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Sample records for rifampin sensitivity testing

  1. In vitro testing of daptomycin plus rifampin againstmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus resistant to rifampin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaswneh, Faisal A.; Ashcraft, Deborah S.; Pankey, George A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to test for synergy between daptomycin (DAP) and rifampin(RIF) against RIF-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) isolates. Synergy testing using time-kill assay (TKA) was performed on6 clinically and genetically unique RIF-resistant MRSA isolates. The isolateswere identified out of 489 (1.2%) samples collected during April 2003 toAugust 2006, from patients at the Ochsner Medical Center in New Orleans,Louisiana, United States of America. Synergy testing of DAP plus RIF by TKAshowed that 5 isolates were different, but one isolate was antagonistic. Ourin-vitro study failed to demonstrate synergy between DAP plus RIF, againstour RIF-resistant MRSA isolates. Clinical failure of this combination shouldprompt the clinician to consider antagonism as one of the potential causes.(author)

  2. Second line drug susceptibility testing to inform the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis: a quantitative perspective

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    Emily A. Kendall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure and resistance amplification are common among patients with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for second-line drugs is recommended for these patients, but logistical difficulties have impeded widespread implementation of second-line DST in many settings. To provide a quantitative perspective on the decision to scale up second-line DST, we synthesize literature on the prevalence of second-line drug resistance, the expected clinical and epidemiologic benefits of using second-line DST to ensure that patients with rifampin-resistant TB receive effective regimens, and the costs of implementing (or not implementing second-line DST for all individuals diagnosed with rifampin-resistant TB. We conclude that, in most settings, second-line DST could substantially improve treatment outcomes for patients with rifampin-resistant TB, reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB, prevent amplification of drug resistance, and be affordable or even cost-saving. Given the large investment made in each patient treated for rifampin-resistant TB, these payoffs would come at relatively small incremental cost. These anticipated benefits likely justify addressing the real challenges faced in implementing second-line DST in most high-burden settings.

  3. Effect of Rifampin on Thyroid Function Test in Patients on Levothyroxine Medication.

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    Hye In Kim

    Full Text Available Levothyroxine (LT4 and rifampin (RIF are sometimes used together; however, no clinical studies have assessed the effects of these drugs on thyroid function or the need to adjust LT4 dose.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 71 Korean patients who started RIF during LT4 treatment. Clinically relevant cases that required dose adjustment according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA/American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE guidelines were identified, and risk factors of increased LT4 dose were analyzed.After administering RIF, median serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level (2.58 mIU/L, interquartile range [IQR] 0.21-7.44 was significantly higher than that before RIF (0.25 mIU/L, IQR, 0.03-2.62; P < 0.001. An increased LT4 dose was required for 50% of patients in the TSH suppression group for thyroid cancer and 26% of patients in the replacement group for hypothyroidism. Risk factor analysis showed that remaining thyroid gland (odds ratio [OR] 9.207, P = 0.002, the time interval between starting RIF and TSH measurement (OR 1.043, P = 0.019, and baseline LT4 dose per kg body weight (OR 0.364, P = 0.011 were clinically relevant variables.In patients receiving LT4, serum thyroid function test should be performed after starting RIF treatment. For patients with no remnant thyroid gland and those receiving a lower LT4 dose, close observation is needed when starting RIF and TB medication.

  4. The New Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra: Improving Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Resistance to Rifampin in an Assay Suitable for Point-of-Care Testing.

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    Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Simmons, Ann Marie; Rowneki, Mazhgan; Parmar, Heta; Cao, Yuan; Ryan, Jamie; Banada, Padmapriya P; Deshpande, Srinidhi; Shenai, Shubhada; Gall, Alexander; Glass, Jennifer; Krieswirth, Barry; Schumacher, Samuel G; Nabeta, Pamela; Tukvadze, Nestani; Rodrigues, Camilla; Skrahina, Alena; Tagliani, Elisa; Cirillo, Daniela M; Davidow, Amy; Denkinger, Claudia M; Persing, David; Kwiatkowski, Robert; Jones, Martin; Alland, David

    2017-08-29

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) is a rapid test for tuberculosis (TB) and rifampin resistance (RIF-R) suitable for point-of-care testing. However, it has decreased sensitivity in smear-negative sputum, and false identification of RIF-R occasionally occurs. We developed the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay (Ultra) to improve performance. Ultra and Xpert limits of detection (LOD), dynamic ranges, and RIF-R rpoB mutation detection were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA or sputum samples spiked with known numbers of M. tuberculosis H37Rv or Mycobacterium bovis BCG CFU. Frozen and prospectively collected clinical samples from patients suspected of having TB, with and without culture-confirmed TB, were also tested. For M. tuberculosis H37Rv, the LOD was 15.6 CFU/ml of sputum for Ultra versus 112.6 CFU/ml of sputum for Xpert, and for M. bovis BCG, it was 143.4 CFU/ml of sputum for Ultra versus 344 CFU/ml of sputum for Xpert. Ultra resulted in no false-positive RIF-R specimens, while Xpert resulted in two false-positive RIF-R specimens. All RIF-R-associated M. tuberculosis rpoB mutations tested were identified by Ultra. Testing on clinical sputum samples, Ultra versus Xpert, resulted in an overall sensitivity of 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.1, 91.7) versus 81.0% (95% CI, 74.9, 86.2) and a sensitivity on sputum smear-negative samples of 78.9% (95% CI, 70.0, 86.1) versus 66.1% (95% CI, 56.4, 74.9). Both tests had a specificity of 98.7% (95% CI, 93.0, 100), and both had comparable accuracies for detection of RIF-R in these samples. Ultra should significantly improve TB detection, especially in patients with paucibacillary disease, and may provide more-reliable RIF-R detection. IMPORTANCE The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert), the first point-of-care assay for tuberculosis (TB), was endorsed by the World Health Organization in December 2010. Since then, 23 million Xpert tests have been procured in 130 countries. Although Xpert showed high overall sensitivity and

  5. Rifampin vs. rifapentine: what is the preferred rifamycin for tuberculosis?

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    Alfarisi, Omamah; Alghamdi, Wael A; Al-Shaer, Mohammad H; Dooley, Kelly E; Peloquin, Charles A

    2017-10-01

    One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.). Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can progress to tuberculosis disease, the leading cause of death by infection. Rifamycin antibiotics, like rifampin and rifapentine, have unique sterilizing activity against M.tb. What are the advantages of each for LTBI or tuberculosis treatment? Areas covered: We review studies assessing the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), drug interaction risk, safety, and efficacy of rifampin and rifapentine and provide basis for comparing them. Expert commentary: Rifampin has shorter half-life, higher MIC against M.tb, lower protein binding, and better distribution into cavitary contents than rifapentine. Drug interactions for the two drugs maybe similar in magnitude. For LTBI, rifapentine is effective as convenient, once-weekly, 12-week course of treatment. Rifampin is also effective for LTBI, but must be given daily for four months, therefore, drug interactions are more problematic. For drug-sensitive tuberculosis disease, rifampin remains the standard of care. Safety profile of rifampin is better-described; adverse events differ somewhat for the two drugs. The registered once-weekly rifapentine regimen is inadequate, but higher doses of either drugs may shorten the treatment duration required for effective management of TB. Results of clinical trials evaluating high-dose rifamycin regimens are eagerly awaited.

  6. Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Analysis of Its Resistance to Rifampin in Sputa from Tuberculosis Suspected Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaifudin, M.

    2010-01-01

    An accurate identification of different species of Mycobacterium provides to allow appropriate treatment for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Beside that, drug resistance of M. tuberculosis strains to rifampin is not clearly understood in contributing to the spread of tuberculosis in Indonesia. To assess the molecular mechanism of rifampin resistance, a number of clinical specimens of M. tuberculosis were analyzed their molecular nature of a part of the rpoB gene using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. DNA's extracted from sputum samples were amplified and 32 P-labeled by PCR with the specific primers and the product was analyzed their mutation conferring resistance by MDE gel electrophoresis. Of the 70 specimens tested, 57 specimens were positive for M. tuberculosis organism only, three specimens contained a mixture of M. tuberculosis and non tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM), and 10 specimens were negative approved by Duplex PCR. Of these sixty DNA positive samples (thus the sensitivity of PCR was 85.71%), 5 (8.3%) of them suspected to contain mutations in rpoB which were associated with rifampin resistance. Even though the frequency of mutation was low, the results from our study clearly indicate that the molecular mechanism of rifampin resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates from Indonesia involves alterations in the rpoB gene. Molecular diagnosis by PCR which is fast and easy to perform is useful for early and rapid detection of TB in sputum specimen. (author)

  7. [Application value of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis and detection of rifampin resistance].

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    Jin, Yang-Hui; Shi, Shi-Yuan; Zheng, Qi; Shen, Jian; Ying, Xiao-Zhang; Wang, Yi-Fan

    2017-09-25

    To investigate the application value of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis and detection of rifampin resistance. The 109 pus specimens were obtained from patients who were primaryly diagnosed as spinal tuberculosis. All of the pus specimens were detected by acid-fast stain, liquid fast culturing by BACTEC MGIT 960 and Xpert MTB/RIF assay to definite the differences in sensitivity and specificity of mycobacterium tuberculosis among detecting methods. Pus specimens obtained by different methods were deteceded by MTB/RIF test to analyze the self-influence on Xpert MTB/RIF test. The result of liquid fast culturing by BACTEC MGIT 960 was used as the gold standard; and the value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in detecting rifampin resistance was analyzed. The sensitivity of acid-fast stain, liquid fast culturing by BACTEC MGIT 960 and Xpert MTB/RIF assay were 25.92%, 48.15%, 77.78%, respectively. The sensitivity of pus specimens obtained from open surgery, ultrasound positioning puncture and biopsy the sensitivity were 83.78%, 76.47%, 44.68% respectively deteceded by MTB/RIF test. According to the gold standard of the results of liquid fast culturing by BACTEC MGIT 960 assay, the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in detecting rifampin resistance were 80%(4/5) and 90.70%(39/43), respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay has higher value in diagnosis of spinal tuberculosi, and also can detect rifampin resistance. The number of mycobacterium tuberculosis in pus specimens has a great influence in the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay.

  8. Urine colorimetry to detect Low rifampin exposure during tuberculosis therapy: a proof-of-concept study.

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    Zentner, Isaac; Schlecht, Hans P; Khensouvann, Lorna; Tamuhla, Neo; Kutzler, Michele; Ivaturi, Vijay; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Gumbo, Tawanda; Peloquin, Charles A; Bisson, Gregory P; Vinnard, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The cost and complexity of current approaches to therapeutic drug monitoring during tuberculosis (TB) therapy limits widespread use in areas of greatest need. We sought to determine whether urine colorimetry could have a novel application as a form of therapeutic drug monitoring during anti-TB therapy. Among healthy volunteers, we evaluated 3 dose sizes of rifampin (150 mg, 300 mg, and 600 mg), performed intensive pharmacokinetic sampling, and collected a timed urine void at 4 h post-dosing. The absorbance peak at 475 nm was measured after rifamycin extraction. The optimal cutoff was evaluated in a study of 39 HIV/TB patients undergoing TB treatment in Botswana. In the derivation study, a urine colorimetric assay value of 4.0 × 10(-2) Abs, using a timed void 4 h after dosing, demonstrated a sensitivity of 92 % and specificity of 60 % to detect a peak rifampin concentration (Cmax) under 8 mg/L, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.92. In the validation study, this cutoff was specific (100 %) but insensitive (28 %). We observed similar test characteristics for a target Cmax target of 6.6 mg/L, and a target area under the drug concentration-versus-time curve (AUC0-8) target of 24.1 mg•hour/L. The urine colorimetric assay was specific but insensitive to detect low rifampin serum concentrations among HIV/TB patients. In future work we will attempt to optimize sampling times and assay performance, with the goal of delivering a method that can translate into a point-of-care assessment of rifampin exposure during anti-TB therapy.

  9. Influence of Rifampin Therapy on Serum Bactericidal Activity in the Presence of Cloxacillin and Vancomycin

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    Andrew MR Mackenzie

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of rifampin on serum inhibitory and serum bactericidal titres was examined. Sera were prepared from pooled human serum to contain vancomycin (10 mg/L, cloxacillin (5 mg/L or rifampin (1 mg/L, and the combinations cloxacillin/rifampin and vancomycin/rifampin. These five sera were tested by a microtitre method for serum inhibitory power and serum bactericidal titre against 11 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. A 48 h incubation period was required to detect full colony growth for subculture plates. It was found with all strains that the effect of the addition of rifampin to the other two antibiotics was to increase the serum inhibitory power, lower the serum bactericidal titre, increase the inhibitory/cidal ratio, and slow colony growth on subculture. In the clinical part of the study it was shown that only three of 38 sera (8% from patients receiving betalactam or vanomycin but not rifampin gave an inhibitory/cidal ratio greater than 8, but that nine of 10 sera (90% from patients receiving rifampin in addition to betalactam or vancomycin gave a ratio greater than 8 (P<0.001. The study verified that the effect of rifampin in serum was to increase inhibitory power and decrease bactericidal titre. The clinical significance of these results is not known and it is suggested that a high ratio of inhibitory to bactericidal titre in the presence of rifampin is to be expected, and that a low bactericidal titre under these circumstances is not necessarily an indication to modify therapy.

  10. Inactivation of rifampin by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Maeda, A; Akao, M; Morisaki, N; Iwasaki, S

    1993-01-01

    Rifampin was glycosylated by a pathogenic species of Nocardia, i.e., Nocardia brasiliensis. The structures of two glycosylated compounds (RIP-1 and RIP-2) isolated from the culture broth of the bacterium were determined to be 3-formyl-23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifamycin SV and 23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifampin, respectively. Both compounds lacked antimicrobial activity against other gram-positive bacteria as well as the Nocardia species.

  11. In Vitro Synergy of Telavancin and Rifampin Against Enterococcus faecium Resistant to Both Linezolid and Vancomycin.

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    Pankey, George A; Ashcraft, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    An emerging pathogen is Enterococcus faecium resistant to both linezolid and vancomycin (LRVRE). Antimicrobial combinations may be required for therapy and need to be evaluated. The combination of daptomycin and rifampin has demonstrated good in vitro activity against gram-positive bacteria, including E faecium. Telavancin, a newer lipoglycopeptide, has shown in vitro activity against E faecium. We evaluated the combination of telavancin and rifampin and compared the results to the combination of daptomycin and rifampin used previously on the same isolates. Twenty-four genetically unique (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis), clinical LRVRE isolates were collected in the United States from 2001-2004. Etest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (μg/mL) were 0.064-8 for telavancin, 1-4 for daptomycin, and 0.012 to >32 for rifampin. In vitro synergy testing was performed in triplicate by an Etest MIC:MIC ratio method, and summation fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated: synergy ≤0.5; indifference >0.5-4; and antagonism >4. The Etest method showed synergy (ΣFICs of 0.1-0.5) with telavancin + rifampin in 20/24 (83%) isolates and indifference (ΣFICs of 0.6-0.8) in 4/24 (17%) isolates. Similarly, the daptomycin + rifampin combination showed synergy (ΣFICs of 0.1-0.5) in 21/24 (88%) isolates and indifference (ΣFICs of 0.6-1.0) in 3/24 (12%) isolates by the Etest method. No antagonism was found. In vitro synergy with both combinations (rifampin + telavancin or daptomycin) was 83% and 88%, respectively, by Etest against these LRVRE isolates. Although both daptomycin and telavancin in combination with rifampin showed a high incidence of synergistic activity, further in vitro synergy testing with this combination should be performed against additional E faecium isolates. In vitro synergy may or may not translate into in vivo effectiveness.

  12. Pyrosequencing for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistance to Rifampin, Isoniazid, and Fluoroquinolones ▿

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    Bravo, Lulette Tricia C.; Tuohy, Marion J.; Ang, Concepcion; Destura, Raul V.; Mendoza, Myrna; Procop, Gary W.; Gordon, Steven M.; Hall, Geraldine S.; Shrestha, Nabin K.

    2009-01-01

    After isoniazid and rifampin (rifampicin), the next pivotal drug class in Mycobacterium tuberculosis treatment is the fluoroquinolone class. Mutations in resistance-determining regions (RDR) of the rpoB, katG, and gyrA genes occur with frequencies of 97%, 50%, and 85% among M. tuberculosis isolates resistant to rifampin, isoniazid, and fluoroquinolones, respectively. Sequences are highly conserved, and certain mutations correlate well with phenotypic resistance. We developed a pyrosequencing assay to determine M. tuberculosis genotypic resistance to rifampin, isoniazid, and fluoroquinolones. We characterized 102 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates from the Philippines for susceptibility to rifampin, isoniazid, and ofloxacin by using the conventional submerged-disk proportion method and validated our pyrosequencing assay using these isolates. DNA was extracted and amplified by using PCR primers directed toward the RDR of the rpoB, katG, and gyrA genes, and pyrosequencing was performed on the extracts. The M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain (ATCC 25618) was used as the reference strain. The sensitivities and specificities of pyrosequencing were 96.7% and 97.3%, 63.8% and 100%, and 70.0% and 100% for the detection of resistance to rifampin, isoniazid, and ofloxacin, respectively. Pyrosequencing is thus a rapid and accurate method for detecting M. tuberculosis resistance to these three drugs. PMID:19846642

  13. Local Sensitivity and Diagnostic Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Vasnev, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we confront sensitivity analysis with diagnostic testing.Every model is misspecified, but a model is useful if the parameters of interest (the focus) are not sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying assumptions. The study of the e ect of these violations on the focus is

  14. Activity of daptomycin alone and in combination with rifampin and gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus assessed by time-kill methodology.

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    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2007-04-01

    The synergistic effects of daptomycin plus gentamicin or rifampin were tested against 50 Staphylococcus aureus strains, with daptomycin MICs ranging between 0.25 and 8 microg/ml. Daptomycin sub-MICs combined with gentamicin concentrations lower than the MIC yielded synergy in 34 (68%) of the 50 strains. Daptomycin combined with rifampin yielded synergy in one vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain only, and virtually all synergy occurred between daptomycin and gentamicin.

  15. A randomized, comparative study of dual therapy (doxycycline-rifampin) versus triple therapy (doxycycline-rifampin-levofloxacin) for treating acute/subacute brucellosis.

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    Hasanain, Ahmad; Mahdy, Reem; Mohamed, Asmaa; Ali, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare both the efficacy and safety profile of the WHO-recommended, dual therapy (doxycycline-rifampin) to a quinolone-based, triple therapy (doxycycline-rifampin-levofloxacin) for treating acute/subacute brucellosis. We studied 107 consecutive, naïve patients with acute/subacute brucellosis admitted to Assiut University Hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to receive the dual therapy of doxycycline-rifampin (group-A) or to receive the triple therapy of doxycycline-rifampin-levofloxacin (group-B). Acute/subacute brucellosis was diagnosed based on the presence of: (1) contact with animals or fresh animal products, (2) suggestive clinical manifestations of less than one-year duration, and (3) positive antibody titer (1:160) by standard tube agglutination test. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their demographic data. Fever was the most frequent manifestation (96.3%). Epigastric pain was the most frequent adverse effect of treatment (12.1%). Group-A patients had a significantly higher relapse rate compared to group-B patients (22.6% versus 9.3%, p-value=0.01). The rate of treatment adverse effects was higher among group-B patients, although not reaching statistical significance (20.4% versus 11.3%, p-value=0.059). Adding levofloxacin to the dual therapy for acute/subacute brucellosis (doxycycline-rifampin) may increase its efficacy in terms of lowering the relapse rate of the disease. Further, larger scale studies are needed before considering modifying the standard, dual therapy for brucellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro activities of amphotericin-b in combination with rifampin against

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrin, M.; Najafi, M.R.; Najafi, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of study was finding the synergism effect of amphotricin B (AMB) and rifampin (RIF) on 3 species of Aspergillus. Activities of amphotericin B in combination with rifampin were tested in buffered yeast-nitrogen base using checkerboard method. Plates were inoculated with 20 micro liter spores suspensions of each organism and incubated at 30 degree C for 24h. For this method, the MICs were defined as the lowest antimicrobial concentration inhibiting visible fungal growth on the plates. Minimal fungicidal concentration was defined as the first tube showing no growth on the plate.The MIC of amphotericin B for 100% of isolates of A. fumigatus and A. flavus were inhibited by 4mg/lit amphotericin B. 100% of isolates of A. niger were inhibited by 8mg/lit amphotericin B. When amphotericin B was combined with rifampin, amphotericin B MICs decreased to 2, 1 and 4 mg/lit in A. fumigatus, A. flavus rephrase and A. niger respectively. The results indicate that combination of amphotreicin B and rifampin was synergistic on A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger. (author)

  17. Activity of Daptomycin Alone and in Combination with Rifampin and Gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus Assessed by Time-Kill Methodology▿ †

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    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The synergistic effects of daptomycin plus gentamicin or rifampin were tested against 50 Staphylococcus aureus strains, with daptomycin MICs ranging between 0.25 and 8 μg/ml. Daptomycin sub-MICs combined with gentamicin concentrations lower than the MIC yielded synergy in 34 (68%) of the 50 strains. Daptomycin combined with rifampin yielded synergy in one vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain only, and virtually all synergy occurred between daptomycin and gentamicin. PMID:17220402

  18. Structural Implications of Mutations Conferring Rifampin Resistance in Mycobacterium leprae.

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    Vedithi, Sundeep Chaitanya; Malhotra, Sony; Das, Madhusmita; Daniel, Sheela; Kishore, Nanda; George, Anuja; Arumugam, Shantha; Rajan, Lakshmi; Ebenezer, Mannam; Ascher, David B; Arnold, Eddy; Blundell, Tom L

    2018-03-22

    The rpoB gene encodes the β subunit of RNA polymerase holoenzyme in Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). Missense mutations in the rpoB gene were identified as etiological factors for rifampin resistance in leprosy. In the present study, we identified mutations corresponding to rifampin resistance in relapsed leprosy cases from three hospitals in southern India which treat leprosy patients. DNA was extracted from skin biopsies of 35 relapse/multidrug therapy non-respondent leprosy cases, and PCR was performed to amplify the 276 bp rifampin resistance-determining region of the rpoB gene. PCR products were sequenced, and mutations were identified in four out of the 35 cases at codon positions D441Y, D441V, S437L and H476R. The structural and functional effects of these mutations were assessed in the context of three-dimensional comparative models of wild-type and mutant M. leprae RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), based on the recently solved crystal structures of RNAP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, containing a synthetic nucleic acid scaffold and rifampin. The resistance mutations were observed to alter the hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions of rifampin and the 5' ribonucleotide of the growing RNA transcript. This study demonstrates that rifampin-resistant strains of M. leprae among leprosy patients in southern India are likely to arise from mutations that affect the drug-binding site and stability of RNAP.

  19. Rifampin pharmacokinetics in children, with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, hospitalized for the management of severe forms of tuberculosis

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    McIlleron Helen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifampin is a key drug in antituberculosis chemotherapy because it rapidly kills the majority of bacilli in tuberculosis lesions, prevents relapse and thus enables 6-month short-course chemotherapy. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children with tuberculosis, both human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected. Methods Fifty-four children, 21 human immunodeficiency virus-infected and 33 human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected, mean ages 3.73 and 4.05 years (P = 0.68, respectively, admitted to a tuberculosis hospital in Cape Town, South Africa with severe forms of tuberculosis were studied approximately 1 month and 4 months after commencing antituberculosis treatment. Blood specimens for analysis were drawn in the morning, 45 minutes, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 hours after dosing. Rifampin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. For two sample comparisons of means, the Welch version of the t-test was used; associations between variables were examined by Pearson correlation and by multiple linear regression. Results The children received a mean rifampin dosage of 9.61 mg/kg (6.47 to 15.58 body weight at 1 month and 9.63 mg/kg (4.63 to 17.8 at 4 months after commencing treatment administered as part of a fixed-dose formulation designed for paediatric use. The mean rifampin area under the curve 0 to 6 hours after dosing was 14.9 and 18.1 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.25 1 month after starting treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children, respectively, and 16.52 and 17.94 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.59 after 4 months of treatment. The mean calculated 2-hour rifampin concentrations in these human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children were 3.9 and 4.8

  20. Stability of rifampin in SyrSpend SF.

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    Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Rifampin is a bactericidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. It is a semisynthetic drug produced from the bacterium Streptomyces mediterranei. Rifampin is commonly manufactured in capsule, tablet, and syrup dosage solutions containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of rifampin in SyrSpend SF. The studied samples were compounded into 25-mg/mL suspensions and stored in low-actinic bottles at room temperature and refrigerated conditions. Samples were assayed at each time point out to 60 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The sample remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Based on data collected, the beyond-use date of the preparation is at least 60 days when refrigerated or stored at room temperature and protected from light.

  1. Efficacy of Linezolid plus Rifampin in an Experimental Model of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Dailey, Charlene F.; Pagano, Paul J.; Buchanan, Lewis V.; Paquette, Jennifer A.; Haas, Joseph V.; Gibson, John K.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of linezolid, alone or in combination with rifampin, against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in rabbits with experimental endocarditis was investigated. Linezolid (50 or 75 mg/kg of body weight), rifampin, and linezolid (25, 50, or 75 mg/kg) plus rifampin produced statistically significant reductions in bacterial counts compared with those in untreated controls. Plasma or valvular vegetation levels of linezolid in the groups treated with the linezolid-rifampin combi...

  2. APR1400 Fluidic Device Sensitivity Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Nam Hyun; Chu, In Cheol; Min, Kyong Ho; Song, Chul Hwa

    2005-12-01

    In the safety injection tank at the emergency core cooling system of APR1400, a new safety design feature, passive fluidic device is equipped which includes no active driving system. It is essential to evaluate the new design feature with various experiments. For this reason, three categories of sensitivity tests have been performed in the present study. As the first sensitivity experiment, the effect of the height of the stand pipe was investigated. The second sensitivity test was conducted with removing the insert plate gasket to examine its effect. The effect of the expansion of the control nozzle width was ascertained from the third sensitivity test. The results of each test showed that the passive fluidic device which will be equipped in the SIT tank of APR1400 has great integrity and repeatability

  3. Detection of rifampin resistance patterns in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Iran by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Nasr Isfahani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the rpoB locus confer conformational changes leading to defective binding of rifampin (RIF to rpoB and consequently resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP was established as a rapid screening test for the detection of mutations in the rpoB gene, and direct sequencing has been unambiguously applied to characterize mutations. A total of 37 of Iranian isolates of M. tuberculosis, 16 sensitive and 21 resistant to RIF, were used in this study. A 193-bp region of the rpoB gene was amplified and PCR-SSCP patterns were determined by electrophoresis in 10% acrylamide gel and silver staining. Also, 21 samples of 193-bp rpoB amplicons with different PCR-SSCP patterns from RIFr and 10 from RIFs were sequenced. Seven distinguishable PCR-SSCP patterns were recognized in the 21 Iranian RIFr strains, while 15 out of 16 RIFs isolates demonstrated PCR-SSCP banding patterns similar to that of sensitive standard strain H37Rv. However one of the sensitive isolates demonstrated a different pattern. There were seen six different mutations in the amplified region of rpoB gene: codon 516(GAC/GTC, 523(GGG/GGT, 526(CAC/TAC, 531(TCG/TTG, 511(CTG/TTG, and 512(AGC/TCG. This study demonstrated the high specificity (93.8% and sensitivity (95.2% of PCR-SSCP method for detection of mutation in rpoB gene; 85.7% of RIFr strains showed a single mutation and 14.3% had no mutations. Three strains showed mutations caused polymorphism. Our data support the common notion that rifampin resistance genotypes are generally present mutations in codons 531 and 526, most frequently found in M. tuberculosis populations regardless of geographic origin.

  4. Sensitive visual test for concave diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A simple visual test for the evaluation of concave diffraction gratings is described. It is twice as sensitive as the Foucault knife edge test, from which it is derived, and has the advantage that the images are straight and free of astigmatism. It is particularly useful for grating with high ruling frequency where the above image faults limit the utility of the Foucault test. The test can be interpreted quantitatively and can detect zonal grating space errors of as little as 0.1 A.

  5. Parametric Sensitivity Tests- European PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    performed based on test procedures proposed by a European project, Stack-Test. The sensitivity of a Nafion-based low temperature PEMFC stack’s performance to parametric changes was the main objective of the tests. Four crucial parameters for fuel cell operation were chosen; relative humidity, temperature......As fuel cells are increasingly commercialized for various applications, harmonized and industry-relevant test procedures are necessary to benchmark tests and to ensure comparability of stack performance results from different parties. This paper reports the results of parametric sensitivity tests......, pressure, and stoichiometry at varying current density. Furthermore, procedures for polarization curve recording were also tested both in ascending and descending current directions....

  6. Intestinal permeability and malabsorption of rifampin and isoniazid in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria G. F. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Low antimycobacterial drug concentrations have been observed in tuberculosis (TB patients under treatment. The lactulose/mannitol urinary excretion test (L/M, normally used to measure intestinal permeability, may be useful to assess drug absorption. The objective of this research was to study intestinal absorptive function and bioavailability of rifampin and isoniazid in TB patients. A cross sectional study was done with 41 patients and 28 healthy controls, using the L/M test. The bioavailabilities of rifampin (R and isoniazid (H were evaluated in 18 patients receiving full doses. Urinary excretion of mannitol and lactulose, measured by HPLC, was significantly lower in TB patients. The serum concentrations of the drugs were below the expected range for R (8-24 mcg/mL or H (3-6 mcg/mL in 16/18 patients. Analyzing the drugs individually, 12/18 patients had low serum concentrations of R, 13/18 for H and 8/18 for both drugs. We suggest that there is a decrease in the functional absorptive area of the intestine in TB patients, which would explain the reduced serum concentrations of antituberculosis drugs. There is a need for new approaches to improve drug bioavailability in TB patients.

  7. Validation of Clinical Testing for Warfarin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Michael R.; Booker, Jessica K.; Evans, James P.; McLeod, Howard L.; Weck, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Responses to warfarin (Coumadin) anticoagulation therapy are affected by genetic variability in both the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Validation of pharmacogenetic testing for warfarin responses includes demonstration of analytical validity of testing platforms and of the clinical validity of testing. We compared four platforms for determining the relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both CYP2C9 and VKORC1 that are associated with warfarin sensitivity (Third Wave Invader Plus, ParagonDx/Cepheid Smart Cycler, Idaho Technology LightCycler, and AutoGenomics Infiniti). Each method was examined for accuracy, cost, and turnaround time. All genotyping methods demonstrated greater than 95% accuracy for identifying the relevant SNPs (CYP2C9 *2 and *3; VKORC1 −1639 or 1173). The ParagonDx and Idaho Technology assays had the shortest turnaround and hands-on times. The Third Wave assay was readily scalable to higher test volumes but had the longest hands-on time. The AutoGenomics assay interrogated the largest number of SNPs but had the longest turnaround time. Four published warfarin-dosing algorithms (Washington University, UCSF, Louisville, and Newcastle) were compared for accuracy for predicting warfarin dose in a retrospective analysis of a local patient population on long-term, stable warfarin therapy. The predicted doses from both the Washington University and UCSF algorithms demonstrated the best correlation with actual warfarin doses. PMID:19324988

  8. Re-test reliability of gustatory testing and introduction of the sensitive Taste-Drop-Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjaeldstad, A; Niklassen, A; Fernandes, H

    2018-01-01

    . Testing gustatory function can be important for diagnostics and assessment of treatment effects. However, the gustatory tests applied are required to be both sensitive and reliable.In this study, we investigate the re-test validity of popular Taste Strips gustatory test for gustatory screening....... Furthermore, we introduce a new sensitive Taste-Drop-Test, which was found to be superior for detecting a more accurate measure of tastant sensitivity....

  9. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a higher rifampin dose versus the standard dose in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslami, R.; Nijland, H.M.J.; Alisjahbana, B.; Parwati, I.; Crevel, R. van; Aarnoutse, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Rifampin is a key drug for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. The available data suggest that the currently applied 10-mg/kg of body weight dose of rifampin may be too low and that increasing the dose may shorten the treatment duration. A double-blind randomized phase II clinical trial was performed to

  10. Testing the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta FILIMON

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study has in view to establish and test the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus antibiotics. There are different injuries caused by superficial skin infections: from simple pimples to infections that endanger our lives, like an abscess, furuncle septicemia, meningitis, toxic food, urinary tract infection at sexually active young women. Samples have been taken from 30 people with staphylococcus infections. They were nineteen women and eleven men, between the age of 2 and 79. During this study some antibiograms have been made, based on pharyngeal exudates, acne secretion and urine culture. It has been established that the most efficient recommended antibiotics are: oxacilin, erythromycin, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin. The penicillin turned out to be less efficient to remove and destroy the Staphylococcus aureus species.

  11. Activity of Colistin in Combination with Meropenem, Tigecycline, Fosfomycin, Fusidic Acid, Rifampin or Sulbactam against Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Thigh-Infection Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Fan

    Full Text Available Few effective therapeutic options are available for treating severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB. Using a murine thigh-infection model, we examined the in vivo efficacy of colistin in combination with meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, rifampin, or sulbactam against 12 XDR-AB strains. Colistin, tigecycline, rifampin, and sulbactam monotherapy significantly decreased bacterial counts in murine thigh infections compared with those observed in control mice receiving no treatment. Colistin was the most effective agent tested, displaying bactericidal activity against 91.7% of strains at 48 h post-treatment. With strains showing a relatively low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for meropenem (MIC ≤ 32 mg/L, combination therapy with colistin plus meropenem caused synergistic inhibition at both 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. However, when the meropenem MIC was ≥64 mg/L, meropenem did not significantly alter the efficacy of colistin. The addition of rifampin and fusidic acid significantly improved the efficacy of colistin, showing a synergistic effect in 100% and 58.3% of strains after 24 h of treatment, respectively, while the addition of tigecycline, fosfomycin, or sulbactam did not show obvious synergistic activity. No clear differences in activities were observed between colistin-rifampin and colistin-fusidic acid combination therapy with most strains. Overall, our in vivo study showed that administering colistin in combination with rifampin or fusidic acid is more efficacious in treating XDR-AB infections than other combinations. The colistin-meropenem combination may be another appropriate option if the MIC is ≤32 mg/L. Further clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm the relevance of these findings.

  12. Lamb waves increase sensitivity in nondestructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Novi, R.

    1967-01-01

    Lamb waves improve sensitivity and resolution in the detection of small defects in thin plates and small diameter, thin-walled tubing. This improvement over shear waves applies to both longitudinal and transverse flaws in the specimens.

  13. An in vitro human skin test for assessing sensitization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S S; Wang, X N; Fielding, M; Kerry, A; Dickinson, I; Munuswamy, R; Kimber, I; Dickinson, A M

    2016-05-01

    Sensitization to chemicals resulting in an allergy is an important health issue. The current gold-standard method for identification and characterization of skin-sensitizing chemicals was the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, for a number of reasons there has been an increasing imperative to develop alternative approaches to hazard identification that do not require the use of animals. Here we describe a human in-vitro skin explant test for identification of sensitization hazards and the assessment of relative skin sensitizing potency. This method measures histological damage in human skin as a readout of the immune response induced by the test material. Using this approach we have measured responses to 44 chemicals including skin sensitizers, pre/pro-haptens, respiratory sensitizers, non-sensitizing chemicals (including skin-irritants) and previously misclassified compounds. Based on comparisons with the LLNA, the skin explant test gave 95% specificity, 95% sensitivity, 95% concordance with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. The same specificity and sensitivity were achieved for comparison of results with published human sensitization data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The test also successfully identified nickel sulphate as a human skin sensitizer, which was misclassified as negative in the LLNA. In addition, sensitizers and non-sensitizers identified as positive or negative by the skin explant test have induced high/low T cell proliferation and IFNγ production, respectively. Collectively, the data suggests the human in-vitro skin explant test could provide the basis for a novel approach for characterization of the sensitizing activity as a first step in the risk assessment process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Variation of a test's sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; Rutjes, Anne W. S.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test may vary with disease prevalence. Our objective was to investigate the associations between disease prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity using studies of diagnostic accuracy. We used data from 23

  15. Moxifloxacin plus rifampin as an alternative for levofloxacin plus rifampin in the treatment of a prosthetic joint infection with staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Tornero, Eduard; Morata, Laura; Panday, Prashant V Nannan; Jutte, Paul C; Bori, Guillem; Kampinga, Greetje A; Soriano, Alex

    OBJECTIVES: The combination of a fluorquinolone with rifampin is one of the cornerstones in the treatment of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by staphylococci. Moxifloxacin is highly active against methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and therefore, an attractive agent to use. However,

  16. Highly sensitive silicon microreactor for catalyst testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Toke Riishøj; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2009-01-01

    by directing the entire gas flow through the catalyst bed to a mass spectrometer, thus ensuring that nearly all reaction products are present in the analyzed gas flow. Although the device can be employed for testing a wide range of catalysts, the primary aim of the design is to allow characterization of model...... catalysts which can only be obtained in small quantities. Such measurements are of significant fundamental interest but are challenging because of the low surface areas involved. The relationship between the reaction zone gas flow and the pressure in the reaction zone is investigated experimentally......, it is found that platinum catalysts with areas as small as 15 mu m(2) are conveniently characterized with the device. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3270191]...

  17. Sensitivity and Specificity of Clinical and Laboratory Otolith Function Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Thakar, Alok; Thakur, Bhaskar; Sikka, Kapil

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate clinic based and laboratory tests of otolith function for their sensitivity and specificity in demarcating unilateral compensated complete vestibular deficit from normal. Prospective cross-sectional study. Tertiary care hospital vestibular physiology laboratory. Control group-30 healthy adults, 20-45 years age; Case group-15 subjects post vestibular shwannoma excision or post-labyrinthectomy with compensated unilateral complete audio-vestibular loss. Otolith function evaluation by precise clinical testing (head tilt test-HTT; subjective visual vertical-SVV) and laboratory testing (headroll-eye counterroll-HR-ECR; vesibular evoked myogenic potentials-cVEMP). Sensitivity and specificity of clinical and laboratory tests in differentiating case and control subjects. Measurable test results were universally obtained with clinical otolith tests (SVV; HTT) but not with laboratory tests. The HR-ECR test did not indicate any definitive wave forms in 10% controls and 26% cases. cVEMP responses were absent in 10% controls.HTT test with normative cutoff at 2 degrees deviations from vertical noted as 93.33% sensitive and 100% specific. SVV test with normative cutoff at 1.3 degrees noted as 100% sensitive and 100% specific. Laboratory tests demonstrated poorer specificities owing primarily to significant unresponsiveness in normal controls. Clinical otolith function tests, if conducted with precision, demonstrate greater ability than laboratory testing in discriminating normal controls from cases with unilateral complete compensated vestibular dysfunction.

  18. Genotyping of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavasoglu, Cengiz; Bilgic, Altinay; Durmaz, Riza; Gunal, Selami

    2004-01-01

    Although the rate of multiple drug resistance is high there is no published data on the transmission rate of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Aegean region of Western Turkey that are based on molecular methods. IS6110 and pTBN12 restriction fragment lengthpolymorphism (RFLP) methods were used for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from 26 sputum samples from 26 patients. 19 of rifampin-resistant isolates (73.1%) contained 6 to 11 copies of 156110. Eighteen different IS6110 DNA fingerprint patterns were observed in the 26 rifampin resistant isolates. 23 of the 26 rifampin-resistant isolates were also resistant to isoniazid. When evaluated together, both methods yielded 21 (80.9%) different banding patterns and the level of clustering was 34.6%. The average number per pattern was 1.23 (26/21). IS6110 fingerprinting suggests that the rifampin-resistant isolates obtained from the Aegean region had a relatively high clustering rate and were clonally related. These findings showed that the rifampin-resistant isolates are actively transmitted between patients. Urgent measures should be taken to prevent the spread of these resistant strains. (author)

  19. Validity, Reliability, and Sensitivity of a Volleyball Intermittent Endurance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Medina-Carrillo, Javier; García-López, Juan; Morante, Juan C; Villa, José G; Foster, Carl

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the concurrent and construct validity of a volleyball intermittent endurance test (VIET). The VIET's test-retest reliability and sensitivity to assess seasonal changes was also studied. During the preseason, 71 volleyball players of different competitive levels took part in this study. All performed the VIET and a graded treadmill test with gas-exchange measurement (GXT). Thirty-one of the players performed an additional VIET to analyze the test-retest reliability. To test the VIET's sensitivity, 28 players repeated the VIET and GXT at the end of their season. Significant (P volleyball players.

  20. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  1. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2016-01-01

    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  2. Vendor Testing of Sensitive Compounds in Simulated Dry Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    This assessment covers thermal screening, differential scanning calorimetry, and impact sensitivity testing on Mercury Fulminate, and mixtures of the fulminate in dry inorganic sludge, which is present in large quantities in a number of storage tanks at Westinghouse Savannah River

  3. Pharmacokinetics of rifampin in Peruvian tuberculosis patients with and without comorbid diabetes or HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena-Méndez, Ana; Davies, Geraint; Ardrey, Alison; Jave, Oswaldo; López-Romero, Sonia L; Ward, Stephen A; Moore, David A J

    2012-05-01

    For drug-compliant patients, poor responses to tuberculosis (TB) treatment might be attributable to subtherapeutic drug concentrations. An impaired absorption of rifampin was previously reported for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or HIV. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TB drug pharmacokinetics differed in Peruvian TB patients with DM or HIV. In this cross-sectional study, TB patients, recruited from health centers in Lima, Peru, had blood samples taken at 2 and 6 h after directly observed TB drug ingestion, to determine plasma concentrations of rifampin. Of 105 patients, 50 had TB without a comorbidity, 26 had coexistent DM, and 29 had coexistent HIV. Unexpectedly, the overall median 2- and 6-h levels of rifampin were 1.6 and 3.2 mg/liter, respectively, and the time to the peak concentration was 6 h (slow absorber) instead of 2 h (fast absorber) for 61 patients (62.2%). The geometric mean peak concentration of drug in serum (C(max)) was significantly higher in fast absorbers than in slow absorbers (5.0 versus 3.8 mg/liter; P = 0.05). The rifampin C(max) was significantly lower in male patients than in female patients (3.3 versus 6.3 mg/liter; P < 0.001). Neither slow nor fast absorbers with comorbidities (DM or HIV) had significantly different C(max) results compared to those of TB patients without comorbidities. An analysis of variance regression analysis showed that female gender (P < 0.001) and the time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (T(max)) at 2 h (P = 0.012) were independently correlated with increased exposure to rifampin. Most of this Peruvian study population exhibited rifampin pharmacokinetics different from those conventionally reported, with delayed absorption and low plasma concentrations, independent of the presence of an HIV or DM comorbidity.

  4. Variation of a test's sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Rutjes, Anne W S; Reitsma, Johannes B; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2013-08-06

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test may vary with disease prevalence. Our objective was to investigate the associations between disease prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity using studies of diagnostic accuracy. We used data from 23 meta-analyses, each of which included 10-39 studies (416 total). The median prevalence per review ranged from 1% to 77%. We evaluated the effects of prevalence on sensitivity and specificity using a bivariate random-effects model for each meta-analysis, with prevalence as a covariate. We estimated the overall effect of prevalence by pooling the effects using the inverse variance method. Within a given review, a change in prevalence from the lowest to highest value resulted in a corresponding change in sensitivity or specificity from 0 to 40 percentage points. This effect was statistically significant (p disease prevalence; there was no such systematic effect for sensitivity. The sensitivity and specificity of a test often vary with disease prevalence; this effect is likely to be the result of mechanisms, such as patient spectrum, that affect prevalence, sensitivity and specificity. Because it may be difficult to identify such mechanisms, clinicians should use prevalence as a guide when selecting studies that most closely match their situation.

  5. Retrospective evaluation of the consequence of alleged patch test sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2006-01-01

    The risk of actively sensitizing a patient in connection with diagnostic patch tests exists. This risk, however, is extremely low, especially from standard allergens, and if the test is carried out according to internationally accepted guidelines. This retrospective study investigates the clinical...... or available for the follow-up investigation and 3 patients were not traceable. Among the 14 remaining patients 1 had a reaction to gold sodium thiosulphate, which was assessed to be a persistent reaction and not a late reaction, and in 2 patients a clear relevance for the late reacting allergen was found....... For the remaining 11 patients we could not rule out that they were patch test sensitized, and they were investigated further. 1 was diseased and 10 were interviewed regarding the possible consequences of the alleged patch test sensitization. 9 had not experienced any dermatitis problems, and 1 could not exclude...

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D; Maibach, Howard I; Lidén, Carola

    2010-05-01

    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around the limit value of the EU Nickel Directive from products intended to come into direct and prolonged skin contact. Because assessments according to EN 1811 are expensive to perform, time consuming, and may destruct the test item, it should be of great value to know the accuracy of the DMG screening test. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the DMG test. DMG spot testing, chemical analysis according to the EN 1811 reference method, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were performed concomitantly on 96 metallic components from earrings recently purchased in San Francisco. The sensitivity of the DMG test was 59.3% and the specificity was 97.5% based on DMG-test results and nickel release concentrations determined by the EN 1811 reference method. The DMG test has a high specificity but a modest sensitivity. It may serve well for screening purposes. Past exposure studies may have underestimated nickel release from consumer items.

  7. Low sensitivity of glucagon provocative testing for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Jacques W M; Pacak, Karel; Huynh, Thanh-Truc; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Mannelli, Massimo; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Goldstein, David S; Bornstein, Stefan R; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas can usually be confirmed or excluded using currently available biochemical tests of catecholamine excess. Follow-up tests are, nevertheless, often required to distinguish false-positive from true-positive results. The glucagon stimulation test represents one such test; its diagnostic utility is, however, unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic power of the glucagon test to exclude or confirm pheochromocytoma. Glucagon stimulation tests were carried out at three specialist referral centers in 64 patients with pheochromocytoma, 38 patients in whom the tumor was excluded, and in a reference group of 36 healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine were measured before and after glucagon administration. Several absolute and relative test criteria were used for calculating diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Expression of the glucagon receptor was examined in pheochromocytoma tumor tissue from a subset of patients. Larger than 3-fold increases in plasma norepinephrine after glucagon strongly predicted the presence of a pheochromocytoma (100% specificity and positive predictive value). However, irrespective of the various criteria examined, glucagon-provoked increases in plasma catecholamines revealed the presence of the tumor in less than 50% of affected patients. Diagnostic sensitivity was particularly low in patients with pheochromocytomas due to von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Tumors from these patients showed no significant expression of the glucagon receptor. The glucagon stimulation test offers insufficient diagnostic sensitivity for reliable exclusion or confirmation of pheochromocytoma. Because of this and the risk of hypertensive complications, the test should be abandoned in routine clinical practice.

  8. Activity of Daptomycin or Linezolid in Combination with Rifampin or Gentamicin against Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis or E. faecium in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model Using Simulated Endocardial Vegetations and an In Vivo Survival Assay Using Galleria mellonella Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K.; Arvanitis, Marios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are the third most frequent cause of infective endocarditis. A high-inoculum stationary-phase in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations was used to simulate the human pharmacokinetics of daptomycin at 6 or 10 mg/kg of body weight/day or linezolid at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h), alone or in combination with gentamicin at 1.3 mg/kg q12h or rifampin at 300 mg q8h or 900 mg q24h. Biofilm-forming, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin-resistant enterococcus [VRE]) strains were tested. At 24, 48, and 72 h, all daptomycin-containing regimens demonstrated significantly more activity (decline in CFU/g) than any linezolid-containing regimen against biofilm-forming E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin to daptomycin (at 6 or 10 mg/kg) in the first 24 h significantly improved bactericidal activity. In contrast, the addition of rifampin delayed the bactericidal activity of daptomycin against E. faecalis, and the addition of rifampin antagonized the activities of all regimens against VRE at 24 h. Also, against VRE, the addition of gentamicin to linezolid at 72 h improved activity and was bactericidal. Rifampin significantly antagonized the activity of linezolid against VRE at 72 h. In in vivo Galleria mellonella survival assays, linezolid and daptomycin improved survival. Daptomycin at 10 mg/kg improved survival significantly over that with linezolid against E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin improved the efficacy of daptomycin against E. faecalis and those of linezolid and daptomycin against VRE. We conclude that in enterococcal infection models, daptomycin has more activity than linezolid alone. Against biofilm-forming E. faecalis, the addition of gentamicin in the first 24 h causes the most rapid decline in CFU/g. Of interest, the addition of rifampin decreased the activity of daptomycin against both E. faecalis and VRE. PMID:24867993

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Rifampin and Clarithromycin in Patients Treated for Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, J. W. C.; Nienhuis, W. A.; de Velde, F.; Zuur, A. T.; Wessels, A. M. A.; Almeida, D.; Grosset, J.; Adjei, O.; Uges, D. R. A.; van der Werf, T. S.

    In a randomized controlled trial in Ghana, treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection with streptomycin (SM)-rifampin (RIF) for 8 weeks was compared with treatment with SM-RIF for 4 weeks followed by treatment with RIF-clarithromycin (CLA) for 4 weeks. The extent of the interaction of RIF and CLA

  10. The sensitivity of patch test in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yeşilova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Allergic diseases play an important role in the natural course of psoriasis. Atopic sensitization and con-tact dermatitis are common in patients with psoriasis. Since the symptoms are prolonged in patients who are resistant to therapy and exposure to itchy and external factors are common among these patients, the effects of contact aller-gens on triggering psoriasis are investigated. Contact allergens have an important role in activation and remission of psoriasis. We aimed to investigate contact sensitization rates in patients with psoriasis in the study.Material and Methods: Contact sensitization was investigated with the application of European standard series in twenty patients with psoriasis, twenty patients with contact dermatitis, and twenty healthy persons. Results: Among the whole study cases, positivity rate of patch test against one allergen at least was 25%. rate of patch test was 25% in patients with psoriasis, 35% in patients with contact dermatitis, and 15% in healthy persons. There were no significant differences between the groups according to sensitization to one or more allergens (p>0.05. There were no significant difference in clinical subgroup of psoriatic patients according to contact sensitiza-tion (p>0.05. The allergens in patients with psoriasis on patch test were as the followings: phenyldiamine, potassium dichromat, nickel, and cobalt.Conclusion: We think that the patch test has a major role in the diagnosis and elimination of allergens in patients with the chronic and resistant diseases and palmoplantar and flexural psoriasis.

  11. Drug sensitivity testing platforms for gastric cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Vianne; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Ng, Christopher; Mok, Yingting; Lakshmanan, Manikandan; Yan, Benedict

    2016-02-01

    Gastric cancer diagnostics has traditionally been histomorphological and primarily the domain of surgical pathologists. Although there is an increasing usage of molecular and genomic techniques for clinical diagnostics, there is an emerging field of personalised drug sensitivity testing. In this review, we describe the various personalised drug sensitivity testing platforms and discuss the challenges facing clinical adoption of these assays for gastric cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Transdermal delivery of isoniazid and rifampin in guinea pigs by electro-phonophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suting; Han, Yi; Yu, Daping; Huo, Fengmin; Wang, Fen; Li, Yunxu; Dong, Lingling; Liu, Zhidong; Huang, Hairong

    2017-11-01

    Electro-phonophoresis (EP) has been used as a drug delivery approach in clinical fields. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the skin permeability of isoniazid and rifampin in guinea pigs by EP to provide reference basis for clinical applications of such transdermal delivery system in the treatment of patients with superficial tuberculosis. Isoniazid and rifampin solutions were delivered transdermally with or without EP in health guinea pigs for 0.5 h. Local skin and blood samples were collected serially at 0, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after dosing. Drug concentrations in local skin and blood were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Isoniazid concentrations in local skin of guinea pigs receiving isoniazid through EP transdermal delivery were significantly higher than in animals receiving only isoniazid with transdermal patch. However, for rifampin, patches alone group presented almost uniform concentration versus time curve with that of EP group, and both groups had concentrations much higher than the therapeutic concentration of the drug over sustainable time. After EP transdermal delivery, the mean peak concentrations of isoniazid and rifampin in skin were 771.0 ± 163.4 μg/mL and 81.2 ± 17.3 μg/mL respectively. Neither isoniazid nor rifampin concentration in blood could be detected (below the lower detection limit of 1 μg/mL) at any time point. The present study showed that application of EP significantly enhanced INH penetration through skin in guinea pigs, while RIF patch alone obtained therapeutic concentration in local skin. Our work suggests several possible medication approaches for efficient treatment of superficial tuberculosis.

  13. Efficacy of three-week oxytetracycline or rifampin monotherapy compared with a combination regimen against the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Germanus S; Ward, Emma L; Srivastava, Abhishek; Trees, Alexander J; Tanya, Vincent N; Makepeace, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness), caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a major cause of visual impairment and dermatitis in sub-Saharan Africa. As O. volvulus contains an obligatory bacterial symbiont (Wolbachia), it is susceptible to antibiotic chemotherapy, although current regimens are considered too prolonged for community-level control programs. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of oxytetracycline and rifampin, administered separately or in combination, against a close relative of O. volvulus (Onchocerca ochengi) in cattle. Six animals per group were treated with continuous or intermittent oxytetracycline regimens, and effects on adult worm viability, dermal microfilarial loads, and Wolbachia density in worm tissues were assessed. Subsequently, the efficacies of 3-week regimens of oxytetracycline and rifampin alone and a combination regimen were compared, and rifampin levels in plasma and skin were quantified. A 6-month regimen of oxytetracycline with monthly dosing was strongly adulticidal, while 3-week and 6-week regimens exhibited weaker adulticidal effects. However, all three regimens achieved >2-log reductions in microfilarial load. In contrast, rifampin monotherapy and oxytetracycline-rifampin duotherapy failed to induce substantive reductions in either adult worm burden or microfilarial load, although a borderline effect on Wolbachia density was observed following duotherapy. Dermal rifampin levels were maintained above the MIC for >24 h after a single intravenous dose. We conclude that oxytetracycline-rifampin duotherapy is less efficacious against O. ochengi than oxytetracycline alone. Further studies will be required to determine whether rifampin reduces oxytetracycline bioavailability in this system, as suggested by human studies using other tetracycline-rifampin combinations.

  14. Reliable and sensitive physical testing of elite trapeze sailors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Jonathan; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    It was investigated, if a newly developed discipline specific test for elite-level trapeze sailors is reli-able and sensitive. Furthermore, the physical demands of trapeze sailing were examined. In part 1, nine national team athletes were accustomed to a simulated sailing test, which subsequently....... 265 ± 45W, Psailing was 54.5 ± 7.2% VO2max , 75.1 ± 3.1% HRmax and 5.8 ± 2.7 mM, respectively. However, VO2 and HR were substantially higher for periods of the race...... as peak values were 83.5 ± 11.4% and 89.9 ± 1.7% of max, respectively. In conclusion, the present test is reliable and sensitive, thus providing a sailing specific alternative to traditional physical testing of elite trapeze sailors. Additionally, on-water rac-ing requires moderate aerobic energy...

  15. The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the identification and characterization of skin sensitization hazards. In this context the method can be used both to identify contact allergens, and also determine the relative skin sensitizing potency as a basis for derivation of effective risk assessments.The assay is based on measurement of proliferative responses by draining lymph node cells induced following topical exposure of mice to test chemicals. Such responses are known to be causally and quantitatively associated with the acquisition of skin sensitization and therefore provide a relevant marker for characterization of contact allergic potential.The LLNA has been the subject of exhaustive evaluation and validation exercises and has been assigned Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 429. Herein we describe the conduct and interpretation of the LLNA.

  16. On the use of sensitivity tests in seismic tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawlinson, N.; Spakman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis with synthetic models is widely used in seismic tomography as a means for assessing the spatial resolution of solutions produced by, in most cases, linear or iterative nonlinear inversion schemes. The most common type of synthetic reconstruction test is the so-called

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological tests for dementia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specificity of a battery of neuropsychological tests in a sample of elderly persons living in a ... estimate of 20% prevalence for dementia in residential homes ... demographic variables, and mean neuro- psychological .... on optimum balance between sensitivity and specificity (Fig. 1). ..... The lack of stratification of the sample.

  18. Specificity and sensitivity assessment of selected nasal provocation testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Krzych-Fałta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal provocation testing involves an allergen-specific local reaction of the nasal mucosa to the administered allergen. Aim: To determine the most objective nasal occlusion assessment technique that could be used in nasal provocation testing. Material and methods : A total of 60 subjects, including 30 patients diagnosed with allergy to common environmental allergens and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The method used in the study was a nasal provocation test with an allergen, with a standard dose of a control solution and an allergen (5,000 SBU/ml administered using a calibrated atomizer into both nostrils at room temperature. Early-phase nasal mucosa response in the early phase of the allergic reaction was assessed via acoustic rhinometry, optical rhinometry, nitric oxide in nasal air, and tryptase levels in the nasal lavage fluid. Results : In estimating the homogeneity of the average values, the Levene’s test was used and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all the methods used for assessing the nasal provocation test with an allergen. Statistically significant results were defined for p < 0.05. Of all the objective assessment techniques, the most sensitive and characteristic ones were the optical rhinometry techniques (specificity = 1, sensitivity = 1, AUC = 1, PPV = 1, NPV = 1. Conclusions : The techniques used showed significant differences between the group of patients with allergic rhinitis and the control group. Of all the objective assessment techniques, those most sensitive and characteristic were the optical rhinometry.

  19. Non-animal sensitization testing: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebriel, Rob J; van Loveren, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Predictive tests to identify the sensitizing properties of chemicals are carried out using animals. In the European Union timelines for phasing out many standard animal tests were established for cosmetics. Following this policy, the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH) favors alternative methods, if validated and appropriate. In this review the authors aim to provide a state-of-the art overview of alternative methods (in silico, in chemico, and in vitro) to identify contact and respiratory sensitizing capacity and in some occasions give a measure of potency. The past few years have seen major advances in QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) models where especially mechanism-based models have great potential, peptide reactivity assays where multiple parameters can be measured simultaneously, providing a more complete reactivity profile, and cell-based assays. Several cell-based assays are in development, not only using different cell types, but also several specifically developed assays such as three-dimenionally (3D)-reconstituted skin models, an antioxidant response reporter assay, determination of signaling pathways, and gene profiling. Some of these assays show relatively high sensitivity and specificity for a large number of sensitizers and should enter validation (or are indeed entering this process). Integrating multiple assays in a decision tree or integrated testing system is a next step, but has yet to be developed. Adequate risk assessment, however, is likely to require significantly more time and efforts.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of LOFT L2-5 test calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosek, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The uncertainty quantification of best-estimate code predictions is typically accompanied by a sensitivity analysis, in which the influence of the individual contributors to uncertainty is determined. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the improved fast Fourier transform based method by signal mirroring (FFTBM-SM) for the sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity study was performed for the LOFT L2-5 test, which simulates the large break loss of coolant accident. There were 14 participants in the BEMUSE (Best Estimate Methods-Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation) programme, each performing a reference calculation and 15 sensitivity runs of the LOFT L2-5 test. The important input parameters varied were break area, gap conductivity, fuel conductivity, decay power etc. For the influence of input parameters on the calculated results the FFTBM-SM was used. The only difference between FFTBM-SM and original FFTBM is that in the FFTBM-SM the signals are symmetrized to eliminate the edge effect (the so called edge is the difference between the first and last data point of one period of the signal) in calculating average amplitude. It is very important to eliminate unphysical contribution to the average amplitude, which is used as a figure of merit for input parameter influence on output parameters. The idea is to use reference calculation as 'experimental signal', 'sensitivity run' as 'calculated signal', and average amplitude as figure of merit for sensitivity instead for code accuracy. The larger is the average amplitude the larger is the influence of varied input parameter. The results show that with FFTBM-SM the analyst can get good picture of the contribution of the parameter variation to the results. They show when the input parameters are influential and how big is this influence. FFTBM-SM could be also used to quantify the influence of several parameter variations on the results. However, the influential parameters could not be

  1. Efficient Noninferiority Testing Procedures for Simultaneously Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogen Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity are often used to assess the performance of a diagnostic test with binary outcomes. Wald-type test statistics have been proposed for testing sensitivity and specificity individually. In the presence of a gold standard, simultaneous comparison between two diagnostic tests for noninferiority of sensitivity and specificity based on an asymptotic approach has been studied by Chen et al. (2003. However, the asymptotic approach may suffer from unsatisfactory type I error control as observed from many studies, especially in small to medium sample settings. In this paper, we compare three unconditional approaches for simultaneously testing sensitivity and specificity. They are approaches based on estimation, maximization, and a combination of estimation and maximization. Although the estimation approach does not guarantee type I error, it has satisfactory performance with regard to type I error control. The other two unconditional approaches are exact. The approach based on estimation and maximization is generally more powerful than the approach based on maximization.

  2. Testing of new hypoxic cell sensitizers in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, H.B.; Sinesi, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    We tested five agents as potential sensitizers of hypoxic cells in vivo in mammary tumors in C3H mice in comparison with misonidazole. The LD/sub 50/2/ for desmethylmisonidazole was 2.7 mg/g body wt, compared to 1.3 for misonidazole. It was as effective in reducing the TCD 50 of MDAH-MCa-4 as were equitoxic doses of misonidazole. the LD/sub 50/2/ of SR-2508 was 3.3 mg/g and was as effective a sensitizer as misonidazole. Ro 07-0741 was more toxic, with an LD/sub 50/2/ of 0.6 mg/g, but was as effective as misonidazole at equitoxic doses. NP-1 was also more toxic than misonidazole (LA/sub 50/2/ = 04 mg/g) but was a less effective sensitizer. Rotenone, which causes sensitization by inhibiting cellular respiration, thus increasing the diffusion distance of oxygen, was extremely toxic (LD/sub 50/2/ - 0.003 mg/g), and systemic respiratory inhibition and the radioprotective effects of the dimethyl sulfoxide used to dissolve it rendered it totally ineffective as a sensitizer in vivo

  3. Indicators of Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity test performance and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, M.M.; Bedwell, N.J.; Ausley, L.W. [North Carolina Division of Environmental Management, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The North Carolina Division of Environmental Management has begun evaluation of the sensitivity of test results used for measuring chronic whole effluent toxicity in North Carolina wastewater discharges. Approximately 67% of 565 facilities required to monitor toxicity by an NPDES permit perform a Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic, single effluent concentration (pass/fail) analysis. Data from valid Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic pass/fail tests performed by approximately 20 certified biological laboratories and submitted by North Carolina NPDES permittees were recorded beginning January 1992. Control and treatment reproduction data from over 2,500 tests submitted since 1992 were analyzed to determine the minimum significant difference (MSD) at a 99% confidence level for each test and the percent reduction from the control mean that the MSD represents (%MSD) for each certified laboratory. Initial results for the 20 laboratories indicate that the average intralaboratory percent MSD ranges 12.72% (n = 367) to 34.91% (n = 7) with an average of 23.08%. Additionally, over 3,800 tests were analyzed to determine the coefficient of variation (CV) for control reproduction for each test and the average for each certified biological laboratory. Preliminary review indicates that average interlaboratory control reproduction CV values range from 10.59% (n = 367) to 31.08% (n = 572) with a mean of 20.35%. The statistics investigated are indicators of intra/interlaboratory performance and sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia chronic toxicity analyses.

  4. High sensitive quench detection method using an integrated test wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Tavergnier, J.P.; Nithart, H.; Kiblaire, M.; Duchateau, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A high sensitive quench detection method which works even in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field is reported. The quench signal is obtained from the difference in voltages at the superconducting winding terminals and at the terminals at a secondary winding strongly coupled to the primary. The secondary winding could consist of a ''zero-current strand'' of the superconducting cable not connected to one of the winding terminals or an integrated normal test wire inside the superconducting cable. Experimental results on quench detection obtained by this method are described. It is shown that the integrated test wire method leads to efficient and sensitive quench detection, especially in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field

  5. Hydrocoin level 3 - Testing methods for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.; Lindbom, B.; Larsson, A.; Andersson, K.

    1991-01-01

    The HYDROCOIN study is an international cooperative project for testing groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The study was initiated in 1984 by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the technical work was finalised in 1987. The participating organisations are regulatory authorities as well as implementing organisations in 10 countries. The study has been performed at three levels aimed at studying computer code verification, model validation and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis respectively. The results from the first two levels, code verification and model validation, have been published in reports in 1988 and 1990 respectively. This paper focuses on some aspects of the results from Level 3, sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, for which a final report is planned to be published during 1990. For Level 3, seven test cases were defined. Some of these aimed at exploring the uncertainty associated with the modelling results by simply varying parameter values and conceptual assumptions. In other test cases statistical sampling methods were applied. One of the test cases dealt with particle tracking and the uncertainty introduced by this type of post processing. The amount of results available is substantial although unevenly spread over the test cases. It has not been possible to cover all aspects of the results in this paper. Instead, the different methods applied will be illustrated by some typical analyses. 4 figs., 9 refs

  6. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  7. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-01-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of [3H]thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay

  8. High sensitivity pyrogen testing in water and dialysis solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Wendel, Albrecht; Hartung, Thomas; von Aulock, Sonja

    2008-07-20

    The dialysis patient is confronted with hundreds of litres of dialysis solution per week, which pass the natural protective barriers of the body and are brought into contact with the tissue directly in the case of peritoneal dialysis or indirectly in the case of renal dialysis (hemodialysis). The components can be tested for living specimens or dead pyrogenic (fever-inducing) contaminations. The former is usually detected by cultivation and the latter by the endotoxin-specific Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Assay (LAL). However, the LAL assay does not reflect the response of the human immune system to the wide variety of possible pyrogenic contaminations in dialysis fluids. Furthermore, the test is limited in its sensitivity to detect extremely low concentrations of pyrogens, which in their sum result in chronic pathologies in dialysis patients. The In vitro Pyrogen Test (IPT) employs human whole blood to detect the spectrum of pyrogens to which humans respond by measuring the release of the endogenous fever mediator interleukin-1beta. Spike recovery checks exclude interference. The test has been validated in an international study for pyrogen detection in injectable solutions. In this study we adapted the IPT to the testing of dialysis solutions. Preincubation of 50 ml spiked samples with albumin-coated microspheres enhanced the sensitivity of the assay to detect contaminations down to 0.1 pg/ml LPS or 0.001 EU/ml in water or saline and allowed pyrogen detection in dialysis concentrates or final working solutions. This method offers high sensitivity detection of human-relevant pyrogens in dialysis solutions and components.

  9. Comparison between Efficacy of Ciprofioxacin -Doxycycline with Rifampin – Doxycycline Regimens inrelapse of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sarmadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is one of the endemic diseases in Iran that has a worldwide spread and is associated with chronic disabilities in humans. Combination therapy of Brucellosis leads to recovery of symptoms, shortening of the symptomatic intervals, and decrease in the rate of relapse and drug resistance. Considering the use of rifampin in the treatment of tuberculosis, and the necessity for an alternative treatment in regions endemic for both tuberculosis and brucellosis, the aim ofthis study was to compare the efficiency of the regimen of rifampin-Doxycycline with ciprofloxacin-Doxycycline in relapse of brucellosis. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 90 patients, older than 17 years old, affected with brucellosis, which were referred to the Infectious Disease Clinics at ArakUniversity of medical sciences between the years 1384-1387. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the DR groups, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline twice a day and 300 mg of rifampin Bid daily for eight weeks and the CD group, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline plus 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice a day for eight weeks. The patients were analyzed for the relief of symptoms, drug side effects, and laboratory findings during the treatment. Results:In this study, the rate of relapse in both groups were similar. The relapse was seen in 4.5% and 3.2% of the patients for the DR and CD groups, respectively (P=0.168. The drug side effects were slight in both of groups, with no significant difference, and did not lead to discontinuation of the therapy. Conclusion: According to the same rate of relapse in both CD and DR regimens in the treatment of brucellosis and considering the usage of rifampin in regions with high prevalence of tuberclusis, the CD regimen is recommended as an appropriate one.

  10. Field test investigation of high sensitivity fiber optic seismic geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Min, Li; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Faxiang; Sun, Zhihui; Li, Shujuan; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Zhong; Hao, Guanghu

    2017-10-01

    Seismic reflection, whose measured signal is the artificial seismic waves ,is the most effective method and widely used in the geophysical prospecting. And this method can be used for exploration of oil, gas and coal. When a seismic wave travelling through the Earth encounters an interface between two materials with different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy will reflect off the interface and some will refract through the interface. At its most basic, the seismic reflection technique consists of generating seismic waves and measuring the time taken for the waves to travel from the source, reflect off an interface and be detected by an array of geophones at the surface. Compared to traditional geophones such as electric, magnetic, mechanical and gas geophone, optical fiber geophones have many advantages. Optical fiber geophones can achieve sensing and signal transmission simultaneously. With the development of fiber grating sensor technology, fiber bragg grating (FBG) is being applied in seismic exploration and draws more and more attention to its advantage of anti-electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity and insensitivity to meteorological conditions. In this paper, we designed a high sensitivity geophone and tested its sensitivity, based on the theory of FBG sensing. The frequency response range is from 10 Hz to 100 Hz and the acceleration of the fiber optic seismic geophone is over 1000pm/g. sixteen-element fiber optic seismic geophone array system is presented and the field test is performed in Shengli oilfield of China. The field test shows that: (1) the fiber optic seismic geophone has a higher sensitivity than the traditional geophone between 1-100 Hz;(2) The low frequency reflection wave continuity of fiber Bragg grating geophone is better.

  11. Vancomycin-Rifampin Combination Therapy Has Enhanced Efficacy against an Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niska, Jared A.; Shahbazian, Jonathan H.; Ramos, Romela Irene; Francis, Kevin P.; Bernthal, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of prosthetic joint infections often involves a two-stage exchange, with implant removal and antibiotic spacer placement followed by systemic antibiotic therapy and delayed reimplantation. However, if antibiotic therapy can be improved, one-stage exchange or implant retention may be more feasible, thereby decreasing morbidity and preserving function. In this study, a mouse model of prosthetic joint infection was used in which Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated into a knee joint containing a surgically placed metallic implant extending from the femur. This model was used to evaluate whether combination therapy of vancomycin plus rifampin has increased efficacy compared with vancomycin alone against these infections. On postoperative day 7, vancomycin with or without rifampin was administered for 6 weeks with implant retention. In vivo bioluminescence imaging, ex vivo CFU enumeration, X-ray imaging, and histologic analysis were carried out. We found that there was a marked therapeutic benefit when vancomycin was combined with rifampin compared with vancomycin alone. Taken together, our results suggest that the mouse model used could serve as a valuable in vivo preclinical model system to evaluate and compare efficacies of antibiotics and combinatory therapy for prosthetic joint infections before more extensive studies are carried out in human subjects. PMID:23917317

  12. Differential neuropsychological test sensitivity to left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Strauss, Esther; Hermann, Bruce P; Barr, William B; Perrine, Kenneth; Trenerry, Max R; Chelune, Gordon; Westerveld, Michael; Lee, Gregory P; Meador, Kimford J; Bowden, Stephen C

    2008-05-01

    We examined the sensitivity of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), and Multilingual Aphasia Examination Visual Naming subtest (MAE VN) to lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in patients who subsequently underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. For the AVLT (n = 189), left TLE patients performed more poorly than their right TLE counterparts [left TLE = 42.9 (10.6), right TLE = 47.7 (9.9); p LTE = 40.7 (11.1), right TLE = 43.8 (9.9); (p measures of confrontation naming ability [BNT: left LTE = 43.1 (8.9), right TLE = 48.1 (8.9); p < .001 (Cohen's d = .56); MAE VN: left TLE = 42.2, right TLE = 45.6, p = .02 (Cohen's d = .36)]. When these data were modeled in independent logistic regression analyses, the AVLT and BNT both significantly predicted side of seizure focus, although the positive likelihood ratios were modest. In the subset of 108 patients receiving both BNT and AVLT, the AVLT was the only significant predictor of seizure laterality, suggesting individual patient variability regarding whether naming or memory testing may be more sensitive to lateralized TLE.

  13. Sensitivity of BWR shutdown margin tests to local reactivity anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Successful shutdown margin (SDM) demonstration is a required procedure in the startup of a newly configured boiling water reactor (BWR) core. In its most reactive condition throughout a cycle, a BWR core must be capable of being made subcritical by a specified margin with the highest worth control rod fully withdrawn and all other rods at their fully inserted positions. Two different methods are used to demonstrate SDM: (a) the adjacent-rod test and (b) the in-sequence test. In the adjacent-rod test, the strongest rod is fully withdrawn and an adjacent rod is withdrawn to reach criticality. In the in-sequence test, control rods spread throughout the core are withdrawn in a predetermined sequence of withdrawals. Larger than expected core k/sub eff/ values have been observed during the performance of BWR SDM tests. The purpose of the work summarized in this paper has been to investigated and quantify the sensitivity of both the adjacent-rod and in-sequence SDM tests to local reactivity anomalies. This was accomplished by introducing reactivity perturbations at selected four-bundle cell locations and by evaluating their effect on core reactivity in each of the two tests

  14. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The work done on this project focused on two LAMPF experiments. The MEGA experiment is a high-sensitivity search for the lepton family number violating decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = [μ → eγ]/[μ eν μ ν e ] ∼ 10 -13 , will be over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The second is a precision measurement of the Michel ρ parameter from the positron energy spectrum of μ → eν μ ν e to test the predictions V-A theory of weak interactions. In this experiment the uncertainty in the measurement of the Michel ρ parameter is expected to be a factor of three lower than the present reported value. The detectors are operational, and data taking has begun

  15. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetke, D.D.; Manweiler, R.W.; Shirvel Stanislaus, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    The work done on this project was focused on two LAMPF experiments. The MEGA experiment, a high-sensitivity search for the lepton-family-number-violating decay μ → e γ to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = [μ → e γ]/[μ → ev μ v e ] ∼ 10 -13 , is over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The second is a precision measurement of the Michel ρ parameter from the positron energy spectrum of μ → ev μ v e to test the V-A theory of weak interactions. The uncertainty in the measurement of the Michel ρ parameter is expected to be a factor of three lower than the present reported value

  16. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), and by the industry organization Cosmetics Europe... products. Pesticides and other marketed chemicals, including cosmetic ingredients, are routinely tested for... sensitization. NICEATM collaboration with industry scientists to develop an open-source Bayesian network as an...

  17. Compounding rifampin suspensions with improved injectability for nasogastric enteral feeding tube administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Melgardt M; Vogel, Laura; Bogenschutz, Monica C; Fingerhut, Bonnie J; D'Silva, Joseph B; Moore, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Often medications that have to be administered to patients via a nasogastric enteral feeding tubes are only available as tablets and capsules with no suitable commercial liquid alternatives. In such situations, pharmacists and nurses have to compound the tablets and capsule contents into liquid suspension formulations for dosing. The risk of occlusion of the enteral tubes during administration is reduced by employing liquid suspensions that are composed of small and uniform particles, not subject to rapid rates of settling, resistant to caking, and easily and uniformly re-suspended upon agitation. Present techniques often employ a manual process, such as a mortar and pestle, to accomplish the particle size reduction and subsequent incorporation into a suitable liquid diluent. A new compounding device has been invented that employs an automated wet-milling process in a single-use disposable plastic container to compound the suspensions. The two processes were compared using Rifampin capsules and various liquid diluents. A prototype version of the new device was employed in the experiments. The physical characteristics of the compounded suspensions were evaluated by determining sedimentation rate, sedimentation volume, and particle size and shape using laser light scattering, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The use characteristic of the compounded suspensions was evaluated using a nasogastric tube inject ability test. The results indicated that suspensions prepared using the new device were more resistant to sedimentation and caking and were easier to re-disperse into a uniform mixture by gentle shaking. The results were a consequence of the particles generated by the new device which were found to be smaller and more uniform in shape and size. The suspensions prepared using the new device did not cause blockage of the enteral feeding tubes in comparison to those prepared using a mortar and pastle. In conclusion, the results indicate

  18. Sensitive Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Constructed with Levitated Test Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, C. E.; Moody, M. V.; Norton, R. S.; Paik, H. J.; Venkateswara, K.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate basic operations of a two-component superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG) that is constructed with a pair of magnetically levitated test masses coupled to superconducting quantum-interference devices. A design that gives a potential sensitivity of 1.4 ×10-4 E Hz-1 /2 (1 E ≡10-9 s-2 ) in the frequency band of 1 to 50 mHz and better than 2 ×10-5 E Hz-1 /2 between 0.1 and 1 mHz for a compact tensor SGG that fits within a 22-cm-diameter sphere. The SGG has the capability of rejecting the platform acceleration and jitter in all 6 degrees of freedom to one part in 109 . Such an instrument has applications in precision tests of fundamental laws of physics, earthquake early warning, and gravity mapping of Earth and the planets.

  19. Oral-Only Linezolid-Rifampin Is Highly Effective Compared with Other Antibiotics for Periprosthetic Joint Infection: Study of a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John M; Saini, Vikram; Ashbaugh, Alyssa G; Miller, Robert J; Ordonez, Alvaro A; Ortines, Roger V; Wang, Yu; Sterling, Robert S; Jain, Sanjay K; Miller, Lloyd S

    2017-04-19

    The medical treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) involves prolonged systemic antibiotic courses, often with suboptimal clinical outcomes including increased morbidity and health-care costs. Oral and intravenous monotherapies and combination antibiotic regimens were evaluated in a mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PJI. Oral linezolid with or without oral rifampin, intravenous vancomycin with oral rifampin, intravenous daptomycin or ceftaroline with or without oral rifampin, oral doxycycline, or sham treatment were administered at human-exposure doses for 6 weeks in a mouse model of PJI. Bacterial burden was assessed by in vivo bioluminescent imaging and ex vivo counting of colony-forming units (CFUs), and reactive bone changes were evaluated with radiographs and micro-computed tomography (μCT) imaging. Oral-only linezolid-rifampin and all intravenous antibiotic-rifampin combinations resulted in no recoverable bacteria and minimized reactive bone changes. Although oral linezolid was the most effective monotherapy, all oral and intravenous antibiotic monotherapies failed to clear infection or prevent reactive bone changes. Combination antibiotic-rifampin regimens, including oral-only linezolid-rifampin and the newer ceftaroline-rifampin combinations, were highly effective and more efficacious than monotherapies when used against a preclinical MRSA PJI. This study provides important preclinical evidence to better optimize future antibiotic therapy against PJIs. In particular, the oral-only linezolid-rifampin option might reduce venous access complications and health-care costs.

  20. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  1. Rifampin modulation of xeno- and endobiotic conjugating enzyme mRNA expression and associated microRNAs in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gufford, Brandon T; Robarge, Jason D; Eadon, Michael T; Gao, Hongyu; Lin, Hai; Liu, Yunlong; Desta, Zeruesenay; Skaar, Todd C

    2018-04-01

    Rifampin is a pleiotropic inducer of multiple drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. This work utilized a global approach to evaluate rifampin effects on conjugating enzyme gene expression with relevance to human xeno- and endo-biotic metabolism. Primary human hepatocytes from 7 subjects were treated with rifampin (10 μmol/L, 24 hours). Standard methods for RNA-seq library construction, EZBead preparation, and NextGen sequencing were used to measure UDP-glucuronosyl transferase UGT, sulfonyltransferase SULT, N acetyltransferase NAT, and glutathione-S-transferase GST mRNA expression compared to vehicle control (0.01% MeOH). Rifampin-induced (>1.25-fold) mRNA expression of 13 clinically important phase II drug metabolizing genes and repressed (>1.25-fold) the expression of 3 genes ( P  accounting for simultaneous induction of both CYP3A4 and UGT1A4 predicted a ~10-fold decrease in parent midazolam exposure with only a ~2-fold decrease in midazolam N-glucuronide metabolite exposure. These data reveal differential effects of rifampin on the human conjugating enzyme transcriptome and potential associations with miRNAs that form the basis for future mechanistic studies to elucidate the interplay of conjugating enzyme regulatory elements.

  2. Testing the Perturbation Sensitivity of Abortion-Crime Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Brzeziński

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that the legalisation of abortion contributed significantly to the reduction of crime in the United States in 1990s is one of the most prominent ideas from the recent “economics-made-fun” movement sparked by the book Freakonomics. This paper expands on the existing literature about the computational stability of abortion-crime regressions by testing the sensitivity of coefficients’ estimates to small amounts of data perturbation. In contrast to previous studies, we use a new data set on crime correlates for each of the US states, the original model specifica-tion and estimation methodology, and an improved data perturbation algorithm. We find that the coefficients’ estimates in abortion-crime regressions are not computationally stable and, therefore, are unreliable.

  3. Beam test of the 2D position sensitive neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lichao; Chen Yuanbo; Sun Zhijia; Tang Bin; Zhou Jianrong; Qi Huirong; Liu Rongguang; Zhang Jian; Yang Guian; Xu Hong

    2014-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), one of the Major scientific apparatuses of the national Eleventh Five-Year Plane, is under construction and three spectrumeters will be constructed in the first phase of the project. A 2D position sensitive neutron detector has been constructed for the Multifunctional Reflect spectrumeter (MR) in Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The basic operation principle of the detector and the test on the residual stress diffractometer of Chinese Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is introduced in this paper. The results show that it has a good position resolution of l.18 mm (FWHM) for the neutrons of l.37 A and 2D imaging ability, which is consistent with the theory. It can satisfy the requirements of MR and lays the foundation for the construction of larger neutron detectors. (authors)

  4. Local defect resonance for sensitive non-destructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebahr, W.; Solodov, I.; Rahammer, M.; Gulnizkij, N.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic wave-defect interaction is a background of ultrasound activated techniques for imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials and industrial components. The interaction, primarily, results in acoustic response of a defect which provides attenuation and scattering of ultrasound used as an indicator of defects in conventional ultrasonic NDT. The derivative ultrasonic-induced effects include e.g. nonlinear, thermal, acousto-optic, etc. responses also applied for NDT and defect imaging. These secondary effects are normally relatively inefficient so that the corresponding NDT techniques require an elevated acoustic power and stand out from conventional ultrasonic NDT counterparts for their specific instrumentation particularly adapted to high-power ultrasonic. In this paper, a consistent way to enhance ultrasonic, optical and thermal defect responses and thus to reduce an ultrasonic power required is suggested by using selective ultrasonic activation of defects based on the concept of local defect resonance (LDR). A strong increase in vibration amplitude at LDR enables to reliably detect and visualize the defect as soon as the driving ultrasonic frequency is matched to the LDR frequency. This also provides a high frequency selectivity of the LDR-based imaging, i.e. an opportunity of detecting a certain defect among a multitude of other defects in material. Some examples are shown how to use LDR in non-destructive testing techniques, like vibrometry, ultrasonic thermography and shearography in order to enhance the sensitivity of defect visualization.

  5. Sensitivity study on hydraulic well testing inversion using simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Najita, J.; Karasaki, Kenzi

    1997-11-01

    For environmental remediation, management of nuclear waste disposal, or geothermal reservoir engineering, it is very important to evaluate the permeabilities, spacing, and sizes of the subsurface fractures which control ground water flow. Cluster variable aperture (CVA) simulated annealing has been used as an inversion technique to construct fluid flow models of fractured formations based on transient pressure data from hydraulic tests. A two-dimensional fracture network system is represented as a filled regular lattice of fracture elements. The algorithm iteratively changes an aperture of cluster of fracture elements, which are chosen randomly from a list of discrete apertures, to improve the match to observed pressure transients. The size of the clusters is held constant throughout the iterations. Sensitivity studies using simple fracture models with eight wells show that, in general, it is necessary to conduct interference tests using at least three different wells as pumping well in order to reconstruct the fracture network with a transmissivity contrast of one order of magnitude, particularly when the cluster size is not known a priori. Because hydraulic inversion is inherently non-unique, it is important to utilize additional information. The authors investigated the relationship between the scale of heterogeneity and the optimum cluster size (and its shape) to enhance the reliability and convergence of the inversion. It appears that the cluster size corresponding to about 20--40 % of the practical range of the spatial correlation is optimal. Inversion results of the Raymond test site data are also presented and the practical range of spatial correlation is evaluated to be about 5--10 m from the optimal cluster size in the inversion

  6. Sensitivity study on hydraulic well testing inversion using simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Najita, J.; Karasaki, Kenzi

    1997-11-01

    For environmental remediation, management of nuclear waste disposal, or geothermal reservoir engineering, it is very important to evaluate the permeabilities, spacing, and sizes of the subsurface fractures which control ground water flow. Cluster variable aperture (CVA) simulated annealing has been used as an inversion technique to construct fluid flow models of fractured formations based on transient pressure data from hydraulic tests. A two-dimensional fracture network system is represented as a filled regular lattice of fracture elements. The algorithm iteratively changes an aperture of cluster of fracture elements, which are chosen randomly from a list of discrete apertures, to improve the match to observed pressure transients. The size of the clusters is held constant throughout the iterations. Sensitivity studies using simple fracture models with eight wells show that, in general, it is necessary to conduct interference tests using at least three different wells as pumping well in order to reconstruct the fracture network with a transmissivity contrast of one order of magnitude, particularly when the cluster size is not known a priori. Because hydraulic inversion is inherently non-unique, it is important to utilize additional information. The authors investigated the relationship between the scale of heterogeneity and the optimum cluster size (and its shape) to enhance the reliability and convergence of the inversion. It appears that the cluster size corresponding to about 20--40 % of the practical range of the spatial correlation is optimal. Inversion results of the Raymond test site data are also presented and the practical range of spatial correlation is evaluated to be about 5--10 m from the optimal cluster size in the inversion.

  7. The Hug-up Test: A New, Sensitive Diagnostic Test for Supraspinatus Tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The supraspinatus tendon is the most commonly affected tendon in rotator cuff tears. Early detection of a supraspinatus tear using an accurate physical examination is, therefore, important. However, the currently used physical tests for detecting supraspinatus tears are poor diagnostic indicators and involve a wide range of sensitivity and specificity values. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a new physical test for the diagnosis of supraspinatus tears and evaluate its accuracy in comparison with conventional tests. Methods: Between November 2012 and January 2014, 200 consecutive patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy were prospectively evaluated preoperatively. The hug-up test, empty can (EC test, full can (FC test, Neer impingement sign, and Hawkins-Kennedy impingement sign were used and compared statistically for their accuracy in terms of supraspinatus tears, with arthroscopic findings as the gold standard. Muscle strength was precisely quantified using an electronic digital tensiometer. Results: The prevalence of supraspinatus tears was 76.5%. The hug-up test demonstrated the highest sensitivity (94.1%, with a low negative likelihood ratio (NLR, 0.08 and comparable specificity (76.6% compared with the other four tests. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the hug-up test was 0.854, with no statistical difference compared with the EC test (z = 1.438, P = 0.075 or the FC test (z = 1.498, P = 0.067. The hug-up test showed no statistical difference in terms of detecting different tear patterns according to the position (χ2 = 0.578, P = 0.898 and size (Fisher′s exact test, P > 0.999 compared with the arthroscopic examination. The interobserver reproducibility of the hug-up test was high, with a kappa coefficient of 0.823. Conclusions: The hug-up test can accurately detect supraspinatus tears with a high sensitivity, comparable specificity, and low NLR compared with the conventional

  8. Effect of Itraconazole and Rifampin on the Pharmacokinetics of Olaparib in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirix, Luc; Swaisland, Helen; Verheul, Henk M W

    2016-01-01

    ) and inducer (rifampin) to alter the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of olaparib following single oral tablet doses. METHODS: Two Phase I, open-label, non-randomized trials were conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors. In Study 7, patients received olaparib alone and co-administered with itraconazole...... analysis following treatment with olaparib alone and olaparib plus itraconazole, respectively; in Study 8 (N = 22; 4 male, 18 female), all patients were evaluable. Co-administration of olaparib with itraconazole resulted in a statistically significant increase in the relative bioavailability of olaparib......: Cmax treatment ratio, 1.42 (90% CI, 1.33-1.52); mean AUC treatment ratio, 2.70 (90% CI, 2.44-2.97). Mean CL/F and Vz/F were reduced (8.16 vs 3.05 L/h and 192 vs 75.1 L), although mean t½ was unchanged (15.0 vs 15.6 hours). Co-administration of olaparib with rifampin resulted in a statistically...

  9. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment of implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus infections with moxifloxacin, flucloxacillin, rifampin, and combination therapy: an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greimel F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Felix Greimel,1 Christine Scheuerer,1 Andre Gessner,2 Michaela Simon,2 Thomas Kalteis,1 Joachim Grifka,1 Achim Benditz,1 Hans-Robert Springorum,1 Jens Schaumburger1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 2Institute of Clinical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany Abstract: The efficacy of antibiotic monotherapy and combination therapy in the treatment of implant-associated infection by Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated in an animal study. The femoral medullary cavity of 66 male Wistar rats was contaminated with S. aureus (ATCC 29213 and a metal device was implanted, of which 61 could be evaluated. Six treatment groups were studied: flucloxacillin, flucloxacillin in combination with rifampin, moxifloxacin, moxifloxacin in combination with rifampin, rifampin, and a control group with aqua. The treatment was applied for 14 days. After euthanasia, the bacterial counts in the periprosthetic bone, the soft tissue, and the implant-associated biofilm were measured. Both antibiotic combination treatments (moxifloxacin plus rifampin and flucloxacillin plus rifampin achieved a highly significant decrease in microbial counts in the bone and soft tissue and in the biofilm. Mono-antibiotic treatments with either moxifloxacin or flucloxacillin were unable to achieve a significant decrease in microbial counts in bone and soft tissue or the biofilm, whilst rifampin was able to reduce the counts significantly only in the biofilm. Antibiotic resistance was measured in 1/3 of the cases in the rifampin group, whereas no resistance was measured in all other groups. The results show that combinations of both moxifloxacin and flucloxacillin plus rifampin are adequate for the treatment of periprosthetic infections due to infections with S. aureus, whereas monotherapies are not effective or not applicable due to the rapid development of

  10. Pressure-Sensitive Paints Advance Rotorcraft Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The rotors of certain helicopters can spin at speeds as high as 500 revolutions per minute. As the blades slice through the air, they flex, moving into the wind and back out, experiencing pressure changes on the order of thousands of times a second and even higher. All of this makes acquiring a true understanding of rotorcraft aerodynamics a difficult task. A traditional means of acquiring aerodynamic data is to conduct wind tunnel tests using a vehicle model outfitted with pressure taps and other sensors. These sensors add significant costs to wind tunnel testing while only providing measurements at discrete locations on the model's surface. In addition, standard sensor solutions do not work for pulling data from a rotor in motion. "Typical static pressure instrumentation can't handle that," explains Neal Watkins, electronics engineer in Langley Research Center s Advanced Sensing and Optical Measurement Branch. "There are dynamic pressure taps, but your costs go up by a factor of five to ten if you use those. In addition, recovery of the pressure tap readings is accomplished through slip rings, which allow only a limited amount of sensors and can require significant maintenance throughout a typical rotor test." One alternative to sensor-based wind tunnel testing is pressure sensitive paint (PSP). A coating of a specialized paint containing luminescent material is applied to the model. When exposed to an LED or laser light source, the material glows. The glowing material tends to be reactive to oxygen, explains Watkins, which causes the glow to diminish. The more oxygen that is present (or the more air present, since oxygen exists in a fixed proportion in air), the less the painted surface glows. Imaged with a camera, the areas experiencing greater air pressure show up darker than areas of less pressure. "The paint allows for a global pressure map as opposed to specific points," says Watkins. With PSP, each pixel recorded by the camera becomes an optical pressure

  11. Optimal Testing Intervals in the Squatting Test to Determine Baroreflex Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ishitsuka, S.; Kusuyama, N.; Tanaka, M.

    2014-01-01

    The recently introduced “squatting test” (ST) utilizes a simple postural change to perturb the blood pressure and to assess baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). In our study, we estimated the reproducibility of and the optimal testing interval between the STs in healthy volunteers. Thirty-four subjects free of cardiovascular disorders and taking no medication were instructed to perform the repeated ST at 30-sec, 1-min, and 3-min intervals in duplicate in a random sequence, while the systolic blood p...

  12. Model-Based Evaluation of Higher Doses of Rifampin Using a Semimechanistic Model Incorporating Autoinduction and Saturation of Hepatic Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirehwa, Maxwell T; Rustomjee, Roxana; Mthiyane, Thuli; Onyebujoh, Philip; Smith, Peter; McIlleron, Helen; Denti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Rifampin is a key sterilizing drug in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It induces its own metabolism, but neither the onset nor the extent of autoinduction has been adequately described. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends a rifampin dose of 8 to 12 mg/kg of body weight, which is believed to be suboptimal, and higher doses may potentially improve treatment outcomes. However, a nonlinear increase in exposure may be observed because of saturation of hepatic extraction and hence this should be taken into consideration when a dose increase is implemented. Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) data from 61 HIV-TB-coinfected patients in South Africa were collected at four visits, on days 1, 8, 15, and 29, after initiation of treatment. Data were analyzed by population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Rifampin PKs were best described by using a transit compartment absorption and a well-stirred liver model with saturation of hepatic extraction, including a first-pass effect. Autoinduction was characterized by using an exponential-maturation model: hepatic clearance almost doubled from the baseline to steady state, with a half-life of around 4.5 days. The model predicts that increases in the dose of rifampin result in more-than-linear drug exposure increases as measured by the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve. Simulations with doses of up to 35 mg/kg produced results closely in line with those of clinical trials. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Sensitivity of submersed freshwater macrophytes and endpoints in laboratory toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, Gertie H.P.; Belgers, J. Dick M.; Hoekzema, Conny H.; Thissen, Jac T.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The toxicological sensitivity and variability of a range of macrophyte endpoints were statistically tested with data from chronic, non-axenic, macrophyte toxicity tests. Five submersed freshwater macrophytes, four pesticides/biocides and 13 endpoints were included in the statistical analyses. Root endpoints, reflecting root growth, were most sensitive in the toxicity tests, while endpoints relating to biomass, growth and shoot length were less sensitive. The endpoints with the lowest coefficients of variation were not necessarily the endpoints, which were toxicologically most sensitive. Differences in sensitivity were in the range of 10-1000 for different macrophyte-specific endpoints. No macrophyte species was consistently the most sensitive. Criteria to select endpoints in macrophyte toxicity tests should include toxicological sensitivity, variance and ecological relevance. Hence, macrophyte toxicity tests should comprise an array of endpoints, including very sensitive endpoints like those relating to root growth. - A range of endpoints is more representative of macrophyte fitness than biomass and growth only

  14. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment of implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus infections with moxifloxacin, flucloxacillin, rifampin, and combination therapy: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Felix; Scheuerer, Christine; Gessner, Andre; Simon, Michaela; Kalteis, Thomas; Grifka, Joachim; Benditz, Achim; Springorum, Hans-Robert; Schaumburger, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of antibiotic monotherapy and combination therapy in the treatment of implant-associated infection by Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated in an animal study. The femoral medullary cavity of 66 male Wistar rats was contaminated with S. aureus (ATCC 29213) and a metal device was implanted, of which 61 could be evaluated. Six treatment groups were studied: flucloxacillin, flucloxacillin in combination with rifampin, moxifloxacin, moxifloxacin in combination with rifampin, rifampin, and a control group with aqua. The treatment was applied for 14 days. After euthanasia, the bacterial counts in the periprosthetic bone, the soft tissue, and the implant-associated biofilm were measured. Both antibiotic combination treatments (moxifloxacin plus rifampin and flucloxacillin plus rifampin) achieved a highly significant decrease in microbial counts in the bone and soft tissue and in the biofilm. Mono-antibiotic treatments with either moxifloxacin or flucloxacillin were unable to achieve a significant decrease in microbial counts in bone and soft tissue or the biofilm, whilst rifampin was able to reduce the counts significantly only in the biofilm. Antibiotic resistance was measured in 1/3 of the cases in the rifampin group, whereas no resistance was measured in all other groups. The results show that combinations of both moxifloxacin and flucloxacillin plus rifampin are adequate for the treatment of periprosthetic infections due to infections with S. aureus , whereas monotherapies are not effective or not applicable due to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, moxifloxacin is an effective alternative in combination with rifampin for the treatment of implant-associated infections.

  15. EPA Releases Draft Policy to Reduce Animal Testing for Skin Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document, Draft Interim Science Policy: Use of Alternative Approaches for Skin Sensitization as a Replacement for Laboratory Animal Testing, describes the science behind the non-animal alternatives that can now be used to identify skin sensitization.

  16. Testing auditory sensitivity in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Alyssa; Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2016-01-01

    Psychoacoustic and electrophysiological methods were used to measure the in-air hearing sensitivity of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis). One individual was used to determine the behavioral thresholds, which was then compared to previously collected data on the auditory brainstem...

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of copper sulphate test in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The accuracy of the copper sulphate method for the rapid screening of prospective blood donors has been questioned because this rapid screening method may lead to false deferral of truly eligible prospective blood donors. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the sensitivity and specificity of copper ...

  18. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetke, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    The work done on this project was focussed mainly on LAMPF experiment E969 known as the MEGA experiment, a high sensitivity search for the lepton family number violating decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = [μ→eγ]/[μ→e ν μ ν e ] ∼10 -13 is over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The work done on MEGA during this period was divided between that done at Valparaiso University and that done at LAMPF. In addition, some contributions were made to a proposal to the LAMPF PAC to perform a precision measurement of the Michel ρ parameter, described below

  19. Polarization sensitivity testing of off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randal L.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; Laubis, Christian; Soltwisch, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Off-Plane reflection gratings were previously predicted to have different efficiencies when the incident light is polarized in the transverse-magnetic (TM) versus transverse-electric (TE) orientations with respect to the grating grooves. However, more recent theoretical calculations which rigorously account for finitely conducting, rather than perfectly conducting, grating materials no longer predict significant polarization sensitivity. We present the first empirical results for radially ruled, laminar groove profile gratings in the off-plane mount which demonstrate no difference in TM versus TE efficiency across our entire 300-1500 eV bandpass. These measurements together with the recent theoretical results confirm that grazing incidence off-plane reflection gratings using real, not perfectly conducting, materials are not polarization sensitive.

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around...... the limit value of the EU Nickel Directive from products intended to come into direct and prolonged skin contact. Because assessments according to EN 1811 are expensive to perform, time consuming, and may destruct the test item, it should be of great value to know the accuracy of the DMG screening test....

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around...

  2. Sensitizing Undergraduates to Potential Inaccuracies in Projective Test Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Robert L.; Wachowiak, Dale G.

    This paper describes a methodology developed to provide undergraduate students with direct experience in the process of impressionistic test interpretation. In the experiential exercise, students were shown Thematic Apperception Test cards and then read the responses given by an anonymous client. A discussion of the process by which the students…

  3. 115 THE SENSITIVITY OF DIAZO TEST IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella typhi was the predominant serotype causing typhoid/paratyphoid fevers, followed by S. paratypi A; S. paratyphi C and S. paratyphi B respectively. Although. Diazo test does not appear to be reliable, it could still be useful alongside with Widal agglutination test in endemic rural or urban areas where electricity and ...

  4. Sensitivity of MRQAP tests to collinearity and autocorrelation conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, David; Krackhardt, David; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple regression quadratic assignment procedures (MRQAP) tests are permutation tests for multiple linear regression model coefficients for data organized in square matrices of relatedness among n objects. Such a data structure is typical in social network studies, where variables indicate some

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of OECD Benchmark Tests in BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmidt, Rodney C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on sensitivity analysis of a fuels performance benchmark problem. The benchmark problem was defined by the Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling working group of the Nuclear Science Committee, part of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD ). The benchmark problem involv ed steady - state behavior of a fuel pin in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The problem was created in the BISON Fuels Performance code. Dakota was used to generate and analyze 300 samples of 17 input parameters defining core boundary conditions, manuf acturing tolerances , and fuel properties. There were 24 responses of interest, including fuel centerline temperatures at a variety of locations and burnup levels, fission gas released, axial elongation of the fuel pin, etc. Pearson and Spearman correlatio n coefficients and Sobol' variance - based indices were used to perform the sensitivity analysis. This report summarizes the process and presents results from this study.

  6. A Case of Acquired Rifampin Resistance in Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced Cystitis: Necessity for Treatment Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce N Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of presumed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG cystitis in an elderly female patient following direct intravesical BCG instillation treatment for papillary transitional cell carcinoma is reported. The organism cultured from urine samples was eventually identified as a rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG isolate. Because the patient had received rifampin monotherapy during the course of treatment for presumed BCG disease, the clinical picture favoured acquired rifampin resistance. Sequencing of the target gene for rifampin (rpoB confirmed a known mutation responsible for conferring high levels of resistance to both rifampin and rifabutin (Ser531Tyr. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of M bovis BCG disease in a non-HIV patient where the organism had acquired drug resistance to rifampin, and the second reported case of M bovis BCG that had acquired drug resistance. The present case demonstrates the necessity to re-evaluate appropriate guidelines for the effective treatment of BCG disease.

  7. Design and Validation of a Straight-Copy Typewriting Prognostic Test Using Kinesthetic Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Norma Jean

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a kinesthetic sensitivity test to determine whether it is a valid and reliable measure of straight-copy typing speed and accuracy. The author states that this kinesthetic sensitivity instrument may be used as a prognostic aptitude test and recommends administration methods. (MF)

  8. Nutritional Supplementation Increases Rifampin Exposure among Tuberculosis Patients Coinfected with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denti, Paolo; Chigutsa, Emmanuel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Hagen, Christian Munch; Christiansen, Michael; Changalucha, John; McIlleron, Helen; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Aase Bengaard

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation to tuberculosis (TB) patients has been associated with increased weight and reduced mortality, but its effect on the pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs is unknown. A cohort of 100 TB patients (58 men; median age, 35 [interquartile range {IQR}, 29 to 40] years, and median body mass index [BMI], 18.8 [17.3 to 19.9] kg/m2) were randomized to receive nutritional supplementation during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Rifampin plasma concentrations were determined after 1 week and 2 months of treatment. The effects of nutritional supplementation, HIV, time on treatment, body weight, and SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype were examined using a population pharmacokinetic model. The model adjusted for body size via allometric scaling, accounted for clearance autoinduction, and detected an increase in bioavailability (+14%) for the patients in the continuation phase. HIV coinfection in patients not receiving the supplementation was found to decrease bioavailability by 21.8%, with a median maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24) of 5.6 μg/ml and 28.6 μg · h/ml, respectively. HIV-coinfected patients on nutritional supplementation achieved higher Cmax and AUC0–24 values of 6.4 μg/ml and 31.6 μg · h/ml, respectively, and only 13.3% bioavailability reduction. No effect of the SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype was observed. In conclusion, nutritional supplementation during the first 2 months of TB treatment reduces the decrease in rifampin exposure observed in HIV-coinfected patients but does not affect exposure in HIV-uninfected patients. If confirmed in other studies, the use of defined nutritional supplementation in HIV-coinfected TB patients should be considered in TB control programs. (This study has the controlled trial registration number ISRCTN 16552219.) PMID:24709267

  9. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders

  10. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  11. Nutritional supplementation increases Rifampin exposure among tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; Denti, Paolo; Chigutsa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation to tuberculosis (TB) patients has been associated with increased weight and reduced mortality, but its effect on the pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs is unknown. A cohort of 100 TB patients (58 men; median age, 35 [interquartile range {IQR}, 29 to 40] years......, and median body mass index [BMI], 18.8 [17.3 to 19.9] kg/m(2)) were randomized to receive nutritional supplementation during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Rifampin plasma concentrations were determined after 1 week and 2 months of treatment. The effects of nutritional supplementation, HIV, time...... on nutritional supplementation achieved higher Cmax and AUC0-24 values of 6.4 μg/ml and 31.6 μg · h/ml, respectively, and only 13.3% bioavailability reduction. No effect of the SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype was observed. In conclusion, nutritional supplementation during the first 2 months of TB treatment reduces...

  12. A simple in chemico method for testing skin sensitizing potential of chemicals using small endogenous molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Mahesh Raj; Shakya, Rajina; Kang, Mi Jeong; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2018-06-01

    Among many of the validated methods for testing skin sensitization, direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) employs no cells or animals. Although no immune cells are involved in this assay, it reliably predicts the skin sensitization potential of a chemical in chemico. Herein, a new method was developed using endogenous small-molecular-weight compounds, cysteamine and glutathione, rather than synthetic peptides, to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers with an accuracy as high as DPRA. The percent depletion of cysteamine and glutathione by test chemicals was measured by an HPLC equipped with a PDA detector. To detect small-size molecules, such as cysteamine and glutathione, a derivatization by 4-(4-dimethylaminophenylazo) benzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) was employed prior to the HPLC analysis. Following test method optimization, a cut-off criterion of 7.14% depletion was applied to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers in combination of the ratio of 1:25 for cysteamine:test chemical with 1:50 for glutathione:test chemical for the best predictivity among various single or combination conditions. Although overlapping HPLC peaks could not be fully resolved for some test chemicals, high levels of sensitivity (100.0%), specificity (81.8%), and accuracy (93.3%) were obtained for 30 chemicals tested, which were comparable or better than those achieved with DPRA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct Application of the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB Line-Probe Assay for Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains and Detection of Rifampin Resistance in 360 Smear-Positive Respiratory Specimens from an Area of High Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Rodrigues, Liliana; Almeida, Josefina; Bettencourt, Rosário; Couto, Isabel; Carrilho, Lurdes; Diogo, José; Fonseca, Ana; Lito, Luís; Lopes, João; Pacheco, Teresa; Pessanha, Mariana; Quirim, Judite; Sancho, Luísa; Salfinger, Max; Amaral, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    The INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains and the detection of rifampin (RIF) resistance has been evaluated with 360 smear-positive respiratory specimens from an area of high incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The sensitivity when compared to conventional identification/culture methods was 82.2%, and the specificity was 66.7%; the sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 96.9%, respectively, for the detection of RIF resistance. This assay has the potential to provide rapid information that is essential for the effective management of MDR-TB. PMID:16145166

  14. Rapid drug susceptibility test of mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.

  15. An adaptive Mantel-Haenszel test for sensitivity analysis in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paul R; Small, Dylan S

    2017-06-01

    In a sensitivity analysis in an observational study with a binary outcome, is it better to use all of the data or to focus on subgroups that are expected to experience the largest treatment effects? The answer depends on features of the data that may be difficult to anticipate, a trade-off between unknown effect-sizes and known sample sizes. We propose a sensitivity analysis for an adaptive test similar to the Mantel-Haenszel test. The adaptive test performs two highly correlated analyses, one focused analysis using a subgroup, one combined analysis using all of the data, correcting for multiple testing using the joint distribution of the two test statistics. Because the two component tests are highly correlated, this correction for multiple testing is small compared with, for instance, the Bonferroni inequality. The test has the maximum design sensitivity of two component tests. A simulation evaluates the power of a sensitivity analysis using the adaptive test. Two examples are presented. An R package, sensitivity2x2xk, implements the procedure. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Characterization of strain rate sensitivity and activation volume using the indentation relaxation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Baoxing; Chen Xi; Yue Zhufeng

    2010-01-01

    We present the possibility of extracting the strain rate sensitivity, activation volume and Helmholtz free energy (for dislocation activation) using just one indentation stress relaxation test, and the approach is demonstrated with polycrystalline copper. The Helmholtz free energy measured from indentation relaxation agrees well with that from the conventional compression relaxation test, which validates the proposed approach. From the indentation relaxation test, the measured indentation strain rate sensitivity exponent is found to be slightly larger, and the indentation activation volume much smaller, than their counterparts from the compression test. The results indicate the involvement of multiple dislocation mechanisms in the indentation test.

  17. A Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Chagas Disease That Utilizes a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, C. A.; Barney, R. S.; Crudder, C. H.; Wilmoth, J. L.; Stevens, D. S.; Mora-Garcia, S.; Yanovsky, M. J.; Weigl, B. H.; Yanovsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Improved diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are urgently needed. A new lateral flow rapid test for Chagas disease is under development at PATH, in collaboration with Laboratorio Lemos of Argentina, which utilizes a recombinant antigen for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. To evaluate the performance of this test, 375 earlier characterized serum specimens from a region where Chagas is endemic were tested using a reference test (the Ortho T. cruzi ELISA, Johnson & Johnson), a commercially available rapid test (Chagas STAT-PAK, Chembio), and the PATH–Lemos rapid test. Compared to the composite reference tests, the PATH–Lemos rapid test demonstrated an optimal sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 96.8%, while the Chagas STAT-PAK demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.5%. These results indicate that the PATH–Lemos rapid test shows promise as an improved and reliable tool for screening and diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:21342808

  18. A Measure of Cultural Competence as an Ethical Responsibility: Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Collins, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the psychometric qualifications of a new video-based measure of school professionals' ethical sensitivity toward issues of racial intolerance in schools. The new scale, titled the Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test (Quick-REST) is based on the ethical principles commonly shared by school-based professional…

  19. The sensitivity testing of Wilms' tumors to cytostatic agents with an autoradiographic in vitro short-term test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willnow, U.

    1984-01-01

    Sensitivity of 15 Wilms' tumors in children was tested towards cytostatic agents in vitro by means of an autoradiographic short-term test. Sensitivity was measured as the magnitude of the inhibition of 3 H-thymidine or 3 H-uridine incorporation. The test was performed with Adriamycin, Actinomycin D, Daunomycin, Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, Trenimon, and Arabinosylcytosine. None of the tumors is resistant to all substances, they are responsive against 2 or more drugs. The most effective drugs tested are Adriamycin, Actinomycin D and Cyclophosphamide. The tumors show a marked individual sensitivity pattern. This behavior is explained mainly by the usually high proliferative activity of Wilms' tumors. The possibilities and limits of long-term and short-term methods for sensitivity testing are discussed critically. For the evaluation of the results of in vitro testing and in vivo effectiveness the close correlation should be considered between the type of cytostatic agent and proliferation kinetics of the tumor, cytostatic agent and effect on tumor metabolism as well as the effect of the cytostatics and the nucleic acid precursors used for the short-term test. Despite the methodological limitations preclinical testing should be preferred to unselected chemotherapy. (author)

  20. A Comparison of Procedures for Content-Sensitive Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, G. Gage; Zara, Anthony R.

    1991-01-01

    This simulation investigated two procedures that reduce differences between paper-and-pencil testing and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) by making CAT content sensitive. Results indicate that the price in terms of additional test items of using constrained CAT for content balancing is much smaller than that of using testlets. (SLD)

  1. Improved sensitivity testing of explosives using transformed Up-Down methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity tests provide data that help establish guidelines for the safe handling of explosives. Any sensitivity test is based on assumptions to simplify the method or reduce the number of individual sample evaluations. Two common assumptions that are not typically checked after testing are 1) explosive response follows a normal distribution as a function of the applied stimulus levels and 2) the chosen test level spacing is close to the standard deviation of the explosive response function (for Bruceton Up-Down testing for example). These assumptions and other limitations of traditional explosive sensitivity testing can be addressed using Transformed Up-Down (TUD) test methods. TUD methods have been developed extensively for psychometric testing over the past 50 years and generally use multiple tests at a given level to determine how to adjust the applied stimulus. In the context of explosive sensitivity we can use TUD methods that concentrate testing around useful probability levels. Here, these methods are explained and compared to Bruceton Up-Down testing using computer simulation. The results show that the TUD methods are more useful for many cases but that they do require more tests as a consequence. For non-normal distributions, however, the TUD methods may be the only accurate assessment method.

  2. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...

  3. Sensitivity of the improved Dutch tube diffusion test for detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensitivity of the improved two-tube test for detection of antimicrobial residues in Kenyan milk was investigated by comparison with the commercial Delvo test SP. Suspect positive milk samples (n =244) from five milk collection centers, were analyzed with the improved two-tube and the commercial Delvo SP test as per ...

  4. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order...... to establish its value in clinical use. We therefore evaluated sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of PB as a diagnostic test in an entire case-series of adults with mastocytosis. We demonstrate for the first time that by using a sufficiently sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis, it is possible to detect...... the mutation in PB in nearly all adult mastocytosis patients. The mutation was detected in PB in 78 of 83 systemic mastocytosis (94%) and 3 of 4 cutaneous mastocytosis patients (75%). The test was 100% specific as determined by analysis of clinically relevant control patients who all tested negative. Mutation...

  5. Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporta, Diego; Hurst, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective . To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. Methods . A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of 100 patients each: Group A, patients tested between 2003 and 2010 prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in 2014 and 2015 following hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Chi-square test determined reactivity/sensitivity differences between groups. Results . Posthurricane patients had 34.6 times more positive results ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes. This supports climatologists' hypothesis that environmental changes resulting from hurricanes can be a health risk as reflected in increased allergic sensitivities and symptoms and has significant implications for physicians treating patients from affected areas.

  6. Why did the FDA approve efavirenz 800 mg when co-administered with rifampin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Chan-Tack, Kirk M; Jadhav, Pravin; Seo, Shirley; Robertson, Sarah M; Kraft, Jeffrey; Singer, Mary E; Struble, Kimberly A; Arya, Vikram

    2014-06-01

    Literature reports regarding the efficacy of efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg with rifampin (RIF) are not consistent. Evaluation of a drug-drug interaction (DDI) study and supportive semi-mechanistic population pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses were undertaken to help delineate this issue. DDI study and supportive semi-mechanistic population PK analyses were provided by BMS. Population PK analysis was based on six studies with intensive EFV PK sampling. An ACTG study with sparse PK sampling was used for model evaluation. Simulations compared EFV exposure at various doses in combination with RIF to EFV exposures at 600 mg once daily (QD). Effects of CYP2B6 genotypes on the magnitude of EFV-RIF interaction were also explored. In DDI study, co-administering EFV 600 mg QD and RIF reduced mean EFV exposure by ~ 30%. Population PK model provided acceptable predictive performance of central tendency and variability for EFV C0, Cmax, and AUC. Simulations predicted that increasing EFV to 800 mg QD with RIF would result in EFV AUC and Cmax similar to EFV 600 mg QD alone. EFV AUC and Cmax were ~ 2 times higher in subjects with reduced function CYP2B6 genotypes. However, the RIF effect was consistent across all genotypes. EFV dose adjustment to 800 mg QD did not increase the risk of overexposure compared to 600 mg EFV QD within each genotype. Dose adjustment based on matching systemic exposure was recommended to mitigate the potential for sub-therapeutic EFV exposures. Our review did not reveal any safety concerns in subjects receiving EFV 800 mg QD with RIF.

  7. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  8. Parametric Sensitivity Tests—European Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Test Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    performed based on test procedures proposed by a European project, Stack-Test. The sensitivity of a Nafion-based low temperature PEMFC stack’s performance to parametric changes was the main objective of the tests. Four crucial parameters for fuel cell operation were chosen; relative humidity, temperature......As fuel cells are increasingly commercialized for various applications, harmonized and industry-relevant test procedures are necessary to benchmark tests and to ensure comparability of stack performance results from different parties. This paper reports the results of parametric sensitivity tests......, pressure, and stoichiometry at varying current density. Furthermore, procedures for polarization curve recording were also tested both in ascending and descending current directions....

  9. The lymphocyte transformation test for the diagnosis of drug allergy: sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyfeler, B; Pichler, W J

    1997-02-01

    The diagnosis of a drug allergy is mainly based upon a very detailed history and the clinical findings. In addition, several in vitro or in vivo tests can be performed to demonstrate a sensitization to a certain drug. One of the in vitro tests is the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), which can reveal a sensitization of T-cells by an enhanced proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a certain drug. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the LTT, 923 case histories of patients with suspected drug allergy in whom a LTT was performed were retrospectively analysed. Based on the history and provocation tests, the probability (P) of a drug allergy was estimated to be > 0.9, 0.5-0.9, 0.1-0.5 or 0.9) had a positive LTT, which indicates a sensitivity of 78%. If allergies to betalactam-antibiotics were analysed separately, the sensitivity was 74.4%. Fifteen of 102 patients where a classical drug allergy could be excluded (P sensitization could be demonstrated as well (i.e. hen's egg lysozyme, 7/7). In 632 of the 923 cases, skin tests were also performed (scratch and/or epicutaneous), for which we found a lower sensitivity than for the LTT (64%), while the specificity was the same (85%). Although our data are somewhat biased by the high number of penicillin allergies and cannot be generalized to drug allergies caused by other compounds, we conclude that the LTT is a useful diagnostic test in drug allergies, able to support the diagnosis of a drug allergy and to pinpoint the relevant drug.

  10. Physiological assessment of sensitivity of noninvasive testing for coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, I.; Rezai, K.; Rossen, J.D.; Winniford, M.D.; Talman, C.L.; Hollenberg, M.; Kirchner, P.T.; Marcus, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of three noninvasive tests for coronary artery disease was assessed by means of quantitative indexes of disease severity in three different groups of patients. The overall population consisted of 110 subjects with limited coronary artery disease and no myocardial infarction. Planar dipyridamole- 201 Tl scintigraphy was evaluated in 31 patients, computer-assisted exercise treadmill in 28, and high-dose dipyridamole echocardiography testing in 51. Sensitivity was assessed by rigorous gold standards to define disease severity, such as measurement of minimum cross-sectional area and percent area of stenosis, by quantitative computerized coronary angiography (Brown/Dodge method). On the basis of the results of previous studies, the presence of physiologically significant coronary artery disease was indicated by a stenotic minimum cross-sectional area (MCSA) of less than 2.0 mm 2 or a greater than 75% area of stenosis. With MCSA as the gold standard, dipyridamole- 201 Tl scintigraphy, computerized exercise treadmill, and dipyridamole echocardiography testing showed sensitivities of 52%, 54%, and 61%, respectively, in the three different patient cohorts enrolled. With percent area of stenosis as the gold standard, the sensitivity figures obtained for dipyridamole- 201 Tl, computerized exercise treadmill, and dipyridamole echocardiography testing were 64%, 54%, and 69%, respectively. For each of the three tests, sensitivity increased with increasing lesion severity. Sensitivity was also better in patients with left anterior descending coronary (LAD) disease when compared with patients with left circumflex or right coronary artery disease. Results of these studies demonstrate that in patients with limited coronary artery disease none of the tests evaluated is definitely superior in sensitivity

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of the 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; de Jong, Ben; Jacobs, Bram; van der Werf, Sieberen P; Vos, Pieter E

    2009-04-01

    To investigate how the type of stimulus (pictures or words) and the method of reproduction (free recall or recognition after a short or a long delay) affect the sensitivity and specificity of a 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia (PTA). Daily testing was performed in 64 consecutively admitted traumatic brain injured patients, 22 orthopedically injured patients and 26 healthy controls until criteria for resolution of PTA were reached. Subjects were randomly assigned to a test with visual or verbal stimuli. Short delay reproduction was tested after an interval of 3-5 minutes, long delay reproduction was tested after 24 hours. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated over the first 4 test days. The 3-word test showed higher sensitivity than the 3-picture test, while specificity of the two tests was equally high. Free recall was a more effortful task than recognition for both patients and controls. In patients, a longer delay between registration and recall resulted in a significant decrease in the number of items reproduced. Presence of PTA is best assessed with a memory test that incorporates the free recall of words after a long delay.

  12. Comparison of the sensitivity of typhi dot test with blood culture in typhoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizvi, Q [Hamdard College of Medicine, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Pharmacology

    2006-10-15

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Typhi Dot test in comparison to Blood Culture for the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in our setup. Fifty patients who fulfilled the clinical criteria of having Typhoid Fever. The data of all the patients was documented, and they were submitted to the Typhi Dot and Blood Culture tests, apart from other routine investigations. Out of the total 50 patients, 47(94%) had their Blood Culture positive for Typhoid bacillus, while in 49 (98%) the Typhi Dot test was positive. Two patients which were found positive on Typhi dot test, gave negative results on Blood Culture. One patient with the signs and symptoms of Typhoid Fever was found neither positive on Typhi Dot test nor upon Blood Culture. There was no significant difference between the results of Blood Culture and Typhi Dot test in the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever. However, Typhi Dot has the advantages of being less expensive and quicker in giving results with excellent sensitivity. (author)

  13. Comparison of the sensitivity of typhi dot test with blood culture in typhoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Q.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Typhi Dot test in comparison to Blood Culture for the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in our setup. Fifty patients who fulfilled the clinical criteria of having Typhoid Fever. The data of all the patients was documented, and they were submitted to the Typhi Dot and Blood Culture tests, apart from other routine investigations. Out of the total 50 patients, 47(94%) had their Blood Culture positive for Typhoid bacillus, while in 49 (98%) the Typhi Dot test was positive. Two patients which were found positive on Typhi dot test, gave negative results on Blood Culture. One patient with the signs and symptoms of Typhoid Fever was found neither positive on Typhi Dot test nor upon Blood Culture. There was no significant difference between the results of Blood Culture and Typhi Dot test in the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever. However, Typhi Dot has the advantages of being less expensive and quicker in giving results with excellent sensitivity. (author)

  14. Speech-in-noise screening tests by internet, part 3: test sensitivity for uncontrolled parameters in domestic usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C. J.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2013-01-01

    The online speech-in-noise test 'Earcheck' is sensitive for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This study investigates effects of uncontrollable parameters in domestic self-screening, such as presentation level and transducer type, on speech reception thresholds (SRTs) obtained with Earcheck.

  15. Comparison of sensitivity of quantiferon-tb gold test and tuberculin skin test in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K.F.; Ambreen, A.; Butt, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity of tuberculin skin test (TST) and quantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: QuantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) was evaluated and compared it with tuberculin skin test (TST) in 50 cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, in whom tuberculous infection was suspected on clinical, radiological and microbiological grounds. Sensitivity was determined against positive growth for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: Out of 50 cases, 43 were females and 7 were males. The mean age was 41.84 A+- 19.03 years. Sensitivity of QFT-G was 80% while that of TST was 28%. Conclusion: QFT-G has much higher sensitivity than TST for active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is unaffected by prior BCG administration and prior exposure to atypical mycobacteria. A positive QFT-G result can be an adjunct to diagnosis in patients having clinical and radiological data compatible with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  16. Leakage localisation method in a water distribution system based on sensitivity matrix: methodology and real test

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Pañach, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Leaks are present in all water distribution systems. In this paper a method for leakage detection and localisation is presented. It uses pressure measurements and simulation models. Leakage localisation methodology is based on pressure sensitivity matrix. Sensitivity is normalised and binarised using a common threshold for all nodes, so a signatures matrix is obtained. A pressure sensor optimal distribution methodology is developed too, but it is not used in the real test. To validate this...

  17. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  18. Sensitivity analysis methods and a biosphere test case implemented in EIKOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, P.A.; Broed, R.

    2006-05-01

    Computer-based models can be used to approximate real life processes. These models are usually based on mathematical equations, which are dependent on several variables. The predictive capability of models is therefore limited by the uncertainty in the value of these. Sensitivity analysis is used to apportion the relative importance each uncertain input parameter has on the output variation. Sensitivity analysis is therefore an essential tool in simulation modelling and for performing risk assessments. Simple sensitivity analysis techniques based on fitting the output to a linear equation are often used, for example correlation or linear regression coefficients. These methods work well for linear models, but for non-linear models their sensitivity estimations are not accurate. Usually models of complex natural systems are non-linear. Within the scope of this work, various sensitivity analysis methods, which can cope with linear, non-linear, as well as non-monotone problems, have been implemented, in a software package, EIKOS, written in Matlab language. The following sensitivity analysis methods are supported by EIKOS: Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (CC), Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (RCC), Partial (Rank) Correlation Coefficients (PCC), Standardized (Rank) Regression Coefficients (SRC), Sobol' method, Jansen's alternative, Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (EFAST) as well as the classical FAST method and the Smirnov and the Cramer-von Mises tests. A graphical user interface has also been developed, from which the user easily can load or call the model and perform a sensitivity analysis as well as uncertainty analysis. The implemented sensitivity analysis methods has been benchmarked with well-known test functions and compared with other sensitivity analysis software, with successful results. An illustration of the applicability of EIKOS is added to the report. The test case used is a landscape model consisting of several linked

  19. Sensitivity analysis methods and a biosphere test case implemented in EIKOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, P.A.; Broed, R. [Facilia AB, Stockholm, (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    Computer-based models can be used to approximate real life processes. These models are usually based on mathematical equations, which are dependent on several variables. The predictive capability of models is therefore limited by the uncertainty in the value of these. Sensitivity analysis is used to apportion the relative importance each uncertain input parameter has on the output variation. Sensitivity analysis is therefore an essential tool in simulation modelling and for performing risk assessments. Simple sensitivity analysis techniques based on fitting the output to a linear equation are often used, for example correlation or linear regression coefficients. These methods work well for linear models, but for non-linear models their sensitivity estimations are not accurate. Usually models of complex natural systems are non-linear. Within the scope of this work, various sensitivity analysis methods, which can cope with linear, non-linear, as well as non-monotone problems, have been implemented, in a software package, EIKOS, written in Matlab language. The following sensitivity analysis methods are supported by EIKOS: Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (CC), Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (RCC), Partial (Rank) Correlation Coefficients (PCC), Standardized (Rank) Regression Coefficients (SRC), Sobol' method, Jansen's alternative, Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (EFAST) as well as the classical FAST method and the Smirnov and the Cramer-von Mises tests. A graphical user interface has also been developed, from which the user easily can load or call the model and perform a sensitivity analysis as well as uncertainty analysis. The implemented sensitivity analysis methods has been benchmarked with well-known test functions and compared with other sensitivity analysis software, with successful results. An illustration of the applicability of EIKOS is added to the report. The test case used is a landscape model consisting of several

  20. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow trephine biopsy tests in an Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Chauhan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bone marrow aspiration (BMA and bone marrow biopsy (BMB is an indispensable diagnostic tool for evaluating haematological and non-haematological disorders and patient follow-up in present era. We have compared the advantages of trephine biopsy over bone marrow aspiration in these patients. Aim and objective: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of trephine biopsy test for haematological and non haematological disorder patients in comparison to bone marrow aspiration test. Materials and method: In this 1 year prospective study (June 2014–May 2015, we evaluated the haematological and non-haematological disorder patients by BMA and BMB (aided with I.H.C. when ever needed. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were calculated. Results: Among, final 504 hemotological/non haematological disorder patients, 416 cases were diagnosed (+ve in BMA test, where as it was 494 in BMB test and with chi2 test it was highly significant as p = 0.0001. It was concluded that True positive cases were 416, True negative were 9 cases, false negative 78 cases and false positive was in one case only. The sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow trephine biopsy test was 84% and 90% respectively. Conclusion: BMB (aided with I.H.C is a gold standard test for detecting different haematological and non hamatological disorders. In our study the sensitivity and specificity of BMB test was 84% and 90% respectively. When performed in association with BMA in the same sitting, significantly augments the chances of reaching a correct diagnosis. Keywords: Bone marrow trephine biopsy, Bone marrow aspiration, Sensitivity, Specificity

  1. Sensitivity analysis of a complex, proposed geologic waste disposal system using the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yichi; Mohanty, Sitakanta

    2001-01-01

    The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) method has been used to perform a sensitivity analysis of a computer model developed for conducting total system performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. The computer model has a large number of random input parameters with assigned probability density functions, which may or may not be uniform, for representing data uncertainty. The FAST method, which was previously applied to models with parameters represented by the uniform probability distribution function only, has been modified to be applied to models with nonuniform probability distribution functions. Using an example problem with a small input parameter set, several aspects of the FAST method, such as the effects of integer frequency sets and random phase shifts in the functional transformations, and the number of discrete sampling points (equivalent to the number of model executions) on the ranking of the input parameters have been investigated. Because the number of input parameters of the computer model under investigation is too large to be handled by the FAST method, less important input parameters were first screened out using the Morris method. The FAST method was then used to rank the remaining parameters. The validity of the parameter ranking by the FAST method was verified using the conditional complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the output. The CCDF results revealed that the introduction of random phase shifts into the functional transformations, proposed by previous investigators to disrupt the repetitiveness of search curves, does not necessarily improve the sensitivity analysis results because it destroys the orthogonality of the trigonometric functions, which is required for Fourier analysis

  2. Screening Test for Detection of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say Sensitivity to Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Inđić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the sensitivity of 15 field populations of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsadecemlineata Say. - CPB was assessed to chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, thiamethoxam and fipronil,four insecticides which are mostly used for its control in Serbia. Screening test that allows rapidassessment of sensitivity of overwintered adults to insecticides was performed. Insecticideswere applied at label rates, and two, five and 10 fold higher rates by soaking method (5 sec.Mortality was assessed after 72h. From 15 monitored populations of CPB, two were sensitiveto label rate of chlorpyrifos, one was slightly resistant, 11 were resistant and one populationwas highly resistant. Concerning cypermethrin, two populations were sensitive, two slightlyresistant, five were resistant and six highly resistant. Highly sensitive to thiamethoxam labelrate were 12 populations, while three were sensitive. In the case of fipronil applied at label rate,two populations were highly sensitive, six sensitive, one slightly resistant and six were resistant.The application of insecticides at higher rates (2, 5 and 10 fold, that is justified only in bioassays,provided a rapid insight into sensitivity of field populations of CPB to insecticides.

  3. Clinical Outcome with Oral Linezolid and Rifampin Following Recurrent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Despite Prolonged Vancomycin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon-David Schwalm

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus, are emerging as the predominant organisms involved in both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Since the 1980s, vancomycin has been the first-line antibiotic used to treat methicillin-resistant S aureus. However, allergy and intolerance to vancomycin, the increasing number of vancomycin clinical failures and the existence of vancomycin intermediate-susceptible isolates of S aureus suggest that new antibiotics are needed. This paper reports the only known case of a successful clinical outcome with long term oral linezolid and rifampin therapy in the management of recurrent and persistent methicillin-resistant S aureus bacteremia with metastatic infections despite prolonged vancomycin use. More than two years since the initiation of linezolid and rifampin, the study patient has been clinically well with no evidence of adverse drug reactions including cytopenia and hepatic toxicities. Physicians must be aware of the novel developments in antibiotic therapy to treat drug-resistant bacterial infections.

  4. Increased retest reactivity by both patch and use test with methyldibromoglutaronitrile in sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

    2006-01-01

    -exposure by both a patch test challenge and a use test with a liquid soap preserved with MDBGN. MDBGN dermatitis was elicited on the back and arms of sensitized individuals. One month later the previously eczematous areas were challenged with MDBGN. On the back, the test sites were patch-tested with a serial...... dilution of MDBGN and a use test was performed on the arms with an MDBGN-containing soap. A statistically significant increased response was seen on the areas with previous dermatitis on the back. Eight of the nine patients who developed dermatitis on the arms from the MDBGN-containing soap had...

  5. Engineering Sensitivity Improvement of Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection System by Means Global Hard Vacuum Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit Asmara Santa

    2006-01-01

    The engineering sensitivity improvement of Helium mass spectrometer leak detection using global hard vacuum test configuration has been done. The purpose of this work is to enhance the sensitivity of the current leak detection of pressurized method (sniffer method) with the sensitivity of 10 -3 ∼ 10 -5 std cm 3 /s, to the global hard vacuum test configuration method which can be achieved of up to 10 -8 std cm 3 /s. The goal of this research and development is to obtain a Helium leak test configuration which is suitable and can be used as routine bases in the quality control tests of FPM capsule and AgInCd safety control rod products. The result is an additional instrumented vacuum tube connected with conventional Helium mass spectrometer. The pressure and temperature of the test object during the leak measurement are simulated by means of a 4.1 kW capacity heater and Helium injection to test object, respectively. The addition of auxiliary mechanical vacuum pump of 2.4 l/s pumping speed which is directly connected to the vacuum tube, will reduce 86 % of evacuation time. The reduction of the measured sensitivity due to the auxiliary mechanical vacuum pump can be overcome by shutting off the pump soon after Helium mass spectrometer reaches its operating pressure condition. (author)

  6. Use of genotoxicity information in the development of integrated testing strategies (ITS) for skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekenyan, Ovanes; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrova, Gergana; Kuseva, Chanita; Todorov, Milen; Stoeva, Stoyanka; Kotov, Stefan; Donner, E Maria

    2010-10-18

    Skin sensitization is an end point of concern for various legislation in the EU, including the seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive and Registration Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Since animal testing is a last resort for REACH or banned (from 2013 onward) for the Cosmetics Directive, the use of intelligent/integrated testing strategies (ITS) as an efficient means of gathering necessary information from alternative sources (e.g., in vitro, (Q)SARs, etc.) is gaining widespread interest. Previous studies have explored correlations between mutagenicity data and skin sensitization data as a means of exploiting information from surrogate end points. The work here compares the underlying chemical mechanisms for mutagenicity and skin sensitization in an effort to evaluate the role mutagenicity information can play as a predictor of skin sensitization potential. The Tissue Metabolism Simulator (TIMES) hybrid expert system was used to compare chemical mechanisms of both end points since it houses a comprehensive set of established structure-activity relationships for both skin sensitization and mutagenicity. The evaluation demonstrated that there is a great deal of overlap between skin sensitization and mutagenicity structural alerts and their underlying chemical mechanisms. The similarities and differences in chemical mechanisms are discussed in light of available experimental data. A number of new alerts for mutagenicity were also postulated for inclusion into TIMES. The results presented show that mutagenicity information can provide useful insights on skin sensitization potential as part of an ITS and should be considered prior to any in vivo skin sensitization testing being initiated.

  7. [Test and programme sensitivities of screening for colorectal cancer in Reggio Emilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campari, Cinzia; Sassatelli, Romano; Paterlini, Luisa; Camellini, Lorenzo; Menozzi, Patrizia; Cattani, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    to estimate the sensitivity of the immunochemical test for faecal occult blood (FOBT) and the sensitivity of the colorectal tumour screening programme in the province of Reggio Emilia. retrospective cohort study, including a sample of 80,357 people of both genders, aged 50-69, who underwent FOBT, during the first round of the screening programme in the province of Reggio Emilia, from April 2005 to December 2007. incidence of interval cancer. The proportional incidence method was used to estimate the sensitivity of FOBT and of the screening programme. Data were stratified according to gender, age and year of interval. the overall sensitivity of FOBT was 73.2% (95%IC 63.8-80.7). The sensitivity of FOBT was lower in females (70.5% vs 75.1%), higher in the 50-59 age group (78.6% vs 70.2%) and higher in the colon than rectum (75.1% vs 68.9%). The test had a significantly higher sensitivity in the 1st year of interval than in the 2nd (84.4% vs 60.5%; RR=0.39, 95%IC 0.22-0.70), a difference which was confirmed, also when data were stratified according to gender. The overall sensitivity of the programme is 70.9% (95%IC 61.5-78.5). No statistically significant differences were shown, if data were stratified according to gender, age or site. Again the sensitivity in the 1st year was significantly higher than in the 2nd year of interval (83.2% vs 57.0%; RR=0.41, 95%IC 0.24-0.69). Overall our data confirmed the findings of similar Italian studies, despite subgroup analysis showed some differences in sensitivity in our study.

  8. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Fry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test. METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples. KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6% and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8 respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1% and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9% compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.

  9. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing habits and use of sensitivity testing amongst veterinarians in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Briyne, N; Atkinson, J; Pokludová, L; Borriello, S P; Price, S

    2013-11-16

    The Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe undertook a survey to gain a better insight into the decision-making process of veterinarians in Europe when deciding which antibiotics to prescribe. The survey was completed by 3004 practitioners from 25 European countries. Analysis was to the level of different types of practitioner (food producing (FP) animals, companion animals, equines) and country for Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Responses indicate no single information source is universally considered critical, though training, published literature and experience were the most important. Factors recorded which most strongly influenced prescribing behaviour were sensitivity tests, own experience, the risk for antibiotic resistance developing and ease of administration. Most practitioners usually take into account responsible use warnings. Antibiotic sensitivity testing is usually performed where a treatment failure has occurred. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of sensitivity testing at the level of types of practitioners and country. The responses indicate a need to improve sensitivity tests and services, with the availability of rapid and cheaper testing being key factors.

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maciel de Arruda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA, decreased sensitivity (83.3% and increased specificity (92.5% were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL.

  11. Respiratory panic disorder subtype and sensitivity to the carbon dioxide challenge test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Valença

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify the sensitivity to the carbon dioxide (CO2 challenge test of panic disorder (PD patients with respiratory and nonrespiratory subtypes of the disorder. Our hypothesis is that the respiratory subtype is more sensitive to 35% CO2. Twenty-seven PD subjects with or without agoraphobia were classified into respiratory and nonrespiratory subtypes on the basis of the presence of respiratory symptoms during their panic attacks. The tests were carried out in a double-blind manner using two mixtures: 1 35% CO2 and 65% O2, and 2 100% atmospheric compressed air, 20 min apart. The tests were repeated after 2 weeks during which the participants in the study did not receive any psychotropic drugs. At least 15 of 16 (93.7% respiratory PD subtype patients and 5 of 11 (43.4% nonrespiratory PD patients had a panic attack during one of two CO2 challenges (P = 0.009, Fisher exact test. Respiratory PD subtype patients were more sensitive to the CO2 challenge test. There was agreement between the severity of PD measured by the Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale and the subtype of PD. Higher CGI scores in the respiratory PD subtype could reflect a greater sensitivity to the CO2 challenge due to a greater severity of PD. Carbon dioxide challenges in PD may define PD subtypes and their underlying mechanisms.

  12. Design and clinical pilot testing of the model-based dynamic insulin sensitivity and secretion test (DISST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Thomas F; Chase, J Geoffrey; McAuley, Kirsten A; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Docherty, Paul D; Berkeley, Juliet E; Williams, Sheila M; Hann, Christopher E; Mann, Jim I

    2010-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a significant risk factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This article presents pilot study results of the dynamic insulin sensitivity and secretion test (DISST), a high-resolution, low-intensity test to diagnose insulin sensitivity (IS) and characterize pancreatic insulin secretion in response to a (small) glucose challenge. This pilot study examines the effect of glucose and insulin dose on the DISST, and tests its repeatability. DISST tests were performed on 16 subjects randomly allocated to low (5 g glucose, 0.5 U insulin), medium (10 g glucose, 1 U insulin) and high dose (20 g glucose, 2 U insulin) protocols. Two or three tests were performed on each subject a few days apart. Average variability in IS between low and medium dose was 10.3% (p=.50) and between medium and high dose 6.0% (p=.87). Geometric mean variability between tests was 6.0% (multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) 4.9%). Geometric mean variability in first phase endogenous insulin response was 6.8% (MSD 2.2%). Results were most consistent in subjects with low IS. These findings suggest that DISST may be an easily performed dynamic test to quantify IS with high resolution, especially among those with reduced IS. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Comparison of the sensitivities of the Buehler test and the guinea pig maximization test for predictive testing of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Vølund, A; Wahlberg, J E

    2001-01-01

    International test guidelines, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline #406, recommend 2 guinea pig methods for testing of the contact allergenic potential of chemicals: the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and the Buehler test. Previous comparisons...

  14. Development of an in vitro skin sensitization test based on ROS production in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazutoshi; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Nukada, Yuko; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2013-03-01

    Recently, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by contact allergens can affect dendritic cell migration and contact hypersensitivity. The aim of the present study was to develop a new in vitro assay that could predict the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals by measuring ROS production in THP-1 (human monocytic leukemia cell line) cells. THP-1 cells were pre-loaded with a ROS sensitive fluorescent dye, 5-(and 6-)-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), for 15min, then incubated with test chemicals for 30min. The fluorescence intensity was measured by flow cytometry. For the skin sensitizers, 25 out of 30 induced over a 2-fold ROS production at more than 90% of cell viability. In contrast, increases were only seen in 4 out of 20 non-sensitizers. The overall accuracy for the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was 82% for 50 chemicals tested. A correlation was found between the estimated concentration showing 2-fold ROS production in the ROS assay and the EC3 values (estimated concentration required to induce positive response) of the LLNA. These results indicated that the THP-1 cell-based ROS assay was a rapid and highly sensitive detection system able to predict skin sensitizing potentials and potency of chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Central sensitization phenomena after third molar surgery: A quantitative sensory testing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.S.; Norholt, S.E.; Svensson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Surgical removal of third molars may carry a risk of developing persistent orofacial pain, and central sensitization appears to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate sensitization (primarily central sensitiza......Background: Surgical removal of third molars may carry a risk of developing persistent orofacial pain, and central sensitization appears to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate sensitization (primarily central...... sensitization) after orofacial trauma using quantitative sensory testing (QST). Methods: A total of 32 healthy men (16 patients and 16 age-matched control subjects) underwent a battery of quantitative tests adapted to the trigeminal area at baseline and 2, 7, and 30 days following surgical removal of a lower...... impacted third molar. Results: Central sensitization for at least one week was indicated by significantly increased pain intensity evoked by intraoral repetitive pinprick and electrical stimulation (p

  16. Application of a path sensitizing method on automated generation of test specifications for control software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Yuuichi; Fukuda, Mitsuko

    1995-01-01

    An automated generation method for test specifications has been developed for sequential control software in plant control equipment. Sequential control software can be represented as sequential circuits. The control software implemented in a control equipment is designed from these circuit diagrams. In logic tests of VLSI's, path sensitizing methods are widely used to generate test specifications. But the method generates test specifications at a single time only, and can not be directly applied to sequential control software. The basic idea of the proposed method is as follows. Specifications of each logic operator in the diagrams are defined in the software design process. Therefore, test specifications of each operator in the control software can be determined from these specifications, and validity of software can be judged by inspecting all of the operators in the logic circuit diagrams. Candidates for sensitized paths, on which test data for each operator propagates, can be generated by the path sensitizing method. To confirm feasibility of the method, it was experimentally applied to control software in digital control equipment. The program could generate test specifications exactly, and feasibility of the method was confirmed. (orig.) (3 refs., 7 figs.)

  17. QSAR models of human data can enrich or replace LLNA testing for human skin sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Capuzzi, Stephen J.; Muratov, Eugene; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Thornton, Thomas; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Skin sensitization is a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Although many chemicals have been evaluated in humans, there have been no efforts to model these data to date. We have compiled, curated, analyzed, and compared the available human and LLNA data. Using these data, we have developed reliable computational models and applied them for virtual screening of chemical libraries to identify putative skin sensitizers. The overall concordance between murine LLNA and human skin sensitization responses for a set of 135 unique chemicals was low (R = 28-43%), although several chemical classes had high concordance. We have succeeded to develop predictive QSAR models of all available human data with the external correct classification rate of 71%. A consensus model integrating concordant QSAR predictions and LLNA results afforded a higher CCR of 82% but at the expense of the reduced external dataset coverage (52%). We used the developed QSAR models for virtual screening of CosIng database and identified 1061 putative skin sensitizers; for seventeen of these compounds, we found published evidence of their skin sensitization effects. Models reported herein provide more accurate alternative to LLNA testing for human skin sensitization assessment across diverse chemical data. In addition, they can also be used to guide the structural optimization of toxic compounds to reduce their skin sensitization potential. PMID:28630595

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of the AdenoPlus test for diagnosing adenoviral conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambursky, Robert; Trattler, William; Tauber, Shachar; Starr, Christopher; Friedberg, Murray; Boland, Thomas; McDonald, Marguerite; DellaVecchia, Michael; Luchs, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the AdenoPlus test with those of both viral cell culture (CC) with confirmatory immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at detecting the presence of adenovirus in tear fluid. A prospective, sequential, masked, multicenter clinical trial enrolled 128 patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis of acute viral conjunctivitis from a combination of 8 private ophthalmology practices and academic centers. Patients were tested with AdenoPlus, CC-IFA, and PCR to detect the presence of adenovirus. The sensitivity and specificity of AdenoPlus were assessed for identifying cases of adenoviral conjunctivitis. Of the 128 patients enrolled, 36 patients' results were found to be positive by either CC-IFA or PCR and 29 patients' results were found to be positive by both CC-IFA and PCR. When compared only with CC-IFA, AdenoPlus showed a sensitivity of 90% (28/31) and specificity of 96% (93/97). When compared only with PCR, AdenoPlus showed a sensitivity of 85% (29/34) and specificity of 98% (89/91). When compared with both CC-IFA and PCR, AdenoPlus showed a sensitivity of 93% (27/29) and specificity of 98% (88/90). When compared with PCR, CC-IFA showed a sensitivity of 85% (29/34) and specificity of 99% (90/91). AdenoPlus is sensitive and specific at detecting adenoviral conjunctivitis. An accurate and rapid in-office test can prevent the misdiagnosis of adenoviral conjunctivitis that leads to the spread of disease, unnecessary antibiotic use, and increased health care costs. Additionally, AdenoPlus may help a clinician make a more informed treatment decision regarding the use of novel therapeutics. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00921895.

  19. Antigen spot test (AST): a highly sensitive assay for the detection of antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrink, P; van Bussel, F J; Warnaar, S O [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)

    1982-02-12

    A method is described for detection of antibodies by means of nitrocellulose or diazobenzyloxymethyl (DBM) paper on which various antigens have been spotted. The sensitivity of this antigen spot test (AST) is comparable with that of RIA and ELISA. The method requires only nanogram amounts of antigen. Since a variety of antigens can be spotted on a single piece of nitrocellulose or DBM paper, this antigen spot test is especially useful for specificity controls on antibodies.

  20. In Vitro Drug Sensitivity Tests to Predict Molecular Target Drug Responses in Surgically Resected Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors have dramatically changed the strategy of medical treatment of lung cancer. Patients should be screened for the presence of the EGFR mutation or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4-ALK fusion gene prior to chemotherapy to predict their clinical response. The succinate dehydrogenase inhibition (SDI test and collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST are established in vitro drug sensitivity tests, which may predict the sensitivity of patients to cytotoxic anticancer drugs. We applied in vitro drug sensitivity tests for cyclopedic prediction of clinical responses to different molecular targeting drugs.The growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib and crizotinib were confirmed for lung cancer cell lines using SDI and CD-DST. The sensitivity of 35 cases of surgically resected lung cancer to erlotinib was examined using SDI or CD-DST, and compared with EGFR mutation status.HCC827 (Exon19: E746-A750 del and H3122 (EML4-ALK cells were inhibited by lower concentrations of erlotinib and crizotinib, respectively than A549, H460, and H1975 (L858R+T790M cells were. The viability of the surgically resected lung cancer was 60.0 ± 9.8 and 86.8 ± 13.9% in EGFR-mutants vs. wild types in the SDI (p = 0.0003. The cell viability was 33.5 ± 21.2 and 79.0 ± 18.6% in EGFR mutants vs. wild-type cases (p = 0.026 in CD-DST.In vitro drug sensitivity evaluated by either SDI or CD-DST correlated with EGFR gene status. Therefore, SDI and CD-DST may be useful predictors of potential clinical responses to the molecular anticancer drugs, cyclopedically.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of the 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Jong, B. de; Jacobs, B.; Werf, S.P. van der; Vos, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the type of stimulus (pictures or words) and the method of reproduction (free recall or recognition after a short or a long delay) affect the sensitivity and specificity of a 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia (PTA). METHODS: Daily

  2. History and sensitivity comparison of the Spirodela polyrhiza microbiotest and Lemna toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudo R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of toxicity tests with duckweeds shows that these assays with free-floating aquatic angiosperms are gaining increasing attention in ecotoxicological research and applications. Standard tests have been published by national and international organizations, mainly with the test species Lemna minor and Lemna gibba. Besides the former two test species the great duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza is to date also regularly used in duckweed testing. Under unfavorable environmental conditions, the latter species produces dormant stages (turions and this has triggered the attention of two research groups from Belgium and Greece to jointly develop a “stock culture independent” microbiotest with S. polyrhiza. A 72 h new test has been worked out which besides its independence of stock culturing and maintenance of live stocks is very simple and practical to perform, and much less demanding in space and time than the conventional duckweed tests. Extensive International Interlaboratory Comparisons on the S. polyrhiza microbiotest showed its robustness and reliability and triggered the decision to propose this new assay to the ISO for endorsement and publication as a standard toxicity test for duckweeds. Sensitivity comparison of the 72 h S. polyrhiza microbiotest with the 7d L. minor assay for 22 compounds belonging to different groups of chemicals revealed that based on growth as the effect criterion both duckweed assays have a similar sensitivity. Taking into account its multiple advantages and assets, the S. polyrhiza microbiotest is a reliable and attractive alternative to the conventional duckweed tests.

  3. An exposure-response analysis based on rifampin suggests CYP3A4 induction is driven by AUC: an in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Yang, Xin; Fahmi, Odette A; Riccardi, Keith A; Di, Li; Obach, R Scott

    2017-08-01

    1. Induction is an important mechanism contributing to drug-drug interactions. It is most commonly evaluated in the human hepatocyte assay over 48-h or 72-h incubation period. However, whether the overall exposure (i.e. Area Under the Curve (AUC) or C ave ) or maximum exposure (i.e. C max ) of the inducer is responsible for the magnitude of subsequent induction has not been thoroughly investigated. Additionally, in vitro induction assays are typically treated as static systems, which could lead to inaccurate induction potency estimation. Hence, European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidance now specifies quantitation of drug levels in the incubation. 2. This work treated the typical in vitro evaluation of rifampin induction as an in vivo system by generating various target engagement profiles, measuring free rifampin concentration over 3 d of incubation and evaluating the impact of these factors on final induction response. 3. This rifampin-based analysis demonstrates that the induction process is driven by time-averaged target engagement (i.e. AUC-driven). Additionally, depletion of rifampin in the incubation medium over 3 d as well as non-specific/specific binding were observed. 4. These findings should help aid the discovery of clinical candidates with minimal induction liability and further expand our knowledge in the quantitative translatability of in vitro induction assays.

  4. Highly sensitive multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip for rapid chemiluminescent detection of ractopamine and salbutamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hongfei; Han, Jing; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the rapid detection of two β 2 -agonists. Due to the application of chemiluminescent detection, this quantitative method shows much higher sensitivity. - Highlights: • An immunochromatographic test strip was developed for detection of multiple β 2 -agonists. • The whole assay process can be completed within 20 min. • The proposed method shows much higher sensitivity due to the application of CL detection. • It is a portable analytical tool suitable for field analysis and rapid screening. - Abstract: A novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was proposed for rapid and multiple assay of β 2 -agonists, by utilizing ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) as the models. Owing to the introduction of chemiluminescent (CL) approach, the proposed protocol shows much higher sensitivity. In this work, the described ICA was based on a competitive format, and horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibodies were used as highly sensitive CL probes. Quantitative analysis of β 2 -agonists was achieved by recording the CL signals of the probes captured on the two test zones of the nitrocellulose membrane. Under the optimum conditions, RAC and SAL could be detected within the linear ranges of 0.50–40 and 0.10–50 ng mL −1 , with the detection limits of 0.20 and 0.040 ng mL −1 (S/N = 3), respectively. The whole process for multianalyte immunoassay of RAC and SAL can be completed within 20 min. Furthermore, the test strip was validated with spiked swine urine samples and the results showed that this method was reliable in measuring β 2 -agonists in swine urine. This CL-based multianalyte test strip shows a series of advantages such as high sensitivity, ideal selectivity, simple manipulation, high assay efficiency and low cost. Thus, it opens up new pathway for rapid screening and field analysis, and shows a promising prospect in food safety

  5. Sensitivity of screening-level toxicity tests using soils from a former petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, S.; Bureau, J.; Roy, Y.; Allen, B.; Robidoux, P.Y.; Soucy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors tested five composite soil samples from a former refinery. The samples included a reference soil (Mineral Oil and Grease, MO and G < 40 ppm), thermally-treated soil, biotreated soil, and two untreated soils. They evaluated toxicity using the earthworm E. foetida, lettuce, cress, barley, Microtox, green algae, fathead minnow, and D. magna. The endpoints measured were lethality, seed germination, root elongation, growth, and bioluminescence. Toxicity, as measured by the number of positive responses, increased as follows: biotreated soil < untreated soil No. 1 < reference soil < thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2. The biotreated soil generated only one positive response, whereas the thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2 generated five positive responses. The most sensitive and discriminant terrestrial endpoint was lettuce root elongation which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was barley seed germination for which no toxicity was detected. The most sensitive and discriminant aquatic endpoint was green algae growth which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was D. magna for which no toxicity was detected. Overall, soil and aqueous extract toxicity was spotty and no consistent patterns emerged to differentiate the five soils. Biotreatment significantly reduced the effects of the contamination. Aqueous toxicity was measured in the reference soil, probably because of the presence of unknown dissolved compounds in the aqueous extract. Finally, clear differences in sensitivity existed among the test species

  6. Efficacy of collagen silver-coated polyester and rifampin-soaked vascular grafts to resist infection from MRSA and Escherichia coli in a dog model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Fabrice; O'Connor, Stephen; Becquemin, Jean Pierre

    2008-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a collagen silver-coated polyester graft, InterGard, with a gelatin-sealed graft, Gelsoft, both soaked in rifampin, for resistance to direct bacterial contamination in an animal model. The second objective was to confirm the lack of inflammation from silver acetate. Vascular grafts, 6 mm in diameter, were implanted in the infrarenal aorta of 28 dogs. Intravenous cefamandole (20 mg/kg) was injected intraoperatively in all dogs. The dogs were divided into three groups. Group I included 12 dogs. Six dogs received silver grafts and six dogs received gelatin-sealed grafts, all soaked with rifampin. Grafts implanted in group I were directly infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Group II included also six silver grafts and six gelatin-sealed grafts, all soaked with rifampin. Dogs of group II were directly infected with Escherichia coli. Group III comprised four dogs, which received gelatin unsealed grafts, directly infected with MRSA, the control group. All dogs were followed by regular clinical examination, including blood cultures. Grafts in groups I and III and in group II were harvested at 30 days and 10 days, respectively. Bacterial analyses were performed on the explanted grafts. Histology was performed on both the tissue samples and the anastomotic sites of the harvested grafts. In group I, no grafts were infected with MRSA, irrespective of graft type. In group II, no silver grafts were infected with E. coli, whereas one (16.6%) of six gelatin-sealed grafts was infected (p = 0.317). In group III, three (75%) of the four grafts were infected with MRSA. The infection rate in the silver grafts and the gelatin-sealed grafts soaked in rifampin in group I compared with the unsealed gelatin grafts in group III was statistically significantly different (p anastomoses in three (25%) gelsoft grafts of 12 in groups I and II. There were no clinical or biological signs of inflammation

  7. [Application of Fourier amplitude sensitivity test in Chinese healthy volunteer population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zheng; Zhang, Guan-min; Ma, Ping; Liu, Li-hong; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of different variance from each of the parameters on the output of tacrolimus population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model in Chinese healthy volunteers, using Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST). Besides, we estimated the index of sensitivity within whole course of blood sampling, designed different sampling times, and evaluated the quality of parameters' and the efficiency of prediction. It was observed that besides CL1/F, the index of sensitivity for all of the other four parameters (V1/F, V2/F, CL2/F and k(a)) in tacrolimus PopPK model showed relatively high level and changed fast with the time passing. With the increase of the variance of k(a), its indices of sensitivity increased obviously, associated with significant decrease in sensitivity index for the other parameters, and obvious change in peak time as well. According to the simulation of NONMEM and the comparison among different fitting results, we found that the sampling time points designed according to FAST surpassed the other time points. It suggests that FAST can access the sensitivities of model parameters effectively, and assist the design of clinical sampling times and the construction of PopPK model.

  8. Evaluation of the performance of the reduced local lymph node assay for skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Muller, Andre; Hakkert, Betty C; van Loveren, Henk

    2013-06-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred method for classification of sensitizers within REACH. To reduce the number of mice for the identification of sensitizers the reduced LLNA was proposed, which uses only the high dose group of the LLNA. To evaluate the performance of this method for classification, LLNA data from REACH registrations were used and classification based on all dose groups was compared to classification based on the high dose group. We confirmed previous examinations of the reduced LLNA showing that this method is less sensitive compared to the LLNA. The reduced LLNA misclassified 3.3% of the sensitizers identified in the LLNA and misclassification occurred in all potency classes and that there was no clear association with irritant properties. It is therefore not possible to predict beforehand which substances might be misclassified. Another limitation of the reduced LLNA is that skin sensitizing potency cannot be assessed. For these reasons, it is not recommended to use the reduced LLNA as a stand-alone assay for skin sensitization testing within REACH. In the future, the reduced LLNA might be of added value in a weight of evidence approach to confirm negative results obtained with non-animal approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Noise sensitivity and diminished health: Testing moderators and mediators of the relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Hill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of noise sensitivity emerged in public health and psychoacoustic research to help explain individual differences in reactions to noise. Noise sensitivity has been associated with health problems, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship have yet to be fully examined. Participants (n = 1102 were residents of Auckland, New Zealand, who completed questionnaires and returned them through the post. Models of noise sensitivity and health were tested in the analyses using bootstrapping methods to examine indirect effects. Results indicated that gender and noise exposure were not significant moderators in the model. Perceived stress and sleep problems were significant mediators of the relationship between noise sensitivity and subjective health complaints, even after controlling for the influence of neuroticism. However, the relationship between noise sensitivity and mental health complaints (anxiety and depression was accounted for by the variance explained by neuroticism. Overall, this study provides considerable understanding of the relationship between noise sensitivity and health problems and identifies areas for further research in the field.

  10. Exploratory rearing: a context- and stress-sensitive behavior recorded in the open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Oliver; Germain, Pierre-Luc; Bohacek, Johannes

    2018-02-16

    Stressful experiences are linked to anxiety disorders in humans. Similar effects are observed in rodent models, where anxiety is often measured in classic conflict tests such as the open-field test. Spontaneous rearing behavior, in which rodents stand on their hind legs to explore, can also be observed in this test yet is often ignored. We define two forms of rearing, supported rearing (in which the animal rears against the walls of the arena) and unsupported rearing (in which the animal rears without contacting the walls of the arena). Using an automated open-field test, we show that both rearing behaviors appear to be strongly context dependent and show clear sex differences, with females rearing less than males. We show that unsupported rearing is sensitive to acute stress, and is reduced under more averse testing conditions. Repeated testing and handling procedures lead to changes in several parameters over varying test sessions, yet unsupported rearing appears to be rather stable within a given animal. Rearing behaviors could therefore provide an additional measure of anxiety in rodents relevant for behavioral studies, as they appear to be highly sensitive to context and may be used in repeated testing designs.

  11. Four nondestructive electrochemical tests for detecting sensitization in type 304 and 304L stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, A.P.; Streicher, A.

    1986-01-01

    Three different electrochemical reactivation tests are compared with etch structures produced in the electrolytic oxalic acid etch test. These nondestructive tests are needed to evaluate welded stainless steel pipes and other plant equipment for susceptibility to intergranular attack. Sensitization associated with precipitates of chromium carbides at grain boundaries can make these materials subject to intergranular attack in acids and, in particular, to intergranular stress corrosion cracking in high-temperature (289 0 C) water on boiling water nuclear reactor power plants. In the first of the two older reactivation tests, sensitization is detected by the electrical charge generated during reactivation. In the second, it is measured by the ratio of maximum currents generated by a prior anodic loop and the reactivation loop. A third, simpler reactivation method based on a measurement of the maximum current generated during reactivation is proposed. If the objective of the field tests, which are to be carried out with portable equipment, is to distinguish between nonsensitized and sensitized material, this can be accomplished most simply, most rapidly, and at lowest cost by an evaluation of oxalic acid etch structures

  12. A simple nomogram for sample size for estimating sensitivity and specificity of medical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity measure inherent validity of a diagnostic test against a gold standard. Researchers develop new diagnostic methods to reduce the cost, risk, invasiveness, and time. Adequate sample size is a must to precisely estimate the validity of a diagnostic test. In practice, researchers generally decide about the sample size arbitrarily either at their convenience, or from the previous literature. We have devised a simple nomogram that yields statistically valid sample size for anticipated sensitivity or anticipated specificity. MS Excel version 2007 was used to derive the values required to plot the nomogram using varying absolute precision, known prevalence of disease, and 95% confidence level using the formula already available in the literature. The nomogram plot was obtained by suitably arranging the lines and distances to conform to this formula. This nomogram could be easily used to determine the sample size for estimating the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test with required precision and 95% confidence level. Sample size at 90% and 99% confidence level, respectively, can also be obtained by just multiplying 0.70 and 1.75 with the number obtained for the 95% confidence level. A nomogram instantly provides the required number of subjects by just moving the ruler and can be repeatedly used without redoing the calculations. This can also be applied for reverse calculations. This nomogram is not applicable for testing of the hypothesis set-up and is applicable only when both diagnostic test and gold standard results have a dichotomous category.

  13. A new framework for the interpretation of IgE sensitization tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, G; Ollert, M; Aalberse, R.

    2016-01-01

    tests to make a definitive diagnosis; these are often expensive and potentially associated with severe reactions. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be semi-quantified from an IgE sensitization test results. This relationship varies though according to the patients' age, ethnicity, nature...... of the putative allergic reaction and coexisting clinical diseases such as eczema. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be more precisely estimated from an IgE sensitization test result, by taking into account the patient's presenting features (pretest probability). The presence of each of these patient...... pretest probabilities for diverse setting, regions and allergens. Also, cofactors, such as exercise, may be necessary for exposure to an allergen to result in an allergic reaction in specific IgE-positive patients. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy is now being aided by the introduction of allergen...

  14. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeon Suk; Kato, Reiko; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2011-01-01

    Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25) < PLLC (40 : 60) < PLGA (50 : 50) < PCG (50 : 50). These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  15. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Suk Jung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs. DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25 < PLLC (40 : 60 < PLGA (50 : 50 < PCG (50 : 50. These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  16. Estimating negative likelihood ratio confidence when test sensitivity is 100%: A bootstrapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A; Chang, Yuchiao; Wong, Kim F; Friedman, Ari B

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Assessing high-sensitivity tests for mortal illness is crucial in emergency and critical care medicine. Estimating the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the likelihood ratio (LR) can be challenging when sample sensitivity is 100%. We aimed to develop, compare, and automate a bootstrapping method to estimate the negative LR CI when sample sensitivity is 100%. Methods The lowest population sensitivity that is most likely to yield sample sensitivity 100% is located using the binomial distribution. Random binomial samples generated using this population sensitivity are then used in the LR bootstrap. A free R program, "bootLR," automates the process. Extensive simulations were performed to determine how often the LR bootstrap and comparator method 95% CIs cover the true population negative LR value. Finally, the 95% CI was compared for theoretical sample sizes and sensitivities approaching and including 100% using: (1) a technique of individual extremes, (2) SAS software based on the technique of Gart and Nam, (3) the Score CI (as implemented in the StatXact, SAS, and R PropCI package), and (4) the bootstrapping technique. Results The bootstrapping approach demonstrates appropriate coverage of the nominal 95% CI over a spectrum of populations and sample sizes. Considering a study of sample size 200 with 100 patients with disease, and specificity 60%, the lowest population sensitivity with median sample sensitivity 100% is 99.31%. When all 100 patients with disease test positive, the negative LR 95% CIs are: individual extremes technique (0,0.073), StatXact (0,0.064), SAS Score method (0,0.057), R PropCI (0,0.062), and bootstrap (0,0.048). Similar trends were observed for other sample sizes. Conclusions When study samples demonstrate 100% sensitivity, available methods may yield inappropriately wide negative LR CIs. An alternative bootstrapping approach and accompanying free open-source R package were developed to yield realistic estimates easily. This

  17. Is there a risk of active sensitization to PPD by patch testing the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Linneberg, Allan

    2007-08-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a constituent of permanent hair dyes, may cause contact allergy in exposed individuals. It has previously been questioned whether a patch testing with PPD in population-based epidemiological studies is entirely safe. The Glostrup allergy studies patch tested the same cohort twice. In 1990, 567 persons were patch-tested and only one person had a (+) positive reaction to PPD. In 1998, 540 persons were re-invited to a new patch test and 365 (participation rate 68%) were re-tested. There were no positive reactions to PPD. These studies indicate that patch testing with PPD in individuals with no previous positive reactions to PPD or with only one previous positive reaction does not cause active sensitization and can be performed with minimal risk.

  18. Sensitive technique for detecting outer defect on tube with remote field eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Noriyasu; Nagai, Satoshi; Ochiai, Makoto; Jimbo, Noboru; Komai, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    In the remote field eddy current testing, we proposed the method of enhancing the magnetic flux density in the vicinity of an exciter coil by controlling the magnetic flux direction for increasing the sensitivity of detecting outer defects on a tube and used the flux guide made of a magnetic material for the method. The optimum structural shape of the flux guide was designed by the magnetic field analysis. On the experiment with the application of the flux guide, the magnetic flux density increased by 59% and the artificial defect detection signal became clear. We confirmed the proposed method was effective in a high sensitivity. (author)

  19. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  20. Test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the 20-meter walk test among patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Jillian M; Driban, Jeffrey B; McAdams, Erica; Price, Lori Lyn; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2013-05-10

    The 20-meter walk test is a physical function measure commonly used in clinical research studies and rehabilitation clinics to measure gait speed and monitor changes in patients' physical function over time. Unfortunately, the reliability and sensitivity of this walk test are not well defined and, therefore, limit our ability to evaluate real changes in gait speed not attributable to normal variability. The aim of this study was to assess the test-restest reliability and sensitivity of the 20-meter walk test, at a self-selected pace, among patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to suggest a standardized protocol for future test administration. This was a measurement reliability study. Fifteen consecutive people enrolled in a randomized-controlled trial of intra-articular corticosteroid injections for knee OA participated in this study. All participants completed 4 trials on 2 separate days, 7 to 21 days apart (8 trials total). Each day was divided into 2 sessions, which each involved 2 walking trials. We compared walk times between trials with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Similar analyses compared average walk times between sessions. To confirm these analyses, we also calculated Spearman correlation coefficients to assess the relationship between sessions. Finally, smallest detectable differences (SDD) were calculated to estimate the sensitivity of the 20-meter walk test. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests between trials within the same session demonstrated that trials in session 1 were significantly different and in the subsequent 3 sessions, the median differences between trials were not significantly different. Therefore, the first session of each day was considered a practice session, and the SDD between the second session of each day were calculated. SDD was -1.59 seconds (walking slower) and 0.15 seconds (walking faster). Practice trials and a standardized protocol should be used in administration of the 20-meter walk test. Changes in walk time

  1. Relevance of Cat and Dog Sensitization by Skin Prick Testing in Childhood Eczema and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Kathy Yin Ching; Pong, Nga Hin Henry; Leung, Ting Fan

    2017-01-01

    Household animal dander has been implicated as aeroallergen in childhood atopic diseases. Many parents seek healthcare advice if household pet keeping may be detrimental in atopic eczema (AE), allergic rhinitis and asthma. We investigated if skin sensitization by cat/dog dander was associated with disease severity and quality of life in children with AE. Demographics, skin prick test (SPT) results, disease severity (Nottingham eczema severity score NESS), Children Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), blood IgE and eosinophil counts of a cohort of AE patients were reviewed. 325 AE patients followed at a pediatric dermatology clinic were evaluated. Personal history of asthma was lowest (20%) in the dog-dander-positive-group but highest (61%) in bothcat- and-dog-dander-positive group (p=0.007). Binomial logistic regression ascertained that catdander sensitization was associated with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.056; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.109; p=0.029), dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 4.625; 95% CI, 1.444 to 14.815; p=0.010), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 2.330; 95% CI, 1.259 to 4.310; p=0.007) and keeping-cat-ever (aOR, 7.325; 95% CI, 1.193 to 44.971; p=0.032); whereas dogdander sensitization was associated with dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 9.091; 95% CI, 1.148 to 71.980; p=0.037), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.341 to 9.492; p=0.011) and keeping-dog-ever (aOR, 6.809; 95% CI, 2.179 to 21.281; p=0.001). However, neither cat nor dog sensitization were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, parental or sibling atopic status, disease severity or quality of life. Physicians should advise parents that there is no direct correlation between AE severity, quality of life, asthma or allergic rhinitis with cutaneous sensitization to cats or dogs. Sensitized patients especially those with concomitant asthma and severe symptoms may consider non-furry alternatives if they plan to have a pet. Highly sensitized

  2. Variation of strain rate sensitivity index of a superplastic aluminum alloy in different testing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Omid; Jahazi, Mohammad; Bombardier, Nicolas; Samuel, Ehab

    2017-10-01

    The strain rate sensitivity index, m-value, is being applied as a common tool to evaluate the impact of the strain rate on the viscoplastic behaviour of materials. The m-value, as a constant number, has been frequently taken into consideration for modeling material behaviour in the numerical simulation of superplastic forming processes. However, the impact of the testing variables on the measured m-values has not been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the m-value for a superplastic grade of an aluminum alloy (i.e., AA5083) has been investigated. The conditions and the parameters that influence the strain rate sensitivity for the material are compared with three different testing methods, i.e., monotonic uniaxial tension test, strain rate jump test and stress relaxation test. All tests were conducted at elevated temperature (470°C) and at strain rates up to 0.1 s-1. The results show that the m-value is not constant and is highly dependent on the applied strain rate, strain level and testing method.

  3. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vencita Priyanka Aranha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with Down syndrome (DS. Methods: It was a nonblinded, comparison study with a convenience sample of subjects consisting of children with DS (n = 9 aged 8–17 years. The main outcome measure was standing balance which was assessed using timed standing balance test, the time required to maintain in four conditions, eyes open static, eyes closed static, eyes open dynamic, and eyes closed dynamic. Results: Relative reliability was excellent for all four conditions with an Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC ranging from 0.91 to 0.93. The variation between repeated measurements for each condition was minimal with standard error of measurement (SEM of 0.21–0.59 s, suggestive of excellent absolute reliability. The sensitivity to change as measured by smallest real change (SRC was 1.27 s for eyes open static, 1.63 s for eyes closed static, 0.58 s for eyes open dynamic, and 0.61 s for eyes closed static. Conclusions: Timed standing balance test is an easy to administer test and sensitive to change with strong absolute and relative reliabilities, an important first step in establishing its utility as a clinical balance measure in children with DS.

  4. Method-independent, Computationally Frugal Convergence Testing for Sensitivity Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, J.; Tolson, B.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing complexity and runtime of environmental models lead to the current situation that the calibration of all model parameters or the estimation of all of their uncertainty is often computationally infeasible. Hence, techniques to determine the sensitivity of model parameters are used to identify most important parameters. All subsequent model calibrations or uncertainty estimation procedures focus then only on these subsets of parameters and are hence less computational demanding. While the examination of the convergence of calibration and uncertainty methods is state-of-the-art, the convergence of the sensitivity methods is usually not checked. If any, bootstrapping of the sensitivity results is used to determine the reliability of the estimated indexes. Bootstrapping, however, might as well become computationally expensive in case of large model outputs and a high number of bootstraps. We, therefore, present a Model Variable Augmentation (MVA) approach to check the convergence of sensitivity indexes without performing any additional model run. This technique is method- and model-independent. It can be applied either during the sensitivity analysis (SA) or afterwards. The latter case enables the checking of already processed sensitivity indexes. To demonstrate the method's independency of the convergence testing method, we applied it to two widely used, global SA methods: the screening method known as Morris method or Elementary Effects (Morris 1991) and the variance-based Sobol' method (Solbol' 1993). The new convergence testing method is first scrutinized using 12 analytical benchmark functions (Cuntz & Mai et al. 2015) where the true indexes of aforementioned three methods are known. This proof of principle shows that the method reliably determines the uncertainty of the SA results when different budgets are used for the SA. The results show that the new frugal method is able to test the convergence and therefore the reliability of SA results in an

  5. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for age-dependent unavailability model integrating test and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kančev, Duško; Čepin, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Application of analytical unavailability model integrating T and M, ageing, and test strategy. ► Ageing data uncertainty propagation on system level assessed via Monte Carlo simulation. ► Uncertainty impact is growing with the extension of the surveillance test interval. ► Calculated system unavailability dependence on two different sensitivity study ageing databases. ► System unavailability sensitivity insights regarding specific groups of BEs as test intervals extend. - Abstract: The interest in operational lifetime extension of the existing nuclear power plants is growing. Consequently, plants life management programs, considering safety components ageing, are being developed and employed. Ageing represents a gradual degradation of the physical properties and functional performance of different components consequently implying their reduced availability. Analyses, which are being made in the direction of nuclear power plants lifetime extension are based upon components ageing management programs. On the other side, the large uncertainties of the ageing parameters as well as the uncertainties associated with most of the reliability data collections are widely acknowledged. This paper addresses the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses conducted utilizing a previously developed age-dependent unavailability model, integrating effects of test and maintenance activities, for a selected stand-by safety system in a nuclear power plant. The most important problem is the lack of data concerning the effects of ageing as well as the relatively high uncertainty associated to these data, which would correspond to more detailed modelling of ageing. A standard Monte Carlo simulation was coded for the purpose of this paper and utilized in the process of assessment of the component ageing parameters uncertainty propagation on system level. The obtained results from the uncertainty analysis indicate the extent to which the uncertainty of the selected

  6. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positivity Predictors of the Pneumococcal Urinary Antigen Test in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos, Luis; Zalacain, Rafael; Menéndez, Rosario; Reyes, Soledad; Capelastegui, Alberto; Cillóniz, Catia; Rajas, Olga; Borderías, Luis; Martín-Villasclaras, Juan J; Bello, Salvador; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Rello, Jordi; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Gabarrús, Albert; Musher, Daniel M; Torres, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    Detection of the C-polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine by an immune-chromatographic test is increasingly used to evaluate patients with community-acquired pneumonia. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this test in the largest series of cases to date and used logistic regression models to determine predictors of positivity in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study of 4,374 patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. The urinary antigen test was done in 3,874 cases. Pneumococcal infection was diagnosed in 916 cases (21%); 653 (71%) of these cases were diagnosed exclusively by the urinary antigen test. Sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 99.7%, respectively. Predictors of urinary antigen positivity were female sex; heart rate≥125 bpm, systolic blood pressureantibiotic treatment; pleuritic chest pain; chills; pleural effusion; and blood urea nitrogen≥30 mg/dl. With at least six of all these predictors present, the probability of positivity was 52%. With only one factor present, the probability was only 12%. The urinary antigen test is a method with good sensitivity and excellent specificity in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia, and its use greatly increased the recognition of community-acquired pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae. With a specificity of 99.7%, this test could be used to direct simplified antibiotic therapy, thereby avoiding excess costs and risk for bacterial resistance that result from broad-spectrum antibiotics. We also identified predictors of positivity that could increase suspicion for pneumococcal infection or avoid the unnecessary use of this test.

  7. Adaptive Management Plan for Sensitive Plant Species on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site supports numerous plant species considered sensitive because of their past or present status under the Endangered Species Act and with federal and state agencies. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office (DOE/NV) prepared a Resource Management Plan which commits to protects and conserve these sensitive plant species and to minimize accumulative impacts to them. This document presents the procedures of a long-term adaptive management plan which is meant to ensure that these goals are met. It identifies the parameters that are measured for all sensitive plant populations during long-term monitoring and the adaptive management actions which may be taken if significant threats to these populations are detected. This plan does not, however, identify the current list of sensitive plant species know to occur on the Nevada Test Site. The current species list and progress on their monitoring is reported annually by DOE/NV in the Resource Management Plan

  8. Evaluation of multiplex polymerase chain reaction as an alternative to conventional antibiotic sensitivity test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rathore

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the potential of the use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative to conventional antibiotic sensitivity test. Materials and Methods: Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (total = 36 from clinical cases presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (CVAS, Navania, Udaipur, were characterized by morphological, cultural, and biochemical methods. Then, the isolates were further subjected to molecular characterization by PCR targeting S. aureus-specific sequence (107 bp. Phenotypic antibiotic sensitivity pattern was analyzed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method against 11 commonly used antibiotics in veterinary medicine in and around Udaipur region. The genotypic antibiotic sensitivity pattern was studied against methicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracycline targeting the gene mecA, aacA-aphD, and tetK by multiplex PCR. Results: There was 100% correlation between the phenotype and genotype of aminoglycoside resistance, more than 90% correlation for methicillin resistance, and 58.3% in the case tetracycline resistance. Conclusion: As there is a good correlation between phenotype and genotype of antibiotic resistance, multiplex PCR can be used as an alternative to the conventional antibiotic susceptibility testing, as it can give a rapid and true prediction of antibiotic sensitivity pattern.

  9. Sensitivity and validity of psychometric tests for assessing driving impairment: effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Stefan; Perrier, Joy; Vuurman, Eric F; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Vermeeren, Annemiek

    2015-01-01

    To assess drug induced driving impairment, initial screening is needed. However, no consensus has been reached about which initial screening tools have to be used. The present study aims to determine the ability of a battery of psychometric tests to detect performance impairing effects of clinically relevant levels of drowsiness as induced by one night of sleep deprivation. Twenty four healthy volunteers participated in a 2-period crossover study in which the highway driving test was conducted twice: once after normal sleep and once after one night of sleep deprivation. The psychometric tests were conducted on 4 occasions: once after normal sleep (at 11 am) and three times during a single night of sleep deprivation (at 1 am, 5 am, and 11 am). On-the-road driving performance was significantly impaired after sleep deprivation, as measured by an increase in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) of 3.1 cm compared to performance after a normal night of sleep. At 5 am, performance in most psychometric tests showed significant impairment. As expected, largest effect sizes were found on performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT). Large effects sizes were also found in the Divided Attention Test (DAT), the Attention Network Test (ANT), and the test for Useful Field of View (UFOV) at 5 and 11 am during sleep deprivation. Effects of sleep deprivation on SDLP correlated significantly with performance changes in the PVT and the DAT, but not with performance changes in the UFOV. From the psychometric tests used in this study, the PVT and DAT seem most promising for initial evaluation of drug impairment based on sensitivity and correlations with driving impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and validity of these psychometric tests after benchmark sedative drug use.

  10. Sensitivity and validity of psychometric tests for assessing driving impairment: effects of sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Jongen

    Full Text Available To assess drug induced driving impairment, initial screening is needed. However, no consensus has been reached about which initial screening tools have to be used. The present study aims to determine the ability of a battery of psychometric tests to detect performance impairing effects of clinically relevant levels of drowsiness as induced by one night of sleep deprivation.Twenty four healthy volunteers participated in a 2-period crossover study in which the highway driving test was conducted twice: once after normal sleep and once after one night of sleep deprivation. The psychometric tests were conducted on 4 occasions: once after normal sleep (at 11 am and three times during a single night of sleep deprivation (at 1 am, 5 am, and 11 am.On-the-road driving performance was significantly impaired after sleep deprivation, as measured by an increase in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP of 3.1 cm compared to performance after a normal night of sleep. At 5 am, performance in most psychometric tests showed significant impairment. As expected, largest effect sizes were found on performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT. Large effects sizes were also found in the Divided Attention Test (DAT, the Attention Network Test (ANT, and the test for Useful Field of View (UFOV at 5 and 11 am during sleep deprivation. Effects of sleep deprivation on SDLP correlated significantly with performance changes in the PVT and the DAT, but not with performance changes in the UFOV.From the psychometric tests used in this study, the PVT and DAT seem most promising for initial evaluation of drug impairment based on sensitivity and correlations with driving impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and validity of these psychometric tests after benchmark sedative drug use.

  11. Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation (MAPPS) model: description of model content, structure, and sensitivity testing. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Knee, H.E.

    1984-12-01

    This volume of NUREG/CR-3626 presents details of the content, structure, and sensitivity testing of the Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation (MAPPS) model that was described in summary in volume one of this report. The MAPPS model is a generalized stochastic computer simulation model developed to simulate the performance of maintenance personnel in nuclear power plants. The MAPPS model considers workplace, maintenance technician, motivation, human factors, and task oriented variables to yield predictive information about the effects of these variables on successful maintenance task performance. All major model variables are discussed in detail and their implementation and interactive effects are outlined. The model was examined for disqualifying defects from a number of viewpoints, including sensitivity testing. This examination led to the identification of some minor recalibration efforts which were carried out. These positive results indicate that MAPPS is ready for initial and controlled applications which are in conformity with its purposes

  12. Touch-sensitive colour graphics enhance monitoring of loss-of-coolant accident tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedden, M.D.; Mead, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A stand-alone computer-based system with an intelligent colour termimal is described for monitoring parameters during loss-of-coolant accident tests. Colour graphic displays and touch-sensitive control have been combined for effective operator interaction. Data collected by the host MODCOMP II minicomputer are dynamically updated on colour pictures generated by the terminal. Experimenters select system functions by touching simulated switches on a transparent touch-sensitive overlay, mounted directly over the face of the colour screen, eliminating the need for a keyboard. Switch labels and colours are changed on the screen by the terminal software as different functions are selected. Interaction is self-prompting and can be learned quickly. System operation for a complete set of 20 tests has demonstrated the convenience of interactive touchsensitive colour graphics

  13. Analysis of clonogenic human brain tumour cells: preliminary results of tumour sensitivity testing with BCNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, M L; Dougherty, D A; Deen, D F; Hoshino, T; Wilson, C B [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Neurology

    1980-04-01

    Biopsies from 6 patients with glioblastoma multiforme were disaggregated and single cells were treated in vitro with various concentrations of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso urea (BCNU) and plated for cell survival. One patient's cells were sensitive to BCNU in vitro; after a single dose of BCNU her brain scan reverted to normal and she was clinically well. Five tumours demonstrated resistance in vitro. Three of these tumours progressed during the first course of chemotherapy with a nitrosourea and the patients died at 21/2, 4 and 81/2 months after operation. Two patients who showed dramatic responses to radiation therapy were considered unchanged after the first course of nitrosourea therapy (although one demonstrated tumour enlargement on brain scan). The correlation of in vitro testing of tumour cell sensitivity with actual patient response is encouraging enough to warrant further work to determine whether such tests should weigh in decisions on patient therapy.

  14. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns and cross-resistance of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphyloccus aureus isolated from the hospitalized patients in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Japoni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA pose a serious problem in many countries. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial susceptibility patterns of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the hospitalized patients. Totally 356 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus including 200, 137 and 19 corresponding to MSSA, MRSA, and intermediate MRSA strains, respectively were isolated. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were examined using Kirby-Bauer method. MICs of 15 antibiotics to 156 MRSA isolates were determined by E test method. Cross-resistances of MRSA isolates (137+19 to the other tested antibiotics were also determined. S.aureus with high frequencies were isolated from the blood, sputum and deep wound samples. All of 200 MSSA isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, vancomycin, tecoplanin, rifampin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid. A gradient of reduced susceptibility of MSSA to cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were evident. MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, tecoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid, while reduced susceptibility of them to rifampin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin were observed. MRSA isolates exhibited a high range of cross-resistance to the eight tested antibiotics. Overall, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin showed low activity against MSSA and MRSA isolates which may indicate they are not suitable to be used in clinical practices. To preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics, rational prescription and concomitant application of preventive measures against the spread of MRSA are recommended.

  15. Food Sensitivity in Children with Acute Urticaria in Skin Prick Test: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Eke Gungor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Families of children with acute urticaria often think that there is food allergy in children with urticaria and insist for skin tests. In this study, it was aimed to determine whether skin prick tests are necessary in cases presented with acute urticaria, in whom other causes of acute urticaria are excluded. Material and Method: A test panel involving cow milk, egg white, wheat, hazelnut, peanut, soybean, walnut, sesame, and tuna fish antigens was applied to the children presented with acute urticaria between 1 August 2013 and 1 August 2014, in whom other causes of acute urticaria were excluded and suspected food allergy was reported by parents. Results: Overall, 574 children aged 1-14 years were included to the study. Of the patients, sensitization against at least one food antigen was detected in 22.3% (128/574 of the patients. This rate was found to be 31.9% among those younger than 3 years, while 19.3% in those older than 3 years. Overall, sensitization rates against food allergen in panel were as follows: egg white, 7.3%; wheat, 3.3%; cow milk, 2.7%,; sesame, 2.8%; hazelnut, 2.4%; soybean, 2.3%; peanut, 1.9%, walnut, 1.6%; tuna fish, 1.6%. In general, the history of patients wasn%u2019t compatible with food sensitization detected. Discussion: Sensitization to food allergens is infrequent in children presented with acute urticaria, particularly among those older than 3 years despite expressions of parent and skin prick tests seems to be unnecessary unless strongly suggestive history is present.

  16. A rapid, sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for scrub typhus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the performances for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Orientia. tsutsugamushi (Ot using a gold conjugate-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT. Materials and Methods: The RDT employing mixture recombinant 56-kDa proteins of O. tsutsugamushi and the mIFA assay was performed on 33 patients from Fujian and Yunnan province respectively and 94 positive sera (36 from Hainan province and 58 from Jiangsu province from convalescent stages of the patients with scrub typhus respectively and 82 negative sera from healthy farmers from Anhui province and Beijing City respectively in 2009. A comparison of the RDT and mIFA assay was performed by using the c2 test and the P level of ≤0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Among these 94 positive sera from convalescent stages of the illness and 82 sera from control farmers, the specificity of RDT was 100% for both IgM and IgG tests. In 33 cases with scrub typhus, 5 cases were positively detected earlier by RDT than by mIFA for the IgM test, and 2 cases were positive for the IgG test. The sensitivities of RDT were 93.9% and 90.9% for IgM and IgG, respectively. Considering IgM and IgG together, the sensitivity was 100%. The geometric mean titre (GMT of IFA and the RDT assay in diluted sera from confirmed cases were 1:37 versus 1:113 respectively (P<0.001 for IgM test and 1:99 versus 1:279 respectively (P<0.016 for IgG. Conclusions: The RDT was more sensitive than the traditional IFA for the early diagnosis of scrub typhus and was particularly suitable for use in rural areas.

  17. Pain sensitivity of children with Down syndrome and their siblings: quantitative sensory testing versus parental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Abraham J; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare thermal detection and pain thresholds in children with Down syndrome with those of their siblings. Sensory detection and pain thresholds were assessed in children with Down syndrome and their siblings using quantitative testing methods. Parental questionnaires addressing developmental age, pain coping, pain behaviour, and chronic pain were also utilized. Forty-two children with Down syndrome (mean age 12y 10mo) and 24 siblings (mean age 15y) participated in this observational study. The different sensory tests proved feasible in 13 to 29 (33-88%) of the children with Down syndrome. These children were less sensitive to cold and warmth than their siblings, but only when measured with a reaction time-dependent method, and not with a reaction time-independent method. Children with Down syndrome were more sensitive to heat pain, and only 6 (14%) of them were able to adequately self-report pain, compared with 22 (92%) of siblings (pChildren with Down syndrome will remain dependent on pain assessment by proxy, since self-reporting is not adequate. Parents believe that their children with Down syndrome are less sensitive to pain than their siblings, but this was not confirmed by quantitative sensory testing. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Sensitivity test of tumor cell to anticancer drug using diffusion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soejima, S [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-11-01

    The diffusion chamber method and xenogeneic transplantation of human cancer cells in rats were studied clinically to test the sensitivity of these cells to anticancer drugs. The growth of Hirosaki sarcoma in a diffusion chamber inserted in to Wistar rats was influenced by the difference in tumor cell counts in the chamber. The growth rate in the chamber inserted in to the subcutaneous tissue was more constant than in the abdominal cavity, but the degree of proliferation of tumor cells in the abdominal cavity was more than in the subcutaneous tissue. Sarcoma and solid type sarcoma were affected by mitomycin C (MMC). The effect was greater in dd-mice than in Donryu rats. Solid type Yoshida sarcoma inserted in to the subcutaneous tissue of Donryu rat was not affected by MMC. The degree of sensitivity of methylcholanthrene induced tumor cells, inserted in to the subcutaneous tissue of Donryu rats, to MMC differed according to various conditions of the hosts. Clinically, the influences of anticancer drugs on human cancer cells inserted in to the subcutaneous tissue of /sup 60/Co-irradiated Donryu rats were observed. There were various grades of sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to anticancer drugs. MMC was effective in 53% of the cases, Cyclophosphamide in 40%, 5-FU in 54%, cytosine arabinoside in 32%, and FT-207 in 57%. Twenty-seven percent were not affected by anticancer drugs. On histological examination, tubular adenocarcinoma cells had a high sensitivity to anticancer drugs, while poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells had a low sensitive. Anticancer drugs selected according to the sensitivity of human cancer cells had a marked effective on advanced cancer cells. The diffusion chamber method was useful in determining the degree of bone marrow toxicity of anticancer drugs.

  19. Validation of an iPad test of letter contrast sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollbaum, Pete S; Jansen, Meredith E; Kollbaum, Elli J; Bullimore, Mark A

    2014-03-01

    An iPad-based letter contrast sensitivity test was developed (ridgevue.com) consisting of two letters on each page of an iBook. The contrast decreases from 80% (logCS = 0.1) to 0.5% (logCS = 2.3) by 0.1 log units per page. The test was compared to the Pelli-Robson Test and the Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Test. Twenty normally sighted subjects and 20 low-vision subjects were tested monocularly at 1 m using each test wearing their habitual correction. After a 5-minute break, subjects were retested with each test in reverse order. Two different letter charts were used for both the Pelli-Robson and iPad tests, and the order of testing was varied systematically. For the Freiburg test, the target was a variable contrast Landolt C presented at eight possible orientations and used a 30-trial Best PEST procedure. Repeatability and agreement were assessed by determining the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) ± 1.96 SD of the differences between administrations or tests. All three tests showed good repeatability in terms of the 95% LoA: iPad = ± 0.19, Pelli-Robson = ± 0.19, and Freiburg = ± 0.15. The iPad test showed good agreement with the Freiburg test with similar mean (± SD) logCS (iPad = 1.98 ± 0.11, Freiburg = 1.96 ± 0.06) and with narrow 95% LoA (± 0.24), but the Pelli-Robson test gave significantly lower values (1.65 ± 0.04). Low-vision subjects had slightly poorer repeatability (iPad = ± 0.24, Pelli-Robson = ± 0.23, Freiburg = ± 0.21). Agreement between the iPad and Freiburg tests was good (iPad = 1.45 ± 0.40, Freiburg = 1.54 ± 0.37), but the Pelli-Robson test gave significantly lower values (1.30 ± 0.30). The iPad test showed similar repeatability and may be a rapid and convenient alternative to some existing measures. The Pelli-Robson test gave lower values than the other tests.

  20. Verification of intraspecimen method using constant stress tension test of sensitized alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ki; Choi, Hoi Su; Hwang, Il Soon

    2005-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) occurring at the Nibase alloy 600 used in the nuclear power plant SG tubes and CRDM penetration nozzles had been reported after long-term operation in the harsh environment. Intraspecimen method was developed to predict the SCC initiation time statistically. [1] By dividing a test area into a number of smaller regions (intraspecimens) having homogeneous physical and chemical condition each SCC initiation in each intraspecimen could be counted as an independent outcome to provide enough number of statistical data. Earlier work of intraspecimen method had many problems in test method and didn't agree with Weibull statistics which is the theoretical base of intraspecimen method. The test method is improved in this intraspecimen test. To find out the root causes of the problems in earlier work and improve the accuracy of intraspecimen method, two kinds of materials are introduced, which are different in grain size but same in chemical composition. Ni-base alloy 600, heat no. J313 and J323 are used as test materials. Specimens of sensitized Alloy 600 are tested under the condition of constant tensile stress and well defined chemical environment therefore we can easily observe typical intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Material with finer grain (J323) showed the areadependence in agreement with theoretical prediction. But material with coarser grain (J313) did not show any significant area-dependence. While SCC initiates earlier at grain boundaries that are oriented close to normal to the stress axis, crack initiation time showed no correlation with grain boundary misorientation estimated by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). From the SCC initiation tests with two test materials, it is concluded that the number of grains in an intraspecimen, degree of sensitization and uniform stress distribution are important parameters to meet Weibull statistics

  1. Highly sensitive multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip for rapid chemiluminescent detection of ractopamine and salbutamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongfei; Han, Jing; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng, E-mail: fuzf@swu.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    Graphical abstract: A multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the rapid detection of two β{sub 2}-agonists. Due to the application of chemiluminescent detection, this quantitative method shows much higher sensitivity. - Highlights: • An immunochromatographic test strip was developed for detection of multiple β{sub 2}-agonists. • The whole assay process can be completed within 20 min. • The proposed method shows much higher sensitivity due to the application of CL detection. • It is a portable analytical tool suitable for field analysis and rapid screening. - Abstract: A novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was proposed for rapid and multiple assay of β{sub 2}-agonists, by utilizing ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) as the models. Owing to the introduction of chemiluminescent (CL) approach, the proposed protocol shows much higher sensitivity. In this work, the described ICA was based on a competitive format, and horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibodies were used as highly sensitive CL probes. Quantitative analysis of β{sub 2}-agonists was achieved by recording the CL signals of the probes captured on the two test zones of the nitrocellulose membrane. Under the optimum conditions, RAC and SAL could be detected within the linear ranges of 0.50–40 and 0.10–50 ng mL{sup −1}, with the detection limits of 0.20 and 0.040 ng mL{sup −1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The whole process for multianalyte immunoassay of RAC and SAL can be completed within 20 min. Furthermore, the test strip was validated with spiked swine urine samples and the results showed that this method was reliable in measuring β{sub 2}-agonists in swine urine. This CL-based multianalyte test strip shows a series of advantages such as high sensitivity, ideal selectivity, simple manipulation, high assay efficiency and low cost. Thus, it opens up new pathway for rapid screening and field analysis, and shows a promising prospect in food safety.

  2. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, L K

    2003-01-01

    subjects. An SPT was positive when > or =3 mm, and repeatable if either persistently positive or negative. Clinical sensitivity to birch pollen was used as model for inhalation allergy, and was investigated at inclusion and at study termination by challenge tests, intradermal test, titrated SPT and Ig......E measurements. Birch pollen symptoms were confirmed in diaries. RESULTS: The repeatability of a positive SPT was 67%, increasing significantly to 100% when supported by the history. When not supported by history, the presence of specific IgE was significantly associated with a repeatable SPT. Allergen....... CONCLUSION: SPT changes are clinically relevant. Further studies using other allergens are needed. Long-term repeatability of SPT is high in the presence of a supportive history....

  3. The sensitivity and the specifity of rapid antigen test in streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol, Yesim; Akan, Hulya; Izbirak, Guldal; Tekkanat, Zuhal Tazegun; Gunduz, Tehlile Silem; Hayran, Osman; Yilmaz, Gulden

    2010-06-01

    It is aimed to detect the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection of group A beta hemolytic streptococci from throat specimen compared with throat culture. The other goal of the study is to help in giving clinical decisions in upper respiratory tract infections according to the age group, by detection of sensitivity and positive predictive values of the rapid tests and throat cultures. Rapid antigen detection and throat culture results for group A beta hemolytic streptococci from outpatients attending to our university hospital between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Throat samples were obtained by swabs from the throat and transported in the Stuart medium and Quickvue Strep A [Quidel, San Diego, USA] cassette test was applied and for culture, specimen was inoculated on 5% blood sheep agar and identified according to bacitracin and trimethoprim-sulphametaxazole susceptibility from beta hemolytic colonies. During the dates between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008, from 453 patients both rapid antigen detection and throat culture were evaluated. Rapid antigen detection sensitivity and specificity were found to be 64.6% and 96.79%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.95% whereas negative predictive value was 92.82%. Kappa index was 0.91. When the results were evaluated according to the age groups, the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of rapid antigen detection in children were 70%, 90.3% and in adults 59.4%, 70.4%. When bacterial infection is concerned to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use, rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) is a reliable method to begin immediate treatment. To get the maximum sensitivity of RSAT, the specimen collection technique used and education of the health care workers is important. While giving clinical decision, it must be taken into consideration that the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the RSAT is quite

  4. Sensitivity analysis of MIDAS tests using SPACE code. Effect of nodalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Shin; Oh, Seung-Jong; Diab, Aya

    2018-01-01

    The nodalization sensitivity analysis for the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System) bypass phe�nomena was performed using the SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis CodE) thermal hydraulic analysis computer code. The results of MIDAS (Multi-�dimensional Investigation in Downcomer Annulus Simulation) test were used. The MIDAS test was conducted by the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for the performance evaluation of the ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) bypass phenomenon in the DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) system. The main aim of this study is to examine the sensitivity of the SPACE code results to the number of thermal hydraulic channels used to model the annulus region in the MIDAS experiment. The numerical model involves three nodalization cases (4, 6, and 12 channels) and the result show that the effect of nodalization on the bypass fraction for the high steam flow rate MIDAS tests is minimal. For computational efficiency, a 4 channel representation is recommended for the SPACE code nodalization. For the low steam flow rate tests, the SPACE code over-�predicts the bypass fraction irrespective of the nodalization finesse. The over-�prediction at low steam flow may be attributed to the difficulty to accurately represent the flow regime in the vicinity of the broken cold leg.

  5. Method matters: systematic effects of testing procedure on visual working memory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Watson, Leah M; Koutstaal, Wilma; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2010-11-01

    Visual working memory (WM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual representation that survives changes in object motion, observer's position, and other visual transients. This article presents data that are inconsistent with the traditional view. We show that memory sensitivity is dramatically influenced by small variations in the testing procedure, supporting the idea that representations in visual WM are susceptible to interference from testing. In the study, participants were shown an array of colors to remember. After a short retention interval, memory for one of the items was tested with either a same-different task or a 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) task. Memory sensitivity was much lower in the 2AFC task than in the same-different task. This difference was found regardless of encoding similarity or of whether visual WM required a fine or coarse memory resolution. The 2AFC disadvantage was reduced when participants were informed shortly before testing which item would be probed. The 2AFC disadvantage diminished in perceptual tasks and was not found in tasks probing visual long-term memory. These results support memory models that acknowledge the labile nature of visual WM and have implications for the format of visual WM and its assessment. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Sensitivity analysis of MIDAS tests using SPACE code. Effect of nodalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Shin; Oh, Seung-Jong; Diab, Aya [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of NPP Engineering

    2018-02-15

    The nodalization sensitivity analysis for the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System) bypass phe�nomena was performed using the SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis CodE) thermal hydraulic analysis computer code. The results of MIDAS (Multi-�dimensional Investigation in Downcomer Annulus Simulation) test were used. The MIDAS test was conducted by the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for the performance evaluation of the ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) bypass phenomenon in the DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) system. The main aim of this study is to examine the sensitivity of the SPACE code results to the number of thermal hydraulic channels used to model the annulus region in the MIDAS experiment. The numerical model involves three nodalization cases (4, 6, and 12 channels) and the result show that the effect of nodalization on the bypass fraction for the high steam flow rate MIDAS tests is minimal. For computational efficiency, a 4 channel representation is recommended for the SPACE code nodalization. For the low steam flow rate tests, the SPACE code over-�predicts the bypass fraction irrespective of the nodalization finesse. The over-�prediction at low steam flow may be attributed to the difficulty to accurately represent the flow regime in the vicinity of the broken cold leg.

  7. Sensitivity Tests for the Unprotected Events of the Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chiwoong; Lee, Kwilim; Jeong, Jaeho; Yu, Jin; An, Sangjun; Lee, Seung Won; Chang, Wonpyo; Ha, Kwiseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Unprotected Transient Over Power, (UTOP), Unprotected Loss Of Flow (ULOF), and Unprotected Loss Of Heat Sink (ULOHS) are selected as ATWS events. Among these accidents, the ULOF event shows the lowest clad temperature. However, the ULOHS event showed the highest peak clad temperature, due to the positive CRDL/RV expansion reactivity feedback and insufficient DHRS capacity. In this study, the sensitivity tests are conducted. In the case of the UTOP event, a sensitivity test for the reactivity insertion amount and rate were conducted. This analysis can give a requirement for margin of control rod stop system (CRSS). Currently, the reactivity feedback model for the PGSFR is not validated yet. However, the reactivity feedback models in the MARS-LMR are validating with various plant-based data including EBR-II SHRT. The ATWS events for the PGSFR classified in the design extended condition including UTOP, ULOF, and ULOHS are analyzed with MARS-LMR. In this study, the sensitivity tests for reactivity insertion amount and rate in the UTOP event are conducted. The reactivity insertion amount is obviously an influential parameter. The reactivity insertion amount can give a requirement for design of the CRSS, therefore, this sensitivity result is very important to the CRSS. In addition, sensitivity tests for the weighting factor in the radial expansion reactivity model are carried out. The weighting factor for a grid plate, W{sub GP}, which means contribution of feedback in the grid plate is changed for all unprotected events. The grid plate expansion is governed by a core inlet temperature. As the W{sub GP} is increased, the power in the UTOP and the ULOF is increased, however, the power in the ULOHS is decreased. The higher power during transient means lower reactivity feedback and smaller expansion. Thus, the core outlet temperature rise is dominant in the UTOP and ULOF events, however, the core inlet temperature rise is dominant in the ULOHS. Therefore, the grid plate

  8. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca VIRŠČEK MARN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  9. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring station operating regime influence on radionuclide detection sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    International Monitoring System (IMS) stations are being deployed worldwide in support of the Comprehensive [Nuclear] Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The highly sensitive radionuclide monitoring stations regularly sample airborne radionuclide particulates to determine whether fission products are present in the atmosphere that may be indicative of a nuclear weapons test. Standards have been set for these stations regarding their operation regime and the minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for specific radionuclides likely to be present after a nuclear weapons test. This study uses actual CTBT monitoring data to relate a subset of the specified operational standards with the listed MDC limits. It is determined that a relationship exists between the specified operational regime and the MDC values. Since the background radioactivity is largely a function of the radon and thoron progeny, longer decay operational regimes allow for a reduction in the background. For longer lived radionuclides, this corresponds to a reduction in MDC. (author)

  10. Sensitivity testing practice on pre-processing parameters in hard and soft coupled modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to the problem of practical applicability of coupled modeling with the use of hard and soft models types and necessity of adapted to that models data base possession. The data base tests results for cylindrical 30 mm diameter casting made of AlSi7Mg alloy were presented. In simulation tests that were applied the Calcosoft system with CAFE (Cellular Automaton Finite Element module. This module which belongs to „multiphysics” models enables structure prediction of complete casting with division of columnar and equiaxed crystals zones of -phase. Sensitivity tests of coupled model on the particular values parameters changing were made. On these basis it was determined the relations of CET (columnar-to-equaiaxed transition zone position influence. The example of virtual structure validation based on real structure with CET zone location and grain size was shown.

  11. Aquifer sensitivity to pesticide leaching: Testing a soils and hydrogeologic index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, E.; Keefer, D.A.; Dey, W.S.; Wehrmann, H.A.; Wilson, S.D.; Ray, C.

    2005-01-01

    For years, researchers have sought index and other methods to predict aquifer sensitivity and vulnerability to nonpoint pesticide contamination. In 1995, an index method and map were developed to define aquifer sensitivity to pesticide leaching based on a combination of soil and hydrogeologic factors. The soil factor incorporated three soil properties: hydraulic conductivity, amount of organic matter within individual soil layers, and drainage class. These properties were obtained from a digital soil association map. The hydrogeologic factor was depth to uppermost aquifer material. To test this index method, a shallow ground water monitoring well network was designed, installed, and sampled in Illinois. The monitoring wells had a median depth of 7.6 m and were located adjacent to corn and soybean fields where the only known sources of pesticides were those used in normal agricultural production. From September 1998 through February 2001, 159 monitoring wells were sampled for 14 pesticides but no pesticide metabolites. Samples were collected and analyzed to assess the distribution of pesticide occurrence across three units of aquifer sensitivity. Pesticides were detected in 18% of all samples and nearly uniformly from samples from the three units of aquifer sensitivity. The new index method did not predict pesticide occurrence because occurrence was not dependent on the combined soil and hydrogeologic factors. However, pesticide occurrence was dependent on the tested hydrogeologic factor and was three times higher in areas where the depth to the uppermost aquifer was <6 m than in areas where the depth to the uppermost aquifer was 6 to <15 m. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  12. Perception of basic tastes and threshold sensitivity during testing of selected judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false SK JA X-NONE The sense of taste is one of the most important human senses. Alteration in taste perception can greately interfere to our lives, because it influences our dietary habits and consequently general human health. Many physiological and external factors can cause the loss of taste perception. These factors include for example certain diseases, the side effect of the use of certain medicaments, head trauma, gender, dietary habbits, smoking, role of saliva, age, stress and many more. In this paper we are discussing perception of basic tastes and treshold sensitivity during testing of selected groupe of 500 sensory judges. A resolution taste test and sensitivity treshold test were performed using basic tastes (sour, bitter, salty, sweet, umami, astringent, metallic. We have found that the perception of basic tastes decreese with human age. Smoking leads to significant errors in the determination of basic tastes. Different mistakes occures in different age categories. This study suggests further researches, investigating various factors influencing taste perception.  doi:10.5219/259

  13. Sensitivity of the speed evaluation tests of carrying the ball in youth soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakojević Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at examining sensitivity of the speed evaluation tests while carrying the ball. The research included 76 male examinees, aged 17 years (+/- 6 months, who were divided into two qualitatively different subgroups. For determining the speed while carrying the ball, the tests of M type of carrying the ball between cones and slalom ball carrying with a pass were performed. The obtained results proved that the examinees from the group of more successful soccer players (Group 1 scored better on the applied tests when compared to the results of the group consisting of the soccer players from lower ranked clubs and who are not national team members (Group 2. High values of the result homogeneity in the two groups (for the Groups 1 and 2 it was 75% and 68.75% respectively lead to the conclusion that this ability is essential characteristics of young soccer players. The coefficient of discrimination of 0.269 for the results of M type test and 0.197 for the results of the test of carrying the ball with a pass indicate that the results of the two tests provide possibility to qualitatively distinguish youth players. Therefore, it can be concluded that as a technical element, carrying the ball significantly affects the quality of players' performance.

  14. Masonry fireplace emissions test method: Repeatability and sensitivity to fueling protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C H; Jaasma, D R; Champion, M R

    1993-03-01

    A test method for masonry fireplaces has been evaluated during testing on six masonry fireplace configurations. The method determines carbon monoxide and particulate matter emission rates (g/h) and factors (g/kg) and does not require weighing of the appliance to determine the timing of fuel loading.The intralaboratory repeatability of the test method has been determined from multiple tests on the six fireplaces. For the tested fireplaces, the ratio of the highest to lowest measured PM rate averaged 1.17 and in no case was greater than 1.32. The data suggest that some of the variation is due to differences in fuel properties.The influence of fueling protocol on emissions has also been studied. A modified fueling protocol, tested in large and small fireplaces, reduced CO and PM emission factors by roughly 40% and reduced CO and PM rates from 0 to 30%. For both of these fireplaces, emission rates were less sensitive to fueling protocol than emission factors.

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of skin tests in the diagnosis of clarithromycin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Francesca; Barni, Simona; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Elisabetta; Azzari, Chiara; de Martino, Maurizio; Novembre, Elio

    2010-05-01

    Clarithromycin is one of the most frequently prescribed oral macrolidic antibiotics in the pediatric population. Suspected adverse reactions to clarithromycin have been frequently described by parents of children examined in pediatric allergy units, but there is a lack of reliable methods available in detecting the presence of specific IgE antibodies. To investigate the prevalence of a clarithromycin allergy in children seen in a pediatric allergy unit using standardized skin tests and oral provocation tests (OPTs). Sixty-four children were referred with a history of a clarithromycin-associated adverse drug reaction. All these children underwent skin tests and OPTs. The nonirritating intradermal skin test concentration for clarithromycin was determined in a control group of 18 children who had tolerated clarithromycin in the previous month. The threshold nonirritating intradermal concentration was established at the 10:2 dilution (0.5 mg/mL). Nine of the 64 children had an immediately positive intradermal response to the 10:2 dilution and only 1 child to the 10:3 dilution (0.05 mg/mL). None had positive skin prick test results or delayed skin responses to intradermal tests. Four of 64 children (6%) with previously described adverse reactions due to clarithromycin intake had a positive OPT reaction. When we correlated the intradermal skin test results to the OPT results, intradermal test sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 90%, respectively. Intradermal tests seem to be useful in allergologic workup in children with suspected clarithromycin hypersensitivity and may help reduce the need for OPTs.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories Small-Scale Sensitivity Testing (SSST) Report: Calcium Nitrate Mixtures with Various Fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason Joe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Based upon the presented sensitivity data for the examined calcium nitrate mixtures using sugar and sawdust, contact handling/mixing of these materials does not present hazards greater than those occurring during handling of dry PETN powder. The aluminized calcium nitrate mixtures present a known ESD fire hazard due to the fine aluminum powder fuel. These mixtures may yet present an ESD explosion hazard, though this has not been investigated at this time. The detonability of these mixtures will be investigated during Phase III testing.

  17. Tests of crossed-wire position sensitive photomultipliers for scintillating fiber particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrisat, C.F.; Koechner, D.; Majewski, S.; Pourang, R.; Wilson, C.D.; Zorn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Several applications of two Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tubes to the detection of high energy particles with scintillating fibers are discussed. The PMTs are of the multiwire anode grid design, type R2486 and R4135. These tubes were tested with both single samples and arrays of 2 and 3 mm diameter scintillating fibers. Measurements of position resolution of the PMTs using either the charge digitization or the delay line readout techniques were made. The results indicate an intrinsic inability of the technique to reconstruct the actual position of a fiber on the photocathode when its location falls halfway between two grid wires. A way to overcome this limit is suggested. (orig.)

  18. A New, Sensitive Marine Microalgal Recombinant Biosensor Using Luminescence Monitoring for Toxicity Testing of Antifouling Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie; Leroy, Fanny; Bouget, François-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the marine green alga Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest free-living eukaryotic cell known to date, as a new luminescent biosensor for toxicity testing in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, two antifouling biocides commonly encountered in coastal waters, were chosen to test this new biosensor along with two degradation products of diuron. The effects of various concentrations of the antifoulants on four genetic constructs of O. tauri (based on genes involved in photosynthesis, cell cycle, and circadian clock) were compared using 96-well culture microplates and a luminometer to automatically measure luminescence over 3 days. This was compared to growth inhibition of O. tauri wild type under the same conditions. Luminescence appeared to be more sensitive than growth inhibition as an indicator of toxicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a protein involved in the cell cycle, fused to luciferase (CDKA-Luc) was found to be the most sensitive of the biosensors, allowing an accurate determination of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) after only 2 days (diuron, 5.65 ± 0.44 μg/liter; Irgarol 1015, 0.76 ± 0.10 μg/liter). The effects of the antifoulants on the CDKA-Luc biosensor were then compared to growth inhibition in natural marine phytoplankton. The effective concentrations of diuron and Irgarol 1051 were found to be similar, indicating that this biosensor would be suitable as a reliable ecotoxicological test. The advantage of this biosensor over cell growth inhibition testing is that the process can be easily automated and could provide a high-throughput laboratory approach to perform short-term toxicity tests. The ability to genetically transform and culture recombinant O. tauri gives it huge potential for screening many other toxic compounds. PMID:23144143

  19. Sediment fingerprinting experiments to test the sensitivity of multivariate mixing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Leticia; Blake, Will; Smith, Hugh; Navas, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Sediment fingerprinting techniques provide insight into the dynamics of sediment transfer processes and support for catchment management decisions. As questions being asked of fingerprinting datasets become increasingly complex, validation of model output and sensitivity tests are increasingly important. This study adopts an experimental approach to explore the validity and sensitivity of mixing model outputs for materials with contrasting geochemical and particle size composition. The experiments reported here focused on (i) the sensitivity of model output to different fingerprint selection procedures and (ii) the influence of source material particle size distributions on model output. Five soils with significantly different geochemistry, soil organic matter and particle size distributions were selected as experimental source materials. A total of twelve sediment mixtures were prepared in the laboratory by combining different quantified proportions of the Kruskal-Wallis test, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), or correlation matrix). Summary results for the use of the mixing model with the different sets of fingerprint properties for the twelve mixed soils were reasonably consistent with the initial mixing percentages initially known. Given the experimental nature of the work and dry mixing of materials, geochemical conservative behavior was assumed for all elements, even for those that might be disregarded in aquatic systems (e.g. P). In general, the best fits between actual and modeled proportions were found using a set of nine tracer properties (Sr, Rb, Fe, Ti, Ca, Al, P, Si, K, Si) that were derived using DFA coupled with a multivariate stepwise algorithm, with errors between real and estimated value that did not exceed 6.7 % and values of GOF above 94.5 %. The second set of experiments aimed to explore the sensitivity of model output to variability in the particle size of source materials assuming that a degree of

  20. Influence of the developer structure on the sensitivity to indication at the penetrant fluid test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, N.; Stelling, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The sensitivity to indication of a penetrant fluid test system depends essentially on the properties of the testing agents used - matched for the object conditions - and on appropriate application. Apart from influences of preliminary cleaning the properties of the testing agent system result from the properties of the individual components, i.e. the penetrant fluid, the intermediate cleaner and the developer, and from the interaction between the individual components. Concerted matching of the individual testing agents is required. Subsequently it is shown by means of theoretical considerations and exemplary experimental results what fundamental interrelations between a penetrant fluid contained in the fault and the developer may be expected. In the theoretical statements findings from a subject field completely alien to nondestructive testing, namely pedology, were applied to the problem at hand. With respect to water economy of the ground model concepts and estimations of the main parameter of influence - e.g. the capillary forces - are available. It was made an attempt to transfer them in modified form to the mechanisms of the developing process. (orig.) [de

  1. Influence of the developer structure on the sensitivity to indication at the penetrant fluid test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, N; Stelling, H A

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity to indication of a penetrant fluid test system depends essentially on the properties of the testing agents used - matched for the object conditions - and on appropriate application. Apart from influences of preliminary cleaning the properties of the testing agent system result from the properties of the individual components, i.e. the penetrant fluid, the intermediate cleaner and the developer, and from the interaction between the individual components. Concerted matching of the individual testing agents is required. Subsequently it is shown by means of theoretical considerations and exemplary experimental results what fundamental interrelations between a penetrant fluid contained in the fault and the developer may be expected. In the theoretical statements findings from a subject field completely alien to nondestructive testing, namely pedology, were applied to the problem at hand. With respect to water economy of the ground model concepts and estimations of the main parameter of influence - e.g. the capillary forces - are available. An attempt was made to transfer them in modified form to the mechanisms of the developing process.

  2. Fluoromycobacteriophages for Rapid, Specific, and Sensitive Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piuri, Mariana; Jacobs, William R.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of paramount importance as multiple- and extensively- drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis emerge and spread. We describe here a virus-based assay in which fluoromycobacteriophages are used to deliver a GFP or ZsYellow fluorescent marker gene to M. tuberculosis, which can then be monitored by fluorescent detection approaches including fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Pre-clinical evaluations show that addition of either Rifampicin or Streptomycin at the time of phage addition obliterates fluorescence in susceptible cells but not in isogenic resistant bacteria enabling drug sensitivity determination in less than 24 hours. Detection requires no substrate addition, fewer than 100 cells can be identified, and resistant bacteria can be detected within mixed populations. Fluorescence withstands fixation by paraformaldehyde providing enhanced biosafety for testing MDR-TB and XDR-TB infections. PMID:19300517

  3. Relationship between contrast sensitivity test and disease severity in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler García, A; González Gómez, A; Figueroa-Ortiz, L C; García-Ben, A; García-Campos, J

    2014-09-01

    To assess the importance of the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity test in multiple sclerosis patients according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). A total of 62 patients with multiple sclerosis were included in a retrospective study. Patients were enrolled from the Neurology Department to Neuroophthalmology at Virgen de la Victoria Hospital. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to EDSS: group A) lower than 1.5, group B) between 1.5 and 3.5 and group C) greater than 3.5. Visual acuity and monocular and binocular contrast sensitivity were performed with Snellen and Pelli-Robson tests respectively. Twelve disease-free control participants were also recruited. Correlations between parameter changes were analyzed. The mean duration of the disease was 81.54±35.32 months. Monocular and binocular Pelli-Robson mean values in the control group were 1.82±0.10 and 1.93±0.43 respectively, and 1.61±0.29 and 1.83±0.19 in multiple sclerosis patients. There were statistically significant differences in the monocular analysis for a level of significance P<.05. Mean monocular and binocular Pelli-Robson values in relation to gravity level were, in group A: 1.66±0.24 and 1.90±0.98, group B: 1.64±0.21 and 1.82±0.16, and group C: 1.47±0.45 and 1.73±0.32 respectively. Group differences were statistically significant in both tests: P=.05 and P=.027. Monocular and binocular contrast discrimination analyzed using the Pelli-Robson test was found to be significantly lower when the severity level, according EDSS, increases in multiple sclerosis patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Anxiety sensitivity and suicide risk among firefighters: A test of the depression-distress amplification model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Smith, Lia J; Boffa, Joseph W; Tran, Jana K; Schmidt, N Brad; Joiner, Thomas E; Vujanovic, Anka A

    2018-04-07

    Firefighters represent an occupational group at increased suicide risk. How suicidality develops among firefighters is poorly understood. The depression-distress amplification model posits that the effects of depression symptoms on suicide risk will be intensified in the context of anxiety sensitivity (AS) cognitive concerns. The current study tested this model among firefighters. Overall, 831 firefighters participated (mean [SD] age = 38.37 y [8.53 y]; 94.5% male; 75.2% White). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were utilized to assess for depression symptoms, AS concerns (cognitive, physical, social), and suicide risk, respectively. Linear regression interaction models were tested. The effects of elevated depression symptoms on increased suicide risk were augmented when AS cognitive concerns were also elevated. Unexpectedly, depression symptoms also interacted with AS social concerns; however, consistent with expectations, depression symptoms did not interact with AS physical concerns in the prediction of suicide risk. In the context of elevated depression symptoms, suicide risk is potentiated among firefighters reporting elevated AS cognitive and AS social concerns. Findings support and extend the depression-distress amplification model of suicide risk within a sample of firefighters. Interventions that successfully impact AS concerns may, in turn, mitigate suicide risk among this at-risk population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing of the derivative method and Kruskal-Wallis technique for sensitivity analysis of SYVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prust, J.O.; Edwards, H.H.

    1985-04-01

    The Kruskal-Wallis method of one-way analysis of variance by ranks has proved successful in identifying input parameters which have an important influence on dose. This technique was extended to test for first order interactions between parameters. In view of a number of practical difficulties and the computing resources required to carry out a large number of runs, this test is not recommended for detecting interactions between parameters. The derivative method of sensitivity analysis examines the partial derivative values of each input parameter with dose at various points across the parameter range. Important input parameters are associated with high derivatives and the results agreed well with previous sensitivity studies. The derivative values also provided information on the data generation distributions to be used for the input parameters in order to concentrate sampling in the high dose region of the parameter space to improve the sampling efficiency. Furthermore, the derivative values provided information on parameter interactions, the feasibility of developing a high dose algorithm and formed the basis for developing a regression equation. (author)

  6. Reagent strip testing is not sensitive for the screening of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Chumworathayee, Bundit; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada

    2002-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the diagnostic performance of the reagent strip in screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women using urine culture as a gold standard. This study comprised 204 asymptomatic pregnant women who attended their first antenatal care at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University from April 1, 1999 to June 30, 1999. Women with symptoms of urinary tract infection, antibiotic treatment within the previous 7 days, pregnancy-induced hypertension, bleeding per vagina and history of urinary tract diseases were excluded. Urine specimens were collected by clean catched midstream urine technique for urinalysis, reagent strip test and urine culture. Diagnostic performance of reagent strip in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value was analyzed. Urine reagent strip test had a sensitivity of 13.9 per cent, a specificity of 95.6 per cent, a positive predictive value of 46.1 per cent, a negative predictive value of 80.6 per cent in detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

  7. Designing a new test for contrast sensitivity function measurement with iPad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vallejo, Manuel; Remón, Laura; Monsoriu, Juan A; Furlan, Walter D

    2015-01-01

    To introduce a new application (ClinicCSF) to measure Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) with tablet devices, and to compare it against the Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT). A total of 42 subjects were arranged in two groups of 21 individuals. Different versions of the ClinicCSF (.v1 and .v2) were used to measure the CSF of each group with the same iPad and the results were compared with those measured with the FACT. The agreements between ClinicCSF and FACT for spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree (cpd) were represented by Bland-Altman plots. Statistically significant differences in CSF of both groups were found due to the change of the ClinicCSF version (piPad retina showed no significant differences with FACT test when the same contrast sensitivity steps were used. In addition, it is shown that the accurateness of a vision screening could be improved with the use of an appropriate psychophysical method. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD, that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42 or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy, relatively high fibre (>30 g/day diet (HPHFib (n = 47 for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST. Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013 in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.

  9. ABSTRACT: CONTAMINANT TRAVEL TIMES FROM THE NEVADA TEST SITE TO YUCCA MOUNTAIN: SENSITIVITY TO POROSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl F. Pohlmann; Jianting Zhu; Jenny B. Chapman; Charles E. Russell; Rosemary W. H. Carroll; David S. Shafer

    2008-01-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. In this study, we investigate the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the YM area by estimating the timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty resulting from porosity value uncertainty for hydrogeologic units (HGUs) in the region. We perform sensitivity analysis to determine the most influential HGUs on advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways and advective travel times are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model by the U.S. Geological Survey. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. We base our simulations on two steady state flow scenarios for the purpose of long term prediction and monitoring. The first represents pre-pumping conditions prior to groundwater development in the area in 1912 (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model). The second simulates 1998 pumping (assuming steady state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model). Considering underground tests in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa on the NTS as initial particle positions, we track these particles forward using MODPATH to identify hydraulically downgradient groundwater discharge zones and to determine which flowpaths will intercept the YM area. Out of the 71 tests in the saturated zone, flowpaths of 23 intercept the YM area under the pre-pumping scenario. For the 1998 pumping scenario, flowpaths from 55 of the 71 tests intercept the YM area. The results illustrate that mean

  10. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was ...... the clinical relevance of positive skin prick tests and calls for further studies, which may, ultimately, help increase the positive predictive value of allergy testing.......BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance...... was used to determine the clinical relevance of sensitizations against the 18 most frequent inhalant allergens in Europe. The study population consisted of patients referred to one of the 17 allergy centres in 14 European countries (n = 3034, median age = 33 years). The aim of the study was to assess...

  11. Sensitization Profile to Allergens in Patients Using Multi-Test II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglia, Sergio Fabricio; Tsuru, Fernanda Miyoko; Santos, Victor Carvalho dos; Ueda, Denis Massatsugu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical intervention in allergies has broadened its perspective, also focusing in the quality of life of patients. Patients are instructed, before using pharmacotherapy agents, to avoid the causal agent. Objective This study aims to analyze the sensitization profile of patients with allergic complaints and identify possible characteristics specific to each age group and gender. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study included data collected from medical records (from Multi-Test II database, Lincoln Diagnostics Inc. Decatur, Illinois) of 1,912 patients who underwent skin prick test from March to October 2013. Patients were organized and analyzed according to gender, age, and results of the allergens subtypes tested. Results The study was composed of 1,912 patients (60% male and 40% female) of ages between 3 and 87 years. Positive tests were more prevalent in quantity and intensity with the mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, each with 60% of the total analyzed. In second place were pollens, especially Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis. Conclusion The female and male sexes were equally atopic. Fungi and epithelia of dog and cat were not considered potential aeroallergens that could cause symptoms. However, mites are common in Paraná, Brazil. Further studies regarding the pollens are needed, as this study result diverged from the literature. PMID:25992129

  12. Development of an umami taste sensitivity test and its clinical use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between perception of umami, which has become recognized as the fifth taste, and the human physical condition. We have developed a clinical test for umami taste sensitivity using a filter paper disc with a range of six monosodium glutamate (MSG concentrations. We recruited 28 patients with taste disorders (45-78 years and 184 controls with no taste disorders (102 young [18-25 years] and 82 older [65-89 years] participants. Filter paper discs (5 mm dia. were soaked in aqueous MSG solutions (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 mM, then placed on three oral sites innervated by different taste nerves. The lowest concentration participants correctly identified was defined as the recognition threshold (RT for MSG. This test showed good reproducibility for inter- and intra-observer variability. We concluded that: (1 The RT of healthy controls differed at measurement sites innervated by different taste nerves; that is, the RT of the anterior tongue was higher than that of either the posterior tongue or the soft palate in both young and older individuals. (2 No significant difference in RT was found between young adults and older individuals at any measurement site. (3 The RT of patients with taste disorders was higher before treatment than that of the healthy controls at any measurement site. (4 The RT after treatment in these patients improved to the same level as that of the healthy controls. (5 The cutoff values of RT, showing the highest diagnostic accuracy (true positives + true negatives, were 200 mM MSG for AT and 50 mM MSG for PT and SP. The diagnostic accuracy at these cutoff values was 0.92, 0.87 and 0.86 for AT, PT and SP, respectively. Consequently, this umami taste sensitivity test is useful for discriminating between normal and abnormal umami taste sensations.

  13. The Brief Kinesthesia test is feasible and sensitive: a study in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Borstad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinicians lack a quantitative measure of kinesthetic sense, an important contributor to sensorimotor control of the hand and arm. OBJECTIVES: The objective here was to determine the feasibility of administering the Brief Kinesthesia Test (BKT and begin to validate it by 1 reporting BKT scores from persons with chronic stroke and a healthy comparison group and 2 examining the relationship between the BKT scores and other valid sensory and motor measures. METHOD: Adults with stroke and mild to moderate hemiparesis (N=12 and an age-, gender-, and handedness-matched healthy comparison group (N=12 completed the BKT by reproducing three targeted reaching movements per hand with vision occluded. OTHER MEASURES: the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe, Touch-Test(tm monofilament aesthesiometer, 6-item Wolf Motor Function Test (Wolf, the Motor Activity Log (MAL, and the Box and Blocks Test (BBT. A paired t-test compared BKT scores between groups. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between BKT scores and other measures. RESULTS: Post-stroke participants performed more poorly on the BKT than comparison participants with their contralesional and ipsilesional upper extremity. The mean difference for the contralesional upper extremity was 3.7 cm (SE=1.1, t=3.34; p<0.008. The BKT score for the contralesional limb was strongly correlated with the MAL-how much (r=0.84, p=0.001, the MAL-how well (r=0.76, p=0.007, Wolf (r=0.69, p=0.02, and the BBT (r=0.77, p=0.006. CONCLUSIONS: The BKT was feasible to administer and sensitive to differences in reaching accuracy between persons with stroke and a comparison group. With further refinement, The BKT may become a valuable clinical measure of post-stroke kinesthetic impairment.

  14. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was dete...

  15. Clinical Interpretation of Quantitative Sensory Testing as a Measure of Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brandow, Amanda M.; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) display significantly lower mean/median thermal and mechanical pain thresholds compared to controls. This suggests impaired pain sensitivity where stimuli produce exaggerated pain. Despite these mean/median differences, clinicians need to understand if patients meet criteria for impaired pain sensitivity. We defined thresholds for impaired cold, heat, and mechanical pain sensitivity in SCD patients. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST) we assessed c...

  16. Identification of lung cancer with high sensitivity and specificity by blood testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a very frequent and lethal tumor with an identifiable risk population. Cytological analysis and chest X-ray failed to reduce mortality, and CT screenings are still controversially discussed. Recent studies provided first evidence for the potential usefulness of autoantigens as markers for lung cancer. Methods We used extended panels of arrayed antigens and determined autoantibody signatures of sera from patients with different kinds of lung cancer, different common non-tumor lung pathologies, and controls without any lung disease by a newly developed computer aided image analysis procedure. The resulting signatures were classified using linear kernel Support Vector Machines and 10-fold cross-validation. Results The novel approach allowed for discriminating lung cancer patients from controls without any lung disease with a specificity of 97.0%, a sensitivity of 97.9%, and an accuracy of 97.6%. The classification of stage IA/IB tumors and controls yielded a specificity of 97.6%, a sensitivity of 75.9%, and an accuracy of 92.9%. The discrimination of lung cancer patients from patients with non-tumor lung pathologies reached an accuracy of 88.5%. Conclusion We were able to separate lung cancer patients from subjects without any lung disease with high accuracy. Furthermore, lung cancer patients could be seprated from patients with other non-tumor lung diseases. These results provide clear evidence that blood-based tests open new avenues for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  17. Highly sensitive bacterial susceptibility test against penicillin using parylene-matrix chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Jo-Il; Song, Hyun-Woo; Noh, Joo-Yoon; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-09-15

    This work presented a highly sensitive bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test through β-lactamase assay using Parylene-matrix chip. β-lactamases (EC 3.5.2.6) are an important family of enzymes that confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by catalyzing the hydrolysis of these antibiotics. Here we present a highly sensitive assay to quantitate β-lactamase-mediated hydrolysis of penicillin into penicilloic acid. Typically, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has been used to quantitate low molecular weight analytes and to discriminate them from noise peaks of matrix fragments that occur at low m/z ratios (m/ztest was carried out using Parylene-matrix chip and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The Parylene-matrix chip was successfully used to quantitate penicillin (m/z: [PEN+H](+)=335.1 and [PEN+Na](+)=357.8) and penicilloic acid (m/z: [PA+H](+)=353.1) in a β-lactamase assay with minimal interference of low molecular weight noise peaks. The β-lactamase assay was carried out with an antibiotic-resistant E. coli strain and an antibiotic-susceptible E. coli strain, revealing that the minimum number of E. coli cells required to screen for antibiotic resistance was 1000 cells for the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry/Parylene-matrix chip assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitivity of soil phosphorus tests in predicting the potential risk of phosphorus loss from pasture soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SOINNE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effects of urine and dung additions on the phosphorus (P chemistry of pasture land and to compare the sensitivity of two soil extraction methods in assessing the P-loading risk. In a field experiment, urine and dung were added to soil in amounts corresponding to single excrement portions and the soil samples, taken at certain intervals, were analysed for pHH2O, acid ammonium acetate extractable P (PAc and water extractable total P (TPw, and molybdate reactive P (MRPw. Urine additions immediately increased soil pH and MRPw, but no such response was observed in PAc extraction due to the low pH (4.65 of the extractant enhancing the resorption of P. The PAc responded to the dunginduced increase in soil total P similarly as did Pw, which suggests that both tests can serve to detect areas of high P concentration. However, water extraction was a more sensitive method for estimating short-term changes in P solubility. In pasture soils, the risk of P loss increases as a result of the interaction of urination and high P concentration in the topsoil resulting from continuous dung excretion.;

  19. In vitro sensitivity testing of Cladobotryum mycophilum to carbendazim and prochloraz manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinesi Chakwiya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited information of fungicide efficacy on cultivated mushrooms and resistance development potential is available. Minor crop industries in general have a smaller arsenal of protectants to rely on and the likelihood of resistance build-up is of greater concern. This study focused on Cladobotryum mycophilum's sensitivity to carbendazim and prochloraz manganese following recent reports on decreased efficacy of both fungicides. The median effective dose (ED50 values for carbendazim ranged between 0.02 mg/L and 4.31 mg/L with 60% of the South African isolates being moderately resistant. The highest resistance factor for carbendazim was 215. Prochloraz manganese ED50 values varied from 0.00001 mg/L to 0.55 mg/L. A significant difference in mean ED50 values for both fungicides tested was observed. Using cluster analysis, no discrimination of isolates previously exposed and unexposed to prochloraz manganese was observed. A wide range of differences in ED50 values indicated moderate resistance to carbendazim and high sensitivity to prochloraz manganese among isolates under investigation. Discriminant analysis indicated significant differences between clusters contributed by one or a few variables. This study provided evidence that prochloraz manganese remains highly fungitoxic to C. mycophilum. However, prochloraz manganese is to be used in a disease management strategy in combination with strict farm hygiene management strategies to retain product efficacy and ensure crop protection.

  20. The monolithic multicell: a tool for testing material components in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H.; Gruszecki, T. [IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation, Moelndal (Sweden); Bernhard, R. [IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation, Moelndal (Sweden); The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Center of Molcular Devices, Department of Chemistry; Haeggman, L.; Gorlov, M.; Boschloo, G.; Edvinsson, T.; Kloo, L.; Hagfeldt, A. [The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Center of Molcular Devices, Department of Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    A multicell is presented as a tool for testing material components in encapsulated dye-sensitized solar cells. The multicell is based on a four-layer monolithic cell structure and an industrial process technology. Each multicell plate includes 24 individual well-encapsulated cells. A sulfur lamp corrected to the solar spectrum has been used to characterize the cells. Efficiencies up to 6.8% at a light-intensity of 1000 W/m{sup su2} (up to 7.5% at 250 W/m{sup 2}) have been obtained with an electrolyte solution based on {upsilon}-butyrolactone. Additionally, a promising long-term stability at cell efficiencies close to 5% at 1000 W/m{sup 2} has been obtained with an electrolyte based on glutaronitrile. The reproducibility of the cell performance before and after exposure to accelerated testing has been high. This means that the multicell can be used as an efficient tool for comparative performance and stability tests. (author)

  1. Low specificity and sensitivity of smell identification testing for the diagnosis of Parkinson?s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayela Rodríguez-Violante

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine if the University of Pennsylvania’s Smell Identification Test (UPSIT is an accurate diagnostic tool for olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Method: We included 138 non-demented PD subjects and 175 control subjects matched by gender. Smell identification was tested using UPSIT. Results: The mean number of UPSIT items correctly identified by controls was 27.52±5.88; the mean score for PD subjects was 19.66±6.08 (p=<0.001. UPSIT sensitivity was 79.7% with a specificity of 68.5% using a cut-off score of ≤25. The overall accuracy for the diagnosis of PD was of 75.3%. Conclusion: UPSIT accuracy and specificity were lower than what has been previously reported. Our data demonstrates that 17.5% of items of the UPSIT were not well identified by healthy controls. Further research of the identification of a truly cross-cultural test is warranted.

  2. Construction and test of a box system for operations with air-sensitive and radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenstler, K.; Betzl, K.; Grosser, H.J.; Furkert, W.; Novotny, D.

    1985-06-01

    A system of mechanical components has been develoed, which can be used to design inert atmosphere boxes as well as radioactive boxes. The advantage in comparison with known designs consists in the modular construction principle which permits variable dimensions. Standard parts (flanges, bushings, air locks and so on) possess a uniform size. The system for the maintenance of a high-purity atmosphere in the box has been improved, decreasing the level of oxygen and water vapour below 10 vpm. The low impurity level in the inert atmosphere is attained by means of continuous circulation of the gases through a purification system. The usefulness of the boxes for handling air-sensitive and radioactive compounds has been tested over a period of some years. (author)

  3. High sensitivity tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle with VIP2

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; Clozza, A; Di Matteo, S; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pichler, A; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle is one of the most fundamental rules of nature and represents a pillar of modern physics. According to many observations the Pauli Exclusion Principle must be extremely well fulfilled. Nevertheless, numerous experimental investigations were performed to search for a small violation of this principle. The VIP experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory searched for Pauli-forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms using the Ramberg-Snow method and obtained the best limit so far. The follow-up experiment VIP2 is designed to reach even higher sensitivity. It aims to improve the limit by VIP by orders of magnitude. The experimental method, comparison of different PEP tests based on different assumptions and the developments for VIP2 are presented.

  4. The Adoption of a Standardized Antibiotic Sensitivity Test in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Tupasi-Ramos

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and the introduction of a great variety of antibiotic and chemotherapeutic agents, the outlook in the treatment of infections has improved significantly. Unfortunately, however, these agents are not necessarily innocuous to human tissues, so that their use in some instances is associated with some potential hazards including tissue toxicity, hypersensitivity reaction, emergence of bacterial antimicrobial resistance and the development of clinical superinfection. In view of these hazards, therefore, the administration of an antibiotic must be initiated only when there are definite objective evidences of an infection from clinical and laboratory parameters. Furthermore, the choice of antibiotic must be based on objective results of the antibiotic sensitivity test done on the isolated etiologic agent.

  5. Hypoalgesia after exercise and the cold pressor test is reduced in chronic musculuskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In chronic pain patients, impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) have been reported. No studies have compared CPM and EIH in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity (HPS) and low pain sensitivity (LPS). MATERIALS.......005). Pain tolerance increased after the cold pressor test and exercise in both groups (PCPM and EIH were partly impaired in chronic pain patients with high versus less pain sensitivity, suggesting that the CPM and EIH responses depend on the degree of pain sensitivity. This has clinical...

  6. Application of rat mast cell incubates as a possible short-time test for sensitizing occupational chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diel, F.; Neidhart, B.; Opree, W.

    1981-08-01

    The direct action of sensitizing occupational chemicals (formaldehyde, phenol, phenylhydrazine, p-aminophenol) on rat mast cells was investigated by determination of histamine using HPLC separation and fluorimetric detection. It turned out that dispersed mast cells from immunized and non-immunized Wistar-rats are more sensitive than small-cut lung tissue slices. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was negative after a fortnight sensitizing experiment with the here described occupational chemicals. Short-time tests with rat mast cells reflect anaphylactoid response and are suitable for the screening of sensitizing chemicals.

  7. Test sensitivity is important for detecting variability in pointing comprehension in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrácz, Péter; Gácsi, Márta; Hegedüs, Dorottya; Péter, András; Miklósi, Adám

    2013-09-01

    Several articles have been recently published on dogs' (Canis familiaris) performance in two-way object choice experiments in which subjects had to find hidden food by utilizing human pointing. The interpretation of results has led to a vivid theoretical debate about the cognitive background of human gestural signal understanding in dogs, despite the fact that many important details of the testing method have not yet been standardized. We report three experiments that aim to reveal how some procedural differences influence adult companion dogs' performance in these tests. Utilizing a large sample in Experiment 1, we provide evidence that neither the keeping conditions (garden/house) nor the location of the testing (outdoor/indoor) affect a dogs' performance. In Experiment 2, we compare dogs' performance using three different types of pointing gestures. Dogs' performance varied between momentary distal and momentary cross-pointing but "low" and "high" performer dogs chose uniformly better than chance level if they responded to sustained pointing gestures with reinforcement (food reward and a clicking sound; "clicker pointing"). In Experiment 3, we show that single features of the aforementioned "clicker pointing" method can slightly improve dogs' success rate if they were added one by one to the momentary distal pointing method. These results provide evidence that although companion dogs show a robust performance at different testing locations regardless of their keeping conditions, the exact execution of the human gesture and additional reinforcement techniques have substantial effect on the outcomes. Consequently, researchers should standardize their methodology before engaging in debates on the comparative aspects of socio-cognitive skills because the procedures they utilize may differ in sensitivity for detecting differences.

  8. Use of a radiorespirometric assay for testing the antibiotic sensitivity of catheter-associated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, T.I.; Schmiel, D.; Nickel, J.C.; Costerton, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    A 14 C-radiorespirometric assay was used to show the sensitivity of fixed-film (sessile), catheter-associated and free-living (planktonic) cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to varying concentrations (100 micrograms/mL to 1000 micrograms/mL) tobramycin sulfate. This strain of P. aeruginosa has an MIC of 0.6 microgram/ml and an MBC of 50 micrograms/mL when tested by conventional methods. When 14 C-glutamic acid was used as a substrate in this radiorespirometric assay, it could be completed in less than one hour and planktonic samples showed a significant reduction in mineralization activity (evolution of 14 CO 2 ) within eight hours of the antibiotic challenge. These changes in respiratory activity appeared to be dose and time dependent. Within 18 hr. at 1000 micrograms/mL, there was no significant residual respiratory activity in planktonic samples. Some residual respiratory activity was detected, however, in samples exposed to 100 micrograms/mL for 36 hours. The mineralization activity of sessile catheter-associated bacteria was unaffected by four hr. and eight hr. exposures to 1000 micrograms/mL of the antibiotic. A significant reduction in respiratory activity was recorded in catheter samples exposed for 18 hr. or more at each concentration examined. Unlike the planktonic samples, however, the antibiotic challenge failed to eradicate the metabolic activity of the attached bacteria. Antibiotic stressed, catheter-associated bacteria transferred to a post-exposure enrichment broth showed a limited ability to re-establish respiratory activity. This apparent recovery was limited to antibiotic exposures less than 24 hr. and was not observed in planktonic samples. The radioisotopic assay is a non-culture method which can be used to assess the antibiotic sensitivity of both planktonic bacteria and in situ biofilm populations

  9. Test Your Memory is sensitive to cognitive change but lacks prospective validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M Á

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prospective validity of Test Your Memory (TYM) and its sensitivity to change in cognitive state. This longitudinal prospective study followed 71 patients with subjective cognitive symptoms and 48 with mild cognitive impairment for a mean time period of 35.2 ± 15 months. Subjects did not have dementia or depression at the beginning of follow-up and each participant was given the TYM at least two times. A psychometric threshold was established to determine presence of a cognitive deficit (z-score ≤ 1.5 on at least one cognitive domain) and the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale was used to ensure full functional ability. The criterion for deterioration was a change in the stage on the Global Deterioration Scale. Sixty-one patients remained cognitively stable and 58 worsened. There were no differences between them with respect to sex, educational attainment, the initial stage on the GDS, or the score on the first TYM. Subjects who worsened were older than those who did not. The TYM increased an average of 0.04 points per month in patients who remained stable or improved (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.08) and decreased an average of 0.14 points per month in those whose condition worsened (95% CI, -0.19 to -0.09). Subjects with mild cognitive impairment who worsened displayed a sharper loss of TYM points than did subjects with subjective cognitive symptoms. While the TYM lacks prospective validity, it is sensitive to changes in cognitive state. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Serial High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Post-Primary Angioplasty Exercise Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Andres Vaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The kinetics of high-sensitivity troponin T (hscTnT release should be studied in different situations, including functional tests with transient ischemic abnormalities. Objective: To evaluate the release of hscTnT by serial measurements after exercise testing (ET, and to correlate hscTnT elevations with abnormalities suggestive of ischemia. Methods: Patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty were referred for ET 3 months after infarction. Blood samples were collected to measure basal hscTnT immediately before (TnT0h, 2 (TnT2h, 5 (TnT5h, and 8 hours (TnT8h after ET. The outcomes were peak hscTnT, TnT5h/TnT0h ratio, and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC for hscTnT levels. Log-transformation was performed on hscTnT values, and comparisons were assessed with the geometric mean ratio, along with their 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was assessed by analysis of covariance with no adjustment, and then, adjusted for TnT0h, age and sex, followed by additional variables (metabolic equivalents, maximum heart rate achieved, anterior wall STEMI, and creatinine clearance. Results: This study included 95 patients. The highest geometric means were observed at 5 hours (TnT5h. After adjustments, peak hscTnT, TnT5h/TnT0h and AUC were 59% (p = 0.002, 59% (p = 0.003 and 45% (p = 0.003 higher, respectively, in patients with an abnormal ET as compared to those with normal tests. Conclusion: Higher elevations of hscTnT may occur after an abnormal ET as compared to a normal ET in patients with STEMI.

  11. Serial High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Post-Primary Angioplasty Exercise Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Humberto Andres, E-mail: humbertovaz@cardiol.br; Vanz, Ana Paula; Castro, Iran [Instituto de Cardiologia - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    The kinetics of high-sensitivity troponin T (hscTnT) release should be studied in different situations, including functional tests with transient ischemic abnormalities. To evaluate the release of hscTnT by serial measurements after exercise testing (ET), and to correlate hscTnT elevations with abnormalities suggestive of ischemia. Patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary angioplasty were referred for ET 3 months after infarction. Blood samples were collected to measure basal hscTnT immediately before (TnT{sub 0h}), 2 (TnT{sub 2h}), 5 (TnT{sub 5h}), and 8 hours (TnT{sub 8h}) after ET. The outcomes were peak hscTnT, TnT{sub 5h}/TnT{sub 0h} ratio, and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) for hscTnT levels. Log-transformation was performed on hscTnT values, and comparisons were assessed with the geometric mean ratio, along with their 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was assessed by analysis of covariance with no adjustment, and then, adjusted for TnT{sub 0h}, age and sex, followed by additional variables (metabolic equivalents, maximum heart rate achieved, anterior wall STEMI, and creatinine clearance). This study included 95 patients. The highest geometric means were observed at 5 hours (TnT{sub 5h}). After adjustments, peak hscTnT, TnT{sub 5h}/TnT{sub 0h} and AUC were 59% (p = 0.002), 59% (p = 0.003) and 45% (p = 0.003) higher, respectively, in patients with an abnormal ET as compared to those with normal tests. Higher elevations of hscTnT may occur after an abnormal ET as compared to a normal ET in patients with STEMI.

  12. Implementation of the national tuberculosis guidelines on culture and drug sensitivity testing in Guatemala, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa-Peláez, Maritza; Ayala, Nancy; Yadon, Zaida E; Heldal, Einar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases) and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients) were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms), for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 385 (14%) were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10%) were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8%) previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms) varied by department from 2-68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Only 21 (5%) of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23%) had a culture and 47 (20%) had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital), culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32%) and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%). Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and only 20% of

  13. Sensitivity of wetland methane emissions to model assumptions: application and model testing against site observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane emissions from natural wetlands and rice paddies constitute a large proportion of atmospheric methane, but the magnitude and year-to-year variation of these methane sources are still unpredictable. Here we describe and evaluate the integration of a methane biogeochemical model (CLM4Me; Riley et al., 2011 into the Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4CN in order to better explain spatial and temporal variations in methane emissions. We test new functions for soil pH and redox potential that impact microbial methane production in soils. We also constrain aerenchyma in plants in always-inundated areas in order to better represent wetland vegetation. Satellite inundated fraction is explicitly prescribed in the model, because there are large differences between simulated fractional inundation and satellite observations, and thus we do not use CLM4-simulated hydrology to predict inundated areas. A rice paddy module is also incorporated into the model, where the fraction of land used for rice production is explicitly prescribed. The model is evaluated at the site level with vegetation cover and water table prescribed from measurements. Explicit site level evaluations of simulated methane emissions are quite different than evaluating the grid-cell averaged emissions against available measurements. Using a baseline set of parameter values, our model-estimated average global wetland emissions for the period 1993–2004 were 256 Tg CH4 yr−1 (including the soil sink and rice paddy emissions in the year 2000 were 42 Tg CH4 yr−1. Tropical wetlands contributed 201 Tg CH4 yr−1, or 78% of the global wetland flux. Northern latitude (>50 N systems contributed 12 Tg CH4 yr−1. However, sensitivity studies show a large range (150–346 Tg CH4 yr−1 in predicted global methane emissions (excluding emissions from rice paddies. The large range is

  14. Implementation of the national tuberculosis guidelines on culture and drug sensitivity testing in Guatemala, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Samayoa-Peláez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area, disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms, for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76% were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB, 385 (14% were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10% were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8% previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms varied by department from 2–68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB. Only 21 (5% of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23% had a culture and 47 (20% had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital, culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32% and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%. Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and

  15. Gas migration in KBS-3 buffer bentonite. Sensitivity of test parameters to experimental boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.F.; Horseman, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    In the current Swedish repository design concept, hydrogen gas can be generated inside a waste canister by anaerobic corrosion of the ferrous metal liner. If the gas generation rate exceeds the diffusion rate of gas molecules in the buffer porewater, gas will accumulate in the void-space of a canister until its pressure becomes large enough for it to enter the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase. Three long tenn gas injection tests have been performed on cylinders of pre-compacted MX80 bentonite. Two of these tests were undertaken using a custom-designed constant volume and radial flow (CVRF) apparatus. Gas was injected at a centrally located porous filter installed in the clay before hydration. Arrangements were made for gas to flow to three independently monitored sink-filter arrays mounted around the specimen. Axial and radial total stresses and internal porewater pressures were continuously monitored. Breakthrough and peak gas pressures were substantially larger than the sum of the swelling pressure and the external porewater. The third test was performed. using an apparatus which radially constrains the specimen during gas flow. Observed sensitivity of the breakthrough and peak gas pressures to the test boundary conditions suggests that gas entry must be accompanied by dilation of the bentonite fabric. In other words, there is a tendency for the volume of the specimen to increase during this process. The experimental evidence is consistent with the flow of gas along a relatively small number of crack-like pathways which propagate through the clay as gas pressure increases. Gas entry and breakthrough under constant volume boundary conditions causes a substantial increase in the total stress and the internal porewater pressure. It is possible to determine the point at which gas enters the clay by monitoring changes in these parameters. Localisation of gas flow within multiple pathways results, in nonuniform discharge rates at the sinks. When gas injection

  16. Gas migration in KBS-3 buffer bentonite. Sensitivity of test parameters to experimental boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, J.F.; Horseman, S.T. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    In the current Swedish repository design concept, hydrogen gas can be generated inside a waste canister by anaerobic corrosion of the ferrous metal liner. If the gas generation rate exceeds the diffusion rate of gas molecules in the buffer porewater, gas will accumulate in the void-space of a canister until its pressure becomes large enough for it to enter the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase. Three long tenn gas injection tests have been performed on cylinders of pre-compacted MX80 bentonite. Two of these tests were undertaken using a custom-designed constant volume and radial flow (CVRF) apparatus. Gas was injected at a centrally located porous filter installed in the clay before hydration. Arrangements were made for gas to flow to three independently monitored sink-filter arrays mounted around the specimen. Axial and radial total stresses and internal porewater pressures were continuously monitored. Breakthrough and peak gas pressures were substantially larger than the sum of the swelling pressure and the external porewater. The third test was performed. using an apparatus which radially constrains the specimen during gas flow. Observed sensitivity of the breakthrough and peak gas pressures to the test boundary conditions suggests that gas entry must be accompanied by dilation of the bentonite fabric. In other words, there is a tendency for the volume of the specimen to increase during this process. The experimental evidence is consistent with the flow of gas along a relatively small number of crack-like pathways which propagate through the clay as gas pressure increases. Gas entry and breakthrough under constant volume boundary conditions causes a substantial increase in the total stress and the internal porewater pressure. It is possible to determine the point at which gas enters the clay by monitoring changes in these parameters. Localisation of gas flow within multiple pathways results, in nonuniform discharge rates at the sinks. When gas injection

  17. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Vidal Cortinas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR has reduced sensitivity.Objectives:In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols.Methods:In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection.Results:Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP. They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43. For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35. Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001.Conclusions:The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP.

  18. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortinas, Inés Vidal, E-mail: invi@montevideo.com.uy; Beretta, Mario; Alonso, Omar; Mut, Fernando [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear do Hospital ‘Asociación Española’, Br. Artigas 1515, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-08-15

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR) has reduced sensitivity. In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP) was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols. In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE) test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection. Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR) and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP). They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43). For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35). Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001). The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP.

  19. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  20. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests. PMID:21824406

  1. Anxiety sensitivity predicts increased perceived exertion during a 1-mile walk test among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Brown, Richard A; Price, Lawrence H; Desaulniers, Julie; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-12-01

    Smoking increases risk of early morbidity and mortality, and risk is compounded by physical inactivity. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-relevant somatic sensations) is a cognitive factor that may amplify the subjective experience of exertion (effort) during exercise, subsequently resulting in lower engagement in physical activity. We examined the effect of anxiety sensitivity on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physiological arousal (heart rate) during a bout of exercise among low-active treatment-seeking smokers. Adult daily smokers (n = 157; M age  = 44.9, SD = 11.13; 69.4% female) completed the Rockport 1.0 mile submaximal treadmill walk test. RPE and heart rate were assessed during the walk test. Multi-level modeling was used to examine the interactive effect of anxiety sensitivity × time on RPE and on heart rate at five time points during the walk test. There were significant linear and cubic time × anxiety sensitivity effects for RPE. High anxiety sensitivity was associated with greater initial increases in RPE during the walk test, with stabilized ratings towards the last 5 min, whereas low anxiety sensitivity was associated with lower initial increase in RPE which stabilized more quickly. The linear time × anxiety sensitivity effect for heart rate was not significant. Anxiety sensitivity is associated with increasing RPE during moderate-intensity exercise. Persistently rising RPE observed for smokers with high anxiety sensitivity may contribute to the negative experience of exercise, resulting in early termination of bouts of prolonged activity and/or decreased likelihood of future engagement in physical activity.

  2. How many cervical cancer cases can potentially be prevented using a more sensitive screening test at young age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten); C. Penning (Corine); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test has higher sensitivity than cytology for cervical cancer screening. Therefore, cervical cancer cases that are missed by cytology could potentially be identified if we use primary HPV testing. Studies showed that HPV screening is the preferred

  3. LLNA variability: An essential ingredient for a comprehensive assessment of non-animal skin sensitization test methods and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The development of non-animal skin sensitization test methods and strategies is quickly progressing. Either individually or in combination, the predictive capacity is usually described in comparison to local lymph node assay (LLNA) results. In this process the important lesson from other endpoints, such as skin or eye irritation, to account for variability reference test results - here the LLNA - has not yet been fully acknowledged. In order to provide assessors as well as method and strategy developers with appropriate estimates, we investigated the variability of EC3 values from repeated substance testing using the publicly available NICEATM (NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods) LLNA database. Repeat experiments for more than 60 substances were analyzed - once taking the vehicle into account and once combining data over all vehicles. In general, variability was higher when different vehicles were used. In terms of skin sensitization potential, i.e., discriminating sensitizer from non-sensitizers, the false positive rate ranged from 14-20%, while the false negative rate was 4-5%. In terms of skin sensitization potency, the rate to assign a substance to the next higher or next lower potency class was approx.10-15%. In addition, general estimates for EC3 variability are provided that can be used for modelling purposes. With our analysis we stress the importance of considering the LLNA variability in the assessment of skin sensitization test methods and strategies and provide estimates thereof.

  4. Testing for Gluten-Related Disorders in Clinical Practice: The Role of Serology in Managing the Spectrum of Gluten Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase is the single most efficient serological test for the diagnosis of celiac disease. It is well known that immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase levels correlate with the degree of intestinal damage, and that values can fluctuate in patients over time. Serological testing can be used to identify symptomatic individuals that need a confirmatory biopsy, to screen at-risk populations or to monitor diet compliance in patients previously diagnosed with celiac disease. Thus, interpretation of serological testing requires consideration of the full clinical scenario. Antigliadin tests are no longer recommended for the diagnosis of classical celiac disease. However, our understanding of the pathogenesis and spectrum of gluten sensitivity has improved, and gluten-sensitive irritable bowel syndrome patients are increasingly being recognized. Studies are needed to determine the clinical utility of antigliadin serology in the diagnosis of gluten sensitivity.

  5. Further development of LLNA:DAE method as stand-alone skin-sensitization testing method and applied for evaluation of relative skin-sensitizing potency between chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    To date, there has been no well-established local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes an elicitation phase. Therefore, we developed a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE) to discriminate true skin sensitizers from chemicals that gave borderline positive results and previously reported this assay. To develop the LLNA:DAE method as a useful stand-alone testing method, we investigated the complete procedure for the LLNA:DAE method using hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), isoeugenol, and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as test compounds. We defined the LLNA:DAE procedure as follows: in the dose-finding test, four concentrations of chemical applied to dorsum of the right ear on days 1, 2, and 3 and dorsum of both ears on day 10. Ear thickness and skin irritation score were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 10, and 12. Local lymph nodes were excised and weighed on day 12. The test dose for the primary LLNA:DAE study was selected as the dose that gave the highest left ear lymph node weight in the dose-finding study, or the lowest dose that produced a left ear lymph node of over 4 mg. This procedure was validated using nine different chemicals. Furthermore, qualitative relationship was observed between the degree of elicitation response in the left ear lymph node and the skin sensitizing potency of 32 chemicals tested in this study and the previous study. These results indicated that LLNA:DAE method was as first LLNA method that was able to evaluate the skin sensitizing potential and potency in elicitation response.

  6. Sensitivity test of parameterizations of subgrid-scale orographic form drag in the NCAR CESM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yishuang; Wang, Lanning; Zhang, Guang Jun; Wu, Qizhong

    2017-05-01

    Turbulent drag caused by subgrid orographic form drag has significant effects on the atmosphere. It is represented through parameterization in large-scale numerical prediction models. An indirect parameterization scheme, the Turbulent Mountain Stress scheme (TMS), is currently used in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model v1.0.4. In this study we test a direct scheme referred to as BBW04 (Beljaars et al. in Q J R Meteorol Soc 130:1327-1347, 10.1256/qj.03.73), which has been used in several short-term weather forecast models and earth system models. Results indicate that both the indirect and direct schemes increase surface wind stress and improve the model's performance in simulating low-level wind speed over complex orography compared to the simulation without subgrid orographic effect. It is shown that the TMS scheme produces a more intense wind speed adjustment, leading to lower wind speed near the surface. The low-level wind speed by the BBW04 scheme agrees better with the ERA-Interim reanalysis and is more sensitive to complex orography as a direct method. Further, the TMS scheme increases the 2-m temperature and planetary boundary layer height over large areas of tropical and subtropical Northern Hemisphere land.

  7. In vitro evaluation of matrix metalloproteinases as predictive testing for nickel, a model sensitizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberti, Monica; Perfetto, Brunella; Costabile, Teresa; Canozo, Nunzia; Baroni, Adone; Liotti, Francesco; Sannolo, Nicola; Giuliano, Mariateresa

    2004-01-01

    The identification of potential damage due to chemical exposure in the workplace is a major health and regulatory concern. Traditional tests that measure both sensitization and elicitation responses require the use of animals. An alternative to this widespread use of experimental animals could have a crucial impact on risk assessment, especially for the preliminary screening of new molecules. We developed an in vitro model for the screening of potential toxic compounds. Human keratinocytes (HaCat) were used as target cells while matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) were selected as responders because they are key enzymes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in physiological and pathological conditions. Chemical exposure was performed using nickel sulphate as a positive tester. Nickel contact induced upregulation of MMP-2 and IL-8 mRNA production. Molecular activation occurred even at very low nickel concentrations even though no phenotypic changes were observed. MMP-9 accumulation was found in the medium of treated cells with respect to controls. These observations led to the hypothesis that even minimal exposure can accumulate transcriptional activity resulting in long-term clinical signs after contact. Our simple in vitro model can be applied as a useful preliminary complement to the animal studies to screen the effects of new potential toxic compounds

  8. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test for the screening of waste water quality and for testing the toxicity of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, Franz

    2008-07-01

    The sensitivity of the zebrafish embryo test, a test proposed for routine waste water control, was compared with the acute fish toxicity test, in the determination of six types of waste water and ten different chemicals. The waste water was sampled from the following industrial processes: paper and cardboard production, hide tanning, metal galvanisation, carcass treatment and utilisation, and sewage treatment. The chemicals tested were: dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulphoxide, cadmium chloride, cyclohexane, hydroquinone, mercuric chloride, nickel chloride, nonylphenol, resmethrin and sodium nitrite. For many of the test substances, the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test results showed high correlations. However, there were certain environmentally-relevant substances for which the results of the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test differed significantly, up to 10,000-fold (Hg(2+) > 150-fold difference; NO(2)(-) > 300-fold; Cd(2+) > 200-fold; resmethrin > 10,000-fold). For the investigated waste water samples and chemicals, the survival rate of the zebrafish embryos showed high variations between different egg samples, within the range of the EC50 concentration. Subsequently, 5-6 parallel assays were deemed to be the appropriate number necessary for the precise evaluation of the toxicity of the test substances. Also, it was found that the sensitivities of different ontogenetic stages to chemical exposure differed greatly. During the first 12 hours after fertilisation (4-cell stage to the 5-somite stage), the embryos reacted most sensitively to test substance exposure, whereas the later ontogenetic stages showed only slight or no response, indicating that the test is most sensitive during the first 24 hours post-fertilisation.

  9. Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Agneta H.; Kret, Mariska E.; Broekens, Joost

    2018-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous...

  10. Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUPO Palmira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP, a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71% received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2 and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP, with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out

  11. Local lymph node assay (LLNA): comparison of different protocols by testing skin-sensitizing epoxy resin system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Armin O; Nies, Eberhard; Vohr, Hans-Werner

    2008-12-01

    Thirteen epoxy resin system components were tested in the LLNA with regard to their sensitizing potency. Lymph node stimulation was quantified not only by measuring the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into the ear lymph nodes but also the counts of cells recovered from these organs. Equivalent figures were obtained with both endpoints used for the evaluation of lymph node cell proliferation if the reference stimulation indices were adjusted. When dissolved in acetone, all test substances showed skin-sensitizing potential, mainly on the boundary between "strong" and "moderate" according to common potency evaluation schemes. Replacing acetone with acetone/olive oil (4:1) as a vehicle for four selected test items, resulted in considerably lower estimated concentrations for sensitization induction. The challenges in comparing the results obtained by different LLNA variations are discussed.

  12. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid and Sensitive EBOV-RPA Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingjuan; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Xuesong; Ren, Hang; Liu, Wei; Lu, Huijun; Zhang, Wenyi; Liu, Shiwei; Chang, Guohui; Tian, Shuguang; Wang, Lihua; Huang, Liuyu; Liu, Chao; Yang, Ruifu; Chen, Zeliang

    2016-06-01

    Confirming Ebola virus disease (EVD), a deadly infectious disease, requires real-time RT-PCR, which takes up to a few hours to yield results. Therefore, a rapid diagnostic assay is imperative for EVD diagnosis. A rapid nucleic acid test based on recombinase polymerase amplification (EBOV-RPA) was developed to specifically detect the 2014 outbreak strains. The EBOV-RPA assay was evaluated by testing samples from suspected EVD patients in parallel with RT-PCR. An EBOV-RPA, which could be completed in 20 min, was successfully developed. Of 271 patients who tested positive for Ebola virus by RT-PCR, 264 (sensitivity: 97%, 95% CI: 95.5-99.3%) were positive by EBOV-RPA; 101 of 104 patients (specificity: 97%, 95% CI: 93.9-100%) who tested negative by RT-PCR were also negative by EBOV-RPA. The sensitivity values for samples with a Ct value of RPA had significantly high Ct values. Results of external quality assessment samples with EBOV-RPA were 100%, consistent with those of RT-PCR. The EBOV-RPA assay showed 97% sensitivity and 97% specificity for all EVD samples tested, making it a rapid and sensitive test for EVD diagnosis.

  13. Evaluation of human skin tests for potential dermal irritant and contact sensitizing products: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Jong WH de; Garssen J; LPI

    1998-01-01

    Prediction of human cutaneous irritation and sensitization in view of hazard identification has primarily relied on the use of laboratory animals. Such studies in laboratory animals have been very instrumental in the detection of potential contact sensitizing agents. There are however many

  14. Tracer SWIW tests in propped and un-propped fractures: parameter sensitivity issues, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) or 'push-then-pull' tracer methods appear attractive for a number of reasons: less uncertainty on design and dimensioning, and lower tracer quantities required than for inter-well tests; stronger tracer signals, enabling easier and cheaper metering, and shorter metering duration required, reaching higher tracer mass recovery than in inter-well tests; last not least: no need for a second well. However, SWIW tracer signal inversion faces a major issue: the 'push-then-pull' design weakens the correlation between tracer residence times and georeservoir transport parameters, inducing insensitivity or ambiguity of tracer signal inversion w. r. to some of those georeservoir parameters that are supposed to be the target of tracer tests par excellence: pore velocity, transport-effective porosity, fracture or fissure aperture and spacing or density (where applicable), fluid/solid or fluid/fluid phase interface density. Hydraulic methods cannot measure the transport-effective values of such parameters, because pressure signals correlate neither with fluid motion, nor with material fluxes through (fluid-rock, or fluid-fluid) phase interfaces. The notorious ambiguity impeding parameter inversion from SWIW test signals has nourished several 'modeling attitudes': (i) regard dispersion as the key process encompassing whatever superposition of underlying transport phenomena, and seek a statistical description of flow-path collectives enabling to characterize dispersion independently of any other transport parameter, as proposed by Gouze et al. (2008), with Hansen et al. (2016) offering a comprehensive analysis of the various ways dispersion model assumptions interfere with parameter inversion from SWIW tests; (ii) regard diffusion as the key process, and seek for a large-time, asymptotically advection-independent regime in the measured tracer signals (Haggerty et al. 2001), enabling a dispersion-independent characterization of multiple

  15. Grip strength in mice with joint inflammation: A rheumatology function test sensitive to pain and analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla-García, Ángeles; Tejada, Miguel Á; Perazzoli, Gloria; Entrena, José M; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Fernández-Segura, Eduardo; Cañizares, Francisco J; Cobos, Enrique J

    2017-10-01

    Grip strength deficit is a measure of pain-induced functional disability in rheumatic disease. We tested whether this parameter and tactile allodynia, the standard pain measure in preclinical studies, show parallels in their response to analgesics and basic mechanisms. Mice with periarticular injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the ankles showed periarticular immune infiltration and synovial membrane alterations, together with pronounced grip strength deficits and tactile allodynia measured with von Frey hairs. However, inflammation-induced tactile allodynia lasted longer than grip strength alterations, and therefore did not drive the functional deficits. Oral administration of the opioid drugs oxycodone (1-8 mg/kg) and tramadol (10-80 mg/kg) induced a better recovery of grip strength than acetaminophen (40-320 mg/kg) or the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs ibuprofen (10-80 mg/kg) or celecoxib (40-160 mg/kg); these results are consistent with their analgesic efficacy in humans. Functional impairment was generally a more sensitive indicator of drug-induced analgesia than tactile allodynia, as drug doses that attenuated grip strength deficits showed little or no effect on von Frey thresholds. Finally, ruthenium red (a nonselective TRP antagonist) or the in vivo ablation of TRPV1-expressing neurons with resiniferatoxin abolished tactile allodynia without altering grip strength deficits, indicating that the neurobiology of tactile allodynia and grip strength deficits differ. In conclusion, grip strength deficits are due to a distinct type of pain that reflects an important aspect of the human pain experience, and therefore merits further exploration in preclinical studies to improve the translation of new analgesics from bench to bedside. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. IASI's sensitivity to near-surface carbon monoxide (CO): Theoretical analyses and retrievals on test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Sophie; Clarisse, Lieven; Theunissen, Michael; George, Maya; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-03-01

    Separating concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the boundary layer from the rest of the atmosphere with nadir satellite measurements is of particular importance to differentiate emission from transport. Although thermal infrared (TIR) satellite sounders are considered to have limited sensitivity to the composition of the near-surface atmosphere, previous studies show that they can provide information on CO close to the ground in case of high thermal contrast. In this work we investigate the capability of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) to retrieve near-surface CO concentrations, and we quantitatively assess the influence of thermal contrast on such retrievals. We present a 3-part analysis, which relies on both theoretical forward simulations and retrievals on real data, performed for a large range of negative and positive thermal contrast situations. First, we derive theoretically the IASI detection threshold of CO enhancement in the boundary layer, and we assess its dependence on thermal contrast. Then, using the optimal estimation formalism, we quantify the role of thermal contrast on the error budget and information content of near-surface CO retrievals. We demonstrate that, contrary to what is usually accepted, large negative thermal contrast values (ground cooler than air) lead to a better decorrelation between CO concentrations in the low and the high troposphere than large positive thermal contrast (ground warmer than the air). In the last part of the paper we use Mexico City and Barrow as test cases to contrast our theoretical predictions with real retrievals, and to assess the accuracy of IASI surface CO retrievals through comparisons to ground-based in-situ measurements.

  17. Sensitivity of SWOT discharge algorithm to measurement errors: Testing on the Sacramento River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Micheal; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Yoon, Yeosang; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    Scheduled for launch in 2019, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will utilize a Ka-band radar interferometer to measure river heights, widths, and slopes, globally, as well as characterize storage change in lakes and ocean surface dynamics with a spatial resolution ranging from 10 - 70 m, with temporal revisits on the order of a week. A discharge algorithm has been formulated to solve the inverse problem of characterizing river bathymetry and the roughness coefficient from SWOT observations. The algorithm uses a Bayesian Markov Chain estimation approach, treats rivers as sets of interconnected reaches (typically 5 km - 10 km in length), and produces best estimates of river bathymetry, roughness coefficient, and discharge, given SWOT observables. AirSWOT (the airborne version of SWOT) consists of a radar interferometer similar to SWOT, but mounted aboard an aircraft. AirSWOT spatial resolution will range from 1 - 35 m. In early 2013, AirSWOT will perform several flights over the Sacramento River, capturing river height, width, and slope at several different flow conditions. The Sacramento River presents an excellent target given that the river includes some stretches heavily affected by management (diversions, bypasses, etc.). AirSWOT measurements will be used to validate SWOT observation performance, but are also a unique opportunity for testing and demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of the discharge algorithm. This study uses HEC-RAS simulations of the Sacramento River to first, characterize expected discharge algorithm accuracy on the Sacramento River, and second to explore the required AirSWOT measurements needed to perform a successful inverse with the discharge algorithm. We focus on the sensitivity of the algorithm accuracy to the uncertainty in AirSWOT measurements of height, width, and slope.

  18. Sensitivity analysis for near-surface disposal in argillaceous media using NAMMU-HYROCOIN Level 3-Test case 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.R.; Paige, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    HYDROCOIN is an international project for comparing groundwater flow models and modelling strategies. Level 3 of the project concerns the application of groundwater flow models to repository performance assessment with emphasis on the treatment of sensitivity and uncertainty in models and data. Level 3, test case 1 concerns sensitivity analysis of the groundwater flow around a radioactive waste repository situated in a near surface argillaceous formation. Work on this test case has been carried out by Harwell and will be reported in full in the near future. This report presents the results obtained using the computer program NAMMU. (author)

  19. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  20. Acute toxicity tests using rotifers. 4. Effects of cyst age, temperature, and salinity on the sensitivity of Brachionus calyciflorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, T.W.; Moffat, B.D.; Janssen, C.; Persoone, G. (University of Tampa, Florida (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Several aspects of the response to toxicants using a standardized toxicity test with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus are described. Test animals are obtained by hatching cysts which produce animals of similar age and physiological condition. The acute toxicity of 28 compounds is described with 24-hr LC50's. The LC50's span five orders of magnitude, from silver at 0.008 mg.liter-1 to benzene at more than 1000 mg.liter-1. Control mortality in 84 tests averaged 2% with a standard deviation of 3%, indicating very consistent test sensitivity. Only once in 84 trials did a test fail because of excessive control mortality, yielding a failure rate of 1.2%. Cyst age from 0 to 18 months had no effect on the sensitivity of neonates to reference toxicants. Both high and low temperatures increased rotifer sensitivity to reference toxicants. Copper sensitivity was greater at 10, 25, and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Likewise, sodium pentachlorophenol toxicity was greater at 10 and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Survivorship curves at 25 degrees C of neonates under control conditions indicated that mortality begins at about 30 hr. This places a practical limit on toxicant exposure for the assay of 24 hr. B. calyciflorus cysts hatch at salinities up to 5 ppt and acute toxicity tests using pentachlorophenol at this salinity yielded LC50's about one-half those of standard freshwater. B. calyciflorus is preferred over Brachionus plicatilis for toxicity tests in salinities up to 5 ppt because it is consistently more sensitive.

  1. The relevance of basophil allergen sensitivity testing to distinguish between severe and mild peanut-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homšak, Matjaž; Silar, Mira; Berce, Vojko; Tomazin, Maja; Skerbinjek-Kavalar, Maja; Celesnik, Nina; Košnik, Mitja; Korošec, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peanut sensitization is common in children. However, it is difficult to assess which children will react mildly and which severely. This study evaluated the relevance of basophil allergen sensitivity testing to distinguish the severity of peanut allergy in children. Twenty-seven peanut-sensitized children with symptoms varying from mild symptoms to severe anaphylaxis underwent peanut CD63 dose-response curve analysis with the inclusion of basophil allergen sensitivity calculation (CD-sens) and peanut component immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing. Eleven children who had experienced anaphylaxis to peanuts showed a markedly higher peanut CD63 response at submaximal allergen concentrations and CD-sens (median 1,667 vs. 0.5; p < 0.0001) than 16 children who experienced a milder reaction. Furthermore, a negative or low CD-sens to peanuts unambiguously excluded anaphylactic peanut allergy. Children with anaphylaxis have higher levels of Ara h 1, 2, 3 and 9 IgE, but comparable levels of IgE to Ara h 8 and whole-peanut extract. The diagnostic specificity calculated with a receiver operating characteristic analysis reached 100% for CD-sens and 73% for Ara h 2. We demonstrated that severe peanut allergy is significantly associated with higher basophil allergen sensitivity. This cellular test should facilitate a more accurate diagnosis of peanut allergy. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Electro-sensitivity: the physicians-laymen relationship under the test of an environmental pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oullion, Amandine

    2014-01-01

    This academic work addresses sociological and anthropological aspects of contemporary techniques. The authors more particularly examined how electro-sensitivity contributes to the re-composition of the relationship between physicians and laymen. After some methodological and theoretical considerations, the authors first addresses this issue from a macro-sociological and political point of view, i.e. by discussing the role of laymen in the definition and addressing of public health issues. They analyse the implication of electro-sensitive persons in the process of politicisation of their disease, and in research arrangements implemented on these issues. Then, they address the way electro-sensitivity reshapes the meeting between physician and patient. In the last part, they address the way electro-sensitivity questions the medical institution itself in terms of medical practices, and of power relationships within this institution

  3. QSAR models of human data can enrich or replace LLNA testing for human skin sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Capuzzi, Stephen J.; Muratov, Eugene; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Thornton, Thomas; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Skin sensitization is a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Although many chemicals have been evaluated in humans, there have been no efforts to model these data to date. We have compiled, curated, analyzed, and compared the available human and LLNA data. Using these data, we have developed reliable computational models and applied them for virtual screening of chemical libraries to identify putative skin sensitizers. The overall concordance between murine LLNA and human skin ...

  4. Rapid, automated, nonradiometric susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to four first-line antituberculous drugs used in standard short-course chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Marjamäki, Merja

    2004-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis necessitates rapid and accurate susceptibility testing. The nonradiometric BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT) system for susceptibility testing was evaluated on 222 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates...... for isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol. Fifty-seven of the isolates were tested for pyrazinamide. Results were compared to those of radiometric BACTEC 460 system and discrepancies were resolved by the agar proportion method. We found an overall agreement of 99.0% for isoniazid, 99.5% for rifampin, 98.......2% for ethambutol, and 100% for pyrazinamide. After resolution of discrepancies, MGIT yielded no false susceptibility for rifampin and isoniazid. Although turnaround times were comparable, MGIT provides an advantage as inoculation can be done on any weekday as the growth is monitored automatically. The automated...

  5. Modulating influences of memory strength and sensitivity of the retrieval test on the detectability of the sleep consolidation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Sarah F; Cordi, Maren J; Rasch, Björn

    2017-11-01

    Emotionality can increase recall probability of memories as emotional information is highly relevant for future adaptive behavior. It has been proposed that memory processes acting during sleep selectively promote the consolidation of emotional memories, so that neutral memories no longer profit from sleep consolidation after learning. This appears as a selective effect of sleep for emotional memories. However, other factors contribute to the appearance of a consolidation benefit and influence this interpretation. Here we show that the strength of the memory trace before sleep and the sensitivity of the retrieval test after sleep are critical factors contributing to the detection of the benefit of sleep on memory for emotional and neutral stimuli. 228 subjects learned emotional and neutral pictures and completed a free recall after a 12-h retention interval of either sleep or wakefulness. We manipulated memory strength by including an immediate retrieval test before the retention interval in half of the participants. In addition, we varied the sensitivity of the retrieval test by including an interference learning task before retrieval testing in half of the participants. We show that a "selective" benefit of sleep for emotional memories only occurs in the condition with high memory strength. Furthermore, this "selective" benefit disappeared when we controlled for the memory strength before the retention interval and used a highly sensitive retrieval test. Our results indicate that although sleep benefits are more robust for emotional memories, neutral memories similarly profit from sleep after learning when more sensitive indicators are used. We conclude that whether sleep benefits on memory appear depends on several factors, including emotion, memory strength and sensitivity of the retrieval test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute sensitivity of freshwater mollusks and commonly tested invertebrates to select chemicals with different toxic models of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that freshwater mollusks are more sensitive than commonly tested organisms to some chemicals, such as copper and ammonia. Nevertheless, mollusks are generally under-represented in toxicity databases. Studies are needed to generate data with which to comp...

  7. An integrated electrochemical device based on immunochromatographic test strip and enzyme labels for sensitive detection of disease-related biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhexiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Li, Yao Q.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-05-30

    A novel electrochemical biosensing device that integrates an immunochromatographic test strip and a screen-printed electrode (SPE) connected to a portable electrochemical analyzer was presented for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of disease-related biomarker in human blood samples. The principle of the sensor is based on sandwich immunoreactions between a biomarker and a pair of its antibodies on the test strip, followed by highly sensitive square-wave voltammetry (SWV) detection. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a signal reporter for electrochemical readout. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was employed as a model protein biomarker to demonstrate the analytical performance of the sensor in this study. Some critical parameters governing the performance of the sensor were investigated in detail. The sensor was further utilized to detect HBsAg in human plasma with an average recovery of 91.3%. In comparison, a colorimetric immunochromatographic test strip assay (ITSA) was also conducted. The result shows that the SWV detection in the electrochemical sensor is much more sensitive for the quantitative determination of HBsAg than the colorimetric detection, indicating that such a sensor is a promising platform for rapid and sensitive point-of-care testing/screening of disease-related biomarkers in a large population

  8. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing...... an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions....

  9. Monitoring contact sensitization to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) by patch testing with PPD 0.3% in petrolatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Johannes; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Dickel, Heinrich; Frosch, Peter J; Bircher, Andreas; Weisshaar, Elke; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-07-01

    Being a contact allergen of general relevance, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is patch tested in the baseline series. However, PPD 1% in petrolatum may actively sensitize. Patch testing with PPD at 0.35% pet. proved to be safe, as far as active sensitization is concerned. To determine whether PPD 0.3% pet. reliably detects PPD sensitization. Patch testing with PPD 0.3% pet. and 1% pet. synchronously was performed in consecutive patients in a multicentre study within the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology. Altogether, 2042 patients were patch tested. PPD 1% pet. yielded 6.0% positive reactions (n = 123), and PPD 0.3% pet. yielded 4.7% (n = 95). The synchronous reproducibility of PPD reactions was similar as known from parallel patch tests with identical PPD concentrations. The diagnostic properties of PPD 0.3% pet. expressed as reaction index and positivity ratio were good. Of the 123 patients reacting to PPD 1% pet., 32 (26%) had no positive reaction to PPD 0.3% pet. In 22 of these 32 patients (69%), no clinical relevance could be found. As patch testing with PPD 0.3% pet. is reliable according to our results, we recommend replacing PPD 1% pet. in the baseline series with PPD 0.3% pet. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The sensitization potential of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing using modified human repeated insult patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchai, Waranya; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima

    2015-10-01

    Ablative fractional skin resurfacing has become popular and proven to be useful in treating scars, photoaging and wrinkles. Although post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the most common complication especially in dark-skinned patients like Asian. Several modalities have been used to overcome the PIH. To determine the sensitization potential of sunscreen applied immediately after ablative fractional skin resurfacing. Sixty volunteers were recruited. Of these 30 subjects were from previous ablative fractional skin resurfacing study who applied broad-spectrum sunscreen containing anti-inflammatory agent starting on the first day after resurfacing and another 30 non-resurfacing subjects had applied the same sunscreen on the intact skin. All subjects were patch/photopatch tested for sensitization study by using modified human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). There were significantly higher sensitization rate of UV-filter, octocrylene and the sunscreen in resurfacing group than in non-resurfacing group. Early application of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing has increased the incidence of sensitization potential of sunscreen. The sunscreen is recommended to start using from D3 after fractional ablative skin resurfacing to ensure the complete recovery of skin barrier and minimize the risk of sensitization.

  11. The sensitivity of laboratory tests assessing driving related skills to dose-related impairment of alcohol: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, S; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory tests assessing driving related skills can be useful as initial screening tools to assess potential drug induced impairment as part of a standardized behavioural assessment. Unfortunately, consensus about which laboratory tests should be included to reliably assess drug induced impairment has not yet been reached. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the sensitivity of laboratory tests to the dose dependent effects of alcohol, as a benchmark, on performance parameters. In total, 179 experimental studies were included. Results show that a cued go/no-go task and a divided attention test with primary tracking and secondary visual search were consistently sensitive to the impairing effects at medium and high blood alcohol concentrations. Driving performance assessed in a simulator was less sensitive to the effects of alcohol as compared to naturalistic, on-the-road driving. In conclusion, replicating results of several potentially useful tests and their predictive validity of actual driving impairment should deserve further research. In addition, driving simulators should be validated and compared head to head to naturalistic driving in order to increase construct validity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Simple PCR assays improve the sensitivity of HIV-1 subtype B drug resistance testing and allow linking of resistance mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy is known to be compromised by drug-resistant HIV-1 at frequencies detectable by conventional bulk sequencing. Currently, there is a need to assess the clinical consequences of low-frequency drug resistant variants occurring below the detection limit of conventional genotyping. Sensitive detection of drug-resistant subpopulations, however, requires simple and practical methods for routine testing. METHODOLOGY: We developed highly-sensitive and simple real-time PCR assays for nine key drug resistance mutations and show that these tests overcome substantial sequence heterogeneity in HIV-1 clinical specimens. We specifically used early wildtype virus samples from the pre-antiretroviral drug era to measure background reactivity and were able to define highly-specific screening cut-offs that are up to 67-fold more sensitive than conventional genotyping. We also demonstrate that sequencing the mutation-specific PCR products provided a direct and novel strategy to further detect and link associated resistance mutations, allowing easy identification of multi-drug-resistant variants. Resistance mutation associations revealed in mutation-specific amplicon sequences were verified by clonal sequencing. SIGNIFICANCE: Combined, sensitive real-time PCR testing and mutation-specific amplicon sequencing provides a powerful and simple approach that allows for improved detection and evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations.

  13. Sensitivity analysis on the interfacial drag in SPACE code to simulate UPTF separate effect test about loop seal clearance phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukho; Lim, Sanggyu; You, Gukjong; Park, Youngsheop [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear thermal hydraulic system code known as SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis CodE) was developed and its V and V (Verification and Validation) have been conducted using well-known SETs (Separate Effect Tests) and IETs (Integral Effect Tests). At the same time, the SBLOCA (Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident) methodology in accordance with Appendix K of 10CFR50 for the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) was developed and applied to regulatory body for licensing in 2013. Especially, the SBLOCA methodology developed using SPACE v2.14 code adopts inherent test matrix independent of V and V test to show its conservatism for important phenomena. In this paper, the predictability of SPACE code for UPTF (Upper Plenum Test Facility) test simulating loop seal clearance of SBLOCA important phenomena and the related sensitivity analysis are introduced.

  14. Pyocin-sensitivity testing as a method of typing Pseudomonas aeruginosa: use of "phage-free" preparations of pyocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampling, A; Whitby, J L; Wildy, P

    1975-11-01

    A method for pyocin-sensitivity typing by means of "phage-free" preparations of pyocin is described. The method was tested on 227 isolates of P. aeruginosa, collected from 34 different foci of infection in hospitals in the British Isles and the results were compared with those for combined serological and phage typing of all strains and pyocin production of 105 of the isolates. It is concluded that pyocin-sensitivity typing is a simple and reliable method giving a high degree of discrimination, comparable to that of combined serological and phage typing, and it is suitable for use in routine hospital laboratories.

  15. Contrast sensitivity test and conventional and high frequency audiometry: information beyond that required to prescribe lenses and headsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Simon, J. M.; Angarano, C.; Dominguez, S.; Luzzi, F.; Lanusse, M.; Ranieri, M. V.; Boccio, C. M.

    2008-04-01

    In Optometry and in Audiology, the routine tests to prescribe correction lenses and headsets are respectively the visual acuity test (the first chart with letters was developed by Snellen in 1862) and conventional pure tone audiometry (the first audiometer with electrical current was devised by Hartmann in 1878). At present there are psychophysical non invasive tests that, besides evaluating visual and auditory performance globally and even in cases catalogued as normal according to routine tests, supply early information regarding diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, cardiovascular problems, etc. Concerning Optometry, one of these tests is the achromatic luminance contrast sensitivity test (introduced by Schade in 1956). Concerning Audiology, one of these tests is high frequency pure tone audiometry (introduced a few decades ago) which yields information relative to pathologies affecting the basal cochlea and complements data resulting from conventional audiometry. These utilities of the contrast sensitivity test and of pure tone audiometry derive from the facts that Fourier components constitute the basis to synthesize stimuli present at the entrance of the visual and auditory systems; that these systems responses depend on frequencies and that the patient's psychophysical state affects frequency processing. The frequency of interest in the former test is the effective spatial frequency (inverse of the angle subtended at the eye by a cycle of a sinusoidal grating and measured in cycles/degree) and, in the latter, the temporal frequency (measured in cycles/sec). Both tests have similar duration and consist in determining the patient's threshold (corresponding to the inverse multiplicative of the contrast or to the inverse additive of the sound intensity level) for each harmonic stimulus present at the system entrance (sinusoidal grating or pure tone sound). In this article the frequencies, standard normality curves and abnormal threshold shifts

  16. The relationship of speech intelligibility with hearing sensitivity, cognition, and perceived hearing difficulties varies for different speech perception tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eHeinrich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in noisy environments. Hearing sensitivity, as measured by pure-tone audiometry, can only partly explain these results, and cognition has emerged as another key concept. Although cognition relates to speech perception, the exact nature of the relationship remains to be fully understood. This study investigates how different aspects of cognition, particularly working memory and attention, relate to speech intelligibility for various tests.Perceptual accuracy of speech perception represents just one aspect of functioning in a listening environment. Activity and participation limits imposed by hearing loss, in addition to the demands of a listening environment, are also important and may be better captured by self-report questionnaires. Understanding how speech perception relates to self-reported aspects of listening forms the second focus of the study.Forty-four listeners aged between 50-74 years with mild SNHL were tested on speech perception tests differing in complexity from low (phoneme discrimination in quiet, to medium (digit triplet perception in speech-shaped noise to high (sentence perception in modulated noise; cognitive tests of attention, memory, and nonverbal IQ; and self-report questionnaires of general health-related and hearing-specific quality of life.Hearing sensitivity and cognition related to intelligibility differently depending on the speech test: neither was important for phoneme discrimination, hearing sensitivity alone was important for digit triplet perception, and hearing and cognition together played a role in sentence perception. Self-reported aspects of auditory functioning were correlated with speech intelligibility to different degrees, with digit triplets in noise showing the richest pattern. The results suggest that intelligibility tests can vary in their auditory and cognitive demands and their sensitivity to the challenges that auditory environments pose on

  17. The relationship of speech intelligibility with hearing sensitivity, cognition, and perceived hearing difficulties varies for different speech perception tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in noisy environments. Hearing sensitivity, as measured by pure-tone audiometry, can only partly explain these results, and cognition has emerged as another key concept. Although cognition relates to speech perception, the exact nature of the relationship remains to be fully understood. This study investigates how different aspects of cognition, particularly working memory and attention, relate to speech intelligibility for various tests. Perceptual accuracy of speech perception represents just one aspect of functioning in a listening environment. Activity and participation limits imposed by hearing loss, in addition to the demands of a listening environment, are also important and may be better captured by self-report questionnaires. Understanding how speech perception relates to self-reported aspects of listening forms the second focus of the study. Forty-four listeners aged between 50 and 74 years with mild sensorineural hearing loss were tested on speech perception tests differing in complexity from low (phoneme discrimination in quiet), to medium (digit triplet perception in speech-shaped noise) to high (sentence perception in modulated noise); cognitive tests of attention, memory, and non-verbal intelligence quotient; and self-report questionnaires of general health-related and hearing-specific quality of life. Hearing sensitivity and cognition related to intelligibility differently depending on the speech test: neither was important for phoneme discrimination, hearing sensitivity alone was important for digit triplet perception, and hearing and cognition together played a role in sentence perception. Self-reported aspects of auditory functioning were correlated with speech intelligibility to different degrees, with digit triplets in noise showing the richest pattern. The results suggest that intelligibility tests can vary in their auditory and cognitive demands and their sensitivity to the challenges that

  18. Tests of methods and software for set-valued model calibration and sensitivity analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PHM; Sanders R; CWM

    1995-01-01

    Testen worden besproken die zijn uitgevoerd op methoden en software voor calibratie middels 'rotated-random-scanning', en voor gevoeligheidsanalyse op basis van de 'dominant direction analysis' en de 'generalized sensitivity analysis'. Deze technieken werden

  19. Method Matters: Systematic Effects of Testing Procedure on Visual Working Memory Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Watson, Leah M.; Koutstaal, Wilma; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual representation that survives changes in object motion, observer's position, and other visual transients. This article presents data that are inconsistent with the traditional view. We show that memory sensitivity is dramatically influenced by small variations in the…

  20. Revisiting LOFT L2-5 large break test in BEMUSE project context. Sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Marina; Batet, Lluis; Pretel, Carme; Reventos, Francesc

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Best estimate codes simulate NPPs behavior in principle without any special conservative assumptions. Due to several factors like code solution methods or user effects, the output parameters calculated have an uncertainty associated. The quantification of the these uncertainties becomes crucial when a safety statement is to be made. It is in this scope that GAMA group from CSNI (OECD/NEA) proposed the international BEMUSE project (Best Estimate - Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation) having as main objective the evaluation of different methodologies for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of best-estimate code calculations. A number of methodologies prepared in different countries are used in the development of the project activities. The program work consists of 6 phases and currently the first two have already been concluded. Phase II consists in revisiting the ISP-13, the LOFT loss of coolant experiment L2-5 which simulated a double ended 200% cold leg break of a commercial PWR simultaneous with a loss of site power. In order to connect phase II with phase III, in which the uncertainty analysis will be carried out, quite a large number of sensitivity analysis have been performed by simulating system failures and varying fuel elements parameters among others. The presentation will focus on the results of the sensitivity analysis as well as its importance with regards to the uncertainty studies. The methodology used by UPC team was developed by ENUSA and the work is supported by the Spanish regulatory organization. (authors)

  1. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...

  2. Distinguishing between learning and motivation in behavioral tests of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Luke D; Dalgleish, Len I; Jackson, Chris J

    2007-04-01

    According to Gray's (1973) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and a Behavioral Activation System (BAS) mediate effects of goal conflict and reward on behavior. BIS functioning has been linked with individual differences in trait anxiety and BAS functioning with individual differences in trait impulsivity. In this article, it is argued that behavioral outputs of the BIS and BAS can be distinguished in terms of learning and motivation processes and that these can be operationalized using the Signal Detection Theory measures of response-sensitivity and response-bias. In Experiment 1, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under goal conflict, whereas one measure of BAS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under reward. In Experiment 2, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted response-bias under goal conflict, whereas a measure of BAS-reactivity predicted motivation response-bias under reward. In both experiments, impulsivity measures did not predict criteria for BAS-reactivity as traditionally predicted by RST.

  3. A System for Controlled Presentation of the Arden Contrast Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    and Woo,1978); I.?glaucoma (Atkin, et al,1979); amblyopia (Hess,1979); retinal degeneration (Woo and Long,1979); multiple sclerosis (Regan, et al...decrease, contrast sensitivity diminishes, and imaging L shifts to an area covering 12 -15 of the peripheral macula . The theoretical threshold grid

  4. Culture and Youth Psychopathology: Testing the Syndromal Sensitivity Model in Thai and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; Weiss, Bahr; Suwanlert, Somsong; Chaiyasit, Wanchai

    2006-01-01

    Current widespread use of the same youth assessment measures and scales across different nations assumes that youth psychopathology syndromes do not differ meaningfully across nations. By contrast, the authors' syndromal sensitivity model posits 3 processes through which cultural differences can lead to cross-national differences in…

  5. Developing and testing ScrollQuest: A video game targeting rejection sensitivity in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijnman, A.; Granic, I.; Whitkin, J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Depression affects a large proportion of adolescents and current interventions only have moderate effects. With the potential of video games for emotional and mental health in mind, we developed a video game for rejection sensitivity, which is a major risk factor for depression. A process of

  6. Mouse allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 and risk of mouse skin test sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, E. C.; Diette, G. B.; Krop, E. J. M.; Aalberse, R. C.; Smith, A. L.; Eggleston, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    High serum levels of cat-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with protection against allergic sensitization to cat, but whether this association applies to other animal allergens remains unclear. To determine if high levels of mouse-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with a decreased risk of

  7. Nickel contact sensitivity in the guinea pig. An efficient open application test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Rohold, A E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1992-01-01

    Nickel contact sensitivity was successfully induced in guinea pigs using an open epicutaneous application method. Immediately after pretreatment with 1% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate, upper back skin was treated daily for 4 weeks with 0.3%-3% nickel sulfate in either a 1% lanolin cream (Vaseline, p...

  8. Testing the sensitivity of Nested PCR method to detect Aspergillus fumigates in experimentally infected Sputum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Soukkaria, S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by Aspergillus species generally are occupying a second place among invasive fungal infections in the world, especially A. fumigatus, which is considered the main cause of invasive Aspergillosis (IA). Although IA rarely infects immunocompetent individuals, however, it can lead to death in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnose the infection early in order to treat the disease efficiently. However, the conventional diagnostic tools, currently used to detect infections, has low sensitivity and reliability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology distribution as a molecular and high sensitive technology has allowed us to make comparative study between sensitivity of traditional currently used diagnostic method and Nested-PCR, the result of the study of sputum samples that experimentally infected with different concentrations of A.fumigatus spores ramping from 10 to10 6 spore/ml, have high sensitivity and specificity of Nested-PCR in detecting the lower concentrations, comparing with traditional diagnostic method (culture on Sabouraud media) that were negative in all concetrations. (author)

  9. [Sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR pyrosequencing in hepatitis B virus drug resistance gene testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shumei; Zhou, Hao; Zhou, Bin; Hu, Ziyou; Hou, Jinlin; Sun, Jian

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR combined with pyrosequencing in the detection of HBV drug-resistance gene. RtM204I (ATT) mutant and rtM204 (ATG) nonmutant plasmids mixed at different ratios were detected for mutations using nested-PCR combined with pyrosequencing, and the results were compared with those by conventional PCR pyrosequencing to analyze the linearity and consistency of the two methods. Clinical specimens with different viral loads were examined for drug-resistant mutations using nested PCR pyrosequencing and nested PCR combined with dideoxy sequencing (Sanger) for comparison of the detection sensitivity and specificity. The fitting curves demonstrated good linearity of both conventional PCR pyrosequencing and nested PCR pyrosequencing (R(2)>0.99, PNested PCR showed a better consistency with the predicted value than conventional PCR, and was superior to conventional PCR for detection of samples containing 90% mutant plasmid. In the detection of clinical specimens, Sanger sequencing had a significantly lower sensitivity than nested PCR pyrosequencing (92% vs 100%, Pnested PCR and Sanger sequencing method, nested PCR pyrosequencing has a higher sensitivity especially in clinical specimens with low viral copies, which can be important for early detection of HBV mutant strains and hence more effective clinical management.

  10. Equal Opportunity in the Classroom: Test Construction in a Diversity-Sensitive Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Jai; Lackritz, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Two multiple-choice tests and one essay test were taken by 231 students (50/50 male/female, 192 White, 39 East Asian, Black, Mexican American, or Middle Eastern). Multiple-choice tests showed no significant differences in equal employment opportunity terms; women and men scored about the same on essays, but minority students had significantly…

  11. Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity of a Novel Smartphone-Based Eccentric Hamstring Strength Test in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin W Y; Cai, Ming-Jing; Yung, Patrick S H; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and concurrent validity of a smartphone-based method for assessing eccentric hamstring strength among male professional football players. A total of 25 healthy male professional football players performed the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) Nordic break-point test, hamstring fatigue protocol, and isokinetic hamstring strength test. The CUHK Nordic break-point test is based on a Nordic hamstring exercise. The Nordic break-point angle was defined as the maximum point where the participant could no longer support the weight of his body against gravity. The criterion for the sensitivity test was the presprinting and postsprinting difference of the Nordic break-point angle with a hamstring fatigue protocol. The hamstring fatigue protocol consists of 12 repetitions of the 30-m sprint with 30-s recoveries between sprints. Hamstring peak torque of the isokinetic hamstring strength test was used as the criterion for validity. A high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .94; 95% confidence interval, .82-.98) was found in the Nordic break-point angle measurements. The Nordic break-point angle significantly correlated with isokinetic hamstring peak torques at eccentric action of 30°/s (r = .88, r 2  = .77, P hamstring strength measures among male professional football players.

  12. EU-approved rapid tests for bovine spongiform encephalopathy detect atypical forms: a study for their sensitivities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meloni

    Full Text Available Since 2004 it become clear that atypical bovine spongiform encephalopthies (BSEs exist in cattle. Whenever their detection has relied on active surveillance plans implemented in Europe since 2001 by rapid tests, the overall and inter-laboratory performance of these diagnostic systems in the detection of the atypical strains has not been studied thoroughly to date. To fill this gap, the present study reports on the analytical sensitivity of the EU-approved rapid tests for atypical L- and H-type and classical BSE in parallel. Each test was challenged with two dilution series, one created from a positive pool of the three BSE forms according to the EURL standard method of homogenate preparation (50% w/v and the other as per the test kit manufacturer's instructions. Multilevel logistic models and simple logistic models with the rapid test as the only covariate were fitted for each BSE form analyzed as directed by the test manufacturer's dilution protocol. The same schemes, but excluding the BSE type, were then applied to compare test performance under the manufacturer's versus the water protocol. The IDEXX HerdChek ® BSE-scrapie short protocol test showed the highest sensitivity for all BSE forms. The IDEXX® HerdChek BSE-scrapie ultra short protocol, the Prionics®--Check WESTERN and the AJ Roboscreen® BetaPrion tests showed similar sensitivities, followed by the Roche® PrionScreen, the Bio-Rad® TeSeE™ SAP and the Prionics®--Check PrioSTRIP in descending order of analytical sensitivity. Despite these differences, the limit of detection of all seven rapid tests against the different classes of material set within a 2 log(10 range of the best-performing test, thus meeting the European Food Safety Authority requirement for BSE surveillance purposes. These findings indicate that not many atypical cases would have been missed surveillance since 2001 which is important for further epidemiological interpretations of the sporadic character of

  13. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal concentrations for glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were calculated. Surrogate indices were computed using the average of the IVGTT basal samples, and their correlation with the IVGTT parameters studied through the Spearman's rank test. No statistically significant or strong correlation coefficients (P > 0.05; |ρ| insulin sensitivity measures derived from the IVGTT and any of the surrogate indices. Therefore, these results support that the assessment of insulin sensitivity in early lactation cattle cannot rely on the calculation of surrogate indices in just a blood sample, and the more laborious tests (ie, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test or IVGTT) should be employed to predict the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues to insulin accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The CAMEO project: high sensitivity quest for Majorana neutrino mass with the BOREXINO counting test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; Giammarchi, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The unique features of the CTF and BOREXINO set-ups are used for a high sensitivity study of 100 Mo and 116 Cd neutrinoless 2β decay. Pilot measurements with 116 Cd and Monte Carlo simulation show that the sensitivity of the CAMEO experiment (in terms of the T 1/2 limit for 0ν2β decay) is (3-5) · 10 24 y with a 1 kg source of 100 Mo ( 116 Cd, 82 Se, 150 Nd) and ∼ 10 26 y with 65 kg of 116 CdWO 4 crystals placed in the CTF. The last value corresponds to a limit on the neutrino mass of m ν ≤ 0.06 eV. Moreover, with 1000 kg of 116 CdWO 4 crystals located in the BOREXINO apparatus, the neutrino mass limit can be pushed down to m ν ≤ 0.02 eV

  15. Photosynthesis in a test tube- dye sensitized solar cells as a teaching tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raturi, Atul; Fepuleai, Yoheni [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, The University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-05-15

    Dye sensitized solar cells employing natural plant dyes as phosensitizers can be effectively used to train students in the science and technology of solar cells. This is especially relevant to developing countries where facilities for silicon cell fabrication are non-existent. The cross-disciplinary nature of this device makes it very attractive for student projects. The present work describes such a project where anthocyanin dye from hibiscus flowers has been used as the electron harvester. (author)

  16. A piecewise modeling approach for climate sensitivity studies: Tests with a shallow-water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Aimei; Qiu, Chongjian; Niu, Guo-Yue

    2015-10-01

    In model-based climate sensitivity studies, model errors may grow during continuous long-term integrations in both the "reference" and "perturbed" states and hence the climate sensitivity (defined as the difference between the two states). To reduce the errors, we propose a piecewise modeling approach that splits the continuous long-term simulation into subintervals of sequential short-term simulations, and updates the modeled states through re-initialization at the end of each subinterval. In the re-initialization processes, this approach updates the reference state with analysis data and updates the perturbed states with the sum of analysis data and the difference between the perturbed and the reference states, thereby improving the credibility of the modeled climate sensitivity. We conducted a series of experiments with a shallow-water model to evaluate the advantages of the piecewise approach over the conventional continuous modeling approach. We then investigated the impacts of analysis data error and subinterval length used in the piecewise approach on the simulations of the reference and perturbed states as well as the resulting climate sensitivity. The experiments show that the piecewise approach reduces the errors produced by the conventional continuous modeling approach, more effectively when the analysis data error becomes smaller and the subinterval length is shorter. In addition, we employed a nudging assimilation technique to solve possible spin-up problems caused by re-initializations by using analysis data that contain inconsistent errors between mass and velocity. The nudging technique can effectively diminish the spin-up problem, resulting in a higher modeling skill.

  17. Testing the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross Adaptation-Sensitization Model for Homeopathic Remedy Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Key concepts of the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross-Adaptation-Sensitization (NPCAS) Model for the action of homeopathic remedies in living systems include source nanoparticles as low level environmental stressors, heterotypic hormesis, cross-adaptation, allostasis (stress response network), time-dependent sensitization with endogenous amplification and bidirectional change, and self-organizing complex adaptive systems. The model accommodates the requirement for measurable physical agents in the remedy (source nanoparticles and/or source adsorbed to silica nanoparticles). Hormetic adaptive responses in the organism, triggered by nanoparticles; bipolar, metaplastic change, dependent on the history of the organism. Clinical matching of the patient’s symptom picture, including modalities, to the symptom pattern that the source material can cause (cross-adaptation and cross-sensitization). Evidence for nanoparticle-related quantum macro-entanglement in homeopathic pathogenetic trials. This paper examines research implications of the model, discussing the following hypotheses: Variability in nanoparticle size, morphology, and aggregation affects remedy properties and reproducibility of findings. Homeopathic remedies modulate adaptive allostatic responses, with multiple dynamic short- and long-term effects. Simillimum remedy nanoparticles, as novel mild stressors corresponding to the organism’s dysfunction initiate time-dependent cross-sensitization, reversing the direction of dysfunctional reactivity to environmental stressors. The NPCAS model suggests a way forward for systematic research on homeopathy. The central proposition is that homeopathic treatment is a form of nanomedicine acting by modulation of endogenous adaptation and metaplastic amplification processes in the organism to enhance long-term systemic resilience and health. PMID:23290882

  18. An Appraisal of Methods Recently Recommended for Testing Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2017), č. článku e005653. ISSN 2047-9980 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hypertension * salt intake * salt sensitivity hypertension * sodium Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems Impact factor: 4.863, year: 2016

  19. Test of a position-sensitive photomultiplier for fast scintillating fiber detector read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, J.; Hoffmann, B.; Luedecke, H.; Nahnhauer, R.; Pohl, M.; Roloff, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    A position-sensitive photomultiplier with 256 anode pixels has been used to read out scintillating fibers excited by light emitting diodes, electrons from a β-source and a 5 GeV electron beam. Measurements have been done within a magnetic field up to 0.6 T. Tracking and electromagnetic shower detection capabilities of a simple fiber detector have been studied. (orig.)

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in naturally infected sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thulliez, P.; Weigel, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    antibodies by use of the modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), and ELISA. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 170 hearts of 1,000 sows by bioassays in mice and cats. The percentage of samples diagnosed as positive for each of the serologic......, 29.4 and 98.3% for IHAT, 45.9 and 96.9% for LAT, and 72.9 and 85.9% for ELISA. The dye test was run at 1:20 dilution on only 893 sera because of bacterial contamination and presence of anticomplement substances. Dye test antibodies were found in 17.8% of the sera, and sensitivity and specificity were...

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from ophthalmic products: can pre-treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate increase patch test sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa

    2005-05-01

    In patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis because of topical ophthalmic medicaments, patch tests performed with patients' own products are often negative. The irritant anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) may alter the stratum corneum and increase antigen penetration. Pre-treatment of the skin with SLS 0.5% for 24 h was performed in the sites of patch tests with patients' own products in 15 selected patients. In patients previously negative to their own products tested with conventional patch tests, SLS pre-treatment showed 6 new relevant positive reactions and induced a stronger positive reaction in 1 patient. SLS pre-treatment could be proposed as an alternative promising method, which may increase sensitivity of patch tests with patients' own products.

  2. Testing environment shape differentially modulates baseline and nicotine-induced changes in behavior: Sex differences, hypoactivity, and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J M; Mactutus, C F; Booze, R M; Harrod, S B

    2018-02-01

    In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males. Nonetheless, characteristics of the testing environment also mediate rodent behavior following drug administration. The current experiment used a within-subjects design to determine if nicotine-induced changes in horizontal activity, center entries, and rearing displayed by male and female rats is detected when behavior was recorded in round vs. square chambers. Behaviors were recorded from each group (males-round: n=19; males-square: n=18; females-square: n=19; and females-round: n=19) immediately following IV injection of saline, acute nicotine, and repeated nicotine (0.05mg/kg/injection). Prior to nicotine treatment, sex differences were apparent only in round chambers. Following nicotine administration, the order of magnitude for the chamber that provided enhanced detection of hypoactivity or sensitization was contingent upon both the dependent measure under examination and the animal's biological sex. As such, round and square testing chambers provide different, and sometimes contradictory, accounts of how male and female rats respond to nicotine treatment. It is possible that a central mechanism such as stress or cue sensitivity is impacted by both drug exposure and environment to drive the sex differences observed in the current experiment. Until these complex relations are better understood, experiments considering sex differences in drug responses should balance

  3. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens.

  4. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  5. The Method of Manufacturing Nonmetallic Test-Blocks on Different Sensitivity Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, N. P.; Kalinichenko, A. N.; Lobanova, I. S.; Zaitseva, A. A.; Loboda, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays in our modern world there is a vital question of quality control of details made from nonmetallic materials due to their wide spreading. Nondestructive penetrant testing is effective, and in some cases it is the only possible method of accidents prevention at high- risk sites. A brief review of check sample necessary for quality evaluation of penetrant materials is considered. There was offered a way of making agents for quality of penetrant materials testing according to different liquid penetrant testing sensibility classes.

  6. Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Agneta H; Kret, Mariska E; Broekens, Joost

    2018-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous, emotion cues. In addition, we included a self-report emotional intelligence test in order to examine any discrepancy between self-perceptions and actual performance for both men and women. We used a wide range of stimuli and models, displaying six different emotions at two different intensity levels. In order to better tap sensitivity for subtle emotion cues, we did not use a forced choice format, but rather intensity measures of different emotions. We found no support for the emotional sensitivity account, as both genders rated the target emotions as similarly intense at both levels of stimulus intensity. Men, however, more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women. In addition, we also found that the lower scores of men in self-reported EI was not related to their actual perception of target emotions, but it was to the perception of non-target emotions.

  7. Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E.; Broekens, Joost

    2018-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous, emotion cues. In addition, we included a self-report emotional intelligence test in order to examine any discrepancy between self-perceptions and actual performance for both men and women. We used a wide range of stimuli and models, displaying six different emotions at two different intensity levels. In order to better tap sensitivity for subtle emotion cues, we did not use a forced choice format, but rather intensity measures of different emotions. We found no support for the emotional sensitivity account, as both genders rated the target emotions as similarly intense at both levels of stimulus intensity. Men, however, more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women. In addition, we also found that the lower scores of men in self-reported EI was not related to their actual perception of target emotions, but it was to the perception of non-target emotions. PMID:29370198

  8. Analysis of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Noninvasive Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis of Renal Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borelli, Flavio Antonio de Oliveira; Pinto, Ibraim M. F.; Amodeo, Celso; Smanio, Paola E. P.; Kambara, Antonio M.; Petisco, Ana Claudia G.; Moreira, Samuel M.; Paiva, Ricardo Calil; Lopes, Hugo Belotti; Sousa, Amanda G. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Aging and atherosclerosis are related to renovascular hypertension in elderly individuals. Regardless of comorbidities, renal artery stenosis is itself an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To define the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of noninvasive imaging tests used in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. In a group of 61 patients recruited, 122 arteries were analized, thus permitting the definition of sensitivity, specificity, and the relative contribution of each imaging study performed (Doppler, scintigraphy and computed tomographic angiography in comparison to renal arteriography). The mean age was 65.43 years (standard deviation: 8.7). Of the variables related to the study population that were compared to arteriography, two correlated with renal artery stenosis, renal dysfunction and triglycerides. The median glomerular filtration rate was 52.8 mL/min/m 2 . Doppler showed sensitivity of 82.90%, specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 66.70%. For tomography, sensitivity was 66.70%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 87.50% and negative predictive value 55.20%. With these findings, we could identify the imaging tests that best detected stenosis. Tomography and Doppler showed good quality and efficacy in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, with Doppler having the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast medium for the assessment of a disease that is common in diabetics and is associated with renal dysfunction and severe left ventricular dysfunction

  9. Analysis of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Noninvasive Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis of Renal Artery Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Flavio Antonio de Oliveira, E-mail: fborelli@cardiol.br; Pinto, Ibraim M. F.; Amodeo, Celso; Smanio, Paola E. P.; Kambara, Antonio M.; Petisco, Ana Claudia G.; Moreira, Samuel M.; Paiva, Ricardo Calil; Lopes, Hugo Belotti; Sousa, Amanda G. M. R. [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Aging and atherosclerosis are related to renovascular hypertension in elderly individuals. Regardless of comorbidities, renal artery stenosis is itself an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To define the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of noninvasive imaging tests used in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. In a group of 61 patients recruited, 122 arteries were analized, thus permitting the definition of sensitivity, specificity, and the relative contribution of each imaging study performed (Doppler, scintigraphy and computed tomographic angiography in comparison to renal arteriography). The mean age was 65.43 years (standard deviation: 8.7). Of the variables related to the study population that were compared to arteriography, two correlated with renal artery stenosis, renal dysfunction and triglycerides. The median glomerular filtration rate was 52.8 mL/min/m{sup 2}. Doppler showed sensitivity of 82.90%, specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 66.70%. For tomography, sensitivity was 66.70%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 87.50% and negative predictive value 55.20%. With these findings, we could identify the imaging tests that best detected stenosis. Tomography and Doppler showed good quality and efficacy in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, with Doppler having the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast medium for the assessment of a disease that is common in diabetics and is associated with renal dysfunction and severe left ventricular dysfunction.

  10. Standard test method for electrochemical reactivation (EPR) for detecting sensitization of AISI type 304 and 304L stainless steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure for conducting an electrochemical reactivation (EPR) test on AISI Type 304 and 304L (UNS No. S30400 and S30403, respectively) stainless steels. This test method can provide a nondestructive means of quantifying the degree of sensitization in these steels (1, 2, 3). This test method has found wide acceptance in studies of the effects of sensitization on intergranular corrosion and intergranular stress corrosion cracking behavior (see Terminology G15). The EPR technique has been successfully used to evaluate other stainless steels and nickel base alloys (4), but the test conditions and evaluation criteria used were modified in each case from those cited in this test method. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this...

  11. The urinary antigen tests have high sensitivity in diagnosis of Pneumococcus caused community-acquired pneumonia posterior to antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zhou, Ming; Xiao, Wei; Ai, Biao; Liu, Xuezheng; Li, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Antibiotic treatment before microbiological test significant reduces the positive rate of culture methods of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The Binax NOW S. pneumoniae immunochromatographic test (ICT) has become a more commonly used procedure to diagnose S. pneumoniae from community-acquired pneumonia in adults. However, performance of this test after empirical antimicrobial therapy is uncertain. Therefore, in this prospective study, we evaluate the impact of antimicrobial therapy on sensitivity of ICT test in 487 hospitalized adult patients. The results showed that 192 (39.4 %) and 295 (60.6 %) specimens were collected before (Group 1) or after antibiotic treatment (Group 2), respectively. S. pneumoniae was detected by ICT in 21 (10.9 %) patients in the Group 1 and 39 (13.2 %) in the Group 2 and their positive rates were not different (P > 0.05). However, The positive rate of blood and pleural fluid was declined from 5.7 to 2.7 % and sputum, from 9.9 to 4.7 % after the antibiotic treatment, respectively. This study confirmed that the ICT urinary antigen test remained to have a high sensitivity for diagnosis of pneumococcal infection after empiric antibiotic treatment was started. The ICT urinary antigen test would have a potential to guide the right choice of therapy for pneumonia in adults earlier.

  12. Evaluation of strain-rate sensitivity of ion-irradiated austenitic steel using strain-rate jump nanoindentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Gokasho, Uji 611-0011, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Gokasho, Uji 611-0011, Kyoto (Japan); Hamaguchi, Dai; Ando, Masami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We examined strain-rate jump nanoindentation on ion-irradiated stainless steel. • We observed irradiation hardening of the ion-irradiated stainless steel. • We found that strain-rate sensitivity parameter was slightly decreased after the ion-irradiation. - Abstract: The present study investigated strain-rate sensitivity (SRS) of a single crystal Fe–15Cr–20Ni austenitic steel before and after 10.5 MeV Fe{sup 3+} ion-irradiation up to 10 dpa at 300 °C using a strain-rate jump (SRJ) nanoindentation test. It was found that the SRJ nanoindentation test is suitable for evaluating the SRS at strain-rates from 0.001 to 0.2 s{sup −1}. Indentation size effect was observed for depth dependence of nanoindentation hardness but not the SRS. The ion-irradiation increased the hardness at the shallow depth region but decreased the SRS slightly.

  13. The sensitivity of tests to detect in vivo platelet activation induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No influence on the results of the platelet function tests was found. Tile only test capable of detecting limited injury to the endothelium was the measurement of plasma PF4: The mean platelet life-span (MPLS) shortened, mean platelet density decreased, the circulating platelet aggregate ratio decreased, and plasma levels ...

  14. Rifampin Resistance rpoB Alleles or Multicopy Thioredoxin/Thioredoxin Reductase Suppresses the Lethality of Disruption of the Global Stress Regulator spx in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Maite; Jousselin, Ambre; Baek, Kristoffer T

    2016-01-01

    is a thiol/oxidative stress sensor that interacts with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase RpoA subunit, leading to changes in gene expression that help sustain viability under various conditions. Using genetic and deep-sequencing methods, we show that spx is essential in S. aureus...... discovered that Spx, an RNA polymerase-interacting stress regulator implicated in many stress responses in S. aureus, including responses to oxidative and cell wall antibiotics, is essential. We describe two mechanisms that suppress the lethality of spx disruption. One mechanism highlights how only certain...... rifampin resistance-encoding alleles of RpoB confer new properties on RNA polymerase, with important mechanistic implications. We describe additional stress conditions where the loss of spx is deleterious, thereby highlighting Spx as a multifaceted regulator and attractive drug discovery target....

  15. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  16. Study of the sensitivity of wire image quality indicators (IQI) used in radiographic testing of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.; Oki, H.

    1974-01-01

    Radiographic sensitivity is defined and its mathematical expresion is derived in order to justify the use of image quality indicators-IQI- formed by wires of different diameters which represent the radiographic quality. It is demonstrated that IQI sensibility is not related to the minimum dimensions of the metallic discontinuities that may be detected in radiographic tests. The experimental results are in good agreement whith the mathematical formulation proposed

  17. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.

    2013-01-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... lactating cows is relatively easy, non-invasive and inexpensive and hence milk ELISA may be a better option for screening lactating cows. But, blood ELISA is an option for screening non-lactating cattle....

  18. [Measuring contrast sensitivity using visual acuity tests in retinal and optic nerve diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, E; Marré, E; Mierdel, P

    1990-01-01

    The luminance contrast needed to discern various test types was measured with monochromatic and achromatic light to detect discrete functional deficiencies of the retina and optic nerve in cases of normal visual acuity. Landolt rings corresponding to visual acuity levels from 0.04 to 1.0 were used as test types. A significant increase in the necessary minimum contrast was detectable with blue test light on large Landolt rings in patients with diabetic retinopathy, ocular hypertension and glaucoma and with green or yellow test light on medium-sized and small Landolt rings in patients with central serous chorioidopathy and optic atrophy. The additional contrast needed to reach the maximum visual acuity amounts to 14-100% compared with normal visual acuity, depending on the color of the test light and the diagnosis. The amount of contrast needed is greatest in retinal diseases, and it is therefore possible to a certain extent to distinguish these from diseases of the optic nerve.

  19. BEMUSE Phase III Report - Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of the LOFT L2-5 Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, P.; Crecy, A. de; Glaeser, H.; Skorek, T.; Joucla, J.; Probst, P.; Chung, B.; Oh, D.Y.; Kyncl, M.; Pernica, R.; Macek, J.; Meca, R.; Macian, R.; D'Auria, F.; Petruzzi, A.; Perez, M.; Reventos, F.; Fujioka, K.

    2007-02-01

    This report summarises the various contributions (ten participants) for phase 3 of BEMUSE: Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses of the LOFT L2-5 experiment, a Large-Break Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LB-LOCA). For this phase, precise requirements step by step were provided to the participants. Four main parts are defined, which are: 1. List and uncertainties of the input uncertain parameters. 2. Uncertainty analysis results. 3. Sensitivity analysis results. 4. Improved methods, assessment of the methods (optional). 5% and 95% percentiles have to be estimated for 6 output parameters, which are of two kinds: 1. Scalar output parameters (First Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT), Second Peak Cladding Temperature, Time of accumulator injection, Time of complete quenching); 2. Time trends output parameters (Maximum cladding temperature, Upper plenum pressure). The main lessons learnt from phase 3 of the BEMUSE programme are the following: - for uncertainty analysis, all the participants use a probabilistic method associated with the use of Wilks' formula, except for UNIPI with its CIAU method (Code with the Capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty). Use of both methods has been successfully mastered. - Compared with the experiment, the results of uncertainty analysis are good on the whole. For example, for the cladding temperature-type output parameters (1. PCT, 2. PCT, time of complete quenching, maximum cladding temperature), 8 participants out of 10 find upper and lower bounds which envelop the experimental data. - Sensitivity analysis has been successfully performed by all the participants using the probabilistic method. All the used influence measures include the range of variation of the input parameters. Synthesis tables of the most influential phenomena and parameters have been plotted and participants will be able to use them for the continuation of the BEMUSE programme

  20. Sensitivity of soil phosphorus tests in predicting the potential risk of phosphorus loss from pasture soil

    OpenAIRE

    H. SOINNE; K. SAARIJÄRVI; M. KARPPINEN

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of urine and dung additions on the phosphorus (P) chemistry of pasture land and to compare the sensitivity of two soil extraction methods in assessing the P-loading risk. In a field experiment, urine and dung were added to soil in amounts corresponding to single excrement portions and the soil samples, taken at certain intervals, were analysed for pHH2O, acid ammonium acetate extractable P (PAc) and water extractable total P (TPw), and mo...

  1. Reactions to merit pay increases: a longitudinal test of a signal sensitivity perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul; Lockhart, Daniel E; Bowler, Matthew

    2003-06-01

    The relationships among merit pay raises, trait positive affectivity (PA), and reactions to merit pay increases (pay attitudes and behavioral intentions) were explored in a longitudinal study of hospital employees. Drawing on signal sensitivity theory, the authors expected that PA would moderate the relationship between merit pay raise size and reactions to the increase such that pay raise size would be more strongly related to pay attitudes and behavioral intentions among those low in PA. Results strongly supported the predictions in the case of reactions to the raise amount (happiness and effort intentions) but not for pay level satisfaction. Implications of the results and directions for future research are identified.

  2. Sensitivity and Specificity of a Five-Minute Cognitive Screening Test in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Janette D; Gallagher, Robyn; Pressler, Susan J; McLennan, Skye N; Ski, Chantal F; Tofler, Geoffrey; Thompson, David R

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in up to 80% of patients with heart failure (HF). The National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Canadian Stroke Network (CSN) recommend a 5-minute cognitive screening protocol that has yet to be psychometrically evaluated in HF populations. The aim of this study was to conduct a secondary analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the NINDS-CSN brief cognitive screening protocol in HF patients. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was administered to 221 HF patients. The NINDS-CSN screen comprises 3 MoCA items, with lower scores indicating poorer cognitive function. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed, determining the sensitivity, specificity and appropriate cutoff scores of the NINDS-CSN screen. In an HF population aged 76 ± 12 years, 136 (62%) were characterized with cognitive impairment (MoCA area under the receiver operating characteristic curve indicated good accuracy in screening for cognitive impairment (0.88; P cognitive impairment in patients with HF. Future studies should include a neuropsychologic battery to more comprehensively examine the diagnostic accuracy of brief cognitive screening protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gravity wave and neutrino bursts from stellar collapse: A sensitive test of neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, N.; Barsuglia, M.; Bizouard, M.A.; Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Hello, P.; Pradier, T.

    2002-01-01

    New methods are proposed with the goal to determine absolute neutrino masses from the simultaneous observation of the bursts of neutrinos and gravitational waves emitted during a stellar collapse. It is shown that the neutronization electron neutrino flash and the maximum amplitude of the gravitational wave signal are tightly synchronized with the bounce occurring at the end of the core collapse on a time scale better than 1 ms. The existing underground neutrino detectors (SuperKamiokande, SNO,...) and the gravity wave antennas soon to operate (LIGO, VIRGO,...) are well matched in their performance for detecting galactic supernovae and for making use of the proposed approach. Several methods are described, which apply to the different scenarios depending on neutrino mixing. Given the present knowledge on neutrino oscillations, the methods proposed are sensitive to a mass range where neutrinos would essentially be mass degenerate. The 95% C.L. upper limit which can be achieved varies from 0.75 eV/c 2 for large ν e survival probabilities to 1.1 eV/c 2 when in practice all ν e 's convert into ν μ 's or ν τ 's. The sensitivity is nearly independent of the supernova distance

  4. Testing the incentive-sensitization theory with at-risk drinkers: wanting, liking, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafin, Brian D; Marlatt, G Alan; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Motivational models of addiction typically propose that alcohol and drugs are desired because of their hedonic effects (i.e., increasing pleasure or reducing distress). In contrast, the incentive-sensitization theory proposes that wanting motivation and liking motivation are separable and that after repeated substance use, motivation shifts from liking to wanting. Using a sample of 85 at-risk drinkers (as defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism), in the current study we examined the separability of liking motivation and wanting motivation for alcohol and whether years of drinking experience was associated with an increased role for wanting motivation and a decreased role for liking motivation. Consumption was measured with a free-drinking task. Wanting motivation was assessed immediately before drinking, and liking was assessed immediately after drinking had begun. The results indicated that (a) wanting motivation predicted variance of consumption unique from that accounted for by liking motivation, (b) longer drinking experience was associated with a decreased relation between liking motivation and consumption, and (c) longer drinking experience was not associated with an increased relation between wanting motivation and consumption. The results provide partial support for the incentive-sensitization theory.

  5. Sensitivity of continuous performance test (CPT) at age 14years to developmental methylmercury exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal

    2010-01-01

    Hit Reaction Time latencies (HRT) in the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) measure the speed of visual information processing. The latencies may involve different neuropsychological functions depending on the time from test initiation, i.e., first orientation, learning and habituation, then cogni......Hit Reaction Time latencies (HRT) in the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) measure the speed of visual information processing. The latencies may involve different neuropsychological functions depending on the time from test initiation, i.e., first orientation, learning and habituation......, then cognitive processing and focused attention, and finally sustained attention as the dominant demand. Prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with increased reaction time (RT) latencies. We therefore examined the association of methylmercury exposure with the average HRT at age 14years at three...

  6. The Sensitivity Of Diazo Test In The Diagnosis Of Enteric Fevers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    serological) test in the diagnosis of enteric fevers, blood specimens from101 patients suspected of having enteric fevers were collected. 54.5% (55) of the patients were significantly seropositive. Fifteen urine specimens from these 55 seropositive ...

  7. Radiorespirometric testing of antibiotic sensitivity in urinary tract infections: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.T.; Ganatra, R.D.; Shah, D.H.; Shanta, M.; Nimbkar, Y.S.; Gaitonde, B.B.; Dudani, R.A.; Jadav, S.K.; Acharya, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method, based on inhibition of 14 CO 2 release from bacterial metabolism of C-14-labeled glucose, was applied to test the susceptibility of urinary organisms to antibiotics. The testing was also carried out by the routine disc diffusion method after isolation of the organisms. Results of susceptibility to antibiotics could be obtained within 2 to 4 hr by the radiometric technique, compared with the 48 hr required for the disc method

  8. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources

  9. Feasibility of Using Fluorescence Spectrophotometry to Develop a Sensitive Dye Immersion Method for Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xujin; Lloyd, David K; Klohr, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted for a sensitive and robust dye immersion method for the measurement of container closure integrity of unopened prefilled syringes using fluorescence spectrophotometry as the detection method. A Varian Cary Eclipse spectrofluorometer was used with a custom-made sample holder to position the intact syringe in the sample compartment for fluorescence measurements. Methylene blue solution was initially evaluated as the fluorophore in a syringe with excitation at 607 nm and emission at 682 nm, which generated a limit of detection of 0.05 μg/mL. Further studies were conducted using rhodamine 123, a dye with stronger fluorescence. Using 480 nm excitation and 525 nm emission, the dye in the syringe could be easily detected at levels as low as 0.001 μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for 10 measurements of a sample of 0.005 μg/mL (with repositioning of the syringe after each measurement) was less than 1.1%. A number of operational parameters were optimized, including the photomultiplier tube voltage, excitation, and emission slit widths. The specificity of the testing was challenged by using marketed drug products and a protein sample, which showed no interference to the rhodamine detection. Results obtained from this study demonstrated that using rhodamine 123 for container closure integrity testing with in-situ (in-syringe) fluorescence measurements significantly enhanced the sensitivity and robustness of the testing and effectively overcame limitations of the traditional methylene blue method with visual or UV-visible absorption detection. Ensuring container closure integrity of injectable pharmaceutical products is necessary to maintain quality throughout the shelf life of a sterile drug product. Container closure integrity testing has routinely been used to evaluate closure integrity during product development and production line qualification of prefilled syringes, vials, and devices. However, container closure integrity testing

  10. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  11. Methylisothiazolinone testing at 2000 ppm: a prevalent sensitizer for allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Kaiya; Posso-De Los Rios, Claudia J; Gooderham, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) have been identified as potent allergens. The optimal MI concentration for patch testing for reaction to these agents has not yet been identified, but it has been suggested that testing MI at 2000 ppm may reduce false-negative reactions. The aim of this study was to report allergic reactions to MI and MCI/MI detected in a community dermatology practice setting in Ontario, Canada. The patch test records of patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis seen between October 2007 and June 2014 were reviewed. We compared positive patch testing before and after December 2011 when a higher MI concentration was used (2000 ppm aqueous) in addition to the baseline series MCI/MI at 100 ppm. A total of 794 patient records were reviewed. There were 38 true-positive reactions to MI or MCI/MI. Of these 38 patients, 26 (68%) were female. We detected an overall increase in the rate of positive patch testing to MCI/MI, MI alone, or both from 3.13% to 7.45% when MI concentration was introduced at 2000 ppm aqueous. Occupational differences existed between sexes. The addition of MI at 2000 ppm to our screening series effectively increased the detection of MI-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  12. Attachment and parental divorce: a test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Heffernan, Marie E

    2013-09-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that disruptions in parental relationships are prospectively related to insecure attachment patterns in adulthood. The majority of research that has evaluated this hypothesis, however, has been based on retrospective reports of the quality of relationships with parents-research that is subject to retrospective biases. In the present research, the authors examined the impact of parental divorce-an event that can be assessed relatively objectively-on attachment patterns in adulthood across two samples. The data indicate that parental divorce has selective rather than diffuse implications for insecure attachment. Namely, parental divorce was more strongly related to insecure relationships with parents in adulthood than insecure relationships with romantic partners or friends. In addition, parental insecurity was most pronounced when parental divorce took place in early childhood. This finding is consistent with hypotheses about sensitive periods in attachment development.

  13. Hemoglobin interactions with αB crystallin: a direct test of sensitivity to protein instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler J W Clark

    Full Text Available As a small stress response protein, human αB crystallin, detects protein destabilization that can alter structure and function to cause self assembly of fibrils or aggregates in diseases of aging. The sensitivity of αB crystallin to protein instability was evaluated using wild-type hemoglobin (HbA and hemoglobin S (HbS, the glutamate-6-valine mutant that forms elongated, filamentous aggregates in sickling red blood cells. The progressive thermal unfolding and aggregation of HbA and HbS in solution at 37°C, 50°C and 55°C was measured as increased light scattering. UV circular dichroism (UVCD was used to evaluate conformational changes in HbA and HbS with time at the selected temperatures. The changes in interactions between αB crystallin and HbA or HbS with temperature were analyzed using differential centrifugation and SDS PAGE at 37°C, 50°C and 55°C. After only 5 minutes at the selected temperatures, differences in the aggregation or conformation of HbA and HbS were not observed, but αB crystallin bound approximately 6% and 25% more HbS than HbA at 37°C, and 50°C respectively. The results confirmed (a the remarkable sensitivity of αB crystallin to structural instabilities at the very earliest stages of thermal unfolding and (b an ability to distinguish the self assembling mutant form of HbS from the wild type HbA in solution.

  14. A Novel High Sensitivity Sensor for Remote Field Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing Based on Orthogonal Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote field eddy current is an effective non-destructive testing method for ferromagnetic tubular structures. In view of conventional sensors’ disadvantages such as low signal-to-noise ratio and poor sensitivity to axial cracks, a novel high sensitivity sensor based on orthogonal magnetic field excitation is proposed. Firstly, through a three-dimensional finite element simulation, the remote field effect under orthogonal magnetic field excitation is determined, and an appropriate configuration which can generate an orthogonal magnetic field for a tubular structure is developed. Secondly, optimized selection of key parameters such as frequency, exciting currents and shielding modes is analyzed in detail, and different types of pick-up coils, including a new self-differential mode pick-up coil, are designed and analyzed. Lastly, the proposed sensor is verified experimentally by various types of defects manufactured on a section of a ferromagnetic tube. Experimental results show that the proposed novel sensor can largely improve the sensitivity of defect detection, especially for axial crack whose depth is less than 40% wall thickness, which are very difficult to detect and identify by conventional sensors. Another noteworthy advantage of the proposed sensor is that it has almost equal sensitivity to various types of defects, when a self-differential mode pick-up coil is adopted.

  15. Development of a Self-Report Measure of Reward Sensitivity:A Test in Current and Former Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R; Callas, Peter W; Priest, Jeff S; Etter, Jean-Francois; Budney, Alan J; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2017-06-01

    Tobacco use or abstinence may increase or decrease reward sensitivity. Most existing measures of reward sensitivity were developed decades ago, and few have undergone extensive psychometric testing. We developed a 58-item survey of the anticipated enjoyment from, wanting for, and frequency of common rewards (the Rewarding Events Inventory-REI). The current analysis focuses on ratings of anticipated enjoyment. The first validation study recruited current and former smokers from Internet sites. The second study recruited smokers who wished to quit and monetarily reinforced them to stay abstinent in a laboratory study and a comparison group of former smokers. In both studies, participants completed the inventory on two occasions, 3-7 days apart. They also completed four anhedonia scales and a behavioral test of reduced reward sensitivity. Half of the enjoyment ratings loaded on four factors: socializing, active hobbies, passive hobbies, and sex/drug use. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were all ≥0.73 for overall mean and factor scores. Test-retest correlations were all ≥0.83. Correlations of the overall and factor scores with frequency of rewards and anhedonia scales were 0.19-0.53, except for the sex/drugs factor. The scores did not correlate with behavioral tests of reward and did not differ between current and former smokers. Lower overall mean enjoyment score predicted a shorter time to relapse. Internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the enjoyment outcomes of the REI are excellent, and construct and predictive validity are modest but promising. The REI is comprehensive and up-to-date, yet is short enough to use on repeated occasions. Replication tests, especially predictive validity tests, are needed. Both use of and abstinence from nicotine appear to increase or decrease how rewarding nondrug rewards are; however, self-report scales to test this have limitations. Our inventory of enjoyment from 58 rewards appears to be reliable and valid as well as

  16. Testing of intergranular and pitting corrosion in sensitized welded joints of austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore V. Jegdic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pitting corrosion resistance and intergranular corrosion of the austenitic stainless steel X5Cr Ni18-10 were tested on the base metal, heat affected zone and weld metal. Testing of pitting corrosion was performed by the potentiodynamic polarization method, while testing of intergranular corrosion was performed by the method of electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation with double loop. The base metal was completely resistant to intergranular corrosion, while the heat affected zone showed a slight susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. Indicators of pitting corrosion resistance for the weld metal and the base metal were very similar, but their values are significantly higher than the values for the heat affected zone. This was caused by reduction of the chromium concentration in the grain boundary areas in the heat affected zone, even though the carbon content in the examined stainless steel is low (0.04 wt. % C.

  17. Testing the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon models using remotely sensed biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, H.; Saatchi, S. S.; Meyer, V.; Milesi, C.; Wang, W.; Ganguly, S.; Zhang, G.; Nemani, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    There is a large uncertainty in carbon allocation and biomass accumulation in forest ecosystems. With the recent availability of remotely sensed biomass estimates, we now can test some of the hypotheses commonly implemented in various ecosystem models. We used biomass estimates derived by integrating MODIS, GLAS and PALSAR data to verify above-ground biomass estimates simulated by a number of ecosystem models (CASA, BIOME-BGC, BEAMS, LPJ). This study extends the hierarchical framework (Wang et al., 2010) for diagnosing ecosystem models by incorporating independent estimates of biomass for testing and calibrating respiration, carbon allocation, turn-over algorithms or parameters.

  18. Sensitivity of the Halstead and Wechsler Test Batteries to brain damage: Evidence from Reitan's original validation sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Larrabee, Glenn J

    2006-06-01

    The Halstead-Reitan Battery has been instrumental in the development of neuropsychological practice in the United States. Although Reitan administered both the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale and Halstead's test battery when evaluating Halstead's theory of biologic intelligence, the relative sensitivity of each test battery to brain damage continues to be an area of controversy. Because Reitan did not perform direct parametric analysis to contrast group performances, we reanalyze Reitan's original validation data from both Halstead (Reitan, 1955) and Wechsler batteries (Reitan, 1959a) and calculate effect sizes and probability levels using traditional parametric approaches. Eight of the 10 tests comprising Halstead's original Impairment Index, as well as the Impairment Index itself, statistically differentiated patients with unequivocal brain damage from controls. In addition, 13 of 14 Wechsler measures including Full-Scale IQ also differed statistically between groups (Brain Damage Full-Scale IQ = 96.2; Control Group Full Scale IQ = 112.6). We suggest that differences in the statistical properties of each battery (e.g., raw scores vs. standardized scores) likely contribute to classification characteristics including test sensitivity and specificity.

  19. Sensitivity of cognitive tests in four cognitive domains in discriminating MDD patients from healthy controls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JaeHyoung; Oh, In Kyung; Han, Changsu; Huh, Yu Jeong; Jung, In-Kwa; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-09-01

    We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks would be most sensitive for discriminating between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Relevant articles were identified through a literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for the period between January 1997 and May 2011. A meta-analysis was conducted using the standardized means of individual cognitive tests in each domain. The heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses according to age and medication status were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 22 trials involving 955 MDD patients and 7,664 healthy participants were selected for our meta-analysis. MDD patients showed significantly impaired results compared with healthy participants on the Digit Span and Continuous Performance Test in the attention domain; the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) and the Digit Symbol Test in the processing speed domain; the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Verbal Fluency in the executive function domain; and immediate verbal memory in the memory domain. The Finger Tapping Task, TMT-B, delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory failed to separate MDD patients from healthy controls. The results of subgroup analysis showed that performance of Verbal Fluency was significantly impaired in younger depressed patients (memory was significantly reduced in depressed patients using antidepressants. Our findings have inevitable limitations arising from methodological issues inherent in the meta-analysis and we could not explain high heterogeneity between studies. Despite such limitations, current study has the strength of being the first meta-analysis which tried to specify cognitive function of depressed patients compared with healthy participants. And our findings may provide clinicians with further evidences that some cognitive tests in specific cognitive domains have sensitivity

  20. Validation and sensitivity tests on improved parametrizations of a land surface process model (LSPM) in the Po Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassardo, C.; Carena, E.; Longhetto, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Land Surface Process Model (LSPM) has been improved with respect to the 1. version of 1994. The modifications have involved the parametrizations of the radiation terms and of turbulent heat fluxes. A parametrization of runoff has also been developed, in order to close the hydrologic balance. This 2. version of LSPM has been validated against experimental data gathered at Mottarone (Verbania, Northern Italy) during a field experiment. The results of this validation show that this new version is able to apportionate the energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes. LSPM has also been submitted to a series of sensitivity tests in order to investigate the hydrological part of the model. The physical quantities selected in these sensitivity experiments have been the initial soil moisture content and the rainfall intensity. In each experiment, the model has been forced by using the observations carried out at the synoptic stations of San Pietro Capofiume (Po Valley, Italy). The observed characteristics of soil and vegetation (not involved in the sensitivity tests) have been used as initial and boundary conditions. The results of the simulation show that LSPM can reproduce well the energy, heat and water budgets and their behaviours with varying the selected parameters. A careful analysis of the LSPM output shows also the importance to identify the effective soil type

  1. The optimal patch test concentration for ascaridole as a sensitizing component of tea tree oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Bloemeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise Anna

    BACKGROUND: Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil results in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To identify the optimal patch test

  2. Testing taste sensitivity and aversion in very young children : development of a procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J; Kroeze, J.H.A.; Kamps, WA; Bijleveld, CMA

    Taste perception in 45 3- to 6-year-old children was tested using procedures specifically designed for this age group. Detection thresholds for sucrose and urea were measured by a staircase method and aversion to urea was assessed hedonically, using drawings of facial expressions. All children

  3. A novel hypothesis on the sensitivity of the fecal occult blood test: Results of a joint analysis of 3 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Boer, Rob; Zauber, Ann; Habbema, J Dik F

    2009-06-01

    Estimates of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) (Hemoccult II) sensitivity differed widely between screening trials and led to divergent conclusions on the effects of FOBT screening. We used microsimulation modeling to estimate a preclinical colorectal cancer (CRC) duration and sensitivity for unrehydrated FOBT from the data of 3 randomized controlled trials of Minnesota, Nottingham, and Funen. In addition to 2 usual hypotheses on the sensitivity of FOBT, we tested a novel hypothesis where sensitivity is linked to the stage of clinical diagnosis in the situation without screening. We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate sensitivity and duration, accounting for differences between the trials in demography, background incidence, and trial design. We tested 3 hypotheses for FOBT sensitivity: sensitivity is the same for all preclinical CRC stages, sensitivity increases with each stage, and sensitivity is higher for the stage in which the cancer would have been diagnosed in the absence of screening than for earlier stages. Goodness-of-fit was evaluated by comparing expected and observed rates of screen-detected and interval CRC. The hypothesis with a higher sensitivity in the stage of clinical diagnosis gave the best fit. Under this hypothesis, sensitivity of FOBT was 51% in the stage of clinical diagnosis and 19% in earlier stages. The average duration of preclinical CRC was estimated at 6.7 years. Our analysis corroborated a long duration of preclinical CRC, with FOBT most sensitive in the stage of clinical diagnosis. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  4. Culture and drug sensitivity testing among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Mexico: national data for 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orejel, Ivonne; Castellanos, Martin; Marín, Diana; Mendoza, Alberto; Harries, Anthony D

    2016-01-01

    This study documented the number and results of mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) in Mexico from 2009-2013 and assessed whether states with a higher risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) performed more CDST and had more cultures showing MDR-TB. Data for this longitudinal, descriptive, operational research study came from the electronic records of 31 state public health laboratories in Mexico. The total number of CDSTs was 6 470, increasing from 2 143 in the first 2 years to 4 327 in the latter 3 years. There was a significant increase in the proportion of cultures showing sensitivity to all drugs, from 53.1% to 60.9% in 2011-2013 (P tuberculosis were Mexico, particularly in high-risk MDR-TB states where a higher proportion of cultures showed MDR-TB. Scale up and wider coverage of CDST should continue.

  5. Studies on mycobacterium tuberculosis sensitivity test by using the method of rapid radiometry with appendixes of clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongqing; Jiang Yimin; Lu Wendong; Zhu Rongen

    1987-01-01

    Three standard strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis (H 37 RV-fully sensitive, SM-R1000 μg/ml, RFP-R 100 μg/ml) were tested with 10 concentration of 5 antitubercular agent, INH, SM, PAS, RFP and EB. 114 isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis taken from patients were tested with INH, PAS, SM and RFP. They were agreed with the results of standard Lowenstein-Jensen method in 81.7%. 82% of the isolate test were completed within 5 days. The method may be used in routine clinical work. The liquid media prepared by authors do not require human serum albumin and it is less expensive and readily available

  6. Diagnosis and management of clinical and subclinical cobalamin deficiencies: why controversies persist in the age of sensitive metabolic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Ralph

    2013-05-01

    In the past two decades, sensitive biochemical tests have uncovered cobalamin deficiency much more frequently than ever before. Almost all cases involve mild, biochemical changes without clinical manifestations (subclinical cobalamin deficiency; SCCD), whose health impact is unclear. Because the causes of SCCD are most often unknown, nonmalabsorptive, and seldom documented, controversy and confusion surround the diagnostic criteria and, inevitably, consequences and management of SCCD. To complicate matters, our grasp of the rarer clinical deficiency, usually a serious, progressive medical disease rooted in severe malabsorption, has receded as absorption testing has disappeared. Reexamining the accumulation of assumptions and misperceptions about cobalamin deficiency and distinguishing SCCD from clinical deficiency is long overdue. The biology of cobalamin provides an important starting point: cobalamin stores exceed daily losses so greatly and binding proteins regulate absorption so effectively that deficiency typically achieves clinical expression only after years of severe, relentless malabsorption. Dietary insufficiency, mild, partial malabsorption, and other incomplete, intermittent causes can usually produce only SCCD. Thus, the most fundamental difference between the two deficiencies is the relentlessness of the underlying cause, which determines prognosis and health impact. Inattention to absorptive status has exacerbated the limitations of biochemical testing. All the biochemical tests are highly sensitive but specificity is poor, no diagnostic gold standard exists, and diagnostic cutpoints fluctuate excessively. To limit the adverse diagnostic consequences, the diagnosis of SCCD, whose need for treatment is unclear, should be deferred unless at least two tests are abnormal. Indeed, cobalamin biology indicates that the absorption system, while enhancing cobalamin delivery, also sets a strict upper limit on it, which suggests that cobalamin excess is

  7. Design and Test of a Soil Profile Moisture Sensor Based on Sensitive Soil Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Qian, Hongzhou; Cao, Weixing; Ni, Jun

    2018-01-01

    To meet the demand of intelligent irrigation for accurate moisture sensing in the soil vertical profile, a soil profile moisture sensor was designed based on the principle of high-frequency capacitance. The sensor consists of five groups of sensing probes, a data processor, and some accessory components. Low-resistivity copper rings were used as components of the sensing probes. Composable simulation of the sensor’s sensing probes was carried out using a high-frequency structure simulator. According to the effective radiation range of electric field intensity, width and spacing of copper ring were set to 30 mm and 40 mm, respectively. A parallel resonance circuit of voltage-controlled oscillator and high-frequency inductance-capacitance (LC) was designed for signal frequency division and conditioning. A data processor was used to process moisture-related frequency signals for soil profile moisture sensing. The sensor was able to detect real-time soil moisture at the depths of 20, 30, and 50 cm and conduct online inversion of moisture in the soil layer between 0–100 cm. According to the calibration results, the degree of fitting (R2) between the sensor’s measuring frequency and the volumetric moisture content of soil sample was 0.99 and the relative error of the sensor consistency test was 0–1.17%. Field tests in different loam soils showed that measured soil moisture from our sensor reproduced the observed soil moisture dynamic well, with an R2 of 0.96 and a root mean square error of 0.04. In a sensor accuracy test, the R2 between the measured value of the proposed sensor and that of the Diviner2000 portable soil moisture monitoring system was higher than 0.85, with a relative error smaller than 5%. The R2 between measured values and inversed soil moisture values for other soil layers were consistently higher than 0.8. According to calibration test and field test, this sensor, which features low cost, good operability, and high integration, is qualified for

  8. Testing the sensitivity of trade linkages in Europe to compound drought events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Koks, Elco; Thissen, Mark; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Droughts can be defined as spatially extensive events that are characterized by temporal deficits in precipitation, soil moisture or streamflow, and have the potential to cause large direct and indirect economic losses. Many European countries face drought as an economically important hazard, with agriculture, livestock, forestry, energy, industry, and water sectors particularly at risk, causing economic losses of 139 billion US over the past 30 years. Apart from these direct impacts, business production and the flow of goods and services can be affected indirectly by droughts. With consequences that can propagate through the economic system affecting regions not directly hit by the drought event itself, or in time-periods long after the original drought event occurred. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of existing trade linkages between the different NUTS-2 regions in Europe to the coupled occurrence of hydro-meteorological drought events, and their associated production losses. Using a multi-regional supply-use model for Europe, we have, on a product level, insight in the existing trade linkages between NUTS-2 regions. Using this information in combination with historical drought data, we assessed and identified for a selection of water related products: 1) the dependency-structures of the NUTS-2 regions within Europe for the import and export of products (and therein water); 2) the coupled nature of drought events occurring in regions that are linked via these trade-patterns; 3) the probability of not meeting demands (on a product level) due to drought events and the associated (indirect economic) impacts; and 4) regions that lose or benefit from their selection of trade-partners given the coupled nature of drought events, as well as the net effects for Europe as a whole.

  9. Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambua, Lillian; Schneider, Bernd; Okwaro, Allan; Wanga, Joseph Odhiambo; Imali, Olive; Wambua, Peninah Nduku; Agutu, Lavender; Olds, Cassandra; Jones, Chris Stephen; Masiga, Daniel; Midega, Charles; Khan, Zeyaur; Jores, Joerg; Fischer, Anne

    2017-10-01

    Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD) is a severe disease of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Eastern Africa, caused by the leafhopper-transmitted bacterium Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae. The pathogen severely impairs the growth of Napier grass, the major fodder for dairy cattle in Eastern Africa. NSD is associated with biomass losses of up to 70% of infected plants. Diagnosis of NSD is done by nested PCR targeting the phytoplasma DNA, which is difficult to perform in developing countries with little infrastructure. We report the development of an easy to use, rapid, sensitive and specific molecular assay for field diagnosis of NSD. The procedure is based on recombinase polymerase amplification and targets the imp gene encoding a pathogen-specific immunodominant membrane protein. Therefore we followed a two-step process. First we developed an isothermal DNA amplification method for real time fluorescence application and then transferred this assay to a lateral flow format. The limit of detection for both procedures was estimated to be 10 organisms. We simplified the template preparation procedure by using freshly squeezed phloem sap from Napier grass. Additionally, we developed a laboratory serological assay with the potential to be converted to a lateral flow assay. Two murine monoclonal antibodies with high affinity and specificity to the immunodominant membrane protein IMP of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae were generated. Both antibodies specifically reacted with the denatured or native 17 kDa IMP protein. In dot blot experiments of extracts from infected plant, phytoplasmas were detected in as little as 12,5 μg of fresh plant material. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural evolution of skin-test sensitivity in patients with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Gaeta, F; Valluzzi, R L; Zaffiro, A; Caruso, C; Quaratino, D

    2014-06-01

    There are studies demonstrating that skin-test sensitivity to penicillins can decrease over time and that allergic patients may lose sensitivity if the responsible compounds are avoided. With regard to subjects with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cephalosporins, however, such studies are lacking. We evaluated prospectively in a 5-year follow-up 72 cephalosporin-allergic patients. After the first evaluation, patients were classified into two groups according to their patterns of allergologic-test positivity: to both penicillins and cephalosporins (group A), or only to cephalosporins (group B). Skin tests and serum-specific IgE assays were repeated 1 year later and, in case of persistent positivity, 3 and 5 years after the first allergologic examination. Seven (43.7%) of the 16 subjects of group A and 38 (67.8%) of the 56 patients of group B became negative; one was lost to follow-up. Patients of group B became negative sooner and more frequently than group A subjects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Selenomethionine Uptake Test as a Sensitive Indicator of Placental Function in the Last Trimester of Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J. S. [Medical Research Council, Department of Obstetrics, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1971-02-15

    During the last trimester of pregnancy the demands of the human foetus for nutrients can only just be met by the normal placenta. If the placenta is damaged or poorly developed foetal growth is impaired or, in severe cases, the baby dies. It is clinically important to detect placental failure as early as possible so that the underlying cause can be treated, or if this is not possible the baby can be delivered before term. {sup 75}Se-selenomethionine is one of the amino-acids which is taken up by the placenta from the mother's blood and actively transported against a concentration gradient to the foetus. In the selenomethionine uptake test two 3-in. diameter Nal detectors in cylindrical collimators are used; one is positioned over the mother's mediastinum and the other over her uterus. The output from each detector is fed through a pulse-height analyser to a recording ratemeter. A dose of 2 {mu}Ci of selenomethionine is given intravenously to the mother, and from the recorded count-rates during the next 15 minutes the efficiency of placental amino-acid transport can be assessed. The maximum radiation dose to the mother or foetus is 20 mrad. This test has been applied without ill effects to over 500 patients in whom there were clinical grounds for suspecting placental damage. Gross placental failure and intrauterine death were invariably associated with a very low selenomethionine-uptake over the uterus, and high uterine uptakes were always associated with good placental function. Misleading results may be obtained in cases with rhesus immunization or congenital defect in the foetus, since in such cases foetal growth failure is not due to a defect of transport in the placenta. Generally the test provides a quick, simple and reliable indication of the nutritive function of the placenta, and can be safely used to select those mothers who need particularly careful clinical management. (author)

  12. Design, Fabrication and Temperature Sensitivity Testing of a Miniature Piezoelectric-Based Sensor for Current Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Lao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid capacity, reliability, and efficient distribution of power have been major challenges for traditional power grids in the past few years. Reliable and efficient distribution within these power grids will continue to depend on the development of lighter and more efficient sensing units with lower costs in order to measure current and detect failures across the grid. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a miniature piezoelectric-based sensor for AC current measurements in single conductors, which are used in power transmission lines. Additionally presented in this paper are the thermal testing results for the sensor to assess its robustness for various operating temperatures.

  13. Experimental analysis of the power curve sensitivity test series at ROSA-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Iriko, M.; Yonomoto, T.; Tasaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR/6) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral LOCA and ECCS tests. Seven recirculation pump suction line break LOCA experiments were conducted at the ROSA-III facility in order to examine the effect of the initial stored heat of a fuel rod on the peak cladding temperature (PCT). The break size was changed from 200% to 5% in the test series and a failure of a high pressure core spray (HPCS) diesel generator was assumed. Three power curves which represented conservative, realistic and zero initial stored heat, respectively, were used. In a large break LOCA such as 200% or 50% breaks, the initial stored heat in a fuel rod has a large effect on the cladding surface temperature because core uncovery occurs before all the initial stored heat is released, whereas in a small break LOCA such as a 5% break little effect is observed because core uncovery occurs after the initial stored heat is released. The maximum PCTs for the conservative initial stored heat case was 925 K, obtained in the 50% break experiment, and that for the realistic initial stored heat case was 835 K, obtained in the 5% break experiment. (orig./HP)

  14. A Highly Sensitive Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Saikosaponin d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative lateral-flow immunoassay using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated with a monoclonal antibody (MAb against saikosaponin d (SSd was developed for the analysis of SSd. The AuNPs were prepared in our laboratory. The AuNPs were polyhedral, with an average diameter of approximately 18 nm. We used the conjugation between AuNPs and MAbs against SSd to prepare immunochromatographic strips (ICSs. For the quantitative experiment, the strips with the test results were scanned using a membrane strip reader, and a detection curve (regression equation, y = −0.113ln(x + 1.5451, R2 = 0.983, representing the averages of the scanned data, was obtained. This curve was linear from 96 ng/mL to 150 μg/mL, and the IC50 value was 10.39 μg/mL. In this study, we bring the concept of POCT (point-of-care testing to the measurement of TCM compounds, and this is the first report of quantitative detection of SSd by an ICS.

  15. Repeat Rifaximin for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: No Clinically Significant Changes in Stool Microbial Antibiotic Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, M; Cash, B D; Lembo, A; Wolf, R A; Israel, R J; Schoenfeld, P

    2017-09-01

    Rifaximin has demonstrated efficacy and safety for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). To determine the rifaximin repeat treatment effect on fecal bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Patients with IBS in Trial 3 (TARGET 3) study who responded to open-label rifaximin 550 mg three times daily for 2 weeks, with symptom recurrence within 18 weeks, were randomized to double-blind treatment: two 2-week repeat courses of rifaximin or placebo, separated by 10 weeks. Prospective stool sample collection occurred before and after open-label rifaximin, before and after the first repeat course, and at the end of the study. Susceptibility testing was performed with 11 antibiotics, including rifaximin and rifampin, using broth microdilution or agar dilution methods. Of 103 patients receiving open-label rifaximin, 73 received double-blind rifaximin (n = 37) or placebo (n = 36). A total of 1429 bacterial and yeast isolates were identified, of which Bacteroidaceae (36.7%) and Enterobacteriaceae (33.9%) were the most common. In the double-blind phase, Clostridium difficile was highly susceptible to rifaximin [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range 0.008-1 µg/mL] and rifampin (MIC range 0.004-0.25 µg/mL). Following double-blind rifaximin treatment, Staphylococcus isolates remained susceptible to rifaximin at all visits (MIC 50 range ≤0.06-32 µg/mL). Rifaximin exposure was not associated with long-term cross-resistance of Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcaceae to rifampin or nonrifamycin antibiotics tested. In this study, short-term repeat treatment with rifaximin has no apparent long-term effect on stool microbial susceptibility to rifaximin, rifampin, and nonrifamycin antibiotics. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01543178.

  16. Sensitivity is not an intrinsic property of a diagnostic test: empirical evidence from histological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrilho Carla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to provide empirical evidence of how spectrum effects can affect the sensitivity of histological assessment of Helicobacter pylori infection, which may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across populations with expectedly similar prevalence. Methods Cross-sectional evaluation of dyspeptic subjects undergoing upper digestive endoscopy, including collection of biopsy specimens from the greater curvature of the antrum for assessment of H. pylori infection by histopathological study and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, from Portugal (n = 106 and Mozambique (n = 102 following the same standardized protocol. Results In the Portuguese sample the prevalence of infection was 95.3% by histological assessment and 98.1% by PCR. In the Mozambican sample the prevalence was 63.7% and 93.1%, respectively. Among those classified as infected by PCR, the sensitivity of histological assessment was 96.2% among the Portuguese and 66.3% among the Mozambican. Among those testing positive by both methods, 5.0% of the Portuguese and 20.6% of the Mozambican had mild density of colonization. Conclusions This study shows a lower sensitivity of histological assessment of H. pylori infection in Mozambican dyspeptic patients compared to the Portuguese, which may be explained by differences in the density of colonization, and may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across African settings.

  17. Cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with ovarian carcinoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoka, K; Larsson, R; Tholander, B; Gerdin, E; de la Torre, M; Nygren, P

    1994-08-01

    The automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein by viable cells after a 72-hr culture period in microtiter plates. The FMCA was adopted for chemosensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with ovarian carcinoma. Thirty-seven samples of solid tumors and malignant effusions were obtained from 35 patients at diagnosis or relapse. Tumor cells from solid samples and effusions were prepared by enzymatic digestion and centrifugation, respectively, followed by Percoll or Ficoll purification. The fluorescence was proportional to the number of cells/well and considerably higher in tumor cells than in contaminating normal cells. The effect of up to 19 cytotoxic drugs was successfully assessed in 70% of the samples and there was a good correlation between drug sensitivity data reported by the FMCA and the DiSC assay performed in parallel. The overall drug sensitivity pattern in vitro corresponded well to the clinical experience. The effect of cisplatin varied considerably between patients and resistance was found also in cases not previously exposed to cytotoxic drugs. The FMCA is a rapid and simple method that seems to report clinically relevant cytotoxic drug sensitivity data in ovarian carcinomas. In the future, this method may contribute to optimizing chemotherapy by assisting in individualized drug selection and new drug development.

  18. Sensitivity, specificity and comparison of three commercially available immunological tests in the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danišová, Olga; Halánová, Monika; Valenčáková, Alexandra; Luptáková, Lenka

    The study was conducted to compare the specificity of immunological diagnostic methods used for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species capable of causing life-threatening infection in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. For the detection of Cryptosporidium species in 79 animals with diarrhoea, we used three Copro-antigen tests: RIDASCREEN ® Cryptosporidium test, Cryptosporidium 2nd Generation (ELISA) and RIDA ® QUICK Cryptosporidium. For immunoassays we used positive and negative samples detected by means of polymerase chain reaction and validated by sequencing and nested polymerase chain reaction to confirm the presence six different species of Cryptosporidium species. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in the entire group determined by enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-chromatographic test and polymerase chain reaction was 34.17%, 27.84%, 6.33% and 27.84%, respectively. Sensitivity of animal samples with enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and immuno-chromatographic test was 63.6%, 40.9% and 22.7%, resp., when questionable samples were considered positive, whereas specificity of enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immuno-chromatographic test was 75.9%, 78.9% and 100%, respectively. Positive predictive values and negative predictive values were different for all the tests. These differences results are controversial and therefore reliability and reproducibility of immunoassays as the only diagnostic method is questionable. The use of various Cryptosporidium species in diagnosis based on immunological testing and different results obtained by individual tests indicate potential differences in Copro-antigens produced by individual Cryptosporidium species. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. ONE-DIMENSIONAL TIME TO EXPLOSION (THERMAL SENSITIVITY) TESTS ON PETN, PBX-9407, LX-10, AND LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strout, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ellsworth, Fred Ellsworth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to thermal explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine the kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the results of our recent ODTX experiments on PETN powder, PBX-9407 pressed part, LX-10 pressed part, LX-17 pressed part and compares the test data that were obtained decades ago with the older version of ODTX system. Test results show the thermal sensitivity of various materials tested in the following order: PETN> PBX-9407 > LX-10 > LX-17.

  20. Relation between modified EPR test and suseptibility to IGSCC for sensitized alloy 600 in sulfur containing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, M.Y.; Kwon, H.S.; Lee, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    A double loop (DL)-EPR (electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation) test has been applied for evaluating the degree of sensitization for Alloy 600 aged for 1 to 100 hours at 700 degrees C, and modified to discrimiNate between varying degrees of chromium depletion while removing the problems of pitting and general corrosion. The modified DL-EPR testing conditions are obtained in 0.01M H 2 SO 4 + 10 ppm KSCN, 25 degrees C and at a scan rate of 0.5 mV/s. The results of the modified DL-EPR test are compared with those of the standard one and also correlated with the IGSCC susceptibility. IGSCC occurred in samples aged for shorter than 20 hours when tested in deaerated 0.05M Na 2 S 4 O 6 at a constant strain rate of 0.93 x 10 -6 /s. The susceptibility to IGSCC increases with decreasing aging time up to 1 hour, and is associated with the chromium depleted profile across the grain boundary; the deeper and narrower chromium depleted zone produces higher susceptibility to IGSCC. Except for the case for sample (700 degrees C/1 hour), there exists a good correlation between the results of the modified EPR test and the IGSCC susceptibility

  1. Habituation and sensitization of aggression in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): testing the dual-process theory of habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, M A

    2001-09-01

    The aggressive response of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) habituates with repeated broadcasts of acoustic stimuli simulating a new territorial neighbor. The effects of stimulus repetition rate and stimulus intensity on bullfrog aggressive responses were tested in a field experiment designed to test the assumptions of a dual-process theory of habituation. Synthetic advertisement calls were broadcast at 2 repetition rates and 2 intensities in a factorial design. Bullfrogs were more aggressive at the higher stimulus intensity at both repetition rates. Aggressive responses habituated more slowly at the higher stimulus intensity and slower repetition rate compared with other treatments. Several biotic and abiotic factors had small or negligible effects on aggressive responses. Although consistent with the operation of 2 opposing processes, habituation and sensitization, the data provide only partial support for the assumptions of dual-process theory.

  2. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  3. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  4. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  5. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix detects additional patients sensitive to perfumes and missed by the current fragrance mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Rastogi, Suresh C; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Goossens, An; White, Ian R; Uter, Wolfgang; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-04-01

    The currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) does not identify all patients with a positive history of adverse reactions to fragrances. A new FM II with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in 1701 consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. FM II was tested in 3 concentrations - 28% FM II contained 5% hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral), 2% citral, 5% farnesol, 5% coumarin, 1% citronellol and 10%alpha-hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde; in 14% FM II, the single constituents' concentration was lowered to 50% and in 2.8% FM II to 10%. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable, none. Positive reactions to FM I occurred in 6.5% of the patients. Positive reactions to FM II were dose-dependent and increased from 1.3% (2.8% FM II), through 2.9% (14% FM II) to 4.1% (28% FM II). Reactions classified as doubtful or irritant varied considerably between the 6 centres, with a mean value of 7.2% for FM I and means ranging from 1.8% to 10.6% for FM II. 8.7% of the tested patients had a certain fragrance history. Of these, 25.2% were positive to FM I; reactivity to FM II was again dose-dependent and ranged from 8.1% to 17.6% in this subgroup. Comparing 2 groups of history - certain and none - values for sensitivity and specificity were calculated: sensitivity: FM I, 25.2%; 2.8% FM II, 8.1%; 14% FM II, 13.5%; 28% FM II, 17.6%; specificity: FM I, 96.5%; 2.8% FM II, 99.5%; 14% FM II, 98.8%; 28% FM II, 98.1%. 31/70 patients (44.3%) positive to 28% FM II were negative to FM I, with 14% FM II this proportion being 16/50 (32%). In the group of patients with a certain history, a total of 7 patients were found reacting to FM II only. Conversely, in the group of patients without any fragrance history, there were significantly more positive reactions to FM I than to any concentration of FM II. In conclusion, the new FM II detects additional patients sensitive to fragrances missed

  6. The Potential Impact of Up-Front Drug Sensitivity Testing on India's Epidemic of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva

    Full Text Available In India as elsewhere, multi-drug resistance (MDR poses a serious challenge in the control of tuberculosis (TB. The End TB strategy, recently approved by the world health assembly, aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and new cases by 90% between 2015 and 2035. A key pillar of this approach is early diagnosis of tuberculosis, including use of higher-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST. Despite limitations of current laboratory assays, universal access to rapid DST could become more feasible with the advent of new and emerging technologies. Here we use a mathematical model of TB transmission, calibrated to the TB epidemic in India, to explore the potential impact of a major national scale-up of rapid DST. To inform key parameters in a clinical setting, we take GeneXpert as an example of a technology that could enable such scale-up. We draw from a recent multi-centric demonstration study conducted in India that involved upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of all TB suspects.We find that widespread, public-sector deployment of high-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal DST appropriately linked with treatment could substantially impact MDR-TB in India. Achieving 75% access over 3 years amongst all cases being diagnosed for TB in the public sector alone could avert over 180,000 cases of MDR-TB (95% CI 44187 - 317077 cases between 2015 and 2025. Sufficiently wide deployment of Xpert could, moreover, turn an increasing MDR epidemic into a diminishing one. Synergistic effects were observed with assumptions of simultaneously improving MDR-TB treatment outcomes. Our results illustrate the potential impact of new and emerging technologies that enable widespread, timely DST, and the important effect that universal rapid DST in the public sector can have on the MDR-TB epidemic in India.

  7. Utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an online test system designed to monitor changes in cognitive function in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Brooker, Helen; Ballard, Clive; McCambridge, Laura; Stenton, Robert; Corbett, Anne

    2017-12-01

    The advent of long-term remotely conducted clinical trials requires assessments which can be administered online. This paper considers the utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an internet-based system for measuring changes in cognitive function which is being used in one such trial. The Platform for Research Online to investigate Genetics and Cognition in Ageing is a 10-year longitudinal and entirely remote study launched in November 2015. The CogTrack TM System is being used to monitor changes in important aspects of cognitive function using tests of attention, information processing and episodic memory. On study entry, the participants performed CogTrack TM up to three times over seven days, and these data are evaluated in this paper. During the first six months of the study, 14 531 individuals aged 50 to 94 years enrolled and performed the CogTrack TM System, 8627 of whom completed three test sessions. On the first administration, 99.4% of the study tasks were successfully completed. Repeated testing showed training/familiarisation effects on four of the ten measures which had largely stabilised by the third test session. The factor structure of the various measures was found to be robust. Evaluation of the influence of age identified clinically relevant declines over the age range of the population on one or more measures from all tasks. The results of these analyses identify CogTrack TM to be a practical and valid method to reliably, sensitively, remotely and repeatedly collect cognitive data from large samples of individuals aged 50 and over. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Sensitization Behavior of Type 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel: Confronting DL-EPR Test and Practice W of ASTM A763

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Taís Campos; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes; Sayeg, Isaac Jamil; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2014-06-01

    Stainless steels employed for manufacturing automotive exhaust systems must withstand severe thermal cycles, corrosive environment due to urea decomposition, and welding operations. AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel can be considered a low-cost alternative for this application. However, depending on the manufacturing conditions during welding cycles, this material can be sensitized due to the precipitation of chromium carbides at grain boundaries. In this work, the intergranular corrosion resistances of the AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel were evaluated after annealing at 300, 500, and 700 °C for 2, 4, and 6 h. Solution-annealed samples were also tested for comparison purposes. Two methodologies were used to assess the sensitization behavior of the 409 stainless steel samples: the first one was based on the ASTM A763 (practice W), while the second one was based on the double-loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation test. It was possible to identify that the annealing treatment performed at 500 °C was more critical to the occurrence of intergranular corrosion.

  9. The Sensitivity, Specificity and Predictive Values of Snellen Chart Compared to the Diagnostic Test in Amblyopia Screening Program in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rivakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amblyopia is a leading cause of visual impairment in both childhood and adult populations. Our aim in this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of the amblyopia screening program in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on a randomly selected sample of 4,636 Iranian children who were referred to screening program in 2013 were participated in validity study, too. From each provinces the major city were selected. Screening and diagnostic tests were done by instructors in first stage and optometrists in second stage, respectively. Finally data were analyzed by Stata version 13. Results The sensitivity was ranged from 74% to 100% among the various provinces such that Fars and Ardabil province had maximum and minimum values, respectively. The pattern of specificity was differ and ranged 44% to 84% among the provinces; Hormozgan and Fars had maximum and minimum values, respectively. The positive predictive value was also ranged from 35% to %81 which was assigned to Khuzestan and Ardabil provinces, respectively. The range of Negative Predictive value was 61% to 100% which was belonged to Ardabil and Fars provinces. Conclusion The total sensitivity (89% and negative predictive values (93% of screening test among children aged 3-6 years is acceptable, but only 51% of children refereed to second stage are true positive and this imposes considerable cost to health system.

  10. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers with a rapid and sensitive multicolor quantum dots based immunochromatographic test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai

    2015-06-15

    A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of combined radiotherapy, hyperthermia, radioprotective agent and hypoxic cell sensitizer on mice testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Yasuhiko

    1985-08-01

    Application of hyperthermia was executed by immersing pelvis, testes and legs of mice in a thermostatically controlled water bath. Irradiation was carried out using Toshiba KXC-18 type X-ray therapy machine. Mice were killed 30 days after treatment. The testis weights obtained after hypertheramia alone were compared with that of the control and the relative testis weight ratios were calculated. The testis weights of mice treated for 5, 10, 20 and 40 min. in 40 deg C water and for 5 and 10 min. in 43 deg C water were not significantly different from the control. Their weights were reduced when treated for 20 min. in 43 deg C water and for 5 min. in 46 deg C water and their testis weight ratios were 0.81 and 0.46, respectively. The testis weights of irradiated mice decreased to about 45 % of the control at 250 rad. Beyond this dose, reduction of their weights was slowed down and testis weight at 1,000 rad was 28 %. There was not significantly difference between the relative testis weight ratios of the irradiation alone and that of the radiotherapy combined with YM-08310 (S-2-)3-aminopropylamino) ethyl phosphorothioic acid monohydrate). But when hyperthermia was added to their treatment, the effectiveness of the YM-08310 was slightly increased. The relative testis weight ratio on 400 rad X-ray combined with YM-08310 was 0.32 of the control, while its ratio on the radiotherapy and YM-08310 combined with the hyperthermia (43 deg C, 10 min.) was 0.43. (p < 0.01). The misonidazole treatments at 50, 100 and 200 rads were found to be effectuve. Radiation alone gave the relative testis weight ratios of 0.78, 0.71 and 0.49, respectively. In contrast, its ratios on the irradiation combined with the misonidazole were 0.57 (p < 0.01), 0.46 (p < 0.01) and 0.41 (p < 0.001). But, the additional hyperthermia combined with their treatment was found to be ineffective. (J.P.N.).

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF COAGULASE-POSITIVE AND COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI IN RELATION TO METHICILLIN SENSITIVITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabham Yalangi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Staphylococci infection occurs regularly in hospitalised patients and has serious consequences despite antibiotic therapy. Shortly after introduction of methicillin after clinical use Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA were identified in many countries and become one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of the study is to know the methicillin sensitivity of both coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from various samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 strains of staphylococci both coagulase positive and coagulase negative were isolated in the Department of Microbiology from various clinical samples. They were confirmed by morphology, staining methods and by using standard bacteriological procedures and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test. RESULTS Predominant species from pus were S. epidermidis (42.42% and from sputum S. haemolyticus (31.81% from blood S. haemolyticus (53.33%. 53% of strains produced beta-lactamase. Majority 47.22% by S. epidermidis from pus followed by S. haemolyticus 23.33% from pus. Beta-lactamase production was least from throat swab (5.55%. Out of 32 coagulase-positive staphylococci tested to methicillin 15 (46.87% were found to be sensitive, 17 (53.13% were found to be resistant. Out of 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci tested, 13 (19.11% were found to sensitive and 55 (80.88% were found to be resistant. 72% of strains were sensitive to novobiocin and 28% resistant to novobiocin. 43% showed drug resistance to 2 drugs. 14% to 3 drugs and 5 drugs. 6% of staphylococci sensitive to all the 10 drugs. CONCLUSION MRSA is a type of bacteria that is resistant to a number of widely used antibiotics. This means MRSA infections can be more difficult to treat than other bacterial infections. In recent years

  13. Sensitivity of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and cardiac autonomic responses to training in futsal players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Victor H; Pereira, Lucas A; de Souza, Eberton A; Leicht, Anthony S; Bertollo, Maurizio; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the sensitivity of maximal (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery [IR] 1 and 2) and submaximal (5'-5') tests to identify training adaptations in futsal players along with the suitability of heart-rate (HR) and HR-variability (HRV) measures to identify these adaptations. Eleven male professional futsal players were assessed before (pretraining) and after (posttraining) a 5-wk period. Assessments included 5'-5' and Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2 performances and HR and HRV at rest and during the IR and 5'-5' tests. Magnitude-based-inference analyses examined the differences between pre- and posttraining, while relationships between changes in variables were determined via correlation. Posttraining, Yo-Yo IR1 performance likely increased while Yo-Yo IR2 performance almost certainly increased. Submaximal HR during the Yo-Yo IR1 and Yo-Yo IR2 almost certainly and likely, respectively, decreased with training. HR during the 5'-5' was very likely decreased, while HRV at rest and during the 5'-5' was likely increased after training. Changes in both Yo-Yo IR performances were negatively correlated with changes in HR during the Yo-Yo IR1 test and positively correlated with the change in HRV during the 5'-5'. The current study has identified the Yo-Yo IR2 as more responsive for monitoring training-induced changes of futsal players than the Yo-Yo IR1. Changes in submaximal HR during the Yo-Yo IR and HRV during the 5'-5' were highly sensitive to changes in maximal performance and are recommended for monitoring training. The 5'-5' was recommended as a time-efficient method to assess training adaptations for futsal players.

  14. Culture and drug sensitivity testing among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Mexico: national data for 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Orejel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study documented the number and results of mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST in Mexico from 2009–2013 and assessed whether states with a higher risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB performed more CDST and had more cultures showing MDR-TB. Data for this longitudinal, descriptive, operational research study came from the electronic records of 31 state public health laboratories in Mexico. The total number of CDSTs was 6 470, increasing from 2 143 in the first 2 years to 4 327 in the latter 3 years. There was a significant increase in the proportion of cultures showing sensitivity to all drugs, from 53.1% to 60.9% in 2011–2013 (P < 0.001 and a significant decrease in the proportion showing MDR-TB, from 28.2% in 2009 to 19.8% in 2013 (P < 0.001. Cases of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis were < 1% per year. In the 12 states with higher risk for MDR-TB, significantly more CDSTs (2 382 test were done in 2011–2013 than in the other 19 states (1 945 tests. Also, for each year the proportion of cultures showing MDR-TB was significantly higher in high risk MDR-TB states than in lower risk ones (P < 0.001. During the 5-year study period, CDST was scaled up in Mexico, particularly in high-risk MDR-TB states where a higher proportion of cultures showed MDR-TB. Scale up and wider coverage of CDST should continue.

  15. The Genotype MTBDRplus ver. 2.0 test as a quick indicator of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Nisticò

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a global emergency and a major public health problem, in some cases related to the appearance of strains of multi drug resistance (MDR and extensive drug resistance (XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.The correct determination of antibiotic sensitivity profiles is therefore crucial to carry out appropriate treatment aimed to decrease the infectivity of each patient and to reduce mortality. The poor adherence to treatment by the patient or the use of therapies based on a single drug, as a result of incorrect requirements, promote the development of drug-resistance. Have some time on the market of molecular diagnostic tests that allow, quickly and directly from biological sample to search for resistance genes some key drugs of anti-TB therapy (Rifampicin and Isoniazid. One of the tests in question is the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 which can reveal the presence of genes for resistance to Isoniazid (INH and Rifampin (RMP.The loci analyzed are those corresponding to the rpoB gene for rifampicin, katG and inhA for isoniazid. Our study is based on the analysis of 83 strains of tubercular Mycobacteria identified and isolated from patients with tuberculosis disease and subjected to the tests sensitivity, searching for mutations and phenotypic susceptibility testing for Rifampicin and Isoniazid.The comparison of the results has shown that the results obtained using the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 test, were similar to the results obtained by the traditional susceptibility testing.

  16. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-12-15

    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. p-Phenylenediamine sensitization is more prevalent in central and southern European patch test centres than in Scandinavian: results from a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Positive patch test reactions to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are common. PPD is used in oxidative hair dyes and is also present in dark henna temporary 'tattoos'. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur. Because subjects sensitized to PPD are at risk of clinically severe...... reactions upon hair dyeing, there is a need for 'current' prevalence data on PPD sensitization. OBJECTIVES: To compare PPD patch test results from dermatitis patients tested between 2003 and 2007 in 10 European patch test centres and to analyse the causes and determine relevance of positive PPD patch test...... reactions. MATERIALS: Patch testing was performed using PPD (1% free base in petrolatum from Trolab (Almirall Hermal GmbH, Reinbeck, Germany) or Chemotechnique (Malmö, Sweden), equivalent to 0.090 mg/cm(2) in the TRUE test from MEKOS Laboratories AS). Statistical analysis was performed using the chi...

  18. The pointillism method for creating stimuli suitable for use in computer-based visual contrast sensitivity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis H

    2005-03-30

    An increasingly large corpus of clinical and experimental neuropsychological research has demonstrated the utility of measuring visual contrast sensitivity. Unfortunately, existing means of measuring contrast sensitivity can be prohibitively expensive, difficult to standardize, or lack reliability. Additionally, most existing tests do not allow full control over important characteristics, such as off-angle rotations, waveform, contrast, and spatial frequency. Ideally, researchers could manipulate characteristics and display stimuli in a computerized task designed to meet experimental needs. Thus far, 256-bit color limitation in standard cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors has been preclusive. To this end, the pointillism method (PM) was developed. Using MATLAB software, stimuli are created based on both mathematical and stochastic components, such that differences in regional luminance values of the gradient field closely approximate the desired contrast. This paper describes the method and examines its performance in sine and square-wave image sets from a range of contrast values. Results suggest the utility of the method for most experimental applications. Weaknesses in the current version, the need for validation and reliability studies, and considerations regarding applications are discussed. Syntax for the program is provided in an appendix, and a version of the program independent of MATLAB is available from the author.

  19. Sensitivity, reliability and the effects of diurnal variation on a test battery of field usable upper limb fatigue measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Marcus; Wells, Richard P

    2017-07-01

    Fatigue has been linked to deficits in production quality and productivity and, if of long duration, work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It may thus be a useful risk indicator and design and evaluation tool. However, there is limited information on the test-retest reliability, the sensitivity and the effects of diurnal fluctuation on field usable fatigue measures. This study reports on an evaluation of 11 measurement tools and their 14 parameters. Eight measures were found to have test-retest ICC values greater than 0.8. Four measures were particularly responsive during an intermittent fatiguing condition. However, two responsive measures demonstrated rhythmic behaviour, with significant time effects from 08:00 to mid-afternoon and early evening. Action tremor, muscle mechanomyography and perceived fatigue were found to be most reliable and most responsive; but additional analytical considerations might be required when interpreting daylong responses of MMG and action tremor. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents findings from test-retest and daylong reliability and responsiveness evaluations of 11 fatigue measures. This paper suggests that action tremor, muscle mechanomyography and perceived fatigue were most reliable and most responsive. However, mechanomyography and action tremor may be susceptible to diurnal changes.

  20. Toxicity testing of heavy metals with the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: high sensitivity to cadmium and arsenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.; Bode-Kirchhoff, A.; Madeheim, A.; Wetzel, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Biologie

    1998-07-01

    We present data that the formation of nodules (nodulation) may serve for ecotoxicological evaluation of heavy metals in different binding states. Tests were performed in petri dishes with alfalfa (lucerne) seedlings inoculated with Rhizobium meliloti. Cultivation took place in growth cabinets with carefully standardized and documented growth conditions. Data from stressed plants was recorded after 14 days of cultivation on contaminated substrate. A dose responsive decrease in nodulation was found after application of cadmium acetate, cadmium iodide, cadmium chloride, sodium salts of arsenate and arsenite, arsenic pentoxide, and lead nitrate, whereas lead acetate showed no effect up to a concentration of 3 {mu}M. The dose response curves were used to calculate EC10, EC50 and EC90 values. EC50 values for cadmium compounds range from 1.5 to 9.5 {mu}M. Testing different arsenic compounds results in EC50 from 2.6 to 20.1 {mu}M. EC50 of lead nitrate is 2.2 {mu}M. The sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of this test system is discussed compared to established biotests. (orig./MG)

  1. Empirical likelihood-based confidence intervals for the sensitivity of a continuous-scale diagnostic test at a fixed level of specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengsheng Qin; Davis, Angela E; Jing, Bing-Yi

    2011-06-01

    For a continuous-scale diagnostic test, it is often of interest to find the range of the sensitivity of the test at the cut-off that yields a desired specificity. In this article, we first define a profile empirical likelihood ratio for the sensitivity of a continuous-scale diagnostic test and show that its limiting distribution is a scaled chi-square distribution. We then propose two new empirical likelihood-based confidence intervals for the sensitivity of the test at a fixed level of specificity by using the scaled chi-square distribution. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the finite sample performance of the newly proposed intervals with the existing intervals for the sensitivity in terms of coverage probability. A real example is used to illustrate the application of the recommended methods.

  2. Sensitivities of a Standard Test Method for the Determination of the pHe of Bioethanol and Suggestions for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Brewer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the sensitivities of the critical parameters in the ASTM D6423 documentary standard method for the measurement of pHe in (bioethanol has been undertaken. Repeatability of measurements made using the same glass electrode and reproducibility between different glass electrodes have been identified as the main contributors to the uncertainty of the values produced. Strategies to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement have been identified and tested. Both increasing the time after which the pHe measurement is made following immersion in the sample, and rinsing the glass electrode with ethanol prior to immersion in the sample, have been shown to be effective in reducing the uncertainty of the numerical value produced. However, it is acknowledged that the values produced using these modified approaches may not be directly compared with those obtained using the documentary ASTM method since pHe is defined operationally by the process used to measure it.

  3. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Ramirez, Wilson; Mattana, Stefania; Alcaniz, Josep Maria; Andres, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of the minimal chair height standing ability test: a simple and affordable fall-risk screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, Nadia C; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Gaul, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fall-risk screening instruments have been underutilized in clinical settings because of their lengthy administration time, need of cumbersome equipment, and lack of validation. The primary objective of this study was to assess the validity (sensitivity and specificity) of the Minimal Chair Height Standing Ability Test (MCHSAT). The secondary objective was to develop guidelines to provide physical therapists with best-practice recommendations that can easily be implemented in clinical practice. A retrospective cohort study design was used in which falling history, major medical conditions, cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), and level of independence (Independent Activities of Daily Living) were obtained for 167 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 83.6 ± 7.3 years), residents of British Columbia, Canada. Participants MCHSAT performance was assessed using a chair whose seat height was modifiable by increments of 5 cm, starting at 47 cm and lowering after each successful attempt. Sensitivity and specificity of the MCHSAT at each chair height were calculated and plotted as a receiver operating characteristic curve. A model to identify participants with history of falls was developed using a forward logistic regression (Wald). Mean MCHSAT performance (cm) was significantly better for participants without history of falls (30.3 cm, 95% CI: 28.1-32.5 cm) than for those with history of falls (37.7 cm, 95% CI: 35.5-40.0 cm) and was the single risk factor associated with fall status (β= 1.087, P history of falls was 34 cm (AUC = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). At this threshold, sensitivity and specificity values were 75% and 62%, respectively. Using 34 cm as the optimal performance, the MCHSAT correctly identified 75% of participants with history of falls and 62% of participants without history of falls. This provides evidence that the MCHSAT is a valid screening tool for use with an older Canadian population. As a simple and inexpensive testing instrument

  5. Effect of molecular weight and testing rate on adhesion property of pressure-sensitive adhesives prepared from epoxidized natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Imran; Poh, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Elucidation of adhesion property of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR 25). → Correlation of peel and shear strength with molecular weight and rate of testing. → Confirmation of miscibility of tackifier and ENR 25 by DSC and FTIR study. → Applicability of Fox equation in ENR 25/coumarone-indene resin system. -- Abstract: The dependence of peel strength and shear strength of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR 25)-based pressure-sensitive adhesive on molecular weight and rate of testing was investigated using coumarone-indene as the tackifying resin. Toluene and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were used as the solvent and substrate respectively throughout the study. A SHEEN hand coater was used to coat the adhesive on the substrate at a coating thickness of 120 μm. All the adhesion properties were determined by a Llyod Adhesion Tester operating at different rates of testing. Result shows that peel strength and shear strength increases up to an optimum molecular weight of 6.5 x 10 4 of ENR 25. For peel strength, the observation is attributed to the combined effects of wettability and mechanical strength of rubber at the optimum molecular weight, whereas for the shear strength, it is ascribed to the increasing amount of adhesive present in the coating layer which enhances the shear resistance of the adhesive. Peel strength and shear strength also increases with increase in rate of testing, an observation which is associated to the viscoeslastic response of the adhesive. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the miscibility of tackifier and the ENR 25.

  6. In Vitro Evaluation of the Sensitivity of a Hyaluronic Acid PEG Cross-Linked to Bovine Testes Hyaluronidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zerbinati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neauvia Intense is biocompatible, injectable hyaluronic acid (HA filler PEG cross-linked for facial soft-tissue augmentation that provides volume to tissues. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Neauvia Intense in hyaluronidase from bovine testes in a time-course analysis. The test is based on the colourimetric determination of the N-acetyl – D - glucosamine (NAG released by the hyaluronidase in standardised conditions. The in vitro conditions involve the treatment of Neauvia Intense with a known concentration of the enzyme (6080U/ml. The NAG content was determined at different times to assess the kinetics of the degradation (1h, 3h, 6h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 120h, and 168h; the Ehrlich’s reagent was used for the colourimetric quantification, by the method described by Reissing and colleagues. The intensity of the violet colour developed after the chemical reaction was proportional to the NAG present in each sample. A microplate reader at 585 nm read the absorbance. The amount of NAG released by the product was proportional to the time of incubation with bovine hyaluronidase, reaching a plateau after 168 hours.

  7. Effects of ambient temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity test outcomes in normal and obese C57 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudele, Anete; Rasmussen, Gitte Marie; Mayntz, David; Malte, Hans; Lund, Sten; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Mice are commonly used as animal models to study human metabolic diseases, but experiments are typically performed at room temperature, which is far below their thermoneutral zone and is associated with elevated heart rate, food intake, and energy expenditure. We set out to study how ambient temperature affects glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in control and obese male mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were housed at room temperature (23°C) for 6 weeks and fed either control or high fat diet. They were then fasted for 6 h before glucose or insulin tolerance tests were performed at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. To ensure that behavioral thermoregulation did not counterbalance the afflicted ambient temperatures, oxygen consumption was determined on mice with the same thermoregulatory opportunities as during the tests. Decreasing ambient temperatures increased oxygen consumption and body mass loss during fasting in both groups. Mice fed high fat diet had improved glucose tolerance at 30°C and increased levels of fasting insulin followed by successive decrease of fasting glucose. However, differences between control and high-fat diet mice were present at all temperatures. Ambient temperature did not affect glucose tolerance in control group and insulin tolerance in either of the groups. Ambient temperature affects glucose metabolism in mice and this effect is phenotype specific. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  8. Validation of different measures of insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in dairy cows using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Hermans, K; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare different measures of insulin sensitivity in dairy cows at the end of the dry period. To do so, 10 clinically healthy dairy cows with a varying body condition score were selected. By performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) tests, we previously demonstrated a negative association between the insulin sensitivity and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism and the body condition score of these animals. In the same animals, other measures of insulin sensitivity were determined and the correlation with the HEC test, which is considered as the gold standard, was calculated. Measures derived from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) are based on the disappearance of glucose after an intravenous glucose bolus. Glucose concentrations during the IVGTT were used to calculate the area under the curve of glucose and the clearance rate of glucose. In addition, glucose and insulin data from the IVGTT were fitted in the minimal model to derive the insulin sensitivity parameter, Si. Based on blood samples taken before the start of the IVGTT, basal concentrations of glucose, insulin, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined and used to calculate surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity, such as the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index including β-hydroxybutyrate. Correlation analysis revealed no association between the results obtained by the HEC test and any of the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity. For the measures derived from the IVGTT, the area under the curve for the first 60 min of the test and the Si derived from the minimal model demonstrated good correlation with the gold standard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Teste de tuberculinização em caprinos (Capra hircus experimentalmente sensibilizados Tuberculin test in experimentally sensitized goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Gomes da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estabelecidos critérios de interpretação do teste de tuberculinização aplicado ao diagnóstico da tuberculose em grupos de caprinos experimentalmente sensibilizados. Dos 30 animais utilizados, dez foram sensibilizados com Mycobacterium avium - amostra D4 (grupo A e dez com Mycobacterium bovis - amostra AN5 (grupo B. Dez caprinos não foram sensibilizados e constituíram o grupo controle (grupo C. No teste cervical simples, realizado com tuberculina bovina (M. bovis e lido às 72 horas pós-tuberculinização (p.t., as reações positivas foram aquelas em que houve aumento da espessura da dobra de pele igual ou superior a 3,9mm; reações inconclusivas, quando situadas entre 1,8 e 3,8mm, e negativas quando iguais ou menores que 1,7mm. A análise dos resultados do teste cervical comparativo, realizado com o M. avium e M. bovis e lido às 72 horas p.t., indicou reação positiva quando o aumento da espessura da dobra da pele induzida pela tuberculina bovina superou a reação à aviária em pelo menos 2,5mm; reação inconclusiva quando a diferença entre a reação à tuberculina bovina e à tuberculina aviária ficou situada entre 1,9 e 2,4mm; e negativa quando a reação bovina ultrapassou a aviária em até 1,8mm. Às 96 horas após a injeção da tuberculina, foi efetuada a avaliação histológica do local das reações tuberculínicas colhendo-se amostras de pele de cinco caprinos dos grupos A e B e de quatro animais do grupo controle; os resultados confirmaram a presença, nos grupos sensibilizados, de infiltrado inflamatório, constituído, preferencialmente, por células mononucleares.The tuberculin skin test was established with the aim to be applied in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in experimentally sensitized goats. Thirty goats were alocated into three groups with ten animals each. The animals in group A were sensitized with Mycobacterium avium sample D4; group B with Mycobacterium bovis sample AN5; and group C (control was

  10. Uncertainty Quantification and Global Sensitivity Analysis of Subsurface Flow Parameters to Gravimetric Variations During Pumping Tests in Unconfined Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Fadji Zaouna; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    We study the contribution of typically uncertain subsurface flow parameters to gravity changes that can be recorded during pumping tests in unconfined aquifers. We do so in the framework of a Global Sensitivity Analysis and quantify the effects of uncertainty of such parameters on the first four statistical moments of the probability distribution of gravimetric variations induced by the operation of the well. System parameters are grouped into two main categories, respectively, governing groundwater flow in the unsaturated and saturated portions of the domain. We ground our work on the three-dimensional analytical model proposed by Mishra and Neuman (2011), which fully takes into account the richness of the physical process taking place across the unsaturated and saturated zones and storage effects in a finite radius pumping well. The relative influence of model parameter uncertainties on drawdown, moisture content, and gravity changes are quantified through (a) the Sobol' indices, derived from a classical decomposition of variance and (b) recently developed indices quantifying the relative contribution of each uncertain model parameter to the (ensemble) mean, skewness, and kurtosis of the model output. Our results document (i) the importance of the effects of the parameters governing the unsaturated flow dynamics on the mean and variance of local drawdown and gravity changes; (ii) the marked sensitivity (as expressed in terms of the statistical moments analyzed) of gravity changes to the employed water retention curve model parameter, specific yield, and storage, and (iii) the influential role of hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated and saturated zones to the skewness and kurtosis of gravimetric variation distributions. The observed temporal dynamics of the strength of the relative contribution of system parameters to gravimetric variations suggest that gravity data have a clear potential to provide useful information for estimating the key hydraulic

  11. Strategy to Identify and Test Putative Light-Sensitive Non-Opsin G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggionato, Davide; Serb, Jeanne M

    2017-08-01

    The rise of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and de novo transcriptome assembly has had a transformative impact on how we identify and study genes in the phototransduction cascade of non-model organisms. But the advantage provided by the nearly automated annotation of RNA-seq transcriptomes may at the same time hinder the possibility for gene discovery and the discovery of new gene functions. For example, standard functional annotation based on domain homology to known protein families can only confirm group membership, not identify the emergence of new biochemical function. In this study, we show the importance of developing a strategy that circumvents the limitations of semiautomated annotation and apply this workflow to photosensitivity as a means to discover non-opsin photoreceptors. We hypothesize that non-opsin G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins may have chromophore-binding lysines in locations that differ from opsin. Here, we provide the first case study describing non-opsin light-sensitive GPCRs based on tissue-specific RNA-seq data of the common bay scallop Argopecten irradians (Lamarck, 1819). Using a combination of sequence analysis and three-dimensional protein modeling, we identified two candidate proteins. We tested their photochemical properties and provide evidence showing that these two proteins incorporate 11-cis and/or all-trans retinal and react to light photochemically. Based on this case study, we demonstrate that there is potential for the discovery of new light-sensitive GPCRs, and we have developed a workflow that starts from RNA-seq assemblies to the discovery of new non-opsin, GPCR-based photopigments.

  12. Estimation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of two serologic tests for the detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a reference test (gold standard)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enøe, Claes; Andersen, Søren; Sørensen, Vibeke

    2001-01-01

    Latent-class models were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a polyclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a modified complement-fixation test (CFT) when there was no reference test. The tests were used for detection of antibodies against ...

  13. Skin sensitization potency of isoeugenol and its dimers evaluated by a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay and guinea pig maximization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Iida, Kenji; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke

    2008-05-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is the serious unwanted effect arising from the use of consumer products such as cosmetics. Isoeugenol is a fragrance chemical with spicy, carnation-like scent, is used in many kinds of cosmetics and is a well-known moderate human sensitizer. It was previously reported that the dimerization of eugenol yielded two types of dimer possessing different sensitization potencies. This study reports the differences in skin sensitization potencies for isoeugenol and two types of dimer, beta-O-4-dilignol and dehydrodiisoeugenol (DIEG), as evaluated by the non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay (non-RI LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test. In the guinea pig maximization test, isoeugenol, beta-O-4-dilignol and DIEG were classified as extreme, weak and moderate sensitizers, respectively. As for the results of non-RI LLNA, the EC3 for isoeugenol, beta-O-4-dilignol and DIEG were calculated as 12.7%, >30% and 9.4%, respectively. The two types of isoeugenol dimer showed different sensitizing activities similar to the case for eugenol dimers. A reduction of sensitization potency achieved by dimerization may lead to developing safer cosmetic ingredients. Isoeugenol dimers are not currently used for fragrance chemicals. However, the dimerization of isoeugenol may yield a promising candidate as a cosmetic ingredient with low sensitization risk. The data may also provide useful information for the structure-activity relationship (SAR) in skin sensitization. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. How sensitive and specific is urinalysis 'dipstick' testing for detection of hyperglycaemia and ketosis? An audit of findings from coronial autopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Thomas, Sunethra Devika; Langlois, Neil E I

    2013-10-01

    Biochemical analysis of glucose and ketones in the vitreous humour obtained at post-mortem examination is representative of the levels in the blood prior to death. Elevated levels can be indicative of conditions including diabetic ketoacidosis, which can be a cause for unexpected death. A rapid screening test for such conditions can be performed during the autopsy through urinalysis using test strips (urine 'dipstick' testing). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of urinalysis testing for post-mortem detection of derangements of glucose and ketone levels. The results of vitreous biochemical analysis and urinalysis were collated from 188 forensic autopsy cases. A vitreous glucose result of above 10 mmol/L was regarded as high. When this was compared to urinalysis results it was found that any urinalysis result above negative had a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.93. A vitreous ketone level of above 5 mmol/L was regarded as significantly elevated; a urinalysis result above negative had a sensitivity of 1, but a specificity of 0.12. Urinalysis ('dipstick' testing) for glucose has a good sensitivity and specificity for high vitreous glucose levels, which are regarded as indicative of pathological hyperglycaemia during life. It was found that urine testing for ketones either has an excellent sensitivity with low specificity or a poor sensitivity with a good specificity; however, this finding has to be viewed in the context of uncertainty of the biochemical level of significant ketosis.

  15. Cross-sectional study assessing the addition of contrast sensitivity to visual acuity when testing for fitness to drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, Lucie; Favrat, Bernard; Borruat, François-Xavier; Vaucher, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to quantify the importance of loss of contrast sensitivity (CS) and its relationship to loss of visual acuity (VA), driving restrictions and daytime, on-road driving evaluations in drivers aged 70+. Design A predictive cross-sectional study. Setting Volunteer participants to a drivers’ refresher course for adults aged 70+ delivered by the Swiss Automobile Club in western Switzerland from 2011 to 2013. Participants 162 drivers, male and female, aged 70 years or older. Clinical predictors We used a vision screener to estimate VA and the The Mars Letter Contrast Sensitivity Test to test CS. Outcomes We asked drivers to report whether they found five driving restrictions useful for their condition; restrict driving to known roads, avoid driving on highways, avoid driving in the dark, avoid driving in dense traffic and avoid driving in fog. All participants also underwent a standardised on-road evaluation carried out by a driving instructor. Results Moderate to severe loss of CS for at least one eye was frequent (21.0% (95% CI 15.0% to 28.1%)) and often isolated from a loss of VA (11/162 cases had a VA ≥0.8 decimal and a CS of ≤1.5 log(CS); 6.8% (95% CI 3.4% to 11.8%)). Drivers were more likely (R2=0.116, P=0.004) to report a belief that self-imposed driving restrictions would be useful if they had reduced CS in at least one eye. Daytime evaluation of driving performance seems limited in its ability to correctly identify difficulties related to CS loss (VA: R2=0.004, P=0.454; CS: R2=0.006, P=0.332). Conclusion CS loss is common for older drivers. Screening CS and referring for cataract surgery even in the absence of VA loss could help maintain mobility. Reduced CS and moderate reduction of VA were both poor predictors of daytime on-road driving performances in this research study. PMID:29374663

  16. Non-animal assessment of skin sensitization hazard: Is an integrated testing strategy needed, and if so what should be integrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Patlewicz, Grace

    2018-01-01

    There is an expectation that to meet regulatory requirements, and avoid or minimize animal testing, integrated approaches to testing and assessment will be needed that rely on assays representing key events (KEs) in the skin sensitization adverse outcome pathway. Three non-animal assays have been formally validated and regulatory adopted: the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSens™ assay and the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT). There have been many efforts to develop integrated approaches to testing and assessment with the "two out of three" approach attracting much attention. Here a set of 271 chemicals with mouse, human and non-animal sensitization test data was evaluated to compare the predictive performances of the three individual non-animal assays, their binary combinations and the "two out of three" approach in predicting skin sensitization potential. The most predictive approach was to use both the DPRA and h-CLAT as follows: (1) perform DPRA - if positive, classify as sensitizing, and (2) if negative, perform h-CLAT - a positive outcome denotes a sensitizer, a negative, a non-sensitizer. With this approach, 85% (local lymph node assay) and 93% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions were correct, whereas the "two out of three" approach had 69% (local lymph node assay) and 79% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions correct. The findings are consistent with the argument, supported by published quantitative mechanistic models that only the first KE needs to be modeled. All three assays model this KE to an extent. The value of using more than one assay depends on how the different assays compensate for each other's technical limitations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Estudio de resistencia a la rifampicina y la dapsona en tres pacientes con recurrencia de lepra Study of rifampin and dapsone resistance in three patients with recurring leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Hernández

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Detectar la presencia de cepas de Mycobacterium leprae resistentes a la rifampicina y la dapsona en tres pacientes con recurrencia de lepra y sospecha clínica de resistencia antimicrobiana, mediante la aplicación de técnicas moleculares. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en tres pacientes multibacilares del Sanatorio de Agua de Dios, Cundinamarca, Colombia, que habían presentado recidivas de lepra documentadas por su historia clínica, baciloscopia y biopsia. Se obtuvieron biopsias de lesiones cutáneas que se procesaron para la extracción y purificación del ADN bacilar. Se amplificaron regiones de los genes rpoB y folP1 asociadas con la resistencia antimicrobiana, mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa "touch-down" y se secuenciaron los productos amplificados mediante el método de Sanger. RESULTADOS: Se detectó una mutación puntual en el nucleótido 1367 del gen rpoB en dos de las muestras estudiadas. No se encontró la mutación estudiada en el gen folP1 en ninguno de los tres pacientes. CONCLUSIONES: La mutación identificada demostró la presencia de bacilos de M. leprae resistentes a la rifampicina en dos de los tres pacientes estudiados con recurrencia de la enfermedad. No se detectó la mutación indicadora de resistencia a la dapsona en ninguno de los tres pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To detect the presence of rifampin- and dapsone-resistant strains of Mycobacterium leprae in three patients with recurring leprosy and clinically-suspected antimicrobial resistance through molecular techniques. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted of three multibacillary patients at the "Agua de Dios" Sanitarium in Cundinamarca, Colombia, that presented leprosy relapses that were documented by medical history, bacilloscopy, and biopsy. Biopsies were taken of the skin lesions and the bacteria were subject to DNA extraction and purification. Regions of the rpoB and folP1 genes associated with

  18. Performance of TB immunodiagnostic tests in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles of different ages and the influence of duration of infection on serological sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayers Robin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In parts of Great Britain and Ireland, Eurasian badgers (Meles meles constitute a reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection and a potential source of infection for cattle. In vitro diagnostic tests for live badgers are an important component of strategies to control TB in this species. Immunological tests have been developed for badgers, although little is known about the influence of the age of the animal on test performance. To address this, we evaluated the performance of three immunological tests for badgers with respect to the age of the animal: the Brock Test and BrockTB STAT-PAK® serological tests and the recently developed interferon-gamma enzyme immunoassay (IFNγ EIA. Data published elsewhere suggested that seropositivity was associated with more progressive forms of TB in the badger. To gain further evidence for this, we used longitudinal data from a well-studied population of badgers to test for an association between the sensitivity of the Brock Test and the duration of TB infection. Results Sensitivity of the two serological tests was approximately 54% for both cubs and adults. Sensitivity of the IFNγ EIA was lower in cubs (57% compared with adults (85% when a common cut-off value was used to define test positivity. Taking data from the cubs alone, the IFNγ EIA cut-off value could be adjusted to increase the sensitivity to 71% with no loss in specificity. As a general observation, specificity of all tests was higher in cubs, although only significantly so in the case of the Brock Test. Using logistic regression analysis to adjust for age, sensitivity of the Brock Test was significantly lower at first culture positive event (58%, but increased to >80% as infection progressed. Conclusion These data suggest that serodiagnosis could be a valuable tool for detecting a higher proportion of badgers with the greatest probability of transmitting infection. The age category of the badger appeared to exert little

  19. Development of a High Sensitivity Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device. Prototype Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device. Field test in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.D.; Gerwing, A.F.; Lewis, P.D.; Larsson, M.; Jansson, K.; Lindberg, B.; Sundkvist, E.; Ohlsson, M.

    2002-05-01

    The Swedish and Canadian Safeguards Support Programs have developed a prototype Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) to verify long-cooled spent fuel. The instrument consists of a camera system and a custom portable computer equipped with a liquid crystal and a wearable heads-up display. The camera was coupled to a hardware user interface (HUI) and was operated with a computer program designed to image spent fuel and store the images. Measurements were taken at the CLAB facility on pressurized-water reactor fuel and non-fuel assemblies, a number of boiling-water reactor fuel assemblies, and long-cooled Aagesta fuel assemblies. The camera head, attached to the HUI, a battery-operated computer carried in a backpack and the heads-up display were field tested for portability. The ergonomics of this system is presented in the report. For the examination of long-cooled spent fuel, the camera head was mounted on a bracket that rested on the railing of a moving bridge. The DCVD instrument is approximately 100 times higher in sensitivity than the Mark IVe CVD. The oldest fuel with the lowest burnup at the CLAB facility was positively verified. The measurement capability of this instrument greatly exceeds the verification criteria of 10,000 MWd/t U and 40 years cooling

  20. Mechanism of isoproturon resistance in Phalaris minor: in silico design, synthesis and testing of some novel herbicides for regaining sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Durg Vijay; Adeppa, Kuruba; Misra, Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Isoproturon, 3-p-cumenyl-1 dimethylurea was the only herbicide controlling Phalaris minor, a major weed growing in wheat fields till the early 1980s. Since it has acquired resistance against isoproturon, like other substituted urea herbicides, where the identified target site for isoproturon is in the photosynthetic apparatus at D1 protein of Photosystem-II (PS-II). Nucleotide sequence of susceptible and resistant psbA gene of P. minor has been reported to have four point mutations. During the present work D1 protein of both susceptible and resistant biotypes of P Minor has been modeled. Transmembrane segments of amino acids were predicted by comparing with the nearest homolog of bacterial D1 protein. Volume and area of active site of both susceptible and resistant biotypes has been simulated. Isoproturon was docked at the active site of both, susceptible and resistant D1 proteins. Modeling and simulation of resistance D1 protein indicates that the resistance is due to alteration in secondary structure near the binding site, resulting in loss in cavity area, volume and change in binding position, loss of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interaction and complete loss of hydrophobic sites. To regain sensitivity in resistant biotype new derivatives of isoproturon molecules have been proposed, synthesized and tested. Among the 17 derivatives we found that the N-methyl triazole substituted isoproturon is a potential substitute for isoproturon.

  1. A New Twist to the Kirby-Bauer Antibiotic Susceptibility Test Activity?Increasing Antibiotic Sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens through Thermal Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbig, Donald G.; Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Aubihl, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic sensitivity and the effect of temperature on microbial growth are two standard laboratory activities found in most microbial laboratory manuals. We have found a novel way to combine the two activities to demonstrate how temperature can influence antibiotic sensitivity using a standard incubator in instructional laboratory settings. This activity reinforces the important concepts of microbial growth and temperature along with Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility testing. We found t...

  2. Patch test dose-response study: polysensitized individuals do not express lower elicitation thresholds than single/double-sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B C; Fischer, Louise Arup; Sosted, H

    2009-01-01

    with nickel sulphate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in dilution series. The ratio between the doses eliciting a response in 50% of patients in the two groups was used as the measure for relative sensitivity. RESULTS: The dose-response curves of the polysensitized group...... for MDBGN and PPD were shifted to the right, and for nickel sulphate shifted to the left, compared with the single/double-sensitized group. The relative sensitivity for each of the three allergens and a combined relative sensitivity for all three allergens were not significantly different when comparing...

  3. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Zhu; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; C. Russell; R.W.H. Carroll; D. Shafer

    2009-09-10

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effectiveporosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in

  4. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.; Pohlmann, K.; Chapman, J.; Russell, C.; Carroll, R.W.H.; Shafer, D.

    2009-01-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation's first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effective porosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in

  5. Filling the concept with data: integrating data from different in vitro and in silico assays on skin sensitizers to explore the battery approach for animal-free skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Ellis, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Tests for skin sensitization are required prior to the market launch of new cosmetic ingredients. Significant efforts are made to replace the current animal tests. It is widely recognized that this cannot be accomplished with a single in vitro test, but that rather the integration of results from different in vitro and in silico assays will be needed for the prediction of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. This has been proposed as a theoretical scheme so far, but no attempts have been made to use experimental data to prove the validity of this concept. Here we thus try for the first time to fill this widely cited concept with data. To this aim, we integrate and report both novel and literature data on 116 chemicals of known skin sensitization potential on the following parameters: (1) peptide reactivity as a surrogate for protein binding, (2) induction of antioxidant/electrophile responsive element dependent luciferase activity as a cell-based assay; (3) Tissue Metabolism Simulator skin sensitization model in silico prediction; and (4) calculated octanol-water partition coefficient. The results of the in vitro assays were scaled into five classes from 0 to 4 to give an in vitro score and compared to the local lymph node assay (LLNA) data, which were also scaled from 0 to 4 (nonsensitizer/weak/moderate/strong/extreme). Different ways of evaluating these data have been assessed to rate the hazard of chemicals (Cooper statistics) and to also scale their potency. With the optimized model an overall accuracy for predicting sensitizers of 87.9% was obtained. There is a linear correlation between the LLNA score and the in vitro score. However, the correlation needs further improvement as there is still a relatively high variation in the in vitro score between chemicals belonging to the same sensitization potency class.

  6. Increasing biopsy number and sampling from gastric body improve the sensitivity of rapid urease test in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Hsi; Lin, Chien-Chu; Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Tsai, Kuang-Chau

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of rapid urease test (RUT) for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection decreased during peptic ulcer bleeding. We designed this study and tried to find a better method to improve the detection rate of H. pylori infection at the same session of endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer bleeding. We prospectively enrolled 116 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. These patients received intravenous proton pump inhibitor and then received upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 h after arrival. We took one piece of biopsy from gastric antrum (Group 1), four pieces from gastric antrum (Group 2), and one piece from the gastric body (Group 3) for three separate RUTs, respectively. (13)C-urease breath test was used as gold standard for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There were 74 patients (64 %) with positive (13)C-urease breath test. Among these 74 patients, 45 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 61 %) in Group 1; 55 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 74 %) in Group 2; 54 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 73 %) in Group 3. There were significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 (p = 0.02) and between Group 1 and Group 3 (p = 0.022). The sensitivity of RUT was 61 % during peptic ulcer bleeding. The sensitivity of RUT can be increased significantly by increased biopsy number from gastric antrum or biopsy from gastric body.

  7. Integration of an optical CMOS sensor with a microfluidic channel allows a sensitive readout for biological assays in point-of-care tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorst, Bieke; Brivio, Monica; Van Der Sar, Elfried; Blom, Marko; Reuvekamp, Simon; Tanzi, Simone; Groenhuis, Roelf; Adojutelegan, Adewole; Lous, Erik-Jan; Frederix, Filip; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2016-04-15

    In this manuscript, a microfluidic detection module, which allows a sensitive readout of biological assays in point-of-care (POC) tests, is presented. The proposed detection module consists of a microfluidic flow cell with an integrated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS)-based single photon counting optical sensor. Due to the integrated sensor-based readout, the detection module could be implemented as the core technology in stand-alone POC tests, for use in mobile or rural settings. The performance of the detection module was demonstrated in three assays: a peptide, a protein and an antibody detection assay. The antibody detection assay with readout in the detection module proved to be 7-fold more sensitive that the traditional colorimetric plate-based ELISA. The protein and peptide assay showed a lower limit of detection (LLOD) of 200 fM and 460 fM respectively. Results demonstrate that the sensitivity of the immunoassays is comparable with lab-based immunoassays and at least equal or better than current mainstream POC devices. This sensitive readout holds the potential to develop POC tests, which are able to detect low concentrations of biomarkers. This will broaden the diagnostic capabilities at the clinician's office and at patient's home, where currently only the less sensitive lateral flow and dipstick POC tests are implemented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity Evaluation of the Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki

    2011-05-01

    A temperature sensitivity evaluation has been performed for the AGR-1 fuel experiment on an individual capsule. A series of cases were compared to a base case by varying different input parameters into the ABAQUS finite element thermal model. These input parameters were varied by ±10% to show the temperature sensitivity to each parameter. The most sensitive parameters are the outer control gap distance, heat rate in the fuel compacts, and neon gas fraction. Thermal conductivity of the compacts and graphite holder were in the middle of the list for sensitivity. The smallest effects were for the emissivities of the stainless steel, graphite, and thru tubes. Sensitivity calculations were also performed varying with fluence. These calculations showed a general temperature rise with an increase in fluence. This is a result of the thermal conductivity of the fuel compacts and graphite holder decreasing with fluence.

  9. Self-testing for contact sensitization to hair dyes--scientific considerations and clinical concerns of an industry-led screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Søsted, Heidi; Uter, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The cosmetic industry producing hair dyes has, for many years, recommended that their consumers perform 'a hair dye allergy self-test' or similar prior to hair dyeing, to identify individuals who are likely to react upon subsequent hair dyeing. This review offers important information...... on the requirements for correct validation of screening tests, and concludes that, in its present form, the hair dye self-test has severe limitations: (i) it is not a screening test but a diagnostic test; (ii) it has not been validated according to basic criteria defined by scientists; (iii) it has been evaluated...... in the wrong population group; (iv) skin reactions have been read by dermatologists and not by the targeted group (consumers and hairdressers); (v) hair dyes contain strong and extreme sensitizers that are left on the skin in high concentrations, potentially resulting in active sensitization; and (vi...

  10. Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Miguel A; Da Costa, Manuel; Kimminau, Emily; Fuller, Lorraine; Clark, Steven; Pesti, Gene; Beckstead, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between E. maxima microscores and broiler body weights and gross E. maxima lesion scores in three ASTs. Day-old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a standard corn-soy diet. On Day 12, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were six birds per pen, four pens per treatment, and 12 treatments, for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The treatments were as follows: 1) nonmedicated, noninfected; 2) nonmedicated, infected; 3) lasalocid, infected; 4) salinomycin, infected; 5) diclazuril, infected; 6) monensin, infected; 7) decoquinate, infected; 8) narasin + nicarbazin, infected; 9) narasin, infected; 10) nicarbazin, infected; 11) robenidine, infected; and 12) zoalene, infected. On Day 14, chicks were challenged with an Eimeria field isolate by oral gavage. On Day 20, broilers were weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores were classified from 0 to 4 depending on the severity of the gross lesion scores and E. maxima microscores. Data from three trials using different field isolates were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no relationship (P = 0.1224) between microscores and body weight gain. There was a positive relationship between microscores and gross lesion scores (P = 0.004). However, there was also an interaction between isolate and treatment (P Eimeria or the amount of E. maxima in the inoculum.

  11. Validity and sensitivity of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) to total and partial sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Mollicone, Daniel; Dinges, David F.

    2011-12-01

    The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) objectively assesses fatigue-related changes in alertness associated with sleep loss, extended wakefulness, circadian misalignment, and time on task. The standard 10-min PVT is often considered impractical in applied contexts. To address this limitation, we developed a modified brief 3-min version of the PVT (PVT-B). The PVT-B was validated in controlled laboratory studies with 74 healthy subjects (34 female, aged 22-45 years) that participated either in a total sleep deprivation (TSD) study involving 33 h awake ( N=31 subjects) or in a partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol involving 5 consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed ( N=43 subjects). PVT and PVT-B were performed regularly during wakefulness. Effect sizes of 5 key PVT outcomes were larger for TSD than PSD and larger for PVT than for PVT-B for all outcomes. Effect size was largest for response speed (reciprocal response time) for both the PVT-B and the PVT in both TSD and PSD. According to Cohen's criteria, effect sizes for the PVT-B were still large (TSD) or medium to large (PSD, except for fastest 10% RT). Compared to the 70% decrease in test duration the 22.7% (range 6.9-67.8%) average decrease in effect size was deemed an acceptable trade-off between duration and sensitivity. Overall, PVT-B performance had faster response times, more false starts and fewer lapses than PVT performance (all psleep loss between PVT-B and PVT for all outcome variables (all P>0.15) but the fastest 10% response times during PSD ( P<0.001), and effect sizes increased from 1.38 to 1.49 (TSD) and 0.65 to 0.76 (PSD), respectively. In conclusion, PVT-B tracked standard 10-min PVT performance throughout both TSD and PSD, and yielded medium to large effect sizes. PVT-B may be a useful tool for assessing behavioral alertness in settings where the duration of the 10-min PVT is considered impractical, although further validation in applied settings is needed.

  12. Comparison of the skin sensitizing potential of unsaturated compounds as assessed by the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, R; Hollnagel, H M; Hareng, L; Eigler, D; Lee, M S; Griem, P; Dreessen, B; Kleber, M; Albrecht, A; Garcia, C; Wendel, A

    2008-06-01

    The skin sensitization potential of eight unsaturated and one saturated lipid (bio)chemicals was tested in both the LLNA and the GPMT to address the hypothesis that chemicals with unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds may result in a higher number of unspecific (false positive) results in the LLNA compared to the GPMT. Seven substances (oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, undecylenic acid, maleic acid, squalene and octinol) gave clear positive results in the LLNA (stimulation index (SI)> or = 3) and thus would require labelling as skin sensitizer. Fumaric acid and succinic acid gave clearly negative results. In the GPMT, besides some sporadic skin reactions, reproducible skin reactions indicating an allergic response were found in a few animals for four test substances. Based on the GPMT results, only undecylenic acid would have to be classified and labelled as a skin sensitizer according to the European Dangerous Substance Directive (67/548/EEC) (results for linoleic acid were inconclusive), while the other seven test substances would not require labelling. Possible mechanisms for unspecific skin cell stimulation and lymph node responses are discussed. In conclusion, the suitability of the LLNA for unsaturated compounds bearing structural similarity to the tested substances should be carefully considered and the GPMT should remain available as an accepted test method for skin sensitization hazard identification.

  13. Antibiotic resistant pattern of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients durining 2009-2010, Ahvaz, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Parhizgari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important nosocomial infecting agents resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Nowadays, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA is considered one of the main causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify the antibiotic resistance pattern of methicicllin- resistant and susceptible strains in Ahwaz, Iran. Methods: In the present cross - sectional study, a number of 255 clinically suspected cases of Staphylococcus aureus were collected during a 19 month period. The bacteria were investigated using standard biochemical tests such as catalase, mannitol fermentation, coagulase and Dnase. Sensitive strains were confirmed by disk diffusion method compared to commonly used antibiotics. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests. Results: of 255 suspected cases, 180 were confirmed as S.aureus, a total of 59 strains of S. aureus (2/37 percent were resistant to methicillin. Resistance to S. aureus strains resistant to methicillin included: chloramphenicol (3.38%, rifampin (45.76%, norfloxacin (89.83%, gentamicin (89.83%, ciprofloxacin, (91.52%, azithromycin, (88.13%, cotrimoxazole (86.44% and all isolates strains were sensitive to vancomycin and nitrofurantoin. A total of 10 different patterns of antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were identified. Conclusion: Expression of new resistance factor in nosocomial infection is one of the major challenges in treating these infections. This study showed a high prevalence of resistance against some class of antibiotics in MRSA isolated from Imam Khomeini and Golestan hospital of Ahwaz, Iran. Key words: Nosocomial infection, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Antibiotic Resistant Pattern

  14. Psychometric properties of the Need for Recovery after work scale: test-retest reliability and sensitivity to detect change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Sluiter, J. K.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring worker health and evaluating occupational healthcare interventions requires sensitive instruments that are reliable over time. The Need for Recovery scale (NFR), which quantifies workers' difficulties in recovering from work related exertions, may be a relevant instrument in

  15. An in vitro method for detecting chemical sensitization using human reconstructed skin models and its applicability to cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, James M; Keller, Donald J; Gorski, Joel R

    2012-12-01

    Chemical sensitization is a serious condition caused by small reactive molecules and is characterized by a delayed type hypersensitivity known as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Contact with these molecules via dermal exposure represent a significant concern for chemical manufacturers. Recent legislation in the EU has created the need to develop non-animal alternative methods for many routine safety studies including sensitization. Although most of the alternative research has focused on pure chemicals that possess reasonable solubility properties, it is important for any successful in vitro method to have the ability to test compounds with low aqueous solubility. This is especially true for the medical device industry where device extracts must be prepared in both polar and non-polar vehicles in order to evaluate chemical sensitization. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the functionality and applicability of the human reconstituted skin models (MatTek Epiderm(®) and SkinEthic RHE) as a test system for the evaluation of chemical sensitization and its potential use for medical device testing. In addition, the development of the human 3D skin model should allow the in vitro sensitization assay to be used for finished product testing in the personal care, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This approach combines solubility, chemical reactivity, cytotoxicity, and activation of the Nrf2/ARE expression pathway to identify and categorize chemical sensitizers. Known chemical sensitizers representing extreme/strong-, moderate-, weak-, and non-sensitizing potency categories were first evaluated in the skin models at six exposure concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2500 µM for 24 h. The expression of eight Nrf2/ARE, one AhR/XRE and two Nrf1/MRE controlled gene were measured by qRT-PCR. The fold-induction at each exposure concentration was combined with reactivity and cytotoxicity data to determine the sensitization potential. The results demonstrated that

  16. Sensitivity to mental effort and test-retest reliability of heart rate variability measures in healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shalini; Yadav, Rajeev; Yung, Iris; Zajdel, Daniel P; Oken, Barry S

    2011-10-01

    To determine (1) whether heart rate variability (HRV) was a sensitive and reliable measure in mental effort tasks carried out by healthy seniors and (2) whether non-linear approaches to HRV analysis, in addition to traditional time and frequency domain approaches were useful to study such effects. Forty healthy seniors performed two visual working memory tasks requiring different levels of mental effort, while ECG was recorded. They underwent the same tasks and recordings 2 weeks later. Traditional and 13 non-linear indices of HRV including Poincaré, entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were determined. Time domain, especially mean R-R interval (RRI), frequency domain and, among non-linear parameters - Poincaré and DFA were the most reliable indices. Mean RRI, time domain and Poincaré were also the most sensitive to different mental effort task loads and had the largest effect size. Overall, linear measures were the most sensitive and reliable indices to mental effort. In non-linear measures, Poincaré was the most reliable and sensitive, suggesting possible usefulness as an independent marker in cognitive function tasks in healthy seniors. A large number of HRV parameters was both reliable as well as sensitive indices of mental effort, although the simple linear methods were the most sensitive. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vitro Sensitivity Test in Antibiotics from the Fermentation Process in a Sugar-Alcohol Plant in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Murilo Brandão; Faculdade de Apucarana – FAP; Silva, Thaís Medeiros Boldrin; Faculdade Metropolitana de Maringá – UNIFAMMA

    2011-01-01

    Since the development of different types of microorganisms is common during the fermentation process in sugar-alcohol plants, due to the processing states of prime matter, microbiological control is mandatory. In vitro sensitivity test is highly important for the fermentation process at sugar-alcohol plants since the type of antibiotic with the best antibacterial activity is evaluated. The test classifies antibiotics through their effects, namely, efficient, less efficient, slightly efficient...

  18. The Sensitization of Legionella pneumophila to Some Antibiotics by Reserpine and Anti-Legionella Effects of Different Benzofuranone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khaleghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legionella pneumophila is  a  dangerous pathogenic bacterium can cause serious infectious diseases especially in hospitalized immuno-compromised patients. This bacterium is shown to be resistant against different antibiotics. Resistance against a wide range of antibiotics is usually mediated by efflux pump in bacteria. Efflux pumps are proteinaceous transporters localized in the cytoplasmic membrane of all kinds of cells which excreted antibiotics outside the cells. However, synthesis of new anti-Legionella compounds or selection of resistant modulating agents are useful strategy to combat with L. pneumophilain the future.Methods: In this study the antibacterial activity of some benzofuranone derivatives have been investigated by disk diffusion method against L. pneumophila. Also the sensitivity of this test strain was evaluated against 19 antibiotics and the combination effect of reserpine at a sub-inhibitory concentration was further studied with these antibiotics using disk diffusion method with some modifications.Conclusion: Among the different synthetic compounds which were tested against L. pneumophila, the most antibacterial activity was observed for compounds 1j and 1m which contain hydroxyl and methoxy groups on the C-6 and C-7 positionsagainst L. pneumophila. To evaluate whether efflux pumps are active in L. pneumophila or not an efflux inhibitor (reserpine was tested in combination of different antibiotics against this test strain. Reserpine significantly enhanced the antibacterial activities of kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, ofloxacillin, gentamycin, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, minocycline, tobramycin, and amikacin against L. pneumophila which shows the resistances to these antibiotics are mediated by efflux system in this bacterium.

  19. Individual Test Point Fluctuations of Macular Sensitivity in Healthy Eyes and Eyes With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Measured With Microperimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Ventura, Dora Fix; Németh, János

    2018-04-01

    To establish fluctuation limits, it was considered that not only overall macular sensitivity but also fluctuations of individual test points in the macula might have clinical value. Three repeated measurements of microperimetry were performed using the Standard Expert test of Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA) in healthy subjects ( N = 12, age = 23.8 ± 1.5 years old) and in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ( N = 11, age = 68.5 ± 7.4 years old). A total of 37 macular points arranged in four concentric rings and in four quadrants were analyzed individually and in groups. The data show low fluctuation of macular sensitivity of individual test points in healthy subjects (average = 1.38 ± 0.28 dB) and AMD patients (average = 2.12 ± 0.60 dB). Lower sensitivity points are more related to higher fluctuation than to the distance from the central point. Fixation stability showed no effect on the sensitivity fluctuation. The 95th percentile of the standard deviations of healthy subjects was, on average, 2.7 dB, ranging from 1.2 to 4 dB, depending on the point tested. Point analysis and regional analysis might be considered prior to evaluating macular sensitivity fluctuation in order to distinguish between normal variation and a clinical change. S tatistical methods were used to compare repeated microperimetry measurements and to establish fluctuation limits of the macular sensitivity. This analysis could add information regarding the integrity of different macular areas and provide new insights into fixation points prior to the biofeedback fixation training.

  20. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic test strip assay for detecting aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid lateral flow fluorescent microspheres immunochromatography test strip (FMs-ICTS) has been developed for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) residues in milk. For this purpose, an ultra-sensitive anti-AFM1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1D3 was prepared and identified. The IC50 value of the MA...

  1. A Sensitivity Study of Human Errors in Optimizing Surveillance Test Interval (STI) and Allowed Outage Time (AOT) of Standby Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook; Shin, Won Ky; You, Young Woo; Yang, Hui Chang

    1998-01-01

    In most cases, the surveillance test intervals (STIs), allowed outage times (AOTS) and testing strategies of safety components in nuclear power plant are prescribed in plant technical specifications. And, in general, it is required that standby safety system shall be redundant (i.e., composed of multiple components) and these components are tested by either staggered test strategy or sequential test strategy. In this study, a linear model is presented to incorporate the effects of human errors associated with test into the evaluation of unavailability. The average unavailabilities of 1/4, 2/4 redundant systems are computed considering human error and testing strategy. The adverse effects of test on system unavailability, such as component wear and test-induced transient have been modelled. The final outcome of this study would be the optimized human error domain from 3-D human error sensitivity analysis by selecting finely classified segment. The results of sensitivity analysis show that the STI and AOT can be optimized provided human error probability is maintained within allowable range. (authors)

  2. Sensitivity, Specificity, Predictive Values, and Accuracy of Three Diagnostic Tests to Predict Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blockade Failure in Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chavarría-Bolaños

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB is the most common anesthetic technique used on mandibular teeth during root canal treatment. Its success in the presence of preoperative inflammation is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of three diagnostic tests used to predict IANB failure in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the mandibular molars of 53 patients with SIP. All patients received a single cartridge of mepivacaine 2% with 1 : 100000 epinephrine using the IANB technique. Three diagnostic clinical tests were performed to detect anesthetic failure. Anesthetic failure was defined as a positive painful response to any of the three tests. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy, and ROC curves were calculated and compared and significant differences were analyzed. Results. IANB failure was determined in 71.7% of the patients. The sensitivity scores for the three tests (lip numbness, the cold stimuli test, and responsiveness during endodontic access were 0.03, 0.35, and 0.55, respectively, and the specificity score was determined as 1 for all of the tests. Clinically, none of the evaluated tests demonstrated a high enough accuracy (0.30, 0.53, and 0.68 for lip numbness, the cold stimuli test, and responsiveness during endodontic access, resp.. A comparison of the areas under the curve in the ROC analyses showed statistically significant differences between the three tests (p<0.05. Conclusion. None of the analyzed tests demonstrated a high enough accuracy to be considered a reliable diagnostic tool for the prediction of anesthetic failure.

  3. The mere exposure effect is sensitive to color information: evidence for color effects in a perceptual implicit memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut; Melzer, André; Hardt, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Priming effects in perceptual tests of implicit memory are assumed to be perceptually specific. Surprisingly, changing object colors from study to test did not diminish priming in most previous studies. However, these studies used implicit tests that are based on object identification, which mainly depends on the analysis of the object shape and therefore operates color-independently. The present study shows that color effects can be found in perceptual implicit tests when the test task requires the processing of color information. In Experiment 1, reliable color priming was found in a mere exposure design (preference test). In Experiment 2, the preference test was contrasted with a conceptually driven color-choice test. Altering the shape of object from study to test resulted in significant priming in the color-choice test but eliminated priming in the preference test. Preference judgments thus largely depend on perceptual processes. In Experiment 3, the preference and the color-choice test were studied under explicit test instructions. Differences in reaction times between the implicit and the explicit test suggest that the implicit test results were not an artifact of explicit retrieval attempts. In contrast with previous assumptions, it is therefore concluded that color is part of the representation that mediates perceptual priming.

  4. Feasibility of the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) for cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, P; Kristensen, J; Jonsson, B; Sundström, C; Lönnerholm, G; Kreuger, A; Larsson, R

    1992-11-01

    The automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) was used for chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity testing of fresh and cryopreserved tumor cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis and relapse. The technique success rate was 87% for fresh and 81% for cryopreserved samples. Up to 16 different cytotoxic drugs were routinely tested, but neither asparaginase nor methotrexate produced dose-response related cell kill. FMCA data showed good correlation to the well established Disc assay and the drug sensitivity reported by the FMCA was in good agreement with known clinical activity. Samples from children and initial ALL tended to be more drug sensitive than those from adults and ALL at relapse, respectively. For 36 samples clinical outcome was correlated to the quartile position in comparison to all other samples for the most in vitro active drug actually given to the patient. For patients with samples in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles, the probabilities of complete remission were 89, 57, 38, and 0%, respectively. Using the median value as cut-off line, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 87 and 62%, respectively. It is concluded that the FMCA with a minimum of effort and with high success rate report clinically relevant drug sensitivity profiles for ALL.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of CT colonography for the detection of colonic neoplasia after positive faecal occult blood testing: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumb, Andrew A.; Pendse, Douglas A.; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London, University College Hospital, Centre for Medical Imaging, Podium Level 2, London (United Kingdom); Mallett, Susan [University of Oxford, Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    CT colonography (CTC) is recommended after positive faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) when colonoscopy is incomplete or infeasible. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of CTC for colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps following positive FOBt via systematic review. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED and Cochrane Library databases were searched for CTC studies reporting sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Included subjects had tested FOBt-positive by guaiac or immunochemical methods. Per-patient detection rates were summarized via forest plots. Meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity was conducted using a bivariate random effects model and the average operating point calculated. Of 538 articles considered, 5 met inclusion criteria, describing results from 622 patients. Research study quality was good. CTC had a high per-patient average sensitivity of 88.8 % (95 % CI 83.6 to 92.5 %) for ≥6 mm adenomas or colorectal cancer, with low between-study heterogeneity. Specificity was both more heterogeneous and lower, at an average of 75.4 % (95 % CI 58.6 to 86.8 %). Few studies have investigated CTC in FOBt-positive individuals. CTC is sensitive at a ≥6 mm threshold but specificity is lower and variable. Despite the limited data, these results suggest that CTC may adequately substitute for colonoscopy when the latter is undesirable. (orig.)

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of CT colonography for the detection of colonic neoplasia after positive faecal occult blood testing: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumb, Andrew A.; Pendse, Douglas A.; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve; Mallett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is recommended after positive faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) when colonoscopy is incomplete or infeasible. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of CTC for colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps following positive FOBt via systematic review. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED and Cochrane Library databases were searched for CTC studies reporting sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Included subjects had tested FOBt-positive by guaiac or immunochemical methods. Per-patient detection rates were summarized via forest plots. Meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity was conducted using a bivariate random effects model and the average operating point calculated. Of 538 articles considered, 5 met inclusion criteria, describing results from 622 patients. Research study quality was good. CTC had a high per-patient average sensitivity of 88.8 % (95 % CI 83.6 to 92.5 %) for ≥6 mm adenomas or colorectal cancer, with low between-study heterogeneity. Specificity was both more heterogeneous and lower, at an average of 75.4 % (95 % CI 58.6 to 86.8 %). Few studies have investigated CTC in FOBt-positive individuals. CTC is sensitive at a ≥6 mm threshold but specificity is lower and variable. Despite the limited data, these results suggest that CTC may adequately substitute for colonoscopy when the latter is undesirable. (orig.)

  7. In vitro drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, P; Hagberg, H; Glimelius, B; Sundström, C; Kristensen, J; Christiansen, I; Larsson, R

    1994-01-01

    Tumor cell drug sensitivity is an important determinant of chemotherapy response. Its measurement in vitro would aid in therapy individualization and new drug development. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on production by viable cells of fluorescent fluorescein after 3 days of culture, was used for cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of 73 samples of tumor cells from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The technical success rate was 92%, and FMCA data showed good correlation to the Disc assay. NHL samples were considerably more drug sensitive than were samples from in vivo resistant tumors. There was no obvious difference in drug sensitivity for high- vs. low-grade or untreated vs. previously treated low-grade NHL. For 26 patients, clinical outcome was correlated to in vitro response giving a sensitivity and specificity of 93 and 48%, respectively. Cross-resistance between standard drugs was frequent in vitro. Resistance modulators potentiated the effect of vincristine and doxorubicin in 10-29% of the samples, most frequently from previously treated patients. The FMCA seems to report clinically relevant drug sensitivity data for NHL, and thus it could serve as a tool for optimization of chemotherapy in the future.

  8. An in vitro test to screen skin sensitizers using a stable THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Yutaka; Saito, Rumiko; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that interleukin (IL)-8 can serve as a biomarker for discrimination of skin sensitizers from nonsensitizers. We established a stable THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8, which harbors SLO and SLR luciferase genes under the control of IL-8 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoters, respectively. After 6 h treatment with chemicals, normalized SLO luciferase activity (nSLO-LA) was calculated by dividing SLO-LA by SLR-LA, and the fold induction of nSLO-LA (FInSLO-LA) was calculated by dividing nSLO-LA of chemically treated cells by that of nontreated cells. The nSLO-LA of THP-G8 cells increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and several sensitizers. The FInSLO-LA in THP-G8 cells induced by LPS or sensitizers positively correlated with their induction of IL-8 messenger RNA in THP-1 cells. The nSLO-LA value of THP-G8 cells was significantly increased (FInSLO-LA ≥ 1.4) by 13 of the 15 sensitizers as well as by 5 of the 7 nonsensitizers. Interestingly, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine suppressed the increase in FInSLO-LA induced by all sensitizers (inhibition index (II) ≤ 0.8) but did not suppress that induced by most of the nonsensitizers. We then evaluated the performance of this assay using values of FInSLO-LA ≥ 1.4 and II ≤ 0.8 in at least two of three independent experiments as the criteria of a sensitizer, which resulted in test accuracies of 82% for the 22 chemicals used and of 88% for the chemicals proposed by European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods. This newly developed assay is a candidate replacement for animal tests of skin sensitization because of its accuracy, convenience, and high throughput performance.

  9. Glow discharge, its sensitivity to infra-red radiation. Observations made during the testing of multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.B.; Souten, K.H.; O'Hagan, B.

    1979-05-01

    It has been shown that under glow discharge conditions, multiwire proportional chambers are sensitive to infra-red radiation. Discharge current measurements and light change measurements have been made and the effect of the input window on the output signal and the importance of the finish of the anode and HT wires have been investigated. From these observations it would appear that a glow discharge in the form detailed in this report is sensitive to infra-red radiation though work is still required to optimise the parameters of such a device for IR detection or solar cell technology. (UK)

  10. Haemophilus paragallinarum in chickens in Indonesia: III. Antimicrobial drug sensitivity test ofHaemophilus paragallinarum from chickens suffering of coryza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An agar disc diffusion method was used to examine the sensitivity of 27 Haemophilus paragallinarum (Hpg isolates consisted of 23 local isolates, 4 standard isolates (serotype A and Escherichia coli ATCC 24922 as a control to eight antimicrobial drugs (ampicillin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, neomycin, streptomycin, colistine and sulphanlethoxazole-trimethoprim . Twenty one out of 23 local isolates of Hpg were sensitive to doxycycline, 19 isolates to ampsllin, 18 isolates to oxytetracycline, 17 isolates to sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, 16 isolates to erythromycin, and 13 isolates to neomycin, while 13 isolates were resistance to colistine and 11 isolates were also resistance to streptomycin .

  11. Preservatives and neutralizing substances in milk: analytical sensitivity of official specific and nonspecific tests, microbial inhibition effect, and residue persistence in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Cavaletti Corrêa da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk fraud has been a recurring problem in Brazil; thus, it is important to know the effect of most frequently used preservatives and neutralizing substances as well as the detection capability of official tests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical sensitivity of legislation-described tests and nonspecific microbial inhibition tests, and to investigate the effect of such substances on microbial growth inhibition and the persistence of detectable residues after 24/48h of refrigeration. Batches of raw milk, free from any contaminant, were divided into aliquots and mixed with different concentrations of formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine, chlorinated alkaline detergent, or sodium hydroxide. The analytical sensitivity of the official tests was 0.005%, 0.003%, and 0.013% for formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorite, respectively. Chlorine and chlorinated alkaline detergent were not detected by regulatory tests. In the tests for neutralizing substances, sodium hydroxide could not be detected when acidity was accurately neutralized. The yogurt culture test gave results similar to those obtained by official tests for the detection of specific substances. Concentrations of 0.05% of formaldehyde, 0.003% of hydrogen peroxide and 0.013% of sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced (P

  12. Solar Variability and the Near-Earth Environment: Mining Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity Data From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turflinger, T.; Schmeichel, W.; Krieg, J.; Titus, J.; Campbell, A.; Reeves, M.; Marshall (P.); Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This effort is a detailed analysis of existing microelectronics and photonics test bed satellite data from one experiment, the bipolar test board, looking to improve our understanding of the enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) phenomenon. Over the past several years, extensive total dose irradiations of bipolar devices have demonstrated that many of these devices exhibited ELDRS. In sensitive bipolar transistors, ELDRS produced enhanced degradation of base current, resulting in enhanced gain degradation at dose rates 1 rd(Si)/s. This Technical Publication provides updated information about the test devices, the in-flight experiment, and both flight-and ground-based observations. Flight data are presented for the past 5 yr of the mission. These data are compared to ground-based data taken on devices from the same date code lots. Information about temperature fluctuations, power shutdowns, and other variables encountered during the space flight are documented.

  13. An accelerated stress testing program for determining the reliability sensitivity of silicon solar cells to encapsulation and metallization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Davis, C. W.; Royal, E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of accelerated testing methods in a program to determine the reliability attributes of terrestrial silicon solar cells is discussed. Different failure modes are to be expected when cells with and without encapsulation are subjected to accelerated testing and separate test schedules for each are described. Unencapsulated test cells having slight variations in metallization are used to illustrate how accelerated testing can highlight different diffusion related failure mechanisms. The usefulness of accelerated testing when applied to encapsulated cells is illustrated by results showing that moisture related degradation may be many times worse with some forms of encapsulation than with no encapsulation at all.

  14. Comparison of radiation sensitivity for three cell lines as measured by the cloning assay and the micro-nucleus test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, J.; Aten, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    The correlation between cell killing and the induction of micro-nuclei was studied for three cell lines after treatment with gamma radiation to investigate whether the frequency of micro-nucleated cells can be used to determine the radiation sensitivity of a cell type. R1 rat rhabdomyosarcoma cells

  15. Greenhouse gas network design using backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling – Part 2: Sensitivity analyses and South African test case

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nickless, A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available observation of atmospheric CO(sub2) concentrations at fixed monitoring stations. The LPDM model, which can be used to derive the sensitivity matrix used in an inversion, was run for each potential site for the months of July (representative of the Southern...

  16. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  17. Historical sketches of Sandia National Laboratories nuclear field testing. Volume 1: Full discussion except for sensitive references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains historical sketches that cover the major activities of Sandia nuclear field testing, from early atmospheric shots until 1990. It includes a chronological overview followed by more complete discussions of atmospheric, high-altitude, underwater, cratering, and underground nuclear testing. Other activities related to nuclear testing and high-explosive tests are also described. A large number of references are cited for readers who wish to learn more about technical details. Appendices, written by several authors, provide more insight for a variety of special aspects of nuclear testing and related work. Two versions of this history were published: volume 1 has an unlimited distribution, and volume 2 has a limited distribution

  18. Aging, recall and recognition: a study on the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth S; Landau, Susan M; Whipple, Stephen C; Schwartz, Barbara L

    2004-05-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT) to the effects of aging in a sample of 112 men and women from 18 to 93 years old. Two new recognition measures, yes-no and forced-choice, were developed to supplement the original USC-REMT which measured only free-recall. Free-recall, yes-no recognition and forced-choice recognition were sensitive to age effects, with free-recall being the most sensitive. The seven recall and recognition lists can be used interchangeably. The data indicate that the USC-REMT is worthy of consideration when there is a need for a brief, screening tool of various memory functions, particularly when there is interest in memory changes over time and repeated assessments.

  19. A novel chemotherapeutic sensitivity-testing system based on collagen gel droplet embedded 3D-culture methods for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Hong, Zhixian; Feng, Fan; Chai, Yantao; Zhang, Yunkai; Jiang, Qiyu; Hu, Yan; Wu, Shunquan; Wu, Yingsong; Gao, Xunian; Chen, Qiong; Wan, Yong; Bi, Jingfeng; Zhang, Zheng

    2017-11-08

    Patients suffering from advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often exhibit a poor prognosis or dismal clinical outcomes due to ineffective chemotherapy or a multi-drug resistance (MDR) process. Thus, it is urgent to develop a new chemotherapeutic sensitivity testing system for HCC treatment. The presence study investigated the potential application of a novel chemotherapeutic sensitivity-testing system based on a collagen gel droplet embedded 3D-culture system (CD-DST). Primary cells were separating from surgical resection specimens and then tested by CD-DST. To identify whether HCC cell lines or cells separating from clinical specimens contain MDR features, the cells were treated with an IC 50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) or IC max (maximal inhibitory concentration) concentration of antitumor agents, e.g., 5-furuolouracil (5-FU), paclitaxel (PAC), cisplatin (CDDP), epirubicin (EPI), or oxaliplatin (L-OHP), and the inhibitory rates (IRs) were calculated. HepG2 cells were sensitive to 5-FU, PAC, CDDP, EPI, or L-OHP; the IC 50 value is 0.83 ± 0.45 μg/ml, 0.03 ± 0.02 μg/ml, 1.15 ± 0.75 μg/ml, 0.09 ± 0.03 μg/ml, or 1.76 ± 0.44 μg/ml, respectively. Only eight (8/26), nine (9/26), or five (5/26) patients were sensitive to the IC max concentration of CDDP, EPI, or L-OHP; whereas only three (3/26), four (4/26), or two (2/26) patients were sensitive to the IC 50 concentration of CDDP, EPI, or L-OHP. No patients were sensitive to 5-FU or PAC. The in vitro drug sensitivity exanimation revealed the MDR features of HCC and examined the sensitivity of HCC cells from clinical specimens to anti-tumor agents. CD-DST may be a useful method to predict the potential clinical benefits of anticancer agents for HCC patients.

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of the Eating Assessment Tool and the Volume-Viscosity Swallow Test for clinical evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Mukherjee, R; Clavé, P

    2014-01-01

    Background Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is an underdiagnosed digestive disorder that causes severe nutritional and respiratory complications. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and the Volume-Viscosity Swallow Test (V-VST) for clinical evaluation of OD. Methods We studied 120 patients with swallowing difficulties and 14 healthy subjects. OD was evaluated by the 10-item screening questionnaire EAT-10 and the bedside method V-VST, videofluoroscopy (VFS) being the reference standard. The V-VST is an effort test that uses boluses of different volumes and viscosities to identify clinical signs of impaired efficacy (impaired labial seal, piecemeal deglutition, and residue) and impaired safety of swallow (cough, voice changes, and oxygen desaturation ≥3%). Discriminating ability was assessed by the AUC of the ROC curve and sensitivity and specificity values. Key Results According to VFS, prevalence of OD was 87%, 75.6% with impaired efficacy and 80.9% with impaired safety of swallow including 17.6% aspirations. The EAT-10 showed a ROC AUC of 0.89 for OD with an optimal cut-off at 2 (0.89 sensitivity and 0.82 specificity). The V-VST showed 0.94 sensitivity and 0.88 specificity for OD, 0.79 sensitivity and 0.75 specificity for impaired efficacy, 0.87 sensitivity and 0.81 specificity for impaired safety, and 0.91 sensitivity and 0.28 specificity for aspirations. Conclusions & Inferences Clinical methods for screening (EAT-10) and assessment (V-VST) of OD offer excellent psychometric proprieties that allow adequate management of OD. Their universal application among at-risk populations will improve the identification of patients with OD at risk for malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. PMID:24909661

  1. Analysis of the sensitivity of the impact resonance frequency test as a tool to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauste, R.; Moreno-Navarro, F.; Gallego, R.; Rubio-Gámez, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The modulus value of bituminous materials is a key factor in the design of road pavements and the estimation of their life service. This parameter can be measured in laboratory but, unfortunately, this requires the deterioration of the pavement so as the consumption of time and resources. Therefore, this study analyses the feasibility of using impact resonance frequency tests as an alternative to traditional methods for determining the dynamic modulus of bituminous mixtures. The sensitivity of this technique has been studied by analyzing its repeatability and reproducibility, studying the variations in the values measured by modifying the dimensions of the specimens, test temperatures and types of mixture tested. In addition, this non-destructive technique has been compared with other traditional tests used to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials. The results show that this test could be an interesting tool to characterize the properties and damage state of asphalt layers. [es

  2. Analysis of the sensitivity of the impact resonance frequency test as a tool to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tauste

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The modulus value of bituminous materials is a key factor in the design of road pavements and the estimation of their life service. This parameter can be measured in laboratory but, unfortunately, this requires the deterioration of the pavement so as the consumption of time and resources. Therefore, this study analyses the feasibility of using impact resonance frequency tests as an alternative to traditional methods for determining the dynamic modulus of bituminous mixtures. The sensitivity of this technique has been studied by analyzing its repeatability and reproducibility, studying the variations in the values measured by modifying the dimensions of the specimens, test temperatures and types of mixture tested. In addition, this non-destructive technique has been compared with other traditional tests used to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials. The results show that this test could be an interesting tool to characterize the properties and damage state of asphalt layers.

  3. Using High-Resolution Data to Test Parameter Sensitivity of the Distributed Hydrological Model HydroGeoSphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cornelissen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Parameterization of physically based and distributed hydrological models for mesoscale catchments remains challenging because the commonly available data base is insufficient for calibration. In this paper, we parameterize a mesoscale catchment for the distributed model HydroGeoSphere by transferring evapotranspiration parameters calibrated at a highly-equipped headwater catchment in addition to literature data. Based on this parameterization, the sensitivity of the mesoscale catchment to spatial variability in land use, potential evapotranspiration and precipitation and of the headwater catchment to mesoscale soil and land use data was conducted. Simulations of the mesoscale catchment with transferred parameters reproduced daily discharge dynamics and monthly evapotranspiration of grassland, deciduous and coniferous vegetation in a satisfactory manner. Precipitation was the most sensitive input data with respect to total runoff and peak flow rates, while simulated evapotranspiration components and patterns were most sensitive to spatially distributed land use parameterization. At the headwater catchment, coarse soil data resulted in a change in runoff generating processes based on the interplay between higher wetness prior to a rainfall event, enhanced groundwater level rise and accordingly, lower transpiration rates. Our results indicate that the direct transfer of parameters is a promising method to benefit highly equipped simulations of the headwater catchments.

  4. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LOFT L2-5 test: Results of the BEMUSE programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crecy, A. de; Bazin, P.; Glaeser, H.; Skorek, T.; Joucla, J.; Probst, P.; Fujioka, K.; Chung, B.D.; Oh, D.Y.; Kyncl, M.; Pernica, R.; Macek, J.; Meca, R.; Macian, R.; D'Auria, F.; Petruzzi, A.; Batet, L.; Perez, M.; Reventos, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results and the main lessons learnt from the phase 3 of BEMUSE, an international benchmark activity sponsored by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations [CSNI: Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (NEA, OECD), 2007. BEMUSE Phase III Report. NEA/CSNI R(2007) 4, October 2007] of the OECD/NEA. The phase 3 of BEMUSE aimed at performing Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses of thermal-hydraulic codes used for the calculation of LOFT L2-5 experiment, which simulated a Large-Break Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LB-LOCA). Eleven participants coming from ten organisations and eight countries took part in this benchmark. In the first section of this paper, the context of BEMUSE is described as well as the methods used by the participants. In the second section, the results of the benchmark are presented. The majority of the participants find uncertainty bands which envelop the experimental data fairly well, however the width of these bands is much diverged. A synthesis of the sensitivity analysis results has been made and is expected to provide a useful basis for further uncertainty analysis dealing with LB-LOCA. Finally, recommendations are given both for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

  5. Exploring the sensitivity of the zone of inhibition test for leachable biocides from paper and board food contact materials, and improvements thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Kelly, J; Jickells, S M; Johns, S M; Mountfort, K A

    2012-01-01

    The zone of inhibition method to test the release of biocides from paper and board food contact materials was evaluated. The method tests the paper by placing a small specimen directly onto culture plates of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The principle is that any extractable biocide will diffuse from the paper into the surrounding nutrient medium and so inhibit growth of the microorganism in the vicinity. The test was found to have insufficient sensitivity for assuring food safety, where detection limits for migration at or below the mg l(-1) (parts per million) level are needed. Also, the test does not mimic the actual or foreseeable conditions of use since most paper/board materials are not intended for direct contact with an aqueous medium for up to 3 days at 30°C (B. subtilis) or 25°C (A. niger), which are the incubation conditions used. The sensitivity of the test was increased approximately 100-fold by preparing a concentrated extract of the paper to be tested and applying this extract to the assay via a blank paper carrier. This was done using methanol as a good solvent for most biocides, as a proof of principle. Other solvents or food simulants could be used to mimic the conditions of use intended for the particular paper/board samples under examination, e.g. contact with dry, fatty, aqueous or acidic foods, hot or cold. Twenty-four plain (unconverted) paper and board samples and 100 food packaging samples were evaluated using the modified procedure. The results revealed that the method has been developed to the stage where background cytotoxic action of normal paper constituents gives a weak response. Unlike the original method, therefore, the modified method with its improved sensitivity and the facility to link with the intended food contact conditions may be considered a suitable bioassay screening test to complement chemical analysis of paper/board for composition and migration.

  6. Anxiety Sensitivity and Pre-Cessation Smoking Processes: Testing the Independent and Combined Mediating Effects of Negative Affect–Reduction Expectancies and Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety sensitivity appears to be relevant in understanding the nature of emotional symptoms and disorders associated with smoking. Negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives are implicated as core regulatory processes that may explain, in part, the anxiety sensitivity–smoking interrelations; however, these pathways have received little empirical attention. Method: Participants (N = 471) were adult treatment-seeking daily smokers assessed for a smoking-cessation trial who provided baseline data; 157 participants provided within-treatment (pre-cessation) data. Anxiety sensitivity was examined as a cross-sectional predictor of several baseline smoking processes (nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to cessation, severity of prior withdrawal-related quit problems) and pre-cessation processes including nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges (assessed during 3 weeks before the quit day). Baseline negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives were tested as simultaneous mediators via parallel multiple mediator models. Results: Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to smoking cessation, more severe withdrawal-related problems during prior quit attempts, and greater average withdrawal before the quit day; effects were indirectly explained by the combination of both mediators. Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were not directly related to pre-cessation smoking urges but were indirectly related through the independent and combined effects of the mediators. Conclusions: These empirical findings bolster theoretical models of anxiety sensitivity and smoking and identify targets for nicotine dependence etiology research and cessation interventions. PMID:25785807

  7. Lymphocyte antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test for evaluation of clinical role of monoclonal anti-D-antibodies for prevention of rhesus sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovnikova, N I; Belkina, E V; Nikolaeva, T L; Miterev, G Yu; Chertkov, I L

    2006-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to D antigen were studied in the reaction of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity for evaluation of the possibility of using these antibodies for preventing rhesus sensitization. High hemolytic activity of four anti-D-monoclonal antibodies in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test, mediated by their interaction with FcgammaRI, and the capacity to accelerate elimination of D+ erythrocytes from circulation did not provide the immunosuppressive effect. It was hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies for prevention of rhesus sensitization should interact with FcgammaRIII on lymphocytes. These monoclonal antibodies are extremely rare: only 4 of 125 studied antibodies mediated hemolysis in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test with lymphocytes, while all polyclonal anti-D-preparations exhibited this activity.

  8. THE ANTI-TB DRUG SENSITIVITY OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS FROM CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AND BONE TISSUE BIOPSY SPECIMENS OF PATIENTS SUSPECTED TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS AND SPINAL TB IN DR SOETOMO HOSPITAL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Mertaniasih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is an infection of meningens which potentially life threatening with significant morbidity and mortality. Spinal TB has the same problem with TBM, infection in bone and joint, the delayed diagnosis worsens the prognosis. The rapid and accurate diagnosis plus promt adequate treatment is essential for the good outcome. The aim of this research is to study the first line drug sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from specimens of cerebrospinal fluid from suspected tuberculous meningitis patients and bone tissue biopsy from suspected spinal TB patients. The method of this research is TB Laboratory examination in Department of Clinical Microbiology – Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Indonesia, using the gold standard liquid culture method MGIT 960 System (Becton Dickinson and solid culture method with Lowenstein-Jensen medium. The specimens CSF from 50 TBM patients at January 2013 until May 2014. Positive isolate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were 11 isolates (22%, which sensitivity 100% (11/11 isolates to Rifampin (R, Pyrazinamide (Z, Ethambutol (E, and Streptomycin (S; one isolate resistant to Isoniazid, sensitivity to Isoniazid 90,90% (10/11; and received 21 specimens of bone tissue biopsy which positive 5 isolates (23%, all isolates sensitive 100% (5/5 isolates to Rifampin and Pyrazinamide, and 1 isolates resistant to Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin, in which sensitivity 80% (4/5 isolates to Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin. The conclusion of this research is positivity detection 22% of CSF specimens, and 23% of bone tissue biopsy were low. All isolates sensitive 100% to Rifampin and Pyrazinamide, and 80-90% sensitive to Isoniazid.

  9. Estimation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Three Conditionally Dependent Diagnostic Tests in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, B.; Swildens, B.; Stegeman, J.A.; Buist, W.G.; Jong, de M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a model to evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Data from three tests for the detection of EF-positive Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in sows were analyzed. The data were collected in a field study in the absence of a gold standard, that is, the true disease status

  10. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults’ performance in WM, we ...

  11. Protanopia (red color-blindness) in medaka: a simple system for producing color-blind fish and testing their spectral sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Noriko; Harada, Yumi; Uchikawa, Tamaki; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Fukamachi, Shoji

    2017-02-06

    Color perception is important for fish to survive and reproduce in nature. Visual pigments in the retinal photoreceptor cells are responsible for receiving light stimuli, but the function of the pigments in vivo has not been directly investigated in many animals due to the lack of color-blind lines and appropriate color-perception tests. In this study, we established a system for producing color-blind fish and testing their spectral sensitivity. First, we disrupted long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins of medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to make red-color-blind lines. Single guide RNAs were designed using the consensus sequences between the paralogous LWSa and LWSb genes to simultaneously introduce double-frameshift mutations. Next, we developed a non-invasive and no-prior-learning test for spectral sensitivity by applying an optomotor response (OMR) test under an Okazaki Large Spectrograph (OLS), termed the O-O test. We constructed an electrical-rotary cylinder with black/white stripes, into which a glass aquarium containing one or more fish was placed under various monochromatic light conditions. The medaka were irradiated by the OLS every 10 nm, from wavelengths of 700 nm to 900 nm, and OMR was evaluated under each condition. We confirmed that the lws - medaka were indeed insensitive to red light (protanopia). While the control fish responded to wavelengths of up to 830 nm (λ = 830 nm), the lws - mutants responded up to λ = 740 nm; however, this difference was not observed after adaptation to dark: both the control and lws - fish could respond up to λ = 820 ~ 830 nm. These results suggest that the lws - mutants lost photopic red-cone vision, but retained scotopic rod vision. Considering that the peak absorption spectra (λ max ) of medaka LWSs are about 560 nm, but the light-adapted control medaka could respond behaviorally to light at λ = 830 nm, red-cone vision could cover an unexpectedly wide range of

  12. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography and Contrast Sensitivity Test for Observing Fundus Changes of Patients With Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixue; Zou, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenying; Wang, Xueyan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wenying

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the fundus changes of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIHS) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology and contrast sensitivity (CS) tests.Ninety-eight patients with PIHS underwent routine eye examinations including vision correction, fundus examination, OCT, and CS tests. The CS test was performed at low, medium, and high frequency, respectively. Moreover, the difference in CS tests between 2 groups was analyzed by independent-samples T test. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and linear regression model were used to detect the correlation of OCT with CS, respectively. Meanwhile Satterthwaite approximate T test was adopted for pairwise comparisons after nonparametric analysis of variance.The OCT test revealed that 56.76% of the examined eyes showed shallow retinal detachment in the macula lutea and around the optic disk. The differences in CS at each spatial frequency between the case and control group were statistically significant (P tests might be valuable methods in observing fundus changes for PIHS patients.

  13. Dresden 1 Radiation Level Reduction Program. Intergranular corrosion tests of sensitized Type-304 stainless steel in Dow NS-1, and stress corrosion cracking tests of Type-304 stainless steel and carbon and low alloy steels in Dow copper rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, W.L.

    1978-09-01

    Corrosion tests were performed to evaluate the extent of intergranular attack on sensitized Type-304 stainless steel by a proprietary Dow Chemical solvent, NS-1, which is to be used in the chemical cleaning of the Dresden 1 primary system. In addition, tests were performed to evaluate stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Type-304 stainless steel and post-weld heat-treated ASTM A336-F1, A302-B, and A106-B carbon and low alloy steels in a solution to be used to remove residual metallic copper from the Dresden 1 primary system surfaces following the chemical cleaning. No evidence of deleterious corrosion was observed in either set of tests

  14. Determination of IgE antibodies to the benzylpenicilloyl determinant: a comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of three radio allergo sorbent test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J J; Blanca, M; Moreno, F; Vega, J M; Mayorga, C; Fernandez, J; Juarez, C; Romano, A; de Ramon, E

    1997-01-01

    The quantitation of in vitro IgE antibodies to the benzylpenicilloyl determinant (BPO) is a useful tool for evaluating suspected penicillin allergic subjects. Although many different methods have been employed, few studies have compared their diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of three different radio allergo sorbent test (RAST) methods for quantitating specific IgE antibodies to the BPO determinant were compared. Thirty positive control sera (serum samples from penicillin allergic subjects with a positive clinical history and a positive penicillin skin test) and 30 negative control sera (sera from subjects with no history of penicillin allergy and negative skin tests) were tested for BPO-specific IgE antibodies by RAST using three different conjugates coupled to the solid phase: benzylpenicillin conjugated to polylysine (BPO-PLL), benzylpenicillin conjugated to human serum albumin (BPO-HSA), and benzylpenicillin conjugated to an aminospacer (BPO-SP). Receiver operator control curves (ROC analysis) were carried out by determining different cut-off points between positive and negative values. Contingence tables were constructed and sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive values (PV-), and positive predictive values (PV+) were calculated. Pearson correlation coefficient