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Sample records for rif loaded nhap

  1. Bacterial Loads Measured by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay as Markers of Culture Conversion and Bacteriological Cure in Pulmonary TB.

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    Shubhada Shenai

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are needed to monitor tuberculosis (TB treatment and predict treatment outcomes. We evaluated the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert assay as a biomarker for TB treatment during and at the end of the 24 weeks therapy.Sputum from 108 HIV-negative, culture-positive pulmonary TB patients was analyzed using Xpert at time points before and during anti-TB therapy. Results were compared against culture. Direct Xpert cycle-threshold (Ct, a change in the Ct (delta Ct, or a novel "percent closing of baseline Ct deficit" (percent closing were evaluated as classifiers of same-day and end-of-treatment culture and therapeutic outcomes.Xpert was positive in 29/95 (30.5% of subjects at week 24; and positive one year after treatment in 8/64 (12.5% successfully-treated patients who remained free of tuberculosis. We identified a relationship between initial bacterial load measured by baseline Xpert Ct and time to culture conversion (hazard ratio 1.06, p = 0.0023, and to the likelihood of being among the 8 treatment failures at week 24 (AUC = 72.8%. Xpert Ct was even more strongly associated with culture conversion on the day the test was performed with AUCs 96.7%, 99.2%, 86.0% and 90.2%, at Day 7, Week 4, 8 and 24, respectively. Compared to baseline Ct measures alone, a combined measure of baseline Ct plus either Delta Ct or percent closing improved the classification of treatment failure status to a 75% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity.Genome loads measured by Xpert provide a potentially-useful biomarker for classifying same day culture status and predicting response to therapy.

  2. Victimas del Rif

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    Pablo La Porte

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the memory of the Rif War victims (1921-1926 in present-day Morocco and the role of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC in the conflict. It argues that ICRC’s approach to humanitarian action in the Rif was influenced by changes in the perception of victims after the First World War. Humanitarian assistance in the Rif was, however, undermined by diplomatic tensions between the ICRC and the French and Spanish governments. Lessons from the conflict can be drawn to assess the role of humanitarian associations in conflict situations.

  3. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

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    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  4. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vani, R; Sridevi, T S; Kalkura, S Narayana [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Savithri, K; Devaraj, S Niranjali [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Girija, E K [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011 (India); Thamizhavel, A, E-mail: kalkurasn@annauniv.edu, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  5. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vani, R; Sridevi, T S; Kalkura, S Narayana; Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Savithri, K; Devaraj, S Niranjali; Girija, E K; Thamizhavel, A

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m 2 g -1 and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  6. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, R.; Bharathi Raja, Subramaniya; Sridevi, T. S.; Savithri, K.; Niranjali Devaraj, S.; Girija, E. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2011-07-01

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m2 g - 1 and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  7. Reoxygenation in the RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorie, M.J.; Kallman, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The proportion of hypoxic cells in the RIF-1 tumor was examined for 13 days following a 15 Gy conditioning dose. The paired survival curve technique indicated that 100% of the surviving cells were hypoxic immediately following this treatment. However, within 1 hour, only about 50% remained hypoxic; this proportion continued to drop to about 10% but did not reach the pretreatment level of 1.1% for the duration of the study

  8. Muhammad Rif`at dan Turath Bacaannya

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    WAN HILMI WAN ABDULLAH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaykh Muhammad Rif`at is one of the famous reciters in Egypt in the era of the 90's. His stature continues evident after officially been invited as a qari to the opening ceremony of Qari al-Misriyyah Idha`at in 1934. During his involvement in the world of Quranic recitation, Shaykh Muhammad Rif`at had recited the Quran in the mosque of Fadil Basha for 25 years. His determinations to deliver and spread Holy Quran with an intermediate reading in mosques, haflah-haflah and ma’tam also have strongly influenced the next generations of qurra’. Many of the reciters like Shaykh Mustafa Isma`il, Shaykh Abu al-`Aynin Sha`isha', Shaykh `Abdul Fattah and others recognize that he has the greatness and uniqueness of its own in the art of reading the Quran. This is evidenced by some of the titles given to him as Amir al-Qurra’, Qitharah al-Sama’ and Sawt al-Malaikah by his contemporary reciters. After Shaykh Muhammad Rif`at died in 1950, then relics of his recited turath were uncovered which compiled by his friend, Zakaria Basha and compatriot Muhammad Khamis, as they managed to gather a total of 278 cds contains 19 chapters with the duration of 21 hours.

  9. Morphological and Structural Analysis of Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-hap) Coatings Electrodeposited on Titanium Substrate : Effect of Deposition Solution Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nik Norziehana Che Isa; Norjanah Yury; Yusairie Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Various concentration of deposition solutions containing CaCl 2 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 (with Ca/P ratio equal to 1.67) were used to study the effect of deposition solution concentration on the surface morphology and structure of Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings. Each HAp coating was deposited onto Ti substrate by applying a constant potential of 1.5 V (vs Ag/ AgCl) at 80 degree Celsius. The formation of HAp coatings was confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. Various morphologies consisting of HAp nanoparticles were produced from different deposition solutions as observed by SEM. The concentration of deposition solution has significantly affected the morphology of n-HAp coatings. (author)

  10. Preferential transcription of conserved rif genes in two phenotypically distinct Plasmodium falciparum parasite lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Magistrado, Pamela A; Nielsen, Morten A

    2009-01-01

    transcribed in the VAR2CSA-expressing parasite line. In addition, two rif genes were found transcribed at early and late intra-erythrocyte stages independently of var gene transcription. Rif genes are organised in groups and inter-genomic conserved gene families, suggesting that RIFIN sub-groups may have......Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA) are targets of protective immunity to malaria. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) and repetitive interspersed family (RIFIN) proteins are encoded by the two variable multigene families, var and rif genes, respectively...... novel rif gene groups, rifA1 and rifA2, containing inter-genomic conserved rif genes, were identified. All rifA1 genes were orientated head-to-head with a neighbouring Group A var gene whereas rifA2 was present in all parasite genomes as a single copy gene with a unique 5' untranslated region. Rif...

  11. (Prérif central, Maroc septentrional

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    Abdelghani Gartet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene por objeto evaluar la degradación específi ca, y especialmente cuantifi car la carga de transporte sólido, en la cuenca del oued Lebène (Prérif central, caracterizada por altas tasas de erosión hídrica. La fuerte erosionabilidad de las rocas, la agresividad climática y las frecuentes variaciones de caudal hacen que el volumen de los materiales transportados por el Lebène alcancen una magnitud considerable. La irregularidad espacio-temporal de las precipitaciones y caudales condicionan el volumen de los transportes sólidos, de ahí las estrechas correlaciones existentes entre las tres variables. Los análisis relativos a la turbidez de las aguas y a la naturaleza granulométrica de los sedimentos refuerzan dicha relación.

  12. A cell cycle-dependent regulatory circuit composed of 53BP1-RIF1 and BRCA1-CtIP controls DNA repair pathway choice.

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    Escribano-Díaz, Cristina; Orthwein, Alexandre; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Xing, Mengtan; Young, Jordan T F; Tkáč, Ján; Cook, Michael A; Rosebrock, Adam P; Munro, Meagan; Canny, Marella D; Xu, Dongyi; Durocher, Daniel

    2013-03-07

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice is governed by the opposing activities of 53BP1 and BRCA1. 53BP1 stimulates nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), whereas BRCA1 promotes end resection and homologous recombination (HR). Here we show that 53BP1 is an inhibitor of BRCA1 accumulation at DSB sites, specifically in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of 53BP1 physically recruits RIF1 to DSB sites, and we identify RIF1 as the critical effector of 53BP1 during DSB repair. Remarkably, RIF1 accumulation at DSB sites is strongly antagonized by BRCA1 and its interacting partner CtIP. Lastly, we show that depletion of RIF1 is able to restore end resection and RAD51 loading in BRCA1-depleted cells. This work therefore identifies a cell cycle-regulated circuit, underpinned by RIF1 and BRCA1, that governs DSB repair pathway choice to ensure that NHEJ dominates in G1 and HR is favored from S phase onward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A feedback regulatory model for RifQ-mediated repression of rifamycin export in Amycolatopsis mediterranei.

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    Lei, Chao; Wang, Jingzhi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xinqiang; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Jin

    2018-01-29

    Due to the important role of rifamycin in curing tuberculosis infection, the study on rifamycin has never been stopped. Although RifZ, which locates within the rifamycin biosynthetic cluster, has recently been characterized as a pathway-specific regulator for rifamycin biosynthesis, little is known about the regulation of rifamycin export. In this work, we proved that the expression of the rifamycin efflux pump (RifP) was regulated by RifQ, a TetR-family transcriptional regulator. Deletion of rifQ had little impact on bacterial growth, but resulted in improved rifamycin production, which was consistent with the reverse transcription PCR results that RifQ negatively regulated rifP's transcription. With electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNase I Footprinting assay, RifQ was found to directly bind to the promoter region of rifP, and a typical inverted repeat was identified within the RifQ-protected sequences. The transcription initiation site of rifP was further characterized and found to be upstream of the RifQ binding sites, well explaining the RifQ-mediated repression of rifP's transcription in vivo. Moreover, rifamycin B (the end product of rifamycin biosynthesis) remarkably decreased the DNA binding affinity of RifQ, which led to derepression of rifamycin export, reducing the intracellular concentration of rifamycin B as well as its toxicity against the host. Here, we proved that the export of rifamycin B was repressed by RifQ in Amycolatopsis mediterranei, and the RifQ-mediated repression could be specifically relieved by rifamycin B, the end product of rifamycin biosynthesis, based on which a feedback model was proposed for regulation of rifamycin export. With the findings here, one could improve the antibiotic yield by simply inactivating the negative regulator of the antibiotic transporter.

  14. France and the Rif War: Lessons from a Forgotten Counterinsurgency War (Northern Morocco - April 1925 - May 1927)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    Points Histoire , 2009. - Harris, Walter, France, Spain and the Rif. London: Edward Arnold & CO., 1927. Woolman, David, Rebels in the Rif, Abd el...Marmie, Laguerre du Rif(Paris: Points Histoire , 2009), 17. 6 On the youth and education of Abd El Krim see Cow·celle-Labrousse, Laguerre du Rif, 213

  15. Effective management of regulator RI/FS comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinsky, S.M.; Lojek, D.; George, R.D.; Houser, S.M.; Strimbu, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a successful strategy that facilitates regulatory approval of CERCLA documents required by compliance agreement and CERCLA, based on the experience of Operable Unit 1, Waste Storage Area, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This strategy, which has become the site standard at the FEMP, was instrumental in obtaining regulator approval of the OU1 RI and FS, and early approval of the Record of Decision during a very tight compliance agreement-driven schedule. This strategy can be applied at any DOE Superfund site, especially where there is need to recover lost schedule, an incentive to meet milestones early, a need to improve the relationship between the DOE and the regulators, or where the regulatory agencies have historically provided a large volume of comments on CERCLA documents. The strategy focuses on early identification and resolution of issues relating to draft RI/FS documents, as raised in regulatory agency review comments. This pro-active strategy has the potential for schedule and cost savings, as well as for improved communication between DOE and the regulators. The strategy includes preparation of a separate comment response document, integration of comment responses with RI/FS documents, development of a database of agency comments and their resolution, and sharing lessons learned with preparers of subsequent RI/FS documents. The paper provides background on the FEMP and describes the FEMP comment response strategy; DOE and regulator interface; the Sitewide Comment Database; networked electronic file management; the process for classifying, analyzing, and responding to comments; integration with base RI/FS documents; and a conclusion

  16. Effective management of regulator RI/FS comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinsky, S.M.; Lojek, D.; George, R.D.; Houser, S.M.; Strimbu, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a successful strategy that facilitates regulatory approval of CERCLA documents required by compliance agreement and CERCLA, based on the experience of Operable Unit 1, Waste Storage Area, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This strategy, which has become the site standard at the FEMP, was instrumental in obtaining regulator approval of the OU1 RI and FS, and early approval of the Record of Decision during a very tight compliance agreement-driven schedule. This strategy can be applied at any DOE Superfund site, especially where there is need to recover lost schedule, an incentive to meet milestones early, a need to improve the relationship between the DOE and the regulators, or where the regulatory agencies have historically provided a large volume of comments on CERCLA documents. The strategy focuses on early identification and resolution of issues relating to draft RI/FS documents, as raised in regulatory agency review comments. This pro-active strategy has the potential for schedule and cost savings, as well as for improved communication between DOE and the regulators. The strategy includes preparation of a separate comment response document, integration of comment responses with RI/FS documents, development of a database of agency comments and their resolution, and sharing lessons learned with preparers of subsequent RI/FS documents. The paper provides background on the FEMP and describes the FEMP comment response strategy; DOE and regulator interface; the Sitewide Comment Database; networked electronic file management; the process for classifying, analyzing, and responding to comments; integration with base RI/FS documents; and a conclusion.

  17. Classification of plant associated bacteria using RIF, a computationally derived DNA marker.

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    Kevin L Schneider

    Full Text Available A DNA marker that distinguishes plant associated bacteria at the species level and below was derived by comparing six sequenced genomes of Xanthomonas, a genus that contains many important phytopathogens. This DNA marker comprises a portion of the dnaA replication initiation factor (RIF. Unlike the rRNA genes, dnaA is a single copy gene in the vast majority of sequenced bacterial genomes, and amplification of RIF requires genus-specific primers. In silico analysis revealed that RIF has equal or greater ability to differentiate closely related species of Xanthomonas than the widely used ribosomal intergenic spacer region (ITS. Furthermore, in a set of 263 Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter strains, the RIF marker was directly sequenced in both directions with a success rate approximately 16% higher than that for ITS. RIF frameworks for Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter were constructed using 682 reference strains representing different species, subspecies, pathovars, races, hosts and geographic regions, and contain a total of 109 different RIF sequences. RIF sequences showed subspecific groupings but did not place strains of X. campestris or X. axonopodis into currently named pathovars nor R. solanacearum strains into their respective races, confirming previous conclusions that pathovar and race designations do not necessarily reflect genetic relationships. The RIF marker also was sequenced for 24 reference strains from three genera in the Enterobacteriaceae: Pectobacterium, Pantoea and Dickeya. RIF sequences of 70 previously uncharacterized strains of Ralstonia, Clavibacter, Pectobacterium and Dickeya matched, or were similar to, those of known reference strains, illustrating the utility of the frameworks to classify bacteria below the species level and rapidly match unknown isolates to reference strains. The RIF sequence frameworks are available at the online RIF database, RIFdb, and can be queried for diagnostic purposes with RIF

  18. A feasibility study of the Xpert MTB/RIF test at the peripheral level laboratory in China

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    Xichao Ou

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: The introduction of MTB/RIF could increase the accuracy of detection of MTB and rifampin resistance in peripheral-level TB laboratories in China. One single specimen is adequate for TB diagnosis by MTB/RIF.

  19. Initiation of continental accretion in the Betic-Rif domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxime, Daudet; Frederic, Mouthereau; Stéphanie, Brichau; Ana, Crespo-Blanc; Arnaud, Vacherat

    2017-04-01

    The Betic - Rif cordillera in southern Spain and northern Morocco, respectively, form one of the tightest orogenic arc on Earth. The formation of this arcuate orogenic belt resulted from the westward migration of the Alboran crustal domain, constituted by the internal zone of the orogeny and the basement of the Alboran back-arc basin, that collided with the rifted margins of Iberia and Africa at least since the early Miocene. This collision is intimately linked to the post-35-30Ma regional slab roll-back and back-arc extension in the western Mediterranean region. The geodynamics of the Betic-Rif domain, which is of great importance for the paleogeographic reconstructions of the Tethys-Altantic and the Mediterranean sea, is still largely debated. Answers will come from a more detailed structural analyses, including refinement of the time-temperature paths and kinematics of the main structural units, which is one of the main objectives of the OROGEN research project, co-financed by BRGM, TOTAL & CNRS. In this study, we focus on the well-developed flysch-type sediments now accreted in the Betics-Rif but initially deposited in a basin, north of the african margin and on the iberian margin from the Early Cretaceous to the Early Miocene. Using low-temperature thermochronology (fission-track and (U-Th)/He analyses) combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology on the flyschs deposited on the most distal part of the margin, we aim to constrain the thermal history of both the source rocks and accreted thrust sheets at the earliest stages of continental accretion. Sample have been collected in flyschs series ranging from Mesozoic, Paleogene to Neogene ages. Additional samples have been collected in the Rif where Cretaceous series are more developed. Combined with a detailed structural analysis, LT thermochronological constraints will refine the kinematics of thrust units when continental accretion started before the final thrust emplacement occurred in the Early Miocene

  20. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creswell, Jacob; Codlin, Andrew J.; Andre, Emmanuel; Micek, Mark A.; Bedru, Ahmed; Carter, E. Jane; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Mosneaga, Andrei; Rai, Bishwa; Banu, Sayera; Brouwer, Miranda; Blok, Lucie; Sahu, Suvanand; Ditiu, Lucica

    2014-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is

  1. Business rules for creating process flexibility : Mapping RIF rules and BDI rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Overbeek, S.J.; Janssen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Business rules and software agents can be used for creating flexible business processes. The Rule Interchange Format (RIF) is a new W3C recommendation standard for exchanging rules among disparate systems. Yet, the impact that the introduction of RIF has on the design of flexible business processes

  2. Rif1 acts through Protein Phosphatase 1 but independent of replication timing to suppress telomere extension in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedziora, Sylwia; Gali, Vamsi K; Wilson, Rosemary H C; Clark, Kate R M; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Donaldson, Anne D

    2018-05-04

    The Rif1 protein negatively regulates telomeric TG repeat length in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but how it prevents telomere over-extension is unknown. Rif1 was recently shown to control DNA replication by acting as a Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1)-targeting subunit. Therefore, we investigated whether Rif1 controls telomere length by targeting PP1 activity. We find that a Rif1 mutant defective for PP1 interaction causes a long-telomere phenotype, similar to that of rif1Δ cells. Tethering PP1 at a specific telomere partially substitutes for Rif1 in limiting TG repeat length, confirming the importance of PP1 in telomere length control. Ablating Rif1-PP1 interaction is known to cause precocious activation of telomere-proximal replication origins and aberrantly early telomere replication. However, we find that Rif1 still limits telomere length even if late replication is forced through deletion of nearby replication origins, indicating that Rif1 can control telomere length independent of replication timing. Moreover we find that, even at a de novo telomere created after DNA synthesis during a mitotic block, Rif1-PP1 interaction is required to suppress telomere lengthening and prevent inappropriate recruitment of Tel1 kinase. Overall, our results show that Rif1 controls telomere length by recruiting PP1 to directly suppress telomerase-mediated TG repeat lengthening.

  3. Protein Phosphatase 1 Recruitment by Rif1 Regulates DNA Replication Origin Firing by Counteracting DDK Activity

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    Anoushka Davé

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The firing of eukaryotic origins of DNA replication requires CDK and DDK kinase activities. DDK, in particular, is involved in setting the temporal program of origin activation, a conserved feature of eukaryotes. Rif1, originally identified as a telomeric protein, was recently implicated in specifying replication timing in yeast and mammals. We show that this function of Rif1 depends on its interaction with PP1 phosphatases. Mutations of two PP1 docking motifs in Rif1 lead to early replication of telomeres in budding yeast and misregulation of origin firing in fission yeast. Several lines of evidence indicate that Rif1/PP1 counteract DDK activity on the replicative MCM helicase. Our data suggest that the PP1/Rif1 interaction is downregulated by the phosphorylation of Rif1, most likely by CDK/DDK. These findings elucidate the mechanism of action of Rif1 in the control of DNA replication and demonstrate a role of PP1 phosphatases in the regulation of origin firing.

  4. Diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF in Tunisia

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    Taha Jaouadi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The implementation of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay may dramatically improve the rapid diagnosis of lymph node TB. This rapid TB test may complete usual methods (conventional microscopy, culture and histopathology.

  5. Comparaison du filtre adaptatif RIF et du filtre a base de reseau de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparaison du filtre adaptatif RIF et du filtre a base de reseau de neurones pour le filtrage du courant de reference pour la commande du filtre actif parallele. C Benachaiba, A Bassou, B Mazari ...

  6. Rif1 controls DNA replication by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 to reverse Cdc7-mediated phosphorylation of the MCM complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Alvino, Gina M; Chang, Fujung; Lian, Hui-Yong; Sridhar, Akila; Kubota, Takashi; Brewer, Bonita J; Weinreich, Michael; Raghuraman, M K; Donaldson, Anne D

    2014-02-15

    Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires phosphorylation of the MCM complex by Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), composed of Cdc7 kinase and its activator, Dbf4. We report here that budding yeast Rif1 (Rap1-interacting factor 1) controls DNA replication genome-wide and describe how Rif1 opposes DDK function by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1)-mediated dephosphorylation of the MCM complex. Deleting RIF1 partially compensates for the limited DDK activity in a cdc7-1 mutant strain by allowing increased, premature phosphorylation of Mcm4. PP1 interaction motifs within the Rif1 N-terminal domain are critical for its repressive effect on replication. We confirm that Rif1 interacts with PP1 and that PP1 prevents premature Mcm4 phosphorylation. Remarkably, our results suggest that replication repression by Rif1 is itself also DDK-regulated through phosphorylation near the PP1-interacting motifs. Based on our findings, we propose that Rif1 is a novel PP1 substrate targeting subunit that counteracts DDK-mediated phosphorylation during replication. Fission yeast and mammalian Rif1 proteins have also been implicated in regulating DNA replication. Since PP1 interaction sites are evolutionarily conserved within the Rif1 sequence, it is likely that replication control by Rif1 through PP1 is a conserved mechanism.

  7. Rif1 Binding and Control of Chromosome-Internal DNA Replication Origins Is Limited by Telomere Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Zhang, Xu; Lemmens, Laure; Shyian, Maksym; Albert, Benjamin; Follonier, Cindy; Nunes, Jose Manuel; Lopes, Massimo; Shore, David; Mattarocci, Stefano

    2018-04-24

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomere-binding protein Rif1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in control of DNA replication timing by promoting PP1-dependent dephosphorylation of replication initiation factors. However, ScRif1 binding outside of telomeres has never been detected, and it has thus been unclear whether Rif1 acts directly on the replication origins that it controls. Here, we show that, in unperturbed yeast cells, Rif1 primarily regulates late-replicating origins within 100 kb of a telomere. Using the chromatin endogenous cleavage ChEC-seq technique, we robustly detect Rif1 at late-replicating origins that we show are targets of its inhibitory action. Interestingly, abrogation of Rif1 telomere association by mutation of its Rap1-binding module increases Rif1 binding and origin inhibition elsewhere in the genome. Our results indicate that Rif1 inhibits replication initiation by interacting directly with origins and suggest that Rap1-dependent sequestration of Rif1 increases its effective concentration near telomeres, while limiting its action at chromosome-internal sites. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Active tectonics of the Rif Mountains (Morocco) from geomorphic and geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Jean-François; Poujol, Antoine; Tahayt, Abdelilah; Vernant, Philippe; Condomines, Michel; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Braucher, Régis; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier; Leroux-Mallouf, Romain; Ferry, Matthieu; Maate, Soufian

    2014-05-01

    We present results of a geomorphological and morphotectonic analysis of the Rif Mountains (Morocco). We show that the present day kinematics of the Rif is characterized by active deformation along normal and left-lateral strike-slip faults in the North-East (Trougout, Rouadi, Boujibar and Nekor faults), reverse fault in the South (the South Rif Front) and inherited fold structures in the West. Digital Elevation Models of offset drainage features (streams, fluvial terraces) allow determining horizontal cumulative displacements of ~25-35m along the Trougout fault and ~40m along the Nekor fault. 14C dating of tectonic markers yields vertical and horizontal slip rates of ~2.8 mm/yr and ~2.3 mm/yr respectively, along the Trougout fault. For the first time, cosmogenic 3He method is used on volcanic rocks to date the successive exposure of the fault plane. Along the Trougout fault, this yields recurrence time between 3,1 and 4,1 ka. The present-day localized transtension seen in the northeastern Rif morphology (Ras Tarf) is coeval with uplifted marine terraces near the Al Hoceima Bay. U/Th dating of shells yields an average uplift rate of ~0.2 mm/yr during the past 500 Ka. These data show that active transtension in the northeastern Rif is also associated with uplift. Comparison with cosmogenic 10Be/3He dating of perched fluvial surface located above these marine terraces is in progress and may allow us to confirm or not this uplift rate. In the western Rif, geomorphic markers allow us to suggest that active deformation is accommodated along blind thrust and NNW-SSE inherited folds. These new morphotectonic constraints are consistent with the GPS measurements showing southwestward overall motion of most of the Rif belt with respect to stable Africa and suggest a continuum of the deformation from the Pliocene.

  9. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Jacob; Codlin, Andrew J; Andre, Emmanuel; Micek, Mark A; Bedru, Ahmed; Carter, E Jane; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Mosneaga, Andrei; Rai, Bishwa; Banu, Sayera; Brouwer, Miranda; Blok, Lucie; Sahu, Suvanand; Ditiu, Lucica

    2014-01-02

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is available on its use in routine case finding. TB REACH is a multi-country initiative focusing on innovative ways to improve case notification. We selected a convenience sample of nine TB REACH projects for inclusion to cover a range of implementers, regions and approaches. Standard quarterly reports and machine data from the first 12 months of MTB/RIF implementation in each project were utilized to analyze patient yields, rifampicin resistance, and failed tests. Data was collected from September 2011 to March 2013. A questionnaire was implemented and semi-structured interviews with project staff were conducted to gather information on user experiences and challenges. All projects used MTB/RIF testing for people with suspected TB, as opposed to testing for drug resistance among already diagnosed patients. The projects placed 65 machines (196 modules) in a variety of facilities and employed numerous case-finding strategies and testing algorithms. The projects consumed 47,973 MTB/RIF tests. Of valid tests, 7,195 (16.8%) were positive for MTB. A total of 982 rifampicin resistant results were found (13.6% of positive tests). Of all tests conducted, 10.6% failed. The need for continuous power supply was noted by all projects and most used locally procured solutions. There was considerable heterogeneity in how results were reported and recorded, reflecting the lack of standardized guidance in some countries. The findings of this study begin to fill the gaps among guidelines, research findings, and real-world implementation of MTB/RIF testing. Testing with Xpert MTB/RIF detected a large number of people with TB that routine services failed to detect. The study demonstrates the

  10. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process, elements and techniques guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This manual provides detailed guidance on Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs) conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The purpose of the RI/FS, to assess the risk posed by a hazardous waste site and to determine the best way to reduce that risk, and its structure (site characterization, risk assessment, screening and detailed analysis of alternatives, etc.) is defined in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) and further explained in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA (Interim Final) 540/G-89/004, OSWER Directive 9355.3-01, October 1988. Though issued in 1988, the EPA guidance remains an excellent source of information on the conduct and structure of an RI/FS. This document makes use of supplemental RI/FS-related guidance that EPA has developed since its initial document was issued in 1988, incorporates practical lessons learned in more than 12 years of experience in CERCLA hazardous site remediation, and drawing on those lessons, introduces the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER), developed by DOE as a way to proceed quickly and efficiently through the RI/FS process at DOE facilities. Thus as its title implies, this guidance is intended to describe in detail the process and component elements of an RI/FS, as well as techniques to manage the RI/FS effectively.

  11. Role of GeneXpert MTB/Rif Assay in Diagnosing Tuberculosis in Pregnancy and Puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zaiyad G; Dayyab, Farouq M; Sanda, Abdallah; Tambuwal, Sirajo H; Dalhat, Mahmood M; Muhammad, Hamza; Iliyasu, Garba; Nashabaru, Ibrahim; Habib, Abdulrazaq G

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of tuberculosis (TB) in pregnancy may be atypical with diagnostic challenges. Two patients with complicated pregnancy outcomes, foetal loss and live premature delivery at 5 and 7 months of gestation, respectively, and maternal loss, were diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Chest radiography and computed tomography showed widespread reticuloalveolar infiltrates and consolidation with cavitations, respectively. Both patients were Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seronegative and sputum smear negative for TB. Sputum GeneXpert MTB/Rif (Xpert MTB/RIF) was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To strengthen maternal and childhood TB control, screening with same-day point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF is advocated among both HIV positive pregnant women and symptomatic HIV negative pregnant women during antenatal care in pregnancy and at puerperium.

  12. [Application value of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis and detection of rifampin resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang-Hui; Shi, Shi-Yuan; Zheng, Qi; Shen, Jian; Ying, Xiao-Zhang; Wang, Yi-Fan

    2017-09-25

    To investigate the application value of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis and detection of rifampin resistance. The 109 pus specimens were obtained from patients who were primaryly diagnosed as spinal tuberculosis. All of the pus specimens were detected by acid-fast stain, liquid fast culturing by BACTEC MGIT 960 and Xpert MTB/RIF assay to definite the differences in sensitivity and specificity of mycobacterium tuberculosis among detecting methods. Pus specimens obtained by different methods were deteceded by MTB/RIF test to analyze the self-influence on Xpert MTB/RIF test. The result of liquid fast culturing by BACTEC MGIT 960 was used as the gold standard; and the value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in detecting rifampin resistance was analyzed. The sensitivity of acid-fast stain, liquid fast culturing by BACTEC MGIT 960 and Xpert MTB/RIF assay were 25.92%, 48.15%, 77.78%, respectively. The sensitivity of pus specimens obtained from open surgery, ultrasound positioning puncture and biopsy the sensitivity were 83.78%, 76.47%, 44.68% respectively deteceded by MTB/RIF test. According to the gold standard of the results of liquid fast culturing by BACTEC MGIT 960 assay, the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in detecting rifampin resistance were 80%(4/5) and 90.70%(39/43), respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay has higher value in diagnosis of spinal tuberculosi, and also can detect rifampin resistance. The number of mycobacterium tuberculosis in pus specimens has a great influence in the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF in musculoskeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GeneXpert MTB/RIF is an accurate test for the detection of TB in tissue samples of HIV-infected .... continuous data were summarised by means and 95% CIs and non- ... One sample was excluded as the culture sample was sent in formalin.

  14. Integrating semantic web and software agents : Exchanging RIF and BDI rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Overbeek, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Software agents and rules are both used for creating flexibility. Exchanging rules between Semantic Web and agents can ensure consistency in rules and support easy updating and changing of rules. The Rule Interchange Format (RIF) is a new W3C recommendation Semantic Web standard for exchanging rules

  15. [Contribution of the Xpert MTB/RIF to the etiological diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, N O; Wayzani, M; Thiam, K; Cissé, M F; Mbaye, F B

    2017-09-01

    Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural liquid is poorly described. The aim of this study was to determine its usefulness for the etiological diagnosis of a tuberculous pleurisy. We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study, with analytical design, including all the patients having a unilateral serofibrinous pleurisy, exudative, lymphocytic, and sterile. The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis was considered based on epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic arguments. The Xpert MTB/RIF of the pleural fluid was carried out among all patients. Pleural tuberculosis was confirmed in 301 patients. The median age was 32years. Our study has included 217 men (72.1%) with a final sex ratio of 2.6. The cost of the pleural biopsy coupled with histology made it practicable in only 90 patients (29.9%) with a yield of 80%. The Xpert MTB/RIF of the pleural liquid was positive in only 10 patients (3.3% of the cases). Gene amplification by Xpert MTB/RIF of the pleural liquid is much less effective in establishing the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy than pleural biopsy, which remains the gold standard. Copyright © 2017 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosing Xpert MTB/RIF-negative TB: Impact and cost of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Use of Xpert MTB/RIF is being scaled up throughout South Africa for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). A large proportion of HIV-infected patients with possible TB are Xpert-negative on their initial test, and the existing diagnostic algorithm calls for these patients to have sputum culture (Xpert followed by ...

  17. Librarian - phase 2. Subproject: the application of reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in biological systems. Final report; Librarian - Phase 2. Teilprojekt: Anwendung des Verfahrens der Reflektometrischen Schichtdickenmessung zur Signaldetektion in biologischen Testsystemen und Festphasensynthesen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birk, G.; Hadamovsky, S.

    2000-07-01

    Label free methods that do not require fluorescence markers or radioactive isotopes are of interest for high throughput screening applications. Thus, a new assay type for the RIfS technology was developed. These phosphorylation assay experiments were tested for reproducibility and were validated, initially using a single channel machine. The use of surface active materials to reduce or eliminate non specific binding is recommended. The non specific binding of the individual reagents was an important factor for their integration in the RIfS method. The immobilisation of binding reagents was tested using various methods. Since the various combinations are essentially limitless, they could not be explored to their full extent within the confines of this project. The application of the assay into microtitre plate format was not fully completed within the time frame allotted, however, has since been completed by one of the project participants as part of a further cooperation. Theoretically, this method is also suited to the robotics and sample throughput integral to a HTS system A comprehensive evaluation of RIfS technology regarding its entry into high throughput screening, however can only be made with reservation, due to the limited experience with its use in 96 and 384 microtitre plates. (orig.)

  18. Reconstructions with identical filling (RIF) of the heart: a physiological approach to image reconstruction in coronary CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, S.D.; Diefenbach, B.S.; Kuhl, C.K.; Mahnken, A.H.; Allmendinger, T.

    2012-01-01

    To compare image quality in coronary artery computed tomography angiography (cCTA) using reconstructions with automated phase detection and Reconstructions computed with Identical Filling of the heart (RIF). Seventy-four patients underwent ECG-gated dual source CT (DSCT) between November 2009 and July 2010 for suspected coronary heart disease (n = 35), planning of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (n = 34) or evaluation of ventricular function (n = 5). Image data sets by the RIF formula and automated phase detection were computed and evaluated with the AHA 15-segment model and a 5-grade Likert scale (1: poor, 5: excellent quality). Subgroups regarding rhythm (sinus rhythm = SR; arrhythmia = ARR) and potential premedication were evaluated by a per-segment, per-vessel and per-patient analysis. RIF significantly improved image quality in 10 of 15 coronary segments (P < 0.05). More diagnostic segments were provided by RIF regarding the entire cohort (n = 693 vs. 590, P < 0.001) and all of the subgroups (e.g. ARR: n = 143 vs. 72, P < 0.001). In arrhythmic patients (n = 19), more diagnostic vessels (e.g. LAD: n = 10 vs. 3; P < 0.014) and complete data sets (n = 7 vs. 1; P < 0.001) were produced. RIF reconstruction is superior to automatic diastolic non-edited reconstructions, especially in arrhythmic patients. RIF theory provides a physiological approach for determining the optimal image reconstruction point in ECG-gated CT angiography. (orig.)

  19. Modification of ChPL (chitosan protein–lipid nanoparticles for in vitro release of rifampicin (RIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poopak Farnia

    2015-01-01

    Results and conclusions: The average size of RIF ChPL-NPs was about 50–250nm. The release of RIF from the dialysis bag started after 30 min which was 2400ng/ml; after 16 h the release of RIF was 15,000ng/ml; and at 40 h the concentration reached to 19,600ng/ml. Therefore, these results showed a slow release of RIF from ChPL-NPs. Basically, the intensity of the surface charges in nanoparticle is important as it determines their interaction with bioactive compound. In RIF ChPL-NPs, lipid had negative charges, whereas chitosan and gelatin had positive charges. The electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged ions would ultimately cause an effective system drug delivery. RIF ChPL-NPs is not only suitable for intravenous administration, but it can be used as an inhalation aerosol, because this nanoparticle has a capacity to adhere to mucosal surfaces and transiently open the tight junction.

  20. DETERMINATION OF ATTENUATION INDEX CURVE "Ri(f" FOR HOMOGENEOUS DOUBLE LOCKING ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUZATU G. C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in three parts. In the first part of the paper, are presented some theoretical notions regarding the sound, noise, the sound insulations materials. Also in the first part of the paper are presented some characteristic regarding the insulation materials and there effects. In the second part it is described an calculation example for a homogeneous wall with double structure in order to determine the attenuation index curve "Ri(f". The example calculation contains 10 steps that must be followed and the final results are presented in table 7 and figure 3. The last part of the paper is represented by conclusions, where the authors tried to explain the importance of the curve "Ri(f" for reducing the noise in the buildings.

  1. Xpert® MTB/RIF: Usefulness for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara Gómez, Andrea; González-Martín, Julià; García-Basteiro, Alberto L

    2017-11-09

    The advent of the Xpert® MTB/RIF technique was a revolution in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, especially in areas with high incidence and low resources. It allows the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and simultaneously the most common resistance mutations to rifampicin in less than 2h. For respiratory samples the sensitivity is very high, but it decreases for extrapulmonary samples and children. Although it is faster and simpler than conventional methods, it presents some limitations and new and better techniques are needed to reduce the number of cases and deaths caused by tuberculosis. This review aims to assess the scientific evidence around the diagnostic performance of Xpert® MTB/RIF in different types of samples and populations, as well as analyse its strengths and limitations for TB diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Microrefugia, Climate Change, and Conservation of Cedrus atlantica in the Rif Mountains, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Cheddadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reconstructs and interprets the changing range of Atlas cedar in northern Morocco over the last 9,000 years. A synthesis of fossil pollen records indicated that Atlas cedars occupied a wider range at lower elevations during the mid-Holocene than today. The mid-Holocene geographical expansion reflected low winter temperatures and higher water availability over the whole range of the Rif Mountains relative to modern conditions. A trend of increasing aridity observed after 6,000 years BP progressively reduced the range of Atlas cedar and prompted its migration toward elevations above 1,400 masl. To assess the impact of climate change on cedar populations over the last decades, we performed a transient model simulation for the period between 1960 and 2010. Our simulation showed that the range of Atlas cedar decreased by about 75% over the last 50 years and that the eastern populations of the range in the Rif Mountains were even more threatened by the overall lack of water availability than the western ones. Today, Atlas cedar populations in the Rif Mountains are persisting in restricted and isolated areas (Jbel Kelti, Talassemtane, Jbel Tiziren, Oursane, Tidighine that we consider to be modern microrefugia. Conservation of these isolated populations is essential for the future survival of the species, preserving polymorphisms and the potential for population recovery under different climatic conditions.

  3. Oligomer formation and G-quadruplex binding by purified murine Rif1 protein, a key organizer of higher-order chromatin architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kenji; Yoshizawa-Sugata, Naoko; Masai, Hisao

    2018-03-09

    Rap1-interacting protein 1 (Rif1) regulates telomere length in budding yeast. We previously reported that, in metazoans and fission yeast, Rif1 also plays pivotal roles in controlling genome-wide DNA replication timing. We proposed that Rif1 may assemble chromatin compartments that contain specific replication-timing domains by promoting chromatin loop formation. Rif1 also is involved in DNA lesion repair, restart after replication fork collapse, anti-apoptosis activities, replicative senescence, and transcriptional regulation. Although multiple physiological functions of Rif1 have been characterized, biochemical and structural information on mammalian Rif1 is limited, mainly because of difficulties in purifying the full-length protein. Here, we expressed and purified the 2418-amino-acid-long, full-length murine Rif1 as well as its partially truncated variants in human 293T cells. Hydrodynamic analyses indicated that Rif1 forms elongated or extended homo-oligomers in solution, consistent with the presence of a HEAT-type helical repeat segment known to adopt an elongated shape. We also observed that the purified murine Rif1 bound G-quadruplex (G4) DNA with high specificity and affinity, as was previously shown for Rif1 from fission yeast. Both the N-terminal (HEAT-repeat) and C-terminal segments were involved in oligomer formation and specifically bound G4 DNA, and the central intrinsically disordered polypeptide segment increased the affinity for G4. Of note, pulldown assays revealed that Rif1 simultaneously binds multiple G4 molecules. Our findings support a model in which Rif1 modulates chromatin loop structures through binding to multiple G4 assemblies and by holding chromatin fibers together. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Use of Xpert MTB/RIF in Decentralized Public Health Settings and Its Effect on Pulmonary TB and DR-TB Case Finding in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Raizada, Neeraj; Sreenivas, Achuthan; van't Hoog, Anna H.; van den Hof, Susan; Dewan, Puneet K.; Thakur, Rahul; Gupta, R. S.; Kulsange, Shubhangi; Vadera, Bhavin; Babre, Ameet; Gray, Christen; Parmar, Malik; Ghedia, Mayank; Ramachandran, Ranjani; Alavadi, Umesh; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Denkinger, Claudia; Boehme, Catharina; Paramasivan, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF, the first automated molecular test for tuberculosis, is transforming the diagnostic landscape in high-burden settings. This study assessed the impact of up-front Xpert MTB/RIF testing on detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and rifampicin-resistant PTB (DR-TB) cases in India.

  5. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in respiratory specimen using Abbott Realtime MTB detection and RIF/INH resistance assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kingsley King-Gee; Leung, Kenneth Siu-Sing; To, Sabrina Wai-Chi; Siu, Gilman Kit-Hang; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Shek, Victor Chi-Man; Tse, Cindy Wing-Sze; Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yam, Wing-Cheong

    2017-10-01

    Abbott RealTime MTB (Abbott-RT) in conjunction with Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance (Abbott-RIF/INH) is a new, high-throughput automated nucleic acid amplification platform (Abbott-MDR) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and the genotypic markers for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance directly from respiratory specimens. This prospective study evaluated the diagnostic performance of this new platform for MTBC and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using 610 sputum specimens in a tuberculosis high-burden setting. Using conventional culture results and clinical background as reference standards, Abbott-RT exhibited an overall sensitivity and specificity of 95.2% and 99.8%, respectively. Genotypic RIF/INH resistance of 178 "MTB detected" specimens was subsequently analyzed by Abbott-RIF/INH. Compared to phenotypic drug susceptibility test results, Abbott-RIF/INH detected resistance genotypic markers in 84.6% MDR-TB, 80% mono-RIF-resistant and 66.7% mono-INH-resistant specimens. Two of the RIF-resistant specimens carried a novel single, nonsense mutation at rpoB Q513 and in silico simulation demonstrated that the truncated RpoB protein failed to bind with other subunits for transcription. Overall, Abbott-MDR platform provided high throughput and reliable diagnosis of MDR-TB within a TB high-burden region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation induction of drug resistance in RIF-1: Correlation of tumor and cell culture results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulder, J.E.; Hopwood, L.E.; Volk, D.M.; Davies, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    The RIF-1 tumor line contains cells that are resistant to various anti-neoplastic drugs, including 5-fluorouracil (5FU), methotrexate (MTX), adriamycin (ADR), and etoposide (VP16). The frequency of these drug-resistant cells is increased after irradiation. The frequency of drug-resistant cells and the magnitude of radiation-induced drug resistance are different in cell culture than in tumors. The dose-response and expression time relationships for radiation induction of drug resistance observed in RIF-1 tumors are unusual.We hypothesize that at high radiation doses in vivo, we are selecting for cells that are both drug resistant and radiation resistant due to microenvironmental factors, whereas at low radiation doses in vivo and all radiation doses in vitro, we are observing true mutants. These studies indicate that there can be significant differences in drug-resistance frequencies between tumors and their cell lines of origin, and that radiation induction of drug resistance depends significantly on whether the induction is done in tumors or in cell culture. These results imply that theories about the induction of drug resistance that are based on cell culture studies may be inapplicable to the induction of drug resistance in tumors

  7. Tholeitic basalts and ophiolitic complexes of the Mesorif Zone (External Rif, Morocco) at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary and the importance of the Ouerrha Accident in the palaeogeographic and geodynamic evolution of the Rif Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzaggagh, M.

    2016-10-01

    The stratigraphical series around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of the External Rif Mountains, in particular those in the Mesorif Zone, exhibits many outcrops with volcanic materials spread westwards over 200 km. These materials show diverse aspects: basalt lithoclasts reworked into calcareous breccia beds or in marly matrix breccia, interstratified lava flows and volcanoclastic complexes incorporated within the Berriasian marls. In the Central Rif, several magmatic blocks outcrop, usually regarded as granite scales from the Paleozoic basement or as intrusive gabbros of Barremian age. Actually these magmatic massifs display typical ophiolitic sequences and they are overlaid by mega-olistoliths of Jurassic materials and locally by radiolarite layers. Geochemical analysis of several basalt and gabbro samples belonging to the Mesorif Zone evidenced that both display a typical E-MORB magma indicating at least partial oceanization of the Mesorif basement. Concerning geodynamics, the Mesorif Zone had undergone, at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary interval, two successive palaeogeographic phases: an uplift, close to emersion during the Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian interval, stressed by important submarine volcanic activities and intense brecciation of the carbonate formations, followed by a general collapse at the Late Tithonian, underlined by lava flows, slumping as mega-olistoliths and the formation of an oceanic crust, at least in the Central Rif. These magmatic materials, distributed on both sides of the Ouerrha Valley, evidence that this westwards extending valley (the Nekor Accident), may correspond in the Central Rif, to two palaeo-subduction planes which become two major overlapping thrusts in the western part of the Rif Mountains. (Author)

  8. Effective testing for pulmonary tuberculosis using Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool specimens in immunocompetent Pakistani children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool-based diagnosis of pulmonary TB in immunocompetent children is useful in a resource poor setting. This is a valuable and noninvasive diagnostic alternative for the diagnosis of childhood TB and can be adapted by pediatric arms of national TB programs.

  9. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Elizabeth M; Novak-Weekley, Susan M; Cumpio, Joven; Sharp, Susan E; Momeny, Michelle A; Babst, Anna; Carlson, Jonathan S; Kawamura, Masae; Pandori, Mark

    2011-04-01

    A total of 217 specimens submitted for routine smear and culture from three different sites within the western United States were used to evaluate the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (for research use only) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Overall agreement compared to culture was 89% (98% for smear positives and 72% for smear negatives) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  10. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF Assay for Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Respiratory Specimens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Elizabeth M.; Novak-Weekley, Susan M.; Cumpio, Joven; Sharp, Susan E.; Momeny, Michelle A.; Babst, Anna; Carlson, Jonathan S.; Kawamura, Masae; Pandori, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A total of 217 specimens submitted for routine smear and culture from three different sites within the western United States were used to evaluate the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (for research use only) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Overall agreement compared to culture was 89% (98% for smear positives and 72% for smear negatives) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:21289151

  11. The Al Hoceima earthquake sequence of 1994, 2004 and 2016: Stress transfer and poroelasticity in the Rif and Alboran Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariche, J.; Meghraoui, M.; Timoulali, Y.; Cetin, E.; Toussaint, R.

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 January 25 earthquake (Mw 6.3) follows in sequence from the1994 May 26 earthquake (Mw 6.0) and the 2004 February 24 earthquake (Mw 6.4) in the Rif Mountains and Alboran Sea. The earlier two seismic events which were destructive took place on inland conjugate faults, and the third event occurred on an offshore fault. These earthquake sequences occurred within a period of 22 yr at ˜25 km distance and 11-16-km depth. The three events have similar strike-slip focal mechanism solutions with NNE-SSW trending left-lateral faulting for the 1994 and 2016 events and NW-SE trending right-lateral faulting for the 2004 event. This shallow seismic sequence offers the possibility (i) to model the change in Coulomb Failure Function (ΔCFF with low μ΄ including the pore pressure change) and understand fault-rupture interaction, and (ii) to analyse the effect of pore fluid on the rupture mechanism, and infer the clock-time advance. The variation of static stress change has a direct impact on the main shock, aftershocks and related positive lobes of the 2004 earthquake rupture with a stress change increase of 0.7-1.1 bar. Similarly, the 2004 main shock and aftershocks indicate loading zones with a stress change (>0.25 bar) that includes the 2016 earthquake rupture. The tectonic loading of 19-24 nanostrain yr-1 obtained from the seismicity catalogue of Morocco is comparable to the 5.0 × 1017 N.m yr-1 seismic strain release in the Rif Mountains. The seismic sequence is apparently controlled by the poroelastic properties of the seismogenic layer that depend on the undrained and drained fluid conditions. The short interseismic period between main shocks and higher rate of aftershocks with relatively large magnitudes (4 stress-rate ranges between 461 and 582 Pa yr-1 with a ΔCFF of 0.2-1.1 bar. The computed clock-time advance reaches 239 ± 22 yr in agreement with the ˜10 yr delay between main shocks. The calculated static stress change of 0.9-1.3 bar, under pore

  12. Performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH resistance assay when used to test Mycobacterium tuberculosis specimens from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostera J

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua Kostera, Gregor Leckie, Klara Abravaya, Hong Wang Abbott Molecular, Abbott Laboratories, Des Plaines, IL, USA Introduction: The Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance Assay (RT MTB RIF/INH is an assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF- and/or isoniazid (INH-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. The assay can be used to test sputum, bronchial alveolar lavage, and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NALC/NaOH pellets prepared from these samples. The assay can be used in direct testing mode, or in reflex mode following a MTB positive result produced by its companion assay, Abbott RT MTB. Methods: In this study, the direct testing mode was used to test paired sputum and NALC/NaOH pellets prepared from sputum collected from Bangladesh TB patients. One hundred and thirty two paired samples were tested. Results: The RT MTB RIF/INH inhibition rate was 0%. One hundred and twenty-two paired samples had results above the assay limit of detection and were analyzed by comparing with results from phenotypic drug sensitivity testing, GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert, and MTBDR plus (Hain. RT MTB RIF/INH results were in good agreement with those of GeneXpert and Hain. Conclusion: The ability of this assay to detect RIF and INH resistance may contribute to the global control of multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Keywords: tuberculosis, rifampicin, isoniazid, resistance

  13. Xpert(®) MTB/RIF for improved case detection of extra-pulmonary TB in a tertiary care setting in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, G; Kanade, S; Mehta, P

    2016-07-01

    Department of microbiology at a tertiary care hospital, Mumbai, India. To determine 1) the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay in comparison with microscopy and culture in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), and 2) the number of additional cases of EPTB and rifampicin (RMP) resistance detected using this assay. The study was conducted from July 2013 to April 2015. All consecutive patients with clinically suspected EPTB referred for microscopic examination to the Department of Microbiology that were sufficient in specimen volume were included in the study. Of the 728 specimens included in the study, respectively 5.5%, 23.5% and 20.9% were positive on smear, culture and Xpert. Compared to culture, Xpert had a sensitivity of 84.2% (95%CI 81.4-86.6) and specificity of 98.2% (95%CI 90-104). All specimens with high and medium load on assay were positive on culture; 28 (18.4%) specimens were RMP-resistant and 124 (81.6%) were Xpert-susceptible. No additional RMP-resistant cases were detected using Xpert as compared to phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The ability of the Xpert assay to rapidly detect a significantly greater number of bacteriologically confirmed EPTB cases, including RMP-resistant cases, makes it an important diagnostic tool in a TB-endemic country.

  14. Patterns of cross-sensitivity in the responses of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to selected nitrosoureas and nitrogen mustards.

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, J. G.; Wright, K. A.; Workman, P.

    1984-01-01

    The response of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan treatment is independent of cell ploidy, whereas a clear relationship exists between ploidy and cell sensitivity to CCNU treatment. In the present study RIF-1 clones have been exposed to nitrogen mustard, aniline mustard and chlorambucil, and to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, in order to evaluate whether or not the different physiochemical and biological activities of these agents would affe...

  15. Patterns of cross-sensitivity in the responses of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to selected nitrosoureas and nitrogen mustards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, J. G.; Wright, K. A.; Workman, P.

    1984-01-01

    The response of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan treatment is independent of cell ploidy, whereas a clear relationship exists between ploidy and cell sensitivity to CCNU treatment. In the present study RIF-1 clones have been exposed to nitrogen mustard, aniline mustard and chlorambucil, and to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, in order to evaluate whether or not the different physiochemical and biological activities of these agents would affect the patterns of drug sensitivity obtained for melphalan and CCNU. Irrespective of the different lipophilicities, transport properties and chemical reactivities of the nitrogen mustards, RIF-1 clones showed the same pattern of sensitivity as previously observed for melphalan. Similarly, RIF-1 clones when exposed to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, showed the same pattern of sensitivity as that obtained for CCNU exposure. These data suggest (a) that the variation in the sensitivity of RIF-1 clones to treatment by the nitrogen mustards is unlikely to reflect differences in either membrane permeability or in drug transport and (b) that the ploidy dependent nitrosourea responses shown by RIF-1 clones similarly do not reflect differences in drug uptake. PMID:6466534

  16. Neurotrophin Promotes Neurite Outgrowth by Inhibiting Rif GTPase Activation Downstream of MAPKs and PI3K Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxia; Yan, Huijuan; Li, Jiayi; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Junyu; Fan, Lifei

    2017-01-13

    Members of the well-known semaphorin family of proteins can induce both repulsive and attractive signaling in neural network formation and their cytoskeletal effects are mediated in part by small guanosine 5'-triphosphatase (GTPases). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular role of Rif GTPase in the neurotrophin-induced neurite outgrowth. By using PC12 cells which are known to cease dividing and begin to show neurite outgrowth responding to nerve growth factor (NGF), we found that semaphorin 6A was as effective as nerve growth factor at stimulating neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and that its neurotrophic effect was transmitted through signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). We further found that neurotrophin-induced neurite formation in PC12 cells could be partially mediated by inhibition of Rif GTPase activity downstream of MAPKs and PI3K signaling. In conclusion, we newly identified Rif as a regulator of the cytoskeletal rearrangement mediated by semaphorins.

  17. Microprocessor-controlled Nd:YAG laser for hyperthermia induction in the RIF-1 tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldow, S M; Russell, G E; Wallner, P E

    1992-01-01

    Near-infrared radiation from a Nd:YAG laser at 1,064 nm was used interstitially or superficially to induce hyperthermia in RIF-1 tumors in C3H male mice. A single 600-microns quartz fiber with a 0.5-cm cylindrical diffusor or a weakly diverging microlens at its distal end was used to deliver laser energy to tumors in the hind leg (mean volume = 100 mm3). Two thermocouples were inserted into each tumor. One thermocouple controlled a microprocessor-driven hyperthermia program (maximum output of 3.5 Watts) to maintain the desired temperature. Tumors were exposed to various temperature-time combinations (42-45 degrees C/30 min). Our initial results indicated that excellent temperature control to within 0.2 degrees C of the desired temperature at the feedback thermocouple was achievable during both superficial and interstitial heat treatments. Temperatures at the second thermocouple, however, were found to be lower by as much as 2.3 degrees C (using the cylindrical diffusor) or higher by up to 4.6 degrees C (using the microlens) when compared to the feedback thermocouple temperature. Several correlations were seen between total dose, tumor growth delay, percent skin necrosis, and temperature at the second thermocouple after several superficial and interstitial treatments. Statistically significant improvements in tumor growth delay (at 42 and 45 degrees C) and increased percent skin necrosis at all temperatures were observed after superficial versus interstitial treatment.

  18. A military officer in Rif: Jesús Jiménez Ortoneda (1911-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Villanova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses original and for the most part unpublished documentation in order to examine the career of Jesús Jiménez Ortoneda, a highly successful career officer who served in the Spanish Protectorate of Morocco between 1907 and 1936. He occupied important positions in the political administration of the Protectorate (as director of the political section of Melilla’s Oficina Central de Intervenciones and a senior official in the Department of Indigenous Affairs; he was fluent in Arab and Tamazight, and gained a sound knowledge of the geography of the Rif mountains. His military career, in which he achieved the rank of lieutenant colonel, was characterized by his strictly professional attitude. He was one of the few career officers in Africa who were faithful to Spain’s republican government and who did not participate in the military uprising of 1936. This discussion of his career brings into question some well-established ideas concerning Spanish colonial policy in Morocco.

  19. Reduced blood flow increases the in vivo ammonium ion concentration in the RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinidis, Ioannis; Gamcsik, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that pooling of ammonium in tumor tissues may be caused by its inefficient removal due to the poor vasculature commonly found in tumors. The purpose of these experiments was to validate the relationship between tumor ammonium ion concentration and tumor blood flow, and to determine whether large concentrations of ammonium ion detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are either produced within the tumor or simply imported into the tumor through the blood stream. Methods and Materials: To test this hypothesis, we reduced blood flow in subcutaneously grown Radiation Induced Fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) tumors, either by creating partial ischemia with a bolus injection of hydralazine or by occlusion with surgical sutures. 14 N and 31 P NMR spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of ammonium, and to assess the bioenergetic status of the tumors, respectively. Results: A correlation between ammonium ion concentration and (PCr(P i )) ratio was established for untreated tumors. An increase in the in vivo tumor ammonium ion concentration was observed for every tumor that experienced a reduction in blood flow caused by either hydralazine injection or suture ligation. Changes in ammonium ion concentration paralleled changes in the bioenergetics of hydralazine-treated tumors. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that a reduction in tumor blood flow is responsible for the accumulation of ammonium in tumors, and that detected ammonium originated from within the tumor

  20. Radiation induction of drug resistance in RIF-1 tumors and tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, L.E.; Moulder, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The RIF-1 tumor cell line contains a small number of cells (1-20 per 10(6) cells) that are resistant to various single antineoplastic drugs, including 5-fluorouracil (5FU), methotrexate (MTX), and adriamycin (ADR). For 5FU the frequency of drug resistance is lower for tumor-derived cells than for cells from cell culture; for MTX the reverse is true, and for ADR there is no difference. In vitro irradiation at 5 Gy significantly increased the frequency of drug-resistant cells for 5FU, MTX, and ADR. In vivo irradiation at 3 Gy significantly increased the frequency of drug-resistant cells for 5FU and MTX, but not for ADR. The absolute risk for in vitro induction of MTX, 5FU, and ADR resistance, and for in vivo induction of 5FU resistance, was 1-3 per 10(6) cells per Gy; but the absolute risk for in vivo induction of MTX resistance was 54 per 10(6) cells per Gy. The frequency of drug-resistant cells among individual untreated tumors was highly variable; among individual irradiated tumors the frequency of drug-resistant cells was significantly less variable. These studies provide supporting data for models of the development of tumor drug resistance, and imply that some of the drug resistance seen when chemotherapy follows radiotherapy may be due to radiation-induced drug resistance

  1. Preparation, characterization, drug release and computational modelling studies of antibiotics loaded amorphous chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, N K; Aparna, V; Maya, S; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R; Mohan, C Gopi

    2017-12-01

    We present a computational investigation of binding affinity of different types of drugs with chitin nanocarriers. Understanding the chitn polymer-drug interaction is important to design and optimize the chitin based drug delivery systems. The binding affinity of three different types of anti-bacterial drugs Ethionamide (ETA) Methacycline (MET) and Rifampicin (RIF) with amorphous chitin nanoparticles (AC-NPs) were studied by integrating computational and experimental techniques. The binding energies (BE) of hydrophobic ETA, hydrophilic MET and hydrophobic RIF were -7.3kcal/mol, -5.1kcal/mol and -8.1kcal/mol respectively, with respect to AC-NPs, using molecular docking studies. This theoretical result was in good correlation with the experimental studies of AC-drug loading and drug entrapment efficiencies of MET (3.5±0.1 and 25± 2%), ETA (5.6±0.02 and 45±4%) and RIF (8.9±0.20 and 53±5%) drugs respectively. Stability studies of the drug encapsulated nanoparticles showed stable values of size, zeta and polydispersity index at 6°C temperature. The correlation between computational BE and experimental drug entrapment efficiencies of RIF, ETA and MET drugs with four AC-NPs strands were 0.999 respectively, while that of the drug loading efficiencies were 0.854 respectively. Further, the molecular docking results predict the atomic level details derived from the electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions of the drug and nanoparticle for its encapsulation and loading in the chitin-based host-guest nanosystems. The present results thus revealed the drug loading and drug delivery insights and has the potential of reducing the time and cost of processing new antibiotic drug delivery nanosystem optimization, development and discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microscopic observation drug-susceptibility assay vs. Xpert® MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a rural African setting: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman-Jorgensen, Philip E; Llenas-García, Jara; Pérez-Porcuna, Tomàs M; Hobbins, Michael; Ehmer, Jochen; Mussa, Manuel A; Ascaso, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    To compare the cost-utility of microscopic observation drug-susceptibility assay (MODS) and Xpert ® MTB/RIF implementation for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in rural northern Mozambique. Stochastic transmission compartmental TB model from the healthcare provider perspective with parameter input from direct measurements, systematic literature reviews and expert opinion. MODS and Xpert ® MTB/RIF were evaluated as replacement test of smear microscopy (SM) or as an add-on test after a negative SM. Costs were calculated in 2013 USD, effects in disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Willingness to pay threshold (WPT) was established at once the per capita Gross National Income of Mozambique. MODS as an add-on test to negative SM produced an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 5647.89USD/DALY averted. MODS as a substitute for SM yielded an ICER of 5374.58USD/DALY averted. Xpert ® MTB/RIF as an add-on test to negative SM yielded ICER of 345.71USD/DALY averted. Xpert ® MTB/RIF as a substitute for SM obtained an ICER of 122.13USD/DALY averted. TB prevalence and risk of infection were the main factors impacting MODS and Xpert ® MTB/RIF ICER in the one-way sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, Xpert ® MTB/RIF was most likely to have an ICER below the WPT, whereas MODS was not. Our cost-utility analysis favours the implementation of Xpert ® MTB/RIF as a replacement of SM for all TB suspects in this rural high TB/HIV prevalence African setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The New Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra: Improving Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Resistance to Rifampin in an Assay Suitable for Point-of-Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Simmons, Ann Marie; Rowneki, Mazhgan; Parmar, Heta; Cao, Yuan; Ryan, Jamie; Banada, Padmapriya P; Deshpande, Srinidhi; Shenai, Shubhada; Gall, Alexander; Glass, Jennifer; Krieswirth, Barry; Schumacher, Samuel G; Nabeta, Pamela; Tukvadze, Nestani; Rodrigues, Camilla; Skrahina, Alena; Tagliani, Elisa; Cirillo, Daniela M; Davidow, Amy; Denkinger, Claudia M; Persing, David; Kwiatkowski, Robert; Jones, Martin; Alland, David

    2017-08-29

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) is a rapid test for tuberculosis (TB) and rifampin resistance (RIF-R) suitable for point-of-care testing. However, it has decreased sensitivity in smear-negative sputum, and false identification of RIF-R occasionally occurs. We developed the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay (Ultra) to improve performance. Ultra and Xpert limits of detection (LOD), dynamic ranges, and RIF-R rpoB mutation detection were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA or sputum samples spiked with known numbers of M. tuberculosis H37Rv or Mycobacterium bovis BCG CFU. Frozen and prospectively collected clinical samples from patients suspected of having TB, with and without culture-confirmed TB, were also tested. For M. tuberculosis H37Rv, the LOD was 15.6 CFU/ml of sputum for Ultra versus 112.6 CFU/ml of sputum for Xpert, and for M. bovis BCG, it was 143.4 CFU/ml of sputum for Ultra versus 344 CFU/ml of sputum for Xpert. Ultra resulted in no false-positive RIF-R specimens, while Xpert resulted in two false-positive RIF-R specimens. All RIF-R-associated M. tuberculosis rpoB mutations tested were identified by Ultra. Testing on clinical sputum samples, Ultra versus Xpert, resulted in an overall sensitivity of 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.1, 91.7) versus 81.0% (95% CI, 74.9, 86.2) and a sensitivity on sputum smear-negative samples of 78.9% (95% CI, 70.0, 86.1) versus 66.1% (95% CI, 56.4, 74.9). Both tests had a specificity of 98.7% (95% CI, 93.0, 100), and both had comparable accuracies for detection of RIF-R in these samples. Ultra should significantly improve TB detection, especially in patients with paucibacillary disease, and may provide more-reliable RIF-R detection. IMPORTANCE The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert), the first point-of-care assay for tuberculosis (TB), was endorsed by the World Health Organization in December 2010. Since then, 23 million Xpert tests have been procured in 130 countries. Although Xpert showed high overall sensitivity and

  4. The Effects of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting (RIF) on Spirometric Data of Stable COPD Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Hajer; Latiri, Imed; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Boussarsar, Mohamed; Benzarti, Mohamed; Abdelghani, Ahmed; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2018-03-01

    No previous study has raised the effects of RIF on lung function data of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of RIF on spirometric data measured in male patients with a stable COPD. Sixteen patients with stable COPD (mean ± SD of age: 64 ± 7 years) who fasted during Ramadan volunteered to the study. Three sessions (Before-R, End-R, and After-R) were selected for spirometry tests that were consistently performed 2.5-4.5 hr before fasting break. Assessment sessions comprised: forced vital capacity (FVC), 1st s forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 ), FEV 1 /FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), and forced expiratory flow rate at the x% of FVC to be exhaled (FEFx%). A reversibility test was performed only during the Before-Ramadan session. Spirometric data were expressed in percentages of local reference values. Findings were analyzed by applying repeated measures analysis of variance. The mean ± SD of the postbronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC ratio and the FEV 1 were, respectively, 0.52 ± 0.14 and 48 ± 19%. The mean ± SD of FEV 1 (Before-R: 47 ± 19, End-R: 45 ± 18, After-R: 44 ± 19%), FVC (Before-R: 73 ± 18, End-R: 71 ± 16, After-R: 69 ± 17%), FEV 1 /FVC (Before-R: 67 ± 16, End-R: 66 ± 16, After-R: 65 ± 16%), PEF (Before-R: 46 ± 19, End-R: 47 ± 22, After-R: 45 ± 21%), MMEF (Before-R: 19 ± 10, End-R: 18 ± 8, After-R: 18 ± 9%), FEF 25% (Before-R: 16 ± 6, End-R: 16 ± 5, After-R: 15 ± 5%), FEF 50% (Before-R: 21 ± 14, End-R: 20 ± 12, After-R: 20 ± 12%) and FEF 75% (Before-R: 27 ± 19, End-R: 27 ± 19, After-R: 27 ± 19%) were not significantly influenced by RIF. RIF did not bring about any significant changes in the spirometric data of stable COPD male patients fasting the 2016 holy month of Ramadan.

  5. Study of relief changes related to active doming in the eastern Moroccan Rif (Morocco) using geomorphological indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcos, L.; Jabaloy, A.; Azdimousa, A.; Asebriy, L.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Rodríguez-Peces, M. J.; Tejero, R.; Pérez-Peña, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    This work studies the influence of active tectonics in the drainage networks and topography of the eastern Rif belt, eastern Middle Atlas, and Rekkame high plateau. We have performed a trend-topographic surface analysis at small to medium scales, several landscape analyses at medium scale, and the slope analysis of the relief. Furthermore, we have determined several geomorphic indices in the drainage networks of the study area: hypsometric curve analysis and normalised stream-length gradient (SLk) estimations. The trend-topography surface analysis identifies a NE-SW trending undulation that correspond to the positive topography of the Middle and High Atlas mountain ranges and the Rekkame high plateau as well as an E-W elongated dome in the eastern Rif-Beni Snassen massif. The geomorphologic indices indicate that drainage network is strongly deformed in the vicinity of the Trougout-Nekor active fault system. Furthermore, the Oued Molouya catchment is deformed in the northern limit of the Beni Snassen massif by active deformations accommodating a roughly N-S shortening. According to the available geochronological data from volcanic rocks as well as from Neogene to Quaternary sediments, the most likely age for the deformation of the drainage network producing the anomalous high geomorphic indexes was Placenzian to Present.

  6. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehme, Catharina C.; Nicol, Mark P.; Nabeta, Pamela; Michael, Joy S.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Tahirli, Rasim; Gler, Ma Tarcela; Blakemore, Robert; Worodria, William; Gray, Christen; Huang, Laurence; Caceres, Tatiana; Mehdiyev, Rafail; Raymond, Lawrence; Whitelaw, Andrew; Sagadevan, Kalaiselvan; Alexander, Heather; Albert, Heidi; Cobelens, Frank; Cox, Helen; Alland, David; Perkins, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) can detect tuberculosis and its multidrug-resistant form with very high sensitivity and specificity in controlled studies, but no performance data exist from district and subdistrict health facilities in tuberculosis-endemic countries. We aimed to

  7. Reversal of DDK-Mediated MCM Phosphorylation by Rif1-PP1 Regulates Replication Initiation and Replisome Stability Independently of ATR/Chk1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Robert C; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Gillespie, Peter J; Blow, J Julian

    2017-03-07

    Dbf4-dependent kinases (DDKs) are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their essential targets being the MCM2-7 proteins. We show that, in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and human cells, hyper-phosphorylation of DNA-bound Mcm4, but not phosphorylation of Mcm2, correlates with DNA replication. These phosphorylations are differentially affected by the DDK inhibitors PHA-767491 and XL413. We show that DDK-dependent MCM phosphorylation is reversed by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeted to chromatin by Rif1. Loss of Rif1 increased MCM phosphorylation and the rate of replication initiation and also compromised the ability of cells to block initiation when challenged with replication inhibitors. We also provide evidence that Rif1 can mediate MCM dephosphorylation at replication forks and that the stability of dephosphorylated replisomes strongly depends on Chk1 activity. We propose that both replication initiation and replisome stability depend on MCM phosphorylation, which is maintained by a balance of DDK-dependent phosphorylation and Rif1-mediated dephosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A random set scoring model for prioritization of disease candidate genes using protein complexes and data-mining of GeneRIF, OMIM and PubMed records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Li; Edwards, Stefan M.; Thomsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    from PubMed abstracts, OMIM, and GeneRIF records. We also investigated the validity of several vocabulary filters and different likelihood thresholds for predicted protein-protein interactions in terms of their effect on the network-based gene-prioritization approach, which relies on text...

  9. Scaling-up the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in India: An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaparde, Sunil; Raizada, Neeraj; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Denkinger, Claudia; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu Nainarappan; Salhotra, Virender Singh; Vassall, Anna; van 't Hoog, Anja

    2017-01-01

    India is considering the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance. We conducted an economic analysis to estimate the costs of different strategies of Xpert implementation in India. Using a decision analytical model, we compared four diagnostic

  10. Evaluation of the geneXpert MTB/RIF assay for early diagnosis of tuberculosis and detection of rifampicin resistance in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Albay

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: GeneXpert MTB / RIF test is an effectual automated molecular diagnostic technique with its successful and reliable performance in early diagnosis of tuberculosis and detecting multi-drug resistant strains. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 548-553

  11. Catching the missing million: experiences in enhancing TB & DR-TB detection by providing upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing for people living with HIV in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in providing TB care to People Living with HIV (PLHIV is establishing an accurate bacteriological diagnosis. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents results from PLHIV taking part in a large demonstration study across India wherein upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each TU. All HIV-infected patients suspected of TB (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and provided upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing.2,787 HIV-infected presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled and 867 (31.1%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 29.4‒32.8 HIV-infected TB cases were diagnosed under the study. Overall 27.6% (CI 25.9-29.3 of HIV-infected presumptive PTB cases were positive by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 12.9% (CI 11.6-14.1 who had positive sputum smears. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 73 (9.5%, CI 7.6‒11.8 and 16 (11.2%, CI 6.7‒17.1 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high 97.7% (CI 89.3‒99.8, with no significant difference with or without prior history of TB treatment.The study results strongly demonstrate limitations of using smear microscopy for TB diagnosis in PLHIV, leading to low TB and DR-TB detection which can potentially lead to either delayed or sub-optimal TB treatment. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness and feasibility of addressing this diagnostic gap with upfront of Xpert MTB/RIF testing, leading to overall strengthening of care and support package for PLHIV.

  12. Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance, an assay for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostera, Joshua; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning; Lampinen, John; Szostak, Magdalena; Abravaya, Klara; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Clinical management of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients continues to present significant challenges to global health. To tackle these challenges, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was developed to accelerate the diagnosis of rifampicin and/or isoniazid resistant tuberculosis to within a day. This article summarizes the performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay; including reliability, analytical sensitivity, and clinical sensitivity/specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF version 1.0 and Hain MTBDRplus version 2.0. The limit of detection (LOD) of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was determined to be 32 colony forming units/milliliter (cfu/mL) using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain H37Rv cell line. For rifampicin resistance detection, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For isoniazid resistance detection, the assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Hain MTBDRplus. The performance data presented herein demonstrate that the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay is a sensitive, robust, and reliable test for realtime simultaneous detection of first line anti-tuberculosis antibiotics rifampicin and isoniazid in patient specimens. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Feasibility of measuring radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks and their repair by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in freshly isolated cells from the mouse RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waarde, Maria A.W.H. van; Assen, Annette J. van; Konings, Antonius W.T.; Kampinga, Harm H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the technical feasibility of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) as a predictive assay for the radio responsiveness of tumors. Induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in a freshly prepared cell suspension from a RIF-1 tumor (irradiated ex vivo) was compared with DSB induction and repair in exponentially growing RIF-1 cells in culture (irradiated in vitro). Methods and Materials: A murine RIF-1 tumor grown in vivo was digested, and cells were exposed to x-rays (ex vivo) at doses of 1 to 75 Gy. DNA damage was measured using CHEF (clamped homogeneous electric fields) electrophoresis. Repair kinetics were studied at 37 deg. C for 4 h after irradiation. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay, and cell cycle distributions by flow cytometry. For comparison, a trypsinized suspension of exponentially growing RIF-1 cells in vitro was run parallel with each ex vivo experiment. Results: Induction of DSBs, expressed as % DNA extracted from the plug, was similar in the in vitro and ex vivo irradiated cells. Compared to repair rates in in vitro cultured RIF-1 cells, repair kinetics in a freshly prepared cell suspension from the tumor were decreased, unrelated to differences in radiosensitivity. Differences in repair could not be explained by endogenous DNA degradation, nor by influences of enzymes used for digestion of the tumor. A lower plating efficiency and differences in ploidy (as revealed by flow cytometry) were the only reproducible differences between in vivo and in vitro grown cells that may explain the differences in repair kinetics. Conclusions: The current results do not support the idea that PFGE is a technique robust enough to be a predictive assay for the radiosensitivity of tumor cells

  14. A comparison between the efficiency of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and nested PCR in identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis during routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Hong; Woo, Heungjeong; Hyun, In Gyu; Kim, Changhwan; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Jang, Seung-Hun; Park, Sang Myeon; Kim, Dong-Gyu; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Hyun, Jeongwon; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is more sensitive, specific, and rapid than the conventional methods of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture. The aim of this study was to determine if the Xpert MTB/rifampicin (RIF) assay had additional advantages over nested PCR for the detection of MTB in a geographical area with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Between February and December 2013, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR, as well as AFB smear and culture, were simultaneously performed on 198 clinical samples (160 pulmonary and 38 non-pulmonary specimens) collected from 171 patients hospitalized at Hallym University Medical Center for possible TB. The accuracy of the diagnosis of MTB culture-positive TB and the turnaround time of reporting laboratory results were calculated and compared. Rifampin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay was reviewed with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR for diagnosis of MTB culture-positive pulmonary TB were 86.1% vs. 69.4% (P=0.1563), 97.8% vs. 94.1% (P=0.2173), 91.2% vs. 75.8% (P=0.1695), and 96.4% vs. 92.0% (P=0.2032), respectively. The median turnaround times of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR were 0 [0-4] days and 4 [1-11] days, respectively (Pnested PCR for identifying MTB among clinically suspected TB patients, and the assay can be valuable in giving a timely identification of resistance to rifampin.

  15. La conspiración turco-comunista: espías, contrabandistas e instructores en el Rif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Macías Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Moroccan Wars (1909-1927, specially one of them, the Rif War (1921-1927, also called the Second Moroccan War, was a tough and hard mission put in charge of the most operational and ambitious section within the early twentieth-century Spanish army. According to the international treaties, the Spanish task in northern Morocco was bringing peace to the area, but the troubles and obstacles to accomplish it were so huge that the intelligence branch of the army ultimately resorted to foreign sources of information. Secret agents, informants and counter-espionage nets attached to the Spanish Protectorate of Morocco administration or to the Spanish foreign legations all over the world produced tons of documents which amount shows how important was that activity. Many soldiers warned about foreign plots in the Spanish Protectorate and deliveries of war supplies to the native rebel militias.

  16. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  17. A prospective study of the prevalence of tuberculosis and bacteraemia in Bangladeshi children with severe malnutrition and pneumonia including an evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain.We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital.405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4% children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396 of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16% additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24-94 and 92% (95% CI: 87-95 respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital.TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes.

  18. Higher cost of implementing Xpert(®) MTB/RIF in Ugandan peripheral settings: implications for cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, E; Little, K M; Haguma, P; Hanrahan, C F; Katamba, A; Cattamanchi, A; Davis, J L; Vassall, A; Dowdy, D

    2016-09-01

    Initial cost-effectiveness evaluations of Xpert(®) MTB/RIF for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis have not fully accounted for the realities of implementation in peripheral settings. To evaluate costs and diagnostic outcomes of Xpert testing implemented at various health care levels in Uganda. We collected empirical cost data from five health centers utilizing Xpert for TB diagnosis, using an ingredients approach. We reviewed laboratory and patient records to assess outcomes at these sites and10 sites without Xpert. We also estimated incremental cost-effectiveness of Xpert testing; our primary outcome was the incremental cost of Xpert testing per newly detected TB case. The mean unit cost of an Xpert test was US$21 based on a mean monthly volume of 54 tests per site, although unit cost varied widely (US$16-58) and was primarily determined by testing volume. Total diagnostic costs were 2.4-fold higher in Xpert clinics than in non-Xpert clinics; however, Xpert only increased diagnoses by 12%. The diagnostic costs of Xpert averaged US$119 per newly detected TB case, but were as high as US$885 at the center with the lowest volume of tests. Xpert testing can detect TB cases at reasonable cost, but may double diagnostic budgets for relatively small gains, with cost-effectiveness deteriorating with lower testing volumes.

  19. Drug resistance following irradiation of RIF-1 tumors: Influence of the interval between irradiation and drug treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, L.E.; Davies, B.M.; Moulder, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    RIF-1 tumors contain a small number of cells (1 to 100 per 10(6) cells) that are resistant to 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, or adriamycin. The frequency of drug-resistant cells among individual untreated tumors is highly variable. Radiation, delivered in vivo at doses of 3 to 12 Gy, increases the frequency of methotrexate- and 5-fluorouracil-resistant cells, but not the frequency of adriamycin-resistant cells. The magnitude of induction of 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate resistance shows a complex dependence on the radiation dose and on the interval between irradiation and assessment of drug resistance. For a dose of 3 Gy, induced 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate resistance is seen only after an interval of 5 to 7 days, whereas for a dose of 12 Gy, high levels of induced resistance are observed 1 to 3 days after irradiation. The maximum absolute risk for induction of resistance is 4 per 10(4) cells per Gy for methotrexate, and 3 per 10(6) cells per Gy for 5-fluorouracil. These results indicate that tumor hypoxia may play a role in the increased levels of drug resistance seen after irradiation, and that both genetic and environmental factors may influence radiation-induction of drug resistance. These studies provide essential data for models of the development of tumor drug resistance, and imply that some of the drug resistance seen when chemotherapy follows radiotherapy may be caused by radiation-induced drug resistance

  20. Preparation and Loading with Rifampicin of Sub-50 nm Poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate Nanoparticles by Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate (PECA nanoparticles by semicontinuous heterophase polymerization carried out at monomer starved conditions at three monomer addition rates. Particles in the nanometer range were obtained, the size of which diminishes with decreasing monomer addition rate as shown by the fact that particles with mean diameters of ca. 42 and 30 nm were obtained at the faster and intermediate dosing rates, respectively, whereas two populations of particles, one of 15.5 and the other of 36 nm in mean diameters, were produced at the slower dosing rate. The obtained molecular weights were from 2,200 to 3,500 g/mol, depending on the addition rate, which are typical of the anionic polymerizations of cyanoacrylates in aqueous dispersions at low pHs. The rifampicin (RIF loading into the nanoparticles was successful since the entire drug added was incorporated. The drug release study carried out at pH of 7.2 indicated a faster release from the free RIF at intermediate and larger release times as expected since, in the nanoparticles, first the drug has to diffuse through the nanoparticle structure. The comparison of several drug release models indicates that the RIF release from PECA nanoparticles follows that of Higuchi.

  1. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  2. Evidence of oceanic units in the core of the External Rif (Morocco): intramargin hiatus or South-Tethyan remnants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaggagh, Mohamed; Mokhtari, Abdelkhader; El Maz, Abdelkhader; Rossi, Philippe; Michard, André; Saddiqi, Omar; Chalouan, Ahmed; Rjimati, Ech-Cherki

    2013-04-01

    Our work is based on extensive field campaigns in the central area of the External Rif Belt and on petrological-geochemical study of the magmatic samples. The aim is to disclose the westward extension of the Mesorif suture zone evidenced in the Temsamane zone of eastern Rif (Michard et al., 2007). We first describe Jurassic-Early Cretaceous sections involving basaltic rocks, spread along the 200 km-long, arcuate Prerif-Mesorif boundary zone west of the Temsamane massif. These sections are thoroughly dated by ammonites and calpionelles from the late Oxfordian to late Berriasian (Benzaggagh, 2011). They display varied traces of submarine, basic volcanism such as volcanoclastic complexes within Upper Berriasian marls, and basalt flows, olistoliths and clasts in the upper Oxfordian-lower Berriasian clayey breccias or in the lower Tithonian brecciated calcareous beds. Volcanic activity took place at the margin of a carbonate platform during the Kimmeridgian-early Tithonian interval, then in a pelagic basin from late Tithonian onward. Petrographic and geochemical studies point to E-MORB basaltic magmas (Rossi, in Benzaggah, 2011), thus testifying for strong crustal thinning in this part of the African paleomargin. Strong support to this inference is found in the occurrence of two small tectonic units of gabbros associated with basalt flows, fault-scarp breccias and radiolarites. A preliminary study of the gabbros reveals that, in thin section, many petrographic types display ortho- to heteradcumulate texture. The typical sequence of cristallization is plag-ol-cpx-ilm and the composition ranges from troctolitic olivine gabbro [An 66-60; Fo 73-71 & 68; cpx Wo 46, En 44, Fs 10 with content in Cr2O3 up to 1%]) to ferrogabbro [(An 50-45); Fo 53; cpx Wo 44, En 40, Fs 16]). Plot of these rocks onto an AFM projection fall on the cumulative composition field along the FM joint and TR patterns display systematic Eu positive anomaly characterizing cumulative plagioclase. Some more

  3. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance: a prospective multicentre diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Susan E; Schumacher, Samuel G; Alland, David; Nabeta, Pamela; Armstrong, Derek T; King, Bonnie; Hall, Sandra L; Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Cirillo, Daniela M; Tukvadze, Nestani; Bablishvili, Nino; Stevens, Wendy; Scott, Lesley; Rodrigues, Camilla; Kazi, Mubin I; Joloba, Moses; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Nicol, Mark P; Ghebrekristos, Yonas; Anyango, Irene; Murithi, Wilfred; Dietze, Reynaldo; Lyrio Peres, Renata; Skrahina, Alena; Auchynka, Vera; Chopra, Kamal Kishore; Hanif, Mahmud; Liu, Xin; Yuan, Xing; Boehme, Catharina C; Ellner, Jerrold J; Denkinger, Claudia M

    2018-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that has improved the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, but its sensitivity is inadequate in patients with paucibacillary disease or HIV. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) was developed to overcome this limitation. We compared the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra with that of Xpert for detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. In this prospective, multicentre, diagnostic accuracy study, we recruited adults with pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms presenting at primary health-care centres and hospitals in eight countries (South Africa, Uganda, Kenya, India, China, Georgia, Belarus, and Brazil). Participants were allocated to the case detection group if no drugs had been taken for tuberculosis in the past 6 months or to the multidrug-resistance risk group if drugs for tuberculosis had been taken in the past 6 months, but drug resistance was suspected. Demographic information, medical history, chest imaging results, and HIV test results were recorded at enrolment, and each participant gave at least three sputum specimen on 2 separate days. Xpert and Xpert Ultra diagnostic performance in the same sputum specimen was compared with culture tests and drug susceptibility testing as reference standards. The primary objectives were to estimate and compare the sensitivity of Xpert Ultra test with that of Xpert for detection of smear-negative tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance and to estimate and compare Xpert Ultra and Xpert specificities for detection of rifampicin resistance. Study participants in the case detection group were included in all analyses, whereas participants in the multidrug-resistance risk group were only included in analyses of rifampicin-resistance detection. Between Feb 18, and Dec 24, 2016, we enrolled 2368 participants for sputum sampling. 248 participants were excluded from the analysis, and 1753 participants were distributed to the case detection group (n=1439

  4. Xpert MTB/RIF testing in a low tuberculosis incidence, high-resource setting: limitations in accuracy and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hojoon; Aero, Abebech D; Menzies, Dick; Behr, Marcel; Schwartzman, Kevin; Alvarez, Gonzalo G; Dan, Andrei; McIntosh, Fiona; Pai, Madhukar; Denkinger, Claudia M

    2014-04-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF, the first automated molecular test for tuberculosis, is transforming the diagnostic landscape in low-income countries. However, little information is available on its performance in low-incidence, high-resource countries. We evaluated the accuracy of Xpert in a university hospital tuberculosis clinic in Montreal, Canada, for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis on induced sputum samples, using mycobacterial cultures as the reference standard. We also assessed the potential reduction in time to diagnosis and treatment initiation. We enrolled 502 consecutive patients who presented for evaluation of possible active tuberculosis (most with abnormal chest radiographs, only 18% symptomatic). Twenty-five subjects were identified to have active tuberculosis by culture. Xpert had a sensitivity of 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26%-67%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99%-100%) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 42%-100%) in the 7 subjects with smear-positive results, and 28% (95% CI, 10%-56%) in the remaining subjects with smear-negative, culture-positive results; in this latter group, positive Xpert results were obtained a median 12 days before culture results. Subjects with positive cultures but negative Xpert results had minimal disease: 11 of 13 had no symptoms on presentation, and mean time to positive liquid culture results was 28 days (95% CI, 25-47 days) compared with 14 days (95% CI, 8-21 days) in Xpert/culture-positive cases. Our findings suggest limited potential impact of Xpert testing in high-resource, low-incidence ambulatory settings due to lower sensitivity in the context of less extensive disease, and limited potential to expedite diagnosis beyond what is achieved with the existing, well-performing diagnostic algorithm.

  5. Evaluation of molecular detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin with GeneXpert® MTB/RIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, C; Smaoui, S; Kammoun, S; Slim, L; Messadi-Akrout, F

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the GeneXpert® MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The test simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and resistance to rifampicin. We analyzed 153 clinical samples collected in a tertiary hospital in Sfax, Tunisia, between 2013 and 2014. We performed the GeneXpert® test, a Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-rhodamine staining, conventional culture on MGIT 960 and LJ media, and we tested the resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs on MGIT 960 and LJ media for each sample. Diagnosis was based on clinical, radiological, microbiological, pathological, and therapeutic data. We considered that 59 patients out of 153 presented with tuberculosis. PCR was positive in 50 samples and all of these samples were susceptible to rifampicin. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the GeneXpert® test were 84.7%, 96.8%, 94.3%, and 91%, respectively, compared with diagnosis. We observed a statistically significant difference between the direct test and the GeneXpert® test, and between culture and the GeneXpert® test. No statistically significant difference was observed between pathological results and the GeneXpert® test. Sensitivity of the GeneXpert® test was 87.5% in biopsies, 80% in pus and abscesses, and 66.7% in biological fluids. All strains were susceptible to rifampicin with culture and GeneXpert® test. The GeneXpert® test helped detect a higher proportion of M. tuberculosis complex. It does not replace conventional diagnostic methods but it is a useful addition to achieve better sensitivity and obtain rapid results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Mutations in circularly permuted GTPase family genes AtNOA1/RIF1/SVR10 and BPG2 suppress var2-mediated leaf variegation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yafei; Zhao, Jun; An, Rui; Zhang, Juan; Liang, Shuang; Shao, Jingxia; Liu, Xiayan; An, Lijun; Yu, Fei

    2016-03-01

    Leaf variegation mutants constitute a unique group of chloroplast development mutants and are ideal genetic materials to dissect the regulation of chloroplast development. We have utilized the Arabidopsis yellow variegated (var2) mutant and genetic suppressor analysis to probe the mechanisms of chloroplast development. Here we report the isolation of a new var2 suppressor locus SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION (SVR10). Genetic mapping and molecular complementation indicated that SVR10 encodes a circularly permuted GTPase that has been reported as Arabidopsis thaliana NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED 1 (AtNOA1) and RESISTANT TO INHIBITION BY FOSMIDOMYCIN 1 (RIF1). Biochemical evidence showed that SVR10/AtNOA1/RIF1 likely localizes to the chloroplast stroma. We further demonstrate that the mutant of a close homologue of SVR10/AtNOA1/RIF1, BRASSINAZOLE INSENSITIVE PALE GREEN 2 (BPG2), can also suppress var2 leaf variegation. Mutants of SVR10 and BPG2 are impaired in photosynthesis and the accumulation of chloroplast proteins. Interestingly, two-dimensional blue native gel analysis showed that mutants of SVR10 and BPG2 display defects in the assembly of thylakoid membrane complexes including reduced levels of major photosynthetic complexes and the abnormal accumulation of a chlorophyll-protein supercomplex containing photosystem I. Taken together, our findings suggest that SVR10 and BPG2 are functionally related with VAR2, likely through their potential roles in regulating chloroplast protein homeostasis, and both SVR10 and BPG2 are required for efficient thylakoid protein complex assembly and photosynthesis.

  7. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  8. A random set scoring model for prioritization of disease candidate genes using protein complexes and data-mining of GeneRIF, OMIM and PubMed records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Li; Edwards, Stefan M.; Thomsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    from PubMed abstracts, OMIM, and GeneRIF records. We also investigated the validity of several vocabulary filters and different likelihood thresholds for predicted protein-protein interactions in terms of their effect on the network-based gene-prioritization approach, which relies on text-mining......Background: Prioritizing genetic variants is a challenge because disease susceptibility loci are often located in genes of unknown function or the relationship with the corresponding phenotype is unclear. A global data-mining exercise on the biomedical literature can establish the phenotypic...

  9. [Budget impact of the incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System, Brazil, 2013-2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Márcia Ferreira Teixeira; Steffen, Ricardo; Entringer, Aline; Costa, Ana Carolina Carioca da; Trajman, Anete

    2017-10-09

    The study aimed to estimate the budget impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian National Program for Tuberculosis Control, drawing on a static model using the epidemiological method, from 2013 to 2017. GeneXpert MTB/RIF was compared with two diagnostic sputum smear tests. The study used epidemiological, population, and cost data, exchange rates, and databases from the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Sensitivity analysis of scenarios was performed. Incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF would cost BRL 147 million (roughly USD 45 million) in five years and would have an impact of 23 to 26% in the first two years and some 11% between 2015 and 2017. The results can support Brazilian and other Latin American health administrators in planning and managing the decision on incorporating the technology.

  10. [Role of GeneXpert MTB/RIF test in the screening for pulmonary tuberculosis at the General Referral Provincial Hospital of Bukavu, in the East of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: balance after 10 months of use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupande, David; Kaishusha, David; Mihigo, Carine; Itongwa, Moise; Yenga, Gustave; Katchunga, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, diagnostic methods for tuberculosis are inadequate and are essentially based on microscopy. They constitute a real obstacle to the control of tuberculosis. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of GeneXpert MTB/RIF test compared to classical Ziehl-Neelsen staining at the the general referral provincial hospital of Bukavu, in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo after 10 months of use. The results of Ziehl-Neelsen staining and GeneXpert MTB/RIF molecular biology test performed in 452 patients with suspected tuberculosis were collected. This study compares the validity of these different diagnostic tests in the detection of tuberculosis. In the entire group, the frequency of the pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.3%. The positivity rate was significantly higher in GeneXpert MTB/RIF test than in Ziehl-Neelsen staining in the entire group (15.9% vs 9.3%, p = 0.03) and in HIV seropositive patients (52.0% vs 24.0%; p = 0.007). However, the sensitivity of GeneXpert MTB/RIF test compared to that in Ziehl-Neelsen staining wasn't maximum (95.2%). Finally, GeneXpert MTB/RIF test detected rifampicin resistance in 20.8%. This study confirms the superiority of GeneXpert MTB/RIF test compared to Ziehl-Neelsen staining in the detection of tuberculosis and in the prediction of multi-resistance. Its systematic use coupled with Ziehl-Neelsen staining would better control tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Enhancing TB case detection: experience in offering upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing to pediatric presumptive TB and DR TB cases for early rapid diagnosis of drug sensitive and drug resistant TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children is challenging due to difficulties in obtaining good quality sputum specimens as well as the paucibacillary nature of disease. Globally a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB cases are diagnosed based only on clinical findings. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents the results from pediatric groups taking part in a large demonstration study wherein Xpert MTB/RIF testing replaced smear microscopy for all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities across India.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 programmatic sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each study TU. Pediatric presumptive PTB cases (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing any public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and tested on Xpert MTB/RIF following a standardized diagnostic algorithm.4,600 pediatric presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled. 590 (12.8%, CI 11.8-13.8 pediatric PTB were diagnosed. Overall 10.4% (CI 9.5-11.2 of presumptive PTB cases had positive results by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 4.8% (CI 4.2-5.4 who had smear-positive results. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and presumptive DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 79 and 12 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high (98%, CI 90.1-99.9, with no statistically significant variation with respect to past history of treatment.Upfront access to Xpert MTB/RIF testing in pediatric presumptive PTB cases was associated with a two-fold increase in bacteriologically-confirmed PTB, and increased detection of rifampicin-resistant TB cases under routine operational conditions across India. These results suggest that routine Xpert MTB/RIF testing is a promising

  12. Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in children with presumed pulmonary tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasa Tom, Sharon; Welch, Henry; Kilalang, Cornelia; Tefuarani, Nakapi; Vince, John; Lavu, Evelyn; Johnson, Karen; Magaye, Ruth; Duke, Trevor

    2017-05-11

    The Gene Xpert MTB/ RIF assay (Xpert) is used for rapid, simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance. This study examined the accuracy of Xpert in children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Children admitted to Port Moresby General Hospital with suspected PTB were prospectively enrolled between September 2014 and March 2015. They were classified into probable, possible and TB-unlikely groups. Sputum or gastric aspirates were tested by Xpert and smear microscopy; mycobacterial culture was undertaken on a subset. Children were diagnosed with TB on the basis of standard criteria which were used as the primary reference standard. Xpert, smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and the Edwards TB score were compared with the primary reference standard. A total of 93 children ≤14 years with suspected PTB were enrolled; 67 (72%) were classified as probable, 21 (22%) possible and 5 (5.4%) TB-unlikely. Eighty were treated for TB based on the primary reference standard. Xpert was positive in 26/93 (28%) MTB cases overall, including 22/67 (33%) with probable TB and 4/21 (19%) with possible TB. Three (13%) samples identified rifampicin resistance. Xpert confirmed more cases of TB than AFB smear (26 vs 13, p = 0.019). The sensitivity of Xpert, AFB smear and an Edwards TB score of ≥7 was 31% (25/80), 16% (13/80) and 90% (72/80), respectively, and the specificity was 92% (12/13), 100% (13/13) and 31% (4/13), respectively, when compared with the primary reference standard. Xpert sensitivity is sub-optimal and cannot be relied upon for diagnosing TB, although a positive result is confirmatory. A detailed history and examination, standardised clinical criteria, radiographs and available tests remain the most appropriate way of diagnosing TB in children in resource-limited countries. Xpert helps confirm PTB better than AFB smear, and identifies rifampicin resistance. Practical guidelines should be used to identify children who

  13. Oceanic units in the core of the External Rif (Morocco): Intramargin hiatus or South-Tethyan remnants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaggagh, Mohamed; Mokhtari, Abdelkader; Rossi, Philippe; Michard, André; El Maz, Abdelkhader; Chalouan, Ahmed; Saddiqi, Omar; Rjimati, Ech-Cherki

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the mafic rocks that crop out in the central-western Mesorif Zone (External Rif Belt), and discuss their geodynamic signification. Basalt flows, olistoliths and breccias occur in Oxfordian-Berriasian deposits of Mesorif units ascribed to the distal part of the African paleomargin. The climax of volcanic activity is observed at the northern border of a Kimmeridgian carbonate platform progressively dismembered during the Tithonian-Berriasian. In spite of the alteration of the basalts, their petrological and geochemical characters point to E-MORB affinities. The studied gabbro massifs (Bou Adel, Kef el Rhar west and north) occur as restricted slivers or klippes within the Senhadja nappe or mélange of the internal Mesorif, which overlies the basalt-bearing units and other, more external Mesorif units. The compositions range from troctolitic olivine gabbro to ferrogabbro with frequent ortho- to heteradcumulate textures; they display typical tholeiitic affinity. The gabbro massifs are crosscut by trondjhemite dykes and overlain by metabasalts, fault-scarp breccias, ophicalcites, marbles and radiolarites. Composition featuring initial near liquid composition, display multi elements patterns close to those of E-MORB, with a weak Eu negative anomaly and evidence of slight crustal contamination. These gabbro massifs were regarded as Jurassic-Cretaceous intrusions, locally dated (K-Ar) at 166 ± 3 Ma. Conversely, we assume they represent discrete samples of a Jurassic-Cretaceous oceanic basement (ophiolites), emplaced tectonically in the Senhadja nappe (mélange) of the central Mesorif. The correlation of both these types of mafic rock associations (paleomargin basalts and ophiolite klippes) with the serpentinites of the eastern Mesorif (Beni Malek) and Oran mountains (Algeria) is then briefly discussed. We conclude that the previous hypothesis of an intramargin “Mesorif suture zone” must be reconsidered, being challenged by that of a

  14. The Response of RIF-1 Fibrosarcomas to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent ZD6126 Assessed by In Vivo and Ex Vivo1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basetti Madhu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma1 (RIF-1 tumors treated with the vascular-disrupting agent (VDA ZD6126 was assessed by in vivo and ex vivo1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS methods. Tumors treated with 200 mg/kg ZD6126 showed a significant reduction in total choline (tCho in vivo 24 hours after treatment, whereas control tumors showed a significant increase in tCho. This response was investigated further within both ex vivo unprocessed tumor tissues and tumor tissue metabolite extracts. Ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS and 1H MRS of metabolite extracts revealed a significant reduction in phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine in biopsies of ZD6126-treated tumors, confirming in vivo tCho response. ZD6126-induced reduction in choline compounds is consistent with a reduction in cell membrane turnover associated with necrosis and cell death following disruption of the tumor vasculature. In vivo tumor tissue water diffusion and lactate measurements showed no significant changes in response to ZD6126. Spin-spin relaxation times (T2 of water and metabolites also remained unchanged. Noninvasive 1H MRS measurement of tCho in vivo provides a potential biomarker of tumor response to VDAs in RIF-1 tumors.

  15. The potentiation of radiation effects on the Meth-a and RIF tumors and hela s-3 cells by the glycolytic inhibitor, Lonidamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Alfieri, A.A.; Kim, S.H.; He, S.Q.; Young, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    The indazole carboxylic acid Lonidamine (L) a glycolytic inhibitor and antispermatogenic agent previously found to have hyperthermia sensitization properties was evaluated as a radiopotentiating agent in vitro and in vivo. Tumoricidal effects of (L) i.p. and single dose x-irradiation (3.0 or 3.2 Gy) was evaluated on 300-1000 mm/sup 3/ i.m. Meth-A in BALB/c and the RIF fibrosarcoma in C/sub 3/H/He mice L preceded or proceeded the radiation event to 1 hr intervals with maximum separation between treatments of 4 hrs. L conc in sera was biphasic (t1/2 -- 1 hr.). Optimal treatment efficacy was found at minimal time intervals between L and radiation interaction. TCD /sub 50/ for RIF and Meth-A resulted in DMF's of 1.15 - 1.35 (L dose dependent). Chronic L (50mg/kg/dy x 30) + fractionated radiation was found to be well tolerated as concomitant L potentiated combination therapy. Cell culture studies on monolayer and spheroids demonstrate L as an effective inhibitor of potential lethal radiation damage with L potential to be dependent upon both dose/fraction, number of fractions and total radiation dose accumulated

  16. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  17. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  18. Late Miocene to present-day exhumation and uplift of the Internal Zone of the Rif chain: Insights from low temperature thermochronometry and basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagny, A.; Ph. Münch; Cornée, J.-J.; Corsini, M.; Azdimousa, A.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.; Drinia, H.; Bonno, M.; Arnaud, N.; Monié, P.; Quillévéré, F.; Ben Moussa, A.

    2014-07-01

    Located on the margin of the west Alboran basin, the Gibraltar Arc (Betic-Rif mountain belt) displays post-Pliocene vertical movements evidenced by uplifted marine sedimentary basins and marine terraces. Quantification of vertical movements is an important clue to understand the origin of present-day relief generation in the Betic-Rif mountain chain together with the causes of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. In this paper, we present the results of a pluridisciplinary study combining an analysis of low temperature thermochronology and Pliocene basins evolution to constrain the exhumation history and surface uplift of internals units of the Rif belt (Northern Morocco). The mean (U-Th)/He apatite ages obtained from 11 samples are comprised between 14.1 and 17.8 Ma and display a wide dispersion, which could be explained by a great variability of apatite chemistries in the analyzed samples. No correlations between altitude and age have been found along altitudinal profile suggesting a rapid exhumation during this period. Thermal modeling using our (U-Th)/He apatite ages and geochronological data previously obtained in the same area (40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar data on biotite, zircon and apatite fission track) allow us to propose a cooling history. The rocks suffered a rapid cooling at 60-100 °C/Ma between 22.5 and 19 Ma, then cooled to temperatures around 40 °C between 19 and 18 Ma. They were re-heated at around 110 °C between 18 and 15 Ma then rapidly cooled and exhumed to reach the surface temperature at around 13 Ma. The re-heating could be related to a renewal in thrusting and burying of the inner zones. Between 15 and 13 Ma the cooling resumed at a rate of 50 °C/Ma indicating an exhumation rate of 0.8 mm/y considering an average 40 °C/km geothermal gradient. This exhumation may be linked to the extension in the Alboran Sea. Otherwise biostratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of Pliocene basins of the internal Rif provided informations on the more recent events

  19. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  20. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  1. Riffing on the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor

    2016-05-01

    Music and physics might seem like polar opposites, one having great emotional potency and the other being a cerebral subject of equations, theories and deductions. Both, however, benefit from improvisers - people who stand on the shoulders of giants, taking earlier triumphs and building on them to create something new. For me, analogies like these, which draw parallels between physicists and jazz musicians, are the most fascinating revelations in Stephon Alexander's book The Jazz of Physics.

  2. Les sources du Moyen Atlas et de Rif (Maroc): Faunistique (description de deux espèces nouvelles de Trichoptères), écologie, intérêt biogéographique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giudicelli, Jean; Dakki, Mohamed

    1984-01-01

    Seven springs in the Middle Atlas and five in the Rif have been studied. These show a great diversity of crenal habitats: water temperature ranges from 8.7° to 21°C, and the flow from 1 l/s to 1,800 l/s. Based on hydrologic and thermic characteristics, a spring typology is provided. The invertebrate

  3. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  4. Rendimiento de la prueba Xpert MTB/RIF en muestras respiratorias en el escenario real de trabajo en un país en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Atehortúa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La prueba Xpert MTB/RIF detecta el ADN del complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis y la sensibilidad a rifampicina. La prueba ha sido evaluada en condiciones “ideales” que incluyen la centrifugación de esputo y el lavado broncoalveolar, la tinción de Ziehl Neelsen (ZN y de auramina-rodamina y los métodos de cultivo sólido y de cultivo líquido automatizado. Los resultados de tales evaluaciones no pueden extrapolarse a países de bajos ingresos que no utilizan habitualmente todos estos procesos. Objetivo. Evaluar el rendimiento de la prueba Xpert MTB/RIF en muestras respiratorias bajo condiciones “reales” de trabajo y su correlación con las pruebas fenotípicas de sensibilidad. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal para evaluar el rendimiento de la prueba Xpert MTB/RIF en pacientes ≥12 años con sospecha de tuberculosis pulmonar. En el procesamiento rutinario de muestras en el Hospital del estudio no se usa la centrifugación del esputo, la tinción con auramina-rodamina ni el cultivo líquido automatizado. Resultados.Se incluyeron 152 pacientes, de los cuales 108 eran elegibles y 103 se incluyeron en el análisis. El 34 % de las muestras fueron positivas; la sensibilidad de la prueba fue de 91 %, la especificidad de 92 %, el valor diagnóstico positivo de 83 % y el valor diagnóstico negativo global de 96 %. En las muestras negativas con Ziehl Neelsen, la sensibilidad fue de 87 %, la especificidad de 91 % y los valores diagnósticos positivo y negativo alcanzaron 68 y 97 %, respectivamente. Los resultados de sensibilidad o resistencia a la rifampicina concordaron con los de la prueba fenotípica de sensibilidad (valor de kappa=1, p<0,0001. Conclusiones. El rendimiento global de la prueba fue similar al obtenido bajo condiciones “ideales”. En las muestras negativas con Ziehl Neelsen se obtuvo un mejor rendimiento en las condiciones “reales” de trabajo de un país de bajos ingresos

  5. Direct Application of the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB Line-Probe Assay for Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains and Detection of Rifampin Resistance in 360 Smear-Positive Respiratory Specimens from an Area of High Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Rodrigues, Liliana; Almeida, Josefina; Bettencourt, Rosário; Couto, Isabel; Carrilho, Lurdes; Diogo, José; Fonseca, Ana; Lito, Luís; Lopes, João; Pacheco, Teresa; Pessanha, Mariana; Quirim, Judite; Sancho, Luísa; Salfinger, Max; Amaral, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    The INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains and the detection of rifampin (RIF) resistance has been evaluated with 360 smear-positive respiratory specimens from an area of high incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The sensitivity when compared to conventional identification/culture methods was 82.2%, and the specificity was 66.7%; the sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 96.9%, respectively, for the detection of RIF resistance. This assay has the potential to provide rapid information that is essential for the effective management of MDR-TB. PMID:16145166

  6. La práctica internacional de las disculpas de estado: España, Marruecos y el Rif en el centenario del protectorado (1912-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo La Porte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a proliferation of state apologies whereby a number of states have acknowledged previous wrongs against other states and apologized for historical injustices committed against domestic minorities. This article examines demands for apologies related to the use of chemical warfare by the Spanish army during the Rif War (Morocco, 1921-1926. The article explores the limits and constraints of the so-called "apologetic diplomacy" and its influence in bilateral relations between Spain and Morocco. It argues that demands for apologies present Spain a problem and also an opportunity to improve relations with Morocco in the centenary of the Treaty of Protectorate (1912-2012.

  7. Detecting early response to cyclophosphamide treatment of RIF-1 tumors using selective multiple quantum spectroscopy (SelMQC) and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poptani, Harish; Bansal, Navin; Graham, Robert A; Mancuso, Anthony; Nelson, David S; Glickson, Jerry D

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable, noninvasive method for early detection of tumor response to therapy that would facilitate optimization of treatment regimens to the needs of the individual patient. In the present study, the effects of cyclophosphamide (Cp, a widely used alkylating agent) were monitored in a murine radiation induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) using in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy and imaging to evaluate the potential of these techniques towards early detection of treatment response. Steady-state lactate levels and Gd-DTPA uptake kinetics were measured using selective multiple quantum coherence (Sel-MQC) transfer spectroscopy and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, respectively in RIF-1 tumors before, 24 and 72 h after 300 mg/kg of Cp administration. High-resolution (1)H NMR spectra of perchloric acid extracts of the tumor were correlated with lactate and glucose concentrations determined enzymatically. In vivo NMR experiments showed a decrease in steady-state lactate to water ratios (5.4 +/- 1.6 to 0.6 +/- 0.5, p < 0.05) and an increase in Gd-DTPA uptake kinetics following treatment response. The data indicate that decreases in lactate result from decreased glycolytic metabolism and an increase in tumor perfusion/permeability. Perchloric acid extracts confirmed the lower lactate levels seen in vivo in treated tumors and also indicated a higher glycerophosphocholine/phosphocholine (GPC/PC) integrated intensity ratio (1.39 +/- 0.09 vs 0.97 +/- 0.04, p < 0.01), indicative of increased membrane degradation following Cp treatment. Steady-state lactate levels provide metabolic information that correlates with changes in tumor physiology measured by Gd-DTPA uptake kinetics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Both of these parameters may be useful for monitoring early tumor response to therapy. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. From the Atlas to the Rif a Crustal seismic image across Morocco: The SIMA & RIFSEIS control source wide-angle seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Ayarza, Puy; Gallart, Josep; Diaz, Jordi; Harnafi, Mimoun; Levander, Alan; Teixell, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The velocity structure of the crust and the geometry of the Moho across Morocco has been the main target of two recently acquired wide-angle seismic reflection transects. One is the SIMA experiment which provided seismic constraints beneath the Atlas Mountains and the second has been the RIFSEIS experiment which sampled the RIF orogen. Jointly these controlled source wide-angle seismic reflection data results in an almost 700 km, seismic profile going from the the Sahara craton across the High and Middle Atlas and Rif Mountain till the Gibraltar-Arc (Alboran). Current work on the interpretation of the seismic data-set is based on forward modeling, ray-tracing, as well as low fold wide-angle stacking. The data has resulted in a detailed crustal structure and velocity model for the Atlas Mountains and a 700 km transect revealing the irregular topography of the Moho beneath these two mountain orogens. Results indicate that the High Atlas features a moderate crustal thickness and that shortening is resolved at depth through a crustal root where the Saharan crust under-thrusts below the Moroccan crust, defining a lower crust imbrication which locally places the Moho boundary at, approximately, 40 km depth. The P-wave velocity model is characterized, in averaged, by relatively low velocities. These low deep crustal velocities together with other geophysical observables such as: conductivity estimates derived from Mt measurements; moderate Bouguer gravity anomaly; surface exposures of recent alkaline volcanics; lead the interpretation to propose that partial melts are currently emplaced in the deep crustal levels and in the upper mantle. The Moho discontinuity defines a crust which is in average relatively thin beneath the Atlas which is almost a 4000 m high orogenic belt. The resulting model supports existence of mantle upwelling as a possible mechanism that contributes, significantly, to maintain the High Atlas topography.

  9. Blood neutrophil counts in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: association with sputum mycobacterial load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Kerkhoff

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that neutrophils play a role in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined whether neutrophil counts in peripheral blood are associated with tuberculosis (TB and with mycobacterial load in sputum in HIV-infected patients.Adults enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART clinic in a Cape Town township were screened for TB regardless of symptoms. Paired sputum samples were examined using liquid culture, fluorescence microscopy, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were measured in blood samples. Of 602 HIV-infected patients screened, 523 produced one or more sputum samples and had complete results available for analysis. Among these 523 patients, the median CD4 count was 169×10(9/L (IQR, 96-232 and median ANC was 2.6×10(9/L (IQR, 1.9-3.6. Culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 89 patients. Patients with TB had a median ANC of 3.4×10(9/L (IQR, 2.4-5.1 compared to 2.5×10(9/L (IQR, 1.8-3.4 among those who were culture negative (p7.5×10(9/L; p = 0.0005. Patients were then classified into four mutually exclusive groups with increasing sputum mycobacterial load as defined by the results of culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and sputum smear microscopy. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that increasing sputum mycobacterial load was positively associated with blood ANC ≥2.6×10(9/L and with neutrophilia.Increased blood neutrophil counts were independently associated with pulmonary TB and sputum mycobacterial burden in this HIV-infected patient group. This observation supports the growing body of literature regarding the potential role for neutrophils in the host response to TB.

  10. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  11. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  12. Leishmaniose canine dans le Rif (côte méditerranéenne marocaine : enquête séro-épidémiologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami M.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le but d'évaluer la situation de la leishmaniose canine dans le foyer situé dans le versant Nord-Est de la chaîne montagneuse du Rif, une enquête séro-épidémiologique a été menée dans différentes localités de la province de Nador (côte méditerranéenne marocaine. Des échantillons de sérum collectés sur 257 chiens ont été analysés par les techniques d'immunofluorescence indirecte (IFI et d'enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA pour détecter les anticorps anti-Leishmania infantum. Les résultats montrent que 48 (18,7 % des chiens examinés sont positifs en IFI et 54 (21,0 % le sont en ELISA ; la concordance des deux méthodes étant de 96,1 %. D'autre part, le taux d'infection est significativemenl plus élevé chez les chiens âgés de plus de quatre ans et ne dépend pas du sexe de l'animal. Les symptômes les plus fréquemment relevés sur les chiens séropositifs sont la polyadénite (57,4 %, l'amyotrophie (51,9 % et les lésions cutanéo-muqueuses ( 25,9 %. Cependant, 38,9 % de ces mêmes chiens ne présentent pas de symptômes pouvant évoquer la leishmaniose. Des Leishmania isolées sur trois des chiens examinés ont toutes été identifiées comme étant L. infantum MON-1. Ces résultats montrent que le versant Nord-Est des montagnes du Rif est l'un des foyers les plus actifs de leishmaniose viscérale dans le pourtour méditerranéen et confirment le rôle que joue le chien comme principal réservoir de L. infantum.

  13. New constraints on the evolution of the Gibraltar Arc from palaeomagnetic data of the Ceuta and Beni Bousera peridotites (Rif, northern Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Thomas; Ruiz-Martínez, Vicente Carlos; Chalouan, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    The Betic Cordillera and the Moroccan Rif together form one of the smallest and tightest orogenic arcs on Earth and almost completely close the Mediterranean to the west. For the explanation of the geodynamic evolution of the mountain belt, palaeomagnetic data that generally found clockwise block rotations in the Iberian and anticlockwise rotations in the Moroccan part of the mountain belt, have played a key role in recent works. This palaeomagnetic study has found new constraints on the rotations and timing of the peridotitic bodies outcropping in the key position at the westernmost margin of the mountain belt, in Ceuta and Beni Bousera (Rif, northern Africa). Detailed thermal demagnetization of 115 individually oriented samples from 14 sites was combined with rock magnetic and scanning electron microscopic experiments to analyze the magnetic mineralogy responsible for the remanences and the mechanisms and relative times of their acquisition. In Ceuta, up to three magnetic components, and in Beni Bousera, up to two magnetic components have been found, that are all to be interpreted as chemical remanent magnetizations (CRM). The data suggests the following succession of geodynamic events affecting the peridotites until recent times: (1) after their exhumation and subsequent cooling about 20 Ma ago, they recorded a characteristic remanent magnetization of both normal and reversed polarities, carried by (pseudo-)single-domain magnetite grains; (2) after their dismembering, the Ceuta peridotites were tilted southward by 22-34° about a horizontal or tilted axis (up to plunge 50°) with an azimuth of 72-145° and the Beni Bousera peridotites were rotated anticlockwise by 72.3 ± 12.1° about a vertical axis and (3) both recorded another magnetic signal of normal polarity only, carried by multi-domain magnetite grains; and finally (4) the Ceuta peridotites rotated anticlockwise by 19.7 ± 5.9° about a vertical axis. This study provides the first palaeomagnetic data for

  14. Effect of treatment in fractionated schedules with the combination of x-irradiation and six cytotoxic drugs on the RIF-1 tumor and normal mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, P.; Scoles, M.A.; Brown, J.M.; Phil, D.; Kallman, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    RIF-1 tumors, implanted syngeneically in the gastrocnemius muscles of the right hind legs of C3H/Km mice, were treated either with X ray alone, drug alone, or drug and X ray combined. The drugs tested were bleomycin, BCNU, cis-diamminedichloro platinum, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and actinomycin-D. All drugs were administered either in the maximum tolerated dose or a dose that causes minimal tumor growth delay. Both drugs and X rays were administered either as a single dose or in five daily fractions. In addition to the single modality controls, seven different schedules of combined modalities were tested. Tumors were measured periodically after treatment in order that the day at which each tumor reached 4 times its initial cross-sectional area, i.e., its size at the time of treatment, could be determined. The effect of treatment on tumors was based upon excess growth delay (GD), i.e., T400% (treated)-T400% (untreated control). Treatment effects for the same combined modality schedules were also determined for normal skin, using the early skin reaction as an endpoint. Dose effect factors (DEF) were computed for all combined modality schedules and were based upon calculated radiation dose equivalents. We also calculated supra-additivity ratios, SR/sub I/ and SR/sub II/, therapeutic gain factors and adjusted therapeutic gain factors. The only drugs to produce significant supra-additivity with X rays were cis-Pt and cyclo

  15. Spatial correlation between the predictor variables and the weighting values calculated during the mapping of the environmental factors of mass movements in the Beni Idder region (northern Rif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ait Brahim L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tleta of Beni Ider region located in the SW of Tetouan (Rif Septentrional knows many mass instabilities. The diagnostic via the inventory, the mapping and the characterization of mass movements was made by using satellite imagery, aerial photography and field data coupled with existing documents (geological, geomorphological,…. The understanding of both their spatial distribution and the mechanism generating them, is very complex because of the existence of an important number of natural factors (geological, geomorphological, hydrological in a relative mountainous landscape with deep valleys, steep slopes and significant elevation changes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to elaborate the landslide susceptibility map of the region taking into account interactions and causal relationships between the various natural parameters that tend to accentuate and aggravate the setting of landslides. The multidisciplinary database allowed us to evaluate the susceptibility thanks to a bivariate probabiliste model (Weight of Evidence. The obtained landslide susceptibility map is a major contribution to the development of urban development plans in the region.

  16. Investigation of OMNIgene·SPUTUM performance in delayed tuberculosis testing by smear, culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF assays in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Kelly-Cirino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OMNIgene·SPUTUM (OM-S is a sample transport reagent designed to work with all tuberculosis diagnostics while eliminating the need for cold chain. OM-S-treated sputum samples were assayed in several tests after multiday holds. Raw sputa from 100 patients underwent direct smear microscopy, were manually split and assigned to the OM-S group [OM-S added at collection (no other processing required and tested after 0- to 5-day holds at room temperature] or standard-of-care (SOC group (NaOH/N-acetyl l-cysteine decontamination, all tested on day of collection. Concentrated smear microscopy, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ culture, and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT culture were performed. For patients with negative direct smear, a second sample was split, with SOC (raw sputum and OM-S portions (sediment tested in the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert assay. OM-S group and SOC group results were strongly concordant on all four tests [range, 89% (MGIT–97% (Xpert]. OM-S MGIT, LJ, and Xpert tests were in statistical agreement with SOC MGIT as reference. OM-S specimens had lower culture contamination rates (3% vs. 10% LJ; 2% vs. 5% MGIT but required, on average, 5.6 additional days to become MGIT-positive. The findings suggest that samples held/transported in OM-S are compatible with smear microscopy, LJ or MGIT culture, and Xpert, and perform comparably to fresh sputum samples. Larger feasibility studies are warranted.

  17. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  18. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  19. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  20. Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Interfacial Drug Delivery System with Controlled Loading and Improved Release Performance for Bone Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vehlow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An improved interfacial drug delivery system (DDS based on polyelectrolyte complex (PEC coatings with controlled drug loading and improved release performance was elaborated. The cationic homopolypeptide poly(l-lysine (PLL was complexed with a mixture of two cellulose sulfates (CS of low and high degree of substitution, so that the CS and PLL solution have around equal molar charged units. As drugs the antibiotic rifampicin (RIF and the bisphosphonate risedronate (RIS were integrated. As an important advantage over previous PEC systems this one can be centrifuged, the supernatant discarded, the dense pellet phase (coacervate separated, and again redispersed in fresh water phase. This behavior has three benefits: (i Access to the loading capacity of the drug, since the concentration of the free drug can be measured by spectroscopy; (ii lower initial burst and higher residual amount of drug due to removal of unbound drug and (iii complete adhesive stability due to the removal of polyelectrolytes (PEL excess component. It was found that the pH value and ionic strength strongly affected drug content and release of RIS and RIF. At the clinically relevant implant material (Ti40Nb similar PEC adhesive and drug release properties compared to the model substrate were found. Unloaded PEC coatings at Ti40Nb showed a similar number and morphology of above cultivated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC compared to uncoated Ti40Nb and resulted in considerable production of bone mineral. RIS loaded PEC coatings showed similar effects after 24 h but resulted in reduced number and unhealthy appearance of hMSC after 48 h due to cell toxicity of RIS.

  1. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  2. Impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay on triage of respiratory isolation rooms for inpatients with presumed tuberculosis: a hypothetical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Lelia H; Roemer, Marguerite; Cantu, David; Haller, Barbara; Millman, Alexander J; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J Lucian

    2014-11-15

    Placing inpatients with presumed active pulmonary tuberculosis in respiratory isolation pending results of serial sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy is standard practice in high-income countries. However, this diagnostic strategy is slow and yields few tuberculosis diagnoses. We sought to determine if replacing microscopy with the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) nucleic acid amplification assay could reduce testing time and usage of isolation rooms. We prospectively followed inpatients at San Francisco General Hospital undergoing tuberculosis evaluation. We performed smear microscopy and Xpert testing on concentrated sputum, and calculated diagnostic accuracy for both strategies in reference to serial sputum mycobacterial culture. We measured turnaround time for microscopy and estimated hypothetical turnaround times for Xpert on concentrated and unconcentrated sputum. We compared median and total isolation times for microscopy to those estimated for the 2 Xpert strategies. Among 139 patients with 142 admissions, median age was 54 years (interquartile range [IQR], 43-60 years); 32 (23%) patients were female, and 42 (30%) were HIV seropositive. Serial sputum smear microscopy and a single concentrated sputum Xpert had identical sensitivity (89%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-100%) and similar specificity (99% [95% CI, 96%-100%] vs 100% [95% CI, 97%-100%]). A single concentrated sputum Xpert could have saved a median of 35 hours (IQR, 24-36 hours) in unnecessary isolation compared with microscopy, and a single unconcentrated sputum Xpert, 45 hours (IQR, 35-46 hours). Replacing serial sputum smear microscopy with a single sputum Xpert could eliminate most unnecessary isolation for inpatients with presumed tuberculosis, greatly benefiting patients and hospitals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A random set scoring model for prioritization of disease candidate genes using protein complexes and data-mining of GeneRIF, OMIM and PubMed records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Edwards, Stefan M; Thomsen, Bo; Workman, Christopher T; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-09-24

    Prioritizing genetic variants is a challenge because disease susceptibility loci are often located in genes of unknown function or the relationship with the corresponding phenotype is unclear. A global data-mining exercise on the biomedical literature can establish the phenotypic profile of genes with respect to their connection to disease phenotypes. The importance of protein-protein interaction networks in the genetic heterogeneity of common diseases or complex traits is becoming increasingly recognized. Thus, the development of a network-based approach combined with phenotypic profiling would be useful for disease gene prioritization. We developed a random-set scoring model and implemented it to quantify phenotype relevance in a network-based disease gene-prioritization approach. We validated our approach based on different gene phenotypic profiles, which were generated from PubMed abstracts, OMIM, and GeneRIF records. We also investigated the validity of several vocabulary filters and different likelihood thresholds for predicted protein-protein interactions in terms of their effect on the network-based gene-prioritization approach, which relies on text-mining of the phenotype data. Our method demonstrated good precision and sensitivity compared with those of two alternative complex-based prioritization approaches. We then conducted a global ranking of all human genes according to their relevance to a range of human diseases. The resulting accurate ranking of known causal genes supported the reliability of our approach. Moreover, these data suggest many promising novel candidate genes for human disorders that have a complex mode of inheritance. We have implemented and validated a network-based approach to prioritize genes for human diseases based on their phenotypic profile. We have devised a powerful and transparent tool to identify and rank candidate genes. Our global gene prioritization provides a unique resource for the biological interpretation of data

  4. Survival response of RIF tumor cells to heat-x-radiation combinations: Parallel measurements in culture and by the excision assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henle, K.J.; Nagle, W.A.; Moss, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of heat-radiation (hX) combinations in vivo may differ from that measured in vitro. The authors have used the RIF tumor, grown in mouse feet, to compare the survival response after in situ hX-treatments with identical hX in vitro. The radiation survival curve, determined by the excision assay showed a slightly larger D/sub o/ than that measured in vitro (250, 200 rad, respective) and survival measurements appeared independent of excision time after irradiation. The 45 0 -heat survival curve was similar in both assays, but only when the excision followed immediately after h. A 24-hr delayed excision removed the shoulder and lowered survival 30-fold after either 20 or 30 min, 45 0 . Similar survival values were measured after 10 min, 45 0 +X (hX) in vitro and with immediate excision, although the excision survival curve had no shoulder and a D/sub o/ of 180 rad vs. 120 rad in vitro. The survival curve with delayed excision (24 hr) also appeared as a simple exponential curve with an apparent D/sub o/ of 310 rad (n=0.02). Two fractions of combined hX, separated by 24 hr (hx+24+hX), yielded D/sub o/=90 rad, D/sub q/=230 rad in vitro but 370 and 400 rad, respectively, when measured by delayed excision. The apparent radioresistance in vivo is consistent with data by Song of increased hypoxic fractions after heating in vivo and argues against combining hx in every fraction for optimal tumor control

  5. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  6. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  7. Extending 'Contact Tracing' into the Community within a 50-Metre Radius of an Index Tuberculosis Patient Using Xpert MTB/RIF in Urban, Pakistan: Did It Increase Case Detection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Fatima

    Full Text Available Currently, only 62% of incident tuberculosis (TB cases are reported to the national programme in Pakistan. Several innovative interventions are being recommended to detect the remaining 'missed' TB cases. One such intervention involved expanding contact investigation to the community using the Xpert MTB/RIF test.This was a before and after intervention study involving retrospective record review. Passive case finding and household contact investigation was routinely done in the pre-intervention period July 2011-June 2013. Four districts with a high concentration of slums were selected as intervention areas; Lahore, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad and Islamabad. Here, in the intervention period, July 2013-June 2015, contact investigation beyond household was conducted: all people staying within a radius of 50 metres (using Geographical Information System from the household of smear positive TB patients were screened for tuberculosis. Those with presumptive TB were investigated using smear microscopy and the Xpert MTB/RIF test was performed on smear negative patients. All the diagnosed TB patients were linked to TB treatment and care.A total of 783043 contacts were screened for tuberculosis: 23741(3.0% presumptive TB patients were identified of whom, 4710 (19.8% all forms and 4084(17.2% bacteriologically confirmed TB patients were detected. The contribution of Xpert MTB/RIF to bacteriologically confirmed TB patients was 7.6%. The yield among investigated presumptive child TB patients was 5.1%. The overall yield of all forms TB patients among investigated was 22.3% among household and 19.1% in close community. The intervention contributed an increase of case detection of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis by 6.8% and all forms TB patients by 7.9%.Community contact investigation beyond household not only detected additional TB patients but also increased TB case detection. However, further long term assessments and cost-effectiveness studies are

  8. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase c.c.677 C>T and c.c.1298 A>C polymorphisms in reproductive failures: Experience from an RSA and RIF study on a Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Izabela; Bylińska, Aleksandra; Wilczyńska, Karolina; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Malinowski, Andrzej; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Radwan, Paweł; Radwan, Michał; Barcz, Ewa; Płoski, Rafał; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Banasik, Małgorzata; Sobczyński, Maciej; Kuśnierczyk, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Almost 1600 individuals from the Polish population were recruited to this study. Among them 319 were fertile couples, 289 were recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) couples, and 131 were in the group of recurrent implantation failure (RIF) following in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MTHFR c.c.677 C>T and c.c.1298 A>C polymorphisms' association with RSA and RIF. We used PCR-RFLP with HinfI (677 C>T) and MboII (1298 A>C) digestion. We observed a protective effect of the female AC genotype (OR = 0.64, p = 0.01) and the C allele (AC+CC genotypes; OR = 0.65, p = 0.009) against RSA. Moreover, 1298 AA/677 CT women were more frequent in RSA (31.14%) and RIF (25.20%) groups in comparison to fertile women (22.88%), although this difference was significant only in the case of RSA (p = 0.022, OR = 1.52). Male combined genotype analysis revealed no association with reproductive failure of their partners. Nevertheless, the female/male combination AA/AC of the 1298 polymorphism was more frequent in RSA couples (p = 0.049, OR = 1.49). However, the significant results became insignificant after Bonferroni correction. In addition, analysis of haplotypes showed significantly higher frequency of the C/C haplotype (1298 C/677 C) in the female control group than in the female RSA group (p = 0.03, OR = 0.77). Moreover, the association between elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level in plasma of RSA and RIF women and MTHFR polymorphisms was investigated but did not reveal significant differences. In conclusion, for clinical practice, it is better to check the homocysteine level in plasma and, if the Hcy level is increased, to recommend patients to take folic acid supplements rather than undergo screening of MTHFR for 1298 A>C and 677 C>T polymorphisms.

  9. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  10. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  11. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  12. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  13. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  14. The diagnostic performance of a single GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in an intensified tuberculosis case finding survey among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed Al-Darraji

    Full Text Available Delays in tuberculosis (TB diagnosis, particularly in prisons, is associated with detrimental outcomes. The new GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert offers accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB, but its performance in improving case detection in high-transmission congregate settings has yet to be evaluated. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a single Xpert assay in an intensified case finding survey among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia.HIV-infected prisoners at a single site provided two early-morning sputum specimens to be examined using fluorescence smear microscopy, BACTEC MGIT 960 liquid culture and a single Xpert. The sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of Xpert were calculated relative to gold-standard results using MGIT 960 liquid culture. Relevant clinical and demographic data were used to examine correlates of active TB disease.The majority of enrolled subjects with complete data (N=125 were men (90.4%, age <40 years (61.6% and had injected drugs (75.2%. Median CD4 lymphocyte count was 337 cells/µL (IQR 149-492; only 19 (15.2% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Of 15 culture-positive TB cases, single Xpert assay accurately detected only eight previously undiagnosed TB cases, resulting in a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 53.3% (95% CI 30.12-75.2%, 100% (95% CI 96.6-100%, 100% (95% CI 67.56-100% and 94.0% (95% CI 88.2-97.1%, respectively. Only 1 of 15 (6.7% active TB cases was smear-positive. The prevalence (12% of undiagnosed active pulmonary TB (15 of 125 prisoners was high and associated with longer duration of drug use (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.26, for each year of drug use.Single Xpert assay improved TB case detection and outperformed AFB smear microscopy, but yielded low screening sensitivity. Further examination of the impact of HIV infection on the diagnostic performance of the new assay alongside other screening methods in correctional

  15. Effect of Introducing Xpert MTB/RIF to Test and Treat Individuals at Risk of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Christine van Kampen

    Full Text Available Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert was piloted in Kazakhstan to detect tuberculosis (TB and rifampicin resistance (RR-TB among individuals at risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR- TB. This study assessed the performance of Xpert compared to conventional diagnostic methods, RR-TB case detection among various risk groups, treatment initiation and time to diagnosis and treatment.Eligible individuals were tested with Xpert, smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST at the national TB reference laboratory and three provincial laboratories. Data was collected prospectively from August 2012 to May 2013 from routine laboratory and treatment registers.A total of 5,611 Xpert tests were performed mostly targeting contacts of MDR-TB patients, 'other' presumptive MDR-TB patients, and retreatment cases (26%, 24% and 22%, respectively. Compared to phenotypic DST, the positive predictive value of Xpert to detect RR-TB was 93.1% and 96.4% and the negative predictive value was 94.6% and 92.7% using solid and liquid culture media, respectively. RR-TB detection was highest among (former prisoners, retreatment cases, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and TB patients with positive smears after intensive phase of treatment (59%, 58%, 54% and 53% among TB positives, respectively. 88.9% of RR-TB patients were registered to have started second-line TB treatment. Median time to diagnosis with Xpert was 0.0 days (IQR 0.0-1.0, time from diagnosis to start of first-line treatment 3.0 days (IQR 1.0-7.0, and to start of second-line treatment 7.0 days (IQR 4.0-16.Compared to conventional culture and DST, Xpert had a shorter result turn-around-time and excellent concordance to detect RR-TB. Time from sputum collection to start of second-line treatment was reduced to one week. The yield of Xpert could be maximized by increasing referrals from penitentiary and HIV centers to TB centers.

  16. Effect of Introducing Xpert MTB/RIF to Test and Treat Individuals at Risk of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Sanne Christine; Tursynbayeva, Aigul; Koptleuova, Aliya; Murzakhmetova, Zauresh; Murzabekova, Zauresh; Bigalieva, Lyazzat; Aubakirova, Moldir; Pak, Svetlana; van den Hof, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) was piloted in Kazakhstan to detect tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance (RR-)TB among individuals at risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR-) TB. This study assessed the performance of Xpert compared to conventional diagnostic methods, RR-TB case detection among various risk groups, treatment initiation and time to diagnosis and treatment. Eligible individuals were tested with Xpert, smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST) at the national TB reference laboratory and three provincial laboratories. Data was collected prospectively from August 2012 to May 2013 from routine laboratory and treatment registers. A total of 5,611 Xpert tests were performed mostly targeting contacts of MDR-TB patients, 'other' presumptive MDR-TB patients, and retreatment cases (26%, 24% and 22%, respectively). Compared to phenotypic DST, the positive predictive value of Xpert to detect RR-TB was 93.1% and 96.4% and the negative predictive value was 94.6% and 92.7% using solid and liquid culture media, respectively. RR-TB detection was highest among (former) prisoners, retreatment cases, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and TB patients with positive smears after intensive phase of treatment (59%, 58%, 54% and 53% among TB positives, respectively). 88.9% of RR-TB patients were registered to have started second-line TB treatment. Median time to diagnosis with Xpert was 0.0 days (IQR 0.0-1.0), time from diagnosis to start of first-line treatment 3.0 days (IQR 1.0-7.0), and to start of second-line treatment 7.0 days (IQR 4.0-16). Compared to conventional culture and DST, Xpert had a shorter result turn-around-time and excellent concordance to detect RR-TB. Time from sputum collection to start of second-line treatment was reduced to one week. The yield of Xpert could be maximized by increasing referrals from penitentiary and HIV centers to TB centers.

  17. The Importance of Implementation Strategy in Scaling Up Xpert MTB/RIF for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in the Indian Health-Care System: A Transmission Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salje, Henrik; Andrews, Jason R.; Deo, Sarang; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Sun, Amanda Y.; Pai, Madhukar; Dowdy, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background India has announced a goal of universal access to quality tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment. A number of novel diagnostics could help meet this important goal. The rollout of one such diagnostic, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is being considered, but if Xpert is used mainly for people with HIV or high risk of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in the public sector, population-level impact may be limited. Methods and Findings We developed a model of TB transmission, care-seeking behavior, and diagnostic/treatment practices in India and explored the impact of six different rollout strategies. Providing Xpert to 40% of public-sector patients with HIV or prior TB treatment (similar to current national strategy) reduced TB incidence by 0.2% (95% uncertainty range [UR]: −1.4%, 1.7%) and MDR-TB incidence by 2.4% (95% UR: −5.2%, 9.1%) relative to existing practice but required 2,500 additional MDR-TB treatments and 60 four-module GeneXpert systems at maximum capacity. Further including 20% of unselected symptomatic individuals in the public sector required 700 systems and reduced incidence by 2.1% (95% UR: 0.5%, 3.9%); a similar approach involving qualified private providers (providers who have received at least some training in allopathic or non-allopathic medicine) reduced incidence by 6.0% (95% UR: 3.9%, 7.9%) with similar resource outlay, but only if high treatment success was assured. Engaging 20% of all private-sector providers (qualified and informal [providers with no formal medical training]) had the greatest impact (14.1% reduction, 95% UR: 10.6%, 16.9%), but required >2,200 systems and reliable treatment referral. Improving referrals from informal providers for smear-based diagnosis in the public sector (without Xpert rollout) had substantially greater impact (6.3% reduction) than Xpert scale-up within the public sector. These findings are subject to substantial uncertainty regarding private-sector treatment patterns, patient care-seeking behavior

  18. Implementing the Xpert® MTB/RIF Diagnostic Test for Tuberculosis and Rifampicin Resistance: Outcomes and Lessons Learned in 18 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ardizzoni

    Full Text Available The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert is an automated molecular test for simultaneous detection of tuberculosis (TB and rifampicin resistance, recommended by the World Health Organization as the preferred diagnostic method for individuals presumed to have multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB or HIV-associated TB. We describe the performance of Xpert and key lessons learned during two years of implementation under routine conditions in 33 projects located in 18 countries supported by Médecins Sans Frontières across varied geographic, epidemiological and clinical settings.Xpert was used following three strategies: the first being as the initial test, with microscopy in parallel, for all presumptive TB cases; the second being only for patients at risk of MDR-TB, or with HIV- associated TB, or presumptive paediatric TB; and the third being as the initial test for these high-risk patients plus as an add-on test to microscopy in others. Routine laboratory data were collected, using laboratory registers. Qualitative data such as logistic aspects, human resources, and tool acceptance were collected using a questionnaire.In total, 52,863 samples underwent Xpert testing from April 2011 to December 2012. The average MTB detection rate was 18.5%, 22.3%, and 11.6% for the three different strategies respectively. Analysis of the results on samples tested in parallel showed that using Xpert as add-on test to microscopy would have increased laboratory TB confirmation by 49.7%, versus 42.3% for Xpert replacing microscopy. The main limitation of the test was the high rate of inconclusive results, which correlated with factors such as defective modules, cartridge version (G3 vs. G4 and staff experience. Operational and logistical hurdles included infrastructure renovation, basic computer training, regular instrument troubleshooting and maintenance, all of which required substantial and continuous support.The implementation of Xpert was feasible and significantly increased TB

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of microscopic observation drug susceptibility test versus Xpert MTB/Rif test for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV patients in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusimbi, Simon; Kwesiga, Brendan; Rodrigues, Rashmi; Haile, Melles; de Costa, Ayesha; Bogg, Lennart; Katamba, Achilles

    2016-10-10

    Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) and Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) are highly sensitive tests for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of utilizing MODS versus Xpert for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in HIV infected patients in Uganda. A decision analysis model comparing MODS versus Xpert for TB diagnosis was used. Costs were estimated by measuring and valuing relevant resources required to perform the MODS and Xpert tests. Diagnostic accuracy data of the tests were obtained from systematic reviews involving HIV infected patients. We calculated base values for unit costs and varied several assumptions to obtain the range estimates. Cost effectiveness was expressed as costs per TB patient diagnosed for each of the two diagnostic strategies. Base case analysis was performed using the base estimates for unit cost and diagnostic accuracy of the tests. Sensitivity analysis was performed using a range of value estimates for resources, prevalence, number of tests and diagnostic accuracy. The unit cost of MODS was US$ 6.53 versus US$ 12.41 of Xpert. Consumables accounted for 59 % (US$ 3.84 of 6.53) of the unit cost for MODS and 84 % (US$10.37 of 12.41) of the unit cost for Xpert. The cost effectiveness ratio of the algorithm using MODS was US$ 34 per TB patient diagnosed compared to US$ 71 of the algorithm using Xpert. The algorithm using MODS was more cost-effective compared to the algorithm using Xpert for a wide range of different values of accuracy, cost and TB prevalence. The cost (threshold value), where the algorithm using Xpert was optimal over the algorithm using MODS was US$ 5.92. MODS versus Xpert was more cost-effective for the diagnosis of PTB among HIV patients in our setting. Efforts to scale-up MODS therefore need to be explored. However, since other non-economic factors may still favour the use of Xpert, the current cost of the Xpert cartridge still needs to be reduced further by more than

  20. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  1. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  2. Analyse de l’interaction entre l’éclosion des feux de forêts et les types de bioclimat au Nord du Maroc – cas de la région du Rif occidental -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham MHARZI ALAOUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Morocco, as a country with arid and semi-arid climate is vulnerable to climate change and presents many challenges for the future of the forest resources, mainly their vulnerability to forest fires. In addition, Moroccan forests are extremely flammable, especially in summer when the water content of plants, soil and the air become very low. This is especially noticeable in the Rif region (North of Morocco where almost 65% of the phenomenon of wildfires across the country are concentrated. To deal with this new situation, the development of a prevention plan against forest fires requires an appropriate analysis of forest fire phenomenon and its response to the climate and vegetation changes. The present study has the goal to establish a spatio-temporal analysis of fires based on bioclimatic types because of the inclusive relationship between vegetation and climate. The fires that occurred in the rif region between 1997-2011 were analyzed and classified according to the affected area during the fire episode. The analysis has shown that almost 80% of the burnt area during the year were recorded only during August and September. Thereafter, using a two-factor ANOVA showed a significant difference of the fires spatial distribution according to the bioclimatic types, mainly for the warm variant of bioclimatic type where the development of the biomass is very important.

  3. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  4. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  5. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  6. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  7. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  8. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  9. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa, Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  10. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  11. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  12. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  13. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane earthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years

  14. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Response of the RIF-1 tumor in vitro and in C3H/Km mice to x-radiation (cell survival, regrowth delay, and tumor control), chemotherapeutic agents, and activated macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.M.; Twentyman, P.R.; Zamvil, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation response of logarithmic growth phase and fed plateau phase RIF-1 cells in vitro was found to be characterized by D 0 values of 110 and 133 rads and extrapolation numbs of 36 and 28, respectively. The response of the tumor in vivo to X-irradiation in nonanesthetized mice showed a dependence on the tumor implantation site. In the leg muscle, the response indicated that most cells were at an intermediate level of oxygenation, whereas in the subcutaneous tissue of the flank, the response of the tumor indicated that it had a small fraction of hypoxic cells of maximum radioresistance. Misonidazole radiosensitized the leg-implanted tumor as measured both by cell survival and regrowth delay. The tumor was relatively insensitive to a single dose of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, sensitive to a single dose of cis-platinum, and highly sensitive to a single dose of cyclophosphamide

  16. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  17. Status of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchymenko, A

    1983-08-01

    A summary is presented of the status of load management, defined as any activity by an electric utility to affect the size and characteristics of its load. Load management is currently viewed by electric utilities as an important tool for marketing electricity in a competitive fuel situation. A major aim of the National Energy Program is to reduce Canada's dependence on oil by 1990 to 10% of the energy used by all markets. As a result, electricity may play a greater role in the supply of primary energy. Research in load management has been directed mostly towards the residential market, especially direct control of domestic hot water heaters and air conditioners. Studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. to determine user's receptiveness to direct control of loads and thermal energy storage systems indicate that these load management techniques are in most cases not acceptable to customers, who prefer voluntary reduction in demand. The potential exists in the industrial market to use load management to assist in electrifying many of the fossil fuel-fired processes at competitive energy prices. Some of the more important applications include an industrial heat pump to heat liquids to 120{degree}C, induction heating for melting and heat treating of metals, and mechanical vapor recompression equipment to produce proces steam. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Options to Expand HIV Viral Load Testing in South Africa: Evaluation of the GeneXpert® HIV-1 Viral Load Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Gous

    Full Text Available Expansion of HIV viral load (VL testing services are required to meet increased targets for monitoring patients on antiretroviral treatment. South Africa currently tests >4million VLs per annum in 16 highly centralised, automated high-throughput laboratories. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid was evaluated against in-country predicates, the Roche Cobas Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1RT, to investigate options for expanding VL testing using GeneXpert's random access, polyvalent capabilities and already established footprint in South Africa with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (207 sites. Additionally, the performance of Xpert HIV-1VL on alternative, off-label specimen types, Dried Blood Spots (DBS and whole blood, was investigated.Precision, accuracy (agreement and clinical misclassification (1000cp/ml of Xpert HIV-1VL plasma was compared to Taqmanv2 (n = 155 and Abbott HIV-1 RT (n = 145. Misclassification of Xpert HIV-1VL was further tested on DBS (n = 145 and whole blood (n = 147.Xpert HIV-1VL demonstrated 100% concordance with predicate platforms on a standardised frozen, plasma panel (n = 42 and low overall percentage similarity CV of 1.5% and 0.9% compared to Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1 RT, respectively. On paired plasma clinical specimens, Xpert HIV-1VL had low bias (SD 0.32-0.37logcp/ml and 3% misclassification at the 1000cp/ml threshold compared to Taqmanv2 (fresh and Abbott HIV-1 RT (frozen, respectively. Xpert HIV-1VL on whole blood and DBS increased misclassification (upward by up to 14% with increased invalid rate. All specimen testing was easy to perform and compatible with concurrent Xpert MTB/RIF Tuberculosis testing on the same instrument.The Xpert HIV-1VL on plasma can be used interchangeably with existing predicate platforms in South Africa. Whole blood and DBS testing requires further investigation, but polyvalency of the GeneXpert offers a solution to extending VL testing services.

  19. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  20. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  1. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  2. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  3. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  4. Load proportional safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    This brake is a self-energizing mechanical friction brake and is intended for use in a rotary drive system. It incorporates a torque sensor which cuts power to the power unit on any overload condition. The brake is capable of driving against an opposing load or driving, paying-out, an aiding load in either direction of rotation. The brake also acts as a no-back device when torque is applied to the output shaft. The advantages of using this type of device are: (1) low frictional drag when driving; (2) smooth paying-out of an aiding load with no runaway danger; (3) energy absorption proportional to load; (4) no-back activates within a few degrees of output shaft rotation and resets automatically; and (5) built-in overload protection.

  5. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  6. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  7. In situ remediation and phytotoxicity assessment of lead-contaminated soil by biochar-supported nHAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhangmei; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Fang, Jianzhang; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a kind of biochar-supported nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP@BC) material was used in in-situ remediation of lead-contaminated soil. Column experiments were performed to compare the mobility of nHAP@BC and Bare-nHAP. The immobilization, accumulation and toxic effects of Pb in the after-amended soil were assessed by the in vitro toxicity tests and pot experiments. The column experiments showed a significant improvement in the mobility of nHAP@BC. The immobilization rate of Pb in the soil was 74.8% after nHAP@BC remediation. Sequential extraction procedures revealed that the residual fraction of Pb increased by 66.6% after nHAP@BC remediation, which greatly reduced the bioavailability of Pb in the soil. In addition, pot experiments indicated that nHAP@BC could effectively reduce the upward translocation capacity of Pb in a soil-plant system. The concentration of Pb in the aerial part of the cabbage mustard was 0.1 mg/kg, which is lower than the tolerance limit (0.3 mg/kg). nHAP@BC can remediate Pb-contaminated soil effectively, which can restore soil quality for planting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  9. DYNAMIC LOAD DAMPER MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present their findings associated with their modeling of a dynamic load damper. According to the authors, the damper is to be installed onto a structure or its element that may be exposed to impact, vibration or any other dynamic loading. The damper is composed of paralleled or consecutively connected viscous and elastic elements. The authors study the influence of viscosity and elasticity parameters of the damper produced onto the regular displacement of points of the structure to be protected and onto the regular acceleration transmitted immediately from the damper to the elements positioned below it.

  10. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  11. Fuel Load (FL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  12. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  13. Loading device for incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.

    1983-01-01

    An incinerator for radioactive waste is described. Heat radiation from the incinerator into the loading device is reduced by the design of the slider with a ceramic plate and the conical widening of the pot, and also by fixing a metal plate between the pot and the floor. (PW) [de

  14. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  15. EQUATING FACULTY LOADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OOSTING, KENNETH W.

    AT ALPENA COMMUNITY COLLEGE, A NORMAL TEACHING LOAD FOR ANY FACULTY MEMBER IS 14-16 SEMESTER HOURS, WITH 75-125 STUDENTS AND 2-3 PREPARATIONS. VARIATIONS FROM THE SCHEDULE ARE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SPECIFIC FORMULAS RELATING TO TOTAL MEMBERS OF STUDENTS, NUMBERS OF PREPARATIONS, ASSIGNMENT TO ENGLISH COMPOSITION CLASSES, NEW COURSES, AND CLASSES…

  16. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  17. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  18. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  19. Temoporfin-loaded liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Freisleben, Ines; Steiniger, Frank

    2010-01-01

    . In contrast, if phospholipids with longer fatty acid chains (distearoylphosphatidylcholine/-glycerol) were used, phase transitions were well above body temperature even at high drug load. Size and thermal behavior were not distinctly influenced by the addition of pegylated lipids but cryo-electron microscopic...

  20. Distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, V.; Andonov, D.; Gagovski, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the interactive distribution load forecast application that performs the distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads. It consists of two major parts implemented in Fortran and Visual Basic. The Fortran part is used for the forecasts computations. It consists of two methods: Load Transfer Coupling Curve Fitting (LTCCF) and load Forecast Using Curve Shape Clustering (FUCSC). LTCCF is used to 'correct' the contaminated data because of load transfer among neighboring distribution areas. FUCSC uses curve shape clustering to forecast the distribution loads of small areas. The forecast for each small area is achieved by using the shape of corresponding cluster curve. The comparison of forecasted loads of the area with historical data will be used as a tool for the correction of the estimated horizon load. The Visual Basic part is used to provide flexible interactive user-friendly environment. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  2. Tuberculosis Case Finding With Combined Rapid Point-of-Care Assays (Xpert MTB/RIF and Determine TB LAM) in HIV-Positive Individuals Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridia, Marco; Ciccacci, Fausto; Andreotti, Mauro; Hassane, Archa; Sidumo, Zita; Magid, Nurja A; Sotomane, Horacio; David, Muhlavasse; Mutemba, Elsa; Cebola, Junia; Mugunhe, Remigio Josè; Riccardi, Fabio; Marazzi, Maria Cristina; Giuliano, Marina; Palombi, Leonardo; Mancinelli, Sandro

    2017-11-13

    Tuberculosis is a major health concern in several countries, and effective diagnostic algorithms for use in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients are urgently needed. At prescription of antiretroviral therapy, all patients in 3 Mozambican health centers were screened for tuberculosis, with a combined approach: World Health Organization (WHO) 4-symptom screening (fever, cough, night sweats, and weight loss), a rapid test detecting mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan in urine (Determine TB LAM), and a molecular assay performed on a sputum sample (Xpert MTB/RIF; repeated if first result was negative). Patients with positive LAM or Xpert MTB/RIF results were referred for tuberculosis treatment. Among 972 patients with a complete diagnostic algorithm (58.5% female; median CD4 cell count, 278/μL; WHO HIV stage I, 66.8%), 98 (10.1%) tested positive with Xpert (90, 9.3%) or LAM (34, 3.5%) assays. Compared with a single-test Xpert strategy, dual Xpert tests improved case finding by 21.6%, LAM testing alone improved it by 13.5%, and dual Xpert tests plus LAM testing improved it by 32.4%. Rifampicin resistance in Xpert-positive patients was infrequent (2.5%). Among patients with positive results, 22 of 98 (22.4%) had no symptoms at WHO 4-symptom screening. Patients with tuberculosis diagnosed had significantly lower CD4 cell counts and hemoglobin levels, more advanced WHO stage, and higher HIV RNA levels. Fifteen (15.3%) did not start tuberculosis treatment, mostly owing to rapidly deteriorating clinical conditions or logistical constraints. The median interval between start of the diagnostic algorithm and start of tuberculosis treatment was 7 days. The prevalence of tuberculosis among Mozambican HIV-positive patients starting antiretroviral therapy was 10%, with limited rifampicin resistance. Use of combined point-of-care tests increased case finding, with a short time to treatment. Interventions are needed to remove logistical barriers and prevent presentation

  3. Load theory behind the wheel; perceptual and cognitive load effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2017-09-01

    Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load. The effect of load on driving behaviour was also analysed, with significant differences in driving behaviour under perceptual and cognitive load. In addition, the effect of perceptual load on drivers' levels of awareness was investigated. High perceptual load significantly increased inattentional blindness and deafness, for stimuli that were both relevant and irrelevant to driving. High perceptual load also increased RTs to hazards. The current study helps to advance Load Theory by illustrating its usefulness outside of traditional paradigms. There are also applied implications for driver safety and roadway design, as the current study suggests that perceptual and cognitive load are important factors in driver attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Load handling gripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus for releasably engaging and moving workpieces comprises pivotable gripper jaws with a spring-loaded plunger to maintain the jaws in a closed condition. The plunger is slidable in a bore in a housing and the end of the plunger remote from the jaws cooperates with a blind end of the bore to provide a gas cushion. A rod in conjunction with a backplate (not shown) are provided to cause the jaws to open and release a workpiece on axial movement of the housing in a first direction through a predetermined distance and releasable locking means maintain the jaws in an open condition. On axial movement of the housing in the reverse direction the locking means are released to allow the spring-loaded plunger to return to a position to close to jaws. (author)

  5. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2018-01-01

    of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal....... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer......-related lymphedema symptoms (heaviness, swelling, pain, tightness) reported using a numeric rating scale (0-10). Order of low- versus heavy-load was randomized. All outcomes were assessed pre-, immediately post-, and 24- and 72-hours post-exercise. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes over...

  6. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  7. TFTR generator load assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.

    1975-10-01

    Typical experimental load demands on the TFTR generators are illustrated based on the electrical characteristics of the field coils, the coil leads, the main bus work, the various auxiliary bus work, the rectifiers, and transformers. The generator MW capacities are shown to be adequate for the proposed experimental operations with allowances made for variations in the final designs. The generator MVA capacities are shown to be adequate provided portions of the TF and EF rectifiers are freewheeled at selected times

  8. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  9. Plastic limit loads for cylindrical shell intersections under combined loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopinsky, V.N.; Berkov, N.A.; Vogov, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, applied methods of nonlinear analysis and results of determining the plastic limit loads for shell intersection configurations under combined internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loadings are presented. The numerical analysis of shell intersections is performed using the finite element method, geometrically nonlinear shell theory in quadratic approximation and plasticity theory. For determining the load parameter of proportional combined loading, the developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. The graphical results for model of cylindrical shell intersection under different two-parameter combined loadings (as generalized plastic limit load curves) and three-parameter combined loading (as generalized plastic limit load surface) are presented on the assumption that the internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loads were applied in a proportional manner. - Highlights: • This paper presents nonlinear two-dimensional FE analysis for shell intersections. • Determining the plastic limit loads under combined loading is considered. • Developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. • Plastic deformation mechanism in shell intersections is discussed. • Results for generalized plastic limit load curves of branch intersection are presented

  10. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  11. Cognitive Load and Strategic Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between the cognitive load manipulation and strategic sophistication. The cognitive load manipulation is designed to reduce the subject's cognitive resources that are available for deliberation on a choice. In our experiment, subjects are placed under a large cognitive load (given a difficult number to remember) or a low cognitive load (given a number which is not difficult to remember). Subsequently, the subjects play a one-shot game then they are asked to recall...

  12. Research of Impact Load in Large Electrohydraulic Load Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stronger impact load will appear in the initial phase when the large electric cylinder is tested in the hardware-in-loop simulation. In this paper, the mathematical model is built based on AMESim, and then the reason of the impact load is investigated through analyzing the changing tendency of parameters in the simulation results. The inhibition methods of impact load are presented according to the structural invariability principle and applied to the actual system. The final experimental result indicates that the impact load is inhibited, which provides a good experimental condition for the electric cylinder and promotes the study of large load simulator.

  13. Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yong, Taiyou

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a demand response load following strategy for an interconnected source and load system, in which we utilize traditional units and population of cooling thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to follow the mismatched power caused by the load activities and the renewable power...... injection in real time. In the demand side of power systems, these TCLs are often affiliated to a bus load agent and can be aggregated to multiple TCL aggregators. Firstly, aggregate evaluation of the TCL aggregator is carried out based on a bilinear aggregate model so as to derive the available regulation...

  14. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF m...

  15. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  16. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  17. Spreading the load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, Greg

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the management of power demand by the regional electricity companies in the United Kingdom so that consumers use most power at times when the pool price is at its lowest. The use of teleswitching for load management, the control of the heating of large residential buildings, the power demand of supermarkets with 24hr opening, financial incentives, and the forecasting of demand are discussed. Details are given of the work of the operational forecasting team, and the matching of demand with generators availability by the scheduling team of the National Grid. (UK)

  18. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Containing 12 new chapters, this second edition contains offers increased-coverage of weather correction and normalization of forecasts, anticipation of redevelopment, determining the validity of announced developments, and minimizing risk from over- or under-planning. It provides specific examples and detailed explanations of key points to consider for both standard and unusual utility forecasting situations, information on new algorithms and concepts in forecasting, a review of forecasting pitfalls and mistakes, case studies depicting challenging forecast environments, and load models illustrating various types of demand.

  19. Dynamic stability under sudden loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simitses, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of dynamic stability of elastic structures subjected to sudden (step) loads is discussed. The various criteria and related methodologies for estimating critical conditions are presented with the emphasis on their similarities and differences. These are demonstrated by employing a simple mechanical model. Several structural configurations are analyzed, for demonstration purposes, with the intention of comparing critical dynamic loads to critical static loads. These configurations include shallow arches and shallow spherical caps, two bar frames, and imperfect cylindrical shells of metallic as well as laminated composite construction. In the demonstration examples, the effect of static pre loading on the dynamic critical load is presented

  20. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  1. High thermal load component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1996-01-01

    A cooling tube made of a pure copper is connected to the inner portion of an armour (heat resistant member) made of an anisotropic carbon/carbon composite (CFC) material. The CFC material has a high heat conductivity in longitudinal direction of fibers and has low conductivity in perpendicular thereto. Fibers extending in the armour from a heat receiving surface just above the cooling tube are directly connected to the cooling tube. A portion of the fibers extending from a heat receiving surface other than portions not just above the cooling tube is directly bonded to the cooling tube. Remaining fibers are disposed so as to surround the cooling tube. The armour and the cooling tube are soldered using an active metal flux. With such procedures, high thermal load components for use in a thermonuclear reactor are formed, which are excellent in a heat removing characteristic and hardly causes defects such as crackings and peeling. (I.N.)

  2. Pay for load demand - electricity pricing with load demand component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrko, Jurek; Sernhed, Kerstin; Abaravicius, Juozas

    2003-01-01

    This publication is part of a project called Direct and Indirect Load Control in Buildings. Peak load problems have attracted considerable attention in Sweden during last three winters, caused by a significant decrease in available reserve power, which is a consequence of political decisions and liberalisation of the electricity market. A possible way to lower peak loads, avoiding electricity shortages and reducing electricity costs both for users and utilities, is to make customers experience the price difference during peak load periods and, in this way, become more aware of their energy consumption pattern and load demand. As of January 1st 2001, one of the Swedish energy utilities - Sollentuna Energi - operating in the Stockholm area, introduced a new electricity tariff with differentiated grid fees based on a mean value of the peak load every month. This tariff was introduced for all residential customers in the service area. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which a Load Demand Component, included in electricity pricing, can influence energy use and load demand in residential buildings. What are the benefits and disadvantages for customers and utilities? This paper investigates the impact of the new tariff on the utility and different types of typical residential customers, making comparisons with previous tariff. Keywords Load demand, electricity pricing, tariff, residential customers, energy behaviour

  3. Dynamical load factor of impact loaded shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamical loaded structures can be analysed by spectral representations, which usually lead to an enormous computational effort. If it is possible to find a fitting dynamical load factor, the dynamical problem can be reduced to a statical one. The computation of this statical problem is much simpler. The disadvantage is that the dynamical load factor usually leads to a very rough approximation. In this paper it will be shown, that by combination of these two methods, the approximation of the dynamical load factor can be improved and the consumption of computation time can be enormously reduced. (Auth.)

  4. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  5. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  6. GeneXpert MTB/RIF dans le dépistage de la tuberculose pulmonaire à l’Hôpital Provincial Général de Référence de Bukavu, à l’Est de la République Démocratique du Congo: quelles leçons tirées après 10 mois d’utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupande, David; Kaishusha, David; Mihigo, Carine; Itongwa, Moise; Yenga, Gustave; Katchunga, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction En Afrique subsaharienne, les méthodes de diagnostic de la tuberculose sont insuffisantes et reposent essentiellement sur la microscopie. Elles constituent un réel frein pour le contrôle de la tuberculose. La présente étude voudrait évaluer les performances du GeneXpert MTB/RIF vis à vis de la microscopie classique de Ziehl-Neelsen à l’Hôpital Provincial Général de Référence de Bukavu, à l’Est de la République Démocratique du Congo après 10 mois d’utilisation. Méthodes Les résultats de la coloration au Ziehl-Neelsen et de la biologie moléculaire sur GeneXpert MTB/RIF de 452 patients suspects de tuberculose ont été colligés. La validité d’un test par rapport à l’autre dans la détection de la tuberculose a été étudiée. Résultats Dans le groupe entier, la fréquence de la tuberculose pulmonaire était de 16.3%. La positivité était significativement plus élevée pour le GeneXpert MTB/RIF que pour le Ziehl-Neelsen dans le groupe entier (15.9% vs 9.3%, p= 0.03) et chez les séropositifs pour le VIH (52.0% vs 24.0%; p = 0.007). Cependant, la sensibilité de GeneXpert MTB/RIF comparé au Ziehl-Neelsen n’était pas maximale (95.2%). Enfin, GeneXpert MTB/RIF a détecté 20.8% de résistance à la rifampicine. Conclusion La présente étude confirme la supériorité de GeneXpert MTB/RIF sur la coloration de Ziehl-Neelsen dans la détection de la tuberculose et dans la prédiction de la multi résistance. Son utilisation systématique couplée au Ziehl-Neelsen permettrait de mieux contrôler la tuberculose en Afrique subSaharienne. PMID:29187929

  7. Probabilistic Load Models for Simulating the Impact of Load Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    . It is concluded that the AR(12) model is favored with limited measurement data and that the joint-normal model may provide better results with a large data set. Both models can be applied in general to model load time series and used in time-sequential simulation of distribution system planning.......This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation coefficient, power spectral density, probabilistic distribution and quantile value. Two probabilistic load models, i.e. the joint-normal model and the autoregressive model of order 12 (AR(12)), are proposed...... to simulate the impact of load management. The joint-normal model is superior in modeling the tail region of the hourly load distribution and implementing the change of hourly standard deviation. Whereas the AR(12) model requires much less parameter and is superior in modeling the autocorrelation...

  8. High thermal load structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Seiichi; Toyota, Masahiko.

    1995-01-01

    A highly thermal load structure applied to a plasma-opposed equipment of a thermonuclear device comprises heat resistant protection tiles and a cooling tube disposed in the protection tiles. As the protection tiles, a carbon/carbon composite material is used. The carbon/carbon composite material on the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers disposed in one direction (one dimensionally) arranged from the heat receiving surface toward the cooling tube. The carbon/carbon composite material on the side opposite to the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers arranged two-dimensionally in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cooling tube. Then, the cooling tube is interposed between the one-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material and the two-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material, and they are joined with each other by vacuum brazing. This can improve heat removing performance. In addition, thermal stresses at the joined portion is reduced. Further, electromagnetic force generated in the thermonuclear device is reduced. (I.N.)

  9. High thermal load structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Seiichi; Toyota, Masahiko

    1995-06-16

    A highly thermal load structure applied to a plasma-opposed equipment of a thermonuclear device comprises heat resistant protection tiles and a cooling tube disposed in the protection tiles. As the protection tiles, a carbon/carbon composite material is used. The carbon/carbon composite material on the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers disposed in one direction (one dimensionally) arranged from the heat receiving surface toward the cooling tube. The carbon/carbon composite material on the side opposite to the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers arranged two-dimensionally in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cooling tube. Then, the cooling tube is interposed between the one-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material and the two-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material, and they are joined with each other by vacuum brazing. This can improve heat removing performance. In addition, thermal stresses at the joined portion is reduced. Further, electromagnetic force generated in the thermonuclear device is reduced. (I.N.).

  10. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  11. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the probability of survival (non-failure) and the probability of safe operation (strength greater than a limiting value) of structures subjected to random loads. These probabilities are formulated in terms of the probability distributions of the loads...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  12. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  13. Inexpensive Bolt-Load Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    "Built-in" gage determines whether large bolt or stud has been torqued to desired load and provides for continuous inspection to ensure proper load is being maintained. Gage detects longitudinal stress/strain bolt; requires no electronic or sonic test equipment.

  14. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  15. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  16. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam [KEPCO ENC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies.

  17. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam

    2012-01-01

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies

  18. Cognitive Load Theory: How Many Types of Load Does It Really Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive load theory has been traditionally described as involving three separate and additive types of load. Germane load is considered as a learning-relevant load complementing extraneous and intrinsic load. This article argues that, in its traditional treatment, germane load is essentially indistinguishable from intrinsic load, and therefore…

  19. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  20. Cognitive Load of Learner Control: Extraneous or Germane Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Vandewaetere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based learning environments become more tailored when learners can exert control over one or more parts of the learning process. Learner control (LC demands additional efforts of learners because, in addition to learning, they also have to monitor that learning. As a consequence, LC may cause additional cognitive load and even cognitive overload. The central question in this study is what type of cognitive load is induced by LC and whether the experienced load is related to learning outcomes. For this study, half of the students had control over task selection, while the other half had not. Within each condition, students were assigned to a single treatment, with the primary task to solely focus on the learning content, and a dual treatment, comprising a primary task and a secondary task. The results indicate that LC did not impose higher cognitive load as measured by secondary task scores and mental effort ratings.

  1. +Gz load and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Tarnowski, Adam; Lengsfeld, Kamila; Lewkowicz, Rafał; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Dereń, Miroslaw

    2013-05-01

    Pilots are constantly exposed to a number of environmental factors, which include +Gz load. Physiological changes evoked by +Gz stimuli have already been well investigated in aviation medicine. However, the influence of +Gz stimulation on executive functions in pilots has not yet been thoroughly explored. There were 20 pilot cadets between the ages of 19 and 22 yr who volunteered to participate in the experiment. The subjects were divided into two groups: the G-load group, which was exposed to accelerations in the centrifuge, and the control group, which did not undergo this stimulation. Executive functions were assessed by means of the Schulte tables and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. +Gz load exposure significantly improved attention switching. This relationship was valid for performance speed (M = 268.09 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 228.09 s in the posttest in the G-load group) and for the cumulative time of mistakes (M = 26.73 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 12 s in the posttest in the G-load group), whereas reproduction of visuospatial stimuli from memory deteriorated significantly under the influence of +Gz stimulation (M = 17.18 points in the posttest in the G-load group; M = 28.18 points in the posttest in the control group). These results suggest that the impact of +Gz load is not homogenous and unidirectional, since it improves attention switching but visuospatial working memory decreases under its influence. These aspects are particularly important for understanding the mechanisms responsible for maintaining situational awareness during the flight.

  2. Limit load assessment of centre cracked plates under biaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, C.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fitness-for-service of equipment and components containing defects is generally assessed using procedures such as BS 7910, API 579 and R6. There is currently little detailed advice in these procedures on the effects of biaxial and triaxial loading on fracture. This poster shows some theoretical bounding solutions of the plastic limit load for centre cracked plates under a variety of biaxial loading ratios and compares the estimates with those found by numerical methods using finite element (FE) analysis using Abacus CAE modelling software. The limit load of a structure is the maximum load that it can carry before plastic collapse occurs; this is often when the plastic zone has become large enough to spread from the crack tip to a remote boundary. For an elastic-perfectly plastic material, the irreversible deformation will continue at stresses no higher than the yield stress. The model for these limit load solutions is a bi-axially loaded plate of width 2W and height 2H, a centre crack of width 2a, acted on by remotely applied uniform stresses σ 2 perpendicular to the crack and Bσ 2 parallel to the crack, where B is the biaxial loading ratio, it means the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular stress. A quarter plate of an elastic-perfectly plastic material has been modelled. The results show that an exact solution has been found for negative and low positive values of B. For B > 1, the lower bound solution is conservative for all values of a/W and B

  3. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item

  4. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  5. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, R.W.; Denero, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for loading nuclear fuel pellets on trays for transfer in a system is described. A conveyor supplies pellets from a source to a loading station. When the pellets reach a predetermined position at the loading station, a manual or automatically operated arm pushes the pellets into slots on a tray and this process is repeated until pellet sensing switches detect that the tray is full. Thereupon, the tray is lowered onto a belt or other type conveyor and transferred to other apparatus in the system, such as a furnace for sintering, and in some cases, reduction of UO 2 . 2 to UO 2 . The pellets are retained on the tray and subsequently loaded directly into fuel rods to be used in the reactor core. (auth)

  6. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  7. Fuel rod pellet loading head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, T.E.

    1975-01-01

    An assembly for loading nuclear fuel pellets into a fuel rod comprising a loading head for feeding pellets into the open end of the rod is described. The pellets rest in a perforated substantially V-shaped seat through which air may be drawn for removal of chips and dust. The rod is held in place in an adjustable notched locator which permits alignment with the pellets

  8. Drug Loading of Mesoporous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Anne; Coffer, Jeff; Wang, Mengjia

    2011-03-01

    The nanostructuring of crystalline solids with low aqueous solubilities by their incorporation into mesoporous host materials is one route to improve the bioavailability of such solids. Earlier studies suggest that mesoporous Si (PSi), with pore widths in the range of 5-50 nm, is a candidate for such an approach. In this presentation, we describe efforts to load curcumin into free-standing microparticles of PSi. Curcumin is a compound extracted from turmeric root, which is an ingredient of curry. Curucmin has shown activity against selected cancer cell lines, bacteria, and other medical conditions. However, curcumin has a very low bioavailability due to its extremely low water solubility (0.6 μ g/mL). Incorporation of curcumin was achieved by straightforward loading of the molten solid at 185circ; C. Loading experiments were performed using PSi particles of two different size ranges, 45-75 μ m and 150-250 μ m. Longer loading times and ratio of curcumin to PSi leads to a higher percentage of loaded curcumin in both PSi particle sizes (as determined by weight difference). The extent of curcumin crystallinity was assessed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The solubility and release kinetics of loaded curcumin from the PSi was determined by extraction into water at 37circ; C, with analysis using UV-VIS spectrometry. NSF-REU and TCU.

  9. Environmental Aspects of Load Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-02-01

    This study approaches load management from an environmental perspective. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO 2 emissions reduction. The analysis is carried out on two levels: national - the Swedish electricity market, and local - one electric utility in southern Sweden. Our results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, due to the high hydropower production in Sweden, which is the demand following production source. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand. However, when it comes to a local (utility) level, where load management is considered as an alternative to an installation of peak diesel power plant, the benefits are clear. It is demonstrated that significant CO 2 emissions savings can be achieved due to avoided peak diesel power production

  10. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusich, R.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads

  11. Power Load Prediction Based on Fractal Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Kai, Liang; Cattani, Carlo; Wan-Qing, Song

    2015-01-01

    The basic theories of load forecasting on the power system are summarized. Fractal theory, which is a new algorithm applied to load forecasting, is introduced. Based on the fractal dimension and fractal interpolation function theories, the correlation algorithms are applied to the model of short-term load forecasting. According to the process of load forecasting, the steps of every process are designed, including load data preprocessing, similar day selecting, short-term load forecasting, and...

  12. (Prérif Central, Maroc septentrional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Gartet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El diapiro de sal de Tissa, situado en el Prerif central marroquí, afl ora en una zona de contacto estructural anormal donde la morfogénesis kárstica es muy activa. La solubilidad de las formaciones del complejo triásico es excesivamente fuerte. El macizo yesífero-salino representa un yacimiento de sal gema casi inagotable. Sin embargo, las aguas de Oued Lebène, en época de crecidas, socavan intensamente la base del macizo y terminan siendo afectadas por la contaminación química. La explotación de la cantera de sal, siendo tradicional, plantea numerosos problemas de planifi cación, a la vez que atenta severamente contra el medio ambiente (natural y urbano y contra la sociedad humana. Las medidas de defensa del medio ambiente adoptadas al respecto resultan por el momento insufi cientes dada la falta de una legislación práctica y rigurosa.

  13. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  14. Pattern fuel assembly loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.J.; Gerkey, K.S.; Miller, T.W.; Wylie, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes an interactive system for facilitating preloading of fuel rods into magazines, which comprises: an operator work station adapted for positioning between a supply of fuel rods of predetermined types, and the magazine defining grid locations for a predetermined fuel assembly; display means associated with the work station; scanner means associated with the work station and adapted for reading predetermined information accompanying the fuel rods; a rectangular frame adapted for attachment to one end of the fuel assembly loading magazine; prompter/detector means associated with the frame for detecting insertion of a fuel rod into the magazine; and processing means responsive to the scanner means and the sensing means for prompting the operator via the display means to pre-load the fuel rods into desired grid locations in the magazine. An apparatus is described for facilitating pre-loading of fuel rods in predetermined grid locations of a fuel assembly loading magazine, comprising: a rectangular frame adapted for attachment to one end of the fuel assembly loading magazine; and means associated with the frame for detecting insertion of fuel rods into the magazine

  15. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  16. Fifty years of genetic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the radiation effects on Drosophila. It was originally thought that irradiating Drosophila would decrease the average fitness of the population, thereby leading to information about the detrimental effects of mutations. Surprisingly, the fitness of the irradiated population turned out to be higher than that of the control population. The original motivation for the experiment was as a test of genetic load theory. The average fitness of a population is depressed by deleterious alleles held in the population by the balance between mutation and natural selection. The depression is called the genetic load of the population. The load dose not depend on the magnitude of the deleterious effect of alleles, but only on the mutation rate

  17. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

  18. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    3.1 Maximum range selection of input and output variables: ..... Wong K. P., Li A., and Law M.Y., “ Advanced Constrained Genetic Algorithm Load Flow Method”, IEE Proc. ... Dr. Parimal Acharjee passed B.E.E. from North Bengal University ...

  19. electrical load survey electrical load survey and forecast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    scattered nature of the area and low load factor. In this ... employment and allow decentralized production of the ... and viable concept from energy production and .... VII Yr. ×. kWh. VIII Yr. ×. kWh. IX Yr. ×. kWh. X Yr. ×. kWh. 1. Residential. 147.

  20. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  1. SPEAR 2 RF SYSTEM LOADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The design and performance of higher order mode (HOM) dampers for the SPEAR 2 RF system is presented. The SPEAR beam had experienced occasional periods of instability due to transverse oscillations which were driven by HOMs in the RF cavities. A substantial fraction of this RF energy was coupled out of the cavity into the waveguide connecting the cavity to the klystron. This waveguide was modified by adding a stub of smaller cross section, terminated by a ferrite tile load, to the system. Design considerations of the load, and its effect on HOMs and beam stability will be discussed

  2. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  3. Nuclear fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerkey, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    An automatic apparatus for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into a nuclear fuel element to be used in a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus consists of a vibratory bed capable of supporting corrugated trays containing rows of nuclear fuel pellets and arranged in alignment with the open ends of several nuclear fuel elements. A sweep mechanism is arranged above the trays and serves to sweep the rows of fuel pellets onto the vibratory bed and into the fuel element. A length detecting system, in conjunction with a pellet stopping mechanism, is also provided to assure that a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets are loaded into each fuel element

  4. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders are...

  5. TIME LOAD UPON STUDENTS IN PRIMARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borce Kostov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time load upon students is a central issue in the context of the overall load placed upon students. Most authors dealing with the issue of load upon students mainly approach this issue from the aspect of the time the students need to respond to the requirements posed by the school and otherwise concerning school. Such load is called time load. In our research, we investigated exactly this kind of time load placed upon students in the nine-year primary education in Macedonia. The main goal of our research was getting insight what is the students’ time load like and how big it is.

  6. Handling load with less stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Gamarnik, D.

    2006-01-01

    We study how the average performance of a system degrades as the load nears its peak capacity. We restrict our attention to the performance measures of average sojourn time and the large deviation rates of buffer overflow probabilities. We first show that for certain queueing systems, the average

  7. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-26

    75th percentiles. Results and Discussion: As an example, Figure 2 shows the median of the extracted HRE from the frontal channels in scale 5, for...the extracted HRE are able to distinguish the seven task loads better with q closer to 1, as it consistently reveals a decreasing median with

  8. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  9. Numerical prediction of slamming loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen J; Pedersen, Preben T

    2012-01-01

    It is important to include the contribution of the slamming-induced response in the structural design of large vessels with a significant bow flare. At the same time it is a challenge to develop rational tools to determine the slamming-induced loads and the prediction of their occurrence. Today i...

  10. Activités volcaniques sous-marines à la limite Jurassique-Crétacé dans le Rif externe (Maroc). Âge et relation avec la sédimentation et la paléogéographie du sillon rifain externe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaggagh, Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    Following the recent stratigraphic works carried out on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the external Rif chain (Mesorif area and Bou Haddoud nappe), numerous submarine volcanism traces have been discovered in Upper Oxfordian to Upper Berriasian deposits. These traces display various aspects: volcaniclastic complexes incorporated within Upper Berriasian marls; volcanic lavas and basalt clasts included in the breccias with clay matrix of Upper Oxfordian to Lower Berriasian age, or in brecciated Lower Tothonian calcareous beds of the Early Tithonian. These submarine volcanic activities took place in a carbonate platform environment during the Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian interval or in a pelagic basin from Late Tithonian onwards. They caused an intense brecciation of Upper Jurassic carbonate formations and a general dismantling of marly calcareous alternations of Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian. Therefore, the Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian deposits are marked by frequent stratigraphic gaps in many outcrops of Mesorif, Prerif areas and in the Bou Haddoud nappe.

  11. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S M; Larsen, G C; Antoniou, I; Lind, S O; Courtney, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  12. Peak load-impulse characterization of critical pulse loads in structural dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, G.R.; Lindberg, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    In presenting the characterization scheme, some general features are described first. A detailed analysis is given for the rigid-plastic system of one degree of freedom to illustrate the calculation of critical load curves in terms of peak load and impulse. This is followed by the presentation of critical load curves for uniformly loaded rigid-plastic beams and plates and for dynamic buckling of cylindrical shells under uniform lateral loads. The peak load-impulse characterization of critical pulse loads is compared with the dynamic load factor characterization, and some aspects of the history of the peak load-pulse scheme are presented. (orig./HP) [de

  13. The Effects of Load Distribution and Gradient on Load Carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    been reported in association with load carriage (Knapik & Reynolds, 1997). This injury causes trauma to the brachial plexus and has occurred in...Reynolds, 1997). Bessen et al., (1987) conducted an examination of 18 soldiers in basic training who suffered from brachial plexus injuries . Fifteen of...heads. Again, the importance of weight distribution on the human body is emphasized. Physical and occupational therapy are the first lines of

  14. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free of...

  15. Climate control loads prediction of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ziqi; Li, Wanyong; Zhang, Chengquan; Chen, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of vehicle climate control loads is proposed based on experiments. • Main climate control loads of the modeled vehicle are quantitatively analyzed. • Range reductions of the modeled vehicle under different conditions are simulated. - Abstract: A new model of electric vehicle climate control loads is provided in this paper. The mathematical formulations of the major climate control loads are developed, and the coefficients of the formulations are experimentally determined. Then, the detailed climate control loads are analyzed, and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) range reductions due to these loads are calculated under different conditions. It is found that in an electric vehicle, the total climate control loads vary with the vehicle speed, HVAC mode and blower level. The ventilation load is the largest climate control load, followed by the solar radiation load. These two add up to more than 80% of total climate control load in summer. The ventilation load accounts for 70.7–83.9% of total heating load under the winter condition. The climate control loads will cause a 17.2–37.1% reduction of NEDC range in summer, and a 17.1–54.1% reduction in winter, compared to the AC off condition. The heat pump system has an advantage in range extension. A heat pump system with an average heating COP of 1.7 will extend the range by 7.6–21.1% based on the simulation conditions.

  16. Low cognitive load strengthens distractor interference while high load attenuates when cognitive load and distractor possess similar visual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Shipstead, Zach; Osaka, Naoyuki; Engle, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distractors have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load. Some studies have shown that the cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the amount of cognitive load that a person is required to maintain. Lower amounts of cognitive load increase distractor interference by orienting attention toward visually similar distractors. Higher amounts of cognitive load attenuate distractor interference by depleting attentional resources needed to process distractors. In the present study, cognitive load consisted of faces (Experiments 1-3) or scenes (Experiment 2). Participants performed a selective attention task in which they ignored face distractors while judging a color of a target dot presented nearby, under differing amounts of load. Across these experiments distractor interference was greater in the low-load condition and smaller in the high-load condition when the content of the cognitive load had similar visual characteristic to the distractors. We also found that when a series of judgments needed to be made, the effect was apparent for the first trial but not for the second. We further tested an involvement of working memory capacity (WMC) in the load effect (Experiment 3). Interestingly, both high and low WMC groups received an equivalent effect of the cognitive load in the first distractor, suggesting these effects are fairly automatic.

  17. Phosphorous loads evaluation from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzanotte, V.

    1996-01-01

    With reference to the well known difficulty of quantifying non point phosphorous loads, as well as to their growing relative importance where point source leads decrease, a literature review has been carried out concerning soil export coefficients. On such basis, the values which seem to be the most appropriate for Italy have been estimated for different land use categories. The main mechanisms determining non point phosphorous load generation and the factors affecting their importance are also described. In the end, criteria for estimating the importance of non point sources in a basin are suggested to be used for deciding whether a traditional, parametric assessment (inevitably involving a certain error) can be acceptable or experimental measures are needed

  18. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    methods for predicting the regimes are tested. The dynamic relation between the weather and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions and the non-linearities are described using spline functions. The results are thoroughly evaluated and it is shown that the spline functions are suitable...... for handling the non-linear relations and that after applying an auto-regressive noise model the one-step ahead residuals do not contain further significant information....... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  19. Auditory perceptual load: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sandra; Spence, Charles; Dalton, Polly

    2017-09-01

    Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information. However, less research has addressed the question of whether the same principles hold in audition and, to date, the existing literature provides a mixed picture. Here, we review the evidence for and against the applicability of perceptual load theory in hearing, concluding that this question still awaits resolution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  1. The DEMO wall load challenge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horáček, Jan; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 046002. ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : DEMO * power loads * first wall Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4

  2. Modelling the pile load test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from experiment.

  3. Modelling the pile load test

    OpenAIRE

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from exper...

  4. Dispersion of Bed Load Particles

    OpenAIRE

    SAWAI, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    The motion of bed load particles is so irregular that they disperse remarkably with time.In this study, some flume tests using painted tracer particles were carried out, in which thedispersive property of tracers changed variously with sediment feed rate.In analysing this process, a stochastic simulation model is proposed where it is discussedabout the degree of exposure of individual particle near the bed surface and about the variationof its pick up rate. The exponential distribution of ste...

  5. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  6. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change...

  7. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.; Macivergan, R.; Mckenzie, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus incorporating a microprocessor control is provided for automatically loading nuclear fuel pellets into fuel rods commonly used in nuclear reactor cores. The apparatus comprises a split ''v'' trough for assembling segments of fuel pellets in rows and a shuttle to receive the fuel pellets from the split ''v'' trough when the two sides of the split ''v'' trough are opened. The pellets are weighed while in the shuttle, and the shuttle then moves the pellets into alignment with a fuel rod. A guide bushing is provided to assist the transfer of the pellets into the fuel rod. A rod carousel which holds a plurality of fuel rods presents the proper rod to the guide bushing at the appropriate stage in the loading sequence. The bushing advances to engage the fuel rod, and the shuttle advances to engage the guide bushing. The pellets are then loaded into the fuel rod by a motor operated push rod. The guide bushing includes a photocell utilized in conjunction with the push rod to measure the length of the row of fuel pellets inserted in the fuel rod

  8. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  9. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  10. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  11. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  12. Torque and Axial Loading Physics for Measuring Atmospheric Icing Load and Icing Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Measuring icing load and icing rate are important parameters for an atmospheric icing sensor. A new icing sensor has recently been designed and developed at Narvik University College for measuring atmospheric icing rate, icing load and icing type. Unlike the existing atmospheric icing sensors commercially available in market, which uses the axial loading for measuring icing load and icing rate, this new sensory system measures icing load and icing rate using the torque loading physics. The pe...

  13. The concept of target and critical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigal, D.F.

    1991-09-01

    Target and critical loads were initially developed for assessment and control of acidic deposition, but are being considered for other air pollutants such as ozone and air-borne toxic compounds. These loads are based on thresholds, with damage assumed to occur above some defined level of deposition. Many of the historically proposed targets for acidic deposition were based on arbitrary interpretations of data. The concept of critical loads has recently separated from that of target loads. A critical load is the amount of pollutant deposition, determined by technical analysis, above which there is a specific deleterious ecological effect. A target load is the deposition, determined by political agreement, above which unacceptable ecological damage occurs; it may be greater than the critical load because of political or economic considerations, or less to conservatively account for uncertainty in the estimation of the critical load. Recent definitions of critical loads include recognition that each kind of ecosystem and effect may require a different load. Geographic regions contain a mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial resources. If precise knowledge leads to different critical loads for each system, then how is the regional target load established? For better or worse, target and critical loads are likely to be used to regulate air pollutants. The philosophy of their establishment as thresholds, their quantitative validity, and their application in regulation all require careful examination. 36 refs., 3 figs

  14. Efficient Load Scheduling Method For Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijo M Joy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient load scheduling method to meet varying power supply needs is presented in this paper. At peak load times the power generation system fails due to its instability. Traditionally we use load shedding process. In load shedding process disconnect the unnecessary and extra loads. The proposed method overcomes this problem by scheduling the load based on the requirement. Artificial neural networks are used for this optimal load scheduling process. For generate economic scheduling artificial neural network has been used because generation of power from each source is economically different. In this the total load required is the inputs of this network and the power generation from each source and power losses at the time of transmission are the output of the neural network. Training and programming of the artificial neural networks are done using MATLAB.

  15. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  16. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface...

  17. Behaviour of eggshell membranes at tensile loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnková, M.J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Kumbár, V.

    46 B, December (2014), s. 44-48 ISSN 0324-1130 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tensile loading * loading rate * stress * strain strength Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.201, year: 2014

  18. Magnetoelastic Demagnetization of Steel under Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, K. R.; Novikov, V. F.; Neradovskii, D. F.; Kazakov, R. Kh.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetoelastic demagnetization of steel samples under cyclic tensile loads has been analyzed. It has been established that values of residual magnetization that correspond to peak loads are characterized by the power-law dependence on the number of loading cycles. In some cases, in the region of high loads, the qualitative transition to exponential dependence has been observed. Coefficients of the power-law approximation of peak magnetization depend on the value of amplitude load and have specific characteristics in the vicinity of characteristic loads. The ratios of approximated slide load coefficients depending on the load are common for the three considered samples, and there is an outburst in the vicinity of the fatigue limit, which can be used as the basis for developing the rapid nondestructive method for determination of this limit.

  19. Predicting Ultimate Loads for Wind Turbine Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, P. H.; Pierce, K.; Buhl, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical uncertainty of loads prediction using structural dynamics simulation codes and the requirements for the number and duration of simulations for obtaining robust load estimates

  20. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  1. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  2. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1993-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  3. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  4. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...

  5. Assembly procedure for Shot Loading Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routh, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document describes the assembly procedure for the Shot Loading Platform. The Shot Loading Platform is used by multiple equipment removal projects to load shielding shot in the annular spaces of the equipment storage containers. The platform height is adjustable to accommodate different sizes of storage containers and transport assemblies

  6. Stateful load balancing for parallel stream processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qingsong; Zhou, Yongluan

    2018-01-01

    -objective optimization problem, namely Minimum-Cost-Load-Balance (MCLB). We address MCLB with two approximate algorithms by a certain relaxation of the objectives: (1) a greedy algorithm ELB performs load balancing eagerly but relaxes the objective of load imbalance to a range; and (2) a periodic algorithm CLB aims...

  7. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated by ...

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  9. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  10. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

  11. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  12. Aeroelastic tailoring for gust load alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancelot, P.M.G.J.; De Breuker, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the equivalent static load method applied to gust response optimisation of an aircraft wing. Through the different optimisation runs, it is assessed that gust load cases can be critical and are difficult to constrain with the sole use of static load cases.

  13. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  14. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  15. Hybrid FRC under repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibres - polypropylene and steel, were tested under repeated loading. Mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150/150/150 mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100/100/400 (for flexural strength), short cylinders 150/60 mm (for impact strength) have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading at the age of 28 days curing time. Mix proportions were designed after DIN 1045 with max. aggregate size 8 mm and grading curve B 8. Portland Cement PC 400 in the amount of 450 kg. m -3 was applied and W/C ratio 0.55. Workability of mixes was measured by Vebe method and regulated by plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. Maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene + steel) was 1.0%. Dynamic forces generated in Schenck testing machine with frequency 16 Hz had sinusoidal wave form varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR at static four point bending test and working diagram force-deflection was carried out as well. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of falling weight test. Relationships between composition of fibre composites with different combination of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3, 0.5% by volume) and steel (0.5, 0.7, and 0.8% by volume) fibre content were obtained and technological properties of mixes as well. (author)

  16. Diffusion Indexes with Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    The use of large-dimensional factor models in forecasting has received much attention in the literature with the consensus being that improvements on forecasts can be achieved when comparing with standard models. However, recent contributions in the literature have demonstrated that care needs...... to the problem by using the LASSO as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model which is better suited for forecasting compared...... it to be an important alternative to PC....

  17. Greywater pollution variability and loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Madsen, Toke S.

    2009-01-01

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1...... per day, whereas the paraben loadings were below 1 mg per person per day. These data are highly relevant for comparing decentralised treatment options with existing end-of-pipe treatments, for feeding into risk assessments and for design purposes....

  18. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  19. Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, A.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data

  20. Manipulator vehicles and loading shovels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudermueller, G.; Krueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) is an institution jointly founded by electricity utilities, fuel cycle industries, and national research centers to provide specialist equipment for removing the consequences of accidents inside plants and recognizing damage in the immediate vicinity of such plants, maintain such equipment in an operational condition, and provide personnel instructed in work of this kind. The specialized technical equipment developed includes carriages, carrier vehicles for manipulators, grabs, TV cameras or measuring gear. In addition to manipulator vehicles, especially loading shovels are used. Radio-controlled vehicles are used where cable operation is either not reliable enough or has failed. (orig.) [de

  1. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  2. Automated fuel pin loading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  3. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  4. Pollution loads from stormwater overflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge of the volume of combined effluents outflowing from overflows is not enough to allow a direct evaluation of polluting loads discharged into final receptors; the hypothesis of complete mixing between sewage and stormwater flow, fed in at a pollutant concentration level equal to zero, hasn't proved to be successful. The amount of the outflowing loads largely depends on the contamination of the stormwater runoff before inflow into the drainage system and on sedimentation and resuspension phenomena. This paper reports the main aspects connected with wet and dry atmospheric deposition of pollutants and with paved surface wash-out phenomena. The origin of pollutants flush, due to the resuspension and mass transport of polluting substances stored up in the sewer during draughts, is also described. Attention is drawn to the importance of the behaviour of the different pollutants with respect to the sedimentation phenomena. Reference is made to evaluations conducted on a drainage system for the recovery of a small pre-alpine lake

  5. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  6. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  7. APS high heat load monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach

  8. Concurrent Working Memory Load Can Facilitate Selective Attention: Evidence for Specialized Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding, see record 2004-17825-003). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not.…

  9. Estimation of structural reliability under combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozuka, M.; Kako, T.; Hwang, H.; Brown, P.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    For the overall safety evaluation of seismic category I structures subjected to various load combinations, a quantitative measure of the structural reliability in terms of a limit state probability can be conveniently used. For this purpose, the reliability analysis method for dynamic loads, which has recently been developed by the authors, was combined with the existing standard reliability analysis procedure for static and quasi-static loads. The significant parameters that enter into the analysis are: the rate at which each load (dead load, accidental internal pressure, earthquake, etc.) will occur, its duration and intensity. All these parameters are basically random variables for most of the loads to be considered. For dynamic loads, the overall intensity is usually characterized not only by their dynamic components but also by their static components. The structure considered in the present paper is a reinforced concrete containment structure subjected to various static and dynamic loads such as dead loads, accidental pressure, earthquake acceleration, etc. Computations are performed to evaluate the limit state probabilities under each load combination separately and also under all possible combinations of such loads

  10. Classifying Drivers' Cognitive Load Using EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2017-01-01

    A growing traffic safety issue is the effect of cognitive loading activities on traffic safety and driving performance. To monitor drivers' mental state, understanding cognitive load is important since while driving, performing cognitively loading secondary tasks, for example talking on the phone, can affect the performance in the primary task, i.e. driving. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the reliable measures of cognitive load that can detect the changes in instantaneous load and effect of cognitively loading secondary task. In this driving simulator study, 1-back task is carried out while the driver performs three different simulated driving scenarios. This paper presents an EEG based approach to classify a drivers' level of cognitive load using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). The results show that for each individual scenario as well as using data combined from the different scenarios, CBR based system achieved approximately over 70% of classification accuracy.

  11. Wound healing in immediately loaded implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-06-01

    The orthopedic field has accumulated ample evidence that bone formation is related to functional loading and in general to physical activity. However, despite evidence that immediately loaded implants can be predictably successful, many clinicians still use the classical (delayed loading) treatment protocol. This paper examines the effects of loading on dental implants and discusses the advantages of immediate loading. The role of loading on augmented alveolar ridges is also addressed and provides evidence that early bone resorption may be controlled when bone is functionally loaded. Similar data are emerging for advanced augmentation techniques in order to control crestal bone loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Estimation of structural reliability under combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozuka, M.; Kako, T.; Hwang, H.; Brown, P.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    For the overall safety evaluation of seismic category I structures subjected to various load combinations, a quantitative measure of the structural reliability in terms of a limit state probability can be conveniently used. For this purpose, the reliability analysis method for dynamic loads, which has recently been developed by the authors, was combined with the existing standard reliability analysis procedure for static and quasi-static loads. The significant parameters that enter into the analysis are: the rate at which each load (dead load, accidental internal pressure, earthquake, etc.) will occur, its duration and intensity. All these parameters are basically random variables for most of the loads to be considered. For dynamic loads, the overall intensity is usually characterized not only by their dynamic components but also by their static components. The structure considered in the present paper is a reinforced concrete containment structure subjected to various static and dynamic loads such as dead loads, accidental pressure, earthquake acceleration, etc. Computations are performed to evaluate the limit state probabilities under each load combination separately and also under all possible combinations of such loads. Indeed, depending on the limit state condition to be specified, these limit state probabilities can indicate which particular load combination provides the dominant contribution to the overall limit state probability. On the other hand, some of the load combinations contribute very little to the overall limit state probability. These observations provide insight into the complex problem of which load combinations must be considered for design, for which limit states and at what level of limit state probabilities. (orig.)

  13. Opposite Effects of Capacity Load and Resolution Load on Distractor Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weiwei; Luck, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the load theory of attention, an increased perceptual load reduces distractor processing whereas an increased working memory load facilitates distractor processing. Here we raise the possibility that the critical distinction may instead be between an emphasis on resolution and an emphasis on capacity. That is, perceptual load manipulations typically emphasize resolution (fine-grained discriminations), whereas working memory load manipulations typically emphasize capacity (simulta...

  14. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  15. Dynamic loading of galvanized parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is divided into two parts: the theoretical part includes actual knowledge and points of view about degradation processes in construction materials, anticorrosion protection, zinc coat composition and high frequency fatigue. The laboratory part follow-up existing regulations contents Czech standards and formulate specifications for acquisition of objective information from acceleration la­bo­ra­to­ry tests in condensation chests, mechanical high frequency fatigue tests on pulsator machine and possibilities of evaluation of fatigue tests. Laboratory findings declare to fundamental types of damage of constructions with anticorrosion protection in real loading conditions with dynamic high frequency character. Laboratory tests were made in sulphide and chloride environments.

  16. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Following...... this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark...... and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found...

  17. High heat load synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Third generation synchrotron radiation sources currently being constructed worldwide will produce x-ray beams of unparalleled power and power density. These high heat fluxes coupled with the stringent dimensional requirements of the x-ray optical components pose a prodigious challenge to designers of x-ray optical elements, specifically x-ray mirrors and crystal monochromators. Although certain established techniques for the cooling of high heat flux components can be directly applied to this problem, the thermal management of high heat load x-ray optical components has several unusual aspects that may ultimately lead to unique solutions. This manuscript attempts to summarize the various approaches currently being applied to this undertaking and to point out the areas of research that require further development

  18. Diffusion Indexes With Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    2017-01-01

    The use of large-dimensional factor models in forecasting has received much attention in the literature with the consensus being that improvements on forecasts can be achieved when comparing with standard models. However, recent contributions in the literature have demonstrated that care needs...... to the problem by using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model...... in forecasting accuracy and thus find it to be an important alternative to PC. Supplementary materials for this article are available online....

  19. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  20. High voltage load resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  1. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches

  2. Filament instability under constant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastra, A. G.; Carusela, M. F.; D’Angelo, M. V.; Bruno, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buckling of semi-flexible filaments appears in different systems and scales. Some examples are: fibers in geophysical applications, microtubules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and deformation of polymers freely suspended in a flow. In these examples, instabilities arise when a system’s parameter exceeds a critical value, being the Euler force the most known. However, the complete time evolution and wavelength of buckling processes are not fully understood. In this work we solve analytically the time evolution of a filament under a constant compressive force in the small amplitude approximation. This gives an insight into the variable force scenario in terms of normal modes. The evolution is highly sensitive to the initial configuration and to the magnitude of the compressive load. This model can be a suitable approach to many different real situations.

  3. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology. © 2017 American

  4. Load to Failure and Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Amanda O.; Duncan, Douglas D.; Dobrasevic, Nikola; Marsh, Stephanie M.; Lemos, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tendinopathy is a frequent cause of shoulder pain that can lead to decreased strength and range of motion. Failures after using the single-row technique of rotator cuff repair have led to the development of the double-row technique, which is said to allow for more anatomical restoration of the footprint. Purpose: To compare 5 different types of suture patterns while maintaining equality in number of anchors. The hypothesis was that the Mason-Allen–crossed cruciform transosseous-equivalent technique is superior to other suture configurations while maintaining equality in suture limbs and anchors. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 25 fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were randomized into 5 suture configuration groups: single-row repair with simple stitch technique; single-row repair with modified Mason-Allen technique; double-row Mason-Allen technique; double-row cross-bridge technique; and double-row suture bridge technique. Load and displacement were recorded at 100 Hz until failure. Stiffness and bone mineral density were also measured. Results: There was no significant difference in peak load at failure, stiffness, maximum displacement at failure, or mean bone mineral density among the 5 suture configuration groups (P row rotator cuff repair to be superior to the single-row repair; however, clinical research does not necessarily support this. This study found no difference when comparing 5 different repair methods, supporting research that suggests the number of sutures and not the pattern can affect biomechanical properties. PMID:26665053

  5. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  6. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  7. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter. ... KK Mishra, R Gupta ... load varies from time to time, the non linear load ranging from voltage source type harmonic load (VSHL) dominant to current source type harmonic ...

  8. Multi-Capacity Load Cell Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif. M. OSMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Force measuring systems are usually used to calibrate force generated systems, it is not preferable to use load cells to measure forces less than 10 % of its nominal capacity. Several load cells are required to offer calibration facilities at sites to cover different ranges, this lead to difficulties in handling procedures, through the need for several carrying cases to carry this overweight in addition to the over cost of purchasing several load cells. This article concerns with introducing a new concept for designing a multi-capacity load cell as a new force standard in the field of measuring the force. This multi-capacity load cell will replace a set of load cells and reflects economically on the total cost and on easiness of handling procedures.

  9. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  10. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  11. AUTOMATIC LOAD SHARING OF TRANSFORMERS USING MICROCONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhun M; Akshara Shanmughan; Liya Immanual; Sreelakshmi V G

    2017-01-01

    The transformer is a static device, which converts power from one level to another level. The aim of the project is to protect the transformer under overload condition by load sharing. Due to overload on transformer, the efficiency drops and windings get overheated and may get burnt. Thus by sharing load on transformer, the transformer is protected. This will be done by connecting another transformer in parallel through a micro-controller. The micro controller compares the load on the first t...

  12. Effect of practice on perceptual load

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia-Ramirez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Within attention studies, Lavie's load theory (Lavie & Tsal, 1994; Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004) presented an account that could settle the question whether attention selects stimuli to be processed at an early or late stage of cognitive processing. This theory relied on the concepts of "perceptual load" and "attentional capacity", proposing that attentional resources are automatically allocated to stimuli, but when the perceptual load of the stimuli exceeds person's capacity, tas...

  13. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  14. Deterministic chaos in the processor load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbiniak, Zbigniew; Jozwiak, Ireneusz J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present the results of research whose purpose was to identify the phenomenon of deterministic chaos in the processor load. We analysed the time series of the processor load during efficiency tests of database software. Our research was done on a Sparc Alpha processor working on the UNIX Sun Solaris 5.7 operating system. The conducted analyses proved the presence of the deterministic chaos phenomenon in the processor load in this particular case

  15. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E; Papadopoulos, K [CRES (Greece); Borg, N van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S M [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  16. A no-load RF calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  17. Load prediction of stall regulated wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, A.; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Marine Structural Engineering; Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentua (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Measurements of blade loads on a turbine situated in a small wind farm shows that the highest blade loads occur during operation close to the peak power i.e. when the turbine operates in the stall region. In this study the extensive experimental data base has been utilised to compare loads in selected campaigns with corresponding load predictions. The predictions are based on time domain simulations of the wind turbine structure, performed by the aeroelastic code VIDYN. In the calculations a model were adopted in order to include the effects of dynamic stall. This paper describes the work carried out so far within the project and key results. 5 refs, 10 figs

  18. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-01

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  19. Working memory load modulates microsaccadic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Scatturin, Pietro; Galfano, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Microsaccades are tiny eye movements that individuals perform unconsciously during fixation. Despite that the nature and the functions of microsaccades are still lively debated, recent evidence has shown an association between these micro eye movements and higher order cognitive processes. Here, in two experiments, we specifically focused on working memory and addressed whether differential memory load could be reflected in a modulation of microsaccade dynamics. In Experiment 1, participants memorized a numerical sequence composed of either two (low-load condition) or five digits (high-load condition), appearing at fixation. The results showed a reduction in the microsaccadic rate in the high-load compared to the low-load condition. In Experiment 2, five red or green digits were always presented at fixation. Participants either memorized the color (low-load condition) or the five digits (high-load condition). Hence, visual stimuli were exactly the same in both conditions. Consistent with Experiment 1, microsaccadic rate was lower in the high-load than in the low-load condition. Overall, these findings reveal that an engagement of working memory can have an impact on microsaccadic rate, consistent with the view that microsaccade generation is pervious to top-down processes.

  20. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...... must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold method is recommended. In this paper this method is considered and some of the assumptions are examined...

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  2. Economic impact analysis of load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, D.K.; Karady, G.G.; Farmer, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Short term load forecasting is an essential function in electric power system operations and planning. Forecasts are needed for a variety of utility activities such as generation scheduling, scheduling of fuel purchases, maintenance scheduling and security analysis. Depending on power system characteristics, significant forecasting errors can lead to either excessively conservative scheduling or very marginal scheduling. Either can induce heavy economic penalties. This paper examines the economic impact of inaccurate load forecasts. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the effect of different load forecasting accuracy. Investigations into the effect of improving the daily peak load forecasts, effect of different seasons of the year and effect of utilization factors are presented

  3. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...... wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean...

  4. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    failure envelopes. A jacked installation test is successfully compared with existing models. Tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading applied at different loading rates are analysed. As expected, the bearing capacity of bucket foundations under transient lateral loading increases dramatically...... documents on bearing capacity and installation of bucket foundations are reviewed and the results from the models found in literature are compared to the experimental results obtained in the current study. Monotonic tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading until failure are compared with existing...

  5. Serendipitous SEU hardening of resistive load SRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.; Kirshman, J.F.; Pinkerton, S.D.; Hansel, S.J.; Crawford, K.B.; Crain, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    High and low resistive load versions of Micron Technology's MT5C1008C (128K x 8) and MT5C2561C (256K x 1) SRAMs were tested for SEU vulnerability. Contrary to computer simulation results, SEU susceptibility decreased with increasing resistive load. A substantially larger number of multiple-bit errors were observed for the low resistive load SRAMs, which also exhibited a 1 → 0 to 0 → 1 bit error ratio close to unity; in contrast, the high resistive load devices displayed a pronounced error bit polarity effect. Two distinct upset mechanisms are proposed to account for these observations

  6. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  7. Opposite effects of capacity load and resolution load on distractor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Luck, Steven J

    2015-02-01

    According to the load theory of attention, an increased perceptual load reduces distractor processing whereas an increased working memory load facilitates distractor processing. Here we raise the possibility that the critical distinction may instead be between an emphasis on resolution and an emphasis on capacity. That is, perceptual load manipulations typically emphasize resolution (fine-grained discriminations), whereas working memory load manipulations typically emphasize capacity (simultaneous processing of multiple relevant stimuli). To test the plausibility of this hypothesis, we used a visual working memory task that emphasized either the number of items to be stored (capacity load, retaining 2 vs. 4 colors) or the precision of the representations (resolution load, detecting small vs. large color changes). We found that an increased capacity load led to increased flanker interference (a measure of distractor processing), whereas an increased resolution load led to reduced flanker interference. These opposite effects of capacity load and resolution load on distractor processing mirror the previously described opposite effects of perceptual load and working memory load.

  8. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dazen, J.R.; Denero, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel pellet loading machine is described including an inclined rack mounted on a base and having parallel spaced grooves on its upper surface arranged to support fuel rods. A fuel pellet tray is adapted to be placed on a table spaced from the rack, the tray having columns of fuel pellets which are in alignment with the open ends of fuel rods located in the rack grooves. A transition plate is mounted between the fuel rod rack and the fuel pellet tray to receive and guide the pellets into the open ends of the fuel rods. The pellets are pushed into the fuel rods by a number of mechanical fingers mounted on a motor operated block which is moved along the pellet tray length by a drive screw driven by the motor. To facilitate movement of the pellets in the fuel rods the rack is mounted on a number of spaced vibrators which vibrate the fuel rods during fuel pellet insertion. A pellet sensing device movable into an end of each fuel rod indicates to an operator when each rod has been charged with the correct number of pellets

  9. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  10. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Sioux County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  11. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Johnson County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  12. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Ida County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  13. Load and resistance factor design of drilled shafts in shale for lateral loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A research project involving 32 drilled shaft load tests was undertaken to establish LRFD procedures for : design of drilled shafts subjected to lateral loads. Tests were performed at two Missouri Department of : Transportation (MoDOT) geotechnical r...

  14. Load power device and system for real-time execution of hierarchical load identification algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Madane, Mayura Arun; Zambare, Prachi Suresh

    2017-11-14

    A load power device includes a power input; at least one power output for at least one load; and a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output. A processor is structured to provide real-time execution of: (a) a plurality of load identification algorithms, and (b) event detection and operating mode detection for the at least one load.

  15. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  16. Peak load pricing lowers generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lande, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Before a utility implements peak load pricing for different classes of consumers, the costs and the benefits should be compared. The methodology described enables a utility to determine whether peak load pricing should be introduced for specific users. Cost-benefit analyses for domestic consumers and commercial/industrial consumers, showing break-even points are presented. (author)

  17. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  18. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme...

  19. Attentional capture under high perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2010-12-01

    Attentional capture by abrupt onsets can be modulated by several factors, including the complexity, or perceptual load, of a scene. We have recently demonstrated that observers are less likely to be captured by abruptly appearing, task-irrelevant stimuli when they perform a search that is high, as opposed to low, in perceptual load (Cosman & Vecera, 2009), consistent with perceptual load theory. However, recent results indicate that onset frequency can influence stimulus-driven capture, with infrequent onsets capturing attention more often than did frequent onsets. Importantly, in our previous task, an abrupt onset was present on every trial, and consequently, attentional capture might have been affected by both onset frequency and perceptual load. In the present experiment, we examined whether onset frequency influences attentional capture under conditions of high perceptual load. When onsets were presented frequently, we replicated our earlier results; attentional capture by onsets was modulated under conditions of high perceptual load. Importantly, however, when onsets were presented infrequently, we observed robust capture effects. These results conflict with a strong form of load theory and, instead, suggest that exposure to the elements of a task (e.g., abrupt onsets) combines with high perceptual load to modulate attentional capture by task-irrelevant information.

  20. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  1. Controllable Load Management Approaches in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshuang Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With rapid smart grid technology development, the customer can actively participate in demand-side management (DSM with the mutual information communication between the distributor operation company and the smart devices in real-time. Controllable load management not only has the advantage of peak shaving, load balance, frequency regulation, and voltage stability, but is also effective at providing fast balancing services to the renewable energy grid in the distributed power system. The load management faces an enormous challenge as the customer has a large number of both small residential loads and dispersed renewable sources. In this paper, various controllable load management approaches are discussed. The traditional controllable load approaches such as the end users’ controllable appliances, storage battery, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G, and heat storage are reviewed. The “broad controllable loads” management, such as the microgrid, Virtual Power Plant (VPP, and the load aggregator are also presented. Furthermore, the load characteristics, control strategies, and control effectiveness are analyzed.

  2. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protect persons shall be done in the working place or other area where blasting is to be performed. (c) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1318 Loading boreholes. (a...

  3. Synthetic jet actuation for load control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Hein; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of wind turbine blade loads is an important issue in the reduction of the costs of energy production. Reduction of the loads of a non-cyclic nature requires so-called smart rotor control, which involves the application of distributed actuators and sensors to provide fast and local

  4. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

    1998-05-01

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations

  5. Macrophyte Community Response to Nitrogen Loading and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empirical determination of nutrient loading thresholds that negatively impact seagrass communities have been elusive due to the multitude of factors involved. Using a mesocosm system that simulated Pacific Northwest estuaries, we evaluated macrophyte metrics across gradients of NO3 loading (0, 1.5, 3 and 6x ambient) and temperature (10 and 20 °C). Macroalgal growth, biomass, and C:N responded positively to increased NO3 load and floating algal mats developed at 20 ºC. Zostera japonica metrics, including C:N, responded more to temperature than to NO3 loading. Z. marina biomass exhibited a negative temperature effect and in some cases a negative NO3 effect, while growth rate increased with temperature. Shoot survival decreased at 20 ºC but was not influenced by NO3 loading. Wasting disease index exhibited a significant temperature by NO3 interaction consistent with increased disease susceptibility. Community shifts observed were consistent with the nutrient loading hypothesis at 20 ºC, but there was no evidence of other eutrophication symptoms due to the short residence time. The Nutrient Pollution Index tracked the NO3 gradient at 10 ºC but exhibited no response at 20 ºC. We suggest that systems characterized by cool temperatures, high NO3 loads, and short residence time may be resilient to many symptoms of eutrophication. Estuarine systems characterized by cool temperatures, high nutrient loads and rapid flushing may be resilient to some symptoms

  6. Duration of load effects of solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    Test methods for studying the effect of long-term loading on the load carrying capacity of structural wood are discussed. The impact of sampling procedures on test results is investigated and is exemplified. It is concluded from this investigation that the sampling method has a significant impact...

  7. Using Electroencephalography to Measure Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo; Paas, Fred; Grabner, Roland; van Gog, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Application of physiological methods, in particular electroencephalography (EEG), offers new and promising approaches to educational psychology research. EEG is identified as a physiological index that can serve as an online, continuous measure of cognitive load detecting subtle fluctuations in instantaneous load, which can help explain effects of…

  8. Modelling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2006-01-01

    of Least Constraint using the Udwadia-Kalaba equation and can be used to model all body to body slung load suspension types. The model gives an intuitive and easy-to-use way of modelling and simulating di erent slung load suspension types and it includes detection and response of wire slacking...

  9. Accommodating oversize and overweight loads : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Adequate management of oversize/overweight (OS/OW) permit loads throughout the state of Texas is : critical to maintaining a vibrant state economy. The growth in the number and size of permit loads in recent : years is clear evidence that new tools a...

  10. Damage Accumulation in Vertical Breakwaters due to Combined Impact Loading and Pulsating Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters used to protect for example an harbour from large waves usually consist of large concrete caissons placed on the seabed. The wave loads can be divided in two types, pulsating and impact loads. For some types of breakwaters especially the impact wave loads can be very large...

  11. Diluting the Burden of Load: Perceptual Load Effects Are Simply Dilution Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsal, Yehoshua; Benoni, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    The substantial distractor interference obtained for small displays when the target appears alone is reduced in large displays when the target is embedded among neutral letters. This finding has been interpreted as reflecting low-load and high-load processing, respectively, thereby supporting the theory of perceptual load (Lavie & Tsal, 1994).…

  12. 77 FR 53884 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on August 9, 2012, North American Electric Reliability Corporation submitted a compliance... Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards, 139 FERC ] 61,098, (Order No. 763) (2012). Any person...

  13. Achilles and Patellar Tendinopathy Loading Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malliaras, Peter; Barton, Christian J; Reeves, Neil D

    2013-01-01

    . Eccentric-concentric progressing to eccentric (Silbernagel combined) and eccentric-concentric isotonic (heavy-slow resistance; HSR) loading have also been investigated. In order for clinicians to make informed decisions, they need to be aware of the loading options and comparative evidence. The mechanisms...... mechanism that was consistently associated with improved clinical outcomes in both Achilles and patellar tendon rehabilitation was improved neuromuscular performance (e.g. torque, work, endurance), and Silbernagel-combined (Achilles) HSR loading (patellar) had an equivalent or higher level of evidence than...... isolated eccentric loading. In the Achilles tendon, a majority of studies did not find an association between improved imaging (e.g. reduced anteroposterior diameter, proportion of tendons with Doppler signal) and clinical outcomes, including all high-quality studies. In contrast, HSR loading...

  14. Simulation of Stochastic Loads for Fatigue Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    1989-01-01

    process by a Markov process. Two different spectra from two tubular joints in an offshore structure (one narrow banded and one wide banded) are considered in an example. The results show that the simple direct method is quite efficient and results in a simulation speed of about 3000 load cycles per second......A simple direct simulation method for stochastic fatigue-load generation is described in this paper. The simulation method is based on the assumption that only the peaks of the load process significantly affect the fatigue life. The method requires the conditional distribution functions of load...... ranges given the last peak values. Analytical estimates of these distribution functions are presented in the paper and compared with estimates based on a more accurate simulation method. In the more accurate simulation method samples at equidistant times are generated by approximating the stochastic load...

  15. Simulation of Stochastic Loads for Fatigue Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    process by a Markov process. Two different spectra from two tubular joints in an offshore structure (one narrow banded and one wide banded) are considered in an example. The results show that the simple direct method is quite efficient and is results in a simulation speed at about 3000 load cycles per......A simple direct simulation method for stochastic fatigue load generation is described in this paper. The simulation method is based on the assumption that only the peaks of the load process significantly affect the fatigue life. The method requires the conditional distribution functions of load...... ranges given the last peak values. Analytical estimates of these distribution functions are presented in the paper and compared with estimates based on a more accurate simulation method. In the more accurate simulation method samples at equidistant times are generated by approximating the stochastic load...

  16. A methodology for Electric Power Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Almeshaiei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand forecasting is a central and integral process for planning periodical operations and facility expansion in the electricity sector. Demand pattern is almost very complex due to the deregulation of energy markets. Therefore, finding an appropriate forecasting model for a specific electricity network is not an easy task. Although many forecasting methods were developed, none can be generalized for all demand patterns. Therefore, this paper presents a pragmatic methodology that can be used as a guide to construct Electric Power Load Forecasting models. This methodology is mainly based on decomposition and segmentation of the load time series. Several statistical analyses are involved to study the load features and forecasting precision such as moving average and probability plots of load noise. Real daily load data from Kuwaiti electric network are used as a case study. Some results are reported to guide forecasting future needs of this network.

  17. Scheduling of radio-controlled heating load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, B.; McCartney, A.I.; McCann, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    An economic loading program has been adapted to enable it to obtain an optimum heat-load profile to meet the forecast heat requirement. The heat load is represented by a 'generator' whose load is constrained to be negative. The incremental cost of this unit is a heat energy price. This is adjusted to obtain a heat profile containing the requisite energy. The profile is then used by a dynamic programming algorithm to derive a commitment pattern for each block. A case study is presented which shows that the procedure can minimise heat energy cost. It is also shown that use of the proposed method results in less generator load cycling. This reduced regulation duty should improve reliability. (author)

  18. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely...... with the integrated control scheme so as to maximize overall network throughput in the integrated network architecture. To the best of our knowledge no load balancing mechanisms, especially based on the Multi-Point Control Protocol (MPCP) defined in the IEEE 802.3ah, have been proposed so far. The major research...... issues are outlined and a cost function based optimization model is developed for power management. In particularly, two alternative feedback schemes are proposed to report wireless network status. Simulation results show that our proposed load balancing mechanism improves network performances....

  19. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  20. Scaling of load in communications networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Onuttom; Saniee, Iraj

    2010-09-01

    We show that the load at each node in a preferential attachment network scales as a power of the degree of the node. For a network whose degree distribution is p(k)∼k{-γ} , we show that the load is l(k)∼k{η} with η=γ-1 , implying that the probability distribution for the load is p(l)∼1/l{2} independent of γ . The results are obtained through scaling arguments supported by finite size scaling studies. They contradict earlier claims, but are in agreement with the exact solution for the special case of tree graphs. Results are also presented for real communications networks at the IP layer, using the latest available data. Our analysis of the data shows relatively poor power-law degree distributions as compared to the scaling of the load versus degree. This emphasizes the importance of the load in network analysis.

  1. Protective containment behaviour under exceeded design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, I.; Stepan, J.; Maly, J.; Schererova, K.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution describes the calculation results of the behaviour of containment structure if loaded in excess of its design load. The Temelin NPP comprises two WWER 1000 blocks and containment consists of a pre-stressed reinforced concrete structure with a system of unbonded cables. The objective of the calculations was to determine the level of load caused by the internal pressure and temperature at which the containment protective function would fail. In the first step, the maximum overpressure was determined, which may be transferred by the containment structure. In further steps analyses were made of various combinations of simultaneous pressure and temperature loads. The contribution presents relevant calculation results, including the evaluation of containment structure behaviour including liner under loads that exceed its design parameters. (author)

  2. High power s-band vacuum load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Dudas, Alan [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-29

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matched pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load, and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.

  3. High power s-band vacuum load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Michael; Dudas, Alan; Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matched pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load, and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.

  4. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  5. Effect of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, P.S.; Meyn, D.A.; Bayles, R.A.; Feng, C.R.; Yoder, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors have extended their study on the effect of the ripple loads on the sustained-load cracking (SLC) behavior of two titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V (an α-β alloy) and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (a β-α alloy), in an ambient air environment. The methodology which has been used successfully to treat ripple effects on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is employed again to address the influence of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking. Ripple loads can significantly reduce the apparent sustained load cracking resistance of titanium alloys in a relatively benign environment such as ambient air. For a ripple-load amplitude equal to 5% of the sustained load, the ripple-load cracking thresholds (K IRLC ) of beta-annealed Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-15V-3Cr-3al-3Sn are less than half of the respective sustained-load cracking thresholds (K ISLC ). The extent of ripple-load degradation for these alloys in ambient air -- relative to K ISLC , were found comparable to those observed in a much more aggressive 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution

  6. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  7. The load structure of electro boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, N.; Livik, K.

    1995-01-01

    Load measurements have been performed on 24 electro boilers with a time resolution of one hour throughout a period of one year. The boilers are used for space heating and heating of tap water in office buildings, shopping centres and apartment buildings. All boilers have tariffs with disconnection agreements. This report presents load analyses of the measurements from each boiler, and typical load profiles are calculated and presented. It also analyses how boilers are used in relation to the outdoor temperature and the power price on the spot market. All the measurements are performed in Bergen, Norway, in the period August 1993 - August 1994. Typical load profiles are shown, both annual and daily, as well as specific load parameters in addition to key figures used in calculating the total power load on the distribution network. The climate impact on energy and power load is evaluated. The report also shows examples of how the results may be applied in various special fields. 8 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Visual perceptual load induces inattentional deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we establish a new phenomenon of "inattentional deafness" and highlight the level of load on visual attention as a critical determinant of this phenomenon. In three experiments, we modified an inattentional blindness paradigm to assess inattentional deafness. Participants made either a low- or high-load visual discrimination concerning a cross shape (respectively, a discrimination of line color or of line length with a subtle length difference). A brief pure tone was presented simultaneously with the visual task display on a final trial. Failures to notice the presence of this tone (i.e., inattentional deafness) reached a rate of 79% in the high-visual-load condition, significantly more than in the low-load condition. These findings establish the phenomenon of inattentional deafness under visual load, thereby extending the load theory of attention (e.g., Lavie, Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 25, 596-616, 1995) to address the cross-modal effects of visual perceptual load.

  9. Work load and musculoskeletal complaints during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J A; van Dijk, F J; Frings-Dresen, M H

    1994-06-01

    Many pregnant women have musculoskeletal complaints, the onset and aggravation of which are thought to be associated with their activity or work postures. The purpose of this paper was to obtain more insight into the influence of pregnancy on the load of the musculoskeletal system at work to provide a better basis for preventing complaints. To this end, literature pertinent to a model called "work load of the musculoskeletal system" was reviewed. The model was developed to describe how work contributes to musculoskeletal complaints. It was found that pregnancy causes changes in a worker's characteristics. These changes can lead to changes in the work situation, activity pattern, and postural characteristics and possibly result in a change in work load. In addition, physical changes such as weight gain increase the work load in a given posture. The load-bearing capacity of the musculoskeletal system decreases due to pregnancy. The changes in load and the decrease in load-bearing capacity singly or simultaneously increase the risk of musculoskeletal complaints. The multifactorial cause of musculoskeletal complaints during pregnancy reveals various possibilities for prevention.

  10. Simplified analysis of laterally loaded pile groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Abdrabbo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of laterally loaded pile groups is a complicated soil–structure interaction problem. Although fairly reliable methods are developed to predicate the lateral behavior of single piles, the lateral response of pile groups has attracted less attention due to the required high cost and complication implication. This study presents a simplified method to analyze laterally loaded pile groups. The proposed method implements p-multiplier factors in combination with the horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction. Shadowing effects in closely spaced piles in a group were taken into consideration. It is proven that laterally loaded piles embedded in sand can be analyzed within the working load range assuming a linear relationship between lateral load and lateral displacement. The proposed method estimates the distribution of lateral loads among piles in a pile group and predicts the safe design lateral load of a pile group. The benefit of the proposed method is in its simplicity for the preliminary design stage with a little computational effort.

  11. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  12. The Statistical Properties of Host Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Dinda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how host load changes over time is instrumental in predicting the execution time of tasks or jobs, such as in dynamic load balancing and distributed soft real‐time systems. To improve this understanding, we collected week‐long, 1 Hz resolution traces of the Digital Unix 5 second exponential load average on over 35 different machines including production and research cluster machines, compute servers, and desktop workstations. Separate sets of traces were collected at two different times of the year. The traces capture all of the dynamic load information available to user‐level programs on these machines. We present a detailed statistical analysis of these traces here, including summary statistics, distributions, and time series analysis results. Two significant new results are that load is self‐similar and that it displays epochal behavior. All of the traces exhibit a high degree of self‐similarity with Hurst parameters ranging from 0.73 to 0.99, strongly biased toward the top of that range. The traces also display epochal behavior in that the local frequency content of the load signal remains quite stable for long periods of time (150–450 s mean and changes abruptly at epoch boundaries. Despite these complex behaviors, we have found that relatively simple linear models are sufficient for short‐range host load prediction.

  13. Pneumatic load compensating or controlling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A pneumatic load compensating or controlling system for restraining a load with a predetermined force or applying a predetermined force to the load is described; it includes a source of pressurized air, a one-way pneumatic actuator operatively connected to a load, and a fluid conduit fluidically connecting the actuator with the source of pressurized air. The actuator is of the piston and cylinder type, and the end of the fluid conduit is connected to the upper or lower portion of the cylinder whereby the actuator alternatively and selectively restrains the load with a predetermined force or apply a predetermined force to the load. Pressure regulators are included within the system for variably selectively adjusting the pressurized fluid to predetermined values as desired or required; a pressure amplifier is included within the system for multiplying the pressurized values so as to achieve greater load forces. An accumulator is incorporated within the system as a failsafe operating mechanism, and visual and aural alarm devices, operatively associated with pressure detecting apparatus, readily indicate the proper or improper functioning of the system.

  14. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Fuzzy approach for short term load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenthur Pandian, S.; Duraiswamy, K.; Kanagaraj, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engg., K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637209, Tamil Nadu (India); Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)

    2006-04-15

    The main objective of short term load forecasting (STLF) is to provide load predictions for generation scheduling, economic load dispatch and security assessment at any time. The STLF is needed to supply necessary information for the system management of day-to-day operations and unit commitment. In this paper, the 'time' and 'temperature' of the day are taken as inputs for the fuzzy logic controller and the 'forecasted load' is the output. The input variable 'time' has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. The membership functions are Mid Night, Dawn, Morning, Fore Noon, After Noon, Evening, Dusk and Night. Another input variable 'temperature' has been divided into four triangular membership functions. They are Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal and High. The 'forecasted load' as output has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. They are Very Low, Low, Sub Normal, Moderate Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High and Very High. Case studies have been carried out for the Neyveli Thermal Power Station Unit-II (NTPS-II) in India. The fuzzy forecasted load values are compared with the conventional forecasted values. The forecasted load closely matches the actual one within +/-3%. (author)

  16. Probabilistic model of bridge vehicle loads in port area based on in-situ load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Wang, Rei; Yan, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    Vehicle load is an important factor affecting the safety and usability of bridges. An statistical analysis is carried out in this paper to investigate the vehicle load data of Tianjin Haibin highway in Tianjin port of China, which are collected by the Weigh-in- Motion (WIM) system. Following this, the effect of the vehicle load on test bridge is calculated, and then compared with the calculation result according to HL-93(AASHTO LRFD). Results show that the overall vehicle load follows a distribution with a weighted sum of four normal distributions. The maximum vehicle load during the design reference period follows a type I extremum distribution. The vehicle load effect also follows a weighted sum of four normal distributions, and the standard value of the vehicle load is recommended as 1.8 times that of the calculated value according to HL-93.

  17. Factor structure underlying components of allostatic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M McCaffery

    Full Text Available Allostatic load is a commonly used metric of health risk based on the hypothesis that recurrent exposure to environmental demands (e.g., stress engenders a progressive dysregulation of multiple physiological systems. Prominent indicators of response to environmental challenges, such as stress-related hormones, sympatho-vagal balance, or inflammatory cytokines, comprise primary allostatic mediators. Secondary mediators reflect ensuing biological alterations that accumulate over time and confer risk for clinical disease but overlap substantially with a second metric of health risk, the metabolic syndrome. Whether allostatic load mediators covary and thus warrant treatment as a unitary construct remains to be established and, in particular, the relation of allostatic load parameters to the metabolic syndrome requires elucidation. Here, we employ confirmatory factor analysis to test: 1 whether a single common factor underlies variation in physiological systems associated with allostatic load; and 2 whether allostatic load parameters continue to load on a single common factor if a second factor representing the metabolic syndrome is also modeled. Participants were 645 adults from Allegheny County, PA (30-54 years old, 82% non-Hispanic white, 52% female who were free of confounding medications. Model fitting supported a single, second-order factor underlying variance in the allostatic load components available in this study (metabolic, inflammatory and vagal measures. Further, this common factor reflecting covariation among allostatic load components persisted when a latent factor representing metabolic syndrome facets was conjointly modeled. Overall, this study provides novel evidence that the modeled allostatic load components do share common variance as hypothesized. Moreover, the common variance suggests the existence of statistical coherence above and beyond that attributable to the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Wrist loading patterns during pommel horse exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, K L; Shapiro, M S; Mandelbaum, B R; Teurlings, L

    1990-01-01

    Gymnastics is a sport which involves substantial periods of upper extremity support as well as frequent impacts to the wrist. Not surprisingly, wrist pain is a common finding in gymnasts. Of all events, the pommel horse is the most painful. In order to study the forces of wrist impact, a standard pommel horse was instrumented with a specially designed load cell to record the resultant force of the hand on the pommel during a series of basic skills performed by a group of seventeen elite male gymnasts. The highest mean peak forces were recorded during the front scissors and flair exercises (1.5 BW) with peaks of up to 2.0 BW for some gymnasts. The mean peak force for hip circles at the center or end of the horse was 1.1 BW. The mean overall loading rate (initial contact to first loading peak) ranged from 5.2 BWs-1 (hip circles) to 10.6 BW s-1 (flairs). However, many recordings displayed localized initial loading spikes which occurred during 'hard' landings on the pommel. When front scissors were performed in an aggressive manner, the initial loading spikes averaged 1.0 BW in magnitude (maximum 1.8 BW) with an average rise time of 8.2 ms; calculated localized loading rates averaged 129 BW s-1 (maximum 219 BW s-1). These loading parameters are comparable to those encountered at heel strike during running. These impact forces and loading rates are remarkably high for an upper extremity joint not normally exposed to weight-bearing loads, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of wrist injuries in gymnastics.

  19. A combined loading system integrated with portable winch and polyethylene chutes for loading of timber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Truck loading operation is an important task during timber production operations in forestry. In Turkey, approximately 50 million timbers/logs are being produced per year, and then they are loaded into the logging trucks. The timber/logs are transported over the forest roads with an average of one million roundtrips. However, the traditional loading methods using manpower are mostly performed while some part is done by using loading machines which can be very costly and risky. This study aims developing a combined loading system in which heavy logs are loaded into logging trucks by pulling them by a log-line powered by a portable crane within the chute system. The slope of the log-line from ground to logging truck varied between 1% and 25%. Within the each work cycle of loading operation, only one log was loaded by pulling with portable crane. The average loading time was found as 161.8 seconds per cycle, in which 67% of the time was spent on pulling the log into the logging truck. The results indicated that the average pulling speed with crane power was 840.4 m/hr and productivity was calculated as 4.94 m3/hr. The result on system speed and productivity indicated close relations with results from previous studies. The hydraulic grapple loader or cranes are widely used and common loading machines, but they cannot be efficiently used in forestry operations, especially ones having a low timber productivity rate or having low economic value timber. In these conditions, loading methods that are cost efficient and do not require higher production rate should be employed. Therefore, a combined loading system introduced in this study can be a feasible solution for loading operations in those cases. Furthermore, it is believed that this loading system integrated with a portable crane can be cost efficient and time saving solution, as well as ergonomic and safe method in the field.

  20. Loading Effect on Tire Noise Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Rui; Bolton, J Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Noise radiated by tires is a prominent noise pollution source and it is affected by many different parameters. Here, the effect of static load on tire noise radiation in a laboratory environment was investigated. The measurement was conducted by using the Tire Pavement Testing Apparatus (TPTA), on which a loaded tire can be run at speeds up to 50 km/hr; the tire noise was measured using a nearfield microphone method. The tire loading was varied from 500 to 900 pounds, and several different co...

  1. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  2. Load factors to end March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howles, L.

    1989-01-01

    Load factors for nuclear reactors of 150MWe gross and above for the 12 month period up to the end of March 1989, and over their lifetimes, are tabulated. Units which have been in operation for more than one year as of end March 1989 are ranked in order of annual load factor; cumulative load factors are also shown, measured from first synchronization to the grid not from start of commercial operation. New reactors which had operated for less than 12 months as of end of March 1989 are listed separately. With the exception of the four Paks units in Hungary, Comecon reactors are excluded due to lack of data. (author)

  3. Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first-passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results......A simple model of the wave load on slender members of offshore structures is described. The wave elevation of the sea state is modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...

  4. Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1985-01-01

    velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results......A simple model of the wave load on stender members of offshore structures is described . The wave elevation of the sea stateis modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...

  5. Acoustic loading effects on oscillating rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of the interaction between an infinite acoustic medium and a cluster of circular rods is described. The acoustic field due to oscillating rods and the acoustic loading on the rods are first solved in a closed form. The acoustic loading is then used as a forcing function for rod responses, and the acousto-elastic couplings are solved simultaneously. Numerical examples are presented for several cases to illustrate the effects of various system parameters on the acoustic reaction force coefficients. The effect of the acoustic loading on the coupled eigenfrequencies are discussed

  6. Modeling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss...... slackening and tightening as well as aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopters or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm is introduced and finally the use...... of the model is illustrated through simulations and flight verifications.  ...

  7. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  8. Load flow optimization and optimal power flow

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the major aspects of load flow, optimization, optimal load flow, and culminates in modern heuristic optimization techniques and evolutionary programming. In the deregulated environment, the economic provision of electrical power to consumers requires knowledge of maintaining a certain power quality and load flow. Many case studies and practical examples are included to emphasize real-world applications. The problems at the end of each chapter can be solved by hand calculations without having to use computer software. The appendices are devoted to calculations of line and cable constants, and solutions to the problems are included throughout the book.

  9. Structural Flight Loads Simulation Capability. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    actuators. Load cells sense the resulting loads and give the console operator a positive readout of the loads being applied. The operator’s console...qialn StesSa We Elmn 57. .......... C ’D D .... .. .-- --- -.. ... . ..114 .. ETF’ ’IFEFI,--EIJT :_I’F3L- EL4 ?O cl l c...3.20. (concluded). 127 ra E j214 CbC ob) C-H ea) 4p U) ’-4 r4 128 EL4 UA f r c www aw r. 0 ag 0 . 0 mo > 4-) 0 .4-) en 010 44 1*5 1 I .IA U * . a) Z

  10. Load Theory of Selective Attention and Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Nilli; Hirst, Aleksandra; de Fockert, Jan W.; Viding, Essi

    2004-01-01

    A load theory of attention in which distractor rejection depends on the level and type of load involved in current processing was tested. A series of experiments demonstrates that whereas high perceptual load reduces distractor interference, working memory load or dual-task coordination load increases distractor interference. These findings…

  11. 40 CFR 63.422 - Standards: Loading racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Loading racks. 63.422....422 Standards: Loading racks. (a) Each owner or operator of loading racks at a bulk gasoline terminal... facility” used in § 60.502 of this chapter means the loading racks that load gasoline cargo tanks at the...

  12. 14 CFR 27.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 27.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5 for...

  13. 14 CFR 29.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 29.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5 for...

  14. Residential Load Manageability Factor Analyses by Load Sensitivity Affected by Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Load side management is the basic and significant principle to keeping the balance between generation side and consumption side of electrical power energy. Load side management on typical medium voltage feeder is the power energy consumption control of connected loads with variation of essential parameters that loads do reaction to their variation. Knowing amount of load's reaction to each parameters variation in typical medium voltage feeder during the day, leads to gain Load Manageability Factor (LMF for that specific feeder that helps power utilities to manage their connected loads. Calculating this LMF needs to find out each types of load with unique inherent features behavior to each parameters variation. This paper results and future work results will help us to catch mentioned LMF. In this paper analysis of residential load behavior due to temperature variation with training artificial neural network will be done. Load behavior due to other essential parameters variations like energy pricing variation, major event happening, and power utility announcing to the customers, and etc will study in future works. Collecting all related works results in a unit mathematical equation or an artificial neural network will gain LMF.

  15. Handball load and shoulder injury rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M.; Nielsen, R.O.; Attermann, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge of injury patterns, an essential step towards injury prevention, is lacking in youth handball. Aim To investigate if an increase in handball load is associated with increased shoulder injury rates compared with a minor increase or decrease, and if an association is influenced...... by scapular control, isometric shoulder strength or glenohumeral range of motion (ROM). Methods 679 players (14-18 years) provided weekly reports on shoulder injury and handball load (training and competition hours) over 31 weeks using the SMS, phone and medical examination system. Handball load in a given...... week was categorised into (1) 60% relative to the weekly average amount of handball load the preceding 4 weeks. Assessment of shoulder isometric rotational and abduction strength, ROM and scapular control...

  16. Behavior of Brittle Materials Under Dynamic Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanel, G

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic loading of brittle materials is related to many applications, including explosive excavation of rocks, design of ceramic armor, meteor impact on spacecraft windows, particle damage to turbine blades, etc...

  17. Oscillations of end loaded cantilever beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macho-Stadler, E; Elejalde-García, M J; Llanos-Vázquez, R

    2015-01-01

    This article presents several simple experiments based on changing transverse vibration frequencies in a cantilever beam, when acted on by an external attached mass load at the free end. By using a mechanical wave driver, available in introductory undergraduate laboratories, we provide various experimental results for end loaded cantilever beams that fit reasonably well into a linear equation. The behaviour of the cantilever beam’s weak-damping resonance response is studied for the case of metal resonance strips. As the mass load increases, a more pronounced decrease occurs in the fundamental frequency of beam vibration. It is important to note that cantilever construction is often used in architectural design and engineering construction projects but current analysis also predicts the influence of mass load on the sound generated by musical free reeds with boundary conditions similar to a cantilever beam. (paper)

  18. Compressor Load Stand: Commissioning and Control Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Causey, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project was to commission this load stand, which includes setting up the hardware, setting up a control system, a data acquisition system, and an automatic test sequence system...

  19. Distracted and confused?: selective attention under load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Nilli

    2005-02-01

    The ability to remain focused on goal-relevant stimuli in the presence of potentially interfering distractors is crucial for any coherent cognitive function. However, simply instructing people to ignore goal-irrelevant stimuli is not sufficient for preventing their processing. Recent research reveals that distractor processing depends critically on the level and type of load involved in the processing of goal-relevant information. Whereas high perceptual load can eliminate distractor processing, high load on "frontal" cognitive control processes increases distractor processing. These findings provide a resolution to the long-standing early and late selection debate within a load theory of attention that accommodates behavioural and neuroimaging data within a framework that integrates attention research with executive function.

  20. Integrating Autonomous Load Controllers in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James

    , but they are characterized by variable generation that is only partly predictable. Managing loads is already used in limited circumstances to improve security and efficiency of the power system. In power systems with a large penetration of variable generation, load management has large role to play in adapting consumption......Electric energy systems stand on the brink of radical change as the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions pushes more efficient utilization of energy resources and the adoption of renewable energy sources. New renewable sources such as wind and solar have a large potential......-sensitive load controller has been designed, implemented, and tested in real-life settings. Its performance demonstrated a large potential resource, in some cases greater than the average power consumption. The accuracy of load models was validated by comparison with field data. A voltage-sensitive controller...

  1. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    .2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response......The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  2. Stochastic optimization of loading pattern for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuc, T.; Pevec, D.

    1994-01-01

    The application of stochastic optimization methods in solving in-core fuel management problems is restrained by the need for a large number of proposed solutions loading patterns, if a high quality final solution is wanted. Proposed loading patterns have to be evaluated by core neutronics simulator, which can impose unrealistic computer time requirements. A new loading pattern optimization code Monte Carlo Loading Pattern Search has been developed by coupling the simulated annealing optimization algorithm with a fast one-and-a-half dimensional core depletion simulator. The structure of the optimization method provides more efficient performance and allows the user to empty precious experience in the search process, thus reducing the search space size. Hereinafter, we discuss the characteristics of the method and illustrate them on the results obtained by solving the PWR reload problem. (authors). 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  3. Development of Engine Loads Methodology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR seeks to improve the definition of design loads for rocket engine components such that higher performing, lighter weight engines can be developed more...

  4. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  5. Temperature rise of cyclicly loaded power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakelmann, H

    1984-09-01

    A calculation method for the current ratings of cyclicly loaded power cables is introduced, taking into account optional shapes of the load cycle as well as the drying-out of the soil. The method is based on the Fourier-analysis of the loss cycle, representing an extension of the calculation method of VDE 0298. It is shown, that the ''VDE-method'' gives good results for the thermal resistances, if an ''utility load cycle'' in accordance with VDE 0298 is supposed. Only for cycles deviating essentially from the utility load cycle, the thermal resistances calculated by the ''VDE-method'' may be too great. In these cases the represented method is advantageous and can be processed by the aid of microcomputers.

  6. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  7. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

  8. Characterization of Carbamazepine-Loaded Solid Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by RESS as well as their characterization has been achieved in this study. Keywords: Rapid expansion of supercritical fluid, Stearic acid, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Carbamazepine, Co-precipitation ...

  9. Quantum load balancing in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, M.; Shariat, S.; Barnaghi, P.; Hoseinitabatabaei, S. A.; Vahid, S.; Tafazolli, R.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel approach in targeting load balancing in ad hoc networks utilizing the properties of quantum game theory. This approach benefits from the instantaneous and information-less capability of entangled particles to synchronize the load balancing strategies in ad hoc networks. The quantum load balancing (QLB) algorithm proposed by this work is implemented on top of OLSR as the baseline routing protocol; its performance is analyzed against the baseline OLSR, and considerable gain is reported regarding some of the main QoS metrics such as delay and jitter. Furthermore, it is shown that QLB algorithm supports a solid stability gain in terms of throughput which stands a proof of concept for the load balancing properties of the proposed theory.

  10. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared...... to the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding one...... or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  11. Oscillations of end loaded cantilever beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.; Llanos-Vázquez, R.

    2015-09-01

    This article presents several simple experiments based on changing transverse vibration frequencies in a cantilever beam, when acted on by an external attached mass load at the free end. By using a mechanical wave driver, available in introductory undergraduate laboratories, we provide various experimental results for end loaded cantilever beams that fit reasonably well into a linear equation. The behaviour of the cantilever beam’s weak-damping resonance response is studied for the case of metal resonance strips. As the mass load increases, a more pronounced decrease occurs in the fundamental frequency of beam vibration. It is important to note that cantilever construction is often used in architectural design and engineering construction projects but current analysis also predicts the influence of mass load on the sound generated by musical free reeds with boundary conditions similar to a cantilever beam.

  12. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  13. Animacy, perceptual load, and inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Dustin P; Jackson, Russell E

    2014-06-01

    Inattentional blindness is the failure to notice unexpected objects in a visual scene while engaging in an attention-demanding task. We examined the effects of animacy and perceptual load on inattentional blindness. Participants searched for a category exemplar under low or high perceptual load. On the last trial, the participants were exposed to an unexpected object that was either animate or inanimate. Unexpected objects were detected more frequently when they were animate rather than inanimate, and more frequently with low than with high perceptual loads. We also measured working memory capacity and found that it predicted the detection of unexpected objects, but only with high perceptual loads. The results are consistent with the animate-monitoring hypothesis, which suggests that animate objects capture attention because of the importance of the detection of animate objects in ancestral hunter-gatherer environments.

  14. Fiber Bundle Model Under Heterogeneous Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhadeep; Goswami, Sanchari

    2018-03-01

    The present work deals with the behavior of fiber bundle model under heterogeneous loading condition. The model is explored both in the mean-field limit as well as with local stress concentration. In the mean field limit, the failure abruptness decreases with increasing order k of heterogeneous loading. In this limit, a brittle to quasi-brittle transition is observed at a particular strength of disorder which changes with k. On the other hand, the model is hardly affected by such heterogeneity in the limit where local stress concentration plays a crucial role. The continuous limit of the heterogeneous loading is also studied and discussed in this paper. Some of the important results related to fiber bundle model are reviewed and their responses to our new scheme of heterogeneous loading are studied in details. Our findings are universal with respect to the nature of the threshold distribution adopted to assign strength to an individual fiber.

  15. Time- & Load-Dependence of Triboelectric Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuaihang; Yin, Nian; Zhang, Zhinan

    2018-02-06

    Time- and load-dependent friction behavior is considered as important for a long time, due to its time-evolution and force-driving characteristics. However, its electronic behavior, mainly considered in triboelectric effect, has almost never been given the full attention and analyses from the above point of view. In this paper, by experimenting with fcc-latticed aluminum and copper friction pairs, the mechanical and electronic behaviors of friction contacts are correlated by time and load analyses, and the behind physical understanding is provided. Most importantly, the difference of "response lag" in force and electricity is discussed, the extreme points of coefficient of friction with the increasing normal loads are observed and explained with the surface properties and dynamical behaviors (i.e. wear), and the micro and macro theories linking tribo-electricity to normal load and wear (i.e. the physical explanation between coupled electrical and mechanical phenomena) are successfully developed and tested.

  16. Dose loading for civil aircraft crews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The results of studying cosmic radiation effects on dose loadings for civil aviation personnel are discussed. The problems connected with health protection and radiation safety provisions for aviation personnels of subsonic and supersonic passenger airplans are considered

  17. Customer loads of two-wheeled vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, C.; Öztürk, K.; Liebich, R.

    2017-12-01

    Customer usage profiles are the most unknown influences in vehicle design targets and they play an important role in durability analysis. This publication presents a customer load acquisition system for two-wheeled vehicles that utilises the vehicle's onboard signals. A road slope estimator was developed to reveal the unknown slope resistance force with the help of a linear Kalman filter. Furthermore, an automated mass estimator was developed to consider the correct vehicle loading. The mass estimation is performed by an extended Kalman filter. Finally, a model-based wheel force calculation was derived, which is based on the superposition of forces calculated from measured onboard signals. The calculated wheel forces were validated by measurements with wheel-load transducers through the comparison of rainflow matrices. The calculated wheel forces correspond with the measured wheel forces in terms of both quality and quantity. The proposed methods can be used to gather field data for improved vehicle design loads.

  18. Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    series of tests were carried out to study the effect of oil content, dilution, and drug loading on particle size. ... commercially marketed dosage forms are tablets ... stability. Solubility studies. The solubility of berberine in various solvents.

  19. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The electrical low voltage load requirement in the passenger vehicle is ... oxides emissions, and 82% of carbon monoxides (CO). [4]. ... government placed an order restricting the movement ... transient and steady-state characteristics of the.

  20. Load Management in District Heating Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Smooth operation of district heating system will avoid installation of expensive peak heat boilers, improve plant partial load performance, increase the system redundancy for further network expansion and improve its resilience to ensuresecurity of supply during severe heating seasons. The peak heating load can be reduced through building demand side management. The building thermal mass can be used to shift the heating supply under the circumstance withoutjeopardizing the consumer thermal co...

  1. Laterally Loaded Partially Prestressed Concrete Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    of an extensive test program onl laterali y ioadeu. partially pr- estressed concrete fender piles. The study Included service load range as well ats...12,000-psi design strength). Configura- tion G utilized 14 r:- estress strand, in an unsymmetric pattern. To provide a uniform concrete prestress of 540...sudden loss in load carrying capacity directly related to the loss of concrete area. The compression concrete fractured longitudinally and along the

  2. MCO loading and cask loadout technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRAGA, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    A compilation of the technical basis for loading a multi-canister overpack (MCO) with spent nuclear fuel and then placing the MCO into a cask for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The technical basis includes a description of the process, process technology that forms the basis for loading alternatives, process control considerations, safety considerations, equipment description, and a brief facility structure description

  3. Disruptions, loads, and dynamic response of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.; Riemer, B.; Sayer, R.; Strickler, D.; Barabaschi, P.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma disruptions and the resulting electromagnetic loads are critical to the design of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This paper describes the status of plasma disruption simulations and related analysis, including the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, stresses and deflections in the vacuum vessel, and reaction loads in the support structures

  4. Automatic load sharing in inverter modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, S.

    1979-01-01

    Active feedback loads transistor equally with little power loss. Circuit is suitable for balancing modular inverters in spacecraft, computer power supplies, solar-electric power generators, and electric vehicles. Current-balancing circuit senses differences between collector current for power transistor and average value of load currents for all power transistors. Principle is effective not only in fixed duty-cycle inverters but also in converters operating at variable duty cycles.

  5. Load function modelling for light impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingmueller, O.

    1982-01-01

    For Pile Integrity Testing light weight drop hammers are used to induce stress waves. In the computational analysis of one-dimensional wave propagation a load function has to be used. Several mechanical models and corresponding load functions are discussed. It is shown that a bell-shaped function which does not correspond to a mechanical model is in best accordance with test results and does not lead to numerical disturbances in the computational results. (orig.) [de

  6. Load-following operation of PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Hwa; Oh, Soo Yul; Koo, Yang Hyun; Lee, Jae Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    The load-following operation of nuclear power plants will become inevitable due to the increased nuclear share in the total electricity generation. As a groundwork for the load-following capability of the Korean next generation PWRs, the state-of-the-art has been reviewed. The core control principles and methods are the main subject in this review as well as the impact of load-following operations on the fuel performance and on the mechanical integrity of components. To begin with, it was described what the load-following operation is and in what view point the technology should be reviewed. Afterwards the load-following method, performance and problems in domestic 900 MWe class PWRs were discussed, and domestic R and D works were summarized. Foreign technologies were also reviewed. They include Mode G and Mode X of Foratom, D and L bank method of KWU, the method using PSCEA of ABB-CE, and MSHIM of Westinghouse. The load-following related special features of Foratom`s N4 plant, KWU`s plants, ABB-CE`s Systems 80+, and Westinghouse`s AP600 were described in each technology review. The review concluded that the capability of N4 plant with Mode X is the best and the methods in System, 80+ and AP600 would require verifications for the continued and usual load-following operation. It was recommended that the load-following operation experiences in domestic PWRs under operation be required to settle down the capability for the future. In addition, a more enhanced technology is required for the Korean next generation PWR regardless what the reference plant concept is. 30 figs., 19 tabs., 75 refs. (Author).

  7. Fuel cladding behavior under rapid loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, K.; Karlsson, J.; Stjärnsäter, J.; Schrire, D.; Ledergerber, G.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Hallstadius, L.

    2016-02-01

    A modified burst test (MBT) was used in an extensive test program to characterize fuel cladding failure behavior under rapid loading conditions. The MBT differs from a normal burst test with the use of a driver tube to simulate the expansion of a fuel pellet, thereby producing a partial strain driven deformation condition similar to that of a fuel pellet expansion in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). A piston/cylinder assembly was used to pressurize the driver tube. By controlling the speed and distance the piston travels the loading rate and degree of sample deformation could be controlled. The use of a driver tube with a machined gauge section localizes deformation and allows for continuous monitoring of the test sample diameter change at the location of maximum hoop strain, during each test. Cladding samples from five irradiated fuel rods were tested between 296 and 553 K and loading rates from 1.5 to 3.5/s. The test rods included variations of Zircaloy-2 with different liners and ZIRLO, ranging in burn-up from 41 to 74 GWd/MTU. The test results show cladding ductility is strongly temperature and loading rate dependent. Zircaloy-2 cladding ductility degradation due to operational hydrogen pickup started to recover at approximately 358 K for test condition used in the study. This recovery temperature is strongly loading rate dependent. At 373 K, ductility recovery was small for loading rates less than 8 ms equivalent RIA pulse width, but longer than 8 ms the ductility recovery increased exponentially with increasing pulse width, consistent with literature observations of loading rate dependent brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition temperature. The cladding ductility was also observed to be strongly loading rate/pulse width dependent for BWR cladding below the BTD temperature and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cladding at both 296 and 553 K.

  8. Low-back loading in lifting two loads beside the body compared to lifting one load in front of the body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Bakker, A.J.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Low-back load during manual lifting is considered an important risk factor for the occurrence of low-back pain. Splitting a load, so it can be lifted beside the body (one load in each hand), instead of in front of the body, can be expected to reduce low-back load. Twelve healthy young men lifted 10

  9. Loading method of core constituting elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a remote-controlled replacing method for core constituting elements in a liquid-metal cooling fast breeder, wherein particularly, the core constituting elements are prevented from being loaded on the core position other than as designated. Constitution: The method comprises a first step which determines a position of a suitable neutron shielding body in order to measure a reference level of complete insertion of the core constituting elements, a second step which inserts a gripper for a fuel exchanger, a third step which decides stroke dimensions of the complete insertion, and a fourth step which discriminates the core constituting elements to begin handling of fuel rods. The method further comprises a fifth step which determines a loading position of fuel rod, and a sixth step which inserts and loads fuel rods into the core. The method still further comprises a seventh step which compares and judges the dimension of loading stroke and the dimension of complete inserting stroke so that when coincided, loading is completed, and when not coincided, loading is not completed and then the cycle of the fourth step is repeated. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  11. Evaluative pressure overcomes perceptual load effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Alice; Autin, Frédérique; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2015-06-01

    Perceptual load has been found to be a powerful bottom-up determinant of distractibility, with high perceptual load preventing distraction by any irrelevant information. However, when under evaluative pressure, individuals exert top-down attentional control by giving greater weight to task-relevant features, making them more distractible from task-relevant distractors. One study tested whether the top-down modulation of attention under evaluative pressure overcomes the beneficial bottom-up effect of high perceptual load on distraction. Using a response-competition task, we replicated previous findings that high levels of perceptual load suppress task-relevant distractor response interference, but only for participants in a control condition. Participants under evaluative pressure (i.e., who believed their intelligence was assessed) showed interference from task-relevant distractor at all levels of perceptual load. This research challenges the assumptions of the perceptual load theory and sheds light on a neglected determinant of distractibility: the self-relevance of the performance situation in which attentional control is solicited.

  12. DNS load balancing in the CERN cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero Naredo, Ignacio; Lobato Pardavila, Lorena

    2017-10-01

    Load Balancing is one of the technologies enabling deployment of large-scale applications on cloud resources. A DNS Load Balancer Daemon (LBD) has been developed at CERN as a cost-effective way to balance applications accepting DNS timing dynamics and not requiring persistence. It currently serves over 450 load-balanced aliases with two small VMs acting as master and slave. The aliases are mapped to DNS subdomains. These subdomains are managed with DDNS according to a load metric, which is collected from the alias member nodes with SNMP. During the last years, several improvements were brought to the software, for instance: support for IPv6, parallelization of the status requests, implementing the client in Python to allow for multiple aliases with differentiated states on the same machine or support for application state. The configuration of the Load Balancer is currently managed by a Puppet type. It discovers the alias member nodes and gets the alias definitions from the Ermis REST service. The Aiermis self-service GUI for the management of the LB aliases has been produced and is based on the Ermis service above that implements a form of Load Balancing as a Service (LBaaS). The Ermis REST API has authorisation based in Foreman hostgroups. The CERN DNS LBD is Open Software with Apache 2 license.

  13. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  14. A simplified technique for shakedown load determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, H.F.; Younan, M.Y.A.; Megahed, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a simple technique is presented to determine the limit shakedown load of a structure or a component using the finite element method. Through the proposed technique, the limit shakedown load is determined without performing time consuming cyclic loading simulations or iterative elastic techniques. Instead, it is determined by performing only two analyses namely, an elastic analysis and an elastic-plastic analysis. By extracting the results of the two analyses, the limit shakedown load of the structure is determined through the calculation of the residual stresses. The technique is applied and verified using two bench mark shakedown problems namely: the two-bar structure subjected to constant axial force and cyclic thermal loading, and the Bree cylinder subjected to constant internal pressure and cyclic high heat fluxes across its wall. The results of the proposed technique showed very good correlation with the, analytically determined, Bree diagrams of both structures. Moreover, the outcomes of the proposed technique showed very good results in comparison to full cyclic loading elasto-plastic finite element simulations of both structures. (authors)

  15. HIV Viral Load: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hivviralload.html HIV Viral Load To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an HIV Viral Load? An HIV viral load is a ...

  16. Optimalisatie Draagsysteem (Optimization of the Load Carriage System)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koerhuis, C. L; Rensink, P; Schijndel, J. van

    2008-01-01

    Besides positive effects of an earlier developed load carriage system in which the load was carried predominantly on the hips, mobility was increased and protection and load carriage was integrated into one system (ILCS...

  17. Reduced design load basis for ultimate blade loads estimation in multidisciplinary design optimization frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Larsen, Torben J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to provide a fast and reliable approach to estimate ultimate blade loads for a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. For blade design purposes, the standards require a large amount of computationally expensive simulations, which cannot be efficiently run each cost...... function evaluation of an MDO process. This work describes a method that allows integrating the calculation of the blade load envelopes inside an MDO loop. Ultimate blade load envelopes are calculated for a baseline design and a design obtained after an iteration of an MDO. These envelopes are computed...... for a full standard design load basis (DLB) and a deterministic reduced DLB. Ultimate loads extracted from the two DLBs with the two blade designs each are compared and analyzed. Although the reduced DLB supplies ultimate loads of different magnitude, the shape of the estimated envelopes are similar...

  18. Evaluation of load rejection to house load test at 50% power for UCN 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Sohn, Suk Whun; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun; Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Kyu Won; Jung, Yang Mook; Chae, Kyeong Sik; Koh, Bum Jae; Oh, Chul Sung; Park, Hee Chool

    1998-01-01

    The Load Rejection to House Load test at 50% power was successfully performed during the UCN 3 PAT period. In this test, all plant control systems automatically controlled the plant from 50% power to house load operation mode. The KISPAC code, which was used in the performance analysis during the design process of UCN 3 and 4, predictions of the test agreed with the measured data demonstrating the validity of the code as well as completeness of the plant design

  19. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The ...

  20. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy & Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Murphy; Ciara Mary Greene

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995; 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e. the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The c...

  1. Impact of measurement uncertainty from experimental load distribution factors on bridge load rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangone, Michael V.; Whelan, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    Load rating and testing of highway bridges is important in determining the capacity of the structure. Experimental load rating utilizes strain transducers placed at critical locations of the superstructure to measure normal strains. These strains are then used in computing diagnostic performance measures (neutral axis of bending, load distribution factor) and ultimately a load rating. However, it has been shown that experimentally obtained strain measurements contain uncertainties associated with the accuracy and precision of the sensor and sensing system. These uncertainties propagate through to the diagnostic indicators that in turn transmit into the load rating calculation. This paper will analyze the effect that measurement uncertainties have on the experimental load rating results of a 3 span multi-girder/stringer steel and concrete bridge. The focus of this paper will be limited to the uncertainty associated with the experimental distribution factor estimate. For the testing discussed, strain readings were gathered at the midspan of each span of both exterior girders and the center girder. Test vehicles of known weight were positioned at specified locations on each span to generate maximum strain response for each of the five girders. The strain uncertainties were used in conjunction with a propagation formula developed by the authors to determine the standard uncertainty in the distribution factor estimates. This distribution factor uncertainty is then introduced into the load rating computation to determine the possible range of the load rating. The results show the importance of understanding measurement uncertainty in experimental load testing.

  2. Load-redistribution strategy based on time-varying load against cascading failure of complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun; Shi Xin; Wang Kai; Shi Wei-Ren; Xiong Qing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cascading failure can cause great damage to complex networks, so it is of great significance to improve the network robustness against cascading failure. Many previous existing works on load-redistribution strategies require global information, which is not suitable for large scale networks, and some strategies based on local information assume that the load of a node is always its initial load before the network is attacked, and the load of the failure node is redistributed to its neighbors according to their initial load or initial residual capacity. This paper proposes a new load-redistribution strategy based on local information considering an ever-changing load. It redistributes the loads of the failure node to its nearest neighbors according to their current residual capacity, which makes full use of the residual capacity of the network. Experiments are conducted on two typical networks and two real networks, and the experimental results show that the new load-redistribution strategy can reduce the size of cascading failure efficiently. (paper)

  3. Design loads, loading combinations and structural acceptance criteria for BWR containments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, N.W.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of loads, loading combinations, and structural acceptance criteria used for the design and evaluation of BWR containments in the Unites States has become much more comprehensive over the past decade. The Mark I pressure suppression containment vessels were designed for a static design pressure, a design temperature, dead load and static equivalent earthquake. The current Mark III containments are being designed to accommodate many more loads such as safety relief valve discharge loads, and suppression pool hydrodynamic loadings associated with the steam condensation phenomena as well as pressure and temperature transients for a range of pipe break sizes. Consistent with the more comprehensive definition of loads and loading combinations, the ASME Code presently establishes structural acceptance criteria with different margins of safety by the definition of Service Level Assignments A, B, C and D. Acting in a responsible manner, United States utilities are currently evaluating and modifying existing containment vessels to account for the more detailed load definition and structural acceptance criteria. (orig.)

  4. The duration perception of loading applications in smartphone: Effects of different loading types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenguo; Ge, Yan; Qu, Weina; Zhang, Kan; Sun, Xianghong

    2017-11-01

    The loading time of a smartphone application is an important issue, which affects the satisfaction of phone users. This study evaluated the effects of black loading screen (BLS) and animation loading screen (ALS) during application loading on users' duration perception and satisfaction. A total of 43 volunteers were enrolled. They were asked to complete several tasks by clicking the icons of each application, such as camera or message. The duration of loading time for each application was manipulated. The participants were asked to estimate the duration, evaluate the loading speed and their satisfaction. The results showed that the estimated duration increased and the satisfaction for loading period declined along with the loading time increased. Compared with the BLS, the ALS prolonged the estimated duration, and lowered the evaluation of speed and satisfaction. We also discussed the tendency and key inflection points of the curves involving the estimated duration, speed evaluation and satisfaction with the loading time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of PSAT to Load Flow Analysis with STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario and Line Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aparna S.; Bedekar, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Load flow analysis is the initial and essential step for any power system computation. It is required for choosing better options for power system expansion to meet with ever increasing load demand. Implementation of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device like STATCOM, in the load flow, which is having fast and very flexible control, is one of the important tasks for power system researchers. This paper presents a simple and systematic approach for steady state power flow calculations with FACTS controller, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) using command line usage of MATLAB tool-power system analysis toolbox (PSAT). The complexity of MATLAB language programming increases due to incorporation of STATCOM in an existing Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to show how command line usage of user friendly MATLAB tool, PSAT, can extensively be used for quicker and wider interpretation of the results of load flow with STATCOM. The novelty of this paper lies in the method of applying the load increase pattern, where the active and reactive loads have been changed simultaneously at all the load buses under consideration for creating stressed conditions for load flow analysis with STATCOM. The performance have been evaluated on many standard IEEE test systems and the results for standard IEEE-30 bus system, IEEE-57 bus system, and IEEE-118 bus system are presented.

  6. Loading capacities and failure modes of various reinforced concrete slabs subjected to high-speed loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Imamura, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Okamoto, S.; Kasai, Y.; Tsubota, H.; Yoshimura, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify experimentally and analytically the loading capacities, deformations and failure modes of various types of reinforced concrete structures subjected to loads applied at various loading rates. Flat slabs, slabs with beams and cylindrical walls were tested under static, low-speed and high-speed loading. Analysis was applied to estimate the test results by the finite element method using a layered shell element. The analysis closely simulated the experimental results until punching shear failure occurred. (author)

  7. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  8. Auditory working memory load impairs visual ventral stream processing: toward a unified model of attentional load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemen, Jane; Büchel, Christian; Bühler, Mira; Menz, Mareike M; Rose, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Attentional interference between tasks performed in parallel is known to have strong and often undesired effects. As yet, however, the mechanisms by which interference operates remain elusive. A better knowledge of these processes may facilitate our understanding of the effects of attention on human performance and the debilitating consequences that disruptions to attention can have. According to the load theory of cognitive control, processing of task-irrelevant stimuli is increased by attending in parallel to a relevant task with high cognitive demands. This is due to the relevant task engaging cognitive control resources that are, hence, unavailable to inhibit the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. However, it has also been demonstrated that a variety of types of load (perceptual and emotional) can result in a reduction of the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, suggesting a uniform effect of increased load irrespective of the type of load. In the present study, we concurrently presented a relevant auditory matching task [n-back working memory (WM)] of low or high cognitive load (1-back or 2-back WM) and task-irrelevant images at one of three object visibility levels (0%, 50%, or 100%). fMRI activation during the processing of the task-irrelevant visual stimuli was measured in the lateral occipital cortex and found to be reduced under high, compared to low, WM load. In combination with previous findings, this result is suggestive of a more generalized load theory, whereby cognitive load, as well as other types of load (e.g., perceptual), can result in a reduction of the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, in line with a uniform effect of increased load irrespective of the type of load.

  9. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N. D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  10. Reliability of Estimation Pile Load Capacity Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Lastiasih

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available None of numerous previous methods for predicting pile capacity is known how accurate any of them are when compared with the actual ultimate capacity of piles tested to failure. The author’s of the present paper have conducted such an analysis, based on 130 data sets of field loading tests. Out of these 130 data sets, only 44 could be analysed, of which 15 were conducted until the piles actually reached failure. The pile prediction methods used were: Brinch Hansen’s method (1963, Chin’s method (1970, Decourt’s Extrapolation Method (1999, Mazurkiewicz’s method (1972, Van der Veen’s method (1953, and the Quadratic Hyperbolic Method proposed by Lastiasih et al. (2012. It was obtained that all the above methods were sufficiently reliable when applied to data from pile loading tests that loaded to reach failure. However, when applied to data from pile loading tests that loaded without reaching failure, the methods that yielded lower values for correction factor N are more recommended. Finally, the empirical method of Reese and O’Neill (1988 was found to be reliable enough to be used to estimate the Qult of a pile foundation based on soil data only.

  11. Ice load reducer for dams : laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupien, R.; Cote, A.; Robert, A. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many studies have focused on measuring static ice loads on various hydraulic structures in Canada. This paper discussed a Hydro-Quebec research project whose main purpose was to harmonize the ice thrust value in load combinations for use in general hydraulic works or for specific cases. The objectives of the project were to obtain a better understanding of existing data and to characterize sites and their influence on ice thrust; study the structural mechanisms involved in the generation of ice thrust, their consequences on the structural behaviour of ice and the natural mitigating circumstances that may be offered by ice properties or site operating procedures; and examine the relevance of developing an ice load reducer for works that might not fit the harmonized design value. The paper presented the main research goals and ice load reducer goals, with particular focus on the four pipe samples that were planned, built and tested. The experimental program involved checking the pipe shape behaviour in terms of flexibility-stiffness; maximum deformations; maximum load reduction; permanent deformations; and, ability to shape recovering. The testing also involved examining the strength versus strain rate; creep versus strain rate; and creep capacity under biaxial state of tension and compression. It was concluded that the two phenomena involved in generation of ice thrust, notably thermal expansion and water level changes, had very low strain rates. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  12. Short term load forecasting: two stage modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOARES, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the hourly electricity load demand in the area covered by a utility situated in the Seattle, USA, called Puget Sound Power and Light Company. Our proposal is put into proof with the famous dataset from this company. We propose a stochastic model which employs ANN (Artificial Neural Networks to model short-run dynamics and the dependence among adjacent hours. The model proposed treats each hour's load separately as individual single series. This approach avoids modeling the intricate intra-day pattern (load profile displayed by the load, which varies throughout days of the week and seasons. The forecasting performance of the model is evaluated in similiar mode a TLSAR (Two-Level Seasonal Autoregressive model proposed by Soares (2003 using the years of 1995 and 1996 as the holdout sample. Moreover, we conclude that non linearity is present in some series of these data. The model results are analyzed. The experiment shows that our tool can be used to produce load forecasting in tropical climate places.

  13. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Naert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM load are discussed.

  14. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n, determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n and stray flux losses (PSL1,n in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1 and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1. Using so obtained total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, which can be expressed in the form PLLdh=PEC1,n*h2 + PSL1,n*h, the corresponding rate additional load losses values PEC1,n and PSL1,n are derived. At the end, for given load with predefined high harmonics content, (Ih/I1n, relative to rated current, the total additional load losses value ΣPLLdh > PLLd1, is found. In such a way all harmonics up to hmax are taken into account.

  15. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  16. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  17. Concrete structures under impact loading: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Baeră

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic loading conditions distress the structural integrity of a structure differently than the static ones. Such actions transfer high rate strains and instant energy waves to the structure, inducing the possibility of imminent collapse and casualties as a direct consequence. In the latest years, considering the dramatic increase of terrorist threats and global warming, the structural safety criteria imply more than ever the need to withstand this kind of loading (e.g., missiles and blast, projectiles, strong winds, tornados and earthquakes in addition to the static ones. The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview with regard to impact loading in terms of defining the phenomenon from physical and mechanical perspective, its complex local or global effect on the targeted structure, relevant material characteristics, main research approaches, namely theoretical studies and experimental procedures developed for improving the predictability of the dynamic loads and their effects. New directions in developing superior cementitious composites, with better characteristics in terms of dynamic loading performance are also emphasized.

  18. Modular load flow for restructured power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, M V; Gupta, Pragati P

    2016-01-01

    In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure – Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power – a scalar – as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors – the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoff’s circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expression...

  19. Analysis of load monitoring system in hydraulic mobile cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalairassan, G.; Boopathi, M.; Mohan, Rijo Mathew

    2017-11-01

    Load moment limiters or safe load control systems or are very important in crane safety. The system detects the moment of lifting load and compares this actual moment with the rated moment. The system uses multiple sensors such as boom angle sensor, boom length sensor for telescopic booms, pressure transducers for measuring the load, anti-two block switch and roller switches. The system works both on rubber and on outriggers. The sensors measure the boom extension, boom angle and load to give as inputs to the central processing, which calculate the safe working load range for that particular configuration of the crane and compare it with the predetermined safe load. If the load exceeds the safe load, actions will be taken which will reduce the load moment, which is boom telescopic retraction and boom lifting. Anti-two block switch is used to prevent the two blocking condition. The system is calibrated and load tested for at most precision.

  20. Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.

  1. Cognitive Load Theory: Advances in Research on Worked Examples, Animations, and Cognitive Load Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); G.W.C. Paas (Fred); J. Sweller (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe contributions to this special issue document some recent advances of cognitive load theory, and are based on contributions to the Third International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (2009), Heerlen, The Netherlands. The contributions focus on developments in example-based learning,

  2. A Microstructural Study of Load Distribution in Cartilage: A Comparison of Stress Relaxation versus Creep Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin Thambyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive response of articular cartilage has been extensively investigated and most studies have focussed largely on the directly loaded matrix. However, especially in relation to the tissue microstructure, less is known about load distribution mechanisms operating outside the directly loaded region. We have addressed this issue by using channel indentation and DIC microscopy techniques that provide visualisation of the matrix microstructural response across the regions of both direct and nondirect loading. We hypothesise that, by comparing the microstructural response following stress relaxation and creep compression, new insights can be revealed concerning the complex mechanisms of load bearing. Our results indicate that, with stress relaxation, the initial mode of stress decay appears to primarily involve relaxation of the surface layer. In the creep loading protocol, the main mode of stress release is a lateral distribution of load via the mid matrix. While these two modes of stress redistribution have a complex relationship with the zonally differentiated tissue microstructure and the depth of strain, four mechanostructural mechanisms are proposed to describe succinctly the load responses observed.

  3. 76 FR 66220 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    .... I. Background A. Underfrequency Load Shedding 4. An interconnected electric power system must... generation and load within an interconnected electric power system is shown in the frequency of the system.\\4... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,242, order on reh'g...

  4. Optimization of drug loading to improve physical stability of paclitaxel-loaded long-circulating liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Vinayagam; Balabathula, Pavan; Divi, Murali K; Thoma, Laura A; Wood, George C

    2015-01-01

    The effect of formulation and process parameters on drug loading and physical stability of paclitaxel-loaded long-circulating liposomes was evaluated. The liposomes were prepared by hydration-extrusion method. The formulation parameters such as total lipid content, cholesterol content, saturated-unsaturated lipid ratio, drug-lipid ratio and process parameters such as extrusion pressure and number of extrusion cycles were studied and their impact on drug loading and physical stability was evaluated. A proportionate increase in drug loading was observed with increase in the total phospholipid content. Cholesterol content and saturated lipid content in the bilayer showed a negative influence on drug loading. The short-term stability evaluation of liposomes prepared with different drug-lipid ratios demonstrated that 1:60 as the optimum drug-lipid ratio to achieve a loading of 1-1.3 mg/mL without the risk of physical instability. The vesicle size decreased with an increase in the extrusion pressure and number of extrusion cycles, but no significant trends were observed for drug loading with changes in process pressure or number of cycles. The optimization of formulation and process parameters led to a physically stable formulation of paclitaxel-loaded long-circulating liposomes that maintain size, charge and integrity during storage.

  5. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    These slide sets describe the OCLA formulation and associated algorithms as a set of new technologies in the first practical application of load limiting flight control utilizing load feedback as a primary control measurement. Slide set one describes Experiment Development and slide set two describes Flight-Test Performance.

  6. Perceptual load affects exogenous spatial orienting while working memory load does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Finoia, Paola; Raffone, Antonino; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether or not increasing visual perceptual load or visual working memory (WM) load would affect the exogenous orienting of visuo-spatial attention, in order to assess whether or not exogenous orienting is genuinely automatic. In Experiment 1, we manipulated visual perceptual load by means of a central morphing shape that in some trials morphed into a particular target shape (a rectangle) that participants had to detect. In Experiment 2, the possibility that the presentation of any changing stimulus at fixation would eliminate exogenous orienting was ruled out, by presenting two alternating letters at fixation. In Experiment 3, we manipulated visual WM load by means of arrays consisting of three (low-load) or five (high-load) randomly located coloured squares. The participants had to remember these items in order to judge whether a cued square had been presented in the same or different colour at the end of each trial. In all the experiments, exogenous visuo-spatial attentional orienting was measured by means of an orthogonal spatial cuing task, in which the participants had to discriminate the elevation (up vs. down) of a visual target previously cued by a spatially nonpredictive visual cue. The results showed that increasing the perceptual load of the task eliminated the exogenous orienting of visuo-spatial attention. By contrast, increasing the WM load had no effect on spatial orienting. These results are discussed in terms of the light that they shed on claims regarding the automaticity of visuo-spatial exogenous orienting.

  7. Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, F.; Tuovinen, J.E.; Tabbers, H.; van Gerven, P.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses cognitive load measurement techniques with regard to their contribution to cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT is concerned with the design of instructional methods that efficiently use people's limited cognitive processing capacity to apply acquired knowledge and skills to new

  8. Processing Capacity under Perceptual and Cognitive Load: A Closer Look at Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel; Wenger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in perceptual and cognitive demands (load) play a major role in determining the efficiency of selective attention. According to load theory (Lavie, Hirst, Fockert, & Viding, 2004) these factors (a) improve or hamper selectivity by altering the way resources (e.g., processing capacity) are allocated, and (b) tap resources rather than…

  9. Integrated microelectromechanical gyroscope under shock loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, T. G.; Koleda, A. N.; Barbin, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a new design of a shock-proof two-axis microelectromechanical gyroscope. Without stoppers, the shock load enables the interaction between the silicon sensor elements. Stoppers were installed in the gyroscope to prevent the contact interaction between electrodes and spring elements with fixed part of the sensor. The contact of stoppers occurs along the plane, thereby preventing the system from serious contact stresses. The shock resistance of the gyroscope is improved by the increase in its eigenfrequency at which the contact interaction does not occur. It is shown that the shock load directed along one axis does not virtually cause the movement of sensing elements along the crosswise axes. Maximum stresses observed in the proposed gyroscope at any loading direction do not exceed the value allowable for silicon.

  10. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  11. Biaxial Loading Tests for steel containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, T. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Wright, D.J.; Arai, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has conducted a 1/10 scale of the steel containment vessel (SCV) test for the understanding of ultimate structural behavior beyond the design pressure condition. Biaxial Loading Tests were supporting tests for the 1/10 scale SCV model to evaluate the method of estimating failure conditions of thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions. The tentative material models of SGV480 and SPV490 were obtained. And the behavior of SGV480 and SPV490 thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions could be well simulated by FE-Analyses with the tentative material models and Mises constitutive law. This paper describes the results and the evaluations of these tests. (author)

  12. Biaxial Loading Tests for steel containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, T.; Wright, D.J.; Arai, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has conducted a 1/10 scale of the steel containment vessel (SCV) test for the understanding of ultimate structural behavior beyond the design pressure condition. Biaxial Loading Tests were supporting tests for the 1/10 scale SCV model to evaluate the method of estimating failure conditions of thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions. The tentative material models of SGV480 and SPV490 were obtained. And the behavior of SGV480 and SPV490 thin steel plates under biaxial loading conditions could be well simulated by FE-Analyses with the tentative material models and Mises constitutive law. This paper describes the results and the evaluations of these tests. (author)

  13. Change in Soil Porosity under Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyba, V. P.; Skibin, E. G.

    2017-11-01

    The theoretical basis for the process of soil compaction under various loading paths is considered in the article, the theoretical assumptions are compared with the results of the tests of clay soil on a stabilometer. The variant of the critical state model of the sealing plastic-rigid environment is also considered the strength characteristics of which depend on the porosity coefficient. The loading surface is determined by the results of compression and stabilometrical tests. In order to clarify the results of this task, it is necessary to carry out stabilometric tests under conditions of simple loading, i.e. where the vertical pressure would be proportional to the compression pressure σ3 = kσ1. Within the study the attempts were made to confirm the model given in the beginning of the article by laboratory tests. After the analysis of the results, the provided theoretical assumptions were confirmed.

  14. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  15. Direct Load Control by AC Frequency Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    Fine-grained under frequency load shedding called “demand as a frequency controlled reserve“ (DFCR) has been shown to be a promising method of providingfrequency regulation service from distributed loads [1]. Micro-grids with a large portion of intermittent renewable generation will benefit greatly...... from this technology because their low inertia. The paper proposes a operating procedure for utilizing DFCR loads for energy balancing, expanding DFCR’s well known role as a power balancing resource. The system operator can use DFCR for energy balancing by adjusting the frequency controller...... of generators to schedule off-nominal system frequency values. The feasibility of the proposed system is evaluated on an existing small island power system....

  16. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gui

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  17. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  18. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    State, followed for 8 years (between the ages 9 and 17). Poverty- related stress was computed using the cumulative risk approach, assessing stressors across 9 domains, including environmental, psychosocial, and demographic factors. Allostatic load captured a range of physiological responses, including......Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... cardiovascular, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and metabolic activity. Smoking and alcohol/drug use were tested as mediators of the hypothesized childhood risk-adolescent allostatic load relationship. Results: Cumulative risk exposure at age 9 predicted increases...

  19. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  20. Review of ship slamming loads and responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Guedes Soares, C.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents an overview of studies of slamming on ship structures. This work focuses on the hull slamming, which is one of the most important types of slamming problems to be considered in the ship design process and the assessment of the ship safety. There are three main research aspects related to the hull slamming phenomenon, a) where and how often a slamming event occurs, b) slamming load prediction and c) structural response due to slamming loads. The approaches used in each aspect are reviewed and commented, together with the presentation of some typical results. The methodology, which combines the seakeeping analysis and slamming load prediction, is discussed for the global analysis of the hull slamming of a ship in waves. Some physical phenomena during the slamming event are discussed also. Recommendations for the future research and developments are made.