ka, and within the past 1.5 ka. Thus, eolian sand deposition took place under both glacial and interglacial climatic conditions. In the youngest episodes of eolian sand movement, Holocene parabolic dunes partially buried Pleistocene sand sheet deposits. Late Holocene sands in the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, to the south of the South Platte River, have trace element ratios that are indistinguishable from modern South Platte River sands, but different from Ogallala Formation bedrock, which has previously been cited as the main source of dune sand on the Great Plains. Sands in the Greeley dune field, to the north of the South Platte River, have trace element concentrations that indicate a probable Laramie Formation source. Measurements of parabolic dunes indicate paleowinds from the northwest in all dune fields, in good agreement with resultant drift directions calculated for nearby weather stations. Thus, paleowinds were probably not significantly different from present-day winds, and are consistent with a South Platte River source for the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, and a Laramie Formation source for the Greeley dune field. Sand accumulated downwind of the South Platte River to form the Fort Morgan dune field. In addition, sand was also transported farther downwind over the upland formed by the calcrete caprock of the Ogallala Formation, and deposited in die lee of the upland on the southeast side. Because of high wind energy, the upland itself served as a zone of sand transport, but little or no sand accumulation took place on this surface. These

  17. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/597/). This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  18. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  19. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  20. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  1. It takes more than water: Restoring the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Jennifer; Kendy, Eloise; Schlatter, Karen; Hinojosa-Huertaf, Osvel; Flessa, Karl W.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental flows have become important tools for restoring rivers and associated riparian ecosystems (Arthington, 2012; Glenn et al., 2017). In March 2014, the United States and Mexico initiated a bold effort in restoration, delivering from Morelos Dam a “pulse flow” of water into the Colorado River in its delta for the purpose of learning about its environmental effects (Flessa et al., 2013; Bark et al., 2016). Specifically, scientists evaluated whether the pulse flow, albeit miniscule compared to historical floods, could provide the ecological functions needed to establish native, flood-dependent vegetation to restore natural habitat along the riparian corridor.

  2. Gophers as geomorphic agents in the Colorado Front Range subalpine zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Eric W.; Anderson, Robert S.; Lombardi, Elizabeth M.; Doak, Daniel F.

    2016-07-01

    Gophers are significant geomorphic agents in many landscapes. We document activity of the northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) in two small subalpine meadows (1050-1800 m2) of the Front Range, Colorado, USA. We tracked locations and volumes of mounds and subnivean infilled tunnels over one year and probed the thickness of the biomantle within one meadow. We infer that only 5-7 gophers occupied each meadow, implying a gopher density of 28-67 ha- 1. Fractional areal coverage of the meadows by diggings suggests that within 49-95 years gophers would fully resurface the meadows. Annual volumes of excavated soil correspond to the equivalent of 1 mm of material spread evenly over the meadows. Probed meadow resistance depths reveal a pattern we interpret to be stone lines at roughly 15 cm depths; implied vertical turnover times are therefore roughly 150 years. These spatial and temporal patterns imply that gophers should be able to churn the biomantle on approximately century timescales and should fully resurface the meadow areas in similar timescales. These field data also contribute to an investigation of lateral sediment transport; given the local slope of the landscape, gopher-driven sediment transport within our two study sites suggests a landscape diffusivity of 0.008 m2y- 1. At no time do gophers occupy the forest. As evidenced by subnivean infilled tunnels, winter activity is restricted to the upslope (and hence upwind) meadow edges, which correspond to high snow cover and warm (> 0 °C) shallow subsurface soil temperatures. Subsequent activity expands downhill into the meadows and shows a distinct pulse of mound activity in late summer through early fall prior to snowfall. Local forest fire history has led to much more extensive meadows in the past, suggesting that the geomorphic influence of gophers in the landscape is much more widespread than the present distribution of meadows and may cover the entire subalpine region of the Front Range on millennial

  3. Dating of Pliocene Colorado River sediments: Implications for cosmogenic burial dating and the evolution of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Matmon, Ari; Stock, Greg M.; Granger, Darryl E.

    2017-01-01

    We applied cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating to sedimentary deposits of the ancestral Colorado River. We compared cosmogenic burial ages of sediments to the age of an independently well-dated overlying basalt flow at one site, and also applied cosmogenic burial dating to sediments with less precise independent age constraints. All dated gravels yielded old ages that suggest several episodes of sediment burial over the past ∼5.3 m.y. Comparison of burial ages to the overlying 4.4 Ma basalt yielded good agreement and suggests that under the most favorable conditions, cosmogenic burial dating can extend back 4–5 m.y. In contrast, results from other sites with more broadly independent age constraints highlight the complexities inherent in burial dating; these complexities arise from unknown and complicated burial histories, insufficient shielding, postburial production of cosmogenic isotopes by muons, and unknown initial 26Al/10Be ratios. Nevertheless, and in spite of the large range of burial ages and large uncertainties, we identify samples that provide reasonable burial age constraints on the depositional history of sediment along the lower ancestral Colorado River. These samples suggest possible sediment deposition and burial at ca. 5.3, 4.7, and 3.6 Ma.Our calculated basinwide erosion rate for sediment transported by the modern Colorado River (∼187 mm k.y.−1) is higher than the modern erosion rates inferred from the historic sediment load (80–100 mm k.y.−1). In contrast, basinwide paleo-erosion rates calculated from Pliocene sediments are all under 40 mm k.y.−1 The comparatively lower denudation rates calculated for the Pliocene sediment samples are surprising given that the sampled time intervals include significant Pliocene aggradation and may include much incision of the Grand Canyon and its tributaries. This conflict may arise from extensive storage of sediment along the route of the Colorado River, slower paleobedrock erosion, or the

  4. Dating of Pliocene Colorado River sediments: implications for cosmogenic burial dating and the evolution of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmon, Ari; Stock, Greg M.; Granger, Darryl E.; Howard, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    We applied cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating to sedimentary deposits of the ancestral Colorado River. We compared cosmogenic burial ages of sediments to the age of an independently well-dated overlying basalt flow at one site, and also applied cosmogenic burial dating to sediments with less precise independent age constraints. All dated gravels yielded old ages that suggest several episodes of sediment burial over the past ∼5.3 m.y. Comparison of burial ages to the overlying 4.4 Ma basalt yielded good agreement and suggests that under the most favorable conditions, cosmogenic burial dating can extend back 4–5 m.y. In contrast, results from other sites with more broadly independent age constraints highlight the complexities inherent in burial dating; these complexities arise from unknown and complicated burial histories, insufficient shielding, postburial production of cosmogenic isotopes by muons, and unknown initial 26Al/10Be ratios. Nevertheless, and in spite of the large range of burial ages and large uncertainties, we identify samples that provide reasonable burial age constraints on the depositional history of sediment along the lower ancestral Colorado River. These samples suggest possible sediment deposition and burial at ca. 5.3, 4.7, and 3.6 Ma. Our calculated basinwide erosion rate for sediment transported by the modern Colorado River (∼187 mm k.y.−1) is higher than the modern erosion rates inferred from the historic sediment load (80–100 mm k.y.−1). In contrast, basinwide paleo-erosion rates calculated from Pliocene sediments are all under 40 mm k.y.−1 The comparatively lower denudation rates calculated for the Pliocene sediment samples are surprising given that the sampled time intervals include significant Pliocene aggradation and may include much incision of the Grand Canyon and its tributaries. This conflict may arise from extensive storage of sediment along the route of the Colorado River, slower paleobedrock erosion, or the inclusion

  5. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  6. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period.

  7. Colorado State University: A Midscale Market Solar Customer Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Despite substantial increases in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment between 2005 and 2015, a large untapped market for solar PV deployment still exists in midscale market investments by universities. Recent estimates show that if all universities in the United States installed enough solar PV to meet 25% of their annual electricity consumption, this would cumulatively result in just over 16 gigawatts (GW) of additional installed PV capacity. Within this context, midscale market projects - loosely defined as solar PV installations ranging from 100 kilowatts (kW) to 2 megawatts (MW), but more broadly representing installations not captured in the residential or utility-scale sectors - could be an attractive option for universities. This case study focuses on one university solar customer, Colorado State University (CSU), to provide a detailed example of the challenges, solutions, and opportunities associated with university solar power procurement. Between 2009 and 2015, a combined 6,754 kW of both ground-mounted and rooftop solar PV was installed across multiple CSU campuses in Fort Collins, Colorado. This case study highlights CSU's decision-making process, campus engagement strategies, and relationships with state, local, and utility partners, which have culminated in significant on-campus PV deployment.

  8. Quantifying methane emissions and sources in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Townsend-Small, A.; Schroeder, J.; Blake, N. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is relatively constant throughout the atmosphere, at 1.8 ppmv. This value, however, is increasing primarily due to anthropogenic sources, including agriculture and natural gas extraction. Here we present atmospheric methane fluxes measured during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in July - August 2014 in the Colorado Front Range on the NCAR C-130. During this campaign 775 advanced whole air samples (AWAS) were collected onboard the aircraft and 248 samples were collected on the ground in order to quantify and evaluate air pollution sources. Methane concentrations were measured continuously aboard the aircraft using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Major sources of methane in this region are oil and natural gas extraction and distribution, landfills, and cattle feed lots. In order to assess the impact of methane emissions on this area, methane flux was evaluated by comparing upwind and downwind concentrations where significant enhancements were observed downwind. We also present information from other hydrocarbons measured in canisters to attribute methane emissions to urban, agricultural, and oil and gas sources. The state of Colorado recently enacted legislation to reduce emissions of hydrocarbons from oil and gas facilities and our measurements will provide a preliminary estimate of whether these regulations are effective.

  9. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from August 2009 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  10. Crustal kinematics of the Colorado Plateau from GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A. A.; Broermann, J.; Bennett, R. A.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from new continuous and campaign GPS networks spanning the state of Arizona and the southern portion of Utah. The 33 station continuous GPS network, funded by the NSF EarthScope Program, supplements a sparse distribution of continuous GPS stations that comprise the NSF EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory network. The campaign network originally established by the National Geodetic survey in the mid-1990's, has been reoccupied two or more times over the past five years with support from the Arizona Geological Survey. The data from the continuous GPS stations are analyzed independently with the GIPSY and GAMIT software. The new horizontal velocity data set provides an improved image of deformation in the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Northern and Southern Basin and Ranges Provinces. Preliminary modeling of the crustal kinematics reveals that only a very limited part of the region can be modeled as a rigid-body rotation. Most of the area is part of a broad zone of diffuse east-west directed extension from the Rio Grande Rift in the East to the Mojave Desert in the west. Only near the transition from the northern Colorado Plateau to the northern Basin and Range Province is the extension more localized. Besides a discussion of the regional kinematics, we will also discuss the affect the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake had on the geodetic data in the southern Basin and Range.

  11. Campo Colorado, nuevos aportes desde la bioarqueología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarragó, Myriam N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objetivo dar a conocer los resultados obtenidos en el estudio bioarqueológico de los restos humanos recuperados durante las excavaciones del sitio formativo Campo Colorado (SSalLap2 llevadas a cabo por Myriam Tarragó en el año 1967. El asentamiento se emplaza en el extremo norte del Valle Calchaquí (Prov. de Salta a 8 km. del actual poblado de La Poma y posee un fechado radiocarbónico asociado SI-Nº1221: 1895+-70 AP. Las inhumaciones fueron detectadas en dos ubicaciones diferentes dentro del sitio: debajo del piso de recintos habitacionales y en un área de "Cementerio Anexo" adyacente el sector norte del poblado. Se describen, entonces, las cinco estructuras de entierro excavadas y se detallan los métodos y resultados obtenidos en las estimaciones de edad, sexo y estatura de los individuos y se realizan algunas consideraciones respecto su estado de salud y nutrición general. Se señalan, asimismo, algunos procesos tafonómicos que han determinado la conservación diferencial de la muestra. A modo de conclusión, los hallazgos de Campo Colorado son enmarcados en el contexto de las prácticas mortuorias del Formativo regional.

  12. Drought induces spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks across northwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Eisenhart, Karen S; Jarvis, Daniel; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2014-04-01

    This study examines influences of climate variability on spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak across northwestern Colorado during the period 1650 2011 CE. Periods of broad-scale outbreak reconstructed using documentary records and tree rings were dated to 1843-1860, 1882-1889, 1931-1957, and 2004-2010. Periods of outbreak were compared with seasonal temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and indices of ocean-atmosphere oscillation that include the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Classification trees showed that outbreaks can be predicted most successfully from above average annual AMO values and above average summer VPD values, indicators of drought across Colorado. Notably, we find that spruce beetle outbreaks appear to be predicted best by interannual to multidecadal variability in drought, not by temperature alone. This finding may imply that spruce beetle outbreaks are triggered by decreases in host tree defenses, which are hypothesized to occur with drought stress. Given the persistence of the AMO, the shift to a positive AMO phase in the late 1990s is likely to promote continued spruce beetle disturbance.

  13. NJP VOLUME 42 NO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-11-19

    Nov 19, 2014 ... Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hos- pital (UPTH). ... Method. This was a prospective study done in the Children's Out. -patient Clinic of UPTH from ..... among competitive sports partici- pants- Colorado ...

  14. Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic selenium contamination of aquatic ecosystems was first associated with cooling reservoirs of coal-fired power plants in the late 1970s, and later with drainage water from agricultural irrigation activities in the 1980s. In the 1990s, selenium contamination has been raised as a concern in the recovery of currently endangered fish in the Colorado River system. Widespread contamination from seleniferous drain waters from agriculture has been documented in the upper and lower Colorado River basins. Historically, irrigation started in the upper Colorado River basin in the late 1880s. In the 1930s, selenium concentrations in various drains, tributaries, and major rivers in the upper and lower Colorado River basins were in the 100s and 1000s of ??g/L. Native fish inhabiting large rivers such as the Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker were abundant before 1890, but became rare after 1910 to 1920, before the influence of mainstem reservoirs in the upper and lower Colorado River. A hypothesis is presented that selenium contamination of the tributaries and major rivers of the Colorado River basin in the 1890 to 1910 period caused the decline of the endangered fish and continues to inhibit their recovery. ?? 1999 by ASP.

  15. Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

  16. Hydrogeological modeling of water exchange between a river valley aquifer and the Colorado River at a riparian corridor of the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, D.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Zamora, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Colorado River Delta has shown a high capacity of regeneration in spite of the drastic reduction of the freshwater flows. This river has an important ecological value for the remaining ecosystems at the regional and continental level. It is not known when this river will present again surpluses of superficial water in the basin, as it happened in the decades of 1980 and 1990. The ecosystems of the Delta depend on the availability of groundwater to survive. The practices of blanket irrigation in the Valley of Mexicali have favored the vertical refill of the aquifer. Part of this water that infiltrates the ground is captured by the Colorado River (CR). As a consequence, even in years in which the CR has not received surpluses of superficial water low flow can be observed in the river, especially in the area of our study that comprises 12 km of the CR between the interception of the railroad with the river and the entrance to Carranza City. This low flow provides water to maintain the riparian vegetation of the zone. For this reason, it is important to know the hydrologic relationship between the river aquifer and the CR. The purpose of this work is to determine the volumes of water supplied by the aquifer to the riparian system and its relationship with the vegetation. Measurements of the fluctuations of the freatic level (FL) in 27 boreholes located in 8 cross sections during more than 2 years have been used for this study. The system was modelled using the program MODFLOW considering diverse water levels in the CR and flow exchange with the aquifer. The hydrogeological properties of the aquifer were found from slug tests and correlations with the textures of 100 soil samples. The modeling results allow to separate the zone of study in three sections. The first one extends 5km from the railroad to the south. In this section the CR receives water from the aquifer producing the observed water in the river bed all the year. The second section, of approximately 2 km

  17. Lightning in Colorado forest fire smoke plumes during summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Dolan, B.; Lindsey, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Rison, W.

    2012-12-01

    May and June 2012 were unusually hot and dry in Colorado, which was suffering from a strong drought. A major consequence of this climatic regime was one of the most destructive forest fire seasons in state history, with hundreds of thousands of acres of forest and grassland consumed by flames, hundreds of homes burned, and several lives lost. Many of these fires occurred within range of the newly installed Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), which provides high-resolution observations of discharges over a large portion of the state. The COLMA was installed in advance of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. High-altitude lightning was observed to occur sporadically in the smoke plumes over three major fires that occurred during early summer: Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon. Additionally, the Colorado State University CHILL (CSU-CHILL) and Pawnee radars observed the Hewlett Gulch plume electrify with detailed polarimetric and dual-Doppler measurements, and also provided these same measurements for the High Park plume when it was not producing lightning. Meanwhile, local Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) provided observations of the electrified High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes. All of these plumes also were observed by geostationary meteorological satellites. These observations provide an unprecedented dataset with which to study smoke plume and pyrocumulus electrification. The polarimetric data - low reflectivity, high differential reflectivity, low correlation coefficient, and noisy differential phase - were consistent with the smoke plumes and associated pyrocumulus being filled primarily with irregularly shaped ash particles. Lightning was not observed in the plumes until they reached over 10 km above mean sea level, which was an uncommon occurrence requiring explosive fire growth combined with increased meteorological instability and reduced wind shear. Plume updraft intensification and echo-top growth led the occurrence of

  18. Topaz rhyolites of Nathrop, Colorado: Lava domes or rheomorphic flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, B. M.; Panter, K. S.; Van Der Voo, R.

    2013-12-01

    Deposits of topaz-bearing rhyolite at Ruby and Sugarloaf Mountains in central Colorado are considered to be remnants of lava domes. The deposits are part of the Late Eocene-Oligocene Central Colorado Volcanic Field [1] that lies along the eastern margin of the Arkansas Graben of the Rio Grande Rift. Topaz-bearing rhyolite lava domes and flows have been identified elsewhere in Colorado and the western U.S., but an assortment of geomorphological, lithostratigraphical, and textural features of Ruby and Sugarloaf Mountains call into question their strict classification as such. Alternatively, the lava flows may be interpreted as rheomorphic ignimbrites. The volcanic deposits encompass a sequence of steeply (~70°) west-dipping units that form two N-S elongated edifices ~0.5 km long and a few hundred meters high. Their common lithostratigraphy from bottom to top is tuff breccia, vitrophyre, and flow-banded rhyolite. The tuff breccia includes large (up to ~1 m) pumice blocks and lithics that vary from nearly absent to moderately abundant (10-20%). At Sugarloaf lithics include rare cobble-sized clasts of granite, but the majority consists of flow-banded rhyolite. The tuff breccia grades normally upward into the vitrophyre with increased welding and a eutaxitic fabric defined by fiamme with increasing aspect ratios. Lithics are abundant in the vitrophyre at Sugarloaf but are rare or absent in the vitrophyre at Ruby Mountain. The transition from the vitrophyre to the flow-banded rhyolite is abrupt (welding fabric is apparent at both locations. At Ruby Mountain, evidence of vapor-phase alteration and an interlocked mosaic of quartz crystals in the groundmass is not typically found in deposits of effusive origin and is not a result of metamorphism. Preliminary remnant magnetism (RM) indicates no discernible tectonic modification of deposits on Sugarloaf Mountain, indicating that the steep westward dip is a primary depositional feature. This result supports the view of a

  19. Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    deWolfe, V.G.; Santi, P.M.; Ey, J.; Gartner, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the hazards from debris flows in drainage basins burned by wildfire, erosion control measures such as construction of check dams, installation of log erosion barriers (LEBs), and spreading of straw mulch and seed are common practice. After the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire in southwest Colorado, these measures were implemented at Knight Canyon above Lemon Dam to protect the intake structures of the dam from being filled with sediment. Hillslope erosion protection measures included LEBs at concentrations of 220-620/ha (200-600% of typical densities), straw mulch was hand spread at concentrations up to 5.6??metric tons/hectare (125% of typical densities), and seeds were hand spread at 67-84??kg/ha (150% of typical values). The mulch was carefully crimped into the soil to keep it in place. In addition, 13 check dams and 3 debris racks were installed in the main drainage channel of the basin. The technical literature shows that each mitigation method working alone, or improperly constructed or applied, was inconsistent in its ability to reduce erosion and sedimentation. At Lemon Dam, however, these methods were effective in virtually eliminating sedimentation into the reservoir, which can be attributed to a number of factors: the density of application of each mitigation method, the enhancement of methods working in concert, the quality of installation, and rehabilitation of mitigation features to extend their useful life. The check dams effectively trapped the sediment mobilized during rainstorms, and only a few cubic meters of debris traveled downchannel, where it was intercepted by debris racks. Using a debris volume-prediction model developed for use in burned basins in the Western U.S., recorded rainfall events following the Missionary Ridge Fire should have produced a debris flow of approximately 10,000??m3 at Knight Canyon. The mitigation measures, therefore, reduced the debris volume by several orders of magnitude. For comparison, rainstorm

  20. Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    deWolfe, Victor G.; Santi, Paul M.; Ey, J.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2008-04-01

    To reduce the hazards from debris flows in drainage basins burned by wildfire, erosion control measures such as construction of check dams, installation of log erosion barriers (LEBs), and spreading of straw mulch and seed are common practice. After the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire in southwest Colorado, these measures were implemented at Knight Canyon above Lemon Dam to protect the intake structures of the dam from being filled with sediment. Hillslope erosion protection measures included LEBs at concentrations of 220-620/ha (200-600% of typical densities), straw mulch was hand spread at concentrations up to 5.6 metric tons/hectare (125% of typical densities), and seeds were hand spread at 67-84 kg/ha (150% of typical values). The mulch was carefully crimped into the soil to keep it in place. In addition, 13 check dams and 3 debris racks were installed in the main drainage channel of the basin. The technical literature shows that each mitigation method working alone, or improperly constructed or applied, was inconsistent in its ability to reduce erosion and sedimentation. At Lemon Dam, however, these methods were effective in virtually eliminating sedimentation into the reservoir, which can be attributed to a number of factors: the density of application of each mitigation method, the enhancement of methods working in concert, the quality of installation, and rehabilitation of mitigation features to extend their useful life. The check dams effectively trapped the sediment mobilized during rainstorms, and only a few cubic meters of debris traveled downchannel, where it was intercepted by debris racks. Using a debris volume-prediction model developed for use in burned basins in the Western U.S., recorded rainfall events following the Missionary Ridge Fire should have produced a debris flow of approximately 10,000 m 3 at Knight Canyon. The mitigation measures, therefore, reduced the debris volume by several orders of magnitude. For comparison, rainstorm-induced debris